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Sample records for water hammer due

  1. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  2. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water hammer in pumped pressure mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated sewer systems. Consideration of water hammer is essential for structural...

  3. Modern Modeling of Water Hammer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbanowicz Kamil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic equipment on board ships is common. It assists in the work of: steering gear, pitch propellers, watertight doors, cargo hatch covers, cargo and mooring winches, deck cranes, stern ramps etc. The damage caused by transient flows (which include among others water hammer are often impossible to repair at sea. Hence, it is very important to estimate the correct pressure runs and associated side effects during their design. The presented study compares the results of research on the impact of a simplified way of modeling the hydraulic resistance and simplified effective weighting functions build of two and three-terms on the estimated results of the pressure changes. As it turns out, simple effective two-terms weighting functions are able to accurately model the analyzed transients. The implementation of the presented method will soon allow current automatic protection of hydraulic systems of the adverse effects associated with frequent elevated and reduced pressures.

  4. Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method for water hammer analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new fast and efficient algorithm, Chebyshev super spectral viscosity (SSV method, is introduced to solve the water hammer equations. Compared with standard spectral method, the method's advantage essentially consists in adding a super spectral viscosity to the equations for the high wave numbers of the numerical solution. It can stabilize the numerical oscillation (Gibbs phenomenon and improve the computational efficiency while discontinuities appear in the solution. Results obtained from the Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method exhibit greater consistency with conventional water hammer calculations. It shows that this new numerical method offers an alternative way to investigate the behavior of the water hammer in propellant pipelines.

  5. Pump-stopping water hammer simulation based on RELAP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, W. S.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Lan, G.; Zhao, Z.

    2013-12-01

    RELAP5 was originally designed to analyze complex thermal-hydraulic interactions that occur during either postulated large or small loss-of-coolant accidents in PWRs. However, as development continued, the code was expanded to include many of the transient scenarios that might occur in thermal-hydraulic systems. The fast deceleration of the liquid results in high pressure surges, thus the kinetic energy is transformed into the potential energy, which leads to the temporary pressure increase. This phenomenon is called water hammer. Generally water hammer can occur in any thermal-hydraulic systems and it is extremely dangerous for the system when the pressure surges become considerably high. If this happens and when the pressure exceeds the critical pressure that the pipe or the fittings along the pipeline can burden, it will result in the failure of the whole pipeline integrity. The purpose of this article is to introduce the RELAP5 to the simulation and analysis of water hammer situations. Based on the knowledge of the RELAP5 code manuals and some relative documents, the authors utilize RELAP5 to set up an example of water-supply system via an impeller pump to simulate the phenomena of the pump-stopping water hammer. By the simulation of the sample case and the subsequent analysis of the results that the code has provided, we can have a better understand of the knowledge of water hammer as well as the quality of the RELAP5 code when it's used in the water-hammer fields. In the meantime, By comparing the results of the RELAP5 based model with that of other fluid-transient analysis software say, PIPENET. The authors make some conclusions about the peculiarity of RELAP5 when transplanted into water-hammer research and offer several modelling tips when use the code to simulate a water-hammer related case.

  6. Impact of pipes networks simplification on water hammer phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simplification of water supply networks is an indispensible design step to make the original network easier to be analysed. The impact of networks' simplification on water hammer phenomenon is investigated. ... WHAMO software is used for simulation. All scenarios showed that both hydraulic equivalence and demands' ...

  7. Impact of pipes networks simplification on water hammer phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Simplification of water supply networks is an indispensible design step to make the original network easier to be analysed. The impact of networks' sim- plification on water hammer phenomenon is investigated. This study uses two loops network with different diameters, thicknesses, and roughness coefficients.

  8. Condensation driven water hammer studies for feedwater distribution pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S.; Katajala, S.; Elsing, B.; Nurkkala, P.; Hoikkanen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Pullinen, J. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Logvinov, S.A.; Trunov, N.B.; Sitnik, J.K. [EDO Gidropress (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy, IVO, operates two VVER 440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of the feed water distribution (FWD) pipes were observed in 1989. In closer examinations FWD-pipe T-connection turned out to suffer from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been found also in other VVER 440 type NPPs. In 1994 the first new FWD-pipe was replaced and in 1996 extensive water hammer experiments were carried out together with EDO Gidropress in Podolsk. After the first phase of the experiments some fundamental changes were made to the construction of the FWD-pipe. The object of this paper is to give short insight to the design of the new FWD-pipe concentrating on water hammer experiments. (orig.).

  9. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for students and engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water transients in pumped sewer and water mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated systems. Consideration of transients is essential...... for the structural design of pipelines and for the planning of the proper function of the systems. The text is written by Torben Larsen, who is a professor of environmental hydraulics at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University. Torben Larsen has many years of experience with computer simulations...... of transients in pumped pipeline systems. This present publication can be understood as the second and revised edition of the pamphlet ”Transients in pumped sewer mains” (2006) which was published as a technical report by The EVA committee under The Danish Water Pollution Committee (The Danish Society...

  10. Simulation of water hammer phenomena using the system code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratfisch, Christoph; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reactor Simulation and Safety Group

    2017-07-15

    Water Hammer Phenomena can endanger the integrity of structures leading to a possible failure of pipes in nuclear power plants as well as in many industrial applications. These phenomena can arise in nuclear power plants in the course of transients and accidents induced by the start-up of auxiliary feed water systems or emergency core cooling systems in combination with rapid acting valves and pumps. To contribute to further development and validation of the code ATHLET (Analysis of Thermalhydraulics of Leaks and Transients), an experiment performed in the test facility Pilot Plant Pipework (PPP) at Fraunhofer UMSICHT is simulated using the code version ATHLET 3.0A.

  11. Overview of Prevention for Water Hammer by Check Valve Action in Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dayong; Yoon, Hyungi; Seo, Kyoungwoo; Kim, Seonhoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Water hammer can cause serious damage to pumping system and unexpected system pressure rise in the pipeline. In nuclear reactor, water hammer can influence on the integrity of safety related system. Water hammer in nuclear reactor have been caused by voiding in normally water-filled lines, steam condensation line containing both steam and water, as well as by rapid check valve action. Therefore, this study focuses on the water hammer by check valve among the sources of water hammer occurrence and suggests proper methodology for check valve type selection against water hammer. This study focuses on the water hammer by check valve action among the sources of water hammer occurrence and suggests proper methodology for check valve type selection against water hammer. If the inadvertent pump trip or pipe rupture in high velocity and pressure pipe is predicted, the fast response check valve such as tiled disc, dual disc and nozzle check valve should be installed in the system. If the inadvertent pump trip or pipe rupture in very high velocity and pressure pipe and excessively large revered flow velocity are predicted, the very slowly closing check valve such as controlled closure check valve should be installed in the system.

  12. Water Hammer Simulations of Monomethylhydrazine Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Zachary; Ramachandran, N.; Majumdar, A.

    2017-01-01

    Fluid Transient analysis is important for the design of spacecraft propulsion system to ensure structural stability of the system in the event of sudden closing or opening of the valve. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), a general purpose flow network code developed at NASA/MSFC is capable of simulating pressure surge due to sudden opening or closing of valve when thermodynamic properties of real fluid are available for the entire range of simulation. Specifically GFSSP needs an accurate representation of pressure density relationship in order to predict pressure surge during a fluid transient. Unfortunately, the available thermodynamic property programs such as REFPROP, GASP or GASPAK do not provide the thermodynamic properties of Monomethylhydrazine(MMH). This work illustrates the process used for building a customized table of properties of state variables from available properties and speed of sound that is required by GFSSP for simulation. Good agreement was found between the simulations and measured data. This method can be adopted for modeling flow networks and systems with other fluids whose properties are not known in detail in order to obtain general technical insight.

  13. A numerical water-hammer model using Scilab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rodríguez Calderón

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A water hammer can produce severe consequences regarding pipe integrity; simulation thus becomes an es-sential requirement for ensuring proper water distribution system design and operation. This article thus tries to demonstrate the importance of numerical methods in resolving such problems. A Scilab code allowing pressure propagation to be represented using the characteristics’ method applied to a case of classic literature was thus developed for numerically simulating this phenomenon. This method uses a finite difference scheme for resolving mass and momentum equations. The article presents equations governing the problem from the numerical point of view, the phenomenon’s behaviour is analysed and results obtained by the numerical approach (calculating finite differences are compared to those obtained with Scilab and the theoretical solution.

  14. Assessment of water hammer effects on boiling water nuclear reactor core dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousbia-Salah Anis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex phenomena, as water hammer transients, occurring in nuclear power plants are still not very well investigated by the current best estimate computational tools. Within this frame work, a rapid positive reactivity addition into the core generated by a water hammer transient is considered. The numerical simulation of such phenomena was carried out using the coupled RELAP5/PARCS code. An over all data comparison shows good agreement between the calculated and measured core pressure wave trends. However, the predicted power response during the excursion phase did not correctly match the experimental tendency. Because of this, sensitivity studies have been carried out in order to identify the most influential parameters that govern the dynamics of the power excursion. After investigating the pressure wave amplitude and the void feed back responses, it was found that the disagreement between the calculated and measured data occurs mainly due to the RELAP5 low void condensation rate which seems to be questionable during rapid transients. .

  15. Numerical and experimental investigations of water hammers in nuclear industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Messahel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear and petroleum industries, supply pipes are often exposed to high pressure loading which can cause to the structure high strains, plasticity and even, in the worst scenario, failure. Fast Hydraulic Transient phenomena such as Water Hammers (WHs are of this type. It generates a pressure wave that propagates in the pipe causing high stress. Such phenomena are of the order of few msecs and numerical simulation can offer a better understanding and an accurate evaluation of the dynamic complex phenomenon including fluid-structure interaction, multi-phase flow, cavitation … For the last decades, the modeling of phase change taking into account the cavitation effects has been at the centre of many industrial applications (chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, … and has a direct impact on the industry as it might cause damages to the installation (pumps, propellers, control valves, …. In this paper, numerical simulation using FSI algorithm and One-Fluid Cavitation models ("Cut-Off" and "HEM (Homogeneous Equilibrium Model Phase-Change" introduced by Saurel et al. [1] of WHs including cavitation effects is presented.

  16. Design of a water-powered DTH hammer for deep drilling application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Jae; Kim, Donguk; Oh, Joo Young; Yook, Se-Jin; Kim, Young Won

    2017-11-01

    A DTH (Down-the-hole) hammer powered by highly pressurized fluid is a drilling tool using the motion of percussion of a drill bit. In retrospect, a DTH by using compressed air as a power source has been widely used in drilling industries such as applications of mining, geothermal etc. On the other hand, another type of a DTH that uses pressurized water, called a water hammer, has recently seen deep drilling applications, while it has been rarely investigated. In this study, we designed a water-powered DTH hammer which mainly consists of several components such as a piston, a poppet valve, a cap and a bit for deep drilling applications. We optimized the components of the hammer on the basis of the results of 1D analysis using commercial software of AMESIM. An experimental study has been also conducted to investigate a performance of the designed water hammer. We measured a pressure distribution inside the hammer system as a function of time, and it thus estimates a frequency of impaction of the bit, which has been also analyzed in frequency domain. In addition, some important parameters have been discussed in conjunction with a limitation of impaction frequency as input pressure. We believe that this study provides design rules of a water-based DTH for deep drilling applications. This work is supported by KITECH of Korean government.

  17. Structure and Conceptual Design of a Water-Hammering-Type Honsang for Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sam Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the manufacturing procedure, specifications, repair history, and details of celestial movements of the water-hammering type Honsang (celestial globe. Results from our study on the remaining Honsangs in China and Japan and on the reconstruction models in Korea were applied to our conceptual design of the water-hammering type Honsang. A Honui (armillary sphere and Honsang using the water-hammering method were manufactured in Joseon in 1435 (the 17th year of King Sejong. Jang Yeong-Sil developed the Honsang system based on the water-operation method of Shui yün i hsiang t’ai in China. Water-operation means driving water wheels using a water flow. The most important factor in this type of operation is the precision of the water clock and the control of the water wheel movement. The water-hammering type Honsang in Joseon probably adopted the Cheonhyeong (天衡; oriental escapement device system of Shui yün i hsiang t’ai in China and the overflow mechanism of Jagyeongnu (striking clepsydra in Joseon, etc. In addition to the Cheonryun system, more gear instruments were needed to stage the rotation of the Honsang globe and the sun’s movement. In this study, the water-hammering mechanism is analyzed in the structure of a water clock, a water wheel, the Cheonhyeong system, and the Giryun system, as an organically working operation mechanism. We expect that this study will serve as an essential basis for studies on Heumgyeonggaknu, the water-operating astronomical clock, and other astronomical clocks in the middle and latter parts of the Joseon dynasty.

  18. Modeling water hammers via PDEs and switched DAEs with numerical justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kall, Jochen; Kausar, Rukhsana; Trenn, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    In water distribution networks instantaneous changes in valve and pump settings may introduces jumps and peaks in the pressure. In particular, a well known phenomenon in response to the sudden closing of a valve is the so called water hammer, which (if not taken into account properly may destroy

  19. A Water Hammer Protection Method for Mine Drainage System Based on Velocity Adjustment of Hydraulic Control Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Kou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer analysis is a fundamental work of pipeline systems design process for water distribution networks. The main characteristics for mine drainage system are the limited space and high cost of equipment and pipeline changing. In order to solve the protection problem of valve-closing water hammer for mine drainage system, a water hammer protection method for mine drainage system based on velocity adjustment of HCV (Hydraulic Control Valve is proposed in this paper. The mathematic model of water hammer fluctuations is established based on the characteristic line method. Then, boundary conditions of water hammer controlling for mine drainage system are determined and its simplex model is established. The optimization adjustment strategy is solved from the mathematic model of multistage valve-closing. Taking a mine drainage system as an example, compared results between simulations and experiments show that the proposed method and the optimized valve-closing strategy are effective.

  20. Theoretical study of flashing and water hammer in a supercritical water cycle during pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imre, A.R., E-mail: imre@aeki.kfki.h [Simulator Laboratory, MTA KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest, POB 49, H-1525 (Hungary); Barna, I.F.; Ezsoel, G. [Thermohydraulics Laboratory, MTA KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest, POB 49, H-1525 (Hungary); Hazi, G. [Simulator Laboratory, MTA KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest, POB 49, H-1525 (Hungary); Kraska, T. [Institute for Physical Chemistry, University of Cologne, Luxemburger Str. 116, D-50939 Koeln (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    During a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) the pressure of the coolant can drop significantly in the vicinity of the leak. It will be shown that unlike in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) where this pressure drop can cause only sudden vaporization - also called flashing - in supercritical water cooled reactors (SCWRs) it can cause sudden condensation (condensation-induced water hammer), too. The reason is that from supercritical state the system can go to metastable liquid as well as to metastable vapour state after LOCA. Relaxation from metastable fluid states is a fast process, followed by a local positive or negative pressure-jump, which might increase the damage around the leak. Conservative estimation will be given for the magnitude of these pressure jumps caused by the flashing or water hammer by assuming various initial pressure losses. In our calculations, three different equations of state are used: the simple van der Waals EoS; the Redlich-Kwong as an empirical development; and the more sophisticated non-cubic Deiters equation of state. These equations are able to describe metastable states qualitatively but with different accuracy. These calculations can help us to map the local immediate effect of any sudden pressure drop and therefore it can help to design better safety protocols.

  1. Analysis of Water Hammer with Different Closing Valve Laws on Transient Flow of Hydrogen-Natural Gas Mixture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subani, Norazlina; Amin, Norsarahaida

    2015-01-01

      Water hammer on transient flow of hydrogen-natural gas mixture in a horizontal pipeline is analysed to determine the relationship between pressure waves and different modes of closing and opening of valves...

  2. Analytical study on water hammer pressure in pressurized conduits with a throttled surge chamber for slow closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical investigation of water hammer in a hydraulic pressurized pipe system with a throttled surge chamber located at the junction between a tunnel and a penstock, and a valve positioned at the downstream end of the penstock. Analytical formulas of maximum water hammer pressures at the downstream end of the tunnel and the valve were derived for a system subjected to linear and slow valve closure. The analytical results were then compared with numerical ones obtained using the method of characteristics. There is agreement between them. The formulas can be applied to estimating water hammer pressure at the valve and transmission of water hammer pressure through the surge chamber at the junction for a hydraulic pipe system with a surge chamber.

  3. Experimental Study of Air Vessel Behavior for Energy Storage or System Protection in Water Hammer Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Besharat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP, confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV, has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES systems. This research focuses on the size of an AP within an air vessel and tries to describe how it affects important parameters of the system, i.e., the pressure in the pipe, stored pressure, flow velocity, displaced volume of water and water level in the CAV. Results present a specific range of air pockets based on a dimensionless parameter extractable for other real systems.

  4. Measurement and analysis of the water hammer in ram pump

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the results of experimental research of the phenomena occurring in water ram during a single cycle of its operation. Apart from a brief introduction and description of the test stand and data recording system, the work includes a broad interpretation of the obtained results. Based on the pressure ...

  5. Modeling and analysis of water-hammer in coaxial pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Cesana, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    The fluid-structure interaction is studied for a system composed of two coaxial pipes in an annular geometry, for both homogeneous isotropic metal pipes and fiber-reinforced (anisotropic) pipes. Multiple waves, traveling at different speeds and amplitudes, result when a projectile impacts on the water filling the annular space between the pipes. In the case of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic thin pipes we compute the wavespeeds, the fluid pressure and mechanical strains as functions of the fiber winding angle. This generalizes the single-pipe analysis of J. H. You, and K. Inaba, Fluid-structure interaction in water-filled pipes of anisotropic composite materials, J. Fl. Str. 36 (2013). Comparison with a set of experimental measurements seems to validate our models and predictions.

  6. Cavitation in horizontal pipelines due to water hammer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkwijk, J.P.T.; Kranenburg, C.

    1971-01-01

    When designing a pipeline for the transport of a liquid one of the problems to be considered is the provision of a device to guard against low pressures. These low pressures can be caused, for example, by a sudden pump failure. The failure creates a negative pressure wave which travels in the

  7. Studi Numerik Variasi Pemilihan Gas Accumulator Untuk Pencegahan Water Hammer Pada Sistem Perpipaan Sepanjang 1 Kilometer dan Debit Aliran 800 GPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindika Bagus Pradana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sistem jaringan perpipaan sangat penting dalam menunjang produksi pada bidang industri. Jaringan perpipaan mengalami beberapa fenomena seperti distribusi fluida dan water hammer. Water hammer sering terjadi di daerah discharge pompa saat pengoperasian dan gagalnya beroperasinya pompa. Water hammer dapat merusak jaringan perpipaan. Fenomena water hammer dapat terjadi hampir di setiap sistem instalasi perpipaan. Fenomena ini mempunyai dampak buruk apabila sistem perpipaan tersebut tidak memperhatikan akibat dari water hammer. Fenomena dalam sistem perpipaan mempunyai dampak negatif dengan selang waktu tertentu, water hammer adalah fenomena dimana dampak yang ditimbulkan terjadi seketika itu juga. Penanggulangan yang tidak tepat terhadap dampak tersebut dapat mengakibatkan instalasi tersebut harus dimatikan (shutdown. Pada simulasi ini digunakan sistem instalasi perpipaan dengan panjang 1 kilometer dan debit aliran 800 gpm.Pada sistem instalasi ini memiliki rangkaian pompa tunggal yang dilengkapi dengan gas accumulator di sisi discharge pompa. Ketika terjadi perubahan flow rate yang menyebabkan pompa beroprasi atau gagal beroprasi akan menimbulkan fenomena water hammer.Penelitian dilakukan secara numerik menggunakan software AFT Impulse 4.0. Water hammer dapat diminimalisi dengan memasang gas accumulator pada daerah dekat discharge pompa. Variasi gas accumulator adalah gas accumulator merk NOK tipe AT 175-20 dengan volume maksimum 20 liter, tipe AT 210-60 dengan volume maksimum 60 liter dan tipe AT 230-120 dengan volume maksimum 100 liter. Hasil yang didapatkan pada simulasi menunjukan pada jarak 4 meter dari rumah pompa masing-masing P max dan P min  untuk sistem perpipaan dengan simulasi proses trip pompa tanpa proteksi water hammer adalah 1729 Kpa dan 381 Kpa, untuk sistem perpipaan dengan gas accumulator volume setting 20 liter adalah 1228 Kpa dan 927 Kpa, untuk sistem perpipaan dengan gas accumulator volume setting 60 liter adalah 1161 Kpa

  8. STUDY OF WATER HAMMERS IN THE FILLING OF THE SYSTEM OF PRESSURE COMPENSATION IN THE WATER-COOLED AND WATER-MODERATED POWER REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korolyev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in the article conforms to the severe accident that took place at the Three Mail Island nuclear power plant in the USA. The research is focused on improving the reliability of the pressure compensator that is an important equipment of the primary circuit. In order to simulate such a situation, the stand has been developed to simulate the design of the pressurizer of the PWR-440 reactor, in particular an elliptical shape of the upper lid which has a steam outlet pipe at the top of the construction that creates conditions for occurrence of such water hammers. For the experiments, an installation has been created that makes it possible to measure and record the water hammering that occur when the tanks are filled. Measurement of the amplitude of the water hammering was carried out by a specially developed piezoelectric sensor, and the registration – by a light-beam oscilloscope. The technique of carrying out the experiment is described and the results of an experimental study of the water hammers arising when the vessels are completely filled are presented. Quantitative data were obtained on the amplitudes of the hydraulic impacts depending on the rate of filling of the vessel and the diameter of the outlet, the maximum pressure of the hydraulic shock was 7–9 atm. Comparison of calculated and experimental data has been performed. The allowable discrepancy is explained by the calculated value of the system stiffness coefficient, which did not take into account the presence of welded seams in the tank that imparts the system with additional rigidity. The calculated relationships are obtained, that make it possible to estimate the amplitudes of the water hammers through the acceleration of the water level in front of the outlet from a vessel with an elliptical bottom. The possibility of a water hammer in the pressure compensator is demonstrated by experiment and by theoretical calculations. Based on the experimental data, a

  9. A focused liquid jet formed by a water hammer in a test tube

    CERN Document Server

    Kiyama, Akihito; Ando, Keita; Kameda, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate motion of a gas-liquid interface in a test tube induced by a large acceleration via impulsive force. We conduct simple experiments in which the tube partially filled with a liquid falls under gravity and impacts a rigid floor. A curved gas-liquid interface inside the tube reverses and eventually forms an elongated jet (i.e. the so-called a focused jet). In our experiments, there arises either vibration of the interface or increment in the velocity of a liquid jet accompanied by the onset of cavitation in the liquid column. These phenomena cannot be explained by considering pressure impulse in a classical potential flow analysis, which does not account for finite speeds of sound as well as phase change. Here we model such water-hammer events as a result of one-dimensional pressure wave propagation and its interaction with boundaries through acoustic impedance mismatching. The method of characteristics is applied to describe pressure wave interactions and the subsequent cavitation. The proposed m...

  10. Theoretical Study of Steam Condensation Induced Water Hammer Phenomena in Horizontal Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Barna, Imre Ferenc

    2014-01-01

    We investigate steam condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) phenomena and present new theoretical results. We use the WAHA3 model based on two-phase flow six first-order partial differential equations that present one dimensional, surface averaged mass, momentum and energy balances. A second order accurate high-resolution shock-capturing numerical scheme was applied with different kind of limiters in the numerical calculations. The applied two-fluid model shows some similarities to Relap5 which is widely used in the nuclear industry to simulate nuclear power plant accidents. This model was validated with different CIWH experiments which were performed in the PMK-2 facility, which is a full-pressure thermo-hydraulic model of the nuclear power plant of VVER-440/312 type in the Energy Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest and in the Rosa facility in Japan. In our recent study we show the first part of a planned large database which will give us the upper and lower flooding mass flow ...

  11. Water hammer effect in the spiral case and penstock of Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepa, D.; Ursoniu, C.; Gillich, R. N.; Campian, C. V.

    2017-01-01

    Sudden pressure increases in the penstock or spiral case of a hydraulic turbine are the effect of sudden flow variation that occur during transient processes of type opening / closing or load rejection of the hydro unit. The consequence of the pressure rise in the spiral case and penstock is the water hammer phenomenon, whose effects can be devastating in some cases, up to breaking pipes and calamities produced in the area. This paper aims to analyze the method of calculation of the maximum pressure values that might occur in load rejection situations to a hydraulic turbine, in spiral case and in penstock, conditioned by the limiting of the values of the over speed and measures of limiting the increase in pressure in conjunction with limiting the increase in speed in these specific processes. As an example, we studied and analyzed the situation of a hydroelectric power plant equipped with a 7.8 MW Francis turbine without pressure regulator and the inflow surge. The results of analytical calculation overlaid on the experimental measurements performed during the performance tests of the hydro unit lead to the conclusion that the calculation algorithm proposed has been chosen correctly and the 2-stage closing law of the wicket gate promoted in this case is effective in such situations.

  12. WATER ENERGY IN HYDROAMELIORATIVE SYSTEMS USING THE HYDRAULIC TRANSFORMER TYPE A. BARGLAZAN AND THE HYDRAULIC HAMMER (HYDRAULIC PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two examples of exploitation of water energy that can be used in the irrigation field. First of theseexamples is the hydraulic transformer type A. Barglazan used for irrigation, pumped water is taken directly from theriver’s well, using a hydraulic pump which simultaneously carried out a double transformation in this way: hydraulicenergy into mechanic energy and mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. Technology preparation and devices designwas done in record time, seeing that this constructive solution is more robust, reliable and with improved energyperformance versus the laboratory prototype. The experimental research which was made at 1:1 scale proved theirgood function over time. Another example is the hydraulic hammer (hydraulic pump that uses low-head energy topump water, with a global efficiency of about 10 - 50%. Currently, the new situation of private ownership of landprovides conditions for new pumping microstations to be made where irrigation is necessary and optimal hydrauliclocations exist.

  13. CFD simulation of reverse water-hammer induced by collapse of draft-tube cavity in a model pump-turbine during runaway process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Cheng, Yongguang; Xia, Linsheng; Yang, Jiandong

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the preliminary progress in the CFD simulation of the reverse water-hammer induced by the collapse of a draft-tube cavity in a model pump-turbine during the runaway process. Firstly, the Fluent customized 1D-3D coupling model for hydraulic transients and the Schnerr & Sauer cavitation model for cavity development are introduced. Then, the methods are validated by simulating the benchmark reverse water-hammer in a long pipe caused by a valve instant closure. The simulated head history at the valve agrees well with the measured data in literature. After that, the more complicated reverse water-hammer in the draft-tube of a runaway model pump-turbine, which is installed in a model pumped-storage power plant, is simulated. The dynamic processes of a vapor cavity, from generation, expansion, shrink to collapse, are shown. After the cavity collapsed, a sudden increase of pressure can be evidently observed. The process is featured by a locally expending and collapsing vapor cavity that is around the runner cone, which is different from the conventional recognition of violent water- column separation. This work reveals the possibility for simulating the reverse water-hammer phenomenon in turbines by 3D CFD.

  14. Numerical simulation of water hammer in low pressurized pipe: comparison of SimHydraulics and Lax-Wendroff method with experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himr D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article describes simulation of unsteady flow during water hammer with two programs, which use different numerical approaches to solve ordinary one dimensional differential equations describing the dynamics of hydraulic elements and pipes. First one is Matlab-Simulink-SimHydraulics, which is a commercial software developed to solve the dynamics of general hydraulic systems. It defines them with block elements. The other software is called HYDRA and it is based on the Lax-Wendrff numerical method, which serves as a tool to solve the momentum and continuity equations. This program was developed in Matlab by Brno University of Technology. Experimental measurements were performed on a simple test rig, which consists of an elastic pipe with strong damping connecting two reservoirs. Water hammer is induced with fast closing the valve. Physical properties of liquid and pipe elasticity parameters were considered in both simulations, which are in very good agreement and differences in comparison with experimental data are minimal.

  15. Analysis of Water Hammer with Different Closing Valve Laws on Transient Flow of Hydrogen-Natural Gas Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazlina Subani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer on transient flow of hydrogen-natural gas mixture in a horizontal pipeline is analysed to determine the relationship between pressure waves and different modes of closing and opening of valves. Four types of laws applicable to closing valve, namely, instantaneous, linear, concave, and convex laws, are considered. These closure laws describe the speed variation of the hydrogen-natural gas mixture as the valve is closing. The numerical solution is obtained using the reduced order modelling technique. The results show that changes in the pressure wave profile and amplitude depend on the type of closing laws, valve closure times, and the number of polygonal segments in the closing function. The pressure wave profile varies from square to triangular and trapezoidal shape depending on the type of closing laws, while the amplitude of pressure waves reduces as the closing time is reduced and the numbers of polygonal segments are increased. The instantaneous and convex closing laws give rise to minimum and maximum pressure, respectively.

  16. Evaluasi Unjuk Kerja Sistem Proteksi Water Hammer pada Sistem Perpipaan (Studi Kasus Di Rumah Pompa Produksi Unit Instalasi Pengolahan Air Minum (IPAM Karang Pilang 2 PT. PDAM Surya Sembada Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handi Prasetya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sistem jaringan perpipaan merupakan komponen penting dalam menunjang produksi maupun distribusi pada sektor industri. Jaringan perpipaan mengalami beberapa fenomena seperti distribusi fluida dan water hammer. Water hammer sering terjadi di daerah discharge pompa pada saat pengoperasian pompa maupun pada saat kegagalan operasi pompa. Beberapa cara untuk mengurangi dampak water hammer adalah dengan menambahkan flywheel ataupun gas accumulator pada jaringan perpipaan. Lonjakan tekanan serta aliran balik yang terjadi akibat fenomena water hammer akan dilawan oleh putaran impeller  pompa yang dibebani oleh flywheel dan akan memperlambat lonjakan tekanan dalam pipa dan tekanan yang berlebih akan dibuang ke gas accumulator sehingga tekanan dalam pipa berangsur stabil. Pemodelan sistem perpipaan dilakukan dengan menggunakan software sistem perpipaan. Pemodelan yang disimulasikan merupakan sistem perpipaan dengan rangkaian pompa paralel yang dilengkapi flywheel pada instalasi pompa dan divariasikan dengan penambahan gas accumulator sebagai sistem proteksi water hammer. Analisa yang dilakukan adalah untuk mempelajari fenomena water hammer pada saat kondisi ekstrim yakni ketika dua pompa operasi mati dan juga ketika empat pompa operasi mati, untuk melihat pengaruh variasi ukuran flywheel terhadap fluktuasi tekanan yang terjadi. Ukuran flywheel divariasikan yakni ukuran diameter luar 1100mm, 1200mm dan 1300mm dengan tebal masing-masing 300mm, 400mm dan 500mm. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa pada sistem perpipaan tanpa menggunakan gas accumulator, tekanan maksimum yang terjadi pada discharge pompa mencapai 19,807 bar dari kondisi tekanan kerjanya 5,6 bar. Variasi ukuran flywheel memberi dampak pada perlambatan terjadinya lonjakan tekanan, semakin besar ukuran flywheel akan menunda terjadinya lonjakan tekanan akibat water hammer. Dan penambahan gas accumulator berperan dalam meredam serta mempersingkat waktu terjadinya lonjakan tekanan, sehingga fluktuasi

  17. Infrasound Generation from the HH Seismic Hammer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kyle Richard

    2014-10-01

    The HH Seismic hammer is a large, "weight-drop" source for active source seismic experiments. This system provides a repetitive source that can be stacked for subsurface imaging and exploration studies. Although the seismic hammer was designed for seismological studies it was surmised that it might produce energy in the infrasonic frequency range due to the ground motion generated by the 13 metric ton drop mass. This study demonstrates that the seismic hammer generates a consistent acoustic source that could be used for in-situ sensor characterization, array evaluation and surface-air coupling studies for source characterization.

  18. Water Hammer Simulations of MMH Propellant - New Capability Demonstration of the Generalized Fluid Flow Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Z.; Ramachandran, N.; Majumdar, A.

    2017-01-01

    Fluid Transient analysis is important for the design of spacecraft propulsion system to ensure structural stability of the system in the event of sudden closing or opening of the valve. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), a general purpose flow network code developed at NASA/MSFC is capable of simulating pressure surge due to sudden opening or closing of valve when thermodynamic properties of real fluid are available for the entire range of simulation. Specifically GFSSP needs an accurate representation of pressure-density relationship in order to predict pressure surge during a fluid transient. Unfortunately, the available thermodynamic property programs such as REFPROP, GASP or GASPAK does not provide the thermodynamic properties of Monomethylhydrazine (MMH). This paper will illustrate the process used for building a customized table of properties of state variables from available properties and speed of sound that is required by GFSSP for simulation. Good agreement was found between the simulations and measured data. This method can be adopted for modeling flow networks and systems with other fluids whose properties are not known in detail in order to obtain general technical insight. Rigorous code validation of this approach will be done and reported at a future date.

  19. Water hammer analysis. Dynamic simulation model check valve piston; Analisis del golpe de airete. Modelo de simulacion dinamica de valvula de retencion piston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royo, B.; Valdes, R.

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the description and the results of the dynamic simulation model that has been developed to predict the behaviour of one of our lift check valve design. The aim of the model is not only to simulate the closing process of the valve and to product the magnitude of the water hammer effect that may appear immediately after the valve closing, but also to simulate several design version until obtain the optimum which further minimizes such effect. the input data used for this study ensure reliable results since they represent a real system. (Author)

  20. Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

  1. Hammering towards QED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin C. Blanchette

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the emerging methods to automate reasoning over large libraries developed with formal proof assistants. We call these methods hammers. They give the authors of formal proofs a strong "one-stroke" tool for discharging difficult lemmas without the need for careful and detailed manual programming of proof search.The main ingredients underlying this approach are efficient automatic theorem provers that can cope with hundreds of axioms, suitable translations of richer logics to their formalisms, heuristic and learning methods that select relevant facts from large libraries, and methods that reconstruct the automatically found proofs inside the proof assistants.We outline the history of these methods, explain the main issues and techniques, and show their strength on several large benchmarks. We also discuss the relation of this technology to the QED Manifesto and consider its implications for QED-style efforts.

  2. Volpentest HAMMER Federal Training Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — HAMMER stands for Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response, and was named for Sam Volpentest, a long-time community leader and advocate of the Hanford...

  3. Acidification of lake water due to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, L. M.; Zammit, B.; Jolley, A. M.; Barnett, L.

    2014-04-01

    Droughts are predicted to increase in many river systems due to increased demand on water resources and climate variability. A severe drought in the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia from 2007 to 2009 resulted in unprecedented declines in water levels in the Lower Lakes (Ramsar-listed ecosystem of international importance) at the end of the river system. The receding water exposed large areas (>200 km2) of sediments on the lake margins. The pyrite (FeS2) in these sediments oxidised and generated high concentrations of acidity. Upon rewetting of the exposed sediments, by rainfall or lake refill, surface water acidification (pH 2-3) occurred in several locations (total area of 21.7 km2). High concentrations of dissolved metals (Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn), which greatly exceeded aquatic ecosystem protection guidelines, were mobilised in the acidic conditions. In many areas neutralisation of the surface water acidity occurred naturally during lake refill, but aerial limestone dosing was required in two areas to assist in restoring alkalinity. However acidity persists in the submerged lake sediment and groundwater several years after surface water neutralisation. The surface water acidification proved costly to manage and improved water management in the Murray-Darling Basin is required to prevent similar events occurring in the future.

  4. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Federal Training Center is a safety and emergency response training center that offers...

  5. HAMMER: Reweighting tool for simulated data samples

    CERN Document Server

    Duell, Stephan; Ligeti, Zoltan; Papucci, Michele; Robinson, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Modern flavour physics experiments, such as Belle II or LHCb, require large samples of generated Monte Carlo events. Monte Carlo events often are processed in a sophisticated chain that includes a simulation of the detector response. The generation and reconstruction of large samples is resource-intensive and in principle would need to be repeated if e.g. parameters responsible for the underlying models change due to new measurements or new insights. To avoid having to regenerate large samples, we work on a tool, The Helicity Amplitude Module for Matrix Element Reweighting (HAMMER), which allows one to easily reweight existing events in the context of semileptonic b → q ` ̄ ν ` analyses to new model parameters or new physics scenarios.

  6. Nanoscale manipulation of Ge nanowires by ion hammering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romano, Lucia [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Rudawski, Nicholas G [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Holzworth, Monta R [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Jones, Kevin S [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Choi, S G [NREL

    2009-01-01

    Nanowires generated considerable interest as nanoscale interconnects and as active components of both electronic and electromechanical devices. However, in many cases, manipulation and modification of nanowires are required to realize their full potential. It is essential, for instance, to control the orientation and positioning of nanowires in some specific applications. This work demonstrates a simple method to reversibly control the shape and the orientation of Ge nanowires by using ion beams. Initially, crystalline nanowires were partially amorphized by 30 keY Ga+-implantation. After amorphization, viscous flow and plastic deformation occurred due to the ion hammering effect, causing the nanowires to bend toward the beam direction. The bending was reversed multiple times by ion-implanting the opposite side of the nanowires, resulting in straightening of the nanowires and subsequent bending in the opposite direction. This ion hammering effect demonstrates the detailed manipulation of nanoscale structures is possible through the use of ion irradiation.

  7. Assessment of water pipes durability under pressure surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham Ha, Hai; Minh, Lanh Pham Thi; Tang Van, Lam; Bulgakov, Boris; Bazhenova, Soafia

    2017-10-01

    Surge phenomenon occurs on the pipeline by the closing valve or pump suddenly lost power. Due to the complexity of the water hammer simulation, previous researches have only considered water hammer on the single pipe or calculation of some positions on water pipe network, it have not been analysis for all of pipe on the water distribution systems. Simulation of water hammer due to closing valve on water distribution system and the influence level of pressure surge is evaluated at the defects on pipe. Water hammer on water supply pipe network are simulated by Water HAMMER software academic version and the capacity of defects are calculated by SINTAP. SINTAP developed from Brite-Euram projects in Brussels-Belgium with the aim to develop a process for assessing the integrity of the structure for the European industry. Based on the principle of mechanical fault, indicating the size of defects in materials affect the load capacity of the product in the course of work, the process has proposed setting up the diagram to fatigue assessment defect (FAD). The methods are applied for water pipe networks of Lien Chieu district, Da Nang city, Viet Nam, the results show the affected area of wave pressure by closing the valve and thereby assess the greatest pressure surge effect to corroded pipe. The SINTAP standard and finite element mesh analysis at the defect during the occurrence of pressure surge which will accurately assess the bearing capacity of the old pipes. This is one of the bases to predict the leakage locations on the water distribution systems. Amount of water hammer when identified on the water supply networks are decreasing due to local losses at the nodes as well as the friction with pipe wall, so this paper adequately simulate water hammer phenomena applying for actual water distribution systems. The research verified that pipe wall with defect is damaged under the pressure surge value.

  8. Development of a Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domm, Lukas N.

    2011-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill is designed to core through rock using a combination of rotation and high frequency hammering powered by a single piezoelectric actuator. It is designed as a low axial preload, low mass, and low power device for sample acquisition on future missions to extraterrestrial bodies. The purpose of this internship is to develop and test a prototype of the Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill in order to verify the use of a horn with helical or angled cuts as a hammering and torque inducing mechanism. Through an iterative design process using models in ANSYS Finite Element software and a Mason's Equivalent Circuit model in MATLAB, a horn design was chosen for fabrication based on the predicted horn tip motion, electromechanical coupling, and neutral plane location. The design was then machined and a test bed assembled. The completed prototype has proven that a single piezoelectric actuator can be used to produce both rotation and hammering in a drill string through the use of a torque inducing horn. Final data results include bit rotation produced versus input power, and best drilling rate achieved with the prototype.

  9. On HammerCloud and ETF

    CERN Document Server

    Babik, Marian; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2017-01-01

    This technical report presents the two major synthetic testing platforms used in WLCG, HammerCloud (HC) and Experiments Test Framework (ETF). It gives an overview of their architecture, components, deployment and operations and discusses the possible commonalities/differences and possible future synergies between the two projects.

  10. Condensation induced water hammer driven sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg, Craig M.

    2004-05-11

    A method and apparatus (10) for treating a fluid or materials therein with acoustic energy has a vessel (14) for receiving the fluid with inner walls shaped to focus acoustic energy to a target zone within the vessel. One or more nozzles (26) are directed into the vessel (14) for injecting a condensable vapor, such as steam, into the vessel (14). The system may include a steam source (18) for providing steam as the condensable vapor from an industrial waste heat source. Steam drums (88) are disposed between the steam source (18) and nozzles (26) to equalize and distribute the vapor pressure. A cooling source (30) provides a secondary fluid for maintaining the liquid in the vessel (14) in subcooled conditions. A heating jacket (32) surrounds the vessel (14) to heat the walls of the vessel (14) and prevent biological growth thereon. A pressurizer (33) may operate the system at elevated pressures.

  11. Computational compliance criteria in water hammer modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, Kamil

    2017-10-01

    Among many numerical methods (finite: difference, element, volume etc.) used to solve the system of partial differential equations describing unsteady pipe flow, the method of characteristics (MOC) is most appreciated. With its help, it is possible to examine the effect of numerical discretisation carried over the pipe length. It was noticed, based on the tests performed in this study, that convergence of the calculation results occurred on a rectangular grid with the division of each pipe of the analysed system into at least 10 elements. Therefore, it is advisable to introduce computational compliance criteria (CCC), which will be responsible for optimal discretisation of the examined system. The results of this study, based on the assumption of various values of the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy (CFL) number, indicate also that the CFL number should be equal to one for optimum computational results. Application of the CCC criterion to own written and commercial computer programmes based on the method of characteristics will guarantee fast simulations and the necessary computational coherence.

  12. IMPACT OF ROCK HARDNESS ON FRAGMENTATION BY HYDRAULIC HAMMER AND CRUSHING IN JAW CRUSHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical characteristics of intact rocks depend on the way of their formation, sustained deformations and the process of wearing a specific rock has been exposed to. These characteristics have a rather high influence on the technological process of extraction and dressing of mineral raw materials. However, the mechanical characteristics of rocks due to use of explosives for their extraction in the open pit have a more significant impact. The rock blocks extracted by blasting which are larger than the opening of the primary crusher are usually fragmented by hydraulic hammer. The paper presents the results of the testing of impact of rock hardness on fragmentation of rocks by means of hydraulic hammer and during crushing in jaw crusher. The testing was carried out on the rock samples from five quarries. According to the obtained results the hardness has a considerably larger impact on the fragmentation energy by hydraulic hammer than on the crushing energy in jaw crusher.

  13. Hammering Does Not Fit Fitts' Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Petrič

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While movement is essential to human wellbeing, we are still unable to reproduce the deftness and robustness of human movement in automatons or completely restore function to individuals with many types of motor impairment. To better understand how the human nervous system plans and controls movements, neuromechanists employ simple tasks such as upper extremity reaches and isometric force tasks. However, these simple tasks rarely consider impacts and may not capture aspects of motor control that arise from real-world complexity. Here we compared existing models of motor control with the results of a periodic targeted impact task extended from Bernstein's seminal work: hammering a nail into wood. We recorded impact forces and kinematics from 10 subjects hammering at different frequencies and with hammers with different physical properties (mass and face area. We found few statistical differences in most measures between different types of hammer, demonstrating human robustness to minor changes in dynamics. Because human motor control is thought to obey optimality principles, we also developed a feedforward optimal simulation with a neuromechanically inspired cost function that reproduces the experimental data. However, Fitts' Law, which relates movement time to distance traveled and target size, did not match our experimental data. We therefore propose a new model in which the distance moved is a logarithmic function of the time to move that yields better results (R2 ≥ 0.99 compared to R2 ≥ 0.88. These results support the argument that humans control movement in an optimal way, but suggest that Fitts' Law may not generalize to periodic impact tasks.

  14. Closed Die Hammer Forging of Inconel 718

    OpenAIRE

    S. Chenna Krishna; Satish Kumar Singh; S.V.S. Narayana Murty; Ganji Venkata Narayana; Abhay K. Jha; Bhanu Pant; George, Koshy M.

    2014-01-01

    A method for the production of Inconel 718 (IN-718) hemispherical domes by closed die hammer forging is proposed. Different combination of operations employed for production are as follows: (i) preforging + final forging + air cooling, (ii) preforging + final forging + controlled cooling, (iii) direct forging + controlled cooling, and (iv) direct forging + air cooling. Last three combinations yielded a crack free hemispherical dome. The forged hemispherical domes were solution annealed at 980...

  15. Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearmont, David; McCarl, Bruce A.; Tolman, Deborah A.

    1998-04-01

    The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a 3-year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when regional raw water contamination is present, the chemical cost of water treatment is increased by 95 per million gallons (per 3785 m3) from a base of 75. A 1% increase in turbidity is shown to increase chemical costs by 0.25%.

  16. Automated Grid Monitoring for LHCb through HammerCloud

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The HammerCloud system is used by CERN IT to monitor the status of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). HammerCloud automatically submits jobs to WLCG computing resources, closely replicating the workflow of Grid users (e.g. physicists analyzing data). This allows computation nodes and storage resources to be monitored, software to be tested (somewhat like continuous integration), and new sites to be stress tested with a heavy job load before commissioning. The HammerCloud system has been in use for ATLAS and CMS experiments for about five years. This summer's work involved porting the HammerCloud suite of tools to the LHCb experiment. The HammerCloud software runs functional tests and provides data visualizations. HammerCloud's LHCb variant is written in Python, using the Django web framework and Ganga/DIRAC for job management.

  17. Physics-Based Pneumatic Hammer Instability Model Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Florida Turbine Technologies (FTT) proposes to conduct research necessary to develop a physics-based pneumatic hammer instability model for hydrostatic bearings...

  18. Concrete density estimation by rebound hammer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Mohamad Pauzi bin, E-mail: pauzi@nm.gov.my; Masenwat, Noor Azreen bin; Sani, Suhairy bin; Mohd, Shukri [NDT Group, Nuclear Malaysia, Bangi, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Jefri, Muhamad Hafizie Bin; Abdullah, Mahadzir Bin [Material Technology Program, Faculty of Applied Sciences, UiTM, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Isa, Nasharuddin bin; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza bin [Pusat Penyelidikan Mineral, Jabatan Mineral dan Geosains, Ipoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Concrete is the most common and cheap material for radiation shielding. Compressive strength is the main parameter checked for determining concrete quality. However, for shielding purposes density is the parameter that needs to be considered. X- and -gamma radiations are effectively absorbed by a material with high atomic number and high density such as concrete. The high strength normally implies to higher density in concrete but this is not always true. This paper explains and discusses the correlation between rebound hammer testing and density for concrete containing hematite aggregates. A comparison is also made with normal concrete i.e. concrete containing crushed granite.

  19. Study on liquid-liquid bimetal composite casting hammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Shoufan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crusher hammers for the mineral processing industry must meet the demands of both high wear resistance at the hammer head and high impact toughness at the hammer handle. The crusher hammers made of Hadfield steel have typically low service life of less than 40 hours. To solve the problem, a kind of bimetal crusher hammers made of high chromium cast iron (HCCI and low alloy steel (LAS has been successfully developed by using liquid-liquid composite casting. The microstructure and composite interface bonding was analyzed using optical microscope, SEM, EDX and XRD. Micrographs indicate that the composite interface is metallurgically bonded with a zigzag shape across the boundary and without unbound region or void. After heat treatment, the composite hammers have shown excellent properties. The hardness of HCCI is at least 63 HRC and its ak is greater than 3.5 J.cm-2/FONT>cm-2; the hardness of LAS is greater than 35 HRC and its ak is no less than 80 J.cm-2/FONT>cm-2. Diffusion of elements takes place at the interface and forms a transition region. The micro hardness increases from LAS to the interface and then to HCCI. Wear comparison was made separately between the bimetal composite hammer and a Hadfield steel hammer in two quarries of Jilin province and Liaoning province. The results showed that the liquid-liquid bimetal composite hammers did not have the falling off of hammer head or impact fracture phenomenon, and their service life was 3.75 times as long as that of the Hadfield steel hammers.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of the Rebound Hammer and Ultrasonic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents a study on the comparison between some non-destructive testing tech-niques (Rebound Hammer and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity). Tests were performed to com-pare the accuracy between the rebound hammer and the ultrasonic pulse velocity methodin estimating the strength of concrete. Eighty samples ...

  1. a comparative analysis of the rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... niques (Rebound Hammer and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity). Tests were performed to com- pare the accuracy between the rebound hammer and the ultrasonic pulse velocity method in estimating the strength of concrete. Eighty samples (cubes of 150 × 150 × 150) were prepared using two mix designs of 1:2:4 ...

  2. Ultrasonic/Sonic Rotary-Hammer Drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kassab, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic rotary-hammer drill (USRoHD) is a recent addition to the collection of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC). As described below, the USRoHD has several features, not present in a basic USDC, that increase efficiency and provide some redundancy against partial failure. USDCs and related apparatuses were conceived for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. They have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, lowpower, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. A basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, an ultrasonic transducer horn connected to the stack, a free mass ( free in the sense that it can bounce axially a short distance between hard stops on the horn and the bit), and a tool bit. The piezoelectric stack creates ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. The bouncing of the free mass between the hard stops generates the sonic vibrations. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, little applied axial force is needed to make the apparatus advance into the material of interest. There are numerous potential applications for USDCs and related apparatuses in geological exploration on Earth and on remote planets. In early USDC experiments, it was observed that accumulation of cuttings in a drilled hole causes the rate of penetration of the USDC to decrease steeply with depth, and that the rate of penetration can be increased by removing the cuttings. The USRoHD concept provides for

  3. THE LEVEL AND AGE DYNAMICS OF SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS OF ATHLETES-VETERANS OF THE HAMMER THROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Natalya Dmitrievna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the records of the world and Russian athletes veterans in the hammer throw, starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years, and a comparison of the records of veterans subject to an age factor and of the high scores of athletes in the current sports. The aim of the work is to analyze the level and dynamics of the records of the world and Russian athletes, veterans in the hammer throw in each five-year group starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years. The novelty of the work consists in comparison of the records of the world and Russia in the hammer throw active athletes and records of veterans with the amendment to the age factor. Analysis of the level and age dynamics of sports achievements of domestic and foreign athletes-throwers older age groups. In the course of the research it is established, that in the throwing hammer, decreasing absolute (without regard to the age factor results, which is largely due to the natural age-related changes in the organism of athletes. Records of the world athletes-veterans compared with the records of active athletes and the transition from each of the five-year group in the following, decline on average in men by 10,0%, among women by 19,3%, in spite of the fact that the weight of the shells in the hammer throw with age decreases. Presented the reasons for the backwardness of Russian athletes older than 35 years of foreign veterans.

  4. Variability of Rain Water Quality due to Roof Characteristics | Utsev ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... varying effects on the characteristics of rainwater. From the experimental result, the roof drainage water quality in Gboko can be used as grey water for domestic purposes but requires treatment to be used as drinking water. KEYWORDS: Rainwater quality, Water availability, Rainwater harvesting, Variability, Roof drainage ...

  5. Closed Die Hammer Forging of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chenna Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the production of Inconel 718 (IN-718 hemispherical domes by closed die hammer forging is proposed. Different combination of operations employed for production are as follows: (i preforging + final forging + air cooling, (ii preforging + final forging + controlled cooling, (iii direct forging + controlled cooling, and (iv direct forging + air cooling. Last three combinations yielded a crack free hemispherical dome. The forged hemispherical domes were solution annealed at 980°C for 1 h and air cooled. The grain size of the domes at all locations was finer than ASTM No 4. Mechanical properties of the forged dome in solution treated and aged condition (STA were better than feedstock used.

  6. Testing Hammer and Stanton's Reengineering Success Diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Business Process Reengineering (BPR is no longer referenced in academic literature with the regularity that it was in the heady days of the mid-nineties but it is still in use in Australian organisations. We are also changing processes radically as new software is implemented or new electronic markets are embraced and the lessons of reengineering can be applied to these process changes. This study makes three main contributions by: (1 investigating the organisational context prior to the embarkation on projects of major change in Australia, (2 testing the validity of a diagnostic proposed by Hammer and Stanton (1995 to be used when assessing the ability of organisations to succeed at reengineering, and (3 examining the impact of the organisational environment prior to change on the outcome of reengineering projects.

  7. Hypothenar hammer syndrome in a computer programmer: CTA diagnosis and surgical and endovascular treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gawad, Ehab A; Bonatti, Hugo; Housseini, Ahmed M; Maged, Ismaeel M; Morgan, Raymond F; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2009-01-01

    Finger ischemia due to embolic occlusion of digital arteries resulting from trauma to the palmar ulnar artery has been termed hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS). In HHS, arterial thrombosis and/or aneurysm formation with embolization to the digital arteries causes symptoms of ischemia. We describe a patient in whom the initial diagnosis was made on multidetector computed tomographic angiography (CTA), as well as his endovascular and surgical management.

  8. Goal Translation for a Hammer for Coq (Extended Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Czajka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hammers are tools that provide general purpose automation for formal proof assistants. Despite the gaining popularity of the more advanced versions of type theory, there are no hammers for such systems. We present an extension of the various hammer components to type theory: (i a translation of a significant part of the Coq logic into the format of automated proof systems; (ii a proof reconstruction mechanism based on a Ben-Yelles-type algorithm combined with limited rewriting, congruence closure and a first-order generalization of the left rules of Dyckhoff's system LJT.

  9. Periodic fluctuations in deep water formation due to sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, R.

    2012-12-01

    During the last ice age, several abrupt warming events took place, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. Their effects were felt globally, although the North Atlantic experienced the largest temperature increase. The leading hypothesis to explain their occurrence postulates that the warming was caused by abrupt disruptions of the North Atlantic Current due to meltwater discharge from destabilized ice sheets (Heinrich events). However, the number of warming events outnumber the those of ice-sheet collapse. Thus, the majority of D-O events are not attributed to surface freshwater anomalies, and the underlying mechanism behind their occurrence remain unexplained. Using a simple dynamical model of sea ice and an overturning circulation, I show the existence of self-sustained relaxation oscillations in the overturning circulation. The insulating effect of sea ice is shown to paradoxically lead to a net loss of heat from the top layer of the polar ocean when sea ice retreats. Repeated heat loss results in a denser top layer and a destabilized water column, which triggers convection. The convective state pulls the system out of its preferred mode of circulation, setting up relaxation oscillations. The period of oscillations in this case is linked to the geometry of the ocean basin, if solar forcing is assumed to remain constant. If appropriate glacial freshwater forcing is applied to the model, a pattern of oscillation is produced that bears remarkable similarity to the observed fluctuations in North Atlantic climate between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present.; Comparison of NGRIP δ 18-O (proxy for near surface air temperature) between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present, showing Bond cycles (left) with the model output when forced with appropriate glacial freshwater forcing (right).

  10. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Drinking Water Due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    water sources. The toxicity of these heavy metals from the mining, milling and smelting companies can cause harmful and even lethal effects on the human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of As, Cr, Zn,. Mg, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ag and Mn in well and tap water and assess the degree of pollution in ...

  11. Physics-Based Pneumatic Hammer Instability Model Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to develop a physics-based pneumatic hammer instability model that accurately predicts the stability of hydrostatic bearings...

  12. Drinking Water Contamination Due To Lead-based Solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, N.; Bartelt, E.; Cuff, K. E.

    2004-12-01

    The presence of lead in drinking water creates many health hazards. Exposure to lead-contaminated water can affect the brain, the central nervous system, blood cells, and kidneys, causing such problems as mental retardation, kidney disease, heart disease, stroke, and death. One way in which lead can contaminate our water supply is through the use of lead solder to join pipes. Lead solder was widely used in the past because of its ease of application as well as its low cost. Lead contamination in residential areas has previously been found to be a particularly serious problem in first-draw samples, of water that has sat stagnant in pipes overnight. To investigate the time-dependence of drinking water lead contamination, we analyzed samples taken hourly of water exposed to lead solder. While our preliminary data was insufficient to show more than a rough correlation between time of exposure and lead concentration over short periods (1-3 hours), we were able to confirm that overnight exposure of water to lead-based solder results in the presence high levels of lead. We also investigated other, external factors that previous research has indicated contribute to increased concentrations of lead. Our analysis of samples of lead-exposed water at various pH and temperatures suggests that these factors can be equally significant in terms of their contribution to elevated lead concentration levels. In particular, water that is slightly corrosive appears to severely impact the solubility of lead. As this type of water is common in much of the Northeast United States, the presence of lead-based solder in residential areas there is especially problematic. Although lead-based solder has been banned since the 1980s, it remains a serious concern, and a practical solution still requires further research.

  13. Attacks of Asthma due to Chlorinized Water: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Eyup Berdan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a high prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma-like symptoms in swimmers has been reported. But, attacks of asthma which is related to chlorinized water is rare. Chlorine, a strong oxidizing agent, is an important toxic gas that the swimmer can breath during swimming and a worker can exposed to chlorine while he or she was using water with chlorine at home. We describe a persistent increase in nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness following chronic exposure to strong respiratory irritant with chlorinized water in two subjects with no past history of asthma or atopy. We conclude that airway hyperresponsiveness can develop or increase after chronic inhalation of high concentrations of irritants such as chlorinized water an indoor irritant factor and that these changes may be prolonged. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 87-90

  14. Auto-Gopher: a wire-line rotary-hammer ultrasonic drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chen, Beck

    2011-04-01

    Developing technologies that would enable NASA to sample rock, soil, and ice by coring, drilling or abrading at a significant depth is of great importance for a large number of in-situ exploration missions as well as for earth applications. Proven techniques to sample Mars subsurface will be critical for future NASA astrobiology missions that will search for records of past and present life on the planet, as well as the search of water and other resources. A deep corer, called Auto-Gopher, is currently being developed as a joint effort of the JPL's NDEAA laboratory and Honeybee Robotics Corp. The Auto-Gopher is a wire-line rotary- hammer drill that combines rock breaking by hammering using an ultrasonic actuator and cuttings removal by rotating a fluted bit. The hammering mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) that has been developed as an adaptable tool for many of drilling and coring applications. The USDC uses an intermediate free-flying mass to transform the high frequency vibrations of the horn tip into a sonic hammering of a drill bit. The USDC concept was used in a previous task to develop an Ultrasonic/Sonic Ice Gopher. The lessons learned from testing the ice gopher were implemented into the design of the Auto-Gopher by inducing a rotary motion onto the fluted coring bit. A wire-line version of such a system would allow penetration of significant depth without a large increase in mass. A laboratory version of the corer was developed in the NDEAA lab to determine the design and drive parameters of the integrated system. The design configuration lab version of the design and fabrication and preliminary testing results are presented in this paper.

  15. Auto-Gopher: A Wire-Line Rotary-Hammer Ultrasonic Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaogi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chen, Beck

    2011-01-01

    Developing technologies that would enable NASA to sample rock, soil, and ice by coring, drilling or abrading at a significant depth is of great importance for a large number of in-situ exploration missions as well as for earth applications. Proven techniques to sample Mars subsurface will be critical for future NASA astrobiology missions that will search for records of past and present life on the planet, as well as, the search for water and other resources. A deep corer, called Auto-Gopher, is currently being developed as a joint effort of the JPL's NDEAA laboratory and Honeybee Robotics Corp. The Auto-Gopher is a wire-line rotary-hammer drill that combines rock breaking by hammering using an ultrasonic actuator and cuttings removal by rotating a fluted bit. The hammering mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) that has been developed as an adaptable tool for many of drilling and coring applications. The USDC uses an intermediate free-flying mass to transform the high frequency vibrations of the horn tip into a sonic hammering of a drill bit. The USDC concept was used in a previous task to develop an Ultrasonic/Sonic Ice Gopher. The lessons learned from testing the ice gopher were implemented into the design of the Auto-Gopher by inducing a rotary motion onto the fluted coring bit. A wire-line version of such a system would allow penetration of significant depth without a large increase in mass. A laboratory version of the corer was developed in the NDEAA lab to determine the design and drive parameters of the integrated system. The design configuration lab version of the design and fabrication and preliminary testing results are presented in this paper

  16. Groundwater quality degradation due to salt water intrusion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saltwater intrusion problems are widespread where there are over pumping of groundwater from coastal aquifers. Water samples were collected from production boreholes in Zanzibar municipality and analyzed for salinity indication parameters comprising of chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts and ...

  17. Fatigue Life Improvement for Cruciform Welded Joint by Mechanical Surface Treatment using Hammer Peening and UNSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung-Ho; Han, Jeong-Woo; Nam, Yong-Yun; Cho, In-Ho

    For the improvement of fatigue strength of welded structures, mechanical post treatments have been applied in various industrial fields and have in most cases been founded to give substantial increases in their fatigue lives. These methods, generally, consist of the modification of weld toe geometry and the introduction of compressive residual stresses. In mechanical surface treatments, e.g. PHP (pneumatic hammer peening) and UNSM (ultrasonic nano-crystal surface modification), the weld profile is modified due to remove or reduce minute crack-like flaws, and compressive residual stresses are also induced. In this study, a pneumatic hammer peening procedure and a UNSM device were introduced, and a quantitative measure of fatigue strength improvement was performed. The fatigue strength at 2 × 106 cycles of hammer-peened and UNSM treated on a non-load carrying cruciform welded joint shows 220 and 260MPa, respectively, which are more than two times higher than that of as-welded specimen. Especially, the surface layer in the vicinity weld toe treated by the UNSM provides nano-crystal structure created by an ultrasonic cold forging and introduces very high welding residual stress in compression.

  18. Changes in Septic Tank Effluent Due to Water Softener Use

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Patrick Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The compatibility of home water softeners and septic tanks is of concern for the on-site wastewater treatment community. Research has shown that high sodium levels in activated sludge plants can lead to deflocculation and poor effluent quality. Therefore, it is logical to assume that high sodium levels that result from the exchange of calcium and magnesium for sodium in home softeners could give rise to poor effluent quality from septic tanks, leading to shortened lives of drain fields. Addit...

  19. 7 CFR 610.12 - Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equations for predicting soil loss due to water... ASSISTANCE Soil Erosion Prediction Equations § 610.12 Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion. (a) The equation for predicting soil loss due to erosion for both the USLE and the RUSLE is A = R × K...

  20. Identification of noise sources of forge hammers during production: An application of residual spectrum techniques to transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trethewey, M. W.; Evensen, H. A.

    1981-08-01

    Three gravity-drop, four-piece forge hammers are analyzed to determine the principal structural sources of impulsive noise radiation during production forging. A three-input single-output model is used to describe the hammer system, based on "input" signals taken from one column, the anvil and the ram accelerations, and one "output" signal taken from the sound pressure at the operator's position. The frequency response functions between the elemental vibrations and the sound pressure signal are determined from these signals by residual spectrum techniques. For the three hammers studied, the analysis shows that the ram is a major source of acoustic energy radiated to the oeprator's position, while the columns and anvil radiate between 1 and 4 dB less energy. The three-input model is then used to estimate the effect of acoustic shrouds on the sound energy radiation. The results indicate that it may be necessary to treat all the structural elements before significant reductions can be achieved, due mainly to the high degree of interaction between the components. The residual spectrum derived from this model indicates that the three input model may not be totally adequate for all production hammers; it may be necessary to develop higher-input models, with use of data from more transducers located to sense a higher number of contributing vibration modes. However, in this study the three-input model accounted for 73-82% of the sound energy density at the operator's position.

  1. Analysis of the dynamic characteristics of gas chamber in rotary hammer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    YAN, Shiwei; HUANG, Shangyu; ZOU, Fangli

    2016-01-01

    Rotary hammer is a high-frequency impact machine with a complicated gas chamber. The design parameters of the gas chamber are dominating to impact energy output and impact efficiency of a rotary hammer...

  2. On the Wave Stresses in the Rods of Anvil Hammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sinitskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With operating anvil hammers, there are rigid impacts of die tools, and as a result, almost instantaneous impact stops of the falling parts of hammer. Such operating conditions lead to the accelerated breakdowns of rods because of significant wave stresses arising in them. Common differential and integral methods to estimate wave stresses are widespread in engineering practice. However, to use them a researcher has to possess certain skills and special software. We consider the method for estimating the wave stresses in the rods of anvil hammers based on Laplace transforms (LT of wave equation. The article shows a procedure to set up and solve differential wave equations by operator method. These equations describe the wave propagation process of strains and stresses in the rods of anvil hammers with rigid impact and taking into account a damping rod connection with the head of hammer. The method takes into consideration an influence of both piston and rod weights and of mechanical and geometrical characteristics of rod on the stress value in the placement of rod in hammer head. Results analysis shows that a sufficiently efficient method for practical improving the durability of rods is the method of damping impact load on the rod through setting the damping devices in the form either of elastic "pad" of one or another design or of hydraulic shock absorbers in the placement of its connection with the hammer head. In this case there is a change of the wave front, it becomes flatter. It is shown that the stresses in the rod are proportional to the amount of wave stresses because of the own impact of rod and piston, which make a total weight of the system. Effect of piston weight on the stresses value at the rod during impact is directly proportional to the ratio of its weight to the rod weight. The geometric parameters of rod and the speed of the falling parts before the impact also influence on the value of stresses in the rod.The represented

  3. Optimization of Mud Hammer Drilling Performance--A Program to Benchmark the Viability of Advanced Mud Hammer Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2006-03-01

    Operators continue to look for ways to improve hard rock drilling performance through emerging technologies. A consortium of Department of Energy, operator and industry participants put together an effort to test and optimize mud driven fluid hammers as one emerging technology that has shown promise to increase penetration rates in hard rock. The thrust of this program has been to test and record the performance of fluid hammers in full scale test conditions including, hard formations at simulated depth, high density/high solids drilling muds, and realistic fluid power levels. This paper details the testing and results of testing two 7 3/4 inch diameter mud hammers with 8 1/2 inch hammer bits. A Novatek MHN5 and an SDS Digger FH185 mud hammer were tested with several bit types, with performance being compared to a conventional (IADC Code 537) tricone bit. These tools functionally operated in all of the simulated downhole environments. The performance was in the range of the baseline ticone or better at lower borehole pressures, but at higher borehole pressures the performance was in the lower range or below that of the baseline tricone bit. A new drilling mode was observed, while operating the MHN5 mud hammer. This mode was noticed as the weight on bit (WOB) was in transition from low to high applied load. During this new ''transition drilling mode'', performance was substantially improved and in some cases outperformed the tricone bit. Improvements were noted for the SDS tool while drilling with a more aggressive bit design. Future work includes the optimization of these or the next generation tools for operating in higher density and higher borehole pressure conditions and improving bit design and technology based on the knowledge gained from this test program.

  4. Enhancing down-the-hole air hammer capacity in directional drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishin, V. I.; Timonin, V. V.; Kokoulin, D. I.; Alekseev, S. E.; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-09-01

    The authors discuss the issue connected with drilling trajectory deviation and present the technique of rotary-percussion drilling with a down-the-hole air hammer. The article describes pilot testing of the air hammer drill PNB76 in Berezovskaya Mine. The ways of improving the air hammer drill are identified, and the basic diagram and R&D test data are given.

  5. Bottom driving casing technique predictions for impact hammers with TNOWAVE-R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, R.J. van

    2000-01-01

    The driving of a casing pile with the impact of the hammer at the toe or bottom of the pile is an effective method compared to driving with the hammer at the pile top. A significant reduction of driving time and noise has been observed [1] for this type of driving. The energy of the impact hammer is

  6. Apparent losses due to domestic water meter under-registration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By combining these results with the average age of meters in South Africa, estimated from the National Water Demand Archive, it was possible to estimate the average meter under-registration due to meter aging. The study concluded that apparent losses due to water meter under-registration are around 5% of consumption ...

  7. Apparent losses due to domestic water meter under-registration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... By combining these results with the average age of meters in South Africa, estimated from the National Water Demand. Archive, it was possible to estimate the average meter under-registration due to meter aging. The study concluded that apparent losses due to water meter under-registration are around ...

  8. HammerCloud. Developments and operations in the grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Hoenig, Friedrich; Legger, Federica [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Boehler, Michael [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in the years 2010-2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS experiment Grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centres to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling virtual organisations (VO) and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test workflows. These new workflows comprise validation and integration of the new ATLAS workload and data management systems JEDI and Rucio or the development and tests of new storage access protocols like HTTP/WebDAV using Davix and aria2c. Results of the continuous monitoring of site performances in functional and site stress tests are displayed in newly developed views on the HammerCloud webpages for site and VO administrators. We report on the development, optimisation and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  9. Do chimpanzees use weight to select hammer tools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Schrauf

    Full Text Available The extent to which tool-using animals take into account relevant task parameters is poorly understood. Nut cracking is one of the most complex forms of tool use, the choice of an adequate hammer being a critical aspect in success. Several properties make a hammer suitable for nut cracking, with weight being a key factor in determining the impact of a strike; in general, the greater the weight the fewer strikes required. This study experimentally investigated whether chimpanzees are able to encode the relevance of weight as a property of hammers to crack open nuts. By presenting chimpanzees with three hammers that differed solely in weight, we assessed their ability to relate the weight of the different tools with their effectiveness and thus select the most effective one(s. Our results show that chimpanzees use weight alone in selecting tools to crack open nuts and that experience clearly affects the subjects' attentiveness to the tool properties that are relevant for the task at hand. Chimpanzees can encode the requirements that a nut-cracking tool should meet (in terms of weight to be effective.

  10. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provide emergency supplies of clean water to any locality confronted with a source of contaminated water... interests to provide normal supplies of water. (9) State, tribal, and local governments must make full use... interests are responsible for restoration of the routine supply of clean drinking water, including...

  11. Effect of rotational speed in rotary hammer forging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Muhammad M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotary press forging (RPF has been used in the last century, but it produces many defects in the forgings. The author has invented the rotary hammer forging (RHF process to reduce such defects. RHF is a multi-axes compression process where the material is partially and incrementally deformed by the action of several repeated hammering blows, while the produced deformation region is swept through the whole area of the workpiece. The aim of the present work is to study the effects of rotational speed on the forgings produced by RPF and RHF to compare between the two processes. It has been found that as the rotational speed increases the mushroom effect is constant in RHF while it is greater and increases in RPF. As the rotational speed increases, the twist angle increases in both RHF and RPF, but it is bigger in RPF. These results demonstrate the benefits of using RHF instead of RPF.

  12. Measurement of water transfer and swelling stress in the buffer material due to temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H. [ITC, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Chijimatsu, M.; Fujita, A.

    1999-03-01

    Coefficients concerning the water transfer in the buffer material was obtained by empirically giving a temperature gradient, and the swelling stress was measured when water was soaked in the sample under the uniform temperature and temperature gradient conditions. The distributions of temperature and water in the buffer material empirically given a temperature gradient were measured to deduce water diffusion constant due to the temperature gradient. The diffusion constant was the order of 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}/s/degC. As a result of a equitemperature soaking test, it was found that the swelling stress of the part where soaktion was slow was greater than that of the part with fast soaking at a stage of non-uniform water distribution. The water soaking quantity to the sample and swelling stress reached a stationary state after 7000 hours and the water distribution in the whole sample was found saturated. (H. Baba)

  13. Anisotropy in Alpedrete granite cutting (Rift, Grain and Hardway directions) and effect on bush hammered heritage ashlars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Many monuments and cities that are part of humanity's heritage have been built with carved granite ashlars. This dimension stone is one of the most used due to its abundance and durability. Traditional quarrymen have used anisotropic planes to cut granite blocks in the quarry for improved cutting performance. These planes are called Rift, Grain and Hardway (R, G, H) according to the ease of cutting. The aim of this study is to determine the response of each of the three orthogonal cutting planes R, G and H to the craft styling with bush hammer, based on their decay. Alpedrete granite was selected for this research, it is a monzogranite quarried in the Sierra de Guadarrana (Spanish Central System) foothills, in the province of Madrid, Spain. It is one of the most representative of Madrid's heritage granites. Alpedrete granite is also used as building stone in other European cities. From an Alpedrete granite bush hammered ashlar, three thin sections were cut parallel to the H plane; these thin sections cut R and G bush hammered planes. Also three thin sections have been cut parallel to the R plane at a distance of 2 mm, 10 mm and 30 mm from the bush hammered surface. All thin sections have been treated with fluorescein. In each of the thin sections a micrograph mosaic was performed covering the entire area (about 10 cm2, 300 photomicrographs) and printed with 120 increases. The length and spacing of inter-, intra- and trans-crystalline microcracks were quantified and measured. Microcracks were subdivided based on affected minerals in each R, G and H planes. Through these observations it was found that Alpedrete Granite R plane (easier to cut) is determined by exfoliation microcracks orientation. That is, R plane is parallel to the exfoliations microcracks, which are intra-crystalline and straight. The cutting of stones in the R plane is due to the coalescence of straight microcracks in the plane. This plane minimizes the effort and cost of subsequent carving so it

  14. Automated Grid Monitoring for the LHCb Experiment Through HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Dice, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The HammerCloud system is used by CERN IT to monitor the status of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). HammerCloud automatically submits jobs to WLCG computing resources, closely replicating the workflow of Grid users (e.g. physicists analyzing data). This allows computation nodes and storage resources to be monitored, software to be tested (somewhat like continuous integration), and new sites to be stress tested with a heavy job load before commissioning. The HammerCloud system has been in use for ATLAS and CMS experiments for about five years. This summer's work involved porting the HammerCloud suite of tools to the LHCb experiment. The HammerCloud software runs functional tests and provides data visualizations. HammerCloud's LHCb variant is written in Python, using the Django web framework and Ganga/DIRAC for job management.

  15. Study on the abrasion property of the anvil inside a hydraulic DTH hammer fitted with horizontal oriented sliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic hammers have been extensively applied to horizontal directional well drilling in hard rock formations. However, the service life of a hydraulic hammer is still unsatisfactory due to the heavy wear or abrasion of the horizontal anvil, which leads to the failure and the reduction of service life in directional well drilling. In order to improve the performance life of a hydraulic hammer, the new type of anvil with a horizontal oriented slider has been designed. The abrasion property of the horizontal oriented slider have been numerically simulated and analyzed by Finite Element Analysis. Simulation and experimental results have shown that the abrasion rate exponentially varies with the mass of the anvil and the friction coefficient of horizontal oriented slider, nevertheless the abrasion rate of horizontal anvil is almost logarithmically varies with moving velocity of oriented slider. The maximum abrasion rate of horizontal oriented sliders will exceed 4% while moving velocity of the horizontal anvil is larger than 3m/s. While the mass of the anvil is 100kg, the maximum abrasion rate of horizontal oriented slider is 7.5?. However, the maximum abrasion rate of a horizontal oriented slider will be up to 16.5% while the friction coefficient is more than 0.2

  16. Environmental health aspects of drinking water-borne outbreak due to karst flooding: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Gyula; Pándics, Tamás; Kádár, Mihály; Krisztalovics, Katalin; Kiss, Zoltánné; Bodnár, Judit; Asztalos, Agnes; Papp, Erzsébet

    2010-09-01

    Climate change may increase the incidence of waterborne diseases due to extreme rainfall events, and consequent microbiological contamination of the water source and supply. As a result of the complexity of the pathways from the surface to the consumer, it is difficult to detect an association between rainfall and human disease. The water supply of a Hungarian city, Miskolc (174,000 inhabitant), is mainly based on karstic water, a vulnerable underground water body. A large amount of precipitation fell on the catchment area of the karstic water source, causing an unusually strong karstic water flow and flooding, and subsequent microbiological contamination. The presence of several potential sources of contamination in the protective zone of the karstic water source should be emphasized. The water supplier was unprepared to treat the risk of waterborne outbreak caused by an extreme weather event. Public health intervention and hygienic measures were taken in line with epidemiological actions, focusing on the protection of consumers by providing safe drinking water. The contamination was identified, and measures were taken for risk reduction and prevention. This case study underlines the increasing importance of preparedness for extreme water events in order to protect the karstic water sources and to avoid waterborne outbreaks.

  17. Water column velocimeter for NSRR experiment. Characteristics and data processing procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Fuketa, Toyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-11-01

    In order to clarify fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions, pulse irradiation experiments on fuel rods are carried out in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). One of concerns at fuel failure is mechanical energy generation in the reactor vessel. The mechanical energy is generated by a water hammer or a pressure impact occurred at fuel failure, and has possibility to damage reactor structures. Thus, the amount of generated mechanical energy is critical information for the safety evaluation of power reactor. In the NSRR experiments, the mechanical energy due to the water hammer is evaluated as the kinetic energy of the jumping water column at fuel failure, and the velocity of the water column is measured by the float type water column velocimeter. This report presents characteristics of the water column velocimeter and the procedure of data processing in the NSRR experiments. (author)

  18. Hammering sound frequency analysis and prevention of intraoperative periprosthetic fractures during total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Rina; Kikuchi, Aki; Morita, Towa; Takahira, Naonobu; Uchiyama, Katsufumi; Yamamoto, Takeaki; Moriya, Mistutoshi; Uchida, Kentaro; Fukushima, Kensuke; Tanaka, Kensei; Takaso, Masashi; Itoman, Moritoshi; Mabuchi, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Adequate fixation at the time of cementless stem implantation depends on the operator's experience. An objective evaluation method to determine whether the stem has been appropriately implanted may be helpful. We studied the relationship between the hammering sound frequency during stem implantation and internal stress in a femoral model, and evaluated the possible usefulness of hammering sound frequency analysis for preventing intraoperative fracture. Three types of cementless stem (BiCONTACT®, SL-PLUS®, and AI-Hip®) were used. Surgeons performed stem insertion using a procedure similar to that employed in a routine operation. Stress was estimated by finite element analysis, the hammering force was measured, and frequency analysis of hammering sound data obtained using a microphone. Finite element analysis showed a decrease in the hammering sound frequency with an increase in the estimated maximum stress. When a decrease in frequency was observed, adequate hammering had occurred, and the continuation of hammering risked fracture. Based on the relationship between stress and frequency, the evaluation of changes in frequency may be useful for preventing the development of intraoperative fractures. Using our method, when a decrease in frequency is observed, the hammering force should be reduced. Hammering sound frequency analysis may allow the prediction of bone fractures that can be visually confirmed, and may be a useful objective evaluation method for the prevention of intraoperative periprosthetic fractures during stem insertion.

  19. Pediatric burns due to hot water from water dispenser: a neglected issue that should be highly concerned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bing; Xi, Hui-Jun; Wang, Jia-Lin; Yan, Ying; Tang, Hong-Tai; Zhu, Shi-Hui; Lü, Kai-Yang; Xia, Zhao-Fan

    2012-06-01

    More and more Chinese drink hot water from water dispensers while many children were scalded due to this change. The present study aimed to propose a feasible strategy for prevention. A retrospective study was conducted for all water dispensers related pediatric burns admitted to Changhai Hospital from January 2005 to December 2009. The number of new cases and incidences of pediatric burns due to hot water from water dispensers was significantly increasing year after year. In the total 238 involved cases, 175 cases happened on males and 78.9% were at the age of 1 - 4 years. The burn areas were mainly located in upper extremities. All water dispensers in the surveyed families had no isolate protection devices and 85.2% of their locations were easy for children to reach. Nearly half of the children were in the same room with their guardians when injured. Total 196 burned children were playing the taps of water dispensers before injured, unfortunately, 80.6% of them have not been stopped until burned. As the kind of burns is quite serious and with bad outcome, some recommendations should be followed, such as buying water dispensers with protection devices, keeping children from touching them and so on.

  20. Detailed structure of pipe flow with water hammer oscillations | Kioni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herein, the evolution and detailed structure of velocity and pressure fields of an oscillating axi-symmetric pipe flow arising from a rapid closure of a valve has been determined through the solution, by the Finite Volume technique, of the full Navier Stokes equations. The method correctly predicts the distortion of the pressure ...

  1. Modeling Reservoir Formation Damage due to Water Injection for Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao

    2010-01-01

    The elliptic equation for non-Fickian transport of suspension in porous media is applied to simulate the reservoir formation damage due to water injection for oil recovery. The deposition release (erosion of reservoir formation) and the suspension deposition (pore plugging) are both taken...... into account. 1-D numerical simulations are carried out to reveal the erosion of reservoir formation due to water injection. 2-D numerical simulations are carried out to obtain the suspension and deposition profiles around the injection wells. These preliminary results indicate the non-Fickian behaviors...

  2. Pressure in a tank due to water-ice phase transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexcellent, C.; Vigoureux, D.; Vigoureux, J.-M.

    2017-11-01

    Our aim is to show the surprising force of hydrogen bonds in ice. When a tank completely filled with water is cooled, ice formation can generate a pressure which can cause its breaking. This phenomenon is due to the fact that water has a higher density in its liquid phase than in its solid state. Such a breaking is all the more surprising in that hydrogen bonds between water molecules are known as being weak chemical bonds. We show here that in the case of a total phase change, even the best steels or alloys could not prevent its breakage.

  3. Quantifying the Reduction in Water Demand due to Rainwater Tank Installations at Residential Properties in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danious P. Sountharajah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines data on actual reductions in consumption of water supply due to the widespread installation of rainwater tanks at residential properties in the Sydney metropolitan area and surrounding areas connected to Sydney Water Corporation water supply mains. The water consumption was based on metered potable water usage between 2002 and 2009. The number of properties in the study database totalled 962,697 single residential dwellings. Of this a total of 52,576 or 5.5% of Sydney’s households had a rainwater tank registered with Sydney Water Corporation.  The water usage consumption before and after the installation of the rainwater tank was analysed to quantify the extent to which rainwater tanks reduced mains water consumption. The average percentage of water savings by installing rainwater tanks across all 44 local government authorities was 9%. In some Sydney localities this reduction was up to 15%. On average, a household was able to save around 24 kilolitre of water annually by installing a rainwater tank even without considering other factors that affect water usage. The results were compared against socio-demographic factors using variables such as household size, educational qualifications, taxable income, rented properties, and non-English-speaking background, etc. to gain an appreciation of how these factors may have influenced the outcomes evident in the data. Among the co-relations found were that most properties within inner Sydney with a rainwater tank achieved at least a 9 to 11% additional reduction in water usage, with more than half of those local government authorities achieving more than 11%; properties with larger land area were more likely to have a rainwater tank installed; local government authorities with more people born in non-English speaking countries had lower reduction in water consumption reductions. 

  4. Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome: Long-Term Results After Vascular Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; van Schoonhoven, Joerg; Schmitt, Rainer; Hacker, Stefan; Karle, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare vascular lesion of the distal ulnar artery in Guyon tunnel caused by acute or repetitive blunt trauma to the hypothenar eminence. Described treatment options vary greatly, from nonoperative management treatments to surgical interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of patients after surgical reconstruction of the ulnar artery. In this retrospective study, the results of 12 patients treated for hypothenar hammer syndrome were evaluated. Preoperative and postoperative examinations of the hand were recorded. Function impairment was assessed with the "Disabilites of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand" questionnaire. Comparisons were also made based on ulnar artery patency versus occlusion. All patients were evaluated for ulnar artery patency as determined by Allen's test and magnetic resonance angiography. All patients were men with an average age of 42.8 years. In 3 patients, a direct end-to-end anastomosis of the ulnar artery was performed, and 9 patients received a reconstruction with a reverse interpositional vein graft. Nine vascular reconstructions remained patent after a mean follow-up period of 56.9 months. These patients had a complete or at least partial relief of their pain, dysesthesia, and cold intolerance compared with preoperatively. Patients with reoccluded ulnar arteries were statistically significant younger (P = 0.036) than patients with patent ulnar artery. They also had a higher pain level (P = 0.009) and a longer follow-up period (P = 0.036) than those with patent reconstruction. There was a trend for higher functional impairment in patients with reoccluded ulnar artery (P = 0.100). Smoking habits showed no influence on ulnar artery patency. For patients with symptomatic hypothenar hammer syndrome and failed nonoperative treatment, surgical intervention is a good option. After more than 4.5 years after surgery 9 of 12 vascular reconstructions remained patent (75% patency rate

  5. Assessing Health Risk due to Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water in Hanam Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung Bui Huy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8–579 ppb (mean 301 ppb before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10−5 (using only well water and 7.6 × 10−5 (using both well and rain water. The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed.

  6. Assessing health risk due to exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Hanam Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Tung Bui; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Johnston, Richard; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2014-07-24

    We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As) in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8-579 ppb (mean 301 ppb) before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10-5 (using only well water) and 7.6 × 10-5 (using both well and rain water). The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed.

  7. Estimation of Radiation Risks Due To Ingestion of Water in Ogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    can cause cell death, genetic mutation, cancers, leukemia, birth defects and endocrine system disorders. The aim of this study is to estimate radiation risks due to ingestion of water in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers. State in Nigeria using radiation risk models. Secondary data from radiological ...

  8. Ground water pollution due to aquaculture in east coast region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ground water quality parameters were studied for pollution due to aquaculture in the east coast region of district Andhrapradesh, India. Over a period of two years, 46 groundwater samples were collected for analyses. The results showed that the alkalinity ranged from 120 - 482 mg/L, and pH ranged from 7.1 to 8.6.

  9. Challenges in the potable water industry due to changes in source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total chlorophyll concentrations of the source water have increased extensively since 1984, while turbidity levels have remained fairly constant but with spikes at times. The facility suffers from severe taste and odour episodes during warm periods due to the presence of methylisoborneol (MIB), released by Cyanophyceae, ...

  10. Sea Level Changes Due to Water Mass Variations in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpytchev, M.

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that interannual sea level variations on the shelfof the Gulf of Mexico are weakly correlated with the sea level over the Gulf deep waters.This has been shown to be due to a complex interplay between the Loop Currentdriving sea level changes in the deeper part of the Gulf with the shelf waves propagatingfrom the North Atlantic. In this study, we, first, examine the relationship between the low-frequency sea levelfluctuations deduced from satellite altimetry observations and from tide gauge recordsand, then, focus on evaluating water mass changes in the Gulf of Mexico.We compare the estimates obtained from satellite altimetry corrected forthermosteric effects with the changes in water mass observed by GRACEand discuss the importance of water mass changes for the low-frequency sea level fluctuationsin the Gulf.

  11. Prey selection of a captive Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus hammering Mussels Mytilus edulis from the ventral side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, Bruno J.; Alting, D

    1996-01-01

    We studied prey choice of a captive Oystercatcher:hat hammered Mussels from the ventral side. The results replicate previous findings that ventral hammerers select Mussels of intermediate size, select against thick-shelled Mussels, abandon an increasing proportion of Mussels with increasing size and

  12. HAMMER FY 1999 multi-year work plan WBS 1.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callender, P.A.

    1998-09-30

    As a federal training center HAMMER`s [HAzardous Materials Management and Emergency Response] mission is to host, broker, and provide training with partners, involving hands-on use of realistic props and settings, in order to save lives and reduce injuries, increase worker productivity, and serve as a catalyst for a regional training industry.

  13. Vibration control in forge hammers. [by shock wave damping in foundation platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, F.; Lazarescu, C.

    1974-01-01

    Special measures are discussed for calculating, designing and executing a forge hammer foundation, so that the vibrations that occur during its working will not be transmitted to neighboring machinery, workrooms and offices. These vibrations are harmful to the workers near the forge hammer.

  14. Testing as a Service with HammerCloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Barrand, Quentin; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Sciabà, Andrea; van der Ster, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    HammerCloud was designed and born under the needs of the grid community to test the resources and automate operations from a user perspective. The recent developments in the IT space propose a shift to the software defined data centres, in which every layer of the infrastructure can be offered as a service. Testing and monitoring is an integral part of the development, validation and operations of big systems, like the grid. This area is not escaping the paradigm shift and we are starting to perceive as natural the Testing as a Service (TaaS) offerings, which allow testing any infrastructure service, such as the Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) platforms being deployed in many grid sites, both from the functional and stressing perspectives. This work will review the recent developments in HammerCloud and its evolution to a TaaS conception, in particular its deployment on the Agile Infrastructure platform at CERN and the testing of many IaaS providers across Europe in the context of experiment requirements. The first section will review the architectural changes that a service running in the cloud needs, such an orchestration service or new storage requirements in order to provide functional and stress testing. The second section will review the first tests of infrastructure providers on the perspective of the challenges discovered from the architectural point of view. Finally, the third section will evaluate future requirements of scalability and features to increase testing productivity.

  15. Hammer events, neutrino energies, and nucleon-nucleon correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation measurements depend on a difference between the rate of neutrino-nucleus interactions at different neutrino energies or different distances from the source. Knowledge of the neutrino energy spectrum and neutrino-detector interactions are crucial for these experiments. Short range nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei (SRC) affect properties of nuclei. The ArgoNeut liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (lArTPC) observed neutrino-argon scattering events with two protons back-to-back in the final state ("hammer" events) which they associated with SRC pairs. The MicroBoone lArTPC will measure far more of these events. We simulate hammer events using two simple models. We use the well-known electron-nucleon cross section to calculate e-argon interactions where the e- scatters from a proton, ejecting a pi+, and the pi+ is then absorbed on a moving deuteron-like $np$ pair. We also use a model where the electron excites a nucleon to a Delta, which then deexcites by interacting with a second nucle...

  16. Testing as a Service with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Sciabà, Andrea; van der Ster, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    HammerCloud was designed and born under the needs of the grid community to test the resources and automate operations from a user perspective. The recent developments in the IT space propose a shift to the software defined data centres, in which every layer of the infrastructure can be offered as a service. Testing and monitoring is an integral part of the development, validation and operations of big systems, like the grid. This area is not escaping the paradigm shift and we are starting to perceive as natural the Testing as a Service (TaaS) offerings, which allow testing any infrastructure service, such as the Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) platforms being deployed in many grid sites, both from the functional and stressing perspectives. This work will review the recent developments in HammerCloud and its evolution to a TaaS conception, in particular its deployment on the Agile Infrastructure platform at CERN and the testing of many IaaS providers across Europe in the context of experiment requirements....

  17. Quantitative assessment of resilience of a water supply system under rainfall reduction due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Pradeep; Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Barnes, Paul; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-09-01

    A water supply system can be impacted by rainfall reduction due to climate change, thereby reducing its supply potential. This highlights the need to understand the system resilience, which refers to the ability to maintain service under various pressures (or disruptions). Currently, the concept of resilience has not yet been widely applied in managing water supply systems. This paper proposed three technical resilience indictors to assess the resilience of a water supply system. A case study analysis was undertaken of the Water Grid system of Queensland State, Australia, to showcase how the proposed indicators can be applied to assess resilience. The research outcomes confirmed that the use of resilience indicators is capable of identifying critical conditions in relation to the water supply system operation, such as the maximum allowable rainfall reduction for the system to maintain its operation without failure. Additionally, resilience indicators also provided useful insight regarding the sensitivity of the water supply system to a changing rainfall pattern in the context of climate change, which represents the system's stability when experiencing pressure. The study outcomes will help in the quantitative assessment of resilience and provide improved guidance to system operators to enhance the efficiency and reliability of a water supply system.

  18. INTEGRATED DRILLING SYSTEM USING MUD ACTUATED DOWN HOLE HAMMER AS PRIMARY ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John V. Fernandez; David S. Pixton

    2005-12-01

    A history and project summary of the development of an integrated drilling system using a mud-actuated down-hole hammer as its primary engine are given. The summary includes laboratory test results, including atmospheric tests of component parts and simulated borehole tests of the hammer system. Several remaining technical hurdles are enumerated. A brief explanation of commercialization potential is included. The primary conclusion for this work is that a mud actuated hammer can yield substantial improvements to drilling rate in overbalanced, hard rock formations. A secondary conclusion is that the down-hole mud actuated hammer can serve to provide other useful down-hole functions including generation of high pressure mud jets, generation of seismic and sonic signals, and generation of diagnostic information based on hammer velocity profiles.

  19. 76 FR 52313 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... International Trade Administration Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges... & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) (``Hand Tools'') from the People's... & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

  20. Changes of strength characteristics of pervious concrete due to variations in water to cement ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, M.; Sicakova, A.

    2017-10-01

    Pervious concrete is considered to be a sustainable pavement material due to high water permeability. The experiment presented in this paper was aimed at study the influence of water to cement ratio on both the compressive and splitting tensile strength of pervious concrete. Typically, less water content in concrete mixture leads to less porosity of cement paste and thus it provides desirable mechanical properties. In case of conventional dense concrete, the lower is the water to cement ratio, the higher or better is the strength, density and durability of concrete. This behaviour is not quite clear in case of pervious concrete because of low amount of cement paste present. Results of compressive and splitting tensile strength of pervious concrete are discussed in the paper while taking into account values measured after 2 and 28 days of hardening and variations in water to cement ratio. The results showed that changes of water to cement ratio from 0.25 to 0.35 caused only slight differences in strength characteristics, and this applied to both types of tested strength.

  1. Accelerated recession of a desert cliff due to sewage water disposal, Sede Boqer, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, Yaacov; Karnieli, Arnon; Issar, Arie; Mtz.-Esparza, Javier Diaz

    1986-12-01

    Accelerated erosion of a desert cliff due to uncontrolled sewage water disposal was investigated at the Sede Boqer Campus in the Negev, Israel An erosional cirque formed by this water was studied as a model simulating natural processes. The cliffs consist of loess and conglomerate underlain by soft marl, clay, and chalk. The rate of erosion is of the order of 5% 8% of the volume of water discharged. The rate of incision ranges from 10 2 to 13.3 m/yr and is several orders higher than that expected under normal rainfall conditions The introduction of this new hydrological factor resulted in a severe disturbance of the morphological balance in the vicinity of the cliffs, accelerated erosion, and generated circular slides

  2. Spatial and temporal variations of water balance components due to a bottomland hedgerow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Z.; Ghazavi, G.; Merot, P.

    2009-04-01

    Wooded linear structures in general, and hedgerows in particular, were formerly very abundant in the European landscape, but have undergone a considerable decline in their density in the past decades, before being stabilized. Currently, we observe locally an increase due to the multiple advantages offered by these structures and the effect of agricultural policies. The aim of the present study was to quantify spatially and temporally the impact of an oak hedgerow (Quercus robur) on the various terms of the water balance. This study was carried out at the plot scale by focusing on aspects related to water transfer in the soil and aquifer. From the results obtained on a local scale, we proposed a functional scheme that allowed us to represent the role of hedge trees in water cycle. In this study, groundwater level and soil-water potential were monitored continually at various distances from the hedgerow along two 28 m length transects, at a spacing of 10 m, enabling us to obtain fine-scale information on the functioning of the soil-groundwater system. We evaluate tree transpiration from sap flow density measurements. Functional scheme were proposed illustrating the role of hedgerow, which can then be used for integrating the impact of the hedge trees into hydrological models. For the period when oak trees had their leaves (leafed period), the determining processes that need to be represented are the rainfall interception, tree transpiration and capillary rise. Other terms of the water balance, such as drainage, are directly affected by the presence of the hedgerow. Drainage is strongly reduced under the hedgerow, and decreases significantly at a certain distance from the hedgerow, when capillary rise increased under the hedgerow and decreased far away. Our results show that the impact of a bottomland hedgerow on water balance components can be highly variable according to the climatic conditions. Hedge tree transpiration increased for a wet year when soil-water

  3. Bark beetle-induced tree mortality alters stand energy budgets due to water budget changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, David E.; Ewers, Brent E.; Pendall, Elise; Frank, John; Kelly, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Insect outbreaks are major disturbances that affect a land area similar to that of forest fires across North America. The recent mountain pine bark beetle ( D endroctonus ponderosae) outbreak and its associated blue stain fungi ( Grosmannia clavigera) are impacting water partitioning processes of forests in the Rocky Mountain region as the spatially heterogeneous disturbance spreads across the landscape. Water cycling may dramatically change due to increasing spatial heterogeneity from uneven mortality. Water and energy storage within trees and soils may also decrease, due to hydraulic failure and mortality caused by blue stain fungi followed by shifts in the water budget. This forest disturbance was unique in comparison to fire or timber harvesting because water fluxes were altered before significant structural change occurred to the canopy. We investigated the impacts of bark beetles on lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta) stand and ecosystem level hydrologic processes and the resulting vertical and horizontal spatial variability in energy storage. Bark beetle-impacted stands had on average 57 % higher soil moisture, 1.5 °C higher soil temperature, and 0.8 °C higher tree bole temperature over four growing seasons compared to unimpacted stands. Seasonal latent heat flux was highly correlated with soil moisture. Thus, high mortality levels led to an increase in ecosystem level Bowen ratio as sensible heat fluxes increased yearly and latent heat fluxes varied with soil moisture levels. Decline in canopy biomass (leaf, stem, and branch) was not seen, but ground-to-atmosphere longwave radiation flux increased, as the ground surface was a larger component of the longwave radiation. Variability in soil, latent, and sensible heat flux and radiation measurements increased during the disturbance. Accounting for stand level variability in water and energy fluxes will provide a method to quantify potential drivers of ecosystem processes and services as well as lead to greater

  4. Bark beetle-induced tree mortality alters stand energy budgets due to water budget changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, David E.; Ewers, Brent E.; Pendall, Elise; Frank, John; Kelly, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Insect outbreaks are major disturbances that affect a land area similar to that of forest fires across North America. The recent mountain pine bark beetle (D endroctonus ponderosae) outbreak and its associated blue stain fungi (Grosmannia clavigera) are impacting water partitioning processes of forests in the Rocky Mountain region as the spatially heterogeneous disturbance spreads across the landscape. Water cycling may dramatically change due to increasing spatial heterogeneity from uneven mortality. Water and energy storage within trees and soils may also decrease, due to hydraulic failure and mortality caused by blue stain fungi followed by shifts in the water budget. This forest disturbance was unique in comparison to fire or timber harvesting because water fluxes were altered before significant structural change occurred to the canopy. We investigated the impacts of bark beetles on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stand and ecosystem level hydrologic processes and the resulting vertical and horizontal spatial variability in energy storage. Bark beetle-impacted stands had on average 57 % higher soil moisture, 1.5 °C higher soil temperature, and 0.8 °C higher tree bole temperature over four growing seasons compared to unimpacted stands. Seasonal latent heat flux was highly correlated with soil moisture. Thus, high mortality levels led to an increase in ecosystem level Bowen ratio as sensible heat fluxes increased yearly and latent heat fluxes varied with soil moisture levels. Decline in canopy biomass (leaf, stem, and branch) was not seen, but ground-to-atmosphere longwave radiation flux increased, as the ground surface was a larger component of the longwave radiation. Variability in soil, latent, and sensible heat flux and radiation measurements increased during the disturbance. Accounting for stand level variability in water and energy fluxes will provide a method to quantify potential drivers of ecosystem processes and services as well as lead to greater

  5. Drinking water incidents due to chemical contamination in England and Wales, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Karthikeyan; Harrison, Henrietta

    2010-12-01

    Contamination of drinking water by microbiological and chemical agents can lead to adverse health effects. In England and Wales, the Chemicals Hazards and Poisons Division (CHaPD) of the Health Protection Agency provides expert advice on the consequences to public health of chemical contamination incidents affecting drinking water. In this study, we extracted data from the National Database on the type and nature of drinking water contamination events reported to the CHaPD between 2006 and 2008. Eighty-two incidents with confirmed chemical contamination were identified. Among the 70 incidents where data was available, 40% (28/70) of incidents related to contamination of drinking water provided by private suppliers, 31% (22/70) were due to contamination occurring close to the point of consumption (i.e. near consumer) and 29% (20/70) related to incidents where public water supplies were identified as the contaminated source. For the majority of incidents, little or no information was available on the critical exposure variables such as duration of contamination and actual or estimates of the population affected. Reassuringly, the levels of exposure in most incidents were considered unlikely to cause serious immediate or long term ill health effects. Recording of exposure data for reported contamination incidents needs to be improved.

  6. Follow-up of hearing thresholds among forge hammering workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, A.A.; Mikael, R.A.; Faris, R. (Ain Shams Univ., Abbasia, Cairo (Egypt))

    1989-01-01

    Hearing threshold was reexamined in a group of forge hammering workers investigated 8 years ago with consideration of the age effect and of auditory symptoms. Workers were exposed to impact noise that ranged from 112 to 139 dB(A)--at an irregular rate of 20 to 50 drop/minute--and a continuous background noise that ranged from 90 to 94 dB(A). Similar to what was observed 8 years ago, the present permanent threshold shift (PTS) showed a maximum notch at the frequency of 6 kHz and considerable elevations at the frequencies of 0.25-1 kHz. The age-corrected PTS and the postexposure hearing threshold were significantly higher than the corresponding previous values at the frequencies 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 8 kHz only. The rise was more evident at the low than at the high frequencies. Temporary threshold shift (TTS) values were significantly less than those 8 years ago. Contrary to the previous TTS, the present TTS were higher at low than at high frequencies. Although progression of PTS at the frequencies 0.25 and 0.5 kHz was continuous throughout the observed durations of exposure, progression at higher frequencies occurred essentially in the first 10 to 15 years of exposure. Thereafter, it followed a much slower rate. Tinnitus was significantly associated with difficulty in hearing the human voice and with elevation of PTS at all the tested frequencies, while acoustic after-image was significantly associated with increment of PTS at the frequencies 0.25-2 kHz. No relation between PTS and smoking was found. PTS at low frequencies may provide an indication of progression of hearing damage when the sensitivity at 6 and 4 kHz diminishes after prolonged years of exposure. Tinnitus and acoustic after-image are related to the auditory effect of forge hammering noise.

  7. Increase in dimethylsulfide (DMS emissions due to eutrophication of coastal waters offsets their reduction due to ocean acidification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eGypens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Available information from manipulative experiments suggested that the emission of dimethylsulfide (DMS would decrease in response to the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean (ocean acidification. However, in coastal environments, the carbonate chemistry of surface waters was also strongly modified by eutrophication and related changes in biological activity (increased primary production and change in phytoplankton dominance during the last 50 years. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DMS emissions in marine coastal environments also strongly responded to eutrophication in addition to ocean acidification at decadal timescales. We used the R-MIRO-BIOGAS model in the eutrophied Southern Bight of the North Sea characterized by intense blooms of Phaeocystis that are high producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP, the precursor of DMS. We showed that, for the period from 1951 to 2007, eutrophication actually led to an increase of DMS emissions much stronger than the response of DMS emissions to ocean acidification.

  8. Holistic risk assessment of surface water contamination due to Pb-210 in oil produced water from the Bakken Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-02-01

    A holistic risk assessment of surface water (SW) contamination due to lead-210 (Pb-210) in oil produced water (PW) from the Bakken Shale in North Dakota (ND) was conducted. Pb-210 is a relatively long-lived radionuclide and very mobile in water. Because of limited data on Pb-210, a simulation model was developed to determine its concentration based on its parent radium-226 and historical total dissolved solids levels in PW. Scenarios where PW spills could reach SW were analyzed by applying the four steps of the risk assessment process. These scenarios are: (1) storage tank overflow, (2) leakage in equipment, and (3) spills related to trucks used to transport PW. Furthermore, a survey was conducted in ND to quantify the risk perception of PW from different stakeholders. Findings from the study include a low probability of a PW spill reaching SW and simulated concentration of Pb-210 in drinking water higher than the recommended value established by the World Health Organization. Also, after including the results from the risk perception survey, the assessment indicates that the risk of contamination of the three scenarios evaluated is between medium-high to high. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank due to standby heat loss of the tank are presented. The effect of standby heat loss on temperature distribution in the tank is investigated experimentally on a slim 150l tank...... show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow...... with a height to diameter ratio of 5. A tank with uniform temperatures and with thermal stratification is studied. A detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the tank is developed to calculate the natural convection flow in the tank. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different...

  10. Change of microstructure of clays due to the presence of heavy metal ions in pore water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyouri N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The compressibility of engineered barrier clays is, to a large extent, controlled by microstructure change due to the presence of chemical ions in clay-water system. This paper aims to investigate the change of microstructure of clays due to the presence of heavy metal ions in pore water. We use two pure clays (kaolinite and bentonite in the study. One-dimensional consolidation tests were performed on reconstituted samples, which are prepared with distilled water and three types of heavy metal solutions (Pb(NO32, Cu(NO32, Zn(NO32,. In order to better understand the impact of chemical pore fluid on microstructure of the two clays, following the consolidation test, scanning electron microscope (SEM observations and mercury intrusion pore size distribution measurements (MIP were conducted. Due to the measurement range of MIP, which is only allowed to measure the minimal pore size 20 Å, BET method by gas sorption, whose measurement pore size range is from 3.5 Å to 500 Å, is used to measure the micropore size distribution. By this method, specific surface area of the soils can be also determined. It can be employed to demonstrate the difference of creep performance between the soils. Furthermore, a series of batch equilibrium tests were conducted to better understand the physical-chemical interactions between the particles of soils and the heavy metal ions. With the further consideration of the interparticle electrical attractive and repulsive force, an attempt has been made to predict the creep behaviour by using the modified Gouy-Chapman double layer theory. The results of calculation were compared with that of tests. The comparison shows that the prediction of compressibility of the clays according to the modified double diffuse layer theory can be reasonably agreement with the experimental data.

  11. The Evaluation of Removal Efficiency of COD Due to Water Contaminated by Gasoline by Granular Active Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salmani

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: We can conclude from this study that the activated carbon is an appropriate adsorbent for decreasing of COD due to gasoline contamination in water. The use of this adsorbent can well decrease COD of water contamination due to gasoline at times of 30 min.

  12. Water Balance Estimation in Patients with Acute Poisonings due to Psychotropic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Ilyashenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to develop a procedure for an integrated assessment of changes in body hydration, by using the polyseg-mental bioimpedance analysis (PBIA of the body’s water sectors. Subjects and methods. The volumes of cellular and extracellular fluids in various body regions were estimated in 85 patients with acute poisonings by psychotropic agents, by employing the PBIA over time within three days and when the impact of various treatment options on them was evaluated. An ABC-01 MEDASS device with ABC043 software was applied. Results. The study ascertained that the changes in the volumes of extracellular and cellular fluids in the upper trunk, namely progressive extracellular fluid accumulation, are the most informative parameters for disease prognosis. On this basis, the authors proposed a formula to calculate the integral hydration index (IHI and showed its informative value when used in patients with acute poisonings due to psychotropic agents during remedial measures. Conclusion. The IHI developed on the basis of estimation of abnormal cellular and extracellular fluid volumes in patients with poisonings by psychotropic agents is sensitive and striking in the evaluation of water imbalance in patients under resuscitation and allows the detected disorders to be efficiently corrected. Key words: acute poisonings, water balance, extracellular and cellular fluid, index, hydration index.

  13. Groundwater Level Changes Due to Extreme Weather—An Evaluation Tool for Sustainable Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, extreme and exceptional droughts have significantly impacted many economic sectors in the US, especially in California, Oklahoma, and Texas. The record drought of 2011–2014 affected almost 90% of Texas areas and 95% of Oklahoma state areas. In 2011 alone, around $1.6 billion in agricultural production were lost as a result of drought in Oklahoma, and $7.6 billion in Texas. The agricultural sectors in Oklahoma and Texas rely mainly on groundwater resources from the non-replenishable Ogallala Aquifer in Panhandle and other aquifers around the states. The exceptional droughts of 2011–2014 not only caused meteorologically induced water scarcity (due to low precipitation, but also prompted farmers to overuse groundwater to maintain the imperiled production. Comprehensive studies on groundwater levels, and thus the actual water availability/scarcity across all aquifers in Oklahoma and Texas are still limited. Existing studies are mainly focused on a small number of selected sites or aquifers over a short time span of well monitoring, which does not allow for a holistic geospatial and temporal evaluation of groundwater level variations. This paper aims at addressing those issues with the proposed geospatial groundwater visualization model to assess availability of groundwater resources for agricultural, industrial, and municipal uses both in Oklahoma and Texas in the time frame of 2003–2014. The model is an evaluation tool that can be used by decision-makers for designing sustainable water management practices and by teachers and researchers for educational purposes.

  14. Dose effect for South Serbians due to {sup 238}U in natural drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Matsumoto, M.; Shiraishi, K.; Fujimoto, K. [Department of Radiation Dosimetry, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Cuknic, O.; Zunic, Z.S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, VINCA, PO Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2007-07-01

    The use of depleted uranium ammunition in South Serbia during the 1999 Kosovo conflict raised a great deal of public concern in the Balkans. Radioactivity levels of {sup 238}U in 20 wells and lake water samples were checked from the viewpoint of internal radiation exposure for South Serbian subjects. We have measured {sup 238}U concentration using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, whereas thermal ionisation mass spectrometry has been used for the measurement of isotope ratios, e.g. {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U. The concentration of uranium in water samples varies in the range 1.37-63.18 mBq/L. {sup 234}U belongs to the {sup 238}U natural radioactive decay series, and at secular equilibrium, the abundance ratio, {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U, corresponds to the ratio of their half-lives. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratio varies in the range 0.88-2.2 and {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio varies from 0.00698 to 0.00745. These findings indicate that uranium in water was a mixture of natural and anthropogenic origin. The annual effective dose due to {sup 238}U was estimated to be in the range 9.2 x 10{sup -5} - 2.1 x 10{sup -3} mSv. (authors)

  15. [Viscosity changes in thickened water due to the addition of highly prescribed drugs in geriatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, N; de Pourcq, J T; Cardona, D; Martín-Venegas, R; Gich, I; Cardenete, J; Mangues, M A

    2012-01-01

    Dysphagia is a swallowing disorder with a high incidence in the geriatric patient related with an increased risk for undernutrition and pneumonia due to bronchial aspiration. In this condition, it is usual to add commercial thickeners in liquids, as well as the addition of drugs in this mixture to improve their administration. However, there are no studies regarding the possible change in viscosity produced by their addition. To assess the change in viscosity of water thickened with commercial products by adding the drugs frequently used in elderly patients. Samples of water mixed with the commercial thickener Resource (modified corn starch) or Nutilis (modified corn starch, maltodextrin, and gums: tara, xhantan, and guar) to achieve an intermediate consistence as "honey". The viscosity of these samples was measured as well as for similar samples to which one of the following drugs was added: galantamine, rivastigmin, ciprofloxacin, cholecalciferol, memantine, fosfomycin, calcium, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. In the samples with Resource thickener we observed decreased viscosity by adding galantamine, memantine, fosfomycin or calcium, and increased viscosity with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The viscosity of the samples with Nutilis® decreased with galantamine, rivastigmine, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and calcium. The viscosity of water with commercial thickeners may be affected by some drugs or their preservatives, which may influence the swallowing capability. It is recommended to perform further in vitro and in vivo studies in order to adjust these formulations if necessary.

  16. Koolitamine : andmisrõõm või edevus? / Ants Vasar, Arne Kaasik, Hele Hammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vasar, Ants

    2007-01-01

    Küsimusele, miks olete hakanud ettevõtjana koolitajaks, vastavad ASi Viru Keskus juhatuse liige Ants Vasar, Columbus IT Partner Eesti ASi pertner ja nõukogu esimees Arne Kaasik ja Amserv Grupi finantsdirektor Hele Hammer

  17. Novel Highly Efficient Compact Rotary-Hammering Planetary Sampler Actuated by a Single Piezoelectric Actuator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We had two objectives in this task: 1. Develop effective single low-mass, low-power piezoelectric drive that can actuate rotary-hammer samplers through walls. 2....

  18. Perbandingan Produktivitas Alat Hydraulic Hammer Dan Jack in Pile Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Tedjokusumo, Risanto; Goenawan, Verryanto; Wulandari, Paravita S; Kusuma, Jonathan Hendra

    2013-01-01

    Pelaksanaan pemancangan untuk pondasi suatu bangunan merupakan elemen penting yang dilakukan pada awal pembangunan. Produktivitas dari pelaksanaan pemancangan di setiap wilayah berbeda – beda tergantung pada wilayah dan alat pancangnya yaitu hydraulic hammer dan jack in pile. Faktor - faktor yang mempengaruhi produktivitas dari setiap alat berbeda antara alat kedua alat tersebut. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan data pemancangan dengan alat hydraulic hammer dan jack in pile dari proye...

  19. Responses of a Highly Accelerated Life Test System to Impacts from Different Designs of Hammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Shu Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The response of a table to the impact of its driving hammer in the highly accelerated life test (HALT system depends on, among other things, the location of the hammer, the presence of multiple hammers, and the angle at which the hammer is mounted to the table. The present study investigated the response of a table to a variety of impacts from different combinations of hammers. It began with a theoretical analysis of the forces of impact exerted by hammers which led to the calculation of the corresponding displacement. These theoretical calculations revealed the mechanics of the HALT system to help explain the working principles behind this complex system. Then a simulation model was built to check the accuracy of the theoretical results. Finally, the accelerations of a table in a real HALT system were measured. These data showed good agreement with the experimental results and computer simulation. The responses of HALT systems have not been investigated thoroughly to date. The current study can help equipment designers and end users better understand the working principles of this kind of systems. It can be considered a breakthrough in terms of improving the performance of reliability testing with this kind of system.

  20. Acute effects of vibration from a chipping hammer and a grinder on the hand-arm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlberg, S; Attebrant, M; Gemne, G; Kjellberg, A

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare various effects on the hand-arm system of vibration exposure from a chipping hammer and a grinder with the same frequency weighted acceleration. Grip and push forces were measured and monitored during the exposure. The various effects were: muscle activity (measured with surface electrodes), discomfort ratings for different parts of the hand-arm system (made during and after exposure), and vibration perception threshold (for 10 minutes before and 10 minutes after the exposure). No increase in muscle activity due to exposure to vibration was found in the hand muscle studied. In the forearm, conversely, there was an increase in both muscle studied. For the upper arm the muscle activity only increased when exposed to impact vibration. Subjective ratings in the hand and shift in vibration perception threshold were effected more by the grinder than the hammer exposure. These results show that the reaction of the hand-arm system to vibration varies with frequency quantitatively as well as qualitatively. They do not support the notion that one single frequency weighted curve would be valid for the different health effects of hand-arm vibration (vascular, musculoskeletal, neurological, and psychophysiological).

  1. Reactive transport modeling of secondary water quality impacts due to anaerobic bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, G. H. C.; Bekins, B. A.; Kent, D. B.; Borden, R. C.; Tillotson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Bioremediation using electron donor addition produces reducing conditions in an aquifer that promote the anaerobic biodegradation of contaminants such as chlorinated solvents. There is growing concern about secondary water quality impacts (SWQIs) triggered by the injection of electron donors, due to redox reactions with electron acceptors other than the target contaminant. Secondary plumes, including those with elevated concentrations of Mn(II), Fe(II), and CH4, may create long-lasting impairment of water quality. Understanding conditions that control the production and attenuation of SWQIs is needed for guiding responsible bioremediation strategies that limit unintended consequences. Using a reactive transport model developed with data from long-term anaerobic biodegradation monitoring sites, we simulate diverse geochemical scenarios to examine the sensitivity of secondary plume extent and persistence to a range of aquifer properties and treatment implementations. Data compiled from anaerobic bioremediation sites, which include variable physical and geochemical relationships, provide the basis for the conditions evaluated. Our simulations show that reduced metal and CH4 plumes may be significantly attenuated due to immobilization (through sorption and/or precipitation) and outgassing, respectively, and that recovery time to background conditions depends strongly on the chemical forms of reduced metals on sediments. Unsurprisingly, scenarios that do not easily allow outgassing (e.g. deeper injections) led to higher CH4 concentrations, and scenarios with higher hydraulic conductivity produced more dilute concentrations of secondary species. Results are sensitive to the assumed capacity for Fe(II) sorption and reductive dissolution rates of Fe(III) oxides, which control Fe(II) concentrations. Simulations also demonstrated the potential importance of chemical reactions between different secondary components. For example, limited CH4 loss from outgassing and Fe

  2. Impact hammer test of ITER blanket remote handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Yuto, E-mail: noguchi.yuto@jaea.go.jp; Maruyama, Takahito; Ueno, Kenichi; Komai, Masafumi; Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    An impact hammer test of the full-scale mock-up of the ITER blanket remote handling system (BRHS) was carried out to validate the results of the seismic analysis of the BRHS which were performed using a finite element (FE) model. As the FE analysis of the BRHS predicted a vertical mode ∼8 Hz, which coincides with a major natural frequency of the vacuum vessel of ITER, evaluating the dynamic response of the BRHS experimentally and measuring the system's damping is indispensable in verifying the structural design of the system. Recent preliminary impact testing on the full-scale mock-up of the BRHS showed that the mock-up has a vertical major natural mode having a natural frequency of ∼7.5 Hz and a damping ratio of 0.5%. Several other major natural modes having frequencies less than 10 Hz were found to have damping ratios ranging from 0.2% to 2%. It was confirmed that the natural major frequencies obtained in the experiments are in agreement with the major frequencies obtained via analysis.

  3. Effects of fatigue on intermuscular coordination during repetitive hammering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Julie N; Feldman, Anatol G; Mathieu, Pierre A; Levin, Mindy F

    2008-04-01

    Fatigue affects the capacity of muscles to generate forces and is associated with characteristic changes in EMG signals. It may also influence interjoint and intermuscular coordination. To understand better the global effects of fatigue on multijoint movement, we studied movement kinematics and EMG changes in healthy volunteers asked to hammer repetitively. Movement kinematics and the activity of 20 muscles of the arm, trunk, and leg were recorded before and after subjects became fatigued (as measured using a Borg scale). When fatigue was reached, maximal grip strength and elbow range of motion decreased while the EMG amplitude of the contralateral external oblique muscle was increased. Fatigue did not affect shoulder and wrist kinematics or movement frequency. Results suggest that fatigue influences motion at both local and global levels. Specifically, interjoint and intermuscular coordination adapt to compensate for local effects of fatigue and to maintain key movement characteristics, such as the trajectory of the end effector and the movement frequency. Nonlocal compensations may be a focus of future studies of how fatigue affects complex movements such as those typically performed in the workplace.

  4. Color management with a hammer: the B-spline fitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ian E.; Liu, Bonny H. P.

    2003-01-01

    To paraphrase Abraham Maslow: If the only tool you have is a hammer, every problem looks like a nail. We have a B-spline fitter customized for 3D color data, and many problems in color management can be solved with this tool. Whereas color devices were once modeled with extensive measurement, look-up tables and trilinear interpolation, recent improvements in hardware have made B-spline models an affordable alternative. Such device characterizations require fewer color measurements than piecewise linear models, and have uses beyond simple interpolation. A B-spline fitter, for example, can act as a filter to remove noise from measurements, leaving a model with guaranteed smoothness. Inversion of the device model can then be carried out consistently and efficiently, as the spline model is well behaved and its derivatives easily computed. Spline-based algorithms also exist for gamut mapping, the composition of maps, and the extrapolation of a gamut. Trilinear interpolation---a degree-one spline---can still be used after nonlinear spline smoothing for high-speed evaluation with robust convergence. Using data from several color devices, this paper examines the use of B-splines as a generic tool for modeling devices and mapping one gamut to another, and concludes with applications to high-dimensional and spectral data.

  5. Managing risks from virus intrusion into water distribution systems due to pressure transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; LeChevallier, Mark W; Teunis, Peter F M; Xu, Minhua

    2011-06-01

    Low or negative pressure transients in water distribution systems, caused by unexpected events (e.g. power outages) or routine operation/maintenance activities, are usually brief and thus are rarely monitored or alarmed. Previous studies have shown connections between negative pressure events in water distribution systems and potential public health consequences. Using a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model previously developed, various factors driving the risk of viral infection from intrusion were evaluated, including virus concentrations external to the distribution system, maintenance of a disinfectant residual, leak orifice sizes, the duration and the number of nodes drawing negative pressures. The most sensitive factors were the duration and the number of nodes drawing negative pressures, indicating that mitigation practices should be targeted to alleviate the severity of low/negative pressure transients. Maintaining a free chlorine residual of 0.2 mg/L or above is the last defense against the risk of viral infection due to negative pressure transients. Maintaining a chloramine residual did not appear to significantly reduce the risk. The effectiveness of ensuring separation distances from sewer mains to reduce the risk of infection may be system-specific. Leak detection/repair and cross-connection control should be prioritized in areas vulnerable to negative pressure transients.

  6. Noise Model Analysis and Estimation of Effect due to Wind Driven Ambient Noise in Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sakthivel Murugan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal transmission in ocean using water as a channel is a challenging process due to attenuation, spreading, reverberation, absorption, and so forth, apart from the contribution of acoustic signals due to ambient noises. Ambient noises in sea are of two types: manmade (shipping, aircraft over the sea, motor on boat, etc. and natural (rain, wind, seismic, etc., apart from marine mammals and phytoplanktons. Since wind exists in all places and at all time: its effect plays a major role. Hence, in this paper, we concentrate on estimating the effects of wind. Seven sets of data with various wind speeds ranging from 2.11 m/s to 6.57 m/s were used. The analysis is performed for frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 8 kHz. It is found that a linear relationship between noise spectrum and wind speed exists for the entire frequency range. Further, we developed a noise model for analyzing the noise level. The results of the empirical data are found to fit with results obtained with the aid of noise model.

  7. Renewable Energy Potentials along the Bay of Bengal due to Tidal Water Level Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Myisha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The projected increase in energy demand coupled with concerns regarding present reliance on fossil fuel and associated environmental concerns had led to increased interest in exploiting renewable energy sources. Among different renewable energy sources, tidal energy is unique and most suitable because of its predictable nature and capability to ensure supply security. Tide consists of both kinetic and potential energy which can be converted to electricity using well-proven technology. The potential energy of tides - the principal focus of the study, is stored due to rise and fall of the sea level. Head difference created due to tidal variation between basin side and sea side of a barrage stores potential energy which is converted into fast-moving water that rotates turbine and generates electricity. Bangladesh with its long coastline has promising prospects of tidal energy resource development. The study focuses on tidal energy resource exploration and exploitation along several competent locations of the Bengal coastline. Tidal records of flood and ebb tide of these locations are analyzed to calculate the potential energy. Finally, available potential techniques of energy extraction are evaluated for annually generated energy estimation. This study investigates the prospect and utilization of tidal energy concept and reviews the possibilities and opportunities of employment of the technology for sustainable development and climate change mitigation in context of Bangladesh.

  8. Exponential increase of signal crayfish in running waters in Sweden – due to illegal introductions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohman P.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden has only one indigenous species of crayfish, the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus, Fabricius. There has been a steady decline of noble crayfish populations in Sweden since 1907, mainly due to the crayfish plague. To substitute the noble crayfish fishery lost, the Swedish government launched a large-scale introduction of the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana. Today, the signal crayfish is regarded as a chronic carrier of the crayfish plague, and an expansion of the species may seriously threaten the noble crayfish. This paper examines the decrease of noble crayfish populations, and the concurrent expansion of signal crayfish in running waters. Data from the Swedish Electrofishing RegiSter (SERS was used. We found that in 1980–1984 the noble crayfish occurred in 4.5% of the studied river sections. In 2008–2009 the occurrences had decreased to 1.9%. In contrast, the signal crayfish had increased in occurrence, from 0.2% (1980–1984 to 11.8% in (2008–2009. We studied the number of stocking permits for signal crayfish introductions, and the available signal crayfish population from the open fishery in Lake Vättern, as possible causes of this expansion. A negative correlation between stocking permits and increased occurrence in streams, and a positive correlation between the availability of crayfish in Lake Vättern and the occurrence in streams was found. This suggests that the expansion of signal crayfish may be due to illegal introductions, further endangering the endemic noble crayfish.

  9. In situ measurements of water transfer due to different mechanisms in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husar, Attila; Higier, Andrew; Liu, Hongtan

    Water management is of critical importance in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, in particular, those based on a sulfonic acid polymer, which requires water to conduct protons. Yet there are limited in situ studies of water transfer through the membrane and no data are available for water transfer due to individual mechanisms through the membrane in an operational fuel cell. Thus it is the objective of this study to measure water transfer through the membrane due to each individual mechanism in an operational PEM fuel cell. The three different mechanisms of water transfer, i.e., electro-osmotic drag, diffusion and hydraulic permeation are isolated by specially imposed boundary conditions. Therefore water transfer through the membrane due to each mechanism is measured separately. In this study, all the data is collected in an actual assembled operational fuel cell. The experimental results show that water transfer due to hydraulic permeation, i.e. the pressure difference between the anode and cathode is at least an order of magnitude lower than those due to the other two mechanisms. The data for water transfer due to diffusion through the membrane are in good agreement with some of the ex situ data in the literature. The data for electro-osmosis show that the number of water molecules dragged per proton increases not only with temperature but also with current density, which is different from existing data in the literature. The methodology used in this study is simple and can be easily adopted for in situ water transfer measurement due to different mechanisms in other PEM fuel cells without any cell modifications.

  10. PERFORMANCE DETERIORATION OF THERMOSIPHON SOLAR FLAT PLATE WATER HEATER DUE TO SCALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arunachala umesh chandavar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 340 1943 International Islamic University 16 4 2279 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} The performance of Flat plate Solar Water Heater deteriorates within five to twelve years of their installation due to factors related to manufacturing, operating conditions, lack of maintenance etc. Especially, problem due to scaling is significant as it is based on quality of water used. The remaining factors are system dependent and could be overcome by quality production. Software is developed by incorporating Hottel Whillier Bliss (H-W-B equation to ascertain the effect of scaling on system efficiency in case of thermosiphon system. In case of clean thermosiphon system, the instantaneous efficiency calculated at 1000 W/m2 radiation is 72 % and it drops to 46 % for 3.7 mm scale thickness. The mass flow rate is reduced by 90 % for 3.7 mm scale thickness. Whereas, the average temperature drop of water in the tank is not critical due to considerable heat content in water under severe scaled condition.  But practically in case of major scale growth, some of the risers are likely to get blocked completely which leads to negligible temperature rise in the tank. ABSTRAK: Prestasi plat rata pemanas air suria merosot selepas lima hingga dua belas tahun  pemasangannya disebabkan faktor-faktor yang berkaitan dengan pembuatannya, cara kendaliannya, kurangnya penyelenggaraan dan sebagainya.  Terutama sekali, masalah disebabkan scaling (tembunan endapan mineral perlu diambil berat kerana ianya bergantung kepada kualiti air yang digunakan. Faktor-faktor selebihya bersandarkan sistem dan ia

  11. Effect of impulse vibration and noise on vasomotor function of peripheral blood vessels among pneumatic forge hammer operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, L

    1995-01-01

    An evaluation of the effect of impulse vibration and noise on vasomotor function of blood vessels among pneumatic forge hammer operators has been presented based on thermal tests (cooling). The study covered the following groups of workers; pneumatic forge hammer operators (I), pneumatic forging hammer operators (II), hammer operator's assistants (III), operators of forging presses and machines (IV) and the control group. The results of the study showed that in groups I and III it was impulse noise not vibration that caused changes in the functioning of peripheral blood vessels.

  12. Hypothenar hammer syndrome from ice hockey stick-handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mohamed A; McDonald, Joey; Tittley, Jacques G

    2013-11-01

    Ulnar artery thrombosis and hypothenar hammer syndrome are rare vascular complications that could potentially occur with repeated blows or trauma to the hand. Although initially reported as an occupational hazard among laborers and craftsmen, it has been observed more recently among recreationalists and athletes. Until now, it has never been reported as a complication in ice hockey players. In this case report, a 26-year-old Canadian professional ice hockey player presented with acute dominant right hand paleness, coolness, and pain with hand use. The patient used a wooden hockey stick with a large knob of tape at the end of the handle, which he regularly gripped in the palm of his right hand to help with face-offs and general stick-handling. Sonographic evaluation demonstrated no arterial flow in the distal right ulnar artery distribution, and ulnar artery occlusion with no aneurysmal degeneration was confirmed by magnetic resonance angiogram. Intraarterial thrombolytic therapy was initiated, and subsequent serial angiograms demonstrated significant improvement in distal ulnar artery flow as well as recanalization of right hand deep palmar arch and digital arteries. The patient's symptoms resolved, and he was maintained on therapeutic anticoagulation for 3 months prior to returning to playing ice hockey professionally, but with a padded glove and no tape knob at the handle tip. This case highlights a unique presentation of hockey stick-handling causing ulnar artery thrombosis that was likely from repeated palmar hypothenar trauma. Appropriate diagnostic imaging, early intraarterial thrombolysis, and postoperative surveillance and follow-up were crucial for the successful outcome in this patient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding the effect of hammering process on the vibration characteristics of cymbals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, F.; Yoshida, T.; Koide, T.; Mizuta, T.; Osamura, K.

    2016-09-01

    Cymbals are thin domed plates used as percussion instruments. When cymbals are struck, they vibrate and radiate sound. Cymbals are made through spin forming, hammering, and lathing. The spin forming creates the basic shape of the cymbal, which determines its basic vibration characteristics. The hammering and lathing produce specific sound adjustments by changing the cymbal's vibration characteristics. In this study, we study how hammering cymbals affects their vibration characteristics. The hammering produces plastic deformation (small, shallow dents) on the cymbal's surface, generating residual stresses throughout it. These residual stresses change the vibration characteristics. We perform finite element analysis of a cymbal to obtain its stress distribution and the resulting change in vibration characteristics. To reproduce the stress distribution, we use thermal stress analysis, and then with this stress distribution we perform vibration analysis. These results show that each of the cymbal's modes has a different sensitivity to the thermal load (i.e., hammering). This difference causes changes in the frequency response and the deflection shape that significantly improves the sound radiation efficiency. In addition, we explain the changes in natural frequencies by the stress and modal strain energy distributions.

  14. Hotspot identification of trans-boundary water conflict due to anthropogenic water use and climate change in the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, A.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    A significant fraction of world population is projected to experience increased water stress in response to the combined effects of population growth and climate change. Some previous studies have suggested that high water stress had significant causality for civil war, and militarized conflict and trans-boundary water conflict in international river basin. On the other hand, some previous empirical analyses have found that institutionalization (e.g., specific provisions in trans-boundary freshwater treaties) in international river basin was associated with a lower risk of water conflicts during water scarcity. The purpose of this study is to identify these water conflict "hotspots", integrating institutional and governance mechanisms of adaptations to impact of water stress. These adaptations is classified to 4 abilities and skills and then used to calculate the adaptive capacity. The adaptive capacity includes the way to manage water conflict effectively, plan to deal with uncertainty in the future, alter current situation and create institutionalization with common perspective throughout the whole activities. This study identifies water conflict "hotspots" by combining high water stress areas projected by a global water resource model and a lower degree of the adaptive capacity. This study finds that 9 water conflict "hotspots" in Africa, Asia and South America.

  15. Water quality changes due to abattoir effluent: A case on Mchesa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS) and electrical conductivity (EC). ... The pollution load on a water body from abattoir effluent ... water. Mchesa stream can be classified as an inland surface water body according to the Malawi Bureau of standards and Malawi government classification.

  16. Horizontal one-dimensional redistribution of oil and water with hysteresis due to oil entrapment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.I.J. van Dijke; S.E.A.T.M. van der Zee

    1998-01-01

    textabstractRedistribution of oil and water in a long horizontal column, including oil entrapment by water, is described by a nonlinear diffusion problem with a spatially varying diffusion coefficient. This problem admits a similarity solution that was found previously for redistribution of water

  17. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  18. Theoretical and experimental research of hammer forging process of RIM from AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gontarz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of theoretical analysis and experimental tests of hammer forging process of rim part from AZ31 magnesium alloy are presented in this paper. On the basis of numerical simulation results, the analysis of limiting phenomena was made. These phenomena include: possibility of overlapping presence, not filling of die impression, overheating of material and cracks. The results of theoretical analysis provided the support for planning of experimental tests in industrial conditions. Forging tests were conducted in one of Polish forming plants, applying steam-air hammer of blow energy 63 kJ. On the basis of experimental verification, it was stated that it is possible to obtain rim forging from AZ31 alloy of assumed quality in the hammer forging process.

  19. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    This innovation comprises a compact drill that uses low-axial preload, via vibrations, that fractures the rock under the bit kerf, and rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings while augmenting the rock fracture via shear forces. The vibrations fluidize the powered cuttings inside the flutes around the bit, reducing the friction with the auger surface. These combined actions reduce the consumed power and the heating of the drilled medium, helping to preserve the pristine content of the produced samples. The drill consists of an actuator that simultaneously impacts and rotates the bit by applying force and torque via a single piezoelectric stack actuator without the need for a gearbox or lever mechanism. This reduces the development/fabrication cost and complexity. The piezoelectric actuator impacts the surface and generates shear forces, fragmenting the drilled medium directly under the bit kerf by exceeding the tensile and/or shear strength of the struck surface. The percussive impact action of the actuator leads to penetration of the medium by producing a zone of finely crushed rock directly underneath the struck location. This fracturing process is highly enhanced by the shear forces from the rotation and twisting action. To remove the formed cuttings, the bit is constructed with an auger on its internal or external surface. One of the problems with pure hammering is that, as the teeth become embedded in the sample, the drilling efficiency drops unless the teeth are moved away from the specific footprint location. By rotating the teeth, they are moved to areas that were not fragmented, and thus the rock fracturing is enhanced via shear forces. The shear motion creates ripping or chiseling action to produce larger fragments to increase the drilling efficiency, and to reduce the required power. The actuator of the drill consists of a piezoelectric stack that vibrates the horn. The stack is compressed by a bolt between the backing and the horn in order to

  20. Sequence of hydrographic changes in NW Mediterranean deep water due to the exceptional winter of 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Font

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Time series measurements at a mooring site on the deep slope of the NW Mediterranean from October 2003 to July 2005 revealed the sequence of effects of the anomalously dry, markedly cold, and very windy winter of 2005 in deep water thermohaline properties. At the end of January, a dense water mass that was warmer and saltier than usual reached the deep slope mooring site. Almost simultaneously, the start of deep dense shelf water cascading episodes was observed in the Gulf of Lions’ submarine canyons. 30 days later, colder, fresher and even denser waters reached the mooring, with a 5-day delay from an intensification of the Gulf of Lions’ cascading. The signature of these waters was detected for 35 days, and by late spring 2005 a new stable water mass situation was reached, with higher thermohaline values than those that characterised the deep layer from October 2003 to January 2005.

  1. Effects of cold water injection on injectivity impairment due to suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; Fonseca, Diogo R. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil); Paiva, Ronaldo O. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents an analytical model to interpret pressure injection data following cold-water injection into a hot-oil reservoir. The injected water contains solid and liquid particles causing permeability decline. The relative permeability characteristics of the porous medium are accounted for, as is the temperature dependence of the fluid mobilities. It is shown that the temperature difference between injected and formation waters and the water-oil mobility variation have significant effects on the pressure data during the impairment of rock by particles from the injected suspension. The matching of field data to type curves generated from analytical solutions provides estimates of the formation damage parameters - filtration and formation damage coefficients, critical porosity ratio and cake permeability. The effect of injected water temperature on well injectivity decline is particularly sounded for cold water injection into heavy oil reservoirs. (author)

  2. Electrical quadruple hysteresis in Pd-doped vanadium pentoxide nanowires due to water adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Hoon Kim, Soon-Young Oh, Han Young Yu, Won G Hong, Yong Ju Yun, Yark Yeon Kim and Hae Jin Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Humidity-dependent current–voltage (I–V characteristics of Pd-doped vanadium pentoxide nanowires (Pd-VONs were investigated. Electrical quadruple hysteresis (QH was observed and attributed to the large amount of water molecules adsorbed on the nanowires. Using QH in Pd-VONs, the reaction of water with PdO was interpreted as the water molecules are desorbed and then dissociated with increasing bias voltage. Owing to the dissociated H+ and OH− ions, PdO is reduced and oxidized. As a result, water molecules recombine as the bias voltage is decreased.

  3. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills for Operating as a Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jack Barron (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A percussive augmenter bit includes a connection shaft for mounting the bit onto a rotary drill. In a first modality, an actuator percussively drives the bit, and an electric slip-ring provides power to the actuator while being rotated by the drill. Hammering action from the actuator and rotation from the drill are applied directly to material being drilled. In a second modality, a percussive augmenter includes an actuator that operates as a hammering mechanism that drives a free mass into the bit creating stress pulses that fracture material that is in contact with the bit.

  4. Water-waves frequency upshift of the spectral mean due to wind forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeltink, Debbie; Chabchoub, Amin; Brunetti, Maura; Kasparian, Jerome; Kimmoun, Olivier; Branger, Hubert

    2017-04-01

    The effect of wind forcing on monochromatic modulated water waves was investigated both numerically and experimentally in the context of the Modified Non-Linear Schrödinger (MNLS) equation framework. While wind is usually associated with a frequency downshift of the dominant spectral peak, we show that it may induce an upshift of the spectral mean due to an asymmetric amplification of the spectrum. Here the weighted average spectral mean is equal to the ratio of the momentum of the envelope to its norm and it detects any asymmetries in the spectrum (Segur et al. 2005). Wind can however indirectly induce frequency downshifts, by promoting dissipative effects like wave breaking. We highlight that the definition of the up- and downshift in terms of peak frequency or average frequency is critical for a relevant discussion. In our model, the wind input consists of a leading order forcing term that amplifies all frequencies equally and induces a broadening of the spectrum, and a higher order asymmetric term (Brunetti et al. 2014; Brunetti & Kasparian 2014) that amplifies higher frequencies more than lower ones and induces a permanent upshift of the spectral mean. The effect of MNLS + wind is exactly opposite to MNLS + viscosity, where the lower order viscosity terms damp the whole spectrum, while the higher order viscosity terms damp higher frequencies more than lower ones and thus causes a permanent downshift, as evidenced by Carter & Govan (2016). We corroborated the model with wave tank experiments conducted in the IRPHE/Pytheas large wind-wave facility located in Marseille, France. Wave data analysis show the temporary downshift in the spectral peak sense caused by the wind, and the temporary upshift in the spectral mean sense characteristic of the MNLS. As the tank-length was limited, we used long-range simulations to obtain upshift in the spectral mean sense caused by the wind. The limit of the model is reached when breaking events occur. We acknowledge financial

  5. Environmental burden of diarrhoeal diseases due to unsafe water supply and poor sanitation coverage in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, K K; Joshi, H D; Dhimal, M; Singh, S P; Dhakal, P; Dhimal, B; Bhusal, C L

    2012-05-01

    Unsafe water and poor sanitation are major contributing factors of diarrhoea. Most of the water supply systems in urban and rural area of Nepal do not have basic water treatment facilities. This has resulted in frequent reports of fecal contamination in drinking water and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The purpose of this study was to find out the burden of diarrhoeal diseases at different scenario of water supply system and sanitation status in Nepalese context. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four different districts of Nepal analyzing six different scenarios based on availability of water supply and sanitation status. Village Development Committees (VDCs) and community selection was made purposively and 360 households, 60 from each scenario were selected conveniently to achieve the required number. Within the selected household, the head of the household or any member above 18 years of age was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Observation was done for toilet and water sources besides questionnaire method. Incidence of diarrhoea per 1000 population was found to be the highest in scenario-IV (Spring without toilet) with 204.89 followed by scenario-VI (Tube well without toilet) with 145.30, while it was less in scenario-I (Tap water with toilet) with 46.05. Accordingly, the burden of disease (YLD) was also found to be the highest in scenario-IV and the lowest in scenario-I. Most of the households didn't treat water before drinking. Hand washing practice was found to be more than 90% regardless of toilet availability. The greater risk of acquiring diarrhoeal disease and higher burden of disease in situation of unprotected water source and absence of toilet shows that these are still important contributing factors for diarrhoeal disease in Nepal. Use of sanitary toilets and protected water source are the important measures for diarrhoeal disease prevention in Nepal.

  6. Marangoni spreading due to a localized alcohol supply on a thin water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Sanchez, J.F.; Eddi, A.C.A.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2015-01-01

    Bringing two miscible fluids into contact naturally generates strong gradients in surface tension. Here, we investigate such a Marangoni-driven flow by continuously supplying isopropyl alcohol (IPA) on a film of water, using micron-sized droplets of IPA-water mixtures. These droplets create a

  7. A variable reaction rate model for chlorine decay in drinking water due to the reaction with dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Pei; Vasyukova, Ekaterina; Uhl, Wolfgang

    2015-05-15

    A second order kinetic model for simulating chlorine decay in bulk water due to the reaction with dissolved organic matter (DOM) was developed. It takes into account the decreasing reactivity of dissolved organic matter using a variable reaction rate coefficient (VRRC) which decreases with an increasing conversion. The concentration of reducing species is surrogated by the maximum chlorine demand. Temperature dependency, respectively, is described by the Arrhenius-relationship. The accuracy and adequacy of the proposed model to describe chlorine decay in bulk water were evaluated and shown for very different waters and different conditions such as water mixing or rechlorination by applying statistical tests. It is thus very well suited for application in water quality modeling for distribution systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An unusual case of strangulation of penis by metal hammer head- (a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punekar Sulabha

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of metal hammer-head causing strangulation of penis and retention of urine is reported. The clinical presenta-tion, detailed history and subsequent treatment is discussed. It also includes a review of the literature regarding such cases of strangulation of penis.

  9. Learning to Control Orientation and Force in a Hammering Task The Initial Stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, Carlijn A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to create stone tools is considered an important step in the emergence of human cognition. To further our understanding of these evolutionary processes we focused on the initial learning processes with which this percussive skill may be acquired. We studied a hammering task in which

  10. Scale formation at various locations in a geothermal operation due to injection of imported waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.

    1982-06-22

    The injection of waters that are not native to a geothermal formation generates various physical and chemical problems. The major chemical problem resulting from such injections is the formation of sulfate scales (particularly CaSO4, BaSO4 and SrSO4) at various locations starting from the injection well through the production well to the surface facilities of any geothermal operation. One of the ways to prevent this type of scale formation is by reducing the sulfate concentration of the injection waters. The effect of sulfate deionization on scale formation at various locations of the geothermal operations is studied. Some experimental results on the CaSO4 scale formation in porous media upon heating an injection water with and without addition of scale inhibitors are also given.

  11. Changing of water status along a small stream due to urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovszki, Z.; Kalicz, P.; Csáfordi, P.; Szita, R.; Sermaul, K.

    2012-04-01

    Considerable qualitative and quantitative changes can be generally detected in case of urban sections of the streams as the results of strong human interventions along the stream channel or in the drainage basin in urban areas. The water status becomes worse and the water regime becomes more extreme. The negative changes have an effect on the broader environment and they bring usually diminution of the biodiversity. The assessments of the above mentioned combined effects are very important from the viewpoint of the good state of the water systems, which is the main purpose in the European Water Framework Directive. Water status changing are monitored and analysed along different (natural, rural and urbanized) sections of a small stream (Rák Brook in Sopron) taking into account the connection of the hydrological and the water quality monitoring expediently. Seven monitoring points are set up along the stream system of the Rák Brook from the headwaters to the stream mouth, in designation of the points mainly focusing the change of the surface cover and human impacts. Samples were taken on the measurement points fortnightly or for flood-linked between the dates 01.09.2010-01.03.2012. The following features were examined: hydro-morphological (velocity, discharge, stream bed sediment type), physico-chemical (pH, conductivity, suspended sediment), chemical (sulphate, chloride, COD, ammonium, nitrate, total phosphorous), and biological (makrozoobenthos) parameters. Simple and multivariate statistical methods were used for data processing to present the magnitude of the differences between the stream sections. Based on the results the effect of the different degree of urbanization on the drainage basin and the hydro-morphological interventions in the stream bed was well demonstrable.

  12. Water Loss Due to Increasing Planted Vegetation over the Badain Jaran Desert, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunhe Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water resources play a vital role in ecosystem stability, human survival, and social development in drylands. Human activities, such as afforestation and irrigation, have had a large impact on the water cycle and vegetation in drylands over recent years. The Badain Jaran Desert (BJD is one of the driest regions in China with increasing human activities, yet the connection between human management and the ecohydrology of this area remains largely unclear. In this study, we firstly investigated the ecohydrological dynamics and their relationship across different spatial scales over the BJD, using multi-source observational data from 2001 to 2014, including: total water storage anomaly (TWSA from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, lake extent from Landsat, and precipitation from in situ meteorological stations. We further studied the response of the local hydrological conditions to large scale vegetation and climatic dynamics, also conducting a change analysis of water levels over four selected lakes within the BJD region from 2011. To normalize the effect of inter-annual variations of precipitation on vegetation, we also employed a relationship between annual average NDVI and annual precipitation, or modified rain-use efficiency, termed the RUEmo. A focus of this study is to understand the impact of the increasing planted vegetation on local ecohydrological systems over the BJD region. Results showed that vegetation increases were largely found to be confined to the areas intensely influenced by human activities, such as croplands and urban areas. With precipitation patterns remaining stable during the study period, there was a significant increasing trend in vegetation greenness per unit of rainfall, or RUEmo over the BJD, while at the same time, total water storage as measured by satellites has been continually decreasing since

  13. Enrichment of 88Sr in continental waters due to calcium carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Netta; Gavrieli, Ittai; Halicz, Ludwik; Sandler, Amir; Stein, Mordechai; Lazar, Boaz

    2017-02-01

    δ88/86Sr data published over the last few years suggest that continental waters are enriched with 88Sr as compared to the rocks in their drainage basins. In an attempt to understand this phenomenon, this study established the fractionation in the 88Sr/86Sr ratio during precipitation of continental carbonates (i.e., carbonates precipitated on land from surface, pedogenic, or ground waters), and evaluated the contribution of this process to the 88Sr-enrichment in rivers. For this, stable and radiogenic Sr isotopes (88Sr, 87Sr and 86Sr) were measured in calcite samples and their precipitating waters collected in various continental environments, such as soil, cave, streams and groundwater. The results indicate that continental carbonates are 88Sr-depleted relative to their precipitating waters, placing them as one of the most 88Sr-depleted reservoirs on earth. The average difference in δ88/86Sr values between waters and solid CaCO3 (tufas or speleothems) that they precipitate is Δcarb-water = - 0.218 ± 0.014 ‰ (1SD). An even larger fractionation (εcarb-water = - 0.285 ± 0.02 ‰) was measured in groundwater with particularly high carbonate-alkalinity and high carbonate precipitation rate that depleted ∼65% of the Sr in the groundwater, resulting in substantial 88Sr-enrichment in the residual dissolved Sr (δ88/86Sr = 0.656 ‰). Results also suggest that pedogenic carbonate precipitation in soil profile removes 50-85% of the Sr from the recharging soil-water, thereby increasing the δ88/86Sr value of the soil-water from ∼ 0.18 ‰ to 0.3 ‰- 0.6 ‰. Similar 88Sr-enrichment was observed in drip water from a karst cave. A maximum removal flux of Sr into continental carbonates of about 20 Gmol(Sr)ṡy-1 is required to yield the reported 88Sr-enrichment in global rivers (δ88/86Sr = 0.32 ‰) relative to their rock sources when using the fractionation factor derived in this study, Δcarb-water = - 0.218 ‰, and the published δ88/86Sr composition of marine

  14. Water Yield Variation due to Forestry Change in the Head-Water Area of Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of forestation on the hydrological process is crucial to protecting water resources. In this study, the upstream Heihe River Basin is selected as the study area, which is the water source area of the whole basin. The grassland and forest are the main land use types, the proportion of which in the total land area is 21% and 50%, respectively. Firstly, a scenario of forestation was designed with the actual land cover data in 1980. Then a scenario with simulated land cover data in 1980 was established, in which the forest area increases by 12%. Thereafter a hydrological simulation was carried out with the actual and simulated land cover maps and the climate observation data during 1980–2010. The results suggested that the total water yield increased by 12.57 mm under the scenario with land use change during 1980–2010 compared with the simulation with the actual land cover in 1980. However, the results also indicated that the surface runoff reduced by 22.17 mm during the same period, indicating the forest land has “sponge” effects on the water resource in the mountainous watershed. These results may provide important information that supports operational practices, such as forest regeneration programs and watershed restoration.

  15. New solution for anistropic formation damage due to produced water re-injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojarad, R.S.; Settari, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A velocity damage model (VDM) was used to relate damage to the amount of particle-carrying water passing through a porous medium. The transport phenomenon was treated as a miscible displacement of in situ water with injected water. Permeability reductions were assumed to be a function of the cumulative volume of contaminated fluid flow passing through each cross section. The VDM was validated with field data. Hagen-Poiseuille equations were used to determine fluid flow through a single pore. A series of core flood tests on Masila Block samples from a water injection project in Yemen were then matched with data from a deep bed filtration (DBF) model. Results showed that the VDM model successfully matched the block core mean particle and pore size. The model was also used to consider an XZ cross-section of anisotropic media of a horizontal injection well. Results of the analysis suggested that traditional assumptions for constant damage ratios are often inaccurate. Results were then used to develop an anistropic permeability damage formulation which was further extended to create a dynamic alpha to recompute damage parameters for time steps in simulation tools. The anistropic formulations were validated with data from a horizontal well. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. Mean annual yield reductions of potato due to water deficits for Dutch weather conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Groenwold, J.

    1987-01-01

    In The Netherlands drought causes occasional reductions in yield and quality of potatoes, especially on sandy soils. The mean annual yield loss determines the investments that can be made to prevent the losses. The mean annual loss is determined by the water deficit and the yield reduction per mm

  17. Bark beetle-induced tree mortality alters stand energy budgets due to water budget changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Reed; Brent E. Ewers; Elise Pendall; John Frank; Robert Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Insect outbreaks are major disturbances that affect a land area similar to that of forest fires across North America. The recent mountain pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak and its associated blue stain fungi (Grosmannia clavigera) are impacting water partitioning processes of forests in the Rocky Mountain region as the spatially heterogeneous...

  18. Apparent losses due to domestic water meter under-registration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... with the exception of one multi-jet meter. These meters were distributed in 15 and 6 different suburbs in Cape Town and. Mangaung, respectively. The reading taken from water meters in these tests included meter errors, and thus had to be corrected to determine the actual volumes. These corrections were ...

  19. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in drinking water due to mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining and smelting activities are the main causes for the increasing pollution of heavy metals from water sources. The toxicity of these heavy metals from the mining, milling and smelting companies can cause harmful and even lethal effects on the human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of As, ...

  20. Prediction of Reactor Vessel Water Level Using Fuzzy Neural Networks in Severe Accidents due to LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soonho; Kim, Jaehawn; Na, Mangyun [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    When the initial events that may lead to the severe accident such as Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) occurs at a nuclear power plant, it is most important to check the status of the plant conditions by observing the safety-related parameters such as neutron flux, pressurizer pressure, steam generator pressure and water level. In this paper, we propose a method of predicting the water level of coolant in the reactor vessel that directly affect the important events such as the exposure of the reactor core and the damage of reactor vessel by using a Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) method. In addition, the data for verifying a proposed model was obtained by simulating the severe accident scenarios for the OPR1000 nuclear power plant using the MAAP4 code. In this paper, a prediction model was developed for predicting the reactor vessel water level using the FNN method. The proposed FNN model was verified based on the simulation data of OPR1000 by using MAAP4 code. As a result of simulation, we could see that the performance of the proposed FNN model is quite satisfactory but some large errors are observed occasionally. If the proposed FNN model is optimized by using a variety of data, it is possible to predict the reactor vessel water level exactly.

  1. Auto-Gopher-II: an autonomous wireline rotary-hammer ultrasonic drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Jackson, Shannon; Chesin, Jacob; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L.; Mellerowicz, Bolek; Kim, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Developing technologies that would enable future NASA exploration missions to penetrate deeper into the subsurface of planetary bodies for sample collection is of great importance. Performing these tasks while using minimal mass/volume systems and with low energy consumption is another set of requirements imposed on such technologies. A deep drill, called Auto-Gopher II, is currently being developed as a joint effort between JPL's NDEAA laboratory and Honeybee Robotics Corp. The Auto-Gopher II is a wireline rotary-hammer drill that combines formation breaking by hammering using an ultrasonic actuator and cuttings removal by rotating a fluted auger bit. The hammering mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that has been developed as an adaptable tool for many drilling and coring applications. The USDC uses an intermediate free-flying mass to transform high frequency vibrations of a piezoelectric transducer horn tip into sonic hammering of the drill bit. The USDC concept was used in a previous task to develop an Ultrasonic/Sonic Ice Gopher and then integrated into a rotary hammer device to develop the Auto-Gopher-I. The lessons learned from these developments are being integrated into the development of the Auto- Gopher-II, an autonomous deep wireline drill with integrated cuttings and sample management and drive electronics. Subsystems of the wireline drill are being developed in parallel at JPL and Honeybee Robotics Ltd. This paper presents the development efforts of the piezoelectric actuator, cuttings removal and retention flutes and drive electronics.

  2. SATELLITE OBSERVED WATER QUALITY CHANGES IN THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES DUE TO INVASIVE SPECIES, ANTHROPOGENIC FORCING, AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Shuchman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Long time series of ocean and land color satellite data can be used to measure Laurentian Great Lakes water quality parameters including chlorophyll, suspended minerals, harmful algal blooms (HABs, photic zone and primary productivity on weekly, monthly and annual observational intervals. The observed changes in these water quality parameters over time are a direct result of the introduction of invasive species such as the Dreissena mussels as well as anthropogenic forcing and climate change. Time series of the above mentioned water quality parameters have been generated based on a range of satellite sensors, starting with Landsat in the 1970s and continuing to the present with MODIS and VIIRS. These time series have documented the effect the mussels have had on increased water clarity by decreasing the chlorophyll concentrations. Primary productivity has declined in the lakes due to the decrease in algae. The increased water clarity due to the mussels has also led to an increase in submerged aquatic vegetation. Comparing water quality metrics in Lake Superior to the lower lakes is insightful because Lake Superior is the largest and most northern of the five Great Lakes and to date has not been affected by the invasive mussels and can thus be considered a control. In contrast, Lake Erie, the most southern and shallow of the Laurentian Great Lakes, is heavily influenced by agricultural practices (i.e., nutrient runoff and climate change, which directly influence the annual extent of HABs in the Western Basin of that lake.

  3. Design And Preliminary Testing of a Hammer Mill with End-Suction Lift Capability Suitable for Commercial Processing of Grains and Solid Minerals in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ebunilo P. O.; Obanor A. I.; Ariavie G. O.

    2010-01-01

    A hammer mill with an end-suction lift capability has been designed, fabricated and tested. The tests were carried out by comparing the product of a conventional hammer mill with that of the new hammer mill with end suction lift capability. The preliminary test results obtained using grains show that the efficiency of a conventional hammer mill and its ability to produce an output of specific size of 400m-600m for both maize and cowpeas is low when compared with the output of the new hammer...

  4. Estimation on separation efficiency of aluminum from base-cap of spent fluorescent lamp in hammer crusher unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2017-09-01

    In order to separate aluminum from the base-cap of spent fluorescent lamp (SFL), the separation efficiency of hammer crusher unit is estimated by introducing a binary separation theory. The base-cap of SFL is composed by glass fragment, binder, ferrous metal, copper and aluminum. The hammer crusher unit to recover aluminum from the base-cap consists of 3stages of hammer crusher, magnetic separator and vibrating screen. The optimal conditions of rotating speed and operating time in the hammer crusher unit are decided at each stage. At the optimal conditions, the aluminum yield and the separation efficiency of hammer crusher unit are estimated by applying a sequential binary separation theory at each stage. And the separation efficiency between hammer crusher unit and roll crush system is compared to show the performance of aluminum recovery from the base-cap of SFL. Since the separation efficiency can be increased to 99% at stage 3, from the experimental results, it is found that aluminum from the base-cap can be sufficiently recovered by the hammer crusher unit. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Hydrodynamic changes due to large seabed installations in coastal waters off west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ilangovan, D.; Naik, K.A.; Anil, A.C.

    % in the region where the tanks are placed compared to currents without placement of tanks. However, up to 85% increase in current speeds is observed in regions beyond the tanks. In this manuscript results of the effects on the hydrodynamics of a region due...

  6. Hardening of particle/oil/water suspensions due to capillary bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danov, Krassimir D.; Georgiev, Mihail T.; Kralchevsky, Peter A.; Radulova, Gergana M.; Gurkov, Theodor D.; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Pelan, Eddie G.

    2018-01-01

    Suspensions of colloid particles possess the remarkable property to solidify upon the addition of minimal amount of a second liquid that preferentially wets the particles. The hardening is due to the formation of capillary bridges (pendular rings), which connect the particles. Here, we review works

  7. An examination of errors in computed water-leaving radiances due to a simplified treatment of water Raman scattering effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismarck, Jonas von; Fischer, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    Studies in the past have shown that solar shortwave radiation that has been Raman scattered in the ocean, and therefore undergone a wavelength shift, can contribute significantly to the signals observed by remote sensing satellites. While radiative transfer models that qualitatively approximate the effect of water Raman scattering on the water leaving irradiance have been available for a while, we have developed a new version of the radiative transfer code MOMO, which enables the accurate and fully angle resolved inclusion of inelastic scattering sources, and therefore allows detailed quantitative analyses of the effect on the light field in the ocean-atmosphere system. This article focuses on a study performed with this new model on the impact of azimuthally averaging the Raman scattering phase function, which is done in some RT models and significantly decreases computation time, on the water-leaving radiance. At the request of the authors and Proceedings Editors the above article has been updated to include a number of post-publication amendments. Changes made to the previously published article are detailed in the pages attached to the end of the updated article PDF file. The updated article was re-published on 15 August 2013.

  8. SRB attrition rate study of the aft skirt due to water impact cavity collapse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology was presented so that realistic attrition prediction could aid in selecting an optimum design option for minimizing the effects of updated loads on the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) aft skirt. The updated loads resulted in water impact attrition rates greater than 10 percent for the aft skirt structure. Adding weight to reinforce the aft skirt was undesirable. The refined method treats the occurrences of the load distribution probabilistically, radially and longitudinally, with respect to the critical structural response.

  9. Hydrogen generation due to water splitting on Si - terminated 4H-Sic(0001) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingfang; Li, Qiqi; Yang, Cuihong; Rao, Weifeng

    2018-02-01

    The chemical reactions of hydrogen gas generation via water splitting on Si-terminated 4H-SiC surfaces with or without C/Si vacancies were studied by using first-principles. We studied the reaction mechanisms of hydrogen generation on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface. Our calculations demonstrate that there are major rearrangements in surface when H2O approaches the SiC(0001) surface. The first H splitting from water can occur with ground-state electronic structures. The second H splitting involves an energy barrier of 0.65 eV. However, the energy barrier for two H atoms desorbing from the Si-face and forming H2 gas is 3.04 eV. In addition, it is found that C and Si vacancies can form easier in SiC(0001)surfaces than in SiC bulk and nanoribbons. The C/Si vacancies introduced can enhance photocatalytic activities. It is easier to split OH on SiC(0001) surface with vacancies compared to the case of clean SiC surface. H2 can form on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface with C and Si vacancies if the energy barriers of 1.02 and 2.28 eV are surmounted, respectively. Therefore, SiC(0001) surface with C vacancy has potential applications in photocatalytic water-splitting.

  10. Effect of dewatering on seismic performance of multi-anchor wall due to high ground water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Miura, Kinya; Konami, Takeharu; Hayashi, Taketo; Sato, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Previous research reported that the ground water in the backfill of reinforced soil wall made it deteriorate. According to the damage investigation of Great East Earthquake 2011, the reinforced soil structure due to high ground water level by seismic wave were deformed remarkably. Some of them classified ultimate limit state or restorability limit state. However, more than 90% of reinforced soil structure, which suffered from this earthquake, were classified into no damage condition. Therefore, it is necessary that the seismic behaviors of multi-anchor wall due to seepage flow should be clarified in order to adopt the performance-based design in such reinforced soil structure. In this study, a series of centrifugal shaking table tests were conducted to investigate the seismic behavior of multi-anchor wall due to high ground water level. The reinforced drainage pipes were installed into the backfill in order to verify the dewatering effect and additional reinforcement. Furthermore, to check only the dewatering effect, the model tests was carried out with several ground water table that was modeled the case reinforced drainage pipes installed. The test results show unique behavior of reinforced region that moved integrally. This implies that the reinforced region has been behaved as if it became one mass, and this behavior make this structure increase seismic performance. Thus, the effectiveness of dewatering was observed remarkably because of decreasing the inertial force during earthquake.

  11. Radar Interferometry for Monitoring Land Subsidence Due to Over-Pumping Ground Water in Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertikas, S. P.; Papadaki, E. S.

    2010-03-01

    The level of water in several wells at the Messara valley, Crete, Greece has dropped 40 meters over the last 20 years. Anecdotal reports describe cracks in the concrete foundations of some residential structures around the valley. These also suggest that ground subsidence may exceed one centimeter, at least, over a period of recharging and withdrawal ground water.Conventional differential SAR interferometry using ERS-SAR and ALOS-PALSAR images, as well as the stacking technique have been applied to monitor this ground deformation. The used images covered the period from 1992 to 2000 and 2007-2009, respectively.A total of 29 ERS-1&2 SAR and 7 ALOS images have been used for forming interferograms. Image pairs with Doppler difference less than 0.20 pulse repetition frequency, and perpendicular baseline smaller than 100m have been used for processing. A Digital Elevation Model with 20-m pixel size and ±7 m height accuracy has also been incorporated in interferometric processing. Atmospheric artifacts have been compensated by using image stacking.The valley to be monitored is densely cultivated and irrigated. Thus, loss of coherence in images has been observed in the C-Band and could not be overcome. Consequently, interferometric results with the ERS-SAR images have been limited. On the other hand, processing of L-band data has brought up a ground deformation that amounted to a subsidence of at least 4 cm/yr. The correlation of the observed ground deformation with respect to water pumping and other geological parameters has also been investigated.

  12. Surface water waves due to an oscillatory wavemaker in the presence of surface tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Mandal

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial value problem of generation of surface water waves by a harmonically oscillating plane vertical wavemaker in an infinite incompressible fluid under the action of gravity and surface tension is investigated. In the asymptotic evaluation of the free surface depression for large time and distance, the contribution to the integral by stationary phase method gives rise to transient component of the free surface depression while the contribution from the poles give rise to steady state component. It is observed that the presence of surface tension sometimes changes the qualitative nature of the transient component of free surface depression.

  13. The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during periods of high magnitude floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimova, T.; Lepikhin, A.; Parshakova, Ya.; Tiunov, A.

    2016-03-01

    The risk of river pollution due to washout (removal of pollutants) from contaminated floodplain water bodies (floodplain lakes and quarries whose origin is related to the large-scale mining of nonmetallic building materials in the floodplain zone) during high magnitude flood periods is analyzed using a combination of one-, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling and in situ measurements. The modeling performed for the floodplain water bodies contaminated by N compounds shows that during large magnitude floods washout occurs. The washout process consists of two stages: an initial rapid stage lasting about two hours during which the upper (3-4 m thick) layer is washed out, followed by a second stage when the concentration of NH4-N in the floodplain water body remains nearly constant. The maximum contaminant concentration in the river in the vicinity of a water intake for drinking water located 21 km downstream is attained about 9 h from the beginning of the flood; concentration of NH4-N can reach values several times larger than acceptable concentration guidelines. The initial primary peak in contaminant concentration at the water intake is followed by a slight decrease in contaminant concentration; a second peak related to the contaminant transport through the inundated floodplain subsequently occurs, after which the concentration slowly decreases, reaching acceptable values after 30-40 h. Contaminated floodplain water bodies located near drinking water supply systems are not significant sources of contamination during small and moderate floods, but during high magnitude floods, they can become sources of water pollution. Operational measures that can decrease potential health risks are discussed.

  14. Prediction of corrosion rates of water distribution pipelines according to aggressive corrosive water in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, W S; Yu, M J; Lee, H D

    2004-01-01

    The drinking water network serving Korea has been used for almost 100 years. Therefore, pipelines have suffered various degrees of deterioration due to aggressive environments. The pipe breaks were caused by in-external corrosion, water hammer, surface loading, etc. In this paper, we focused on describing corrosion status in water distribution pipes in Korea and reviewing some methods to predict corrosion rates. Results indicate that corrosive water of lakes was more aggressive than river water and the winter was more aggressive compared to other seasons. The roughness growth rates of Dongbok lake showed 0.23 mm/year. The high variation of corrosion rates is controlled by the aging pipes and smaller diameter. Also the phenolphthalein test on a cementitious core of cement mortar lined ductile cast iron pipe indicated the pipes over 15 years old had lost 50-100% of their lime active cross sectional area.

  15. Prediction of electron concentration reductions in re-entry flow fields due to electrophilic liquid and water injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergament, H. S.; Mikatarian, R. R.; Kurzius, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of an analytical model which leads to predictions of reductions in electron concentrations in reentry flow fields due to the injection of electrophilic liquids and water. The processes incorporated into the model are: penetration and breakup of the liquid jet, droplet acceleration and vaporization, expansion of the liquid spray due to droplet vaporization, electrophilic vapor diffusion, heterogeneous and homogeneous charged species recombination kinetics and homogeneous electron attachment kinetics. Spray boundary calculations are shown to be in good agreement with photographic observations of water and Freon E-3 sprays in wind tunnel tests of a scale model RAM C-III flight vehicle. Fixed-bias electrostatic probe data taken during the RAM C-III flight are interpreted in terms of effective jet penetration distances - which are shown to be consistent with calculations using the present model.

  16. Death from atlanto-occipital dislocation in a boy due to personal water craft collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Henry J; Martin Johnson, J

    2002-12-01

    Injuries associated with use of personal water craft (PWC) typically include fractures, lacerations, or head injuries. Deaths are rare. We recently encountered an unusual case of a collision between two PWCs in which a 9-year-old boy was struck on the left side, causing the vehicle to rock and him to twist upward and to the right. There was rapid extension, flexion, and rotation of his head. At postmortem examination, it was established that the boy died from atlanto-occipital dislocation and brainstem transection. The risk of atlanto-occipital dislocation is high in children under 10. The tectoral ligament which stabilizes the upper cervical spine can be torn or ruptured by hyperextension-flexion injury. Some atlanto-occipital dislocations in children can be stabilized and recovery is possible, but in this case of complete ligament rupture and brainstem transection, death was immediate.

  17. Evaluation of chronic arsenic poisoning due to consumption of contaminated ground water in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asutosh Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic arsenic poisoning is an important public health problem and most notable in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In this study different systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic poisoning were evaluated. Methods: A nonrandomized, controlled, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in Arsenic Clinic, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, over a period of 1 year 4 months. Seventy-three cases diagnosed clinically, consuming water containing arsenic ≥50 μg/L and having hair and nail arsenic level >0.6 μg/L, were included. Special investigations included routine parameters and organ-specific tests. Arsenic levels in the drinking water, hair, and nail were measured in all. Twenty-five nonsmoker healthy controls were evaluated. Results: Murshidabad and districts adjacent to Kolkata, West Bengal, were mostly affected. Middle-aged males were the common sufferers. Skin involvement was the commonest manifestation (100%, followed by hepatomegaly [23 (31.5%] with or without transaminitis [7 (9.58%]/portal hypertension [9 (12.33%]. Restrictive abnormality in spirometry [11 (15.06%], bronchiectasis [4 (5.47%], interstitial fibrosis [2 (2.73%], bronchogenic carcinoma [2 (2.73%], oromucosal plaque [7 (9.58%], nail hypertrophy [10 (13.69%], alopecia [8 (10.95%], neuropathy [5 (6.84%], and Electrocardiography abnormalities [5 (6.84%] were also observed. Conclusions: Mucocutaneous and nail lesions, hepatomegaly, and restrictive change in spirometry were the common and significant findings. Other manifestations were characteristic but insignificant.

  18. Pollution of water sources due to poor waste management--the case of Dar-es-Salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makule, D E

    2000-01-01

    Pollution of water sources for the city of Dar-es-Salaam originates from haphazard disposal of solid wastes, discharge of untreated or inadequately treated wastewater to water sources, lack of standard sanitary facilities and poor hygienic practices. Contaminated water used for human consumption can lead to serious health problems e.g. cholera, typhoid, skin diseases, etc., which, in turn, leads to reduced working hours/manpower. This has a direct effect to production output which can lead to a deterioration of local community welfare. Having realised this as a problem, the Government of Tanzania stipulated, in its water policy of 1991, the need for protection of water sources. In achieving this goal, proper waste management was singled out to be of vital importance. Due to economic hardships, however, budget allocation by the central Government could not cover the costs needed for proper handling of waste. This left Tanzania with no alternative other than heavy reliance on donor and bilateral organisations for financial support of programmes. Nevertheless, these sources of funds proved to be unreliable for many different reasons. To deal with these problems, the Government currently emphasises involving local community and NGOs, the formation of stakeholder funds and organisations, and involvement of the private sector. Other efforts are intensification of education programmes to create more awareness to the local communities on the need for protection of water sources. Although at its infancy level, the system is showing some signs of improvement.

  19. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Added water related diarrhoeal burden due to HIV/AIDS

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available related diarrhoeal burden due to HIV/AIDS Lack of access to proper water, improved sanitation and hygiene, is the main risk factor attributable to diarrhoeal-related disease in the country. Of the 48 million people in South Africa, approximately... each day. In addition, HIV/AIDS exacerbates the diarrhoeal disease problem. Research shows that 90% of HIV/AIDS patients in Africa suffer from chronic diarrhoea. The added diarrhoeal disease in people with suppressed immune systems...

  20. Safety Evaluation for IHTS Integrity due to the Steam Generator Sodium-Water Reaction Event in the PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang-Jun; Lee, Kwi Lim; Ha, Kwi-Seok; Lee, Seung Won; Jeong, Taekyeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, the integrity of the IHTS and SG by the SWR event are evaluated using the SWAAMII code. A sodium has a chemical characteristics to rigorously react the water or steam and produce the high pressure waves and high temperature reaction heat. It has an excellent characteristics as a reactor coolant. But, there is an event to be considered in the sodium cooled fast reactor design. The Sodium-Water Reaction (SWR) event can be occurred by the water or steam leaks due to the break of the steam generator tubes. The propagated high pressure waves threathen the structural integrity of the affected Intermediate Heat Transport System (IHTS) and steam generator. If the IHTS pipes are failed, the sodium of the IHTS can be released to the containment building. To the peak pressure point of view, it is performed to evaluate the integrity of the major components due to the SWR event in the SG. The generated peak pressures due to the five SG tubes simultaneous break event are within the range of the design pressure for the SG, IHX and IHTS including the related pipes.

  1. Transient analysis for total loss of feed water scenario due to postulated feed line breaks in both steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seyun; Kim, Minhee [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The total loss of feed water (TLOFW) scenario is a beyond design basis accident (DBA) for nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) but is considered in the safety analysis report (SAR) for the stress analysis of structures of KEPIC class 1 and the hydrogen generation analysis. The postulated single feed line break (FLB) scenario is DBA and is described in chapter 15.2 of SAR. To evaluate the safety impact, the integrity of plant and the coping measures, a transient of total loss of feed water due to the postulated breaks of both feed line is analyzed for OPR1000 with RELAP5 code. To evaluate the safety impact, the integrity of plant and the coping measures, a transient of total loss of feed water due to the postulated breaks of both feed line is analyzed for OPR1000 with RELAP5 code. The calculations show that the operation of safety depressurization system at 1800 seconds is an effective measure to mitigate the core damage due to the uncovery of the core according to the pressurization of primary loop. Through the sensitivity studies, it is presented that the peak cladding temperature is proportional to the break size.

  2. Assessment of Impulse Noise Hazard and the Use of Hearing Protection Devices in Workplaces Where Forging Hammers are Used

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafał Młyński; Emil Kozłowski; Jan Adamczyk

    2015-01-01

    .... This kind of noise is also present in many workplaces in the industry. The paper presents the results of noise parameters measurements in workplaces where four different die forging hammers were used...

  3. Uranium redistribution due to water table fluctuations in sandy wetland mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilson, Emily R.; Huang, Shan; Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Qafoku, Odeta; Peacock, Aaron D.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Jaffe, Peter R.

    2015-10-20

    In order to better understand the fate and stability of immobilized uranium (U) in wetland sediments, and how intermittent dry periods affect U stability, we dosed saturated wetland mesocosms planted with Scirpus acutus with low levels of uranyl acetate for 4 months before imposing a short drying and rewetting period. Concentrations of U in mesocosm effluent increased after drying and rewetting, but the cumulative amount of U released following the dry period constituted less than 1% of the total U immobilized in the soil during the 4 months prior. This low level of remobilization suggests, and XAS analyses confirm, that microbial reduction was not the primary means of U immobilization, as the U immobilized in mesocosms was primarily U(VI) rather than U(IV). Drying followed by re-wetting caused a redistribution of U downward in the soil profile and on to root surfaces. While the U on roots before drying was primarily associated with minerals, the U that relocated to the roots during drying and rewetting was bound diffusely to root surfaces. Results show that short periods of drought conditions in a wetland, which expose reduced sediments to air, may impact U distribution, but these conditions may not cause large releases of soil-bound U from planted wetlands to surface waters.

  4. ESTIMATION OF PHASE DELAY DUE TO PRECIPITABLE WATER FOR DINSARBASED LAND DEFORMATION MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Susaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method for using the estimated precipitable water (PW to mitigate atmospheric phase delay in order to improve the accuracy of land-deformation assessment with differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR. The phase difference obtained from multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar images contains errors of several types, and the atmospheric phase delay can be an obstacle to estimating surface subsidence. In this study, we calculate PW from external meteorological data. Firstly, we interpolate the data with regard to their spatial and temporal resolutions. Then, assuming a range direction between a target pixel and the sensor, we derive the cumulative amount of differential PW at the height of the slant range vector at pixels along that direction. The atmospheric phase delay of each interferogram is acquired by taking a residual after a preliminary determination of the linear deformation velocity and digital elevation model (DEM error, and by applying high-pass temporal and low-pass spatial filters. Next, we estimate a regression model that connects the cumulative amount of PW and the atmospheric phase delay. Finally, we subtract the contribution of the atmospheric phase delay from the phase difference of the interferogram, and determine the linear deformation velocity and DEM error. The experimental results show a consistent relationship between the cumulative amount of differential PW and the atmospheric phase delay. An improvement in land-deformation accuracy is observed at a point at which the deformation is relatively large. Although further investigation is necessary, we conclude at this stage that the proposed approach has the potential to improve the accuracy of the DInSAR technique.

  5. Estimation of Phase Delay due to Precipitable Water for Dinsarbased Land Deformation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaki, J.; Maeda, N.; Akatsuka, S.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present a method for using the estimated precipitable water (PW) to mitigate atmospheric phase delay in order to improve the accuracy of land-deformation assessment with differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR). The phase difference obtained from multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar images contains errors of several types, and the atmospheric phase delay can be an obstacle to estimating surface subsidence. In this study, we calculate PW from external meteorological data. Firstly, we interpolate the data with regard to their spatial and temporal resolutions. Then, assuming a range direction between a target pixel and the sensor, we derive the cumulative amount of differential PW at the height of the slant range vector at pixels along that direction. The atmospheric phase delay of each interferogram is acquired by taking a residual after a preliminary determination of the linear deformation velocity and digital elevation model (DEM) error, and by applying high-pass temporal and low-pass spatial filters. Next, we estimate a regression model that connects the cumulative amount of PW and the atmospheric phase delay. Finally, we subtract the contribution of the atmospheric phase delay from the phase difference of the interferogram, and determine the linear deformation velocity and DEM error. The experimental results show a consistent relationship between the cumulative amount of differential PW and the atmospheric phase delay. An improvement in land-deformation accuracy is observed at a point at which the deformation is relatively large. Although further investigation is necessary, we conclude at this stage that the proposed approach has the potential to improve the accuracy of the DInSAR technique.

  6. Perbandingan Produktivitas Luffing Crane Dengan Hammer Head Crane Pada Proyek High Rise Building Studi Kasus: Menara Astra Project, Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Citra, Putri Lokita Purnama; Sihkawekas, Gloria; Hidayat, Arif; Yuniarto, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    The economic growth has contributed to the increasing number of high rise building construction mostly in big city especially Jakarta. In practice, the construction of high rise building project is aided by heavy equipment that is hammer head crane which is known as one of tower crane type. However, with the increasing number of high rise building construction, the hammer head crane space that usually be used in high rise building project is limited, hence, another type of tower crane called ...

  7. A Hybrid Resynthesis Model for Hammer-String Interaction of Piano Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Kristoffer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a source/resonator model of hammer-string interaction that produces realistic piano sound. The source is generated using a subtractive signal model. Digital waveguides are used to simulate the propagation of waves in the resonator. This hybrid model allows resynthesis of the vibration measured on an experimental setup. In particular, the nonlinear behavior of the hammer-string interaction is taken into account in the source model and is well reproduced. The behavior of the model parameters (the resonant part and the excitation part is studied with respect to the velocities and the notes played. This model exhibits physically and perceptually related parameters, allowing easy control of the sound produced. This research is an essential step in the design of a complete piano model.

  8. Hammer forging process of lever drop forging from AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gontarz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of theoretical and experimental analysis of hammer forging process of lever drop forging from AZ31 magnesium alloy are presented in this paper. In order to design a process guaranteeing obtaining a proper product, numerous simulations were made, in which material flow kinematics, strain and damage criterion distributions and forging energy were analyzed. On the basis of the obtained results, the analysis of limiting phenomena, which could appear during the process, was made. Experimental tests in industrial conditions according to designed technology were carried out. Good quality of drop forgings were obtained. On the basis of conducted research, it was stated that hammer forging of lever drop forging from AZ31 magnesium alloy is possible.

  9. EFFECT OF NON-DARCY FLOW COEFFICIENT VARIATION DUE TO WATER VAPORIZATION ON WELL PRODUCTIVITY OF GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sheikhi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Well productivity of gas condensate reservoirs is highly affected by near-wellbore phenomena. Inertial force resulting from convective acceleration of fluid particles in the medium, as well as viscous force, determines the flow of gas through porous media at high velocity. Pressure drop builds up the molar content of water in gas by water vaporization in the near-wellbore region, which means a drop in connate water saturation. Given that the inertial force is a function of the non-Darcy coefficient, β, which itself depends upon connate water saturation, this can ultimately lessen the non-Darcy component of the pressure drop and therefore inertial forces, leading to improvement of well deliverability. Currently, no physically relevant model takes into account the non-Darcian flow coefficient variation due to this phenomenon. This paper utilizes a single-well compositional simulation to exhibit how water vaporization could compensate for the effect of inertia on well productivity of gas condensate reservoirs.

  10. A Study on Distribution Measurement and Mechanism of Deformation due to Water Loss of Overburden Layer in Vertical Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on FBG fiber Bragg grating technology and BOTDA distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this study uses fine sand to simulate overburden layer in vertical shaft model equipment. It studies the placing technique and test method for optical fiber sensors in the overburden layer, combined with MODFLOW software to simulate the change of the water head value when the overburden layer is losing water, and obtains the deformation features of overburden layer. The results show, at the beginning of water loss, the vertical deformation increases due to larger hydraulic pressure drop, while the deformation decreases gradually and tends to be stable with the hydraulic pressure drop reducing. The circumferential deformation is closely related to such factors as the distance between each drainage outlet, the variations of water head value, and the method of drainage. The monitoring result based on optical fiber sensing technology is consistent with the characteristics of water loss in overburden layer simulated by MODFLOW software, which shows that the optical fiber sensing technology applied to monitor shaft overburden layer is feasible.

  11. Resistance to water pollution in natural gudgeon (Gobio gobio) populations may be due to genetic adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Dries; Bervoets, Lieven; Verheyen, Erik; Blust, Ronny

    2004-04-14

    Anthropogenic disturbances cause the environment to change relatively fast. It is reasonable to assume that it is very unlikely for individuals to develop genetic adaptations to their polluted habitats, since adaptation through natural selection is a relatively slow process. Nevertheless, several studies have shown that such adaptations to changing environmental conditions may develop faster than anticipated. This study investigates the impact of historical metal pollution on a natural population of the gudgeon, Gobio gobio. Specimens from a contaminated site and a reference population were subjected to a series of three exposure experiments to cadmium after an acclimation period to reconstituted fresh water of 36 days. First, we performed an acute toxicity test on a sub-sample of both experimental groups to determine times-to-death (TTD) and lethal body burdens (LBB). The remaining individuals were used in a chronic Cd-exposure experiment, after which total Cd-body concentration, as well as Cd-concentrations and metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) levels in liver and gill tissue were determined. From the specimens that were not sacrificed for these measurements, a random subsample was subjected to a second acute toxicity test to evaluate the effect of chronic Cd-exposure (acclimation) on TTD and LBB. Our results show that, particularly after an extra acclimation period to a sublethal Cd-concentration, specimens originating from the contaminated sample area survived the acute exposure experiments better, despite the fact that neither the average Cd-accumulation rate, nor the lethal body concentrations differed between fishes from both groups. We also find that gudgeons from both populations translocated Cd from the gills (and probably also from other compartments) to the liver, where it can be more efficiently detoxified by MTLPs. Indeed, MTLP levels were found to increase faster in liver and gill tissue of specimens from the contaminated site, resulting in

  12. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Domm, Lukas; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    The search for present or past life in the Universe is one of the most important objectives of NASA's exploration missions. Drills for subsurface sampling of rocks, ice and permafrost are an essential tool for astrobiology studies on other planets. Increasingly, it is recognized that drilling via a combination of rotation and hammering offers an efficient and effective rapid penetration mechanism. The rotation provides an intrinsic method for removal of cuttings from the borehole while the impact and shear forces aids in the fracturing of the penetrated medium. Conventional drills that use a single actuator are based on a complex mechanism with many parts and their use in future mission involves greater risk of failure and/or may require lubrication that can introduce contamination. In this paper, a compact drill is reported that uses a single piezoelectric actuator to produce hammering and rotation of the bit. A horn with asymmetric grooves was design to impart a longitudinal (hammering) and transverse force (rotation) to a keyed free mass. The drill requires low axial pre-load since the hammering-impacts fracture the rock under the bit kerf and rotate the bit to remove the powdered cuttings while augmenting the rock fracture via shear forces. The vibrations 'fluidize' the powdered cuttings inside the flutes reducing the friction with the auger surface. This action reduces the consumed power and heating of the drilled medium helping to preserve the pristine content of the acquired samples. The drill consists of an actuator that simultaneously impacts and rotates the bit by applying force and torque via a single piezoelectric stack actuator without the need for a gearbox or lever mechanism. This can reduce the development/fabrication cost and complexity. In this paper, the drill mechanism will be described and the test results will be reported and discussed.

  13. A new method to fabricate Fe-TiC composite using conventional sintering and steam hammer

    OpenAIRE

    LAHOUEL, Ali; BOUDEBANE, Saïd; IOST, Alain; MONTAGNE, Alex

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this research paper is to fabricate a Fe-TiC composite by a novel and simple manufacturing method. The latter is based on two cumulative processes; a conventional sintering (transient liquid phase sintering) and a hot forging with steam hammer respectively. The blinder phase of the studied simples is varied from carbon steel to high alloy steel using alloying additive powders. The obtained outcomes showed that after the sintering process, the relative densit...

  14. Theoretical and experimental research of hammer forging process of RIM from AZ31 magnesium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Gontarz, A.

    2014-01-01

    The results of theoretical analysis and experimental tests of hammer forging process of rim part from AZ31 magnesium alloy are presented in this paper. On the basis of numerical simulation results, the analysis of limiting phenomena was made. These phenomena include: possibility of overlapping presence, not filling of die impression, overheating of material and cracks. The results of theoretical analysis provided the support for planning of experimental tests in industrial conditions. Forging...

  15. Hammer forging process of lever drop forging from AZ31 magnesium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Gontarz, A.; Z. Pater; K. Drozdowski

    2013-01-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental analysis of hammer forging process of lever drop forging from AZ31 magnesium alloy are presented in this paper. In order to design a process guaranteeing obtaining a proper product, numerous simulations were made, in which material flow kinematics, strain and damage criterion distributions and forging energy were analyzed. On the basis of the obtained results, the analysis of limiting phenomena, which could appear during the process, was made. Exper...

  16. Diagnosis of the hypothenar hammer syndrome by high-resolution contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterer, J.T.; Ghanem, N.; Schaefer, O.; Lehnhardt, S.; Thuerl, C.; Laubenberger, J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Roth, M. [Center of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology Freiburg, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Horch, R.E. [Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    Our objective was to describe the imaging features of hypothenar hammer syndrome using minimally invasive contrast-enhanced MR angiography in comparison with oscillography study. In five patients with hypothenar hammer syndrome Gd-BOPTA-enhanced elliptically reordered 3D pulse sequence MR was compared with oscillography findings and clinical symptoms focusing on angiographic appearance of vessel injury, distribution pattern of hand vasculature and joining branches between the radial and ulnar artery supply. All patients showed segmental occlusion at the site of trauma impact with varying involvement of the superficial palmar arch, common volar digital arteries. Embolic disease was present in 50% of patients and could be clearly identified with MRA. Good correspondence was found between angiographic appearance including the presence of collaterals, clinical symptoms and oscillography. Bilateral comparison was helpful in distinguishing between vessel variants and pathology. Bilateral Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR angiography is a minimally invasive method to depict clearly the localization and extent of vessel injury in hypothenar hammer syndrome providing valuable information about distribution pattern of hand vasculature and presence of collaterals; however, no flow data can be obtained. (orig.)

  17. On the prediction of impact noise, V: The noise from drop hammers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, E. J.; Carr, I.; Westcott, M.

    1983-06-01

    In earlier papers in this series, the concepts of "acceleration" and "ringing" noise have been studied in relation to impact machines, and values of radiation efficiency have been obtained for the various types of structural components. In the work reported in this paper the predicted and measured noise radiation from a drop hammer, both in full-scale and in {1}/{3}- scale model form, were examined. It is found that overall noise levels ( Leq per event) can be predicted from vibration measurements to within ± 1·5 dB, and to within ±2·5 dB in one-third octave bands. In turn this has permitted noise reduction techniques to be examined by studies of local component vibration levels rather than overall noise, a method which provides considerable enlightenment at the design stage. It is shown that on one particular drop hammer, the noise energy is shared surprisingly uniformly over four or five sources, and that when these have been reduced, the overall noise reduction is severely limited by the "acceleration" noise from the "tup" or "hammer" itself. As this is difficult to eliminate without a basic change in forging technology, it follows that "tup" enclosure or modification of the sharpness of the final "hard" impact are the only means available for any serious noise reduction. Also indicated is the reliability of using model techniques, suitably scaled in frequency and impulse magnitude, in developing machinery with impact characteristics.

  18. Electrochemical Surface Potential due to Classical Point Charge Models Drives Anion Adsorption to the Air-Water Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Marcel D.; Stern, Abraham C.; Levin, Yan; Tobias, Douglas J.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2012-06-07

    Herein, we present research that suggests that the underlying physics that drive simple empirical models of anions (e.g. point charge, no polarization) to the air-water interface, with water described by SPC/E, or related partial charge models is different than when both ions and water are modeled with quantum mechanical based interactions. Specifically, we will show that the driving force of ions to the air-water interface for point charge models results from both cavitation and the negative electrochemical surface potential. We will demonstrate that we can fully characterize the role of the free energy due to the electrochemical surface potential computed from simple empirical models and its role in ionic adsorption within the context of dielectric continuum theory (DCT). Our research suggests that a significant part of the electrochemical surface potential in empirical models appears to be an artifact of the failure of point charge models in the vicinity of a broken symmetry. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy‘s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle.

  19. SRM attrition rate study of the aft motor case segments due to water impact cavity collapse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    The attrition assessment of the aft segments of Solid Rocket Motor due to water impact requires the establishment of a correlation between loading occurrences and structural capability. Each discrete load case, as identified by the water impact velocities and angle, varies longitudinally and radially in magnitude and distribution of the external pressure. The distributions are further required to be shifted forward or aft one-fourth the vehicle diameter to assure minimization of the effect of test instrumentation location for the load determinations. The asymmetrical load distributions result in large geometric nonlinearities in structural response. The critical structural response is progressive buckling of the case. Discrete stiffeners have been added to these aft segments to aid in gaining maximum structural capability for minimum weight addition for resisting these loads. This report presents the development of the attrition assessment of the aft segments and includes the rationale for eliminating all assessable conservatisms from this assessment.

  20. Monitoring Changes in Croplands Due to Water Stress in the Krishna River Basin Using Temporal Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Ramana Murthy Reddi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing-based assessments of large river basins such as the Krishna, which supplies water to many states in India, are useful for operationally monitoring agriculture, especially basins that are affected by abiotic stress. Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS time series products can be used to understand cropland changes at the basin level due to abiotic stresses, especially water scarcity. Spectral matching techniques were used to identify land use/land cover (LULC areas for two crop years: 2013–2014, which was a normal year, and 2015–2016, which was a water stress year. Water stress-affected crop areas were categorized into three classes—severe, moderate and mild—based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and intensity of damage assessed through field sampling. Furthermore, ground survey data were used to assess the accuracy of MODIS-derived classification individual products. Water inflows into and outflows from the Krishna river basin during the study period were used as direct indicators of water scarcity/availability in the Krishna Basin. Furthermore, ground survey data were used to assess the accuracy of MODIS-derived LULC classification of individual year products. Rainfall data from the tropical rainfall monitoring mission (TRMM was used to support the water stress analysis. The nine LULC classes derived using the MODIS temporal imagery provided overall accuracies of 82% for the cropping year 2013–2014 and 85% for the year 2015–2016. Kappa values are 0.78 for 2013–2014 and 0.82 for 2015–2016. MODIS-derived cropland areas were compared with national statistics for the cropping year 2013–2014 with a R2 value of 0.87. Results show that both rainfed and irrigated areas in 2015–2016 saw significant changes that will have significant impacts on food security. It has been also observed that the farmers in the basin tend to use lower inputs and labour per ha during drought years. Among

  1. Analysis of the Processes in Spent Fuel Pools in Case of Loss of Heat Removal due to Water Leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Kaliatka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The safe storage of spent fuel assemblies in the spent fuel pools is very important. These facilities are not covered by leaktight containment; thus, the consequences of overheating and melting of fuel in the spent fuel pools can be very severe. On the other hand, due to low decay heat of fuel assemblies, the processes in pools are slow in comparison with processes in reactor core during LOCA accident. Thus, the accident management measures play a very important role in case of some accidents in spent fuel pools. This paper presents the analysis of possible consequences of fuel overheating due to leakage of water from spent fuel pool. Also, the accident mitigation measure, the late injection of water was evaluated. The analysis was performed for the Ignalina NPP Unit 2 spent fuel pool, using system thermal hydraulic code for severe accident analysis ATHLET-CD. The phenomena, taking place during such accident, are discussed. Also, benchmarking of results of the same accident calculation using ASTEC and RELAP/SCDAPSIM codes is presented here.

  2. Changes in catchment-scale water fluxes due to time-variant soil hydraulic properties in a subtropical agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrot, Lucile; Geris, Josie; Gao, Lei; Peng, Xinhua; Hallett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    In agricultural landscapes, temporal fluxes in hydraulic properties due to tillage, grazing, crop root growth and cycles of wetting and drying influenced by irrigation, could have large impacts at catchment scale. These effects are particularly evident in tropical climates where long periods of drought are followed by intense rainfall that greatly exceeds the infiltration capacity of the soil. This work explores the impact of the seasonal development of crops and the shifts in time between crop types on soil physical properties and the relative changes in the probability distribution of the water storage and fluxes dynamics. We focussed on an agricultural catchment in south east China where the climatic conditions include periods of droughts and heavy rainfall. Using coupled 1-dimension and semi-distributed catchment modelling combined with basic water balance data and both on-site and literature values for soil and crop properties, we investigated the impact of soil physical changes in the root-zone of the soil over different time scales ranging from daily to annual. Our results also showed that the resulting time-variant spatial patterns in soil water storage and flow had an impact on the integrated catchment runoff response at different times of the year.

  3. Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Tissue Swelling due to Injury and due to Exposure to Low Temperature and Massive Water and Electrolyte Loss in Diarrheal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    confronting the conventional membrane-pump theory of the living cell concerns the swelling and shrinkage behavior. The great diffi- culty lies in the...shrink and swell in hyper- and hypotonic solutions when the polymer water system is enclosed in a regular dialysis tubing which is fully permeable to...the more concentrated salt solution. Dialysis tubing used is readily permeable to sodium citrate and are used only to hold the polymers. The data

  4. Crop Water Stress Reduction Due to The Effects of Native Woody Shrubs in the Peanut Basin, Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, N. A.; Bayala, R.; Burns, A.; Diedhiou, I.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Dick, R.

    2013-12-01

    A variable climate coupled with intense grazing and farming pressure can have devastating effects on the Sudano-Sahel. Traditionally millet and peanut crops are grown in association with two native shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis which are coppiced during the growing season. There exist considerable knowledge gaps regarding the mechanisms by which the woody shrub rhizosphere supports enhanced nutrient and moisture levels for use by crops in the Peanut Basin, Senegal. Previous work in the area established increased moisture content, organic matter, and decreased deep drainage beneath shrub-crop inter crops as compared to crop only plots. In this study we followed crop physiological parameters of leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, and leaf temperature as they relate to water stress and yield. In addition we performed a water balance using soil moisture monitoring equipment, meteorological data, and two hydrologic models (HYDRUS and the Penman-Monteith). We also performed analysis of the 13C isotope discrimination in leaf biomass in surrounding farmers' fields as a proxy for moisture stress in order to increase the reach of the research from field scale to regional scale. Preliminary results from peanut plants point towards a significant reduction in crop water stress within crop-shrub treatments as compared to control crop only plots. Preliminary results from millet plants point to decreased early season soil temperatures underneath the crop-shrub treatments. It is hypothesized a major mechanism for increased soil moisture below shrubs is due to hydraulic redistribution (HR) however, we argue that it may simply be the effect of the shrub rhizosphere, and the mulching and shading effects of the shrub canopy and its fallen biomass as it grows throughout the cropping season. Soil temperature at 10cm depth at Keur Matar Site at the beginning of cropping season,

  5. Mediating Water Temperature Increases Due to Livestock and Global Change in High Elevation Meadow Streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslé, Sébastien; Matthews, Kathleen R; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2015-01-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change are pushing the thermal limits of many species, but how climate warming interacts with other anthropogenic disturbances such as land use remains poorly understood. To understand the interactive effects of climate warming and livestock grazing on water temperature in three high elevation meadow streams in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California, we measured riparian vegetation and monitored water temperature in three meadow streams between 2008 and 2013, including two "resting" meadows and one meadow that is partially grazed. All three meadows have been subject to grazing by cattle and sheep since the 1800s and their streams are home to the imperiled California golden trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita). In 1991, a livestock exclosure was constructed in one of the meadows (Mulkey), leaving a portion of stream ungrazed to minimize the negative effects of cattle. In 2001, cattle were removed completely from two other meadows (Big Whitney and Ramshaw), which have been in a "resting" state since that time. Inside the livestock exclosure in Mulkey, we found that riverbank vegetation was both larger and denser than outside the exclosure where cattle were present, resulting in more shaded waters and cooler maximal temperatures inside the exclosure. In addition, between meadows comparisons showed that water temperatures were cooler in the ungrazed meadows compared to the grazed area in the partially grazed meadow. Finally, we found that predicted temperatures under different global warming scenarios were likely to be higher in presence of livestock grazing. Our results highlight that land use can interact with climate change to worsen the local thermal conditions for taxa on the edge and that protecting riparian vegetation is likely to increase the resiliency of these ecosystems to climate change.

  6. Mediating Water Temperature Increases Due to Livestock and Global Change in High Elevation Meadow Streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Nusslé

    Full Text Available Rising temperatures due to climate change are pushing the thermal limits of many species, but how climate warming interacts with other anthropogenic disturbances such as land use remains poorly understood. To understand the interactive effects of climate warming and livestock grazing on water temperature in three high elevation meadow streams in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California, we measured riparian vegetation and monitored water temperature in three meadow streams between 2008 and 2013, including two "resting" meadows and one meadow that is partially grazed. All three meadows have been subject to grazing by cattle and sheep since the 1800s and their streams are home to the imperiled California golden trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita. In 1991, a livestock exclosure was constructed in one of the meadows (Mulkey, leaving a portion of stream ungrazed to minimize the negative effects of cattle. In 2001, cattle were removed completely from two other meadows (Big Whitney and Ramshaw, which have been in a "resting" state since that time. Inside the livestock exclosure in Mulkey, we found that riverbank vegetation was both larger and denser than outside the exclosure where cattle were present, resulting in more shaded waters and cooler maximal temperatures inside the exclosure. In addition, between meadows comparisons showed that water temperatures were cooler in the ungrazed meadows compared to the grazed area in the partially grazed meadow. Finally, we found that predicted temperatures under different global warming scenarios were likely to be higher in presence of livestock grazing. Our results highlight that land use can interact with climate change to worsen the local thermal conditions for taxa on the edge and that protecting riparian vegetation is likely to increase the resiliency of these ecosystems to climate change.

  7. The influence of the non-Newtonian properties of blood on blood-hammer through the posterior cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazraei, Pedram; Riasi, Alireza; Takabi, Behrouz

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates a two dimensional numerical analysis of blood hammer through the posterior cerebral artery. The non-Newtonian and usual Newtonian blood models are compared in the case of blood hammer through the posterior cerebral artery to quantify the differences between the models. In this way, a validated CFD simulation is used to study non-Newtonian shear-thinning effects of blood. The governing equations for the modeling of two-dimensional transient flow are solved using a combination of characteristics and central finite difference methods, respectively for the hyperbolic and parabolic parts. Herein, the non-Newtonian viscosity characteristic of blood is incorporated by using the Carreau model. To convert the nonlinear terms available in the characteristics equation into the linear ones, the Newton-Kantorovich method is implemented. The verification and validation of the numerical results are carried out in detail. Hemodynamic characteristics of blood hammer through the posterior cerebral artery are derived with both the Newtonian and non-Newtonian models, and the results are meticulously compared and discussed. The results show that when blood hammer occurs, the non-Newtonian properties greatly influence the velocity and shear stress profiles. At the early stages of blood hammer, there is a 64% difference between magnitudes of wall shear stress in these two models, and the magnitude of the wall shear stress for the shear-thinning blood flow is lower than the Newtonian one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 5,000 years old Egyptian iron beads made from hammered meteoritic iron

    OpenAIRE

    Rehren, T.; Belgya, T.; Jambon, A.; Kali, G.; Kasztovszky, Z.; Kis, Z.; Kovacs, I.; Maroti, B.; Martinon-Torres, M.; Miniaci, G.; Pigott, V. C.; Radivojevic, M.; Rosta, L.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Szokefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The earliest known iron artefacts are nine small beads securely dated to circa 3200 BC, from two burials in Gerzeh, northern Egypt. We show that these beads were made from meteoritic iron, and shaped by careful hammering the metal into thin sheets before rolling them into tubes. The study demonstrates the ability of neutron and X-ray methods to determine the nature of the material even after complete corrosion of the iron metal. The iron beads were strung into a necklace together with other e...

  9. Reliability and validity of measures of hammer toe deformity angle and tibial torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, O Y; Tuttle, L J; Commean, P K; Mueller, M J

    2009-09-01

    Measures of second-fourth metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) angle (indicator of hammer toe deformity) and clinical measures of tibial torsion have limited evidence for validity and reliability. The purposes of this study are to determine: (1) reliability of using a 3D digitizer (Metrecom) and computed tomography (CT) to measure MTPJ angle for toes 2-4; (2) reliability of goniometer, 3D digitizer, and CT to measure tibial torsion; (3) validity of MTPJ angle measures for toes 2-4 using goniometry and 3D digitizer compared to CT (gold standard) and (4) validity of tibial torsion measures using goniometry and 3D digitizer (Metrecom) compared to CT (gold standard). Twenty-nine subjects participated in this study. 27 feet with hammer toe deformity and 31 feet without hammer toe deformity were tested using standardized gonimetric, 3D digitizer and CT methods. ICCs (3,1), standard error of the measurement (SEM) values, and difference measures were used to characterize intrarater reliability. Pearson correlation coefficients and an analysis of variance were used to determine associations and differences between the measurement techniques. 3D digitizer and CT measures of MTPJ angle had high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.95-0.96 and 0.98-0.99, respectively; SEM = 2.64-3.35 degrees and 1.42-1.47 degrees, respectively). Goniometry, 3D digitizer, and CT measures of tibial torsion had good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.75, 0.85, and 0.98, respectively; SEM = 2.15 degrees, 1.74 degrees, and 0.72 degree, respectively). Both goniometric and 3D digitizer measures of MTPJ angle were highly correlated with CT measures of MTPJ angle (r = 0.84-0.90, r = 0.84-0.88, respectively) and tibial torsion (r = 0.72, r = 0.83). Goniometry, 3D digitizer, and CT measures were all different from each other for measures of hammer toe deformity (p Goniometry measures were different from CT measures and 3D digitizer measures of tibial torsion (p reliable. Goniometer and 3D digitizer measures of

  10. [The water supply of a pediatric hospital as a possible source of an outbreak of diarrhea due to Microsporidium spp. in immunocompromised patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, Paulina; Urízar, Claudia; Alba, Andrea; Noemí, Isabel; Pino, Anita; Cerva, José Luis

    2016-08-01

    The hospital water supply is a reservoir of a variety of potentially pathogenic microorganisms that can particularly affect children and immunocompromised patients. Potentially pathogenic Microsporidium spp. have been identified in water. Microsporidiosis is an emerging parasitic and opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. to describe an outbreak of nosocomial diarrhea due to Microsporidium, species Encephalitozoon intestinalis. Seven cases of E. intestinalis associated diarrhea were reported between november 2012 and february 2013, in a unit of immunocompromised patients in L. Calvo Mackenna Children's Hospital. Microsporidium spp. was found in the hospital water supply and water reservoir tank. Secondary cases were transmitted by contact. Control measures included contact precautions, not to use faucet water for hand washing, bottled water for drinking and water reservoir tank sanitation. This research is about a nosocomial outbreak associated with water supply. Water quality in Chilean hospitals is an unresolved issue, especially in immunocompromised patient areas. Compliance of cleaning and disinfection of water supply systems in hospitals must be ensured.

  11. Microaspersores entupidos devido a problemas de ferro na água Microsprinkler clogged due to iron problems in the water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Assunção Pires Ribeiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Um dos aspectos relevantes a ser considerado no manejo da irrigação é a uniformidade de distribuição de água pelo sistema. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da cloração com a utilização de hipoclorito de sódio na desobstrução de microaspersores devido à utilização de águas com elevado teor de ferro. Um sistema com dez meses de uso apresentava setores com vazões de 5% a 57% menores que a vazão de projeto. Foi feito o tratamento químico da água de irrigação, utilizando-se hipoclorito de sódio com 12% de cloro livre na dosagem de 100 mg L-1 e ácido sulfúrico, na concentração de 98%, para manter o pH da água de irrigação em torno de 4,5. O resultado indicou que houve aumento significativo nas vazões médias dos microaspersores em todos os setores avaliados e diminuição na variação da vazão dos mesmos com relação à estimada no projeto.An important aspect to be considered in irrigation managment is the uniformity distribution of water through the irrigation system. This research had the objective to evaluate the efficiency of chlorination in the use of sodium hypochlorite in clearing of microsprinkler due to the presence of high iron concentration in water. The equipment with less than a year of use presenting sectors with 5% and 57% lower flow than the original project flow. The chemical treatment of water irrigation utilized sodium hypochlorite with 12% free chlorine on 100mg L-1 concentration, and sulphuric acid 98% to maintain the pH of water irrigation about 4.5. The result demonstrated a significant increase in the average flow of the microsprinkler's variation in all evaluted setors, and decrease in their flow variation related to the estimated in the project.

  12. Probabilistic Prognosis of Environmental Radioactivity Concentrations due to Radioisotopes Discharged to Water Bodies from Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás Zerquera, Juan; Mora, Juan C; Robles, Beatriz

    2017-11-15

    Due to their very low values, the complexity of comparing the contribution of nuclear power plants (NPPs) to environmental radioactivity with modeled values is recognized. In order to compare probabilistic prognosis of radioactivity concentrations with environmental measurement values, an exercise was performed using public data of radioactive routine discharges from three representative Spanish nuclear power plants. Specifically, data on liquid discharges from three Spanish NPPs: Almaraz, Vandellós II, and Ascó to three different aquatic bodies (river, lake, and coast) were used. Results modelled using generic conservative models together with Monte Carlo techniques used for uncertainties propagation were compared with values of radioactivity concentrations in the environment measured in the surroundings of these NPPs. Probability distribution functions were inferred for the source term, used as an input to the model to estimate the radioactivity concentrations in the environment due to discharges to the water bodies. Radioactivity concentrations measured in bottom sediments were used in the exercise due to their accumulation properties. Of all the radioisotopes measured in the environmental monitoring programs around the NPPs, only Cs-137, Sr-90, and Co-60 had positive values greater than their respective detection limits. Of those, Sr-90 and Cs-137 are easily measured in the environment, but significant contribution from the radioactive fall-out due to nuclear explosions in the atmosphere exists, and therefore their values cannot be attributed to the NPPs. On the contrary, Co-60 is especially useful as an indicator of the radioactive discharges from NPPs because its presence in the environment can solely be attributed to the impact of the closer nuclear facilities. All the modelled values for Co-60 showed a reasonable correspondence with measured environmental data in all cases, being conservative in two of them. The more conservative predictions obtained with

  13. Probabilistic Prognosis of Environmental Radioactivity Concentrations due to Radioisotopes Discharged to Water Bodies from Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tomás Zerquera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their very low values, the complexity of comparing the contribution of nuclear power plants (NPPs to environmental radioactivity with modeled values is recognized. In order to compare probabilistic prognosis of radioactivity concentrations with environmental measurement values, an exercise was performed using public data of radioactive routine discharges from three representative Spanish nuclear power plants. Specifically, data on liquid discharges from three Spanish NPPs: Almaraz, Vandellós II, and Ascó to three different aquatic bodies (river, lake, and coast were used. Results modelled using generic conservative models together with Monte Carlo techniques used for uncertainties propagation were compared with values of radioactivity concentrations in the environment measured in the surroundings of these NPPs. Probability distribution functions were inferred for the source term, used as an input to the model to estimate the radioactivity concentrations in the environment due to discharges to the water bodies. Radioactivity concentrations measured in bottom sediments were used in the exercise due to their accumulation properties. Of all the radioisotopes measured in the environmental monitoring programs around the NPPs, only Cs-137, Sr-90, and Co-60 had positive values greater than their respective detection limits. Of those, Sr-90 and Cs-137 are easily measured in the environment, but significant contribution from the radioactive fall-out due to nuclear explosions in the atmosphere exists, and therefore their values cannot be attributed to the NPPs. On the contrary, Co-60 is especially useful as an indicator of the radioactive discharges from NPPs because its presence in the environment can solely be attributed to the impact of the closer nuclear facilities. All the modelled values for Co-60 showed a reasonable correspondence with measured environmental data in all cases, being conservative in two of them. The more conservative

  14. Wave Stresses in the Anvil Hammer Rods under Impact Including Ram Mass and Deformation Force of Forgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sinitskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When operating the anvil hammers there occur impacts of die tooling and as a consequence, virtually instantaneous impact stops of motion of drop hammer parts. Such operating conditions come with accelerated failures of the anvil hammer rods because of emerging significant wave stresses. Engineering practice widely uses variation, difference, and integral methods to calculate wave stresses. However, to use them a researcher has to acquire certain skills, and the special programs should be available. The paper considers a method for estimating the wave stress changes in the anvil hammer rods, which is based on the wave equation of the Laplace transform. It presents a procedure for generating differential equations and their solution using the operator method. These equations describe the wave processes of strain and stress propagation in the anvil hammer rod under non-rigid impact with the compliance obstacle of the drop hammer parts. The work defines how the piston and rod mass and also the mechanical and geometric parameters of the rod influence on the stress level in the rod sealing of the hammer ram. Analysis of the results shows that the stresses in the rod sealing are proportional to the total amount of wave stresses caused by the rod and piston impact included in the total weight of the system. The piston influence on the stresses in the rod under impact is in direct proportion to the ratio of its mass to the mass of the rod. Geometric parameters of the rod and speed of drop parts before the impact influence on the stress value as well. It was found that if the time of impact is less than the time of the shock wave running in forward and backward direction, the impact with a compliance obstacle is equivalent to that of with a rigid obstacle, and the dependence of the wave stresses follows the Zhukovsky formula of direct pressure shock. The presented method of stress calculation can be successfully used to select the optimal mass and the rod

  15. Perbandingan Nilai Kuat Tekan Beton Menggunakan Hammer Test dan Compression Testing Machine terhadap Beton Pasca Bakar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weka Indra Dharmawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The change of temperature is quite high, as was the case in the event of a fire, it will have an impact on the concrete structure. Because in the process there will be a cycle of alternately heating and cooling, which would lead to a change in phase of the complex physical and chemical basis. Using hammer test as a comparison of compression testing machine (CTM in normal conditions the concrete now widely used and has had standardization. The objects to test consist of 60 concrete cubes beam of 15 cm x 15 cm x 15 cm which burned for 3 hours with 3 variants of temperatures. The 20 samples used as a blank test and each 20 samples burnt with temperature 300oC and 600oC. The results showed the increase in the compressive strength at the temperature of 300oC in the amount of 6.68% or 10.91 Kg/cm2, and at the temperature of 600oC has decreased by 1.57% or 2.56 Kg/cm2 on hammer test. While the testing with compression strength of concrete decreased at temperatures of 300oC and 600oC respectively is 15.77% or 51.1 Kg/cm2 and 21.89% or 70.93 Kg/cm2.

  16. A Really Good Hammer: Quantification of Mass Transfer Using Perfluorocarbon Tracers (475th Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Tom [BNL Environmental Sciences, Tracer Technology Group

    2012-02-15

    Brookhaven Lab’s perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology can be viewed as a hammer looking for nails. But, according to Tom Watson, leader of the Lab’s Tracer Technology Group in the Environmental Research and Technology Division (ERTD), “It’s a really good hammer!” The colorless, odorless and safe gases have a number of research uses, from modeling how airborne contaminants might move through urban canyons to help first responders plan their response to potential terrorist attacks and accidents to locating leaks in underground gas pipes. Their extremely low background level — detectable at one part per quadrillion — allows their transport to be easily tracked. Lab researchers used PFTs during the 2005 Urban Dispersion Program field studies in New York City, gathering data to help improve models of how a gas or chemical release might move around Manhattan’s tall buildings and canyons. Closer to home, scientists also used PFTs to make ventilation measurements in Bldg. 400 on the Lab site to provide data to test air flow models used in determining the effects of passive and active air exchange on the levels of indoor and outdoor air pollution, and to determine the effects of an accidental or intentional release of hazardous substances in or around buildings.

  17. Performance Study of a Fluidic Hammer Controlled by an Output-Fed Bistable Fluidic Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a no-moving-component output-fed bistable fluidic oscillator to control fluid flows into a parallel path has been recognized for a considerable time, but as yet it is not so widely adopted as its obvious benefits would deserve. This may be attributed to the encountered problems associated with its jet behavior, complicated by its loading characteristics. In order to investigate a typical case for the application of the output-fed fluidic oscillator, this paper elaborates on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation method for studying the performance of a fluidic hammer controlled by an output-fed bistable fluidic oscillator. Given that couple mechanism exists between the flow field in the fluidic oscillator and the impact body, dynamic mesh technique and a user-defined function written in C programming language were used to update the mesh in the simulations. In terms of the evaluation of performance, the focus is on the single-impact energy and output power of the fluidic hammer in this study, to investigate the effect of different parameters of the impact body on them. Experimental tests based on the noncontact measuring method were conducted to verify the simulation results, by which the accuracy and reliability of this CFD simulation method was proved.

  18. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion ...

  19. Visco-elastic deformation around Siling Co lake (Tibet) due to its 2000-2010 increased water load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doin, M.; Twardzik, C.; Ducret, G.; Lasserre, C.; Guillaso, S.; Sun, J.

    2012-12-01

    This study attempts to constrain the lithospheric strength in Central Tibet by studying the rebound of the lithosphere subjected to loading due to lake Siling Co water level increase. This lake is a large (1600 km2) endhoreic lake at 4500 m elevation located North of the strike-slip right lateral Gyaring Co fault, and South of the Bangong Nujiang suture zone. The water load of the lake is constrained by altimetric measures and all cloud-free LANDSAT images available on the USGS GLOVIS server. During the period 1973-1999 the Siling Co water level remained stable, while it increased by about 1.0 m/yr in the period 2000-2006. The increase rate gradually stepped down to 0.2 m/yr in 2008-2011. The ground motion associated to the water level increase is studied by InSAR using all available 56 ERS and 51 Envisat data on descending tracks 491 and 219 in the period 1992-2010. A redundant network of small baseline differential interferograms is computed with perpendicular baseline smaller than 500 m. The ERS and Envisat networks overlap in time, thus insuring measurement continuity. The coherence is quickly lost with time (over one year), particularly to the North of the lake because of freeze-thaw cycles. Interferograms are corrected for stratified atmospheric effect and residual orbital trends. The interferograms covering the period 1992-1999 show no detectable deformation, whereas the ones covering the period 2000-2010 present a clear bowl shape pattern centered on the lake that extend from the shore to about ~100 km from the lake center. The amplitude is about 5 mm/yr close to the lake shores. To increase the signal to noise ratio, the interferograms are first analysed in time assuming a constant deformation shape. We then obtain the temporal evolution of the deformation amplitude : it remains constant for the period 1992-1999, and increases from 2000 until 2010. This curve thus closely follows the lake level temporal evolution. The average spatial deformation pattern is

  20. Experimental Measurements and Mathematical Modeling of Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Water Flow in a Long Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, J.; Kozubkova, M.

    2017-08-01

    Static and dynamic characteristics of flow in technical practice are very important and serious problem and can be solved by experimental measurement or mathematical modeling. Unsteady flow presents time changes of the flow and water hammer can be an example of this phenomenon. Water hammer is caused by rapid changes in the water flow by means the closure or opening of the control valve. The authors deal with by hydraulic hammer at the multiphase flow (water and air), its one-dimensional modeling (Matlab SimHydraulics) and modeling with the use of the finite volume method (Ansys Fluent) in article. The circuit elements are defined by static and dynamic characteristics. The results are verified with measurements. The article evaluates different approaches, their advantages, disadvantages and specifics in solving of water hammer.

  1. On the Transition from Bulk to Ordered Form of Water: A Theoretical Model to Calculate Adhesion Force Due to Capillary and van der Waals Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaqoob, M.A.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2013-01-01

    The adhesion force due to capillary interaction between two hydrophilic surfaces is strongly dependent on the partial pressure of water and is often calculated using the Kelvin equation. The validity of the Kelvin equation is questionable at low relative humidity (RH) of water, like in high vacuum

  2. Hydrological Modeling of Storm Water Drainage System due to Frequent and Intense Precipitation of Dhaka city using Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall induced flooding during rainy season is a regular phenomenon in Dhaka City. Almost every year a significant part of the city suffers badly with drainage congestion. There are some highly dense areas with lower ground elevation which submerge under water even with an intense precipitation of few hours. The higher areas also suffer with the drainage problem due to inadequate maintenance of the system and encroachment or illegal filling up of the drainage canals and lakes. Most part of the city suffered from long term urban flooding during historical extreme rainfall events in September 2004, 2007 and July 2009. The situation is likely to worsen in the future due to Climate Change, which may lead to more frequent and intense precipitation. To assess the major and minor drainage systems and elements of the urban basins using the hydrodynamic modelling and, through this, identifying the flooding events and areas, taking into account the current situation and future flood or drainage scenarios. Stormwater modeling has a major role in preventing issues such as flash floods and urban water-quality problems. Stormwater models of a lowered spatial resolution would thus appear valuable if only their ability to provide realistic results could be proved. The present scenario of urban morphology of Dhaka city and existing drainage system is complex for hydrological and hydrodynamic modeling. Furthermore limitations of background data and uncertain future urban scenarios may confine the potential outputs of a model. Although several studies were carried out including modeling for drainage master planning, a detail model for whole DAP (Detaile Area Plan) of Dhaka city area is not available. The model developed under this study is covering the existing drainage system in the study area as well as natural flows in the fringe area. A good number of models are available for hydrological and hydraulic analysis of urban areas. These are MIKE 11, MOUSE, HEC-RAS, HEC HMS and EPA

  3. Hardening of particle/oil/water suspensions due to capillary bridges: Experimental yield stress and theoretical interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Krassimir D; Georgiev, Mihail T; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Radulova, Gergana M; Gurkov, Theodor D; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Pelan, Eddie G

    2018-01-01

    Suspensions of colloid particles possess the remarkable property to solidify upon the addition of minimal amount of a second liquid that preferentially wets the particles. The hardening is due to the formation of capillary bridges (pendular rings), which connect the particles. Here, we review works on the mechanical properties of such suspensions and related works on the capillary-bridge force, and present new rheological data for the weakly studied concentration range 30-55 vol% particles. The mechanical strength of the solidified capillary suspensions, characterized by the yield stress Y, is measured at the elastic limit for various volume fractions of the particles and the preferentially wetting liquid. A quantitative theoretical model is developed, which relates Y with the maximum of the capillary-bridge force, projected on the shear plane. A semi-empirical expression for the mean number of capillary bridges per particle is proposed. The model agrees very well with the experimental data and gives a quantitative description of the yield stress, which increases with the rise of interfacial tension and with the volume fractions of particles and capillary bridges, but decreases with the rise of particle radius and contact angle. The quantitative description of capillary force is based on the exact theory and numerical calculation of the capillary bridge profile at various bridge volumes and contact angles. An analytical formula for Y is also derived. The comparison of the theoretical and experimental strain at the elastic limit reveals that the fluidization of the capillary suspension takes place only in a deformation zone of thickness up to several hundred particle diameters, which is adjacent to the rheometer's mobile plate. The reported experimental results refer to water-continuous suspension with hydrophobic particles and oily capillary bridges. The comparison of data for bridges from soybean oil and hexadecane surprisingly indicate that the yield strength is

  4. 76 FR 24856 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges..., Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On January 3, 2011, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') initiated a...

  5. Observations of mechanical-hydraulic-geochemical interactions due to drainage of a surface water reservoir in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, R. J.; Kinali, M.; Pytharouli, S.; Shipton, Z.; Stillings, M.; Lord, R.

    2016-12-01

    The drainage and refilling of a surface water reservoir beside the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) underground rock laboratory in Switzerland, has provided a unique opportunity to study in-situ rock mechanical, hydraulic and chemical interactions under large-scale stress changes. The reservoir was drained in October/November 2014 to enable dam maintenance and extension of the regional hydropower tunnel system. Reservoir drainage will have caused rapid unloading of the surrounding rock mass. The GTS sits 37m below the top of the reservoir and 200-600m away laterally within the mountainside on the eastern bank of the reservoir. Gradual refilling of the reservoir, via natural snowmelt and runoff, commenced in February 2015. As part of the European LASMO Project, researchers at Strathclyde, funded by Radioactive Waste Management Ltd., have been investigating mechanical-chemical-hydraulic coupling within the rock mass as an analogue for glacial unloading and loading of a future Geological Disposal Facility. We have deployed three 3-component and 6 single-component micro-seismometers within the GTS and surrounding hydropower tunnel network. In parallel, we have implemented a groundwater sampling programme, using boreholes within the GTS, for temporal determination of geochemistry and flow rate. Preliminary data analyses show geochemical anomalies during unloading, as well as detection of microseismic events. The signal-to-noise ratio of the micro-seismic data is extremely poor. Noise amplitude, and frequency content, variy throughout each day, between days, and from month-to-month on a highly unpredictable basis. This is probably due to the multitude of hydropower turbines and pump-storage systems within the surrounding mountains. To discriminate micro-seismic events, we have developed a new methodology for characterizing background noise within the seismic signal and combined this with cross-correlations techniques generally applied in microseismic analysis of hydraulic

  6. New developments with Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD): Comparison of mechanical and electronic Schmidt-hammers - towards a conversion factor for Q- and R-values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan; Matthews, John; Corbett, David

    2014-05-01

    Developed as an instrument for in situ destruction-free testing of concrete hardness in construction works, the Schmidt-hammer has subsequently been introduced and applied in various fields of geomorphology and geology. In the context of investigating Late Glacial and Holocene glacier chronologies, the Schmidt-hammer has been widely used as a relative-age dating technique. Such applications have for example successfully separated moraines formed during different glacier advance periods ('Little Ice Age'-type events). Pilot studies combined Schmidt-hammer measurements with available radiocarbon ages in order to achieve age constraints. Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) combining Schmidt-hammer and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) has recently been successfully applied in Norway and New Zealand. Schmidt-hammer tests have also been used to ensure the representativeness of boulders selected for TCND sampling. Especially in mountain regions with a high "geomorphological uncertainty" with the dating of Holocene moraines the inherited multi-proxy approach of SHD owns a considerable potential for reliable investigations of Late Glacial/Holocene glacier chronologies and their palaeoclimatic interpretation. An electronic Schmidt-hammer (named SilverSchmidt) was introduced by the manufacturer of the original mechanical Schmidt-hammer (Proceq SA) a few years ago. It offers especially facilities for much easier data processing and constitutes, therefore, a major improvement and potential replacement for the mechanical Schmidt-hammer. However, its different approach to the measurement of surface hardness - based on Q-(velocity) values instead of R-(rebound) values - means that measurements from the two instruments are not easily interconvertible. Prior to any considerations of using the instruments interchangeably or replacing the mechanical Schmidt-hammer in future studies with the SilverSchmidt, comparative tests under field conditions need to be undertaken

  7. Loss of ecosystem services due to chronic pollution of forests and surface waters in the Adirondack region (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M.; Caputo, Jesse; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Sustaining recent progress in mitigating acid pollution could require lower emissions caps that will give rise to real or perceived tradeoffs between healthy ecosystems and inexpensive energy. Because most impacts of acid rain affect ecosystem functions that are poorly understood by policy-makers and the public, an ecosystem services (ES) framework can help to measure how pollution affects human well-being. Focused on the Adirondack region (USA), a global ‘hot-spot’ of acid pollution, we measured how the chronic acidification of the region's forests, lakes, and streams has affected the potential economic and cultural benefits they provide to society. We estimated that acid-impaired hardwood forests provide roughly half of the potential benefits of forests on moderate to well-buffered soils – an estimated loss of ∼ $10,000 ha−1 in net present value of wood products, maple syrup, carbon sequestration, and visual quality. Acidic deposition has had only nominal impact – relative to the effects of surficial geology and till depth – on the capacity of Adirondack lakes and streams to provide water suitable for drinking. However, as pH declines in lakes, the estimated value of recreational fishing decreases significantly due to loss of desirable fish such as trout. Hatchery stocking programs have partially offset the pollution-mediated losses of fishery value, most effectively in the pH range 4.8–5.5, but are costly and limited in scope. Although any estimates of the monetary ‘damages’ of acid rain have significant uncertainties, our findings highlight some of the more tangible economic and cultural benefits of pollution mitigation efforts, which continue to face litigation and political opposition.

  8. Loss of ecosystem services due to chronic pollution of forests and surface waters in the Adirondack region (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Lawrence, Gregory B; Sullivan, Timothy J

    2017-04-15

    Sustaining recent progress in mitigating acid pollution could require lower emissions caps that will give rise to real or perceived tradeoffs between healthy ecosystems and inexpensive energy. Because most impacts of acid rain affect ecosystem functions that are poorly understood by policy-makers and the public, an ecosystem services (ES) framework can help to measure how pollution affects human well-being. Focused on the Adirondack region (USA), a global 'hot-spot' of acid pollution, we measured how the chronic acidification of the region's forests, lakes, and streams has affected the potential economic and cultural benefits they provide to society. We estimated that acid-impaired hardwood forests provide roughly half of the potential benefits of forests on moderate to well-buffered soils - an estimated loss of ∼ $10,000 ha-1 in net present value of wood products, maple syrup, carbon sequestration, and visual quality. Acidic deposition has had only nominal impact - relative to the effects of surficial geology and till depth - on the capacity of Adirondack lakes and streams to provide water suitable for drinking. However, as pH declines in lakes, the estimated value of recreational fishing decreases significantly due to loss of desirable fish such as trout. Hatchery stocking programs have partially offset the pollution-mediated losses of fishery value, most effectively in the pH range 4.8-5.5, but are costly and limited in scope. Although any estimates of the monetary 'damages' of acid rain have significant uncertainties, our findings highlight some of the more tangible economic and cultural benefits of pollution mitigation efforts, which continue to face litigation and political opposition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Water hammer likely cause of large oil spill in north sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nennie, E.D.; Korst, H.J.C.; Lunde, K.; Myklebust, R.

    2010-01-01

    On December 12, 2007, the second largest oil spill in the history of Norwegian oil exploration occurred on StatoilHydro's Statfjord Alpha platform. The spill was caused by a snapped 20″ oil off-loading hose. Thorough investigations by StatoilHydro [1] and by the Norwegian authorities [2] revealed

  10. Grinding energy and physical properties of chopped and hammer-milled barley, wheat, oat, and canola straws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Tumuluru; L.G. Tabil; Y. Song; K.L. Iroba; V. Meda

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, specific energy for grinding and physical properties of wheat, canola, oat and barley straw grinds were investigated. The initial moisture content of the straw was about 0.13–0.15 (fraction total mass basis). Particle size reduction experiments were conducted in two stages: (1) a chopper without a screen, and (2) a hammer mill using three screen sizes (19.05, 25.4, and 31.75 mm). The lowest grinding energy (1.96 and 2.91 kWh t-1) was recorded for canola straw using a chopper and hammer mill with 19.05-mm screen size, whereas the highest (3.15 and 8.05 kWh t-1) was recorded for barley and oat straws. The physical properties (geometric mean particle diameter, bulk, tapped and particle density, and porosity) of the chopped and hammer-milled wheat, barley, canola, and oat straw grinds measured were in the range of 0.98–4.22 mm, 36–80 kg m-3, 49–119 kg m-3, 600–1220 kg m-3, and 0.9–0.96, respectively. The average mean particle diameter was highest for the chopped wheat straw (4.22-mm) and lowest for the canola grind (0.98-mm). The canola grinds produced using the hammer mill (19.05-mm screen size) had the highest bulk and tapped density of about 80 and 119 kg m-3; whereas, the wheat and oat grinds had the lowest of about 58 and 88–90 kg m-3. The results indicate that the bulk and tapped densities are inversely proportional to the particle size of the grinds. The flow properties of the grinds calculated are better for chopped straws compared to hammer milled using smaller screen size (19.05 mm).

  11. HAMMER: automated operation of mass frontier to construct in silico mass spectral fragmentation libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiarui; Weber, Ralf J M; Allwood, J William; Mistrik, Robert; Zhu, Zexuan; Ji, Zhen; Chen, Siping; Dunn, Warwick B; He, Shan; Viant, Mark R

    2014-02-15

    Experimental MS(n) mass spectral libraries currently do not adequately cover chemical space. This limits the robust annotation of metabolites in metabolomics studies of complex biological samples. In silico fragmentation libraries would improve the identification of compounds from experimental multistage fragmentation data when experimental reference data are unavailable. Here, we present a freely available software package to automatically control Mass Frontier software to construct in silico mass spectral libraries and to perform spectral matching. Based on two case studies, we have demonstrated that high-throughput automation of Mass Frontier allows researchers to generate in silico mass spectral libraries in an automated and high-throughput fashion with little or no human intervention required. Documentation, examples, results and source code are available at http://www.biosciences-labs.bham.ac.uk/viant/hammer/.

  12. Visual analysis and Schmidt rebound hammer test of Taj-ul-Masajid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hussain

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Taj-ul-Masajid, literally, the crown among mosques is an embodiment of genius structural engineering located in the heart of Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal. A unique combination of the Mughal Architecture in complete stone masonry and modern day RCC work, it is a liaison between the past and the present of structural engineering. A wonder in its own right, the structure is often neglected by technicians and conservationalists alike, a satire on their ingenuity. Now, in a severely dilapidated condition, the structure is in pressing need of structural rehabilitation. The authors intend to perform in-situ Non-Destructive Testing & Evaluation (NDT&E of this structure and thereby suggest steps to better its present condition. As a first step, they’ve performed the visual analysis and Schmidt Rebound Hammer Test on the concrete portion of the structure which has been presented herein. The authors have also suggested a new approach for the verification of results obtained.

  13. Vibration Analysis Based on Hammer Impact for Fouling Detection Using Microphone and Accelerometer as Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaidilson Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The easy detection of fouling in duct systems is a persistent problem and remains a relevant demand for the chemical, oil, food and pharmaceutical industries. The fouling process is the slow, unwanted layer deposition of heavy organic and other dissolved solid materials out of transported fluids or suspensions onto inner wall surfaces in fluid transport systems over an extended period of time. This work presents research results of vibrational hammer excitation for easy to use external non-invasive, non-destructive fouling detection in pipelines and other large scale duct systems. The main goal is the detection of inner pipe layer formation, and thickness estimation of the adsorbed material. Data were taken from the vibration amplitude variation in presence of an inner pipe fouling layer using acoustic accelerometer and microphone detection. The experimental set-up and achievable sensitivities and of the methods are outlined.

  14. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill includes a horn actuator having high power piezoelectric materials and a flexure pre-stress to increase the actuators effectiveness. The drill is a low mass, low power, compact coring drill measuring 20-cm high by 7-cm diameter and having a total weight of 2 kg including drive electronics. Using an average power of 50-Watts, the drill basalt is expected to cut basalt at a rate of 0.2 cm/min down to depth of 10-cm and create cuttings and an intact core. The drill is expected to operate under different environments including Martian ambient (6 Torr and down to -50 degree C), and liquid nitrogen temperatures (77 K) and low pressure (<<1 Torr) to simulate lunar polar and Europa conditions. Materials expected to be sampled include Kaolinite, Saddleback Basalt, Limestone, Volcanic Breccia, Siltstone, ice, permafrost and layered rocks with different hardness.

  15. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Legger, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Medrano Llamas, R; Sciacca, G; Van der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 80 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short light-weight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate si...

  16. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Legger, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes almost 100 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short light-weight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate site...

  17. Water Scarcity Hotspots Travel Downstream Due to Human Interventions in the 20th and 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Doell, P.; Gosling, S. N.; Liu, J.; Masaki, Y.; Oki, T.; Ostberg, S.; Pokhrel, Y.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Water scarcity is rapidly increasing in many regions. In a novel, multi-model assessment, we examine how human interventions (HI: land use and land cover change, man-made reservoirs and human water use) affected monthly river water availability and water scarcity over the period 1971 - 2010. Here we show that HI drastically change the critical dimensions of water scarcity, aggravating water scarcity for 8.8%(7.4 - 16.5 %) ) of the global population but alleviating it for another 8.3 % (6.4 -15.8 %). Positive impacts of HI mostly occur upstream, whereas HI aggravate water scarcity downstream; HI cause water scarcity to travel downstream. Attribution of water scarcity changes to HI components is complex and varies among the hydrological models. Seasonal variation in impacts and dominant HI components is also substantial. A thorough consideration of the spatially and temporally varying interactions among HI components and of uncertainties is therefore crucial for the success of water scarcity adaptation by HI.

  18. Water scarcity hotspots travel downstream due to human interventions in the 20th and 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Döll, P.; Gosling, S. N.; Liu, J.; Masaki, Y.; Oki, T.; Ostberg, S.; Pokhrel, Y.; Satoh, Y.; Kim, H.; Ward, P. J.

    2017-06-01

    Water scarcity is rapidly increasing in many regions. In a novel, multi-model assessment, we examine how human interventions (HI: land use and land cover change, man-made reservoirs and human water use) affected monthly river water availability and water scarcity over the period 1971-2010. Here we show that HI drastically change the critical dimensions of water scarcity, aggravating water scarcity for 8.8% (7.4-16.5%) of the global population but alleviating it for another 8.3% (6.4-15.8%). Positive impacts of HI mostly occur upstream, whereas HI aggravate water scarcity downstream; HI cause water scarcity to travel downstream. Attribution of water scarcity changes to HI components is complex and varies among the hydrological models. Seasonal variation in impacts and dominant HI components is also substantial. A thorough consideration of the spatially and temporally varying interactions among HI components and of uncertainties is therefore crucial for the success of water scarcity adaptation by HI.

  19. Reliability of the Achilles tendon tap reflex evoked during stance using a pendulum hammer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildren, Robyn L; Zaback, Martin; Adkin, Allan L; Frank, James S; Bent, Leah R

    2016-01-01

    The tendon tap reflex (T-reflex) is often evoked in relaxed muscles to assess spinal reflex circuitry. Factors contributing to reflex excitability are modulated to accommodate specific postural demands. Thus, there is a need to be able to assess this reflex in a state where spinal reflex circuitry is engaged in maintaining posture. The aim of this study was to determine whether a pendulum hammer could provide controlled stimuli to the Achilles tendon and evoke reliable muscle responses during normal stance. A second aim was to establish appropriate stimulus parameters for experimental use. Fifteen healthy young adults stood on a forceplate while taps were applied to the Achilles tendon under conditions in which postural sway was constrained (by providing centre of pressure feedback) or unconstrained (no feedback) from an invariant release angle (50°). Twelve participants repeated this testing approximately six months later. Within one experimental session, tap force and T-reflex amplitude were found to be reliable regardless of whether postural sway was constrained (tap force ICC=0.982; T-reflex ICC=0.979) or unconstrained (tap force ICC=0.968; T-reflex ICC=0.964). T-reflex amplitude was also reliable between experimental sessions (constrained ICC=0.894; unconstrained ICC=0.890). When a T-reflex recruitment curve was constructed, optimal mid-range responses were observed using a 50° release angle. These results demonstrate that reliable Achilles T-reflexes can be evoked in standing participants without the need to constrain posture. The pendulum hammer provides a simple method to allow researchers and clinicians to gather information about reflex circuitry in a state where it is involved in postural control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Legger, Federica; Sciabà, Andrea; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Úbeda García, Mario; van der Ster, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion policies. A study of the historical test results for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb will be presented, including comparisons between the experiments’ grid availabilities and a search for site-based or temporal failure correlations. Finally, we will look to future plans that will allow users to gain new insights into the test results; these include developments to allow increased testing concurrency, increased scale in the number of metrics recorded per test job (up to hundreds), and increased scale in the historical job information (up to many millions of jobs per VO).

  1. A randomized trial to evaluate the risk of gastrointestinal disease due to consumption of drinking water meeting current microbiological standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payment, P; Richardson, L; Siemiatycki, J; Dewar, R; Edwardes, M; Franco, E

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This project directly and empirically measured the level of gastrointestinal (GI) illness related to the consumption of tapwater prepared from sewage-contaminated surface waters and meeting current water quality criteria. METHODS: A randomized intervention trial was carried out; 299 eligible households were supplied with domestic water filters (reverse-osmosis) that eliminate microbial and chemical contaminants from their water, and 307 households were left with their usual tapwater without a filter. The GI symptomatology was evaluated by means of a family health diary maintained prospectively by all study families over a 15-month period. RESULTS: The estimated annual incidence of GI illness was 0.76 among tapwater drinkers compared with 0.50 among filtered water drinkers (p less than 0.01). These findings were consistently observed in all population subgroups. CONCLUSION: It is estimated that 35% of the reported GI illnesses among the tapwater drinkers were water-related and preventable. Our results raise questions about the adequacy of current standards of drinking water quality to prevent water-borne endemic gastrointestinal illness. PMID:2029037

  2. Changes in Upper Extremity Range of Motion and Efficiency in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Due to Water Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Pamela Rae

    To determine the effects of water exercise on the movements of multiple sclerosis patients, this study utilized tests to determine changes in the linear range of motion of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist after a 45-minute period of water activities and to determine if the movement became more effective. The test used was an overhead throw with a…

  3. More efficient irrigation may compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements due to climate change in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. We will present a recently published study1 that estimates the current level of water demand for Mediterranean agriculture and simulates the potential impacts of climate change, population growth and transitions to water-saving irrigation and conveyance technologies. The results indicate that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems, with large differences in the saving potentials across countries. Under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean. Both the Eastern and the Southern Mediterranean would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect. However, in some scenarios water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain. In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a large development2 that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops.

  4. A Spatial Modeling Approach to Predicting the Secondary Spread of Invasive Species Due to Ballast Water Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Sieracki, Jennifer L.; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Ballast water in ships is an important contributor to the secondary spread of invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Here, we use a model previously created to determine the role ballast water management has played in the secondary spread of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) to identify the future spread of one current and two potential invasive species in the Great Lakes, the Eurasian Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), killer shrimp (Dikerogammarus villosus), and golden mussel (...

  5. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a

  6. Reduced Deep Root Hydraulic Redistribution Due to Climate Change Impacts Carbon and Water Cycling in Southern US Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, J.; Noormets, A.; King, J. S.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.; Gavazzi, M. J.; Treasure, E.; Caldwell, P.

    2010-12-01

    It is well known that plants lose water from the canopy through transpiration, and also lose a portion of water drawn up at night from deep, moist soil layers through roots and deposited to shallow, dry soil layers. This process is termed hydraulic redistribution (HR). Deep root water uptake and HR have been a major discovery during the last 15 years, but little is known about the impact of future climatic and environmental conditions on deep root water uptake and its impact on water balance and carbon sequestration. We investigated the temporal variability of soil moisture dynamics in three AmeriFlux sites and used data from the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment site to forecast future environmental impacts on HR and its impact on water cycling and carbon sequestration. Our results showed that HR played a critical role in delaying the drying of upper soil layers by replacing more than 25% of the water utilized during the day with water taken up by deep roots at night. Furthermore, HR mitigated the effects of soil drying in the understory and had important implications for net primary productivity and carbon sink potential of young plantations. A warming climate is associated with higher vapor pressure deficits, which will increase nighttime evapotranspiration and reduce HR because trees will act as a competitor with the upper soil for water. We predicted that increases in temperature, vapor pressure deficit and CO2 would reduce HR and limit shallow soil rewetting, thus decreasing net ecosystem productivity (NEP) especially in young and in shallow rooted forest plantations. Modeled carbon flux showed that in the absence of HR, gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) would be reduced by more than 30%, or 200 g C m-2 yr-1 and 750 g C m-2 yr-1 in a young and in a mid-rotation plantation, respectively. HR-induced decrease of GEP outweighed the decrease of ecosystem respiration, thus leading to a lower NEP. For these two types of managed forests, NEP would also be reduced by 100

  7. Water drinking in the management of orthostatic intolerance due to orthostatic hypotension, vasovagal syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, C J; Young, T M

    2004-09-01

    Water drinking recently has been shown to raise blood pressure in normal subjects and in patients with autonomic failure who have orthostatic hypotension. However, in normal young subjects, ingestion of approximately 500 ml has no pressor effect; but in older subjects there is an increase in blood pressure. An even greater rise in blood pressure occurs in cases with autonomic failure. The possible mechanisms responsible for the pressor response to water include neural and humoral factors; fluid redistribution also needs to be considered. This review will concentrate on the water pressor response in normal subjects and different groups of patients with autonomic diseases who have orthostatic intolerance, on the mechanisms that could be involved, and on whether this pressor response may be used in the management of orthostatic hypotension, vasovagal syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome.

  8. Tools of Thor - more than a hammer: An overview of some analysis methods for turbulence investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Stein; Vaivads, Andris; Eriksson, Elin

    2016-04-01

    In the old Norse mythology Thor was a hammer-wielding god associated with thunder and lightning. THOR is also an acronym for Turbulence Heating ObserveR - a planned space mission dedicated to stydy space plasma turbulence. Whereas the mythological Thor did most of his work with a single tool, Mjølnir - his hammer, the modern version of THOR is far more versatile. The proposed THOR spacecraft comes with a comprehensive package of instruments to explore the energy dissipation and particle energization taking place in turbulent plasma environments. This paper presents a more detailed investigation of some of the analysis methods listed in the submitted THOR proposal. To demonstrate the methods, we have used data from existing spacecraft missions like Cluster and MMS to examine and compare single-spacecraft and multi-spacecraft methods to establish proper frames. The presented analysis methods are based on fundamental plasma laws, such as conservation of mass, momentum and energy and do not require any triangulation or gradients based on multiple spacecraft. Our experience based on Cluster and MMS results show that a well equipped single spacecraft platform, like the proposed THOR mission, very often provides better and less ambiguous results that a constellation of many spacecraft with less capable instrumentation. Limitations in underlying assumptions, such as planarity and linearity, as well as non-optimal spacecraft separation and configurations often limit the possibility to utilize multi-spacecraft methods. We also investigate the role of time resolution and dynamical range of the measurements used in the methods. Since the particle instruments onboard THOR will have a much better time resolution than existing magnetospheric satellite missions, we infer that THOR will be far better suited to resolve time evolution in plasma structures. This is of particular importance in the solar wind and magnetosheat, where frame velocities can be very high. With a larger

  9. Test to Extract Soil Properties Using the Seismic HammerTM Active Seismic Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Rebekah F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abbott, Robert E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Geologic material properties are necessary parameters for ground motion modeling and are difficult and expensive to obtain via traditional methods. Alternative methods to estimate soil properties require a measurement of the ground's response to a force. A possible method of obtaining these measurements is active-source seismic surveys, but measurements of the ground response at the source must also be available. The potential of seismic sources to obtain soil properties is limited, however, by the repeatability of the source. Explosives, and hammer surveys are not repeatable because of variable ground coupling or swing strength. On the other hand, the Seismic Hammer TM (SH) is consistent in the amount of energy it inputs into the ground. In addition, it leaves large physical depressions as a result of ground compaction. The volume of ground compaction varies by location. Here, we hypothesize that physical depressions left in the earth by the SH correlate to energy recorded by nearby geophones, and therefore are a measurement of soil physical properties. Using measurements of the volume of shot holes, we compare the spatial distribution of the volume of ground compacted between the different shot locations. We then examine energy recorded by the nearest 50 geophones and compare the change in amplitude across hits at the same location. Finally, we use the percent difference between the energy recorded by the first and later hits at a location to test for a correlation to the volume of the shot depressions. We find that: * Ground compaction at the shot-depression does cluster geographically, but does not correlate to known surface features. * Energy recorded by nearby geophones reflects ground refusal after several hits. * There is no correlation to shot volume and changes in energy at particular shot locations. Deeper material properties (i.e. below the depth of surface compaction) may be contributing to the changes in energy propagation. * Without further

  10. [Results of health risk assessment due to exposure to contaminants in drinking water in Russia population (review of literature)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unguryanu, T N; Novikov, S M

    2014-01-01

    With the purpose of the analysis of general trends in the development of risk assessment methodology in Russia the results obtained with the her help, as well as existing methodological problems, there was performed a review of 68 published works concerning the assessment of the health risk for population under the exposure to chemicals in drinking water carried out in 42 cities and regions of the country. There was made the grouping of Russian cities on individual carcinogenic risk level and ranking on the values for the population carcinogenic risk. A list of prioritized carcinogens in tap water has been made. By the values of the risk indices to adverse effects of chemicals tap water there are exposed central nervous system, kidneys, liver, skin and mucous membranes, blood, bone, immune system, hormone homeostasis, blood circulation and digestion organs. There are identified methodological problems leading to an underestimation of the actual risk to public health under exposure of chemicals in drinking water: there are no used regional and age differences in exposure factors, virtually there is no assessed health risk for children population; there is ignored age sensitivity to carcinogens, there is rarely estimated exposure for all the real exposing routes of income and there are no carried out risk calculations at the upper limit (90- 95th percentile) of the exposure.

  11. Changes in Mediterranean circulation and water characteristics due to restriction of the Atlantic connection : A high-resolution ocean model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topper, R. P M; Meijer, P. Th

    2015-01-01

    A high-resolution parallel ocean model is set up to examine how the sill depth of the Atlantic connection affects circulation and water characteristics in the Mediterranean Basin. An analysis of the model performance, comparing model results with observations of the present-day Mediterranean,

  12. A spatial modeling approach to predicting the secondary spread of invasive species due to ballast water discharge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Sieracki

    Full Text Available Ballast water in ships is an important contributor to the secondary spread of invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Here, we use a model previously created to determine the role ballast water management has played in the secondary spread of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV to identify the future spread of one current and two potential invasive species in the Great Lakes, the Eurasian Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus, killer shrimp (Dikerogammarus villosus, and golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei, respectively. Model predictions for Eurasian Ruffe have been used to direct surveillance efforts within the Great Lakes and DNA evidence of ruffe presence was recently reported from one of three high risk port localities identified by our model. Predictions made for killer shrimp and golden mussel suggest that these two species have the potential to become rapidly widespread if introduced to the Great Lakes, reinforcing the need for proactive ballast water management. The model used here is flexible enough to be applied to any species capable of being spread by ballast water in marine or freshwater ecosystems.

  13. A spatial modeling approach to predicting the secondary spread of invasive species due to ballast water discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieracki, Jennifer L; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M; Chadderton, W Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Ballast water in ships is an important contributor to the secondary spread of invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Here, we use a model previously created to determine the role ballast water management has played in the secondary spread of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) to identify the future spread of one current and two potential invasive species in the Great Lakes, the Eurasian Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), killer shrimp (Dikerogammarus villosus), and golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), respectively. Model predictions for Eurasian Ruffe have been used to direct surveillance efforts within the Great Lakes and DNA evidence of ruffe presence was recently reported from one of three high risk port localities identified by our model. Predictions made for killer shrimp and golden mussel suggest that these two species have the potential to become rapidly widespread if introduced to the Great Lakes, reinforcing the need for proactive ballast water management. The model used here is flexible enough to be applied to any species capable of being spread by ballast water in marine or freshwater ecosystems.

  14. Mineral water {sup 222} Rn activity decrease due to consumption habits; Determinacao do decrescimo da atividade de radonio-222 em aguas minerais simulando habitos de consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipriani, Moacir; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio

    2001-07-01

    Mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau springs, an elevated region with high natural radioactivity, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have significant {sup 222} Rn concentration on site. The highest concentration in the waters are from: Fonte Villela - Aguas da Prata ({approx} 1000 Bql{sup -1}); Fonte Grande Hotel - Pocinhos do Rio Verde ({approx} 400 Brq{sup -1}) and Fonte CNEN Lab - Pocos de Caldas ({approx} 290 Bql{sup -1}). These waters are used by the population as drinking water and due to consumption habits, can lead to internal doses above accepted limits for the public. This work deals with the decrease of {sup 222} Rn activity in mineral waters fro two different popular consumption habits, and with the adult effective dose equivalent reduction due to water consumption habits. It has been found that the estimated dose based on the biokinetic Crawford-Brown model, can be one fourth of dose based on {sup 222} Rn activity on site. (author)

  15. Economic Contribution to Local Livelihoods and Households Dependency on Dry Land Forest Products in Hammer District, Southeastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Fikir, Dagm; Tadesse, Wubalem; Gure, Abdella

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted in Hammer district, Southern Ethiopia, to provide empirical evidence on economic contribution to local livelihoods and households dependency on dry forest products. One agropastoral and two pastoral kebeles were purposively selected, and data was collected through household survey, group discussions, market assessments, and field observation. A total of 164 households, selected based on a random sampling procedure, were interviewed using structured questionnaire. The s...

  16. Combination of in situ cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and Schmidt-hammer dating for the investigation of Late-Holocene lateral moraines in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S.

    2009-04-01

    absolute' age of the boulder surfaces was needed to allow the construction of a dating curve by reliable fixed points to, radiocarbon (14C) dating could not provide those information because of the lack of organic material indisputable be related to the glacier advance forming the moraine ridges. On base on these considerations, this study comprises the first attempt to combine in situ (terrestrial) cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating with Schmidt-hammer measurements for the dating of Holocene moraines and the reconstruction of a regional glacier chronology. Cosmogenic 10Be dating has the important advantage of delivering an ‘absolute' age for the exposure of boulder or bedrock surfaces, i.e. the same surface tested with the Schmidt-hammer. One disadvantage of cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating is, however, the limited number of boulders sampled due to high costs. From this background, a combination with the Schmidt-hammer technique seems ideal as the latter could provide measurement of a large number of boulders. The Schmidt-hammer measurements can, on the other hand, help with the selection of representative boulders for cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating avoiding boulders that have been exposed to post-depositional movement (e.g. rotation). Results from the application of this combined ‘multi-proxy-approach' at Strauchon Glacier in Westland/Tai Poutini National Park and Hooker Glacier in Mt Cook/Aoraki National Park on large lateral moraine complex with several individual moraine ridges proof its potential. Three pre-‘Little Ice Age' moraine sequences each related to an individual Late-Holocene Little Ice Age-type event unambiguously distinguished by Schmidt-hammer measurements provides cosmogenic (10Be) ages of 2,400/2,500 a BP, c. 1,700 a BP, and c. 1,000/1,100 a BP. The preliminary construction of a dating curve based on both Schmidt-hammer and cosmogenic (10Be) dating results shows high significance and confirms the successful

  17. Water quality changes in floodplain lakes due to the Amazon River flood pulse: Lago Grande de Curuaí (Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AG Affonso

    Full Text Available Assurance of water quality for human consumption is essential for public health policies. In the Amazon floodplain, the seasonal water level variation causes periodic flooding of marginal areas that are usually used for settlements, agriculture and livestock. Therefore, the exchange of materials between the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem affects the proportion of suspended and dissolved components in water and its physical-chemical characteristics, and consequently the quality of the water used by local people. Following this approach, the aim of this study is to evaluate changes in water quality in Lago Grande de Curuaí floodplain, Óbidos, Pará in response to the flood pulse, during one hydrological year from 2003 to 2004, based on water use classes (according to National Water Agency 357/2005 resolution using chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen concentration as parameters and the eutrophication index. Ordinary kriging was applied to interpolate chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen and to predict values at non sampled locations. Each location was then classified according to water use acceptable parameters and to Carlson Trophic State Index modified by Toledo to map lake water classes and trophic status. The result showed that Lago Grande de Curuaí floodplain is a supereutrophic system, with levels of dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a not suitable for human supply during the receding water phase. These areas are located near the riverine communities, which can cause health problems due to the presence of potentially toxic algae. Therefore, monitoring water quality in Amazon lakes is essential to ensure the availability has appropriate quality for human and animal supplies.

  18. Active Precharge Hammering to Monitor Displacement Damage Using High-Energy Protons in 3x-nm SDRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chulseung; Park, Kyungbae; Baeg, Sanghyeon

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes the Active Precharge Hammering on a Row (APHR) test to evaluate displacement damage (DD) in 3x-nm DRAM components. Irradiated SDRAM devices could have multiple current leakage paths, partly owing to DD effects. The degree of leakage from cells with DD can be differentiated from undamaged cells by the difference in the number of hammered accesses to the two types of cells. Proton-based SER tests were performed with DDR3 SDRAM components made using 3x-nm technologies. The experimental results showed that bit errors caused by the APHR test (APHR errors) were more than five times higher in the irradiated sample compared to the non-irradiated sample, and APHR errors were not detectable within 64-ms retention time using the traditional retention test method. In the worst case, the number of hammerings required to cause an APHR error in the irradiated sample reduced by 36 times compared to that in the non-irradiated sample even after the irradiated sample was annealed at 150° C so as to have no retention errors within the maximum retention time of 64-ms.

  19. The effect of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour quality of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zeng, Fankui; Wang, Qinghuang; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Lehe; Gu, Fenglin

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we compared the effects of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour attributes of black, white, and green pepper. The flavour attributes were analysed using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) analysis. Cryogenic grinding resulted in minimal damage to the colour, flavour, and sensory attributes of the spices. Cryogenic grinding was also better than hammer milling at preserving the main potent aroma constituents, but the concentrations of the main aroma constituents were dramatically reduced after storing the samples at 4 °C for 6 months. Pattern matching performed by the e-nose further supported our sensory and instrumental findings. Overall, cryogenic grinding was superior to hammer milling for preserving the sensory properties and flavour attributes of pepper without significantly affecting its quality. However, we found that the flavour quality of ground pepper was reduced during storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bottom attenuation estimation using sound intensity fluctuations due to mode coupling by nonlinear internal waves in shallow water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorev, Valery A; Katsnelson, Boris G; Lynch, James F

    2016-11-01

    Analyses of fluctuations of low frequency signals (300 ± 30 Hz) propagating in shallow water in the presence of nonlinear internal waves (NIWs) in the Shallow Water 2006 experiment are carried out. Signals were received by a vertical line array at a distance of ∼20 km from the source. A NIW train was moving totally inside of the acoustic track, and the angle between the wave front of the NIW and the acoustic track in the horizontal plane was ∼10°. It is shown that the spectrum of the sound intensity fluctuations contains peaks corresponding to the coupling of pairs of propagating modes. Analysis of spectra at different hydrophone depths, and also summed over depth allows the authors to estimate attenuation in the bottom sediments.

  1. Delimitation of areas under the real pressure from agricultural activities due to nitrate water pollution in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, E.; Nasilowska, S.; Jarocinska, A.; Igras, J.; Stolarska, M.; Bernoussi, A. S.; Karaczun, Z.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the performed research was to determine catchments under the nitrogen pressure in Poland in period of 2007-2010. National Water Management Authority in Poland uses the elaborated methodology to fulfil requirements of Nitrate Directive and Water Framework Directive. Multicriteria GIS analysis was conducted on the base on various types of environmental data, maps and remote sensing products. Final model of real agricultural pressure was made using two components: (i) potential pressure connected with agriculture (ii) the vulnerability of the area. The agricultural pressure was calculated using the amount of nitrogen in fertilizers and the amount of nitrogen produced by animal breeding. The animal pressure was based on the information about the number of bred animals of each species for communes in Poland. The spatial distribution of vegetation pressure was calculated using kriging for the whole country base on the information about 5000 points with the amount of nitrogen dose in fertilizers. The vulnerability model was elaborated only for arable lands. It was based on the probability of the precipitation penetration to the ground water and runoff to surface waters. Catchment, Hydrogeological, Soil, Relief or Land Cover maps allowed taking into account constant environmental conditions. Additionally information about precipitation for each day of analysis and evapotranspiration for every 16-day period (calculated from satellite images) were used to present influence of meteorological condition on vulnerability of the terrain. The risk model is the sum of the vulnerability model and the agricultural pressure model. In order to check the accuracy of the elaborated model, the authors compared the results with the eutrophication measurements. The model accuracy is from 85,3% to 91,3%.

  2. Natural radioactivity in groundwater system and estimates of committed effective dose due to water ingestion in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwankwo, Levi I. [Department of Physics, University of Ilorin, Ilorin 240003 (Nigeria)

    2014-07-01

    Natural radioactivity measurements in drinking water have been performed in many parts of the world, mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming water. A study of the radionuclide concentrations in groundwater samples collected from wells distributed within Ilorin, west of central Nigeria has been carried out. Twenty Eight (28) water samples were analyzed by gamma ray spectroscopy to determine the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K concentrations. The specific activity values ranged from 0.02 to 7.4 Bq/l for {sup 226}Ra, 0.009 to 5.6 Bq/l for {sup 228}Ra, and 0.45 to 30.14 Bq/l for {sup 40}K. The annual ingestions of these radionuclides, using local consumption rates (average over the whole population) of 1 liter per day, were subsequently estimated to range from 0 to 0.8 mSv/y with an average of 0.36 mSv/y, 0 to 1.42 mSv/y with an average of 0.50 mSv/y, and 0 to 0.01 mSv/y with an average of 0.01 mSv/y for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K respectively. The results show that the mean annual effective dose values received as a result of the combined ingestion of the radionuclides from many individual wells in the study area exceed the norm of drinking water quality established by UNSCEAR/WHO. Efforts should therefore be made by policy makers to protect the populace from long-term health consequences. (authors)

  3. The effect of sea-water intrusion due to the large scale construction in a coastal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.; Jin, S.; Woo, N. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, H.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    This study was carried out for estimating the seawater intrusion at the disturbed aquifer by a large scale construction when building a power plant in a coastal region, located in southeastern part of the Korean peninsula. Groundwater sampling and vertical profiling of electrical conductivity(EC) for 8 monitoring wells were carried. EC profiling results shows that maximum EC for PW-5, 6 and 7 is over 40 mS/cm, for PZ-1, 3, 4 and 8 is 18.76, 4.46, 26.16, 21.42 mS/cm and for PZ-2 is 0.79 mS/cm,respectively. Chemical composition of water samples shows that water types of Na-Cl for PZ-5, 6, and 7 (excavated and backfilled area), Na-Cl-SO4 for PZ-4 and PZ-8, Na-Ca-Mg-Cl for PZ-1, Ca-Na-SO4-Cl for PZ-2, and Mg-Ca-Na-SO4 for PZ-3. In addition, the bivariate plot of SO4/Cl(meq ratios) and SO4(mmol/L) indicates that PZ-4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 appear to be seawater, PZ-1 is located at mixing zone between freshwater and seawater, and PZ-2 is freshwater. However, based on the high SO42- level and (HCO3-/Sum anions} ratio less than 0.8, groundwater at PZ-3 seems to show the gypsum dissolution. The gypsum dissolution was attributed to the effect of sea-water intrusion on ageing of lean concrete that was used for backfill around the PZ-3. Key words : large scale construction, EC profiling, hydrochemistry, sea-water intrusion, concrete ageing Acknowledgement This study has been carried out under the Nuclear R&D Program [No. 2010-0001070] supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Republic of Korea.

  4. Transcriptomic changes due to water deficit define a general soybean response and accession-specific pathways for drought avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin Hee; Vaughn, Justin N; Abdel-Haleem, Hussein; Chavarro, Carolina; Abernathy, Brian; Kim, Kyung Do; Jackson, Scott A; Li, Zenglu

    2015-02-03

    Among abiotic stresses, drought is the most common reducer of crop yields. The slow-wilting soybean genotype PI 416937 is somewhat robust to water deficit and has been used previously to map the trait in a bi-parental population. Since drought stress response is a complex biological process, whole genome transcriptome analysis was performed to obtain a deeper understanding of the drought response in soybean. Contrasting data from PI 416937 and the cultivar 'Benning', we developed a classification system to identify genes that were either responding to water-deficit in both genotypes or that had a genotype x environment (GxE) response. In spite of very different wilting phenotypes, 90% of classifiable genes had either constant expression in both genotypes (33%) or very similar response profiles (E genes, 57%). By further classifying E genes based on expression profiles, we were able to discern the functional specificity of transcriptional responses at particular stages of water-deficit, noting both the well-known reduction in photosynthesis genes as well as the less understood up-regulation of the protein transport pathway. Two percent of classifiable genes had a well-defined GxE response, many of which are located within slow-wilting QTLs. We consider these strong candidates for possible causal genes underlying PI 416937's unique drought avoidance strategy. There is a general and functionally significant transcriptional response to water deficit that involves not only known pathways, such as down-regulation of photosynthesis, but also up-regulation of protein transport and chromatin remodeling. Genes that show a genotypic difference are more likely to show an environmental response than genes that are constant between genotypes. In this study, at least five genes that clearly exhibited a genotype x environment response fell within known QTL and are very good candidates for further research into slow-wilting.

  5. Effect of water-surface discharge on the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis due to protein lysis and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Kazunori; Sone, Toshifumi; Kamikozawa, Takashi; Takasu, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satoru

    2009-09-01

    The effect of water-surface discharge on the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633 in water was examined by using a very short high-voltage pulse generator. The surviving number of spore cells at 10(4) CFU/ml in initial concentration exponentially decreased with increasing discharge-treatment time. The input energy into the water-surface discharge under an O(2) gas flow for reduction in the survival number to 10% was lower than that under an air flow because many oxidation agents such as ozone and OH radical were produced under the O(2) gas flow. The input energy density for the one-tenth reduction depended not only on the spore state but also on the initial cell concentration. The input energy for the high-concentration spore cells (10(7) CFU/ml) was much higher than that for the low-concentration spore cells (10(4) CFU/ml). Cellular proteins and DNA were degraded by a 30-min discharge treatment of vegetative cells, whereas DNA of the high-concentration spore cells was relatively resistant.

  6. RADIATION DOSE DUE TO RADON AND HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN DRINKING WATER SAMPLES OF JAMMU DISTRICT, JAMMU & KASHMIR, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Kaur, M; Sharma, S; Mehra, R; Sharma, D K; Mishra, R

    2016-10-01

    In the present investigation, radon concentration and heavy metal analysis were carried out in drinking water samples in Jammu district, Jammu & Kashmir, India. The radon concentration was measured by using RAD-7, portable alpha particle detector. The values of radon concentration in drinking water samples were also compared within the safe limit recommended by different health agencies. The total annual effective dose ranged from 53.04 to 197.29 µSv y-1 The annual effective dose from few locations from the studied area was found to be greater than the safe limit (100 µSv y-1) suggested by World Health Organisation (WHO) and EU Council. Heavy metal concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of eight elements were analysed, viz. arsenic, mercury, zinc, iron, copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Heavy metals are considered to be the major pollutants of water sources. The results were compared with the limits of WHO, EU and Indian organisations. The trace metal analysis is not on the exceeding side of the permissible limit in all the samples. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Fractal dynamics in dexterous tool use: the case of hammering behavior of bead craftsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Tetsushi; Bril, Blandine

    2014-02-01

    Dexterous behavior exhibits exquisite context sensitivity, implying the efficacy of exploration to detect the task-relevant information. Inspired by the recent finding that fractal scaling of exploratory movements predicts how well the movements sample available perceptual information, we investigate the possibility that dexterity of craftsmen would be characterized by fractal (long-range) temporal correlation properties of fluctuations in their movement wielding a tool. A reanalysis of hammering behavior involved in stone beads production in India (Nonaka & Bril, 2012) revealed the presence of long-range, power-law correlations, as part of multiplicative cascades operating over a wide range of time scales. In the unfamiliar condition using unusual material, the wielding behavior of highly skilled experts displayed a significant increase of long-range temporal correlations, whereas that of less experts exhibited a significant loss of long-range correlations and reduced heterogeneity of scaling properties over time, which robustly discriminated the groups with different skill levels. Alterations in long-range correlation properties of movement fluctuations are apparently associated with changes in the situation differently depending on the level of expertise. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Medrano Llamas, Ramon; Sciacca, Gianfranco; van der Ster, Dan

    2012-12-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes almost 100 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short lightweight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate site performances. Sites that fail or are unable to run the tests are automatically excluded from the PanDA brokerage system, therefore avoiding user or production jobs to be sent to problematic sites.

  9. Dead-blow hammer design applied to a calibration target mechanism to dampen excessive rebound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Brian Y.

    1991-01-01

    An existing rotary electromagnetic driver was specified to be used to deploy and restow a blackbody calibration target inside of a spacecraft infrared science instrument. However, this target was much more massive than any other previously inherited design applications. The target experienced unacceptable bounce when reaching its stops. Without any design modification, the momentum generated by the driver caused the target to bounce back to its starting position. Initially, elastomeric dampers were used between the driver and the target. However, this design could not prevent the bounce, and it compromised the positional accuracy of the calibration target. A design that successfully met all the requirements incorporated a sealed pocket 85 percent full of 0.75 mm diameter stainless steel balls in the back of the target to provide the effect of a dead-blow hammer. The energy dissipation resulting from the collision of balls in the pocket successfully dampened the excess momentum generated during the target deployment. The disastrous effects of new requirements on a design with a successful flight history, the modifications that were necessary to make the device work, and the tests performed to verify its functionality are described.

  10. Research on Radial Motion Characteristic of the Cropping Hammer in Radial-Forging Cropping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The radial loading form applied to the bar is very important for reducing or avoiding the impact and vibration of the radial-forging cropping system and obtaining the high-quality cross section. A new radial stroke loading curve of the cropping hammer based on the cycloid form is proposed and the dynamic model of radial stroke loading mechanism is built. With the aim of obtaining the equivalent stiffness of the bar with V-shaped notch, which is a key parameter affecting the dynamic characteristic of radial stroke loading mechanism, the analytic model of the bar is built and the simulation experiments are designed by means of the orthogonal test method. The analytical results show that the diameter of the bar has the significant influence on the equivalent stiffness of the bar. Furthermore, the equivalent stiffness of the bar with V-shaped notch can be directly calculated according to the equivalent stiffness of smooth bar when h/d0.15. By using the cycloid stroke curve, the cropping experimental results for 45 steel bars and 20 steel bars show that the radial impact and vibration of the cropping system are decreased and the bar cross-section qualities have been significantly improved.

  11. Effects of Radix Astragali and Its Split Components on Gene Expression Profiles Related to Water Metabolism in Rats with the Dampness Stagnancy due to Spleen Deficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xiao Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Astragali (RA with slight sweet and warm property is a significant “qi tonifying” herb; it is indicated for the syndrome of dampness stagnancy due to spleen deficiency (DSSD. The purpose of this research was to explore effects of RA and its split components on gene expression profiles related to water metabolism in rats with the DSSD syndrome for identifying components representing property and flavor of RA. The results indicated that RA and its split components, especially polysaccharides component, significantly increased the body weight and the urine volume and decreased the water load index of model rats. Our data also indicated differentially expressed genes (DEGs related to water metabolism involved secretion, ion transport, water homeostasis, regulation of body fluid levels, and water channel activity; the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP6, and AQP8 was improved; calcium, cAMP, MAPK, PPAR, AMPK, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway may be related to water metabolism. In general, results indicate that RA and its split components could promote water metabolism in rats with the DSSD syndrome via regulating the expression of AQPs, which reflected sweet-warm properties of RA. Effects of the polysaccharides component are better than others.

  12. Does the reuse of PET bottles during solar water disinfection pose a health risk due to the migration of plasticisers and other chemicals into the water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Peter; Kohler, Martin; Meierhofer, Regula; Luzi, Samuel; Wegelin, Martin

    2008-12-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple, effective and inexpensive water treatment procedure suitable for application in developing countries. Microbially contaminated water is filled into transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles and exposed to full sunlight for at least 6h. Solar radiation and elevated temperature destroy pathogenic germs efficiently. Recently, concerns have been raised insinuating a health risk by chemicals released from the bottle material polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Whereas the safety of PET for food packaging has been assessed in detail, similar investigations for PET bottles used under conditions of the SODIS treatment were lacking until now. In the present study, the transfer of organic substances from PET to water was investigated under SODIS conditions using used colourless transparent beverage bottles of different origin. The bottles were exposed to sunlight for 17h at a geographical latitude of 47 degrees N. In a general screening of SODIS treated water, only food flavour constituents of previous bottle contents could be identified above a detection limit of 1 microg/L. Quantitative determination of plasticisers di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) revealed maximum concentrations of 0.046 and 0.71 microg/L, respectively, being in the same range as levels of these plasticisers reported in studies on commercial bottled water. Generally, only minor differences in plasticiser concentrations could be observed in different experimental setups. The most decisive factor was the country of origin of bottles, while the impact of storage conditions (sunlight exposure and temperature) was less distinct. Toxicological risk assessment of maximum concentrations revealed a minimum safety factor of 8.5 and a negligible carcinogenic risk of 2.8 x 10(-7) for the more critical DEHP. This data demonstrate that the SODIS procedure is safe with respect to human exposure to DEHA and DEHP.

  13. Determination of Water Quality Degradation Due to Industrial and Household Wastewater in the Galing River in Kuantan, Malaysia Using Ion Chromatograph and Water Quality Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kozaki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of the Galing River in Kuantan, Malaysia was examined to understand the anthropogenic environmental load in each administrative section, using water quality monitoring data and land use pattern. The National Physical Plan 2005 identified Kuantan as one of the country’s future growth centers, which has resulted in rapid development and environmental degradation in the past decade. Multiple water quality indexes used by the Department of Environment, Malaysia and concentrations of several ionic species were examined to assess the river’s water quality. The following inferences were drawn in this study: (1 Cl− and Na+ concentrations indicated that the basin area near the eastern urbanized area was subject to lesser human influence and lower environmental burden; (2 the Western side of the Galing River was subject to higher anthropogenic influence and indicated lower class levels of ammoniacal nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen, compared to the eastern side; (3 Class V or near class V pH values were obtained upstream at the western side of the Galing River in the industrial area; (4 Two types of environmental burden were identified in the western side of the Galing River, namely, inflow of industrial wastewater upstream on the western side and the effect of household wastewater or untreated raw sewage wastewater.

  14. Formation of Anhydrite due to Interaction Between Water Soluble CO2 (aq) and Calcite Mineral During Enhanced Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    place during CO2 injection in limestone reservoirs. At reservoir conditions, a considerable fraction of the injected CO2 becomes soluble in sea water. This dissolved CO2 causes dissolution of CaCO3 from the mineral surface and releases Ca2+ ions into the pore space. Excess Ca2+ ions form anhydrite fines......In the Low Salinity based EOR method, formation and migration of fines have proved to have profound effect on the displacement efficiency of residual oil. Salinity variations of injected brines have also been shown to affect oil recovery for WAG-CO2 processes. But the effect of fines in EOR during...... simulations were conducted over a temperature range of 50°C to 250°C and a pressure range of 5 bars to 500 bars. The amounts of fines formation taking place for different LSWAG-CO2 processes were correlated to the described oil recovery. It is observed that significant amounts of fines formation can take...

  15. Ducks change wintering patterns due to changing climate in the important wintering waters of the Odra River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Marchowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Some species of birds react to climate change by reducing the distance they travel during migration. The Odra River Estuary in the Baltic Sea is important for wintering waterfowl and is where we investigated how waterbirds respond to freezing surface waters. The most abundant birds here comprise two ecological groups: bottom-feeders and piscivores. Numbers of all bottom-feeders, but not piscivores, were negatively correlated with the presence of ice. With ongoing global warming, this area is increasing in importance for bottom-feeders and decreasing for piscivores. The maximum range of ice cover in the Baltic Sea has a weak and negative effect on both groups of birds. Five of the seven target species are bottom-feeders (Greater Scaup Aythya marila, Tufted Duck A. fuligula, Common Pochard A. ferina, Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula and Eurasian Coot Fulica atra, and two are piscivores (Smew Mergellus albellus and Goosander Mergus merganser. Local changes at the level of particular species vary for different reasons. A local decline of the Common Pochard may simply be a consequence of its global decline. Climate change is responsible for some of the local changes in the study area, disproportionately favoring some duck species while being detrimental to others.

  16. Heavy metal contamination in bore water due to industrial pollution and polluted and non polluted sea water intrusion in Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli of South Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthiyasekar, C; Neelakantan, M A; Poongothai, S

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the pollution vulnerability of bore water in the coastal region of Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi in the state of Tamilnadu, India. There are no industries in the Tirunelveli Coastal area whereas there are many industries in SIPCOT (State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamilnadu) Thoothukudi, and coastal area of Thoothukudi. Bore water from the SIPCOT, coastal area of Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli were collected periodically from July 2006 to May 2008 for this study. These samples were tested and analyzed to find the concentrations of sodium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, calcium, copper, cadmium, mercury and lead. The toxic cadmium concentration was found in the range of 0.00-0.22 mg Kg⁻¹ at SIPCOT 2 in November 2007, mercury 0.00-0.024 mg Kg⁻¹ and lead 0.00-0.02 mg Kg⁻¹ in SIPCOT 2 in January 2008. The level of contamination is higher than the WHO limits of drinking water standards; but copper and aluminium content are within the limit. On the other hand, the samples taken from bores in Tirunelveli coastal area are non-polluted, and the analysis shows that all the metals are within the limits of WHO standard.

  17. High levels of faecal contamination in drinking groundwater and recreational water due to poor sanitation, in the sub-rural neighbourhoods of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayembe, John M; Thevenon, Florian; Laffite, Amandine; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Mulaji, Crispin K; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mubedi, Josué I; Poté, John

    2018-01-10

    compared to the dry season. Physicochemical analysis revealed also very high water electrical conductivity, with values much higher than the recommended limits of the World Health Organization guideline for drinking water. These results highlight the potential human health risk associated with the exposure to water contamination from shallow wells and Kokolo Canal, due to the very high level of human FIB. Rapid, unplanned and uncontrolled population growth in the city of Kinshasa is increasing considerably the water demand, whereas there is a dramatic lack of appropriate sanitation and wastewater facilities, as well as of faecal sludge (and solid waste) management and treatment. The lack of hygiene and the practice of open defecation is leading to the degradation of water quality, consequently the persistence of waterborne diseases in the neighbourhoods of sub-rural municipalities, and there is a growing threat to the sustainability to water resources and water quality. The results of this study should encourage municipality policy and strategy on increasing the access to safely managed sanitation services; in order to better protect surface water and groundwater sources, and limit the proliferation of epidemics touching regularly the city. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Power consumption and quality features in the hammer crushing process for olive oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi, B.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In a previous research, a preliminary analysis on the thermal balance in different crushing systems for olive oil production was carried out. According to the previous results, in this paper the study has been extended to power consumption aspects related to the main quality features of the extracted olive oil, restricting the analysis only to the hammer crushing (Coratina cultivar, which represents the worst case. In particular, the effect of the olives delivery on the power consumption and quality of the extracted oil has been studied. The experimental trials, carried out on a laboratory plant during the 1993-94 and 1994-95 olive-oil seasons, show that, even though the diagram of power consumption has a parabolic increasing trend, the specific power decreases with the olives delivery. Anyway studying the olives hammer crushing process also from the qualitative point of view (polyphenols number, acidity, peroxide number and induction time, it is possible to define an optimal range of olives delivery values. This optimal range (140 kg/h-240 kg/h for the studied hammer crusher represents the better working solution from both the point of view of the power consumption and the quality of the extracted oil. In particular, at the beginning of the olive oil season it is necessary to work near the greatest lower bound of the optimal range just defined. With the passing of the harvesting time, the olives delivery has to be increased, reaching values near the greatest higher bound at the end of the olive oil season.

    En una investigación previa, se ha llevado a cabo un análisis preliminar sobre el balance térmico en diferentes sistemas de trituración para la producción de aceite de oliva. De acuerdo con los resultados previos, en este trabajo el estudio se ha extendido a aspectos del consumo energético relacionados con las principales características de calidad del aceite de oliva extraído, limitando el análisis sólo a la trituraci

  19. Simulating the potential yield and yield gaps of sugar beet due to water and nitrogen limitations in Khorasan province using SUCROS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Deihimfard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Crop productivity is highly constrained by water and nitrogen limitations in many areas of the world (Kalra et al., 2007. Therefore, there is a need to investigate more on nitrogen and water management to achieve higher production as well as quality. Irrigated sugar beet in the cropping systems of Khorasan province in northeastern of Iran accounts for about 34% of the land area under sugar beet production (~115,000 ha with an average yield of around 36 t.ha-1 (Anonymous, 2009. However, there is a huge yield gap (the difference between potential and water and nitrogen-limited yield mainly due to biotic and abiotic factors causing major reduction in farmers’ yield. Accordingly, yield gap analysis should be carried out to reduce the yield reduction and reach the farmer’s yield to the potential yield. The current study aimed to simulate potential yield as well as yield gap related to water and nitrogen shortage in the major sugar beet-growing areas of Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and methods This study was carried out in 6 locations across Khorasan province, which is located in the northeast of Iran. Long term weather data for 1986 to 2009 were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization for 6 selected locations. The weather data included daily sunshine hours (h, daily maximum and minimum temperatures (◦C, and daily rainfall (mm. Daily solar radiation was estimated using the Goudriaan (1993 method. The validated SUCROSBEET model (Deihimfard, 2011; Deihimfard et al., 2011 was then used to estimate potential, water and nitrogen-limited yield and yield gap of sugar beet for 6 selected locations across the Khorasan province in the northeast of Iran. This model simulates the impacts of weather, genotype and management factors on crop growth and development, soil water and nitrogen balance on a daily basis and finally it predicts crop yield. The model requires input data, including local weather and soil conditions, cultivar

  20. Why is that hammer in my coffee? A multimodal imaging investigation of contextually-based tool understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. eMizelle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate tool-object pairing is a natural part of our lives. When preparing to stir coffee, we know that a hammer is useful for some tasks but that it is not appropriate in this behavioral context. The neural correlates of this context-tool pairing process remain unclear. In the current work, we used event-related electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to determine neural correlates for differentiating contextually correct and incorrect tool use. Subjects were shown images depicting correct (e.g., spoon used to stir coffee or incorrect (e.g., hammer used to stir coffee tool use. We identified distinct regional and temporal activations for identifying incorrect versus correct tool use. The posterior cingulate, insula and superior temporal gyrus preferentially differentiated incorrect tool-object usage, while occipital, parietal and frontal areas were active in identifying correct tool use. Source localized EEG analysis confirmed the fMRI data and showed phases of activation, where incorrect tool-use activation (0 - 200 ms preceded occipitotemporal activation for correct tool use (300 - 400 ms. This work extends our previous findings to better identify the neural substrate for contextual evaluation of tool use, and may contribute to our understanding of neurological disorders resulting in tool-use deficits.

  1. A Novel Hammer-Shaped UWB Antenna with Triple Notched-Band for Rejecting RLS, WLAN and XSCS bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Mewara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel hammer-shaped UWB printed antenna with triple notched stop bands is presented and fabricated on FR-4 substrate with size of 40×40×1.6 mm3. The proposed antenna is composed of hammer-shaped patch with C-shaped slot, U-shaped slot on feed line, and inverted stepped notch and bevel edges with pair of L-shaped slots in partial ground plane. The fabricated antenna is tested and obtained impedance bandwidth 2.89 ̶ 11.6 GHz with three notched stop bands 3.15 ̶ 3.7 GHz, 5.45 ̶ 6.8 GHz, and 7.5 ̶  8.8 GHz, for radiolocation system (RLS, wireless local area networks (WLAN, and X-band satellite communication system (XSCS bands, respectively. Moreover, the antenna result shows omnidirectional radiation pattern, average gain of 3.10 dBi over the whole UWB band except at the notched frequency bands.

  2. Proposición de dos aleaciones fundidas para su estudio en la construcción de martillos de molinos desmeduladores de bagazo. // Proposition of two casted alloys for their study in the construction of bagasse crush mills hammers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Diez Torres

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo constituye un análisis teórico que tiene como objetivo la determinación de cuáles serían las aleaciones autilizar y la tecnología de colada adecuada para la fabricación de los martillos de los desmeduladores de bagazo a partir dealeaciones fundidas resistentes al desgaste.Se analizan los resultados de las experiencias realizadas con recubrimientos por soldadura de recargue duro, con los cualesse corroboraron las hipótesis sobre los mecanismos de desgaste ocurrentes y las estructuras metalográficas adecuadas paracada perfil del martillo.Se propone la realización de ensayos de campo con martillos construidos con hierros al cromo debido a que se caracterizanpor poseer carburos de cromo con la posibilidad de obtener diferentes contenidos y distribución de los mismos en matricesque van desde la austenítica a martensítica. Se propone realizar los ensayos con las aleaciones 15-3 y 20-3 con y sintratamiento térmico y con colada en coquilla, con diferentes velocidades de enfriamiento en cada perfil de trabajo con el finde obtener la estructura metalográfica adecuada.Palabras claves: Aleaciones, martillos desmenuzadores de bagazo, recubrimiento por soldadura.____________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The present paper constitutes a theoretical analysis for the determination of an appropriate cast technology determinationfor the production of bagasse crush hammers with wear cast iron alloys.The results of welding hard facing coatings with the wear mechanisms hypothesis and appropriate metallographic structureswere corroborated.Field tests with chromium cast iron hammers are proposed due that this alloys is characterized to posses chromiumcarbides, with the possibility to obtain different contents and distribution in austenitic, martensitic or intermediate metalmatrices. Tests with 15-3 and 20-3 alloys with or without thermal treatment and metal mold casting with different

  3. Associations between extreme precipitation and acute gastro-intestinal illness due to cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in an urban Canadian drinking water system (1997-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Bimal K; Takaro, Tim K; Balshaw, Robert; Otterstatter, Michael; Mak, Sunny; Lem, Marcus; Zubel, Marc; Lysyshyn, Mark; Clarkson, Len; Edwards, Joanne; Fleury, Manon D; Henderson, Sarah B; Galanis, Eleni

    2017-10-01

    Drinking water related infections are expected to increase in the future due to climate change. Understanding the current links between these infections and environmental factors is vital to understand and reduce the future burden of illness. We investigated the relationship between weekly reported cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis (n = 7,422), extreme precipitation (>90th percentile), drinking water turbidity, and preceding dry periods in a drinking water system located in greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (1997-2009) using distributed lag non-linear Poisson regression models adjusted for seasonality, secular trend, and the effect of holidays on reporting. We found a significant increase in cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis 4-6 weeks after extreme precipitation. The effect was greater following a dry period. Similarly, extreme precipitation led to significantly increased turbidity only after prolonged dry periods. Our results suggest that the risk of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis increases with extreme precipitation, and that the effects are more pronounced after a prolonged dry period. Given that extreme precipitation events are expected to increase with climate change, it is important to further understand the risks from these events, develop planning tools, and build resilience to these future risks.

  4. Risk of Illness with Salmonella due to Consumption of Raw Unwashed Vegetables Irrigated with Water from the Bogotá River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Herreño, Laura X; López-Tamayo, Ana M; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P; Haas, Charles N; Husserl, Johana

    2017-04-01

    The Bogotá River receives untreated wastewater from the city of Bogotá and many other towns. Downstream from Bogotá, water from the river is used for irrigation of crops. Concentrations of indicator organisms in the river are high, which is consistent with fecal contamination. To investigate the probability of illness due to exposure to enteric pathogens from the river, specifically Salmonella, we took water samples from the Bogotá River at six sampling locations in an area where untreated water from the river is used for irrigation of lettuce, broccoli, and cabbage. Salmonella concentrations were quantified by direct isolation and qPCR. Concentrations differed, depending on the quantification technique used, ranging between 10(7.7) and 10(9.9) number of copies of gene invA per L and 10(5.3) and 10(8.4) CFU/L, for qPCR and direct isolation, respectively. A quantitative microbial risk assessment model that estimates the daily risk of illness with Salmonella resulting from consuming raw unwashed vegetables irrigated with water from the Bogotá River was constructed using the Salmonella concentration data. The daily probability of illness from eating raw unwashed vegetables ranged between 0.62 and 0.85, 0.64 and 0.86, and 0.64 and 0.85 based on concentrations estimated by qPCR (0.47-0.85, 0.47-0.86, and 0.41-0.85 based on concentrations estimated by direct isolation) for lettuce, cabbage, and broccoli, respectively, which are all above the commonly propounded benchmark of 10(-4) per year. Results obtained in this study highlight the necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in the region, and emphasize the importance of postharvest practices, such as washing, disinfecting, and cooking. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Dermal safety assessment of Arm & Hammer laundry products formulated for sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Douglas M; Vorwerk, Linda; Gupta, Archana; Ghassemi, Annahita

    2017-09-01

    product (Arm & Hammer Free & Clear) and other nonirritant controls. In the Wrist Band Wear test, exposure to laundered fabrics under exaggerated conditions gave similar results for the test and control products, with no objective signs of skin irritation, and no self-reported persistent adverse sensory effects. Very mild, transient and isolated sensory effects were noted in daily diaries by a small proportion of subjects, and were similar for the test and control products. The Safety In-Use tests evaluated 4-week exposure to product and laundered fabrics under realistic use conditions. There were no clinically objective signs of skin irritation, and reports of transitory, mild sensory effects were minimal and similar for the test and controls. A comprehensive skin safety program on a lightly scented sensitive skin laundry formulation (i.e. Arm & Hammer™ Sensitive Skin plus Skin-Friendly Fresh Scent) conducted among panels of self-assessed sensitive skin subjects demonstrated that the presence of a light fragrance did not adversely impact skin compatibility in any of the testing protocols when the product was compared to a similar product with no fragrance. The lightly fragranced product demonstrated overall skin compatibility and mildness when tested in a self-assessed sensitive skin population, and compared favorably to currently marketed sensitive skin products.

  6. Assessing the underwater acoustics of the world's largest vibration hammer (OCTA-KONG) and its potential effects on the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Yuping; Duan, Guoqin; Cao, Hanjiang; Liu, Jianchang; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL) of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs) and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, "soft start" and "power down" techniques.

  7. Assessing the underwater acoustics of the world's largest vibration hammer (OCTA-KONG and its potential effects on the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Wang

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, "soft start" and "power down

  8. Assessing the Underwater Acoustics of the World's Largest Vibration Hammer (OCTA-KONG) and Its Potential Effects on the Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphin (Sousa chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Yuping; Duan, Guoqin; Cao, Hanjiang; Liu, Jianchang; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL) of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs) and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, “soft start” and “power down

  9. Second-order velocity slip with axisymmetric stagnation point flow and heat transfer due to a stretching vertical plate in a Copper-water nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardri, M. A.; Bachok, N.; Arifin, N. M.; Ali, F. M.

    2017-09-01

    The steady axisymmetric stagnation point flow with second-order velocity slip due to a stretching vertical plate with the existence of copper-water nanofluid was investigated. Similarity transformation has been applied to reduce the governing partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. Then the self-similar equations are solved numerically using solver bvp4c available in Matlab with Prandtl number, Pr = 6.2. It is found that the dual solutions exist for the certain range of mixed convection parameter. The effects of the governing parameters on the velocity and temperature profile, skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are observed. The results show that the inclusion of nanoparticle copper, will increase the shear stress on the stretching sheet and decrease the heat transfer rate for the slip parameters.

  10. A due

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to acknowledge the excellence of these two scholars by a double Festschrift, "A due". Both have been working at the Music Department of the University of Copenhagen and have collaborated with The Royal Library on various projects. This publication contains contributions from 44 colleagues, who thus - in topics...

  11. Handling of uncertainty due to interference fringe in FT-NIR transmittance spectroscopy - Performance comparison of interference elimination techniques using glucose-water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganović, Anel; Beć, Krzysztof B; Henn, Raphael; Huck, Christian W

    2018-01-31

    The applicability of two elimination techniques for interferences occurring in measurements with cells of short pathlength using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was evaluated. Due to the growing interest in the field of vibrational spectroscopy in aqueous biological fluids (e.g. glucose in blood), aqueous solutions of d-(+)-glucose were prepared and split into a calibration set and an independent validation set. All samples were measured with two FT-NIR spectrometers at various spectral resolutions. Moving average smoothing (MAS) and fast Fourier transform filter (FFT filter) were applied to the interference affected FT-NIR spectra in order to eliminate the interference pattern. After data pre-treatment, partial least squares regression (PLSR) models using different NIR regions were constructed using untreated (interference affected) spectra and spectra treated with MAS and FFT filter. The prediction of the independent validation set revealed information about the performance of the utilized interference elimination techniques, as well as the different NIR regions. The results showed that the combination band of water at approx. 5200 cm-1 is of great importance since its performance was superior to the one of the so-called first overtone of water at approx. 6800 cm-1. Furthermore, this work demonstrated that MAS and FFT filter are fast and easy-to-use techniques for the elimination of interference fringes in FT-NIR transmittance spectroscopy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Detections and simulations of tropospheric water vapor fluctuations due to trapped lee waves by ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 ScanSAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Youhei; Morishita, Yu; Hirabayashi, Yukiko

    2017-08-01

    Detailed wave-like spatial patterns of atmospheric propagation delay signals associated with mountain lee waves were detected in Hokkaido and Tohoku by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) with the ScanSAR mode observation data of a Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar 2 on board the Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2. Both cases occurred under stable atmosphere conditions. The InSAR-observed peak-to-trough line of sight changes in the mountain wave signals was 4 and 5 cm with the horizontal wavelengths of 9 and 15 km in Hokkaido and Tohoku, respectively. Locations of positive phase maxima in the mountain wave signals coincides with locations of cloud streets observed by visible satellite imagery, indicating that crests of mountain waves contain relatively much water vapor compared with wave troughs. Numerical weather simulations with the horizontal grid spacing of 1 km were performed to reproduce InSAR phase variations, and as a result those simulations could reasonably reproduce observed wave amplitudes and wavelengths in both cases. On the other hand, numerical simulations tended to overestimate wave attenuation rates: simulated mountain waves decreased as the wave propagated faster than those of observed signals. Because the simulated wave attenuation rate is sensitive to physics in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), we investigated the reproducibility of five PBL schemes implemented in the WRF model. As a result, all the PBL schemes showed little attenuation except for the Yonsei University scheme (YSU), while the wavelength in the YSU was most close to the observation. Our study demonstrated the uniqueness and usefulness of InSAR for meteorological application as the ability to map the detailed water vapor distribution regardless of cloud cover. In addition, the reasonable reproducibility of the water vapor delay signal due to lee waves by the numerical weather model encourages researchers who tackle the correction of the

  13. Accumulation of calcium in the centre of leaves of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is due to an uncoupling of water and ion transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerton, Matt; Newbury, H. John; Hand, David; Pritchard, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the parameters regulating calcium ion distribution in leaves. Accumulation of ions in leaf tissue is in part dependent on import from the xylem. This import via the transpiration stream is more important for ions such as calcium that are xylem but not phloem mobile and cannot therefore be retranslocated. Accumulation of calcium was measured on bulk coriander leaf tissue (Coriandrum sativum L. cv. Lemon) using ion chromatography and calcium uptake was visualized using phosphor-images of 45Ca2+. Leaves of plants grown in hydroponics had elevated calcium in the centre of the leaf compared with the leaf margin, while K+ was distributed homogeneously over the leaf. This calcium was shown to be localised to the mesophyll vacuoles using EDAX. Stomatal density and evapotranspiration (water loss per unit area of leaf) were equal at inner and outer sections of the leaf. Unequal ion distribution but uniformity of water loss suggested that there was a difference in the extent of uncoupling of calcium and water transport between the inner and outer leaf. Since isolated tissue from the inner and outer leaf were able to accumulate similar amounts of calcium, it is proposed that the spatial variation of leaf calcium concentration is due to differential ion delivery to the two regions rather than tissue/cell-specific differences in ion uptake capacity. There was a positive correlation between whole leaf calcium concentration and the difference in calcium concentration between inner and outer leaf tissue. Exposing the plants to increased humidity reduced transpiration and calcium delivery to the leaf and abolished this spatial variation of calcium concentration. Mechanisms of calcium delivery to leaves are discussed. An understanding of calcium delivery and distribution within coriander will inform strategies to reduce the incidence of calcium-related syndromes such as tip-burn and provides a robust model for the transport of ions and other

  14. Pulsed water jet generated by pulse multiplication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorský, R.; Sitek, Libor; Sochor, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2016), s. 959-967 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : high-pressure pulses * pulse intensifier * pulsed water jet * water hammer effect Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://hrcak.srce.hr/163752?lang=en

  15. First attempt to study rock glaciers in New Zealand using the Schmidt-hammer - framework and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan; Lambiel, Christophe; Sattler, Katrin; Büche, Thomas; Springer, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Although not uncommon within the dryer eastern parts of the Southern Alps, New Zealand, comparatively few previous studies have previously focused on rock glacier dynamics and spatial distribution. Neither investigations of their chronological constraints nor any studies on actual rock glacier velocities have yet been carried out. Rock glaciers and periglacial processes still largely constitute a largely unexplored albeit potentially valuable field of research in the Southern Alps. The high-altitude valley head of Irishman Stream in the Ben Ohau Range between Lakes Ohau and Pukaki, roughly 30 km southeast of the Main Divide, contains a few morphologically intact rock glaciers and some appear to be active features (Sattler et al. 2016). Previous work focusing on the Late-glacial and early Holocene moraines in the valley head below the rock glaciers (Kaplan et al. 2010) provided 10Be-ages that could be utilised as fixed points for SHD (Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating). Apart from detailed Schmidt-hammer sampling on the Late-glacial and early Holocene moraines, two altitudinal transects from the toe to their apex have been measured in detail on selected rock glaciers. On each of the multiple ridges of the rock glacier surface three sites of 50 boulders have been sampled with one impact each by the hammer (an N-type electronic SilverSchmidt by Proceq). Apart from getting some age constraints of these periglacial features in comparison to the well-dated moraines, the Schmidt-hammer measurements also had the aim to provide some insight into their genetic development resulting in a quite complex morphology of the rock glaciers and partial interaction with some of the moraines. Both altitudinal transects reveal a clear and continuous trend of increasing means (i.e. less weathered/younger exposure ages) towards their apex. The values for the individual ridges show, however, a transitional character with adjacent ridges albeit the abovementioned trend not statistically

  16. Pilot study to evaluate a water displacement technique to compare effects of diuretics and ACE inhibitors to alleviate lower extremity edema due to dihydropyridine calcium antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, M R; Rosenberger, C; Fink, J C

    2001-09-01

    Combination therapy is required in many patients to achieve goal blood pressure (BP). Calcium antagonists are highly effective antihypertensive drugs in a broad range of demographic groups. Yet, higher doses are associated with an increased frequency of lower extremity edema. The purpose of our open label, single-center clinical trial was to evaluate the use of concomitant pharmacologic therapies to attenuate the lower extremity edema associated with dihydropyridine calcium antagonists therapy using a water displacement technique. Forty-seven patients received 5 mg/day of oral amlodipine for a period of 6 weeks after a 4-week wash-out off of all antihypertensive medications to establish baseline BP. They were then randomized to receive either an additional 5 mg of amlodipine, 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), or 20 mg of benazepril for an additional 6 weeks. Blood pressure determinations and water displacement measurements were obtained at the end of the 4-week placebo wash-out period, after 6 weeks of 5 mg/day of oral amlodipine therapy, and after an additional 6 weeks of 5 mg of amlodipine and randomized drug therapy. Adjusted BP reductions (based on pretreatment BP) were -6.8/-3.8 mm Hg for the 10-mg amlodipine group, -9.9/-8.2 mm Hg for the amlodipine (5 mg)/HCTZ (25 mg) group, and -26.2/-16.4 mm Hg for the amlodipine (5 mg)/benazepril (20 mg) group (P increase in lower extremity edema water displacement in response to 5 mg/day of oral amlodipine therapy (36.2%). Adding 5 mg of amlodipine to a baseline of 5 mg of amlodipine resulted in no net change in lower extremity edema (+58.0 mL,+ 0.6% change, n=5). Adding 25 mg of HCTZ reduced lower extremity edema by a mean of 136.3 mL (-11.1% change, n=4). Benazepril reduced water displacement by 204.4 mL (-14.3% change, n=8). Our pilot study indicates that adding an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor to a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker is the most effective way to not only reduce systolic and diastolic

  17. Skull wounds linked with blunt trauma (hammer example). A report of two depressed skull fractures--elements of biomechanical explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Yann; Becart, Anne; Colard, Thomas; Delille, Rémi; Tournel, Gilles; Hedouin, Valéry; Gosset, Didier

    2012-09-01

    The lesions of the skull following perforating traumas can create complex fractures. The blunt traumas can, according to the swiftness and the shape of the object used, create a depressed fracture. The authors describe through two clinical cases the lesional characteristic of the blunt traumas, perforating the skull using a hammer. In both cases the cranial lesions were very typical: they were geometrical, square shaped, of the same size than the tool (head and tip of the hammer). On the outer table of the skull, the edges of the wounds were sharp and regular. On the inner table, the edges of the wounds were beveled and irregular. The bony penetration in the depressed fracture results from a rupture of the outer table of the bone under tension, in periphery, by the bend of the bone to the impact (outbending) and then, from the inner table with comminuted bony fragmentation. Breeding on the fractures of the size and the shape of the blunt objects used is inconstant and differs, that it is the objects of flat surface or wide in opposition to those of small surface area. Fractures morphologies depend on one hand on these extrinsic factors and on the other hand, of intrinsic factors (structure of the bone). To identify them, we had previously conducted experimental work on cranial bone samples. The bone was submitted to a device for three-point bending. This work had shown properties of thickness and stiffness of the various areas of the vault. Our cases are consistent with these results and illustrate the variability of bone lesions according to region and mode of use of blunt weapons. Many studies have identified criteria for identification of the weapons and the assistance of digital and biomechanical models will be an invaluable contribution with this aim in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  19. Predicted Changes in Interannual Water-Level Fluctuations Due to Climate Change and Its Implications for the Vegetation of the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, Arnold G.; Volin, John C.; Wetzel, Paul R.

    2015-04-01

    The number of dominant vegetation types (wet prairies, sawgrass flats, ridges and sloughs, sloughs, and tree islands) historically and currently found in the Everglades, FL, USA, as with other wetlands with standing water, appears to be primarily a function of the magnitude of interannual water-level fluctuations. Analyses of 40 years of water-depth data were used to estimate the magnitude of contemporary (baseline) water-level fluctuations in undisturbed ridge and slough landscapes. Baseline interannual water-level fluctuations above the soil surface were at least 1.5 m. Predicted changes in interannual water-level fluctuations in 2060 were examined for seven climate change scenarios. When rainfall is predicted to increase by 10 %, the wettest scenario, the interannual range of water-level fluctuation increases to 1.8 m above the soil surface in sloughs. When rainfall is predicted to decrease by 10 % and temperatures to increase by 1.5 °C, the driest scenario, the range of interannual range of water-level fluctuations is predicted to decrease to 1.2 m above the soil surface in sloughs. A change of 25-30 cm in interannual water-level fluctuations is needed to change the number of vegetation types in a wetland. This suggests that the two most extreme climate change scenarios could have a significant impact on the overall structure of wetland vegetation, i.e., the number of vegetation types or zones, found in the Everglades.

  20. Economic Contribution to Local Livelihoods and Households Dependency on Dry Land Forest Products in Hammer District, Southeastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagm Fikir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Hammer district, Southern Ethiopia, to provide empirical evidence on economic contribution to local livelihoods and households dependency on dry forest products. One agropastoral and two pastoral kebeles were purposively selected, and data was collected through household survey, group discussions, market assessments, and field observation. A total of 164 households, selected based on a random sampling procedure, were interviewed using structured questionnaire. The study found that income from forest products contributes 21.4% of the total annual household income. The major dry forest products include honey, fuel wood, gum and resin, and crafts and construction materials, contributing 49%, 39%, 6%, and 6% of the forest income, respectively. Households of the pastoral site earned more forest income and were relatively more dependent on forest products income than those in the agropastoral study site. Significant variation was also found among income groups: households with higher total annual income obtain more forest income than those with lower income, but they are relatively less dependent on forest products than the lower counterpart. Besides, various socioeconomic and contextual factors were found to influence forest income and dependency. The findings of the study provide valuable information up on which important implications for dry land forest development and management strategies can be drawn.

  1. Robust Sub-harmonic Mixer at 340 GHz Using Intrinsic Resonances of Hammer-Head Filter and Improved Diode Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; He, Yue; Lu, Bin; Jiang, Jun; Miao, Li; Deng, Xian-Jin; Xiong, Yong-zhong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a sub-harmonic mixer at 340 GHz based on anti-parallel Schottky diodes (SBDs). Intrinsic resonances in low-pass hammer-head filter have been adopted to enhance the isolation for different harmonic components, while greatly minimizing the transmission loss. The application of new DC grounding structure, impedance matching structure, and suspended micro-strip mitigates the negative influences of fabrication errors from metal cavity, quartz substrate, and micro-assembly. An improved lumped element equivalent circuit model of SBDs guarantees the accuracy of simulation, which takes current-voltage (I/V) behavior, capacitance-voltage (C/V) behavior, carrier velocity saturation, DC series resistor, plasma resonance, skin effect, and four kinds of noise generation mechanisms into consideration thoroughly. The measurement indicates that with local oscillating signal of 2 mW, the lowest double sideband conversion loss is 5.5 dB at 339 GHz; the corresponding DSB noise temperature is 757 K. The 3 dB bandwidth of conversion loss is 50 GHz from 317 to 367 GHz.

  2. Relationship between tap water hardness, magnesium, and calcium concentration and mortality due to ischemic heart disease or stroke in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, L.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Mons, M.N.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting results on the relationship between the hardness of drinking water and mortality related to ischemic heart disease (IHD) or stroke have been reported. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the possible association between tap water calcium or magnesium concentration and total hardness

  3. ESTIMATION OF THE POPULATION EXPOSURE DOSES FROM NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIONUCLIDES DUE TO DRINKING-WATER CONSUMPTION FOR THE INHABITANTS OF DIFFERENT AREAS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju. N. Goncharova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The report contains data on specific activity values of natural and artificial radionuclides in the water of underground and surface sources in 19 areas of Russian Federation and data on population internal exposure doses from drinking water consumption in these areas.

  4. Remote sensing applications for estimating changes on crop evapotranspiration of the most water intensive crops, due to climate change in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadavid, G.; Neocleous, D.; Stylianou, A.; Markou, M.; Kountios, G.; Hadjimitsis, D.

    2016-08-01

    Water allocation to crops, and especially to the most water intensive ones, has always been of great importance in agricultural process. Deficit or excess water irrigation quantities could create either crop health related problems or water over-consumption situation which lead to stored water reduction and toxic material depletion to deeper ground layers, respectively. In this context, and under the current conditions, where Cyprus is facing effects of climate changes, purpose of this study is basically to estimate the needed crop water requirements of the past (1995-2004) and the corresponding ones of the present (2005-2015) in order to test if there were any significant changes regarding the crop water requirements of the most water intensive trees in Cyprus. Mediterranean region has been identified as the region that will suffer the most from climate change. Thus the paper refers to effects of climate changes on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) using remotely sensed data from Landsat TM/ ETM+ / OLI employing a sound methodology used worldwide, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL). Though the general feeling is that of changes on climate will consequently affect ETc, the results have indicated that there is no significant effect of climate change on crop evapotranspiration, despite the fact that some climatic factors have changed. Applying Student's T-test, the mean values for the most water intensive trees in Cyprus of the 1994-2004 decade have shown no statistical difference from the mean values of 2005-2015 decade's for all the cases, concluding that the climate change taking place the last decades in Cyprus have either not affected the crop evapotranspiration or the crops have manage to adapt into the new environmental conditions through time.

  5. Peculiarities of the river pollution during the passage of high floods due to the removal of contaminants from the floodplain water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoliy; Parshakova, Yanina; Tiunov, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    When analyzing the consequences of the passage of high floods, as a rule, only the hydrological consequences such as evaluation of possible flooding areas with the duration of high levels standing water and the expected flow velocities are considered. However, surface water bodies, including rivers, are very often the main sources of not only industrial but also of drinking water. In this case, the water quality evaluation and the estimation of the content of polluting substances in water are of primary importance. If the intensity of pollution sources is not connected with the flow rate in the river, it is natural to expect the reduction of the content of pollutants with increasing flow rate. However, the situation changes drastically, if the intensity of pollutants input in watercourse increases with increasing flow rate. Most typically, such a situation arises in case of flooding polluted natural or technogenic water bodies located in the floodplain areas of rivers. The flooding inundated ponds leads to removal of the pollutants from them, to the significant pollution of the main watercourse and consequently to the substantial restriction of its use for drinking purposes, and in some cases, for technical water supply. To effectively parry arising emergency, spatially-temporal evaluation of the extent of contamination zones depending on the scenario of the passage of high floods is required. It should be noted, that the mechanisms of the washout of the polluted floodplain water bodies are not trivial, especially if there is a significant difference in the densities of water in the river and in the floodplain water bodies under consideration. In this case it is necessary to ensure the coupling of the mechanisms of the pollutants removal with the mechanisms of their propagation in the river. In the present paper we consider the solution of this problem using the example of sustainable functioning of the drinking water intake in the Kirov district at the Vyatka

  6. Numerical study on the influence of entrapped air bubbles on the time-dependent pore pressure distribution in soils due to external changes in water level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausweger Georg M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical geotechnical engineering soils below the groundwater table are usually regarded as a two-phase medium, consisting of solids and water. The pore water is assumed to be incompressible. However, under certain conditions soils below the groundwater table may exhibit a liquid phase consisting of water and air. The air occurs in form of entrapped air bubbles and dissolved air. Such conditions are named quasi-saturated and the assumption of incompressibility is no longer justified. In addition the entrapped air bubbles influence the hydraulic conductivity of soils. These effects are usually neglected in standard problems of geotechnical engineering. However, sometimes it is required to include the pore fluid compressibility when modelling the hydraulic behaviour of soils in order to be able to explain certain phenomena observed in the field. This is for example true for fast fluctuating water levels in reservoirs. In order to study these phenomena, numerical investigations on the influence of the pore fluid compressibility on the pore water pressure changes in a soil layer beneath a reservoir with fast fluctuating water levels were performed. Preliminary results of this study are presented and it could be shown that numerical analysis and field data are in good agreement.

  7. Relationship between tap water hardness, magnesium, and calcium concentration and mortality due to ischemic heart disease or stroke in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurs, Lina J; Schouten, Leo J; Mons, Margreet N; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2010-03-01

    Conflicting results on the relationship between the hardness of drinking water and mortality related to ischemic heart disease (IHD) or stroke have been reported. We investigated the possible association between tap water calcium or magnesium concentration and total hardness and IHD mortality or stroke mortality. In 1986, a cohort of 120,852 men and women aged 5569 years provided detailed information on dietary and other lifestyle habits. Follow-up for mortality until 1996 was established by linking data from the Central Bureau of Genealogy and Statistics Netherlands. We calculated tap water hardness for each postal code using information obtained from all pumping stations in the Netherlands. Tap water hardness was categorized as soft [hard (1.62.0 mmol/L CaCO3), and hard (> 2.0 mmol/L CaCO3). The multivariate case-cohort analysis was based on 1,944 IHD mortality and 779 stroke mortality cases and 4,114 subcohort members. For both men and women, we observed no relationship between tap water hardness and IHD mortality [hard vs. soft water: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.851.28 for men and HR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.711.21 for women) and stroke mortality (hard vs. soft water HR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.661.21 and HR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.621.20, respectively). For men with the 20% lowest dietary magnesium intake, an inverse association was observed between tap water magnesium intake and stroke mortality (HR per 1 mg/L intake = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.610.91), whereas for women with the 20% lowest dietary magnesium intake, the opposite was observed. We found no evidence for an overall significant association between tap water hardness, magnesium or calcium concentrations, and IHD mortality or stroke mortality. More research is needed to investigate the effect of tap water magnesium on IHD mortality or stroke mortality in subjects with low dietary magnesium intake.

  8. Dropping the hammer: Examining impact ignition and combustion using pre-stressed aluminum powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kevin J.; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Levitas, Valery I.

    2017-09-01

    Pre-stressing aluminum (Al) particles by annealing and quenching Al powder alters particle mechanical properties and has also been linked to an increase in particle reactivity. Specifically, energy propagation in composites consisting of aluminum mixed with copper oxide (Al + CuO) exhibits a 24% increase in flame speed when using pre-stressed aluminum (PS Al) compared to Al of the same particle size. However, no data exist for the reactivity of PS Al powders under impact loading. In this study, a drop weight impact tester with pressure cell was designed and built to examine impact ignition sensitivity and combustion of PS Al when mixed with CuO. Both micron and nanometer scale powders (i.e., μAl and nAl, respectively) were pre-stressed, then combined with CuO and analyzed. Three types of ignition and combustion events were identified: ignition with complete combustion, ignition with incomplete combustion, and no ignition or combustion. The PS nAl + CuO demonstrated a lower impact ignition energy threshold for complete combustion, differing from nAl + CuO samples by more than 3.5 J/mg. The PS nAl + CuO also demonstrated significantly more complete combustion as evidenced by pressure history data during ignition and combustion. Additional material characterization provides insight on hot spot formation in the incomplete combustion samples. The most probable reasons for higher impact-induced reactivity of pre-stressed particles include (a) delayed but more intense fracture of the pre-stressed alumina shell due to release of energy of internal stresses during fracture and (b) detachment of the shell from the core during impact due to high tensile stresses in the Al core leading to much more pronounced fracture of unsupported shells and easy access of oxygen to the Al core. The μAl + CuO composites did not ignite, even under pre-stressed conditions.

  9. Visual persuasion and politics: ideology and symbols of the totalitarian regimes'--case study: hammer and sickle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilicić, Niksa; Maldini, Pero

    2013-06-01

    Unlike all other autocracies, authoritarian regimes are, as the ultimate form of authoritarianism, a distinct phenomenon of the modern era. Caused by the crisis of liberal democracy and industrial capitalism of the early twentieth century, and led by radical populist political movements/parties and their leaders, they established themselves as the regimes which marked one of the greatest degrees of unfreedom. The article analyzes the specific sociostructural, sociocultural and sociopsychological aspects of the formation of totalitarian regimes (particularly communism), as well as their political system, ideological foundations and modus operandi. In doing so, it particularly emphasizes the dissolution of civil society and its substitution by a political society as a key structural determinant, authoritarianism and fear as a sociopsychological basis, and repression as the functional basis of operation for totalitarian regimes. In that context, it analyzes the political, anthropological and visual aspects of the symbols of totalitarian regimes, their archetypal (mythological, religious, ethnic, cultural, historical) meaning, and explains their function (political, anthropological, sociocultural, and sociopsychological) in the development and preservation of totalitarian regimes. Using the example of the hammer and sickle, a typical symbol of communism, it shows a substantial and communicational (particularly visual) dimension of symbol, by breakdown by the elements of semiotics (signum, designatum, interpretant) and its sub-disciplines (semantics, pragmatics, sintactics). On this basis, it tries to show the decisive power of political symbols over the political perceptions and political behavior of individuals and entire social groups, i.e. their manipulative power by meanings assigned to them by totalitarian authorities and forms of their communication, with the goal of preserving the totalitarian regime.

  10. Estimation of incidence and social cost of colon cancer due to nitrate in drinking water in the EU: a tentative cost-benefit assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabl Ari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presently, health costs associated with nitrate in drinking water are uncertain and not quantified. This limits proper evaluation of current policies and measures for solving or preventing nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The cost for society associated with nitrate is also relevant for integrated assessment of EU nitrogen policies taking a perspective of welfare optimization. The overarching question is at which nitrogen mitigation level the social cost of measures, including their consequence for availability of food and energy, matches the social benefit of these measures for human health and biodiversity. Methods Epidemiological studies suggest colon cancer to be possibly associated with nitrate in drinking water. In this study risk increase for colon cancer is based on a case-control study for Iowa, which is extrapolated to assess the social cost for 11 EU member states by using data on cancer incidence, nitrogen leaching and drinking water supply in the EU. Health costs are provisionally compared with nitrate mitigation costs and social benefits of fertilizer use. Results For above median meat consumption the risk of colon cancer doubles when exposed to drinking water exceeding 25 mg/L of nitrate (NO3 for more than ten years. We estimate the associated increase of incidence of colon cancer from nitrate contamination of groundwater based drinking water in EU11 at 3%. This corresponds to a population-averaged health loss of 2.9 euro per capita or 0.7 euro per kg of nitrate-N leaching from fertilizer. Conclusions Our cost estimates indicate that current measures to prevent exceedance of 50 mg/L NO3 are probably beneficial for society and that a stricter nitrate limit and additional measures may be justified. The present assessment of social cost is uncertain because it considers only one type of cancer, it is based on one epidemiological study in Iowa, and involves various assumptions regarding exposure. Our

  11. Estimation of incidence and social cost of colon cancer due to nitrate in drinking water in the EU: a tentative cost-benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Hans J M; Rabl, Ari; de Kok, Theo M

    2010-10-06

    Presently, health costs associated with nitrate in drinking water are uncertain and not quantified. This limits proper evaluation of current policies and measures for solving or preventing nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The cost for society associated with nitrate is also relevant for integrated assessment of EU nitrogen policies taking a perspective of welfare optimization. The overarching question is at which nitrogen mitigation level the social cost of measures, including their consequence for availability of food and energy, matches the social benefit of these measures for human health and biodiversity. Epidemiological studies suggest colon cancer to be possibly associated with nitrate in drinking water. In this study risk increase for colon cancer is based on a case-control study for Iowa, which is extrapolated to assess the social cost for 11 EU member states by using data on cancer incidence, nitrogen leaching and drinking water supply in the EU. Health costs are provisionally compared with nitrate mitigation costs and social benefits of fertilizer use. For above median meat consumption the risk of colon cancer doubles when exposed to drinking water exceeding 25 mg/L of nitrate (NO3) for more than ten years. We estimate the associated increase of incidence of colon cancer from nitrate contamination of groundwater based drinking water in EU11 at 3%. This corresponds to a population-averaged health loss of 2.9 euro per capita or 0.7 euro per kg of nitrate-N leaching from fertilizer. Our cost estimates indicate that current measures to prevent exceedance of 50 mg/L NO3 are probably beneficial for society and that a stricter nitrate limit and additional measures may be justified. The present assessment of social cost is uncertain because it considers only one type of cancer, it is based on one epidemiological study in Iowa, and involves various assumptions regarding exposure. Our results highlight the need for improved epidemiological studies.

  12. Use of surrogate indicators for the evaluation of potential health risks due to poor urban water quality: A Bayesian Network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesiri, Buddhi; Deilami, Kaveh; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2018-02-01

    Urban water pollution poses risks of waterborne infectious diseases. Therefore, in order to improve urban liveability, effective pollution mitigation strategies are required underpinned by predictions generated using water quality models. However, the lack of reliability in current modelling practices detrimentally impacts planning and management decision making. This research study adopted a novel approach in the form of Bayesian Networks to model urban water quality to better investigate the factors that influence risks to human health. The application of Bayesian Networks was found to enhance the integration of quantitative and qualitative spatially distributed data for analysing the influence of environmental and anthropogenic factors using three surrogate indicators of human health risk, namely, turbidity, total nitrogen and fats/oils. Expert knowledge was found to be of critical importance in assessing the interdependent relationships between health risk indicators and influential factors. The spatial variability maps of health risk indicators developed enabled the initial identification of high risk areas in which flooding was found to be the most significant influential factor in relation to human health risk. Surprisingly, population density was found to be less significant in influencing health risk indicators. These high risk areas in turn can be subjected to more in-depth investigations instead of the entire region, saving time and resources. It was evident that decision making in relation to the design of pollution mitigation strategies needs to account for the impact of landscape characteristics on water quality, which can be related to risk to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms for Reduction of Natural Waters Technogenic Pollution by Metals due to Complexions with Humus Substances (Zoning: Western Siberia and the European Territory of Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    The article described the complexation of metal ions with humus substances in natural waters (small lakes). Humus substances as the major biochemical components of natural water have a significant impact on the forms and migration of metals and the toxicity of natural objects. This article presents the results of large-scale chemical experiments: the study of the structural features (zonal aspects) of humus substances extracted from soil and water natural climatic zones (more than 300 objects) in Russia (European Russia and West Siberia); the influence of structural features on the physic-chemical parameters of humus acids and, in particular, on their complexing ability. The functional specifics of humus matter extracted from soils is estimated using spectrometric techniques. The conditional stability constants for Fe(III), Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Cr(III), Ca(II), Mg(II), Sr(II), and Al(III) are experimentally determined with the electrochemical, spectroscopic analysis methods. The activities of metals are classified according to their affinity to humus compounds in soils and water. The determined conditional stability constants of the complexes are tested by model experiments, and it is demonstrated that Fe and Al ions have higher conditional stability constants than the ions of alkali earth metals, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Furthermore, the influence of aluminium ions and iron on the complexation of copper and lead as well as the influence of lead and copper on complexation of cobalt and nickel have been identified. The metal forms in a large number of lakes are calculated basing on the experiments’ results. The main chemical mechanisms of the distribution of metals by forms in the water of the lakes in European Russia and West Siberia are described.

  14. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Health effects of water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  15. Impactos na saúde das deficiências de acesso a água Health impacts due to deficient water access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O acesso regular à água potável e segura tem causado preocupação, principalmente em países em desenvolvimento e, mais enfaticamente em áreas periurbanas, que abrigam a população socialmente excluída. O objetivo deste trabalho é abordar questões de acesso à água em regiões periurbanas e para tanto foi realizado levantamento bibliográfico nas bases de dados Pubmed, Medline e SciELO assim como relatórios da OMS, OPAS, IBGE e Ministério das Cidades. A falta ou a precariedade do acesso à água representa situação de risco que propicia aumento da incidência de doenças infecciosas agudas e da prevalência de doenças crônicas. O estabelecimento do grau de acesso à água de qualidade considera fatores como distância e tempo percorrido até a fonte de água, volume coletado, demanda atendida e nível de prioridade de ações de intervenção. Na qualidade da água, consideram-se como fatores de impacto o manuseio - maneira como ocorre a coleta, o transporte, o armazenamento e o uso -, a presença de patógenos nas fontes e as práticas rotineiras da população. A determinação da presença de patógenos nas fontes evidencia o risco à saúde e a identificação do agente etiológico indica a origem da contaminação. O caminho para reverter esse cenário é a implementação integrada de políticas públicas de gestão, que envolvam ações conjuntas e ajustadas nos setores de desenvolvimento urbano, habitação, saneamento e saúde e que visem à promoção e à proteção da saúde da população local e ao enfrentamento da complexidade de fatores que evidenciam sua vulnerabilidade.Regular water access has caused concern, mainly in developing countries and especially in periurban areas, where socially excluded people live. The aim of this work is to approach water access issues in periurban regions. A bibliographical survey was carried out in the Pubmed, Medline and SciELO databases, as well as in reports from WHO, PAHO

  16. Effects of temperature on stress corrosion cracking behavior of stainless steel and outer oxide distribution in cracks due to exposure to high-temperature water containing hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Junichi; Sato, Tomonori; Kato, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tsukada, Takashi; Kaji, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Cracking growth tests were conducted in high-temperature water containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at 561-423 K to evaluate the effects of H2O2 on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steel (SS) at temperature lower than the boiling water reactor (BWR) operating temperature. Small compact tension (CT) specimens were prepared from thermally sensitized type 304 SS. Despite the observation of only a small portion intergranular SCC (IGSCC) near the side groove of the CT specimen at 561 K in high-temperature water containing 100 ppb H2O2, the IGSCC area expanded to the central region of the CT specimens at 423 and 453 K. Effects of H2O2 on SCC appeared intensely at temperature lower than the BWR operating temperature because of a reduction in the thermal decomposition of H2O2. To estimate the environment in the cracks, outer oxide distribution on the fracture surface and the fatigue pre-crack were examined by laser Raman spectroscopy and thermal equilibrium calculation was performed.

  17. Comparison of Acoustic Energy Meter (AEM) and Schmidt hammer 'R' for rapid assessment of rock surface hardness: a preliminary assessment from southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Winkler, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    This research focuses on one of the key challenges in geomorphology - quantifying rock surface hardness via in situ measurements, to provide information on rock physical properties. This has been a focus in recent years with the rapid emergence of studies that center on surface and near surface weathering impacts, and rates of material loss. Indeed, a key element to understanding how weathering and erosion processes combine to influence rock surface (and landscape) evolution is the measurement and monitoring of rock surface hardness. We provide results from a preliminary assessment of the applicability of the Acoustic Energy Meter (AEM) to subaerial rock surface hardness, in comparison with an N-Type Schmidt hammer. The AEM apparatus consists of a geophone which is in contact with the rock surface and some electronics. The AEM is held normal to the surface to be tested and the surface is struck with a small hammer (typically 0.75 kg), with the AEM quantifying the decay time of seismically-induced oscillations within the top c. 1-2 m of the rock mass. Previous work using an AEM has focused on measuring roof stability and delamination in South African underground coal, gold and platinum mines, where long AEM reverberation times correlated well with weak rock mass and dense microfracturing. However, the technique has rarely been applied to the assessment of rock surfaces in a subaerial setting. We applied the technique to a range of lithologies at five sites in southeast Queensland in the Brisbane area, each an exposure of phyllite, granite, mudstone, argillite or volcanic tuff. The aims were: (1) quantifying the response of different rock masses to the AEM technique; and (2) assessing the applicability of the AEM as a rapid in situ measure of rock hardness by comparing results with Schmidt hammer 'R' values from the same exposures. Results showed that the AEM is useful in discriminating rock hardness across rocks with different lithological properties. Second, an

  18. Waning habitats due to climate change: the effects of changes in streamflow and temperature at the rear edge of the distribution of a cold-water fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Santiago, José; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Solana-Gutiérrez, Joaquín; García de Jalón, Diego; Alonso, Carlos; Martínez-Capel, Francisco; Pórtoles, Javier; Monjo, Robert; Ribalaygua, Jaime

    2017-08-01

    Climate changes affect aquatic ecosystems by altering temperatures and precipitation patterns, and the rear edges of the distributions of cold-water species are especially sensitive to these effects. The main goal of this study was to predict in detail how changes in air temperature and precipitation will affect streamflow, the thermal habitat of a cold-water fish (the brown trout, Salmo trutta), and the synergistic relationships among these variables at the rear edge of the natural distribution of brown trout. Thirty-one sites in 14 mountain rivers and streams were studied in central Spain. Models of streamflow were built for several of these sites using M5 model trees, and a non-linear regression method was used to estimate stream temperatures. Nine global climate models simulations for Representative Concentration Pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios were downscaled to the local level. Significant reductions in streamflow were predicted to occur in all of the basins (max. -49 %) by the year 2099, and seasonal differences were noted between the basins. The stream temperature models showed relationships between the model parameters, geology and hydrologic responses. Temperature was sensitive to streamflow in one set of streams, and summer reductions in streamflow contributed to additional stream temperature increases (max. 3.6 °C), although the sites that are most dependent on deep aquifers will likely resist warming to a greater degree. The predicted increases in water temperatures were as high as 4.0 °C. Temperature and streamflow changes will cause a shift in the rear edge of the distribution of this species. However, geology will affect the extent of this shift. Approaches like the one used herein have proven to be useful in planning the prevention and mitigation of the negative effects of climate change by differentiating areas based on the risk level and viability of fish populations.

  19. Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms

  20. Morphology of stress corrosion cracking due to exposure to high-temperature water containing hydrogen peroxide in stainless steel specimens with different crevice lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Junichi; Sato, Tomonori; Kato, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tsukada, Takashi; Kaji, Yoshiyuki

    2013-10-01

    Crack growth tests were performed in high-temperature water containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to evaluate the relationships between the crevice structure and H2O2 on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) growth morphology of stainless steel (SS). Small compact tension (CT) specimens were prepared from thermally sensitized type 304 SS. 20-300 ppb H2O2 was injected into the high-temperature water at 561 K. Intergranular SCC (IGSCC) and transgranular SCC were observed near the side grooves and the central region of the original CT specimens, respectively. Chevron notches were removed from the CT specimens after fatigue pre-crack introduction. Owing to pre-crack shortening, the IGSCC area expanded to the central region of the CT specimens and increased with H2O2 concentration. The effects of H2O2 on SCC appeared intensely near the surfaces exposed to high levels of H2O2. Microanalysis and distribution examination of oxide layers were performed and the percentage of H2O2 remaining in the crack was calculated.

  1. Water quality simulation in two urban experimental catchments in Italy; Simulazione della qualita` delle acque in due bacini sperimentali urbani in Italia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artina, S.; Maglionico, M. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). DISTART; Calabro`, P. [Reggio Calabria Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Meccanica dei Fluidi ed Ingegneria Off-shore; La Loggia, A. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Idraulica ed Applicazioni Ambientali

    1998-11-01

    Results of the calibration of SWMM on data coming from two Italian experimental catchments are presented, performed on runoff and quality data. The analysis has pointed on the great importance of runoff processes among all other phenomena taken into account. [Italiano] Viene presentata la calibrazione del modello SWMM dal punto quali-quantitativo su due bacini sperimentali italiani. Si e` compiuta la calibrazione e validazione del modello sugli eventi disponibili, valutandone il comportamento nel riprodurre gli eventi registrati. Lo studio mette in evidenza la particolare importanza del fenomeno del washoff operato dalla pioggia rispetto alle altre fasi della modellazione qualitativa.

  2. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  3. CHANGES IN TRANSPARENCY OF WATER AND REDUCTION OF BIOMASS OF BENTHIC COMMUNITIES DUE TO THE DAMAGE TO THE BANKS AND THE OVERALL POLLUTION IN WESTERN PART OF THE SOUTH CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Salmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. As a result of fluctuations in water level, waves, circulation, rise and fall of the water levels there are constant partial erosion and leaching of soil banks in water bodies, with intensive ongoing pollution of the waters of the Caspian Sea, which we have seen in recent decades, and in the long run may dangerously affect the transparency of the water and reduction of biomass of the benthic community in the western part of the South Caspian Sea. The paper presents the results of the last 60 years of monitoring studies to determine the nature of transparency, depth of the euphotic layer, the primary production of phytoplankton photosynthesis, phytoand zoobentos biomass and destruction of organic matter in the coastal western shelf of the South Caspian. Methods. In the course of research, modern methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis were used, regulated by normative documents, duly approved for environmental monitoring of water bodies. Results. Studies have shown that since the second half of the 90’s, the mainland coast strip is strongly deformed, starting from the village of Shihva to Kura area, further from the south of the village of Narimanabada to Astara. Dozens of artificial coves, bays, islands were created with clay-soil mounds. Conclusions. A huge mass of clay and soil goes to the coastal waters of the western shelf as a result of the destruction of the structure of the coasts due to waves and wind, resulting in clastic particles in the water increased by 2.5 3 times, the transparency of the water in the area of 5-10 m depth contours is reduced by more than 2 fold, increasing the degradation 1.6 times. During this period, because of the intensity of sedimentation and the overall pollution in the study area, phytobenthos has almost disappeared and flowering has been reduced by 7580%. Zoobenthos has been badly damaged and biomass of bento detritivorous organisms has also been reduced. 

  4. Der hadronen-hammer

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The depthes of the cosmos and the world of the elementary particles contain the biggest enigmae of the modern physics. With a superstrong particle accelerator the physicists want to break the hardest cores. (2,5 pages)

  5. Hammering kids for Christ

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greg Ruehlmann

    2008-01-01

    ..., hats and snow boots. The younger kids are shepherded to an adjacent playroom; the rest linger and chatter until a pastor, who oversees the weekly, nondenominational outreach program, leads them in some opening music...

  6. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tap as described). 3. In all situations, drink or cook only with water that comes out of the tap cold. Water that comes out of the tap warm or hot can contain much higher levels of lead. Boiling ...

  7. Consideration of geomorphological uncertainties with terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND): combining Schmidt-hammer and 10Be dating, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    "by vision". Especially in regions like the Southern Alps affected of considerable neo-tectonic activity and paraglacial erosion, post-depositional movement of any boulders on moraine ridges cannot be excluded a priori. On base on these considerations, an attempt to combine TCND with Schmidt-hammer measurements for the dating of Holocene moraines and the reconstruction of a regional glacier chronology has been developed (Winkler 2009). Cosmogenic 10Be dating delivers ‘absolute' ages for the exposure of boulder surfaces, i.e. the same surface tested with the Schmidt-hammer relative-age dating technique. Therefore, Schmidt-hammer measurements can successfully endorse the selection of representative boulders for TCND and effectively avoid sampling boulders that have been exposed to post-depositional movement (e.g. rotation). Additionally, the number of boulders sampled for TCND can be reduced, positive in the light of economic and conservational considerations. Results from the application of this combined ‘multi-proxy-approach' at a number of individual glaciers in Westland/Tai Poutini and Mt Cook/Aoraki National Parks of the Southern Alps proof its potential. At least three ‘Little Ice Age'-type events culminating around 2,300, 1,600, and 1,000 years ago and predating the "Little Ice Age" have been confirmed. The construction of a dating curve based on both Schmidt-hammer and cosmogenic (10Be) dating results shows high significance and demonstrates the high potential of this attempt. References: Schaefer, J.M., Denton, G.H., Kaplan, M., Putnam, A., Finkel, R.C., Barrell, D.J.A., Andersen, B.G., Schwartz, R., McIntosh, A., Chinn, T. & Schlüchter, C. (2009): High-frequency Holocene glacier fluctuations in New Zealand differ from the northern signature. Science 324, 622 - 625. Winkler, S. (2009): First attempt to combine terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and Schmidt hammer relative-age dating: Strauchon Glacier, Southern Alps, New Zealand. Central European

  8. Evaluation of an Absorption Heat Pump to Mitigate Plant Capacity Reduction Due to Ambient Temperature Rise for an Air-Cooled Ammonia and Water Cycle: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.; Nix, G.

    2001-08-06

    Air-cooled geothermal plants suffer substantial decreases in generating capacity at increased ambient temperatures. As the ambient temperature rises by 50 F above a design value of 50 F, at low brine-resource temperatures, the decrease in generating capacity can be more than 50%. This decrease is caused primarily by increased condenser pressure. Using mixed-working fluids has recently drawn considerable attention for use in power cycles. Such cycles are more readily amenable to use of absorption ''heat pumps.'' For a system that uses ammonia and water as the mixed-working fluid, this paper evaluates using an absorption heat pump to reduce condenser backpressure. At high ambient temperatures, part of the turbine exhaust vapor is absorbed into a circulating mixed stream in an absorber in series with the main condenser. This steam is pumped up to a higher pressure and heated to strip the excess vapor, which is recondensed using an additional air-cooled condenser. The operating conditions are chosen to reconstitute this condensate back to the same concentration as drawn from the original system. We analyzed two power plants of nominal 1-megawatt capacity. The design resource temperatures were 250 F and 300 F. Ambient temperature was allowed to rise from a design value of 50 F to 100 F. The analyses indicate that using an absorption heat pump is feasible. For the 300 F resource, an increased brine flow of 30% resulted in a net power increase of 21%. For the 250 F resource, the increase was smaller. However, these results are highly plant- and equipment-specific because evaluations must be carried out at off-design conditions for the condenser. Such studies should be carried out for specific power plants that suffer most from increased ambient temperatures.

  9. Farmland shift due to climate warming and impacts on temporal-spatial distributions of water resources in a middle-high latitude agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Hao, Zengchao; Liu, Hongbin; Shi, Yandan; Hao, Fanghua

    2017-04-01

    Climate warming increases the active accumulated temperature (AAT) of crops and may change crop structures and patterns. Climate warming along with farmland responses has combined consequences for watershed hydrological indicators, which would be expected to exhibit different temporal-spatial patterns. In our study we investigate the combined impacts of increased temperature and shifted farmland on the hydrological features in middle-high latitude agricultural watersheds. The AAT responses in latitudinal and altitudinal directions were revealed by using an agro-climate model under different warming scenarios (△T = 0.1 °C is applied to the interval from 0.7 °C to 1.5 °C). Then, the spatial distributions of dryland shifting to paddy land were determined considering △AAT. For every 1 °C increase in average annual temperature, the boundary for planting paddy fields will shift northward by approximately 160 km and upward in the altitudinal direction by 180 m. Increasing temperature values and the new crop distributions were imported into the SWAT model, which quantified the temporal (monthly and yearly) and spatial changes of runoff and actual evapotranspiration (ET). Annual runoff decreased at a rate of 9.5 mm/°C, and annual ET increased at a rate of 7 mm/°C under climate warming combined with shifted farmlands. Combined impacts increased runoff in February, March and September, and decreased runoff from April to July. ET increased from March to July and decreased in August and September. The comparison of spatial water resource responses indicated that lower altitude and lower latitude areas experienced larger changes in runoff and ET than was the case for higher altitude and higher latitude areas.

  10. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available , and of the remaining 2,5 percent, some 70 percent is frozen in the polar caps and around 30 percent is present as soil moisture or in underground aquifers. Less than 1 percent is thus accessible for direct use by humans, animals and plants. Consequently... be serviced with harvested water and/or grey water. Conserve and reuse cooling tower water by using efficient systems and strategies. Avoid ?once-through systems? commonly used for evaporation coolers, ice makers, hydraulic equipment, and air compressors...

  11. Hypothenar hammer syndrome: case report and literature review Síndrome do martelo hipotenar: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Muniz de Queiroz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Case report of a 69 year-old patient, with history of repetitive trauma events in the wrist, clinically simulating tenosynovitis, being held with Doppler Ultrasound and Magnetic Nuclear Resonance, which showed ulnar artery thrombosis. The accurate diagnosis of the hammer hypothenar disease through those tests enable an early intervention, improving the prognosis of patients affected by this rare disease.Paciente de 69 anos, com história de traumas repetitivos no punho, simulando clinicamente tenossinovite, sendo feitas ultrassonografia com doppler e ressonância nuclear magnética, que evidenciaram trombose da artéria ulnar. O diagnóstico preciso da doença do martelo hipotenar por meio desses exames possibilita uma intervenção precoce e melhora o prognóstico dos pacientes acometidos por essa rara afecção.

  12. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  13. [Keratitis due to Acanthamoeba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Irezábal, Julio; Martínez, Inés; Isasa, Patricia; Barrón, Jorge

    2006-10-01

    Free-living amebae appertaining to the genus Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Balamuthia are the most prevalent protozoa found in the environment. These amebae have a cosmopolitan distribution in soil, air and water, providing multiple opportunities for contacts with humans and animals, although they only occasionally cause disease. Acanthamoeba spp. are the causative agent of granulomatous amebic encephalitis, a rare and often fatal disease of the central nervous system, and amebic keratitis, a painful disease of the eyes. Keratitis usually follows a chronic course due to the delay in diagnosis and subsequent treatment. The clear increase in Acanthamoeba keratitis in the last 20 years is related to the use and deficient maintenance of contact lenses, and to swimming while wearing them. The expected incidence is one case per 30,000 contact lens wearers per year, with 88% of cases occurring in persons wearing hydrogel lenses. This review presents information on the morphology, life-cycle and epidemiology of Acanthamoeba, as well as on diagnostic procedures (culture), appropriate antimicrobial therapy, and prevention measures.

  14. Co-seismic changes of well water level and volume strain meter in capital area and its vicinity, due to the Nov.14, 2001 Ms8.1 Kunlun Mountain earthquake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiong Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Kunlunshan Mountain Ms8.1 earthquake, occurred in Nov.14, 2001, is the first event with magnitude more than 8 in the China earthquake monitoring history, specifically at the beginning of digital techniques in precursor monitoring networks. Any investigation of recorded data on this earthquake is very important for testing the operation of the digital monitoring networks and understanding the preparation, occurrence, and adjustment of stress/strain of strong continental earthquakes. In this paper we investigated the co-seismic response changes of well water level of groundwater and volume strain meter of bore hole in digital earthquake monitoring network of Capital area and its vicinity, due to the Nov.14, 2001 Ms8.1 Kunlun Mountain earthquake. The responding time, shapes or manners, amplitudes, and lasting time of well water level and strain-meters to seismic wave are studied in comparison. Then we discussed the possibility that the response changes of groundwater to strong distant earthquakes can be understood as one kind of observing evidence of stress/strain changes induced by distant earthquake.

  15. Autopercepção da fluorose pela exposição a flúor pela água e dentifrício Self-perception of fluorosis due to fluoride exposure to drinking water and dentifrice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Maria Bezerra de Menezes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A percepção da fluorose dental e seu impacto em escolares de Piracicaba, SP, Brasil, expostos ao uso de flúor pela água e dentifrício, foram avaliados. O problema foi encontrado em 72% das crianças, mas o grau de alteração decorrente não provocou nenhum impacto na satisfação das crianças com seus dentes. Embora a fluorose dental, devido à ingestão de flúor pela água e ao uso de dentifrício fluoretado, não tenha comprometido a estética da amostra populacional avaliada, estudo mais abrangente deve ser realizado.The impact of dental fluorosis in children exposed to fluoride in drinking water and dentifrice was evaluated. Dental fluorosis was found in 72% of the children, but the children's well-being was not affected. It was concluded that although dental fluorosis due to the intake of optimally fluoridated drinking water and dentifrice did not affect the dental aesthetics of this studied population sample, there is a need of further studies on the subject.

  16. GeoJetting. Development and operation of the maximum pressure water-jet drilling technology; GeoJetting. Entwicklung und Betrieb der Hoechstdruckwasserstrahl-Bohrtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Rolf [Bochum Univ. (Germany); GeothermieZentrum Bochum (GZB) (Germany); Wittig, Volker

    2009-03-15

    In the consideration of a geothermal total system - near the surface or deep being enough - the greatest amount of the plant costs are due to underground operation. Therefore, an emphasis of future technological developments in the geothermal heat also must lie in the underground; that means at innovative procedures for drilling and the reservoir development for efficient geothermal heat exchangers. At the geothermal centre on the campus of the University Bochum (Federal Republic of Germany) a new drilling procedure was developed in the years 2003 to 2007 with promotion of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) on the basis by maximum pressure water-jet cutting technology. The procedure is called 'GeoJetting'. The procedure needs clear water as the only propellant and thereby is compatible particularly with groundwater. The technology completely dissolves the rock with a water pressure of up to 1,000 bar in its solid matrix and transfers it in suspension. In comparison with drillings with conventional percussion hammers, this procedure permitted a threefold to fivefold higher drilling velocities in loose rocks and in small compressed sedimentary rocks.

  17. Use of {sup 10}Be exposure ages and Schmidt hammer data for correlation of moraines in the Krkonose Mountains, Poland/Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, Zbynek; Krizek, Marek [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Physical Geography and Geoecology; Traczyk, Andrzej [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland). Dept. of Geomorphology; Braucher, Regis [CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence (France); Woronko, Barbara [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Dept. of Geography and Regional Development

    2011-06-15

    Exposure ages and relative-age data are presented from eight sites in the Lomnica and Lomniczka valleys to provide essential information for reconstructing local glaciation chronology. A combination of {sup 10}Be exposure ages and Schmidt hammer data obtained for moraines indicate relatively short period of glacier accumulation lasting from 17.0{+-}0.4 ka to 13.6{+-}0.9 ka. Exposure age of 8.4{+-}0.3 ka measured on the lowermost section of the Lomnica cirque headwall further confirms the view of glacier preservation in favourable sites until the beginning of the Holocene. A comparison of the obtained chronological data with timing of mountain glaciation in the nearby Upa Valley is used to propose the first correlative model of Late Quaternary glaciation in the eastern part of the Krkonose Mountains. The correlation implies that the lowermost preserved moraines originated during the local maximum of the last glaciation whereas recessional moraines were deposited until the Lateglacial period. A subsequent melting of glaciers terminated at the beginning of the Holocene. The implications of the model are discussed and further investigations are suggested to extend its validity to the whole mountain area. (orig.)

  18. Study of corrosion product activity due to non-linearly rising corrosion rates coupled with pH effects for long-term operating cycles in pressurized water reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Javaid I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is a study of changes in coolant activity due to corrosion products of extended burn-up cycles of 18-24 months duration, in a typical pressurized water reactor, under pH and boric acid variations. It deals with non-linearly changing corrosion rates coupled with pH effects. The CPAIR-P computer program was modified to accommodate for time-dependent rising corrosion and effects of coolant chemistry. These simulations suggest that the effect of an increase in pH value for an extended 24-month cycle on a specific activity, in the form of a decrease in the said activity, is smeared by the rising corrosion. The new saturation values for activity at the end-of-cycle are lower than with a reactor operated at constant low pH/natural boric acid in the coolant. For a non-linear rise in the corrosion rate coupled with a pH rise from 6.9 to 7.4 and the use of enriched boric acid (30%-40%, coolant activity first rises to a peak value during the cycle and then approaches a much smaller saturation value at the end of the cycle, when compared with the activity for the system having a constant low pH value (6.9 in the coolant. In this work, we have shown that the use of enriched boric acid as a chemical shim actually lowers primary coolant activity when higher pH values, rather than natural boric acid, are employed in the coolant. For multiple long-term operating cycles, the saturation value of corrosion product activity increases in the first two cycles and becomes constant in subsequent ones, due to the high operational pH value for enriched boric acid (40% as a chemical shim.

  19. Poisoning due to pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Cage, Sarah A; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2005-01-01

    current') ensues which, if it is sufficiently large and/or long, lowers the action potential threshold and causes repetitive firing; this may be the mechanism causing paraesthesiae. At high pyrethroid concentrations, the sodium tail current may be sufficiently great to prevent further action potential generation and 'conduction block' ensues. Only low pyrethroid concentrations are necessary to modify sensory neurone function. Type II pyrethroids also decrease chloride currents through voltage-dependent chloride channels and this action probably contributes the most to the features of poisoning with type II pyrethroids. At relatively high concentrations, pyrethroids can also act on GABA-gated chloride channels, which may be responsible for the seizures seen with severe type II poisoning. Despite their extensive world-wide use, there are relatively few reports of human pyrethroid poisoning. Less than ten deaths have been reported from ingestion or following occupational exposure. Occupationally, the main route of pyrethroid absorption is through the skin. Inhalation is much less important but increases when pyrethroids are used in confined spaces. The main adverse effect of dermal exposure is paraesthesiae, presumably due to hyperactivity of cutaneous sensory nerve fibres. The face is affected most commonly and the paraesthesiae are exacerbated by sensory stimulation such as heat, sunlight, scratching, sweating or the application of water. Pyrethroid ingestion gives rise within minutes to a sore throat, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. There may be mouth ulceration, increased secretions and/or dysphagia. Systemic effects occur 4-48 hours after exposure. Dizziness, headache and fatigue are common, and palpitations, chest tightness and blurred vision less frequent. Coma and convulsions are the principal life-threatening features. Most patients recover within 6 days, although there were seven fatalities among 573 cases in one series and one among 48 cases in another

  20. Urticaria due to antihistamines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sánchez Morillas, L; Rojas Pérez-Ezquerra, P; Reaño Martos, M; Sanz, M L; Laguna Martínez, J J

    2011-01-01

    .... We report a patient with urticaria due to ingestion of ebastine and fexofenadine. Skin prick tests, patch tests, and basophil activation tests with the implicated drugs and antihistamines from other families were negative...

  1. Reducing silica and dust exposures in construction during use of powered concrete-cutting hand tools: efficacy of local exhaust ventilation on hammer drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, S; Woskie, S R; Holcroft, C; Ellenbecker, M

    2009-01-01

    Concrete cutting in construction is a major source of exposure to respirable crystalline silica. To reduce exposures, local exhaust ventilation (LEV) may be integrated into the hand tools used in concrete cutting. Volunteers from the New England Laborers Training Center participated in a field study focused on the use of LEV on concrete-cutting hammer drills. A randomized block design field experiment employing four workers measured the efficacy of four hood-vacuum source combinations compared with no LEV in reducing dust and silica exposures. Using four-stage personal cascade impactors (Marple 294) to measure dust exposure, a total of 18 personal samples were collected. Reductions of over 80% in all three biologically relevant size fractions of dust (inhalable, thoracic, and respirable) were obtained by using any combination of hood and vacuum source. This study found that respirable dust concentrations were reduced from 3.77 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.242 to 0.370 mg/m(3); thoracic dust concentrations from 12.5 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.774 to 1.23 mg/m(3); and inhalable dust concentration from 47.2 mg/m(3) to a range of 2.13 to 6.09 mg/m(3). Silica concentrations were reduced from 0.308 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.006 to 0.028 mg/m(3) in the respirable size fraction, from 0.821 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.043 to 0.090 mg/m(3) in the thoracic size fraction, and from 2.71 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.124 to 0.403 mg/m(3) in the inhalable size fraction. Reductions in dust concentrations while using the four LEV systems were not statistically significantly different from each other.

  2. Elevated Tank Due to Earthquake Even

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotrasová Kamila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated reservoirs are mainly used for storing of variety water. During earthquake activity the fluid exerts impulsive and convective (sloshing effects on the walls and bottom of tank. This paper provides theoretical background for analytical calculating of elevated water tank due to earthquake even and deals with simplified seismic design procedures for elevated tanks.

  3. Death due to asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert L. Sheffer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and fatality rate of asthma have increased worldwide. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma are central to the occurrence of fatal asthma. Atopy is the principal risk factor associated with asthma. However, consideration of the epidemiologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, pathologic and clinical parameters of asthma assessment may provide valuable insight into death due to asthma. Psychologic and socioeconomic factors may further aggravate the asthma status. Ethnic minorities are at increased risk of asthma. The perception of dyspnea may be blunted in asthma sufferers. Slow-onset fatal asthma may be associated with submucosal eosinophilic, whereas sudden-onset may be associated with submucosal neutrophilia. Fatal asthma occurs in patients abusing regular |32-agonist therapy. Peak flow assessment often provides insight into asthma deterioration prior to signs of respiratory distress. Markers of risk of death due to asthma further identify the fatality-prone asthma patient.

  4. Death due to asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffer, Albert L.

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence and fatality rate of asthma have increased worldwide. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma are central to the occurrence of fatal asthma. Atopy is the principal risk factor associated with asthma. However, consideration of the epidemiologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, pathologic and clinical parameters of asthma assessment may provide valuable insight into death due to asthma. Psychologic and socioeconomic factors may further aggravate the asthma status. Ethnic minoriti...

  5. Human due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  6. [Onychomycoses due to molds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, D; Pihet, M

    2014-12-01

    Onychomycoses represent about 30% of superficial mycosis that are encountered in Dermatology consults. Fungi such as dermatophytes, which are mainly found on the feet nails, cause nearly 50% of these onychopathies. Yeasts are predominantly present on hands, whereas non-dermatophytic moulds are very seldom involved in both foot and hand nails infections. According to literature, these moulds are responsible for 2 to 17% of onychomycoses. Nevertheless, we have to differentiate between onychomycoses due to pseudodermatophytes such as Neoscytalidium (ex-Scytalidium) and Onychocola canadensis, which present a high affinity for keratin, and onychomycoses due to filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, Scopulariopsis, Acremonium... These saprophytic moulds are indeed most of the time considered as colonizers rather than real pathogens agents. Mycology and histopathology laboratories play an important role. They allow to identify the species that is involved in nail infection, but also to confirm parasitism by the fungus in the infected nails. Indeed, before attributing any pathogenic role to non-dermatophytic moulds, it is essential to precisely evaluate their pathogenicity through samples and accurate mycological and/or histological analysis. The treatment of onychomycoses due to non-dermatophytic moulds is difficult, as there is today no consensus. The choice of an antifungal agent will first depend on the species that is involved in the infection, but also on the severity of nail lesions and on the patient himself. In most cases, the onychomycosis will be cured with chemical or mechanical removing of the infected tissues, followed by a local antifungal treatment. In some cases, a systemic therapy will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Mapping of Temporal Surface-water Resources Availability and Agricultural Adaptability due to Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activity in a Hot Semi-arid Region of Maharashtra State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Inamdar, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Major part of Godavari River Basin is intensely drought prone and climate vulnerable in the Western Maharashtra State, India. The economy of the state depends on the agronomic productivity of this region. So, it is necessary to regulate the effects of existing and upcoming hydro-meteorological advances in various strata. This study investigates and maps the surface water resources availability and vegetation, their decadal deviations with multi-temporal LANDSAT images; and finally quantifies the agricultural adaptations. This work involves the utilization of Remote Sensing and GIS with Hydrological modeling. First, climatic trend analysis is carried out with NCEP dataset. Then, multi-temporal LANDSAT images are classified to determine the decadal LULC changes and correlated to the community level hydrological demand. Finally, NDVI, NDWI and SWAT model analysis are accomplished to determine irrigated and non-irrigated cropping area for identifying the agricultural adaptations. The analysis shows that the mean value of annual and monsoon rainfall is significantly decreasing, whereas the mean value of annual and summer temperature is increasing significantly and the winter temperature is decreasing. The analysis of LANDSAT images shows that the surface water availability is highly dependent on climatic conditions. Barren-lands are most dynamic during the study period followed by, vegetation, and water bodies. The spatial extent of barren-lands is increased drastically during the climate vulnerable years replacing the vegetation and surface water bodies. Hence, the barren lands are constantly increasing and the vegetation cover is linearly decreasing, whereas the water extent is changing either way in a random fashion. There appears a positive correlation between surface water and vegetation occurrence; as they are fluctuating in a similar fashion in all the years. The vegetation cover is densely replenished around the dams and natural water bodies which serve as the

  8. Experiencias para el incremento de la vida útil de los martillos de los desmeduladores de bagazo de caña. // Experiences for the increment of useful life of hammers for cane trash depither.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Diez Torres

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe las experiencias llevadas a cabo por la División de Desarrollo del ICIDCA (Instituto Cubano deInvestigaciones de los Derivados de la caña de Azúcar, con el objetivo de incrementar la vida útil de los martillos de losdesmeduladores de bagazo, cuyo desgaste afecta la eficiencia en separación de médula de dichos equipos, utilizando elmétodo de recargue duro por soldadura por arco eléctrico. Se explican además los mecanismos de desgaste que tienenlugar, los métodos utilizados para la evaluación del desgaste en los recubrimientos ensayados, los resultados obtenidos y sebrindan soluciones concretas para atenuar éste fenómeno.Palabras claves: Desgaste, recuperación, industria azucarera, soldadura._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.This paper describes the experiences obtained in the Development Division of ICIDCA ( Cuban Research Institute forSugar Cane Derivatives, to increase the useful life of bagasse depither hammers using arc welding hard surfacing method.The wear of these hammers affects the efficiency directly in the pith separation in these equipment. Besides, we explain thewear mechanisms which take place, the methods used to evaluate the wear in the tested coatings and the obtained results.Concrete solutions to diminish this phenomenon are given.Key words: Wear, recovery, sugar industry, welding.

  9. Credit where due.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Steven G

    2016-08-01

    The history of medicine is filled with stories of tireless researchers who failed to get credit for their hard work. Examples of this include Rosalind Franklin, who helped to elucidate the structure of DNA; Frederick Banting, who helped to discover insulin; and Jay McLean, who discovered heparin. The founding of the field of vascular surgery provides one of the most vivid examples of uncredited work. Even though Alexis Carrel was an unpaid, untitled assistant in Charles Guthrie's laboratory, it was Carrel alone who received a Nobel Prize for their work. In an attempt to give credit where due, the reasons for this injustice are described. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitrous Oxide Explosive Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    characteristics. Concerns about pure liquid N2O reaction initiation by “water hammering” and “ bubble collapse” (6) seem unlikely due to liquid N2O being a...interesting observations about behavior of N2O, particularly, interactions when mixed with combustible materials. That is: - Glycerin is used as a...for pure N2O. That is, water hammering and bubble collapse. Liquid N2O compressibility would be a factor when subjected to a water hammer process

  11. Methods for evaluating changes in skin condition due to the effects of antimicrobial hand cleansers: two studies comparing a new waterless chlorhexidine gluconate/ethanol-emollient antiseptic preparation with a conventional water-applied product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, G L; Zerweck, C R; Heilman, J M; Pyrek, J D

    2001-12-01

    Hand-cleansing products that are milder to the skin of health care personnel are being developed, but the available methodologies to appropriately evaluate these products and quantify differences are not generally being applied in well-controlled studies. Two randomized, blinded, bilateral comparison studies evaluated skin condition during use of 2 antiseptic hand preparation products: a new 1% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)/61% wt/wt ethanol antiseptic hand preparation in a unique emollient system for waterless/brushless application and a conventional 4% CHG antimicrobial product that is applied with water and a scrub brush. Trained technicians applied treatments 6 times (for a surgical scrub study) or 24 times (for a personnel handwash study) daily to the hands of healthy volunteers during 5 days of controlled washing. An expert grader evaluated skin for dryness, erythema, and roughness. Subjects completed a self-assessment questionnaire on skin condition. Transepidermal water loss was measured by an evaporimeter, and the skin surface hydration level was measured by an electrical conductance meter. Fifty-eight subjects were enrolled in the 2 studies and received both treatments. In general, skin treated with the waterless CHG/ethanol product scored significantly (P care personnel handwash study, transepidermal water loss was less than that for skin treated with the conventional CHG product (P skin than the conventional CHG product.

  12. Monitoring of organic loads at waste water treatment plant with due consideration of factual necessity, technical feasibility and statutory requirements; Erfassung der organischen Belastung bei Abwasserreinigungsanlagen unter Beachtung der fachlichen Notwendigkeit, der technischen Moeglichkeiten und der gesetzlichen Auflagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, P. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    Between the statutory requirement and factual necessity for monitoring organic loads in waste water discharged to municipal and industrial waste water treatment plant and effluents from these there are substantial discrepancies. The paper points out the different approaches and gives recommendations on how to proceed in the future. At plant with stable nitrification, self and external monitoring for BOD{sub 5} can be distinctly reduced without fear of impaired process transparency or water quality. Monitoring organic loads online is little expedient technically, especially where effluent from municipal sewage treatment plants is concerned. But in the industrial sector there exist the most diverse applications with a view to carbon elimination. (orig.) [German] Zwischen den gesetzlichen Anforderungen und der fachlichen Notwendigkeit bei der Erfassung der organischen Belastung im Zu- und Ablauf von kommunalen und industriellen Klaeranlagen bestehen erhebliche Diskrepanzen. In diesem Beitrag werden die unterschiedlichen Ansaetze aufgezeigt und Empfehlungen fuer die zukuenftige Vorgehensweise gegeben. Bei Anlagen mit stabiler Nitrifikation ist die Selbst- wie Fremdueberwachung bezueglich BSB{sub 5} deutlich zu reduzieren, ohne dass Einbussen fuer Prozesstransparenz und Gewaesserqualitaet zu erwarten sind. Die online-Ueberwachung der organischen Belastung ist insbesondere bei Ablaeufen in kommunalen Klaeranlagen fachlich wenig sinnvoll, im Bereich der industriellen Abwasserreinigung ergeben sich dafuer bei dem Reinigungsziel der Kohlenstoffelimination dagegen verschiedenste Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten. (orig.)

  13. Aggradation in rivers due to overloading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribberink, J.S.; Van der Sande, J.T.M.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of aggradation in a river due to overloading is tackled with a mathematical model consisting of a set of one-dimensional (in space) basic equations in which the water motion is assumed to be quasi-steady and the sediment transport is determined by local conditions. Analytical solutions

  14. Surface wave generation due to glacier calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław R. Massel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal glaciers reach the ocean in a spectacular process called "calving". Immediately after calving, the impulsive surface waves are generated, sometimes of large height. These waves are particularly dangerous for vessels sailing close to the glacier fronts. The paper presents a theoretical model of surface wave generation due to glacier calving. To explain the wave generation process, four case studies of ice blocks falling into water are discussed: a cylindrical ice block of small thickness impacting on water, an ice column sliding into water without impact, a large ice block falling on to water with a pressure impulse, and an ice column becoming detached from the glacier wall and falling on to the sea surface. These case studies encompass simplified, selected modes of the glacier calving, which can be treated in a theoretical way. Example calculations illustrate the predicted time series of surface elevations for each mode of glacier calving.

  15. Variação do movimento da água do solo devido à atividade de minhocas: simulação numérica Chance of soil-water movement due to eartworms activity: numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kobiyama

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a influência das minhocas sobre o movimento da água no solo. O fluxo da água unidimensional, vertical e não saturada foi expresso com base na equação de Picharas, que foi resolvida pelo método de diferenças finitas. As propriedades hidráulicas dos solos com e sem minhocas, que foram medidas no campo, foram utilizadas e expressas com as equações de VAN GENUCHTEN (1980. Os resultados mostram que a atividade das minhocas aumenta o pico do hidrograma no solo onde a água subsuperficial é dominante no processo chuva-vazão. Entretanto, o fenômeno do aumento do pico depende da relação entre os aumentos da condutividade hidráulica saturada (Ks e da umidade saturada (tetas. Se as minhocas provocarem um pequeno aumento em Ks ou um elevado aumento em tetas, haverá uma redução do pico. Caso ocorra contrário, um elevado aumento em Ks ou um pequeno aumento em tetas, este pico aumenta.The objective of this study was to evaluate, with a numerical method, the influence of earth worms on the soil-water movement. The one-dimensional, vertical, saturated and unsaturated water flow was expressed by the Richards equation. The generated equations were solved with a fïnite difference method. The hydraulic properties of soils with and without earthworms, which were measured on field, were utilized and expressed with VAN GENUCHTEN (1980 equations. The results demonstrated that the eathworms activity increased a peak of hydrograph of soil where the subsurface flow is dominant in the rainfall-runoff process. However, the phenomenon of this increase depenas on the relation between the increases of the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks and the saturated water content (thetas. When the earthworms provide a small increase of Ks and a large increase of thetas, the peak would decrease. In the contrary case where Ks increases a lot and thetas increases a little, the peak would increase.

  16. Qualidade da água de córrego em função do lançamento de efluente de abate de bovino Water quality of stream due to release of effluent from cattle slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlon A. Ribeiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência do lançamento de efluente de um frigorífico de abate de bovinos sobre a qualidade da água do córrego Jurubatuba, Anápolis, GO. Analisaram-se: o efluente tratado antes do lançamento no córrego e a água do córrego 50 m à montante e 50 e 500 m à jusante do ponto de lançamento. Foram realizadas oito coletas no período seco (08/07 a 24/09/09 e oito no chuvoso (01/10 a 03/12/09 quantificando o pH, turbidez, oxigênio dissolvido, saturação de oxigênio, carbono orgânico total, cloro, alumínio, amônia, cobre, manganês, ferro total, fósforo total, sulfeto, sódio, demanda biológica de oxigênio, demanda química de oxigênio, nitrogênio total, condutividade elétrica, nitrato e nitrito. Os valores de pH, NH3-, Zn+, sulfeto, NO3-, e cloreto nos dois períodos e em todos os pontos analisados no córrego, atenderam aos critérios para água de classe 2; o Na+, NH3-, carbono orgânico total, P total, CE e NO3-, aumentaram nos pontos após o lançamento do efluente. A turbidez, Al e o Mg no efluente tratado foram, nos períodos seco e chuvoso, maiores ao permitido para corpos hídricos de classe 2; o Fe total no efluente apresentou risco médio para uso na irrigação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of release of effluent from a cattle slaughter house on water quality of Jurubatuba stream, in Anápolis - Goiás. The treated effluent before release into the stream, the stream water at 50 m upstream, and 50 and 500 m downstream from the launch place were analysed. Eight samples were taken during the dry season (08/07 to 24/09/2009 and eight in the rainy season (01/10 to 03/12/2009, quantifying pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation, total organic carbon, chlorine, aluminum, ammonia, copper, manganese, total iron, total phosphorus, sulfate, sodium, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, electrical conductivity, nitrate and

  17. Severe Hyponatremia due to Phlegmonous Trismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Momota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with dysphagia and trismus associated with lower jaw inflammation due to phlegmon who developed severe hyponatremia from water intoxication due to excessive water intake after diaphoresis caused by abnormally hot weather. A 63-year-old woman presented with severe swelling of the floor of the mouth and trismus. As she had spasms and numbness of the extremities and restlessness and water intoxication caused by excessive water intake was suspected, she was hospitalized for the treatment of inflammation and electrolyte disorder. Although swelling of the floor of the mouth subsided over time after antimicrobial therapy, vomiting, diarrhea, and numbness of the extremities continued. On day 5 of hospitalization, severe vomiting and diarrhea recurred, and serum sodium levels decreased to 108 mEq/L. Decrease in water intake is essential in the treatment of hyponatremia. However, in patients with severe vomiting and diarrhea who can swallow only liquids because of hot weather and eating disorder, the risk of sodium depletion is high. It is important to restore electrolyte balance and fluid volume through supplementation with sodium, chlorine, potassium, and glucose among others, the reduction of intravenous fluid volume, and diuresis in order to correct the sodium level slowly.

  18. Severe Hyponatremia due to Phlegmonous Trismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Tomio; Ohkubo, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    We describe a patient with dysphagia and trismus associated with lower jaw inflammation due to phlegmon who developed severe hyponatremia from water intoxication due to excessive water intake after diaphoresis caused by abnormally hot weather. A 63-year-old woman presented with severe swelling of the floor of the mouth and trismus. As she had spasms and numbness of the extremities and restlessness and water intoxication caused by excessive water intake was suspected, she was hospitalized for the treatment of inflammation and electrolyte disorder. Although swelling of the floor of the mouth subsided over time after antimicrobial therapy, vomiting, diarrhea, and numbness of the extremities continued. On day 5 of hospitalization, severe vomiting and diarrhea recurred, and serum sodium levels decreased to 108 mEq/L. Decrease in water intake is essential in the treatment of hyponatremia. However, in patients with severe vomiting and diarrhea who can swallow only liquids because of hot weather and eating disorder, the risk of sodium depletion is high. It is important to restore electrolyte balance and fluid volume through supplementation with sodium, chlorine, potassium, and glucose among others, the reduction of intravenous fluid volume, and diuresis in order to correct the sodium level slowly.

  19. Review of industry efforts to manage pressurized water reactor feedwater nozzle, piping, and feedring cracking and wall thinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, V.N.; Ware, A.G.; Porter, A.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents a review of nuclear industry efforts to manage thermal fatigue, flow-accelerated corrosion, and water hammer damage to pressurized water reactor (PWR) feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. The review includes an evaluation of design modifications, operating procedure changes, augmented inspection and monitoring programs, and mitigation, repair and replacement activities. Four actions were taken: (a) review of field experience to identify trends of operating events, (b) review of technical literature, (c) visits to PWR plants and a PWR vendor, and (d) solicitation of information from 8 other countries. Assessment of field experience is that licensees have apparently taken sufficient action to minimize feedwater nozzle cracking caused by thermal fatigue and wall thinning of J-tubes and feedwater piping. Specific industry actions to minimize the wall-thinning in feedrings and thermal sleeves were not found, but visual inspection and necessary repairs are being performed. Assessment of field experience indicates that licensees have taken sufficient action to minimize steam generator water hammer in both top-feed and preheat steam generators. Industry efforts to minimize multiple check valve failures that have allowed backflow of steam from a steam generator and have played a major role in several steam generator water hammer events were not evaluated. A major finding of this review is that analysis, inspection, monitoring, mitigation, and replacement techniques have been developed for managing thermal fatigue and flow-accelerated corrosion damage to feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. Adequate training and appropriate applications of these techniques would ensure effective management of this damage.

  20. Phase Evolution in Fe-Mn-Si Shape Memory Alloys due to Forging Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskil, Murat; Kanca, Erdogan

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this investigation is to compare the crystallographic characteristics of two different compositions of Fe-Mn-Si alloys forged with the newly designed and constructed High Energy Rate Forming (HERF) hammer with conventional hydraulic and mechanical presses. The degree of martensite formation may depend on metal forming conditions. For both of the alloys, one of the specimens was investigated in as "prepared form", the other specimen was investigated after air cooling with homogenization treatment and three specimens were deformed in different velocities after homogenization treatments. The changes which occurred in the transformation parameters of two FeMnSi alloys with different compositions due to the effects of thermal and mechanical procedures have been studied by using X-ray diffraction. In the alloy specimens cooled to different conditions from the high-temperature γ phase region, γ→ɛ and γ→ɛ→α‧ martensitic transformations were observed. The lattice parameters (LP) of fcc γ and hcp ɛ structures were determined, and changes in forging speed on the LPs were found.

  1. Association of water-borne diseases morbidity pattern and water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of water-borne diseases morbidity pattern and water quality in ... due to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene among human population. ... Provision of adequate potable water remains the most important tool for ...

  2. Impact on water surface due to deepwater gas blowouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premathilake, Lakshitha T; Yapa, Poojitha D; Nissanka, Indrajith D; Kumarage, Pubudu

    2016-11-15

    This paper presents a study on the impact of underwater gas blowouts near the ocean surface, which has a greater relevance to assess Health, Safety, and Environmental risks. In this analysis the gas flux near the surface, reduction of bulk density, and gas surfacing area are studied for different scenarios. The simulations include a matrix of scenarios for different release depths, release rates, and initial bubble size distributions. The simulations are carried out using the MEGADEEP model, for a location in East China Sea. Significant changes in bulk density and gas surface flux near the surface are observed under different release conditions, which can pose a potential threat for cleanup and rescue operations. Furthermore, the effect of hydrate formation on gas surfacing is studied for much greater release depths. The type of outcomes of this study is important to conduct prior risk assessments and contingency planning for underwater gas blowouts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present benefit and cost values were determined using 10% and 5% discount rates. The benefit/cost ratio at the low evapotranspiration rate was less than one, implying that biological control was not economically viable but, at the higher evapotranspiration rates, the return justified the costs of biological control.

  4. Flood Water Level Mapping and Prediction Due to Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, S.; Adnan, M. S.; Ahmad, N. A.; Ayob, S.

    2016-07-01

    Sembrong dam has undergone overflow failure. Flooding has been reported to hit the town, covering an area of up to Parit Raja, located in the district of Batu Pahat. This study aims to identify the areas that will be affected by flood in the event of a dam failure in Sembrong Dam, Kluang, Johor at a maximum level. To grasp the extent, the flood inundation maps have been generated by using the InfoWorks ICM and GIS software. By using these maps, information such as the depth and extent of floods can be identified the main ares flooded. The flood map was created starting with the collection of relevant data such as measuring the depth of the river and a maximum flow rate for Sembrong Dam. The data were obtained from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia and the Department of Survey and Mapping and HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd. Then, the data were analyzed according to the established Info Works ICM method. The results found that the flooded area were listed at Sri Lalang, Parit Sagil, Parit Sonto, Sri Paya, Parit Raja, Parit Sempadan, Talang Bunut, Asam Bubok, Tanjung Sembrong, Sungai Rambut and Parit Haji Talib. Flood depth obtained for the related area started from 0.5 m up to 1.2 m. As a conclusion, the flood emanating from this study include the area around the town of Ayer Hitam up to Parit Raja approximately of more than 20 km distance. This may give bad implication to residents around these areas. In future studies, other rivers such as Sungai Batu Pahat should be considered for this study to predict and reduce the yearly flood victims for this area.

  5. Acoustic Fluctuations Due to Shallow Water Thermal Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    of horizontal sheets which could cause multiple reflection layers. Very sharp, multiple thermal layers have been reported In the Arctic [Denner 1971...University of Michigan 1970. 7. Denner, W.W., "The Layered Microstructure and Acoustic Propagation in the Arctic Ocean," U.S. Navy Journal of...Inhomogeneities," (in Russian), Radloflz., v. 10, p. 1, 1967. 36. Tatarski, V.l., Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium, Translated by R.A. Silverman , McGraw

  6. Potential water yield reduction due to forestation across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Guoyi Zhou; Zhiqiang Zhang; Xiaohua Wei; Steven G. McNulty; James M. Vose

    2006-01-01

    It is widely recognized that vegetation restoration will have positive effects on watershed health by reducing soil erosion and non-point source pollution, enhancing terrestrial and aquatic habitat, and increasing ecosystem carbon sequestration. However, the hydrologic consequences of forestation on degraded lands are not well studied in the forest hydrology community...

  7. Beam wander due to optical turbulence in water (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nootz, Gero A.; Matt, Silvia C.; Kanaev, Andrey V.; Jarosz, Ewa; Hou, Weilin W.

    2017-05-01

    Optical methods to communicate or sense in the ocean environment can be effected inhomogeneities in the index of refraction called optical turbulence. Beam wander introduced by optical turbulence is of particular interest for optical means relying on the propagation of a well-defined laser beam such as free space communication and laser line scan. Here we present a comprehensive study of beam propagation simulations, lab experiments, and field measurements of laser beams propagating through varying degrees of optical turbulence. For the computational part of the investigation a true end to end simulation was performed. Starting with a CFD simulation of Rayleigh-Bénard convection the temperature fields where converted to index of refraction phase screens which then where used to simulate the propagation of a focused Gaussian laser beam via the split-step Fourier method. Lab experiments where conducted using the same parameters as in the simulation using a good quality TEM00 beam and a CCD camera to record data. For the field experiments a Telescoping Ridged Underwater Sensor Structure (TRUSS) was equipped with a transmitter and a receiver capable of analyzing a multitude of laser beams simultaneously. The TRUSS was deployed in the Bahamas to record beam wander under weak optical turbulence conditions above and stronger optical turbulence conditions inside the thermocline. The data from the experimental and lab experiments are compared and the strength of the optical turbulence in terms of the structure parameter Cn2 are extracted. We also extract Cn2 from the TRUSS experiments and in doing so provide, for the first time, a quantitative estimate for the strength of optical turbulence in the ocean.

  8. Acute Renal Failure Due To Ethyleneglycol Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ihsan Ates

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet, water-soluble substance from the group of dihydric alcohols. As a result of taking ethylene-containing material for suicide purpose or as an accident, serious metabolic acidosis, central nervous system depression and oliguric acute renal failure occur. Early diagnosis and treatment can reduce mortality at a significant level. We present a case with severe metabolic acidosis, coma and acute renal failure due to ethylene glycol intoxication after drinking antifreeze accidentally. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(1.000: 67-69

  9. Water Impingement Erosion of Deep-Rolled Ti64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Liquid Impingement Erosion (LIE performances of deep-rolling (DR treated and non-treated Ti64 were investigated. Various erosion stages, from the incubation to the terminal erosion stages, could be observed. A full factorial design of experiments was used to study the effect of DR process parameters (Feed Rate, Spindle Velocity, Number of Passes, Pressure on the residual stress distribution, microhardness and surface roughness of the treated Ti64 specimens. The DR-treated Ti64 specimens exhibited improved surface microhardness, surface roughness, and large magnitude of compressive residual stresses, which were attributed to the amount of cold work induced by the DR process. Although DR improved the mechanical properties of the Ti64, the results showed that the treatment has little or no effect on the LIE performance of Ti64 but different damage modes were observed in these two cases. Evolution of the erosion stages was described based on water-hammer pressure, stress waves, radial wall jetting, and hydraulic penetration modes. The initial erosion stages were mainly influenced by water-hammer pressure and stress waves, whereas the intermediate erosion stages were influenced by the combination of the four modes together. The final erosion stages contain the four modes, however the erosion was greatly driven by the radial jetting and hydraulic penetration modes, where more material was removed. The failure mechanism of the final stages of the LIE test of both DR-treated and non-treated Ti64 was characterized as fatigue fracture. However, a brittle fracture behavior was observed in the initial and intermediate erosion stages of the DR-treated Ti64, whereas a ductile fracture behavior was observed in the non-treated Ti64. This was concluded from the micrographs of the LIE damage through different erosion stages.

  10. Water underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  11. Underwater noise due to precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crum, Lawrence A.; Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Prosperetti, Andrea

    1989-01-01

    of this bubble resulted in a large amount of radiated sound. Recently, Scrimger has measured the underwater sound produced by rainfall and has discovered that a well-defined spectral peak exists near 15 kHz [J. A. Scrimger, Nature 318, 647 (1985)]. The sound produced by the impact of water droplets on a water......In 1959, G. Franz published a thorough investigation of the underwater sound produced by liquid drop impacts [G. Franz, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 31, 1080 (1959)]. He discovered that, under certain conditions, a gas bubble was entrained by the impacting droplet, and the subsequent oscillation...... surface, both for individual and for multiple events such as those produced by artificial and natural rainfall, has been examined. The studies indicate that the major contribution to the underwater noise produced by both rain and snow is that associated with the oscillations of gas bubbles introduced...

  12. Autoerotic death due to electrocution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Arkuszewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autoerotic death is a very rare case in forensic medicine. It is usually caused by asphyxia, but other reasons are also possible. Herein we present a case of autoerotic death due to electrocution caused by a self-made electrical device. The device was constructed to increase sexual feelings through stimulation of the scrotal area.

  13. Endocarditis due to Chryseobacterium meningosepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomb K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chryseobacterium meningosepticum is a gram negative rod widely distributed in nature. It is known to cause meningitis in neonates and premature infants. Adult infections are not common and are usually nosocomially acquired. We report an unusual case of native valve endocarditis in a 58-year-old man due to this organism. A high degree of suspicion and correct identification and sensitivity testing is required to diagnose infections by this rare isolate.

  14. Contact dermatitis due to minoxidil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year old girl having androgenetic alopecia developed itching and erythema on the scalp one month after she started applying a commercial preparation containing 2% minoxidil. The dermatitis disappeared on discontinuing minoxidil but recurred when she applied minoxidil again after a gap of 1 month. Patch tests revealed a papulo-vesicular reaction with the commercial minoxidil lotion and also with a minoxidil tablet powdered and made into a paste with distilled water. Patch tests with ethyl alcohol were negative.

  15. Maculopathy due to drug inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M; Gonzalez-Buendia, L; Marcos-Fernández, M

    2014-08-01

    A case of maculopathy due to "poppers" is described. Poppers is a drug composed of various forms of alkyl nitrite. A 39 year-old man, who had been using poppers for years, was seen in the clinic with phosphenes, reduced visual acuity and central scotoma. The SD-OCT in the right eye showed disruption at the level of the IS/OS junction line. The SD-OCT scan in the left eye showed an outer rectangular retinal hole and an outer retinal cyst. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Underwater radiated noise due to the piling for the Q7 Offshore Wind Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Q7 is the second offshore wind farm in the Dutch sector of the North Sea and, at 23 km off the Dutch coast, the world's first to be located outside the 12-mile limit. To support the wind turbines, monopiles, 54 metre long steel pipes with a diameter of 4 metres, are hammered into the seabed. The

  17. Multiobjective Optimization of Water Distribution Networks Using Fuzzy Theory and Harmony Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, various phenomenon-mimicking algorithms, such as genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, tabu search, shuffled frog-leaping, ant colony optimization, harmony search, cross entropy, scatter search, and honey-bee mating, have been proposed to optimally design the water distribution networks with respect to design cost. However, flow velocity constraint, which is critical for structural robustness against water hammer or flow circulation against substance sedimentation, was seldom considered in the optimization formulation because of computational complexity. Thus, this study proposes a novel fuzzy-based velocity reliability index, which is to be maximized while the design cost is simultaneously minimized. The velocity reliability index is included in the existing cost optimization formulation and this extended multiobjective formulation is applied to two bench-mark problems. Results show that the model successfully found a Pareto set of multiobjective design solutions in terms of cost minimization and reliability maximization.

  18. Dynamics of large-diameter water pipes in hydroelectric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavić, G.; Chevillotte, F.; Heraud, J.

    2017-04-01

    An outline is made of physical behaviour of water - filled large pipes. The fluid-wall coupling, the key factor governing the pipe dynamics, is discussed in some detail. Different circumferential pipe modes and the associated cut-on frequencies are addressed from a theoretical as well as practical point of view. Major attention is paid to the breathing mode in view of its importance regarding main dynamic phenomena, such as water hammer. Selected measurement results done at EDF are presented to demonstrate how an external, non-intrusive sensor can detect pressure pulsations of the breathing mode in a pressure pipe. Differences in the pressure measurement using intrusive and non-intrusive sensors reveal the full complexity of large-diameter pipe dynamics.

  19. [Infections due to Mycobacterium simiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martos, Pedro; García-Agudo, Lidia; González-Moya, Enrique; Galán, Fátima; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium simiae is a slow-growing photochromogenic environmental mycobacterium, first described in 1965. Rarely associated with human infections, possibly due to its limited pathogenicity, it mainly produces lung infection in immunocompetent elderly patients with underlying lung disease, and in disseminated infections in immunosuppressed young patients with AIDS. A microbiological culture is needed to confirm the clinical suspicion, and genetic sequencing techniques are essential to correctly identify the species. Treating M. simiae infections is complicated, owing to the multiple resistance to tuberculous drugs and the lack of correlation between in vitro susceptibility data and in vivo response. Proper treatment is yet to be defined, but must include clarithromycin combined with other antimicrobials such as moxifloxacin and cotrimoxazole. It is possible that M. simiae infections are undiagnosed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. APPENDICULAR INVAGINATION DUE TO ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasja Kruh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Invagination of the vermiform appendix is a very rare occurrence. We summarize epidemiologic and etiologic factors, types of classification, symtomatology, diagnostic features and treatment.Patients and treatment. The authors present 49-years old female with long-standing abdominal pains, who came in our hospital due to acute exacerbation with sever abdominal pain. Because of progressive symptoms and sensitivity in the right-lower abdominal quadrant a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. An anomaly of cecum and the absence of appendix vermiformis have forced us to proceed with laparotomy in McBurnay point. After cecotomy an invaginated gangrenous appendix was found. The histological examination revealed endometriosis.Conclusions. By presenting this extremely rare pathology we also want to emphasize the important role of diagnostic laparoscopy in front of acute abdomen.

  1. El contragolpe generado en el oído interno como etiopatogenia de la enfermedad de Méniére Water Hammer impact on the internal ear in the pathogenesis of Méniére's disease

    OpenAIRE

    William Alvarez Gaviria

    1992-01-01

    Se postula la hipótesis de que una de las funciones del saco endolinfático es hacer las veces de amortiguador de los contragolpes generados en el oído interno, como respuesta a las desaceleraciones súbitas ocasionadas en los Iíquidos laberínticos por el cambio o el frenado súbito de los movimientos. Si dicho amortiguador no reúne las condiciones suficientes para tal efecto como, por ejemplo, capacidad volumétrica y orientación adecuada, ...

  2. Water, Water Everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  3. Geotechnical problems that occur due to the fact of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Bojana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning from the basic views on the main problem that occurs due to hydro-geomechanical processes, in particular the driving force caused by changing the pressure of groundwater, this paper will provide a review of the assessment of stresses and strains in the soil (soil and rock. The solution is a combination of the system of equations of the soil and ground water flow and caused geotechnical stresses or problems that occur in the soil. The paper will describe in detail the problem of subsidence due to pumping of water in the open pit-field problems and assessment of seepage forces in saturated or unsaturated loose materials.

  4. Estimating Viscoelastic Deformation Due to Seasonal Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have been making summer-­-time geodetic measurements in south central Alaska for decades to estimate the rate at which a continental-­-ocean terrane is accreting to the North American continent. Southern Alaska has big earthquakes every century and large, rapidly changing glaciers. In the last decade, primarily as part of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory project, continuous GPS measurements have recorded the response of sites such as the near-­-coastal geodetic site, AB35 to competing processes: uplift and movement to the northwest due to tectonic forces and the response of the solid Earth to seasonal and longer-­-term changes in the cryosphere (snow and ice) surrounding the site. Which process causes the largest displacements of the site? Figure 1 (Blewitt, Nevada Geodetic Lab, 2015) shows the Northward, Eastward, and Upward motion of AB35 between 2007 and 2015. The site is moving rapidly to the north and west reflecting the tectonic convergence of site toward interior Alaska but there is small wiggle on the North component reflecting seasonal displacements of the site associated with snow loading and unloading. However, the Up component, shows a large seasonal signal due to snow loading in the winter (down) and ice and snow melting in the warmer months (site goes up). Between 2007 and the present, the site position is slowly moving upward, due to tectonic forcing but probably associated with longer-­- term ice melting as well. We are using the CIG finite element modeling (FEM) program Pylith to estimate the surface displacements and stresses associated with seasonal loading changes (top figure and Figure 2 far right) for water year 2012, 2011.8 - 2012.8) and the longer-­-term retreat of the surrounding glaciers.

  5. Pulmonary Complications due to Esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinzadeh, Abulfazl; Talebi, Yashar

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma is the scourge of human beings. Pulmonary complications in patients who have undergone operation are common (20-30% of cases) and there are no suitable tools and ways to predict these complications. During a period of 10 years, from March 1998 to February 2007, 200 patients (150 male and 50 female) underwent Esophagectomy due to esophageal carcinoma in thoracic surgery ward retrospectively. Complications include the length of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, morbidity and mortality. Patients' risk factors include age, preoperative chemo-radiotherapy, stage of the disease and preoperative spirometry condition. WE GROUPED OUR PATIENTS INTO THREE CATEGORIES: Normal (FEV1 ≥ 80% predicted), mildly impaired (FEV1 65% to 79% predicted), more severely impaired (FEV1 atelectasia in 160 patients (80%). 24 patients needed chest-tube insertion. 20 patients (10%) developed ARDS. 14 patients (7%) developed chylothorax. 20 patients (10%) of patients died during their postoperative hospital stay. 30 patients (15%) required mechanical ventilation for greater than 48 hours. We reviewed a number of preoperative clinical variables to determine whether they contributed to postoperative pulmonary complications as well as other outcomes. In general, age, impaired pulmonary function especially in those patients with FEV1 less than 65% predicted was associated with prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS). In fact pulmonary complications rate after Esophagectomy are high and there was associated mortality and morbidity.

  6. Transient hypofibrinogenemia due to allopurinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin ZQ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ZhiQiang Yin,1,* JiaLi Xu,2,* YongQiang Li,3,* JiPing Xia,1 Dan Luo1 1Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Oncology, 3Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study reports a case of an 80-year-old male who suffered from drug eruption due to oral allopurinol for the treatment of gout. This patient complained of widespread erythema and maculopapule with itch, and small quantities of purplish-red rash with diffused distribution on four limbs were noted. After he was hospitalized, the area with purpuric rash increased in size, and hypofibrinogenemia was found. After treatment with intravenous infusion of fibrinogen and cryoprecipitate, and continued treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone, the skin rash gradually went away. This is the first report of purpura and hypofibrinogenemia induced by allopurinol and the pathophysiology underlying this reaction remained unknown. Keywords: purpura, fibrinogen, drug eruption, gout

  7. [Organ alterations due to aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    Aging defined as progressive organ dysfunction which makes keeping homeostasis more difficult starts at the age of 30-40. However, due to difficulties with the distinction between aging and disease processes, changes previously believed to be caused by aging are often recognized as the effect of pathologies when new data is presented. According to current knowledge, cardio-vascular aging includes decreased elasticity of main arteries, decreased ability of left ventricule to relaxate, diminished function of sino-atrial node and decreased effect of beta-adrenergic stimulation. Aging in the respiratory system is attributed to increased size of alveoli and alveolar ducts (which easier collapse), a decrease in the gase exchange area, a decrease in respiratory volumes (both static and dynamic) and a severe decrease in maximal oxygen consumption. In aging kidneys both renal blood flow and glomerular filtration are decreased. As the result of tubular alterations the kidney ability to conserve and dilute urine, and its capability to regulate the pH and serum sodium level diminish. Less dramatic changes are seen in the gastrointestinal tract. According to available data, high prevalence of gastric atrophy and hypochlorhydria are a consequence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Also, constipation is attributed much more to sedative life style and diet than to aging itself. In summary, none of the presented alterations is severe enough to cause the disease, but all of them increase the risk of pathology and thus pave the way for the disease even in healthy elderly subjects.

  8. Evaluación de la calidad del agua del futuro Embalse Porce III por la influencia de la descarga del Embalse Porce II: Modelo de simulación de calidad del agua del futuro embalse Porce III Water quality evaluation of Porce II future dam due to the influence of Porce II dam unloading: Water Quality Simulation Model of Future Porce II Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Milena Silva Arroyave

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo plantea evaluar la calidad del agua del futuro embalse Porce III por la influencia de la descarga del embalse Porce II, empleando un modelo matemático de simulación. La metodología consistió en recolectar información básica, seleccionar el modelo, realizar el montaje del mismo, diseñar los escenarios a simular, analizar los resultados y formular recomendaciones y conclusiones. El modelo seleccionado para realizar la simulación fue el CE-QUALW2. Los escenarios que se simularon fueron: Escenario 0, o escenario de control; escenario 1: sin considerar el aporte de la descarga de Porce II; escenario 2: efecto de la concentración de nutrientes aportados por la descarga de Porce II en la calidad del agua (nivel trófico de Porce III. Los principales resultados fueron: posiblemente el futuro embalse Porce III presentará eutrofia con una probabilidad superior al 50%. Con una disminución en el 20% de la concentración inicial de fosfatos (PO4, que ingresa al embalse proveniente de la descarga de Porce II, se logra que Porce III llegue a un estado de mesotrofia. Se encontró que el embalse en general no presentará estratificación térmica o será débilmente estratificado en la superficie. La calidad del agua de este embalse está determinada por la calidad de la descarga del embalse Porce II.This project considers evaluating water quality of Future Porce III Dam due to the influence of Porce II dam discharge, using a mathematical simulation model. The methodology consisted in gathering basic information, selecting the model, making its assembly, designing the scenarios to be simulated, analyzing the results, and formulating recommendations and conclusions. CE-QUALW2. was the selected model for the simulation. Simulated scenarios were: Scenario 0, or control scenario; scenario 1: without considering the contribution of Porce II discharge; scenario 2: effect of the nutrient concentrations - contributed by the Porce II discharge

  9. Otomycosis due to filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Agudo, Lidia; Aznar-Marín, Pilar; Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; García-Martos, Pedro; Marín-Casanova, Pilar; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Otomycosis is common throughout the world but barely studied in Spain. Our objective was to determine the microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of this pathology in Cadiz (Spain) between 2005 and 2010. Samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis underwent a direct microscopic examination and culture on different media for fungi and bacteria. Mycological cultures were incubated at 30°C for at least seven days. Identification of fungi was based on colonial morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure. From a total of 2,633 samples, microbial growth was present in 1,375 (52.2%) and fungal isolation in 390 (28.4%). We identified 228 yeasts and 184 filamentous fungi (13.4% of positive cultures and 47.2% of otomycosis), associated with yeasts in 22 cases (5.6%). The most frequent species were Aspergillus flavus (42.4%), A. niger (35.9%), A. fumigatus (12.5%), A. candidus (7.1%), A. terreus (1.6%), and Paecilomyces variotii (0.5%). Infection was predominant in men (54.9%) and patients beyond 55 years old (46.8%). The most common clinical symptoms were itching (98.9%), otalgia (59.3%), and hypoacusis (56.0%). Fall season reported the lowest number of cases (20.1%). Incidence of otomycosis and fungi producing otomycosis vary within the distinct geographical areas. In Cadiz, this infection is endemic due to warm temperatures, high humidity, sea bathing, and wind, which contributes to disseminate the conidia. Despite Aspergillus niger has been reported as the main causative agent, A. flavus is predominant in Cadiz. Although infection is usually detected in warm months, we observed a homogeneous occurrence of otomycosis in almost all the seasons.

  10. China's water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  11. Impact of hydrotherapy on skin blood flow: How much is due to moisture and how much is due to heat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Gunda, Shashi; Raju, Chinna; Bains, Gurinder S; Bogseth, Michael C; Focil, Nicholas; Sirichotiratana, Melissa; Hashemi, Vahideh; Vallabhaneni, Pratima; Kim, Yumi; Madani, Piyush; Coords, Heather; McClurg, Maureen; Lohman, Everett

    2010-02-01

    Hydrotherapy and whirlpool are used to increase skin blood flow and warm tissue. However, recent evidence seems to show that part of the increase in skin blood flow is not due to the warmth itself but due to the moisture content of the heat. Therefore, two series of experiments were accomplished on 10 subjects with an average age of 24.2 +/- 9.7 years and free of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Subjects sat in a 37 degrees C hydrotherapy pool under two conditions: one in which a thin membrane protecting their skin from moisture while their arm was submerged in water and the second where their arm was allowed to be exposed to the water for 15 minutes. During this period of time, skin and body temperature were measured as well as skin blood flow by a Laser Doppler Imager. The results of the experiments showed that the vapor barrier blocked any change in skin moisture content during submersion in water, and while skin temperature was the same as during exposure to the water, the blood flow with the arm exposed to water increased from 101.1 +/- 10.4 flux to 224.9 +/- 18.2 flux, whereas blood flow increased to only 118.7 +/- 11.4 flux if the moisture of the water was blocked. Thus, a substantial portion of the increase in skin blood flow associated with warm water therapy is probably associated with moisturizing of the skin rather than the heat itself.

  12. Testing Hammer and Stanton's Reengineering Success Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Felicity Murphy; Peter Seddon; Sandy Staples

    2000-01-01

    Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is no longer referenced in academic literature with the regularity that it was in the heady days of the mid-nineties but it is still in use in Australian organisations. We are also changing processes radically as new software is implemented or new electronic markets are embraced and the lessons of reengineering can be applied to these process changes. This study makes three main contributions by: (1) investigating the organisational context prior to the...

  13. MEPs : ban hammer, sickle and swastika

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Europarlamendi liikmete Vytautas Landsbergise ja Jozsef Szajeri avalduse kohaselt tuleks Euroopa Liidus ettevalmistatava seaduse raames, mis keelustaks natsisümboli - haakristi - kasutamise, keelata ka kommunismi sümboolika kasutamine

  14. EuroPlus+ Reward / Alar Hammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hammer, Alar

    2000-01-01

    EuroPlus+ Reward on mitmes versioonis ilmunud inglise keele õppeprogramm, milles on ühendatud multimeedia võimalused ning distantsõpe ning mis loob täiesti uued võimalused keele omandamiseks arvuti abil

  15. Breach growth in cohesive embankments due to overtopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, G.

    2016-01-01

    Breaching is the most frequent form of embankment failure in the world. Due to overtopping, an embankment starts to breach when part of the embankment actually breaks away, leaving an opening for water to flood the land protected by the embankment. A breach can be a sudden or gradual failure that is

  16. Analytical modeling of pipeline failure in multiphase flow due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pipeline could be said to be the safest and the most economical means of transportation of hydrocarbon fluids. Pipelines carrying oil and gas may suffer from internal corrosion when water is present. The corrosivity varies due to several factors such as; temperature, total pressure, CO2 and H2S content in the gas, pH of the ...

  17. Groundwater Quality Deterioration due to Municipal Solid Waste Dumping Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswari, Kaliyaperumal; Karunakaran, Krishnasamy

    2011-07-01

    Groundwater is the major source of drinking water in both urban and rural India. The demand for water has increased over the years and this has led to water scarcity. The scarcity situation, especially in urban areas, is aggravated by the problem of water pollution or contamination by solid waste dumping. In many urban centers in India, the quality of groundwater is getting severely affected because of the widespread pollution, due to the discharge of untreated waste water in water bodies and leachate from the unscientific disposal of solid wastes. It is necessary to realize the importance of groundwater and preserve its quality through careful monitoring and remediation. This study focuses on the magnitude of groundwater pollution due to improper solid waste dumping practices prevailing in the southern part of the Chennai Metropolitan Area. The Perungudi dumpsite, a solid waste dumping site in the periphery of Chennai city, India, has been chosen for this study. The chemical characteristic of solid waste and leachate has been studied, and the groundwater samples from various locations around the dumpsite were collected and analyzed. Samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, sodium, potassium, BOD, and COD. Heavy metals such as lead, iron, and zinc have been analyzed. The study reveals that most of the groundwater samples do not conform to drinking water quality standards. The study also indicates that groundwater remediation techniques and proper groundwater quality monitoring on a regular basis are of utmost importance in the study area. A few in-situ groundwater remediation technologies have been suggested to improve the present water quality.

  18. Sustainability and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Virender A.

    2009-07-01

    World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social roles. Fresh water is distributed unevenly, with nearly 500 million people suffering water stress or serious water scarcity. Two-thirds of the world's population may be subjected to moderate to high water stress in 2025. It is estimated that by 2025, the total water use will increase by to 40%. The resources of water supply and recreation may also come under stress due to changes in climate such as water balance for Lake Balaton (Hungary). Conventional urban water systems such as water supply, wastewater, and storm water management are also currently going through stress and require major rethinking. To maintain urban water systems efficiently in the future, a flexibility approach will allow incorporation of new technologies and adaptation to external changes (for example society or climate change). Because water is an essential resource for sustaining health, both the quantity and quality of available water supplies must be improved. The impact of water quality on human health is severe, with millions of deaths each year from water-borne diseases, while water pollution and aquatic ecosystem destruction continue to rise. Additionally, emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and toxins in the water body are also of a great concern. An innovative ferrate(VI) technology is highly effective in removing these contaminants in water. This technology is green, which addresses problems associated with chlorination and ozonation for treating pollutants present in water and wastewater. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applications of ferrate

  19. Water Entrainment in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    This report gives a survey of different techniques for incorporation of designed, water-filled cavities in concrete: Water entrainment. Also an estimate of the optimum size of the water inclusions is given. Water entrainment can be used to avoid self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage...... during hydration [1,26]. What is needed is some sort of container which retains the shape of the water when mixed into the concrete. The container may function based on several different physical or chemical principles. Cells and gels are examples of containers found in nature. A cell membrane provides...... a boundary to water, whereas a polymer network incorporates water in its intersticious space with its affinity due to interaction energy and polymer entropy. Such containers allow water to be stored as an entity. In relation to concrete the water encapsulation may be accomplished either before or after start...

  20. Incorporating the water footprint and virtual water into policy: reflections from the Mancha Occidental Region, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Aldaya, Maite; Martínez-Santos, Pedro; Llamas, M. Ramón

    2010-01-01

    Water resource management is often a controversial issue in semiarid regions. Most water resources experts admit that water conflicts are not caused by the physical water scarcity but they are mainly due to inadequate water management. The virtual water concept (the volume of water used in the

  1. The Determination of Sediment Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Bioavailability using Direct Pore Water Analysis by Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Using Semi- permeable Membrane Devices and Filter-feeding Clams; a 2001 report from the Academy of Natural Sciences entitled Sediment Transport...portion of a hammer to remove nails and not as 20 September 2007 a pick or awl. Have an unobstructed view and swing when using a hammer. Watch...for overhead interference on back and forward swing. Use a good grip and use something other then your hand to hold a nail when starting hammering

  2. Water footprint of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.

    2009-04-01

    Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a

  3. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  4. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  5. 34 CFR 602.25 - Due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Due process. 602.25 Section 602.25 Education... Required Operating Policies and Procedures § 602.25 Due process. The agency must demonstrate that the procedures it uses throughout the accrediting process satisfy due process. The agency meets this requirement...

  6. Net transport of suspended matter due to tidal straining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. E.; Jago, C. F.; Simpson, J. H.; Rippeth, T. P.

    2003-04-01

    Net transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) is well-known in tidal regions where there is time-velocity asymmetry due to frictional modification of the tide in shallow water. We present here observations which show a new mechanism for net flux of SPM in response to tidal straining in a region of freshwater influence (ROFI). In situ measurements of the particle size of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and turbulent energy dissipation have been made at a site in Liverpool Bay (Irish Sea) where there is significant resuspension of particles from the muddy sand substrate during spring tides. This is a ROFI where tidal straining dominates the temporal development of turbulence. On a spring tide the water column tries to stratify on the ebb and destratify on the flood, but these tendencies are masked by mixing due to tidal stirring. Nevertheless, there is a marked excess of TKE dissipation rate E on the flood, especially in the upper part of the water column. Resuspension occurs on both flood and ebb, but SPM flux is strongly asymmetric with a net shorewards component. Asymmetry is most pronounced for the larger particles which comprise most of the mass. Enhanced ? on the flood mixes large particles upwards into faster flowing water, which increases the flux. Comparable upwards mixing of large particles does not occur on the ebb where enhanced E is confined to slower bottom waters. The net flux is not seen on neap tides because, although there is more stratification due to tidal straining, there is essentially no resuspension. The net flux on springs is undoubtedly an important component of SPM transport (and any comparable particulates) in coastal regions.

  7. Values of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, N.; Dicke, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is essential for human life. However, due to its scarcity, the management of water is a topic of great concern. Inadequate management may lead to famines, food insecurity, ecological destruction, and resource-based conflicts, and eventually to human suffering and the loss of millions of human

  8. Water-transporting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Transport through lipids and aquaporins is osmotic and entirely driven by the difference in osmotic pressure. Water transport in cotransporters and uniporters is different: Water can be cotransported, energized by coupling to the substrate flux by a mechanism closely associated with protein. In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water is not clear. It is associated with the substrate movements in aqueous pathways within the protein; a conventional unstirred layer mechanism can be ruled out, due to high rates of diffusion in the cytoplasm. The physiological roles of the various modes of water transport are reviewed in relation to epithelial transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity of the transportate to approach isotonicity.

  9. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear. If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  10. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed:   Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear.   If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  11. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    CERN’s drinking water is monitored on a regular basis. A certified independent laboratory takes and analyses samples to verify that the water complies with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the system that supplies our drinking water is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the system, the water may become cloudy or discoloured, due to traces of corrosion. For this reason, we recommend: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap and heat it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until it is clear before drinking or making your tea or coffee. If you have any questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  12. Theoretical and experimental analysis of dynamic processes of pipe branch for supply water to the Pelton turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir Lj.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the analysis of pipe branch A6 to feed the Hydropower Plant ”Perućica” with integrated action Pelton turbines. The analysis was conducted experimentally (tensometric and numerically. The basis of the experimental research is the numerical finite element analysis of pipe branch A6 in pipeline C3. Pipe branch research was conducted in order to set the experiment and to determine extreme stress states. The analysis was used to perform the determination of the stress state of a geometrically complex assembly. This was done in detail as it had never been done before, even in the design phase. The actual states of the body pipe branch were established, along with the possible occurrence of water hammer accompanied by the appearance of hydraulic oscillation. This provides better energetic efficiency of the turbine devices. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35049 and br. TR 33040

  13. Pacemaker Lead Endocarditis Due to Trichosporon Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Pratap Chandra; Purohit, Bharat Vijay; Agrawal, Binod; Reddy, Krupal; Nutankavala, Lavanya; Narreddy, Suneetha; Reddy, Mallikkarjun; Abu Salim, Md

    2015-04-01

    Pacemaker-related fungal endocarditis is an uncommon and unexpected complication. It is associated with high mortality rates. Due to nonspecific clinical symptoms, negative blood culture and delays in obtaining appropriate imaging studies; late diagnosis is common with fungal endocarditis. Hereby we are reporting a rare case of pacemaker lead endocarditis due to Trichosporon species. In literature we did not find any case of pacemaker-related endocarditis due to Trichosporon species.

  14. Due Diligence and "Reasonable Man," Offshore

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bill Maurer

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of an international crackdown against preferential tax regimes, Caribbean tax havens and other jurisdictions have adopted "due diligence" procedures to manage financial and reputational risk...

  15. Emergency thyroidectomy: Due to acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfu Bayhan

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Respiratory failure due to giant nodular goiter is a life-threatening situation and should be treated immediately by performing awake endotracheal intubation following emergency total thyroidectomy.

  16. Target Water Consumption Calculation for Human Water Management based on Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, X.; Zhai, Z.; Ye, Y.; Zhai, J.

    2016-12-01

    Degradation of the regional ecological environment has become increasingly serious due to the rapid increase of water usage. Critical to water consumption management is a good approach to control the growth of water usage. Through the identification and analysis of water consumption for various sectors in the hydrosocial cycle, the method for calculating the regional target water consumption also is derived based on water balance theory. Analysis shows that during 1980 - 2004 in Tianjin City, there were 22 years in which the actual water consumption of Tianjin exceeded its target water consumption, with an average excess of 66 million m3 annually. Moreover, calculations show that the maximum human target water consumption water supply is 1.91 billion m3/a. If water consumption is controlled according to the target, the sustainable development of water resource, economic and social growth, and ecological environment in this region can be expected to be achieved.

  17. Hele Hammer : hea finantsjuht käib teooriatest ees / Hele Hammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hammer, Hele

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Finansovõi Menedzhment : infovõpusk nr. 1 veebr. lk. 18-19. Amserv Grupi finantsjuht ja EBS-i finantsjuhtimise õppejõud teoreetiliste teadmiste rollist õigete finantsotsuste tegemisel

  18. Pollution induced tidal variability in water quality of Mahim Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Sabnis, M.M.

    Variability of water quality due to release of wastewater in Mahim Estuary (Maharashtra, India) and associated nearshore waters is discussed. The mixing of low salinity contaminated estuary water with high salinity bay water was considerably...

  19. Healthy Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recreational water activities like swimming, also helps promote healthy living. Often, water’s vital role is most apparent during an emergency or disaster. We launched the Healthy Water website to provide answers to your water- ...

  20. Schools water efficiency and awareness project | Wilson | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The City of Cape Town's Water Demand Management (WDM) department has been involved in school projects for several years, although these have generally been restricted to educational activities during Water Week and school competitions, due mainly to limited resources. Cape Town is a water scarce area, and ...

  1. Establishing Solar Water Disinfection as a water treatment method at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1.1 billion People worldwide do not have access to safe drinking water and therefore are exposed to a high risk for diarrhoeal diseases. As a consequence, about 6,000 children die each day of dehydration due to diarrhoea. Adequate water treatment methods and safe storage of drinking water, combined with hygiene ...

  2. Alterations to groundwater recharge due to anthropogenic landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J.; Cao, Guoliang; Hall, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    The impacts of anthropogenic modifications to the landscape on groundwater recharge rates, locations, and mechanisms are reviewed. The two major categories of change examined are conversion of land for agriculture and urbanization, both of which have significant effects on groundwater recharge. Techniques for identifying and quantifying the changes in recharge due to these impacts are discussed. Land-clearing for agriculture and surface water transfer for irrigation have resulted in order of magnitude increases in recharge rates in many semi-arid regions worldwide, causing ongoing land and water salinization and water-logging problems. While increased recharge by irrigation return flow may alleviate shallow groundwater depletion in some settings, this is complicated by the effect of unsaturated zone thickening, which reduces the fraction of potential recharge becoming actual recharge, and may result in new water quality risks such as nitrate contamination. Expansion of urban and peri-urban land and their associated surface and sub-surface infrastructure results in complex water balance changes that re-distribute groundwater recharge locations, modify recharge mechanism(s) and result in variable impacts on recharge rates (e.g., overall net decrease, increase or minimal change) and quality. While changes to groundwater recharge resulting from conversion of land for agriculture are relatively well understood, less is documented about the changes resulting from urbanization, due to a paucity of data from field-based studies. Two case studies from Beijing, China and Melbourne Australia are examined, which highlight these impacts and demonstrate some potential methodological techniques for this topic.

  3. 5 CFR 732.301 - Due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Due process. 732.301 Section 732.301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... any determination. (b) Comply with all applicable administrative due process requirements, as provided...

  4. Peritoneal tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium caprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nebreda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tuberculosis in humans due to Mycobacterium caprae is very low and is almost confined to Europe. We report a case of a previously healthy 41-year-old Moroccan with a 6 month history of abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue and diarrhea. A diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis due to M. caprae was made.

  5. NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF SOME PARAMETRIC EFFECTS DUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    ISSN 1597-6343. Numerical Solutions of Some Parametric Effects Due to Electromagnetic Wave. Scattering by an Infinite Circular Cylinder. NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF SOME PARAMETRIC EFFECTS DUE. TO ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE SCATTERING BY AN INFINITE. CIRCULAR CYLINDER. *1 Suleiman A. B. and 1 ...

  6. Unwanted effects due to cosmetics - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnuch, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cosmetics are a heterogeneous group of products, consisting of products abundantly used as shampoos or cleansing agents on the one hand, and of products not so frequently used as those applied for decorative purposes such as nail cosmetics. Due to a differing frequency of use and due to differing

  7. Water Demand at Recreation Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Simon; Hughes, Trevor C

    1980-01-01

    Design criteria for drinking water systems at recreation developments, particularly summer home type, cause frequent confrontations with regulatory agencies. Developers claim extremely low water use rates due to low occupancy rates, but regulatory agencies are concerned about changes over time from essentially weekend use to more permanent residency and also about occasional peak day water demands similar to those...

  8. Mechanical stratigraphy of deep-water sandstones: insights from a multisciplinary field and laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Fabrizio; di Celma, Claudio; Tondi, Emanuele; Corradetti, Amerigo; Cantalamessa, Gino

    2010-05-01

    Turbidite sandstones found in deep-water fold-and-thrust belts are increasingly exploited as hydrocarbon reservoirs. Within these rocks, the fluid flow is profoundly affected by the complex interaction between primary sedimentological and stratigraphic attributes (i.e, facies, layering, reservoir quality, stacking patterns, bed connectivity and lateral extent) and fracture characteristics (i.e., length, spacing, distribution, orientation, connectivity). Unfortunately, most of these features are at, or below, the resolution of conventional seismic datasets and, for this reason, their identification and localization represent one of the fundamental challenges facing exploration, appraisal and production of the sandstone reservoirs. In this respect, whereas considerable effort has been afforded to a characterization of the sedimentological and stratigraphic aspects of sandstones, detailed analysis of fractures in this type of successions has received significantly less attention. In this work, we combine field and laboratory analyses to assess the possible mechanical control exerted by the rock properties (grain size, intergranualr porosity, and Young modulus), as well as the influence of bed thickness, on joint density in turbidite sandstones. Joints are mode-I fractures occurring parallel to the greatest principle stress axis, which solve opening displacement and do not show evidence of shearing and enhance the values of total porosity forming preferential hydraulic conduits for fluid flow. Within layered rocks, commonly, joints form perpendicular to bedding due to overburden or exhumation. The empirical relation between joint spacing and bed thickness, documented in the field by many authors, has been mechanically related to the stress perturbation taking place around joints during their formation. Furthermore, close correlations between joint density and rock properties have been already established. In this present contribution, we focus on the bed

  9. Water Availability and Management of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

  10. Obstructive anuria due to blood clot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anjali; Nanda, Smiti; Singhal, Savita Rani; Gupta, Anshu

    2008-10-01

    An unusual case of anuria due to the obstruction caused by blood clot following repair of ruptured uterus is presented. Although the blood clot usually dissolves, the awareness of this complication is important to avoid the unnecessary procedures.

  11. Chemical reaction due to stronger Ramachandran interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gmail.com. MS received 1 October 2013; ... Apparently, collisions among the reactant atoms can overcome this electron-electron ... Therefore, its existence is not due to some interpretational issues arising exclusively from the crude Drude model.

  12. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be seen ...

  13. Eumycotic mycetoma due to Madurella grisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Belda Júnior

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors reported one case of eumycotic mycetoma due to Madurella grisea (black grains occurred on the right foot of the patient studied. The structure, microscopic morphology and therapeutic evolution are also studied and reported.

  14. Cutaneous human myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suite, M; Polson, K

    2007-10-01

    This is a case report of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis in a female physician who had travelled to Belize. Cutaneous myiasis is endemic in Central and South America but is seldom reported from the Caribbean islands.

  15. Colonic urticaria pattern due to early ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Axel, L.

    1981-05-15

    The unusual radiographic pattern of bleb-like mounds on the surface of the colon mucosa, previously described as colonic urticaria, was seen in 3 patients in whom no allergic state was present. This urticaria-like pattern was due to colonic distention in all 3, and represented only submucosal edema on the gross and microscopic specimens. We hypothesize that this pattern is due to early changes of ischemia caused by colon distention.

  16. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  17. Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Mackenzie, Fred T.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios1. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere2, 3, 4, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states2, 5. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates6, 7, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs6, 8, 9, 10, 11. Here we report a seven-week experiment exploring the effects of ocean acidification on crustose coralline algae, a cosmopolitan group of calcifying algae that is ecologically important in most shallow-water habitats12, 13, 14. Six outdoor mesocosms were continuously supplied with sea water from the adjacent reef and manipulated to simulate conditions of either ambient or elevated seawater carbon dioxide concentrations. The recruitment rate and growth of crustose coralline algae were severely inhibited in the elevated carbon dioxide mesocosms. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification due to human activities could cause significant change to benthic community structure in shallow-warm-water carbonate ecosystems.

  18. Spreading of sediment due to underwater blasting and dredging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; Bach, Lis; Bollwerk, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    out in connection with the construction of a new quay at the existing harbour of Sisimiut, Greenland. Subsequent to the largest of a series of underwater blasts, the distribution of suspended sediment in the water column at and around the construction site was observed using a CTD (Conductivity......, Temperature, Depth) equipped with a turbidity meter. The observations show that sediment was brought into suspension near the surface and at internal density gradients in the water column, where it became subject to prevailing flow conditions. The observations further show what was probably a turbidity...... current, flowing down the steeply sloping seabed away from the construction site. The spreading of sediment due to this turbidity current could not be assessed, but could have been considerable. Observations made using sediment traps over much of the period of construction show that the total spreading...

  19. Hydrokinesitherapy in thermal mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendulić-Slivar Senka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of clients in health spa resorts entails various forms of hydrotherapy. Due to specific properties of water, especially thermal mineral waters, hydrokinesitherapy has a positive effect on the locomotor system, aerobic capabilities of organism and overall quality of human life. The effects of use of water in movement therapy are related to the physical and chemical properties of water. The application of hydrotherapy entails precautionary measures, with an individual approach in assessment and prescription. The benefits of treatment in thermal mineral water should be emphasized and protected, as all thermal mineral waters differ in composition. All physical properties of water are more pronounced in thermal mineral waters due to its mineralisation, hence its therapeutical efficiency is greater, as well.

  20. Environmental contamination due to shale gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annevelink, M P J A; Meesters, J A J; Hendriks, A J

    2016-04-15

    Shale gas development potentially contaminates both air and water compartments. To assist in governmental decision-making on future explorations, we reviewed scattered information on activities, emissions and concentrations related to shale gas development. We compared concentrations from monitoring programmes to quality standards as a first indication of environmental risks. Emissions could not be estimated accurately because of incomparable and insufficient data. Air and water concentrations range widely. Poor wastewater treatment posed the highest risk with concentrations exceeding both Natural Background Values (NBVs) by a factor 1000-10,000 and Lowest Quality Standards (LQSs) by a factor 10-100. Concentrations of salts, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hydrocarbons exceeded aquatic ecotoxicological water standards. Future research must focus on measuring aerial and aquatic emissions of toxic chemicals, generalisation of experimental setups and measurement technics and further human and ecological risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Breach growth in cohesive embankments due to overtopping

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, G.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, 100049, People's Republic of China)

    2016-01-01

    Breaching is the most frequent form of embankment failure in the world. Due to overtopping, an embankment starts to breach when part of the embankment actually breaks away, leaving an opening for water to flood the land protected by the embankment. A breach can be a sudden or gradual failure that is caused by surface erosion and/or headcut erosion in the embankment. The magnitude and extent of the losses depend highly on the rate of breaching of the embankment, which determines the discharge ...

  2. Oxygen-18 enrichment of planktonic foraminifera due to gametogenic calcification below the euphotic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, P L; Bé, A W

    1981-09-11

    Empty shells of spinose planktonic foraminifera on the seabed are significantly enriched in oxygen-18 as compared with the shells of their living counterparts in surface waters. This enrichment is due to gametogenic calcification, which extracts calcium carbonate from deeper and colder waters as the shell sinks below the euphotic zone. JEAN-CLAUDE DUPLESSY.

  3. Oxygen-18 enrichment of planktonic foraminifera due to gametongenic calcification below the euphotic zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duplessy, J.C. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Gif-sur-Yvette, France); Blanc, P.L.; Be, A.W.H.

    1981-09-11

    Empty shells of spinose planktonic foraminifera on the seabed are significantly enriched in oxygen-18 as compared with the shells of their living counterparts in surface waters. This enrichment is due to gametogenic calcification, which extracts calcium carbonate from deeper and colder waters as the shell sinks below the euphotic zone.

  4. Water citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paerregaard, Karsten; Stensrud, Astrid Bredholt; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of Peru’s new water law and discusses how it produces new forms of water citizenship. Inspired by the global paradigm of “integrated water resources management,” the law aims to include all citizens in the management of the country’s water resources...... by embracing a “new water culture.” We ask what forms of water citizenship emerge from the new water law and how they engage with local water practices and affect existing relations of inequality. We answer these questions ethnographically by comparing previous water legislation and how the new law currently...... is negotiated and contested in three localities in Peru’s southern highlands. We argue that the law creates a new water culture that views water as a substance that is measurable, quantifiable, and taxable, but that it neglects other ways of valuing water. We conclude that water citizenship emerges from...

  5. Global warming and water sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Cassardo Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Water is a primary element in the human diet and a necessary resource for the agriculture. In addition, industrial practices need a growing amount of water. Since human population is continuously growing at a quasi-exponential rate, water demand, for domestic, agricultural and industrial uses, is increasing too. However, considering that the water resources on the Earth are finite, even disregarding the potential threats due to the climate change, this situation appears as one of the biggest ...

  6. Assess water scarcity integrating water quantity and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Zeng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity has become widespread all over the world. Current methods for water scarcity assessment are mainly based on water quantity and seldom consider water quality. Here, we develop an approach for assessing water scarcity considering both water quantity and quality. In this approach, a new water scarcity index is used to describe the severity of water scarcity in the form of a water scarcity meter, which may help to communicate water scarcity to a wider audience. To illustrate the approach, we analyzed the historical trend of water scarcity for Beijing city in China during 1995-2009, as well as the assessment for different river basins in China. The results show that Beijing made a huge progress in mitigating water scarcity, and that from 1999 to 2009 the blue and grey water scarcity index decreased by 59% and 62%, respectively. Despite this progress, we demonstrate that Beijing is still characterized by serious water scarcity due to both water quantity and quality. The water scarcity index remained at a high value of 3.5 with a blue and grey water scarcity index of 1.2 and 2.3 in 2009 (exceeding the thresholds of 0.4 and 1, respectively). As a result of unsustainable water use and pollution, groundwater levels continue to decline, and water quality shows a continuously deteriorating trend. To curb this trend, future water policies should further decrease water withdrawal from local sources (in particular groundwater) within Beijing, and should limit the grey water footprint below the total amount of water resources.

  7. Determination of the equivalent doses due to the ingestion of radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series presents in drinking waters of the region of Santa Luzia, Paraiba state, Brazil; Determinacao das doses equivalentes devido a ingestao de radionuclideos das series do uranio e torio presentes em aguas de consumo do municipio de Santa Luzia, estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastura, Valeria F. da S., E-mail: vpastura@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DRSN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear. Coordenacao de Materias Primas e Minerais; Campos, Thomas F. da C.; Petta, Reinaldo A., E-mail: thomascampos@geologia.ufrn.b, E-mail: petta@geologia.ufrn.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (LARANA/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Radioatividade Natural

    2011-10-26

    This paper determined the original dose equivalents from radionuclides of uranium and thorium series in a drinking water of well which is supplied to the population of Santa Luzia, Paraiba state, Brazil. The collected waters are near to the mineralized phlegmatic bodies in rose quartz and amazonite feldspar. Radiometric measurements performed on the feldspar vein point out counting ratios surrounding 30000 cps and the analysis of collected samples of minerals presented tenors for the {sup 226}Ra and {sup 219}Pb varying from 0.50 to 2.30 Bq/sw. For determination of concentration of radionuclides U{sub Total}, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 219}Pb, found in the not desalinated, two methods were used, spectrophotometry with arsenazo and radiochemistry, both realized in the CNEN-LAPOC laboratories. For the calculation of dose equivalent it was taken into consideration the following parameters: the dose coefficients for incorporation by ingestion for public individuals with ages over 17 years (Norma CNEN-NN-3.01, Regulatory Position 3.01/011) and daily ingestion of 4 liters of water, which is over the recommended by the WHO of 2L/day - 1993. The obtained values were compared with the reference value for compromised dose equivalent established by WHO for evaluate the risk potential to the health of population, by ingestion. The radionuclide concentrations in the wells varies from 0.054 to 0.21 Bq/L, resulting dose equivalents of 3.94 x 10{sup -3} mSv/year and 0.17 mSv/year in the studied population

  8. Systemic photosensitivity due to Goji berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bernal, Silvia; Rodríguez-Pazos, Laura; Martínez, Francisco Javier García; Ginarte, Manuel; Rodríguez-Granados, María Teresa; Toribio, Jaime

    2011-10-01

    Systemic photosensitivity due to the intake of plants or herbal compounds is a rare phenomenon. Goji berries are widely used as a well-being and anti-aging remedy. In spite of this, only a few adverse reactions and no cases of photosensitivity have been reported to date. A 53-year-old male consulted due to a pruriginous eruption located on sun-exposed areas of 2 weeks of duration. He had been taking Goji berries and infusions of cat's claw herb for 5 and 3 months, respectively. Minimal erythema dose for UVB (MED-UVB) was diminished when the patient was taking these products, and became normal when they were withdrawn. Photoprovocation tests with Goji berries and cat's claw were performed. MED-UVB decreased after the intake of Goji berries, and was normal with cat's claw. We report the first case of systemic photosensitivity due to Goji berries. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Paraneoplastic Cushing Syndrome Due To Wilm's Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Mahwish; Manzoor, Jaida; Saleem, Muhammad; Anwar, Saadia; Mehmood, Qaiser; Hameed, Ambreen; Ali, Agha Shabbir

    2017-05-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Unusual presentations like acquired von Willebrand disease, sudden death due to pulmonary embolism and Cushing syndrome have been described in the literature. Cushing syndrome, as the presenting symptom of a malignant renal tumor in children, is a very rare entity. Few case reports are available in the literature exploring the option of preoperative chemotherapy as well as upfront nephrectomy. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to a Wilm's tumor. Based on gradual decrease of postoperative weight, blood pressure, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, and plasma cortisol levels, along with histological confirmation of Wilm's tumor, paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilm's tumor was confirmed.

  10. Influência da distribuição granulométrica de argilas para via seca sobre o rendimento de moagem em moinho de martelos Influence of granule size distribution of clays for dry route on milling yield in the hammer mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Alves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Um método para avaliar a dureza e o rendimento na moagem de matérias-primas para a fabricação de revestimentos cerâmicos por via seca foi o objetivo deste trabalho. A avaliação do potencial de uso de uma dada matéria-prima argilosa para a indústria de revestimentos cerâmicos por via seca não costuma contemplar características como a dureza e o rendimento na moagem, mas estas características afetam a durabilidade e o desempenho dos moinhos de martelos e pendulares nas indústrias, além da produtividade do processo de fabricação. Seis amostras industriais foram caracterizadas quanto à distribuição granulométrica antes e após a moagem em moinho de martelos de laboratório, sob duas condições iniciais de distribuição. As avaliações consideraram as alterações nos coeficientes de distribuição n e nos teores de material mais fino do que malha 45 (355 µm. A metodologia proposta mostrou-se útil para caracterizar as matérias-primas quanto à dureza e o rendimento na moagem.A method to evaluate the hardness and milling yield of raw materials to dry route ceramic tiles industry was the goal of this work. Evaluation of the potential of a clayish raw material to dry route ceramic tiles industry does not cover characteristics such as hardness and milling yield, but these characteristics also affect, besides durability and performance of hammer and pendular industrial mills, the productive process. Six industrial samples were characterized to grain size distribution before and after being milled in a laboratorial hammer mill, under two initial size distributions. The evaluations considered the changes in distribution coefficient modulus n and in the fractions smaller than sieve 45 (355 µm. Proposed methodology proved to be useful to characterize raw materials according to its hardness and milling yield.

  11. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Water Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Water Safety Print A ... tied to alcohol use. previous continue At the Water Park OK, so you do more splashing than ...

  12. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  13. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Water Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Water Safety What's in ... remains your best measure of protection. Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  14. Fluoridated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Fluoridated Water On This Page What is fluoride, and where is it found? What is water fluoridation? When did water fluoridation begin in the ...

  15. Parasites: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  16. Cytology of Pericardial Effusion due to Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalogeraki Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malignant pericardial effusion occurs in one tenth of all cancers. It is a very serious disorder that is mainly a secondary process due to metastasis because primary neoplasms of the pericardium such as mesotheliomas, sarcomas being exceedingly rare.

  17. Prevalence of lymphatic complications due to onchocerciasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of lymphatic complications due to onchocerciasis infection in 38 endemic rural communities in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. Using standard parasitological and clinical methods of diagnosis, 7,144 consenting individuals aged 5 years and above were examined for ...

  18. Transhorizon Radiowave Propagation due to Evaporation Ducting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 1. Transhorizon Radiowave Propagation due to Evaporation Ducting - The Effect of Tropospheric Weather Conditions on VHF and UHF Radio Paths Over the Sea. Salil David Gunashekar D R Siddle E M Warrington. General Article Volume 11 ...

  19. [Delayed asthma bronchiale due to epoxy resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authried, Georg; Al-Asadi, Haifaa; Møller, Ulla; Sherson, David Lee

    2013-10-28

    Epoxy resin is a low molecular weight agent, which can cause both acute and delayed allergic reactions. However, it is known causing skin reactions with direct or airborne contact. Rarely it can cause airway reactions like asthma bronchiale. We describe a case of a windmill worker who developed delayed asthma bronchiale due to airborne contact with epoxy resin.

  20. Dysphagia due to diffuseidiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) or Forestier's disease isa form of degenerative arthritiswith unique spinal and extra spinal manifestations. Dysphagia due to DISH is uncommon but when present DISH should be suspected. Surgical decompression can relieve some of the symptoms. We report a case of a 60 ...

  1. COMMENTARY Confronting Maternal Mortality Due to Postpartum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Confronting Maternal Mortality Due to Postpartum Hemorrhage and. Unsafe Abortion: A Call for Commitment. Joseph Karanja. 1, 2. , Projestine Muganyizi. 3 ... towards achieving. Millennium. Development Goal (MDG) 5 at a Regional. Experts' Summit. During the weeklong conference convened to explore the myriad factors.

  2. Extension of a theorem due to Ramanujan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat A. Rakha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to establish an extension of a theorem due to Ramanujan. The result is obtained with the help of two terminating results for the series $_3F_{2}$ very recently obtained by Rakha et al. A few interesting special cases are also given.

  3. Pulsatile Proptosis due to Intraorbital Meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rumund, Anouke; Verrips, Aad; Verhagen, Wim I M

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of a 79-year-old man with a non-symptomatic pulsatile proptosis of the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a meningocele into the left orbit due to an osseous defect in the orbital roof.

  4. Pulsatile Proptosis due to Intraorbital Meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouke van Rumund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 79-year-old man with a non-symptomatic pulsatile proptosis of the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a meningocele into the left orbit due to an osseous defect in the orbital roof.

  5. Plagiarism Due to Misunderstanding: Online Instructor Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Scott; Holbeck, Rick; Steele, John; Dyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is an ongoing problem in higher education. This problem exists in both online and face-to-face modalities. The literature indicates that there are three ways higher education institutions define plagiarism, which includes theft, deception, and misunderstanding. Plagiarism due to misunderstanding has received less attention in the…

  6. [Gait disorders due to neurological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Snijders, A.H.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    Gait disorders are seen frequently and often have a neurological cause. The clinical management of patients presenting with a gait disorder is often complicated due to the large number of diseases that can cause a gait disorder and to the difficulties in interpreting a specific gait disorder

  7. Ophthalmoplegia, Dysphonia and Tetraparesis Due to Guillain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guillain-Barre's syndrome (GBS) or inflammatory/post-infectious acute polyradiculoneuropathy is due to demyelination of nerves, causing a progressive paresis or paralysis. It usually begins in the legs and sometimes goes up to the respiratory muscles and cranial nerves. The exact mechanism of GBS occurrance is still ...

  8. Sickness absence due to depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P. C.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    Objective There is no information on the duration of absence of depressed Dutch workers. The aim of this study was to determine the duration of sickness absence due to depressive symptoms in the working population. Methods In this observational study of 15% of the Dutch working population, all

  9. Abdominal injury due to child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter M; Norton, Catherine M; Dunstan, Frank D; Kemp, Alison M; Yates, David W; Sibert, Jonathan R

    Diagnosis of abuse in children with internal abdominal injury is difficult because of limited published work. We aimed to ascertain the incidence of abdominal injury due to abuse in children age 0-14 years. 20 children (identified via the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit) had abdominal injuries due to abuse and 164 (identified via the Trauma Audit and Research Network) had injuries to the abdomen due to accident (112 by road-traffic accidents, 52 by falls). 16 abused children were younger than 5 years. Incidence of abdominal injury due to abuse was 2.33 cases per million children per year (95% CI 1.43-3.78) in children younger than 5 years. Six abused children died. 11 abused children had an injury to the gut (ten small bowel) compared with five (all age >5 years) who were injured by a fall (relative risk 5.72 [95% CI 2.27-14.4]; p=0.0002). We have shown that small-bowel injuries can arise accidentally as a result of falls and road-traffic accidents but they are significantly more common in abused children. Therefore, injuries to the small bowel in young children need special consideration, particularly if a minor fall is the explanation.

  10. Chemical reaction due to stronger Ramachandran interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 3. Chemical reaction due to stronger Ramachandran interaction. Andrew Das ... Arulsamy1. Condensed Matter Group, Institute of Interdisciplinary Science, No. 24, level-4, Block C, Lorong Bahagia, Pandamaran, 42000 Port Klang, Selangor DE, Malaysia ...

  11. Pulsatile Proptosis due to Intraorbital Meningocele

    OpenAIRE

    Rumund, A. van; Verrips, A.; Verhagen, W.I.

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of a 79-year-old man with a non-symptomatic pulsatile proptosis of the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a meningocele into the left orbit due to an osseous defect in the orbital roof.

  12. Severe accidents due to windsurfing in the Aegean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeromitros, A; Tsangaris, H; Bilalis, D; Karabinis, A

    2002-06-01

    Windsurfing is a popular sport and has recently become an Olympic event. As an open-air water activity that requires the participant to be in perfect physical condition, windsurfers may be prone to accidents when certain basic rules or procedures are violated. The current study monitored severe injuries due to windsurfing over a period of 12 months in the Aegean Sea in Greece. Our study revealed 22 cases of severe accidents due to windsurfing, with a wide range of injuries including head injuries, spinal cord injuries, and severe fractures of the extremities. Prolonged hospitalization, severe disability and two deaths occurred as consequences of these accidents. The study examined the characteristics of these patients and the possible risk factors and conditions associated with the accidents. We also focused on the most common types of injuries and reviewed the mechanisms that may provoke them. Water sports and particularly windsurfing represent a major challenge for the emergency medical system, especially in the Aegean Sea. Hundreds of islands, kilometres of isolated coasts, millions of tourists, an extended summer period and rapidly changing weather create conditions that constantly test the efficacy of the emergency services. The development of an appropriate infrastructure and maximum control of the risk factors causing these accidents could reduce the morbidity and mortality that, unfortunately but rather predictably, accompany this popular summer activity.

  13. Timing shifts due to NIF beam repointing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, J

    2007-08-15

    Repointing a NIF beam to hit a target position off target chamber center (TCC) will introduce a timing shift due to changes in the light pathlength. This shift could be important for target experiment requirements even for targets placed at TCC, since beam timing test shots will place beams up to 15 mm off TCC in order to spatially separate them on foil targets. In particular, timing errors due to beam repointing need to be considered against the 30 ps RMS timing requirement. Since the repointing process will keep the beam passing through a fixed point in the final optics assembly (the conversion crystal) by tip/tilt adjustments of two turning mirrors (LM5 and LM7), the problem naturally divides into two parts: Timing offsets past the conversion crystal due to target positioning changes, and timing offsets behind the fixed point on the conversion crystal due to turning mirror adjustments. Timing offsets past the conversion crystal can be significant, but are trivial to calculate exactly; however, an exact calculation of timing offsets behind the fixed point on the conversion crystal would require a three-dimensional optomechanical raytrace model to be developed for every beamline, and this would be difficult and expensive. In this memo, I estimate the magnitude of timing offsets due to pathlength changes behind the conversion crystal by analysis of a worst-case model. I conclude that these timing offsets are insignificant compared with the current allocation in the 30 ps RMS timing requirement, and that more detailed raytrace modeling of individual beams is not necessary.

  14. Calculus of radiolytic products generation in water due to alpha radiation. Determination of the spent nuclear fuels matrix alteration rate Determination of velocity of spent fuel matrix; Calculo de la generacion de productos radioliticos en agua por radiacion {alpha}. Determinacion de la velocidad de alteracion de la matriz del combustible nuclear gastado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, J.; Serrano, J.; Diaz Arocas, P.; Rodriguez Almazan, J. L. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain); Bruno, J.; Cera, E.; Merino, J.; Esteban, J. A.; Martinez-Esparza, A. [Enresa. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The generation of radiolytic products as a result of alpha radiation in the surface of the spent fuel is a key process in order to understand how the it becomes degraded in repository conditions. The present work has established a radiolytic model based on a set of reactions involving fuel oxidation-dissolution and radiolytic products recombination. It also includes the decrease of the dose rates as the main alpha emitters decay away. Four cases, with varying parameters of the system, have been assessed. The results show a decrease in both the concentration of the radiolytic products in the gap water and the degradation of the fuel matrix. It has been estimated that in the period of the evaluation (10''6 years) up to 52% of the pellet is altered in the conservative cases, whereas only 11% is altered in the realistic cases. No significant differences were observed when the carbonates reactions were included in the system. (Author)

  15. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Transport through lipids and aquaporins is osmotic and entirely driven by the difference in osmotic pressure. Water transport in cotransporters and uniporters is different: Water can be cotransported, energized by coupling to the substrate flux by a mechanism closely associated with protein...... is not clear. It is associated with the substrate movements in aqueous pathways within the protein; a conventional unstirred layer mechanism can be ruled out, due to high rates of diffusion in the cytoplasm. The physiological roles of the various modes of water transport are reviewed in relation to epithelial...

  16. Water Water Everywhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Levy

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade of the 20th century the world was exposed to increasing episodes of extreme weather. Figures reveal a 0.6°C rise in average temperatures since records began in 1860, with the 1990s being the warmest decade and 1998 the warmest year. Experts believe that these rising temperatures, or global warming, are in part due to human influences.

  17. Is Cl- protection against silver toxicity due to chemical speciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmyer, G K; Brix, K V; Grosell, M

    2008-04-28

    In freshwater teleosts, the primary mechanism of acute silver toxicity is inhibition of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and carbonic anhydrase at the gill, leading to net Na(+) and Cl(-) loss due to the continued diffusion of these ions into the hypoosmotic external environment. External Cl(-) has been shown to protect rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss) against silver toxicity presumably by complexation to form AgCl. However, Cl(-) does not appear to greatly influence silver toxicity to at least two other species, the European eel (Anguilla Anguilla) and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). We hypothesized that differences in protective effects of Cl(-) at the gill were due to differing requirements or mechanisms for Cl(-) uptake among fish species. To test this hypothesis, we exposed Fundulus heteroclitus, which does not take up Cl(-) across the gills, and Danio rerio and P. promelas, which do rely on Cl(-) uptake across the gills, to Ag(+) in waters of varying Cl(-) concentration. The 96-h LC50s of F. heteroclitus exposed to Ag(+) in soft water with 10 microM Cl(-), 1mM KCl, and 0.5mM MgCl(2) were 3.88, 1.20, and 3.20 microg/L, respectively, and not significantly different. The 96-h LC50s for D. rerio exposed to Ag(+) in soft water with 10 microM Cl(-) and 1mM KCl were 10.3 and 11.3 microg/L, respectively and P. promelas exposed under the same conditions were 2.32 and 2.67 microg/L, respectively. Based on these results, increasing external Cl(-) concentration by as much as 1mM (35.5mg/L) did not offer protection against Ag(+) toxicity to any fish species tested. Although previous results in our laboratory have demonstrated that P. promelas do take up Cl(-) at the gill, a mechanism of uptake has not been identified. Additional experiments, investigating the mechanisms of Na(+) and Cl(-) influx at the gill of P. promelas and the influence of silver, demonstrated that Cl(-) uptake in P. promelas acclimated to soft water occurs through both a Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) co

  18. Boussinesq modeling of surface waves due to underwater landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dutykh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Consideration is given to the influence of an underwater landslide on waves at the surface of a shallow body of fluid. The equations of motion that govern the evolution of the barycenter of the landslide mass include various dissipative effects due to bottom friction, internal energy dissipation, and viscous drag. The surface waves are studied in the Boussinesq scaling, with time-dependent bathymetry. A numerical model for the Boussinesq equations is introduced that is able to handle time-dependent bottom topography, and the equations of motion for the landslide and surface waves are solved simultaneously. The numerical solver for the Boussinesq equations can also be restricted to implement a shallow-water solver, and the shallow-water and Boussinesq configurations are compared. A particular bathymetry is chosen to illustrate the general method, and it is found that the Boussinesq system predicts larger wave run-up than the shallow-water theory in the example treated in this paper. It is also found that the finite fluid domain has a significant impact on the behavior of the wave run-up.

  19. Sinkholes Due to Groundwater Withdrawal in Tazerbo Wellfield, SE Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarrah, Nawal; Berhane, Gebremedhin; Hweesh, Abdelrahim; Walraevens, Kristine

    2017-07-01

    The desert of eastern Libya forms one of the most arid regions of the Sahara. The Great Man-Made River Project (GMRP) was established. It transports millions of cubic meters of water a day from desert wellfields to the coastal cities, where over 80% of the population lives. The Tazerbo Wellfield is one of the wellfields designed within the GMRP, delivering water to the eastern coast of Libya through an underground pipe network. Tazerbo Wellfield consists of 108 production wells; each well was designed to pump 100 L/s. The planned total groundwater withdrawal from all wells is 1 million m 3 /d. The deep sandstone aquifer (Nubian sandstone) is covered by a thick mudstone-siltstone aquitard and is being heavily pumped. The aquifer and fine-grained sediments of the aquitard may be compacted resulting in land subsidence as a result of high exploitation. Local sinkholes have developed in the area of Tazerbo since the start of the pumping from the wellfield in 2004. These sinkholes have been caused mainly by lowering of the piezometric heads due to the withdrawal of groundwater. In this study, a hydrogeological investigation is presented about the effect of large groundwater pumping from the Nubian sandstone aquifer in Tazerbo Wellfield, SE Libya, based on physical parameters for 108 production wells and 23 observation wells. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  20. Skylab water balance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.