WorldWideScience

Sample records for water framework directive

  1. Implementing the water framework directive in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Anker, Helle Tegner; Baaner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) is how to address diffuse agricultural pollution of the aquatic environment. In Denmark the implementation of agricultural measures has been fraught with difficulty in the form of delays and legal proceedings...

  2. Environmental Quality Standards in the EC-Water Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirka, Gerhard H.; Burrows, Richard; Larsen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    The "combined approach" in the new EC-Water Framework Directive(WFD) consisting of environmental quality standards in addition to emission limit values promises improvements in the quality characteristics of surface water. However, the specification of where in the water body the environmental...... waters, respectively. Furthermore, water authorities will have to make increased use of predictive modeling techniques for the implementation of the "combined appraoch"....

  3. Environmental Quality Standards in the EC-Water Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirka, Gerhard H.; Burrows, Richard; Larsen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    The "combined approach" in the new EC-Water Framework Directive(WFD) consisting of environmental quality standards in addition to emission limit values promises improvements in the quality characteristics of surface water. However, the specification of where in the water body the environmental...... waters, respectively. Furthermore, water authorities will have to make increased use of predictive modeling techniques for the implementation of the "combined appraoch"....

  4. River basin management plans for the European Water Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronvang, B.; Bechmann, M.; Behrendt, H.; Ruboek, G.H.; Schoumans, O.F.

    2004-01-01

    The newly adopted EU water framework directive aims at protecting different water bodies by performing impact analysis and developing river basin management plans before 2009. The adoption of management measures in river basins demands that catchment managers are able to quantify the importance of d

  5. Operationalising active involvement in the EU water framework directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Stuart Anthony Lewis; Fritsch, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    of actively involving non-state actors, which can be summarised as increasing the effectiveness of policy and improving its implementation. Criticising the emerging economic decision-making approach, we argue that economic analyses could result in a missed opportunity to capitalise on the potential benefits...... to comply with the statutory requirements of the Directive, but should strive for active involvement due to the potential for increasing the effectiveness of the Water Framework Directive and improving its implementation......We identify two key stages in the river basin planning process under the Water Framework Directive: the selection of instruments for a programme of measures to achieve the environmental targets, and disproportionate cost analysis to determine whether selected measures involve high costs. Some EU...

  6. Decision-making in the European water framework directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Stuart Anthony Lewis

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the decision-making process in the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). The WFD is an important piece of legislation, which will decide the quality of the EU aquatic environment for the foreseeable future. The main environmental goal of the Directive is good ecological status......, to be achieved by 2015. The paper highlights the central role disproportionate cost analysis (DCA), the process by which member states can substantiate applications for derogation and less stringent environmental objectives, will play in determining the eventual quality of the EU aquatic environment. The paper...... draws attention to a potential development path, which the DCA process could take, based on an important guidance document on economics in the WFD (WATECO) and the AquaMoney project, a large neoclassical project established to produce guidelines for member states as to how to conduct DCA, essentially...

  7. Potential Significance of the EU Water Framework Directive to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lars Skov Andersen; Martin Griffiths

    2009-01-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD) is a unique piece of legislation, which may be of great significance to on - going reforms of the water sector in China. First and foremost it unites 27 European mem- ber states behind a common goal, which is "to achieve good chemical and ecological status" of all water bodies across the EU. Other significant characteristics of the EU WFD are that (1) it sets a clear timeframe with a number of time - bound actions for member states to achieve the goal, hut leaves it to member states to achieve this goal in a decent- ralised process, which makes allowance for the different socio - economic conditions, (2) it defines the river basin as the management unit for water thus departing with the traditional fragmented management by administrative units and it appoints a single competent authority for water management within each fiver basin, thus facilitating resolution of sector conflicts, (3) it requires a financial and economic analysis of the costs of implementing the EU WFD to enable deci- sion makers to assess whether the required improvements are affordable to government and to the population within the fiver basin, and (4) it requires a structured process for information and consultation with stakeholders and the public throughout the planning and implementation process.

  8. European union water policy--tasks for implementing "Water Framework Directive" in pre-accession countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözen, Seval; Avcioglu, Ebru; Ozabali, Asli; Görgun, Erdem; Orhon, Derin

    2003-08-01

    Water Framework Directive aiming to maintain and improve the aquatic environment in the EU was launched by the European Parliament in 2000. According to this directive, control of quantity is an ancillary element in securing good water quality and therefore measures on quantity, serving the objective of ensuring good quality should also be established. Accordingly, it is a comprehensive and coordinated package that will ensure all European waters to be protected according to a common standard. Therefore, it refers to all other Directives related to water resources management such as Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive Nitrates Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Integrated Pollution Prevention Control etc. Turkey, as a candidate state targeting full-membership, should comply the necessary preparations for the implementation of the "Water Framework Directive" as soon as possible. In this study, the necessary legislative, political, institutional, and technical attempts of the pre-accession countries have been discussed and effective recommendations have been offered for future activities in Turkey.

  9. Assessment of the environmental status in Hellenic coastal waters (Eastern Mediterranean: from the Water Framework Directive to the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A  methodology is presented to assess the environmental status sensu the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive (MSFD based on data obtained from the monitoring of water quality in the Hellenic coastal waters within the Water Framework Directive (WFD.   An adapted decision tree used for integrating the results of the WFD in the Basque country was applied. Modifications lie to the evaluation of the physicochemical status based on a eutrophication index developed for Eastern Mediterranean waters. Results on hydromorphological, physicochemical and biological elements are presented. The chemical status was evaluated based on measurements of heavy metals in water. The evaluation of the biological quality was based on the use of metrics developed for phytoplankton biomass, benthic macroinvertebrates and macroalgae updated to accommodate MSFD needs. Results on the integrative status of the water bodies were validated by correlating classification results with a pressure index and environmental indicators in water column and sediment. Following this decision tree the majority of stations expected to be at risk of achieving the good status were found in moderate status. Benthos was found to be the element with the closest agreement with the integrated final status having an increased weighting in the decision tree. The quality of benthos and in some  limited cases  the eutrophication index determined largely the final status. The highest disagreement with the integrative classification was produced by macroalgae. All indicators used correlated with water and sediment parameters but benthos correlated better with sediment factors while phytoplankton and eutrophication index with water column parameters.

  10. Assessment of the environmental status in Hellenic coastal waters (Eastern Mediterranean: from the Water Framework Directive to the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A  methodology is presented to assess the environmental status sensu the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive (MSFD based on data obtained from the monitoring of water quality in the Hellenic coastal waters within the Water Framework Directive (WFD.   An adapted decision tree used for integrating the results of the WFD in the Basque country was applied. Modifications lie to the evaluation of the physicochemical status based on a eutrophication index developed for Eastern Mediterranean waters. Results on hydromorphological, physicochemical and biological elements are presented. The chemical status was evaluated based on measurements of heavy metals in water. The evaluation of the biological quality was based on the use of metrics developed for phytoplankton biomass, benthic macroinvertebrates and macroalgae updated to accommodate MSFD needs. Results on the integrative status of the water bodies were validated by correlating classification results with a pressure index and environmental indicators in water column and sediment. Following this decision tree the majority of stations expected to be at risk of achieving the good status were found in moderate status. Benthos was found to be the element with the closest agreement with the integrated final status having an increased weighting in the decision tree. The quality of benthos and in some  limited cases  the eutrophication index determined largely the final status. The highest disagreement with the integrative classification was produced by macroalgae. All indicators used correlated with water and sediment parameters but benthos correlated better with sediment factors while phytoplankton and eutrophication index with water column parameters.

  11. Re-designating water bodies in Denmark bypasses the Water Framework Directive objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    Despite the initially ambitious provisions of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) when it first entered into force, thousands of kilometres of Danish watercourses have now lost their legal protection through the application of the WFD’s provisions concerning the designation of water bodies....... This article describes the designation process and concludes that it does not conform to the obligation carefully to assign an environmental objective to discrete and significant water bodies as set out in the WFD. Neither does it ensure the same level of protection that existed prior to the implementation...

  12. Re-designating water bodies in Denmark bypasses the Water Framework Directive objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Despite the initially ambitious provisions of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) when it first entered into force, thousands of kilometres of Danish watercourses have now lost their legal protection through the application of the WFD’s provisions concerning the designation of water bodies....... This article describes the designation process and concludes that it does not conform to the obligation carefully to assign an environmental objective to discrete and significant water bodies as set out in the WFD. Neither does it ensure the same level of protection that existed prior to the implementation...

  13. Use of models to support the monitoring requirements in the water framework directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Højberg, A.L.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Geer, F. van; Jørgensen, L.F.; Zsuffa, I.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) poses many new challenges to European water managers. Monitoring programmes play a key role to assess the status and identify possible trends in the environmental conditions of river basins; to gain new knowledge on water processes and to

  14. Use of models to support the monitoring requirements in the water framework directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Højberg, A.L.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Geer, F. van; Jørgensen, L.F.; Zsuffa, I.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) poses many new challenges to European water managers. Monitoring programmes play a key role to assess the status and identify possible trends in the environmental conditions of river basins; to gain new knowledge on water processes and to asse

  15. Determination of tributyltin in whole water matrices under the European Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Janine; Fettig, Ina; Philipp, Rosemarie; Jakubowski, Norbert; Panne, Ulrich; Fisicaro, Paola; Alasonati, Enrica

    2016-08-12

    Monitoring of water quality is important to control water pollution. Contamination of the aquatic system has a large effect on human health and the environment. Under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC and the related directive on environmental quality standards (EQS) in the field of water policy 2008/105/EC, the need for sensitive reference methods was highlighted. Since tributyltin (TBT) is one of the WFD listed priority substances a method was developed which is capable to qualify and quantify the pollutant at the required low WFD EQS of 0.2ngL(-1) in whole water bodies, i.e. in non-filtered water samples with dissolved organic carbon and suspended particulate matter. Therefore special attention was paid on the interaction of TBT with the suspended particulate matter and humic substances to obtain a complete representation of the pollution in surface waters. Different water samples were investigated varying the content of organic dissolved and suspended matter. Quantification was performed using species-specific isotope dilution (SSID) and gas chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS). Different sample treatment strategies were evaluated and compared. The process of internal standard addition was investigated and optimized, hence the equilibrium between internal standards and matrix is of primary importance to perform accurate SSID. Samples spiked at EQS level were analyzed with a recovery between 95 and 105 %. Additionally real surface water samples were investigated and the TBT concentration for the whole water body was determined and compared with conventional routine analysis method.

  16. The water framework directive. On the way to good waters; Die Wasserrahmenrichtlinie. Auf dem Weg zu guten Gewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Sandra; Voelker, Jeanette [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of the water framework directive of the European Union is a good quality of for all European waters. The brochure under consideration informs on targets and contents of the water framework directive and its meaning in water-economical practice. The contribution summarizes the facts and results of management planning in Germany and describes the most important planning steps and their statements. The implementation of a totally integrated management of river basins for the protection of our waters is described. The brochure obtains a country wide overview of the current condition of waters.

  17. Using high frequency water quality data to assess sampling strategies for the EU Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeffington, R. A.; Halliday, S. J.; Wade, A. J.; Bowes, M. J.; Loewenthal, M.

    2015-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that the ecological and chemical status of water bodies in Europe should be assessed, and action taken where possible to ensure that at least "good" quality is attained in each case by 2015. This paper is concerned with the accuracy and precision with which chemical status in rivers can be measured given certain sampling strategies, and how this can be improved. High frequency (hourly) chemical data from four rivers in southern England were subsampled to simulate different sampling strategies for four parameters used for WFD classification: dissolved phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, pH and water temperature. These data sub-sets were then used to calculate the WFD classification for each site. Monthly sampling was less precise than weekly sampling, but the effect on WFD classification depended on the closeness of the range of concentrations to the class boundaries. In some cases, monthly sampling for a year could result in the same water body being assigned to one of 3 or 4 WFD classes with 95% confidence, whereas with weekly sampling this was 1 or 2 classes for the same cases. In the most extreme case, random sampling effects could result in the same water body being assigned to any of the 5 WFD quality classes. The width of the weekly sampled confidence intervals was about 33% that of the monthly for P species and pH, about 50% for dissolved oxygen, and about 67% for water temperature. For water temperature, which is assessed as the 98th percentile in the UK, monthly sampling biases the mean downwards by about 1 °C compared to the true value, due to problems of assessing high percentiles with limited data. Confining sampling to the working week compared to all seven days made little difference, but a modest improvement in precision could be obtained by sampling at the same time of day within a 3 h time window, and this is recommended. For parameters with a strong diel variation, such as dissolved oxygen, the value

  18. Programmes of measures under the water framework directive – a comparative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    direct the authorities’ activities with regard to water management. It concludes that there are major differences in the precision of the measures, the range of legal instruments used, and in the focus on active and direct management of the aquatic environment. The Danish programme seems to facilitate...... the establishment of an adaptive management, whereas the Swedish and Norwegian programmes seem to take a more integrative approach.......The water framework directive requires programmes of measures composed by the Member States, in order to achieve its environmental objectives. This article examines three programmes of measures for river basins in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, with a focus on the differences in how the programmes...

  19. Programmes of measures under the water framework directive – a comparative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    The water framework directive requires programmes of measures composed by the Member States, in order to achieve its environmental objectives. This article examines three programmes of measures for river basins in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, with a focus on the differences in how the programmes...... direct the authorities’ activities with regard to water management. It concludes that there are major differences in the precision of the measures, the range of legal instruments used, and in the focus on active and direct management of the aquatic environment. The Danish programme seems to facilitate...

  20. Systems analysis approach to the design of efficient water pricing policies under the EU water framework directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels, Niels; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Doulgeris, Charalampos

    2013-01-01

    to efficient management of groundwater and surface water given EU WFD ecological flow requirements. Under the first approach, all wholesale water users in a river basin face the same volumetric price for water. This water price does not vary in space or in time, and surface water and groundwater are priced......Economic theory suggests that water pricing can contribute to efficient management of water scarcity. The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) is a major legislative effort to introduce the use of economic instruments to encourage efficient water use and achieve environmental...... management objectives. However, the design and implementation of economic instruments for water management, including water pricing, has emerged as a challenging aspect of WFD implementation. This study demonstrates the use of a systems analysis approach to designing and comparing two economic approaches...

  1. Macrophytes: Limitations of Using Them to Assess Reservoir Status According to the Water Framework Directive

    OpenAIRE

    Alaoui, Khadija Sossey; Galoux, Daniel; Rosillon, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Macrophytes are among the major groups of organisms that the Water Framework Directive (WFD) recommends should be used in assessing the status of natural lakes. The use of macrophytes in reservoir monitoring is still limited and further studies are needed on their inter-calibration and sources of variation. Many status assessment methods based on macrophyte communities have been defined for lakes. Nevertheless, few of them have been tested for reservoirs. The purpose of the study is to hig...

  2. Hydropower and Water Framework Directive. Appendix 2 to 4; Wasserkraftnutzung und Wasserrahmenrichtlinien. Anhang 2 bis 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuneke, Rita; Dumont, Ulrich [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration contains the appendices 2 to 4 to the environmental research plan of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) on ''Hydropower and Water Framework Directive''. Appendix 2 reports on the fundamentals for the design of fish bypass facilities, fish protection and fish migration facilities, minimum outflow in discharge lines, water ecologic evaluation, determination of less generation of hydroelectric power plants. Appendix 3 contains illustrations. Appendix 4 presents an extract from the final report.

  3. Complex governance structures and incoherent policies: Implementing the EU water framework directive in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Charlotta

    2016-12-01

    Contemporary processes of environmental policymaking in general span over several territorial tiers. This also holds for the EU Water Framework Directive system of environmental quality standards (EQS), which are part of a complex multi-level institutional landscape, embracing both EU, national and sub-national level. Recent evaluations show that many EU member states, including Sweden, have not reached the ecological goals for water in 2015. Departing from theories on policy coherence and multi-level governance, this paper therefore analyses Swedish water governance as a case to further our understanding of policy implementation in complex governance structures: how does policy coherence (or the lack thereof) affect policy implementation in complex governance structures? To answer this question, the paper maps out the formal structure of the water governance system, focusing on power directions within the system, analyses policy coherence in Swedish water governance through mapping out policy conflicts between the EQS for water and other goals/regulations and explore how they are handled by national and sub-national water bureaucrats. The study concludes that without clear central guidance, 'good ecological status' for Swedish water will be difficult to achieve since incoherent policies makes policy implementation inefficient due to constant power struggles between different authorities, and since environmental goals are often overridden by economic and other societal goals. Further research is needed in order to explore if similar policy conflicts between water quality and other objectives occur in other EU member states and how bureaucrats handle such conflicts in different institutional settings. This study of the Swedish case indicates that the role of the state as a navigator and rudder-holder is important in order to improve policy implementation in complex governance structures - otherwise; bureaucrats risk being lost in an incoherent archipelago of

  4. Science-policy interfacing in support of the Water Framework Directive implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaes, G; Willems, P; Swartenbroekx, P; Kramer, K; de Lange, W; Kober, K

    2009-01-01

    Many current water-related RTD projects have established operational links with practitioners, which allow the needs of policy makers to be taken into account. However, RTD results are not easily available to water policy implementers and research scientists may lack insight in the needs of policy makers and implementers (i.e. the European Commission and water managers). The SPI-Water project worked out a number of concrete actions to bridge these gaps in communication by developing and implementing a 'science-policy interface', enhancing the use of RTD results in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) implementation. This project is part of a wider EC perspective aiming to bridge the gap between science and policy, specifically with respect to the WFD implementation. As a first action, existing science-policy links are investigated. RTD and LIFE projects that are of direct relevance for the implementation of the WFD are identified and analysed. Secondly, an information system (Harmoni-CA's WISE RTD Web Portal) has been further developed to cater for an efficient and easy to use tool for dissemination as well as retrieval of RTD results. As third action, this science-policy interfacing of WFD related topics are extended to non-EU countries taking into account their specific needs.

  5. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS IN THE LOWER CATCHMENT OF JIU RIVER BASIN, ACCORDING TO THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC)

    OpenAIRE

    ADINA SANDA ŞERBAN

    2011-01-01

    Surface water pollution with heavy metals in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). The Water Framework Directive establishes a single transparent, effective and coherent water policy by defining a strategy to combat pollution by requiring specific action programs.Chemical pollution of surface water presents a threat to the aquatic environment with acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem and losse...

  6. Participation in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Stuart Anthony Lewis; Jacobsen, Brian Højland

    2011-01-01

    Public participation in the form of informing, consulting and actively involving all interested parties is required during the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). This paper discusses progress with implementation of the WFD in Denmark and the measures taken to conform...... to the requirements for public participation. The first aim of the paper is to establish whether enough is being done regarding participation in Denmark, the conclusion being that whilst Denmark is in line with statutory requirements, consultation appears limited whilst evidence of active involvement is lacking...... which could potentially increase the effectiveness of the WFD. Furthermore, the adoption of the project approach would also be one way to satisfy the requirement for active involvement in the Directive. However, some problems exist, relating to time, administrative costs, problems with control...

  7. Sediment and water nutrients and microalgae in a coastal shallow lagoon, Ria Formosa (Portugal): implications for the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Ana; Newton, Alice; Tett, Paul; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2010-01-01

    Coastal shallow lagoons are considered to be highly important systems, which have specific biogeochemical cycles and characteristics. The assessment of sediment-water interfaces is essential to understand nutrient dynamics and to evaluate the vulnerability to eutrophication, especially in regions of restricted water exchange (RRE), such as the Ria Formosa, which have natural conditions for the accumulation of nutrients. Water samples were collected during the years of 2006 and 2007-08 for nutrients, chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen. Sediment samples were also collected for pore water nutrients and microphytobenthic chlorophyll a. Measurements of temperature, salinity and photosynthetic active radiation were also taken. The lagoon salinity is affected by occasional strong rainfall events. From comparison with previous work, a decrease in the nitrogen concentration in the water column can be observed, which may indicate an improvement of the water quality. Pore water nutrient concentrations were significantly larger than in the water column. Sediment-water exchanges are considered to be the most important processes in nutrient dynamics of the lagoon. Benthic microalgal biomass was also large compared with that of the phytoplankton. It represents about 99% of the total microalgal chlorophyll biomass of the system. The lagoon also contains (discontinuous) meadows of intertidal seagrass, but we did not study these. Due to the importance of sediments, the standard monitoring plans required by the Water Framework Directive may fail to track changes in the nutrient conditions and the microalgal responses to them.

  8. Application of the European water framework directive in a Western Mediterranean basin (Málaga, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, F.; Sánchez, D.; Vadillo, I.; Andreo, B.; Martínez, C.; Fernández, L.

    2008-04-01

    The water framework directive (WFD) is applied within the Guadalhorce river basin, a Western Mediterranean basin in the Málaga province (South Spain). Criteria defining different surface and groundwater bodies are described. The basic hydrographic network is constituted of low-mountain and low-altitude Mediterranean mineralized rivers. Heavily modified surface water bodies correspond (1) to areas where dams regulate the main watercourses, (2) to areas downstream of reservoirs, where river flow is reduced, and (3) to the coastal sector of the river where artificial channelling has caused morphological variations. Groundwater bodies are related to carbonate and porous aquifers and, locally, to aquifers influenced by dissolution of evaporites. The main impacts to water bodies are irrigated lands and livestock farming. There are also point sources of pollution, such as wastewater, landfills, golf courses, industrial zones, quarries and petrol stations. In addition, groundwater is frequently pumped for human supply and irrigation. Qualitative status of groundwater bodies was done by chemical analysis of samples from a monitoring network and the quantitative status by examining variations in piezometric levels. Both revealed the existence of water bodies at risk of not meeting the environmental objectives of the WFD. The main indicators of pollution are nitrates related to agricultural activities, and total organic carbon (TOC), PO{4/3-} and NH{4/+} in relation to wastewater.

  9. A Model-Based Prioritisation Exercise for the European Water Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Whitehouse

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A model-based prioritisation exercise has been carried out for the Water Framework Directive (WFD implementation. The approach considers two aspects: the hazard of a certain chemical and its exposure levels, and focuses on aquatic ecosystems, but also takes into account hazards due to secondary poisoning, bioaccumulation through the food chain and potential human health effects. A list provided by EU Member States, Stakeholders and Non-Governmental Organizations comprising 2,034 substances was evaluated according to hazard and exposure criteria. Then 78 substances classified as “of high concern” where analysed and ranked in terms of risk ratio (Predicted Environmental Concentration/Predicted No-Effect Concentration. This exercise has been complemented by a monitoring-based prioritization exercise using data provided by Member States. The proposed approach constitutes the first step in setting the basis for an open modular screening tool that could be used for the next prioritization exercises foreseen by the WFD.

  10. Participation in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Stuart Anthony Lewis; Jacobsen, Brian Højland

    2011-01-01

    Public participation in the form of informing, consulting and actively involving all interested parties is required during the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). This paper discusses progress with implementation of the WFD in Denmark and the measures taken to conform...... to the requirements for public participation. The first aim of the paper is to establish whether enough is being done regarding participation in Denmark, the conclusion being that whilst Denmark is in line with statutory requirements, consultation appears limited whilst evidence of active involvement is lacking....... The paper then presents the Danish AGWAPLAN project which actively involved farmers in selecting measures to reduce diffuse nutrient pollution from agriculture. The second aim of the paper is to establish whether nationwide implementation of the AGWAPLAN concept is worthwhile. AGWAPLAN resulted in outcomes...

  11. On the use of mixture toxicity assessment in REACH and the water framework directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, T.S.; Cedergreen, Nina;

    2009-01-01

      This review seeks to connect the scientific theory of mixture toxicity to its implementation within different regulatory frameworks. The aim is to demonstrate how mixture toxicity assessment can be more thoroughly integrated into the European chemical regulations, REACH and the Water Framework ...

  12. Environmental quality of Italian marine water by means of marine strategy framework directive (MSFD descriptor 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Maggi

    Full Text Available ISPRA, on behalf of the Italian Ministry of Environment, carried out the initial assessment of environmental quality status of the 3 Italian subregions (Mediterranean Sea Region on Descriptor 9. The approach adopted to define the GES started to verify that contaminants in fish and other seafood for human consumption did not exceed levels established by Community legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates. As the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD requires to use health tools to assess the environment, Italy decided to adopt a statistical range of acceptance of thresholds identified by national (D.Lgs. 152/2006 concerning water quality required for mussel farms and international legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates, which allowed to use the health results and to employ them for the assessment of environmental quality. Italy proposed that Good Environmental Status (GES is achieved when concentrations are lower than statistical range of acceptance, estimated on samples of fish and fishery products coming from only national waters. GIS-based approach a to perform different integration levels for station, cell's grid and years, was used; the elaborations allowed to judge the environmental quality good.

  13. The European Water Framework Directive: How Ecological Assumptions Frame Technical and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Steyaert

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Water Framework Directive (WFD is built upon significant cognitive developments in the field of ecological science but also encourages active involvement of all interested parties in its implementation. The coexistence in the same policy text of both substantive and procedural approaches to policy development stimulated this research as did our concerns about the implications of substantive ecological visions within the WFD policy for promoting, or not, social learning processes through participatory designs. We have used a qualitative analysis of the WFD text which shows the ecological dimension of the WFD dedicates its quasi-exclusive attention to a particular current of thought in ecosystems science focusing on ecosystems status and stability and considering human activities as disturbance factors. This particular worldview is juxtaposed within the WFD with a more utilitarian one that gives rise to many policy exemptions without changing the general underlying ecological model. We discuss these policy statements in the light of the tension between substantive and procedural policy developments. We argue that the dominant substantive approach of the WFD, comprising particular ecological assumptions built upon "compositionalism," seems to be contradictory with its espoused intention of involving the public. We discuss that current of thought in regard to more functionalist thinking and adaptive management, which offers greater opportunities for social learning, i.e., place a set of interdependent stakeholders in an intersubjective position in which they operate a "social construction" of water problems through the co-production of knowledge.

  14. Modelling tools to support the harmonization of Water Framework Directive and Common Agricultural Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tediosi, A.; Bulgheroni, C.; Sali, G.; Facchi, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2009-04-01

    After a few years from the delivery of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) the need to link agriculture and WFD has emerged as one of the highest priorities; therefore, it is important to discuss on how the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) can contribute to the achievements of the WFD objectives. The recent CAP reform - known as Mid Term Review (MTR) or Fischler Reform - has increased the opportunities, offering to farmers increased support to address some environmental issues. The central novelty coming from the MTR is the introduction of a farm single payment which aims to the Decoupling of EU Agricultural Support from production. Other MTR important topics deal with the Modulation of the payments, the Cross-Compliance and the strengthening of the Rural Development policy. All these new elements will affect the farmers' behaviour, steering their productive choices for the future, which, in turn, will have consequences on the water demand for irrigation. Indeed, from the water quantity viewpoint, agriculture is a large consumer and improving water use efficiency is one of the main issues at stake, following the increasing impacts of water scarcity and droughts across Europe in a context of climate change. According to a recent survey of the European Commission the saving potential in the agricultural sector is 43% of present abstraction and 95% of it is concentrated in southern europe. Many models have been developed to forecast the farmers' behaviour as a consequence of agricultural policies, both at sector and regional level; all of them are founded on Mathematical Programming techniques and many of them use the Positive approach, which better fits the territorial dimension. A large body of literature also exists focusing on the assessment of irrigation water requirements. The examples of conjunctive modelling of the two aspects are however much more limited. The work presented has got some innovative aspects: not only does it couple an economical model

  15. The Impact of the Water Framework Directive on Diffuse Pollution Control: the Case of Ditch Network Maintenance in Finnish Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappila, Minna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Water Framework Directive sets the aim to achieve and maintain the good status of surface and ground water by 2015. In general the water quality has improved in Finland during the last centuries but especially diffuse pollution is still a problem. Ditch network maintenance is a typical example of a source of diffuse pollution where cumulative effects of several projects are the main cause of water pollution. This article examines Finnish regulation concerning ditch network maintenance and evaluates how well it meets the aim of achieving and maintaining the good quality of surface waters. The article highlights that while Finnish legislation seems to work relatively well for individual projects, there are flaws in the law and in practice that do not enable authorities to take cumulative effects properly into account. The results suggest that the Water Framework Directive has not yet been quite comprehensively implemented into Finnish legislation.

  16. Towards the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Mediterranean transitional waters: the use of macroinvertebrates as biological quality elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cabana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade the Water Framework Directive (WFD has driven scientific community endeavours towards the development of assessment tools to determine the Ecological Quality Status (EQS for all surface waters, including transitional waters (TWs. Macroinvertebrates being used as Biological Quality Elements encouraged the development of distinct multimetric and multivariate indices, initially based on taxonomic approaches. Those indices were mostly developed for the marine environment and applied extensively on TWs. The main discrepancies in the ecological quality status assessment arise on TWs, partially due to the difficulty in discriminating the effects of natural stress from anthropogenic impact. As a response, indices following functional approaches are being developed and applied in assessing the EQS in these environments. Next, the validation and intercalibration of the metrics as well as the settlement of reference conditions are additional sources of variability inherent to any assessment. This paper aims at briefly presenting the different steps needed for the implementation of WFD on Mediterranean TWs. It highlights existing difficulties and possible research lines to be explored in order to reduce sources of variability and better assess the status of such water bodies.

  17. A methodology for defining homogeneous water bodies in estuaries Application to the transitional systems of the EU Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J. G.; Nobre, A. M.; Simas, T. C.; Silva, M. C.; Newton, A.; Bricker, S. B.; Wolff, W. J.; Stacey, P. E.; Sequeira, A.

    2006-02-01

    A methodology is developed and tested for division of estuarine and coastal systems into water bodies for monitoring and management purposes. This division is often implicit in the choice of sampling stations and in pollution abatement measures applied to different locations - it is now an explicit requirement of European Union Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive) and recommended by United States Agencies such as EPA and NOAA. The approach considers both natural characteristics and the human dimension, by means of a stepwise methodology, which considers, on the one hand, morphology and salinity distribution, and, on the other, appropriate indicators of pressure and state. In the present application, nitrogen and phosphorus loading was used as the pressure component and chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen as indicators of state. The criteria for system division were defined based on (1) an adimensional shape factor and salinity classes for the natural component; and (2) a normalised pressure index and (ASSETS) eutrophication symptom classes for the human dimension. Water quality databases and GIS were used to develop spatial distributions for the various components, and the results were aggregated into a final water body division, using tidal excursion as a "common sense" test. The methodology was applied to three well-studied systems in Portugal, a tubular estuary (Mondego), a wide lagunal estuary (Sado) and a coastal barrier island system (Ria Formosa). Although a final definition of water bodies will usually be a policy decision, this type of approach for the division of coastal systems into management units scientifically informs the decision-making process.

  18. The European Water Framework Directive: Challenges For A New Type of Social and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl-Wostl, C.

    Water resources managment is facing increasing uncertainties in all areas. Socio- economic boundary conditions change quickly and require more flexible management strategies. Climate change, for example results in an increase in uncertainties, in par- ticular extreme events. Given the fact that current management practices deal with extreme events by designing the technical systems to manage the most extreme of all cases (e.g. higher dams for the protection against extreme floods, larger water reser- voirs for droughts and to meet daily peak demand) a serious problem is posed for long-term planning and risk management. Engineering planning has perceived the hu- man dimension as exogenous boundary conditions. Legislation focused largely on the environmental and technological dimensions that set limits and prescribe new tech- nologies without taking the importance of institutional change into account. However, technology is only the "hardware" and it is becoming increasingly obvious that the "software", the social dimension, has to become part of planning and management processes. Hence, the inclusion of the human dimension into integrated models and processes will be valuable in supporting the introduction of new elements into plan- ning processes in water resources management. With the European Water Framework Directive environmental policy enters a new era. The traditional approach to solving isolated environmental problems with technological fixes and end-of-pipe solutions has started to shift towards a more thoughtful attitude which involves the development of integrated approaches to problem solving. The WFD introduces the river basin as the management unit, thus following the experience of some European countries (e.g. France) and the example of the management of some international rivers (e.g. the Rhine). Overall the WFD represents a general shift towards a polycentric understand- ing of policy making that requires the involvement of stakeholders as active

  19. The role of hydrological and water quality models in the application of the ecosystem services framework for the EU Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallouin, Thibault; Bruen, Michael; Feeley, Hugh B.; Christie, Michael; Bullock, Craig; Kelly, Fiona; Kelly-Quinn, Mary

    2017-04-01

    The hydrological cycle is intimately linked with environmental processes that are essential for human welfare in many regards including, among others, the provision of safe water from surface and subsurface waterbodies, rain-fed agricultural production, or the provision of aquatic-sourced food. As well as being a receiver of these natural benefits, the human population is also a manager of the water and other natural resources and, as such, can affect their future sustainable provision. With global population growth and climate change, both the dependence of the human population on water resources and the threat they pose to these resources are likely to intensify so that the sustainability of the coupled natural and human system is threatened. In the European Union, the Water Framework Directive is driving policy and encouraging member states to manage their water resources wisely in order to maintain or restore ecological quality. To this end, the ecosystem services framework can be a useful tool to link the requirements in terms of ecological status into more tangible descriptors, that is the ecosystem services. In the ESManage Project, existing environmental system models such as hydrological models and water quality models are used as the basis to quantify the provision of many hydrological and aquatic ecosystem services by constructing indicators for the ecosystem services from the modelled environmental variables. By allowing different management options and policies to be compared, these models can be a valuable source of information for policy makers when they are used for climate and land use scenario analyses. Not all hydrological models developed for flood forecasting are suitable for this application and inappropriate models can lead to questionable conclusions. This paper demonstrates the readily available capabilities of a specially developed catchment hydrological model coupled with a water quality model to quantify a wide range of biophysically

  20. Prospects for Learning in River Management: Exploring the Initial Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in a Swedish River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundmark, Carina; Jonsson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    This case study explores the initial implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the Lule River basin, Sweden, examining how and to what extent administrative procedures enable learning through dialogue and stakeholder collaboration. Theorising on adaptive co-management and social learning is used to structure what is to be learnt,…

  1. Reflections On The Feasibility and Implications of The Eu Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauwens, W.; Goethals, P. L. M.

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) raises a lot of challenges: the complexity of the text and the diversity of possible solutions to the problems, the timetable for implementation, the incomplete technical and scientific basis, the limitation of human and financial resources,... The paper addresses a number of the key challenges from a technical-scientific, socio-economic and ethical point of view. From a technical-scientific point of view, the major problems are related to the def- inition of the reference conditions and to the simulation tools that will be needed to predict the impact of the River Basin Management Plans. The proper definition of the system of objectives (the reference conditions and the al- lowed deviation from those conditions) throughout the EU has to be considered as one of the key issues of the WFD and remains to be done. Extensive research is actually carried out, both with respect to the conceptual considerations as with respect to the definition of the ecological status. The emphasis that the 5th Research Framework Programme put on the development of integrated simulation models illustrates the need for a further development of such tools. While many models exist for dealing with sub-components of the system (flows, point pollution sources, diffuse pollution, ecosystem models,...) the integration and the adequate model structure and process representation remain major scientific issues. Especially the link between the physico-chemistry and the ecosystem modelling can still be considered to be in its infancy. More research is also needed on the issues of the calibration and the uncertainty of such complex integrated models. It should also be mentioned that the actual - and future - quality monitoring programs in most countries are by far insufficient for the calibration of complex, dynamic quality models. The objective of the WFD is to obtain, in all water bodies in the EU, an ecological quality that is close to the reference or pristine

  2. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS IN THE LOWER CATCHMENT OF JIU RIVER BASIN, ACCORDING TO THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA SANDA ŞERBAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface water pollution with heavy metals in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC. The Water Framework Directive establishes a single transparent, effective and coherent water policy by defining a strategy to combat pollution by requiring specific action programs.Chemical pollution of surface water presents a threat to the aquatic environment with acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem and losses of habitats and biodiversity, as well as a threat to human health (art.1 from Directive 2008/105/EC regarding the environmental quality standards for water policy.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical status for surface water bodies in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin. The assessment was made taking into account the water impact of four heavy metals: cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, mercury (Hg and lead (Pb.

  3. Wetlands and the Water Framework Directive : key challenges for achieving good ecological status at the Anglesey and LLyn Fens SACs

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Gareth; Whiteman, Mark; Jones, Peter; Breen, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires assessment of water quality and quantity in groundwater bodies that are hydrologically linked to designated wetlands. The Anglesey and Llŷn Fens face chemical (e.g. nitrate) and quantitative (e.g. historic drainage) groundwater pressures. Hydrogeologists and ecologists have successfully worked together during the WFD classification process and impacts from diffuse nutrients have resulted in ‘poor’ chemical status for the surrounding Carboniferous ...

  4. Transforming European Water Governance? Participation and River Basin Management under the EU Water Framework Directive in 13 Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas W. Jager

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU Water Framework Directive (WFD requires EU member states to produce and implement river basin management plans, which are to be designed and updated via participatory processes that inform, consult with, and actively involve all interested stakeholders. The assumption of the European Commission is that stakeholder participation, and institutional adaptation and procedural innovation to facilitate it, are essential to the effectiveness of river basin planning and, ultimately, the environmental impact of the Directive. We analyzed official documents and the WFD literature to compare implementation of the Directive in EU member states in the initial WFD planning phase (2000–2009. Examining the development of participatory approaches to river basin management planning, we consider the extent of transformation in EU water governance over the period. Employing a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach, we map the implementation “trajectories” of 13 member states, and then provide a detailed examination of shifts in river basin planning and participation in four member states (Germany, Sweden, Poland and France to illustrate the diversity of institutional approaches observed. We identify a general tendency towards increased, yet circumscribed, stakeholder participation in river basin management in the member states examined, alongside clear continuities in terms of their respective pre-WFD institutional and procedural arrangements. Overall, the WFD has driven a highly uneven shift to river basin-level planning among the member states, and instigated a range of efforts to institutionalize stakeholder involvement—often through the establishment of advisory groups to bring organized stakeholders into the planning process.

  5. An organisational innovation perspective on change in water and wastewater systems – the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of how the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is stimulating change in water and wastewater management. The paper aims to provide an organisational innovation contribution towards understanding the processes by which policy and legislation stimulate change in

  6. Ecological Status of Rivers and Streams in Saxony (Germany According to the Water Framework Directive and Prospects of Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Müller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Federal State of Saxony (Germany transposed the EU Water Framework Directive into state law, identifying 617 surface water bodies (rivers and streams for implementation of the water framework directive (WFD. Their ecological status was classified by biological quality elements (macrophytes and phytobenthos, benthic invertebrates and fish, and in large rivers, phytoplankton and specific synthetic and non-synthetic pollutants. Hydromorphological and physico-chemical quality elements were used to identify significant anthropogenic pressures, which surface water bodies are susceptible to, and to assess the effect of these pressures on the status of surface water bodies. In 2009, the data for classification of the ecological status and the main pressures and impacts on water bodies were published in the river basin management plans (RBMP of the Elbe and Oder rivers. To that date, only 23 (4% streams achieved an ecological status of “good”, while the rest failed to achieve the environmental objective. The two main reasons for the failure were significant alterations to the stream morphology (81% of all streams and nutrient enrichment (62% caused by point (industrial and municipal waste water treatment plants and non-point (surface run-off from arable fields, discharges from urban drainages and decentralized waste water treatment plants sources. It was anticipated that a further 55 streams would achieve the environmental objective by 2015, but the remaining 539 need extended deadlines.

  7. Combustion plants and the Water Framework Directive. Methodology for consequence assessment; Vaermeanlaeggningar och Vattendirektivet. Metodik foer konsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossander, Annelie; Andersson, Jonas; Axby, Fredrik; Schultz, Emma; Persson, Maarten; Svaerd, Sara [Carl Bro AB, Kristianstad (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The project can be regarded as a natural continuation to the Vaermeforsk project M4-324 by Axby and Hansson: 'Practical consequences of the Water Framework Directive implementation for combustion plants - New water cleaning technologies and methods for improvement of effluent discharges'. The six different combustion plants studied in this project have been chosen mainly on the basis of their varying size, fuel, cleaning equipment and recipient. The significance of water as a finite resource in the global ecosystems has been more pronounced recently. In the light of the growing stresses on the water resources the European Parliament accepted the Water Framework Directive in year 2000. The main purpose with the directive is to achieve and preserve a 'good water status', among other things through a long term protection of available water resources. Enclosure X of the Framework Directive contains a list of chemical substances where 33 'prioritized substances' and 'prioritized, dangerous substances' are specified. The objective of the list is to reduce the discharges of prioritized substances, and to fully eliminate the prioritized, dangerous substances both from industry and other contexts. Twelve of the substances mentioned on the prioritized list can or could be found in the water coming out from combustion plants. A predominant part of these substances are to be totally phased out in the foreseeable future according to the Water Directive. This can result in restrictions in the permissions to let out water from combustion plants to the surroundings. The substances concerned are the heavy metals lead, cadmium, mercury and nickel, both as pure substances and included in compounds, as well as a number of different polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The intent of the project has been to use an accepted computational model to create an analytic method (an ecotoxicological risk assessment), with the aim to meet the new requirements

  8. Supporting the European Water Framework Directive by enhancing the credibility of modelling studies: the HarmoniQuA Modelling Support Tool (MoST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Old, G.H.; Packman, J.C.; Scholten, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to illustrate how the HarmoniQuA modelling Support Tool (MoST) supports modelling for the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). More specifically the objectives are to: … Present an overview of the European Water Framework Directive; … Identify where computer models are likely to be us

  9. Using high-frequency water quality data to assess sampling strategies for the EU Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeffington, R. A.; Halliday, S. J.; Wade, A. J.; Bowes, M. J.; Loewenthal, M.

    2015-05-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that the ecological and chemical status of water bodies in Europe should be assessed, and action taken where possible to ensure that at least "good" quality is attained in each case by 2015. This paper is concerned with the accuracy and precision with which chemical status in rivers can be measured given certain sampling strategies, and how this can be improved. High-frequency (hourly) chemical data from four rivers in southern England were subsampled to simulate different sampling strategies for four parameters used for WFD classification: dissolved phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, pH and water temperature. These data sub-sets were then used to calculate the WFD classification for each site. Monthly sampling was less precise than weekly sampling, but the effect on WFD classification depended on the closeness of the range of concentrations to the class boundaries. In some cases, monthly sampling for a year could result in the same water body being assigned to three or four of the WFD classes with 95% confidence, due to random sampling effects, whereas with weekly sampling this was one or two classes for the same cases. In the most extreme case, the same water body could have been assigned to any of the five WFD quality classes. Weekly sampling considerably reduces the uncertainties compared to monthly sampling. The width of the weekly sampled confidence intervals was about 33% that of the monthly for P species and pH, about 50% for dissolved oxygen, and about 67% for water temperature. For water temperature, which is assessed as the 98th percentile in the UK, monthly sampling biases the mean downwards by about 1 °C compared to the true value, due to problems of assessing high percentiles with limited data. Low-frequency measurements will generally be unsuitable for assessing standards expressed as high percentiles. Confining sampling to the working week compared to all 7 days made little difference, but a modest

  10. Modelling Common Agricultural Policy-Water Framework Directive interactions and cost-effectiveness of measures to reduce nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Russell, Graham; Topp, Cairistiona; Louhichi, Kamel; Moran, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Selecting cost-effective measures to regulate agricultural water pollution to conform to the Water Framework Directive presents multiple challenges. A bio-economic modelling approach is presented that has been used to explore the water quality and economic effects of the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy Reform and to assess the cost-effectiveness of input quotas and emission standards against nitrate leaching, in a representative case study catchment in Scotland. The approach combines a biophysical model (NDICEA) with a mathematical programming model (FSSIM-MP). The results indicate only small changes due to the Reform, with the main changes in farmers' decision making and the associated economic and water quality indicators depending on crop price changes, and suggest the use of target fertilisation in relation to crop and soil requirements, as opposed to measures targeting farm total or average nitrogen use.

  11. A new methodology based on littoral community cartography dominated by macroalgae for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Enric; Torras, Xavier; Pinedo, Susana; García, María; Mangialajo, Luisa; de Torres, Mariona

    2007-01-01

    Macroalgae is a biological key element for the assessment of the ecological status in coastal waters in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/EC). Here we propose a methodology for monitoring water quality based on the cartography of littoral and upper-sublittoral rocky-shore communities (CARLIT, in short). With the use of spatial databases, GIS, and available information about the value of rocky-shore communities as indicators of water quality, it is possible to obtain an environmental quality index representative of the ecological status of rocky coasts. This index, which completely fulfils the requirements of the WFD, is expressed as a ratio between the observed values in the sector of shore that is being assessed and the expected value in a reference condition zone with the same substrate and coastal morphology (Ecological Quality Ratio, EQR). The application of this index to the coast of Catalonia (North-Western Mediterranean) is presented.

  12. Copper and zinc water quality standards under the EU Water Framework Directive: the use of a tiered approach to estimate the levels of failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, S D W; Merrington, G; Sturdy, L; Delbeke, K; van Assche, F

    2008-09-15

    Environmental quality standards are an important tool for assessing the chemical quality of water bodies under the Water Framework Directive. However, there must be confidence in assessments of any failure to avoid disproportionate investment in unnecessary risk reduction. Metals present a number of unique challenges for environmental regulators in that they are naturally occurring and their ecotoxicology is driven, in part, by the physico-chemical conditions of the water body in which they are present. This paper describes the use of a tiered approach that could be adopted to assess compliance with any future environmental quality standards for metals under the Water Framework Directive. Through this approach, the use of background concentrations is considered and also bioavailability via the use of biotic ligand models. This assessment is based on an analysis of routine Environment Agency chemical monitoring data combined with biological indices to support results of the approach. Using copper and zinc as examples, it is shown that it is important to take account of background concentrations and the bioavailability of metals, otherwise the risk of impact from metals may be significantly overestimated. The approach presented here provides a methodology by which regulators and the regulated community may implement surface water standards for metals under the Water Framework Directive.

  13. Is there a need for a more explicit accounting of invasive alien species under the Water Framework Directive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Vandekerkhove

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Through ratification of the Water Framework Directive (WFD, EU Member States committed themselves to a pressure-based assessment ofthe ecological status of their water bodies. Invasive alien species (IAS constitute a major pressure in many aquatic ecosystems, yet are notexplicitly accounted for by the majority of WFD assessment methods. Most Member States argue that no explicit assessment of IAS isrequired, assuming that significant IAS pressures will affect the WFD biological quality elements (BQEs, and be detected by generic WFDstatus assessments. We tested this assumption for a selection of country-by-surface-water category combinations, covering nearly 40,000water bodies. For each of the combinations, the pressure by high-impact IAS is higher in water bodies with ecological status varying from bad to moderate than in water bodies in good or high ecological status. Most high-impact IAS show strong associations with low status class categories. Of the 17 most frequently occurring high-impact IAS, only Mustela vison (Schreber, 1777 and Potamopyrgus antipodarum(Gray, 1853 are disproportionately frequent in high status water bodies. The sensitivity of WFD methods varies across BQEs, withmacrophyte-based methods showing a consistently high sensitivity to IAS pressures. However, significant pressures are observed in anumber of high status water bodies. This points to a need for further optimization of existing methods so that they address the full range of pressures exerted by IAS.

  14. Glophymed: an index to establish the ecological status for the Water Framework Directive based on phytoplankton in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, I; Pachés, M; Martínez-Guijarro, R; Ferrer, J

    2013-10-15

    Phytoplankton and its attributes (biomass, abundance, composition, and frequency and intensity of phytoplankton blooms) are essential to establish the ecological status in the Water Frame Directive. The aim of this study is to develop an index "Glophymed" based on all phytoplankton attributes for coastal water bodies according to the directive requirements. It is also developed an anthropogenic pressure index that takes into account population density, tourism, urbanization, industry, agriculture, fisheries and maritime transport for Comunitat Valenciana (Spain). Both indexes (Glophymed and human pressure index) based on a multisampling dataset collected monthly during several years, show a significant statistical correlation (r2 0.75 α<0.01) for typology IIA and (r2 0.93 α<0.01) for typology III-W. The relation between these indexes provides suitable information about the integrated management plans and protection measures of water resources since the Glophymed index is very sensitive to human pressures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigative monitoring within the European Water Framework Directive: a coastal blast furnace slag disposal, as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Angel; Tueros, Itziar; Belzunce, Ma Jesús; Galparsoro, Ibon; Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Revilla, Marta; Solaun, Oihana; Valencia, Victoriano

    2008-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection of estuarine and coastal waters, with the most important objective being to achieve 'good ecological status' for all waters, by 2015. Hence, Member States are establishing programmes for the monitoring of water quality status, through the assessment of ecological and chemical elements. These monitoring programmes can be of three types: surveillance monitoring; operational monitoring (both undertaken on a routine basis); and investigative monitoring (carried out where the reason of any exceedance for ecological and chemical status is unknown). Until now, nothing has been developed in relation to investigative monitoring and no clear guidance exists for this type of monitoring, as it must be tackled on a 'case-by-case' basis. Consequently, the present study uses slag disposal from a blast furnace, into a coastal area, as a case-study in the implementation of investigative monitoring, according to the WFD. In order to investigate the potential threat of such slags, this contribution includes: a geophysical study, to determine the extent of the disposal area; sediment analysis; a chemical metal analysis; and an ecotoxicological study (including a Microtox test and an amphipod bioassay). The results show that metal concentrations are several times above the background concentration. However, only one of the stations showed toxicity after acute toxicological tests, with the benthic communities being in a good status. The approaches used here show that contaminants are not bioavailable and that no management actions are required with the slags.

  16. Water Framework Directive catchment planning: a case study apportioning loads and assessing environmental benefits of programme of measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Bob; Kelly, Sarah; Green, Hannah; Squibbs, Graham; Mitchell, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Complying with proposed Water Framework Directive (WFD) water quality standards for 'good ecological status' in England and Wales potentially requires a range of Programmes of Measures (PoMs) to control point and diffuse sources of pollution. There is an urgent need to define the benefits and costs of a range of potential PoMs. Water quality modelling can be used to understand where the greatest impact in a catchment can be achieved through 'end of pipe' and diffuse source reductions. This information can be used to guide cost-effective investment by private water companies and those with responsibilities for agricultural, industrial and urban diffuse inputs. In the UK, river water quality modelling with the Environment Agency SIMCAT model is regarded as the best current approach to support decision making for river water quality management and planning. The paper describes how a SIMCAT model has been used to conduct a trial WFD integrated catchment planning study for the River Ribble catchment in the North West of England. The model has been used to assess over 80 catchment planning scenarios. The results are being used support a national assessment of the cost-effectiveness of proposed PoMs.

  17. The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIÓN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcés river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Coruña (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of

  18. Assessing the ecological status in the context of the European Water Framework Directive: where do we go now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyjol, Yorick; Argillier, Christine; Bonne, Wendy; Borja, Angel; Buijse, Anthonie D; Cardoso, Ana Cristina; Daufresne, Martin; Kernan, Martin; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Poikane, Sandra; Prat, Narcís; Solheim, Anne-Lyche; Stroffek, Stéphane; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Villeneuve, Bertrand; van de Bund, Wouter

    2014-11-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is now well established as the key management imperative in river basins across Europe. However, there remain significant concerns with the way WFD is implemented and there is now a need for water managers and scientists to communicate better in order to find solutions to these concerns. To address this, a Science-Policy Interface (SPI) activity was launched in 2010 led by Directorate-General for Research and Innovation and Onema (the French national agency for water and aquatic ecosystems), which provided an interactive forum to connect scientists and WFD end-users. One major aim of the SPI activity was to establish a list of the most crucial research and development needs for enhancing WFD implementation. This paper synthesises the recommendations from this event highlighting 10 priority issues relating to ecological status. For lakes, temporary streams and transitional and coastal waters, WFD implementation still suffers from a lack of WFD-compliant bioassessment methods. For rivers, special attention is required to assess the ecological impacts of hydromorphological alterations on biological communities, notably those affecting river continuity and riparian covering. Spatial extrapolation tools are needed in order to evaluate ecological status for water bodies for which no data are available. The need for more functional bioassessment tools as complements to usual WFD-compliant tools, and to connect clearly good ecological state, biodiversity and ecosystem services when implementing WFD were also identified as crucial issues.

  19. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, I.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  20. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Heinz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it

  1. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it

  2. Participation in the water framework directive in the UK and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Stuart Anthony Lewis; Dubgaard, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of soil and water resources due to food and fiber production has been a concern for centuries in all societies on this planet. While some geographical regions of the world have experienced higher rates of degradation than others due to topography, rainfall, and level of technological ...... of food and fiber. This book presents and discusses the concerns and strategies being put into place in regards to soil and water conservation on a global level....

  3. Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Papadopoulou; Stavroula Tsitsifli; Vasilis Kanakoudis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR) should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing ...

  4. Participation in the water framework directive in the UK and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Stuart Anthony Lewis; Dubgaard, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of soil and water resources due to food and fiber production has been a concern for centuries in all societies on this planet. While some geographical regions of the world have experienced higher rates of degradation than others due to topography, rainfall, and level of technological...

  5. Recent Trends in Monitoring of European Water Framework Directive Priority Substances Using Micro-Sensors: A 2007–2009 Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses from a critical perspective the development of new sensors for the measurement of priority pollutants targeted in the E.U. Water Framework Directive. Significant advances are reported in the paper and their advantages and limitations are also discussed. Future perspectives in this area are also pointed out in the conclusions. This review covers publications appeared since December 2006 (the publication date of the Swift report. Among priority substances, sensors for monitoring the four WFD metals represent 81% of published papers. None of analyzed publications present a micro-sensor totally validated in laboratory, ready for tests under real conditions in the field. The researches are mainly focused on the sensing part of the micro-sensors. Nevertheless, the main factor limiting micro-sensor applications in the environment is the ruggedness of the receptor towards environmental conditions. This point constitutes the first technological obstacle to be overcome for any long-term field tests.

  6. Implementing the water framework directive: contract design and the cost of measures to reduce nitrogen pollution from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Fabio; Gallerani, Vittorio; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide

    2007-10-01

    The performance of different policy design strategies is a key issue in evaluating programmes for water quality improvement under the Water Framework Directive (60/2000). This issue is emphasised by information asymmetries between regulator and agents. Using an economic model under asymmetric information, the aim of this paper is to compare the cost-effectiveness of selected methods of designing payments to farmers in order to reduce nitrogen pollution in agriculture. A principal-agent model is used, based on profit functions generated through farm-level linear programming. This allows a comparison of flat rate payments and a menu of contracts developed through mechanism design. The model is tested in an area of Emilia Romagna (Italy) in two policy contexts: Agenda 2000 and the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform. The results show that different policy design options lead to differences in policy costs as great as 200-400%, with clear advantages for the menu of contracts. However, different policy scenarios may strongly affect such differences. Hence, the paper calls for greater attention to the interplay between CAP scenarios and water quality measures.

  7. Implementing the Water Framework Directive: Contract Design and the Cost of Measures to Reduce Nitrogen Pollution from Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Fabio; Gallerani, Vittorio; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide

    2007-10-01

    The performance of different policy design strategies is a key issue in evaluating programmes for water quality improvement under the Water Framework Directive (60/2000). This issue is emphasised by information asymmetries between regulator and agents. Using an economic model under asymmetric information, the aim of this paper is to compare the cost-effectiveness of selected methods of designing payments to farmers in order to reduce nitrogen pollution in agriculture. A principal-agent model is used, based on profit functions generated through farm-level linear programming. This allows a comparison of flat rate payments and a menu of contracts developed through mechanism design. The model is tested in an area of Emilia Romagna (Italy) in two policy contexts: Agenda 2000 and the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform. The results show that different policy design options lead to differences in policy costs as great as 200-400%, with clear advantages for the menu of contracts. However, different policy scenarios may strongly affect such differences. Hence, the paper calls for greater attention to the interplay between CAP scenarios and water quality measures.

  8. The European Water Framework Directive beyond 2010: let actions speak louder than words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brils, Jos; Quevauviller, Philippe; Slob, Adriaan; Blind, Michiel; Davy, Thierry; Carere, Mario; Amorsi, Natacha; Brack, Werner; Borchers, Ulrich; Thompson, Clive; Villessot, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    The first generation of WFD River Basin Management Plans is now available. This is a formidable achievement and a great step towards addressing Europe's deteriorated river systems. However, plans are only words: only the actual implementation of the selected measures will result in achievement of good ecological and chemical status. The WFD Lille 2010 Conference pointed out that a lot of new, but so far unused scientific knowledge is available to improve the effectiveness of selected measures or to inspire the introduction of complementary measures. Furthermore, the complexity in terms of the functioning of the water system, its interaction with the socio-economic system and the uncertain consequences of climate change, urges a 'learning-by-doing' approach. This approach should be applied in well-designed, -coordinated and -monitored learning catchments.

  9. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework Directive: Recommendations for more efficient assessment and management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Werner; Dulio, Valeria; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Allan, Ian; Altenburger, Rolf; Brinkmann, Markus; Bunke, Dirk; Burgess, Robert M; Cousins, Ian; Escher, Beate I; Hernández, Félix J; Hewitt, L Mark; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Klauer, Bernd; Lindim, Claudia; Herráez, David López; Miège, Cécil; Munthe, John; O'Toole, Simon; Posthuma, Leo; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfer, Ralf B; Sengl, Manfred; Smedes, Foppe; van de Meent, Dik; van den Brink, Paul J; van Gils, Jos; van Wezel, Annemarie P; Vethaak, A Dick; Vermeirssen, Etienne; von der Ohe, Peter C; Vrana, Branislav

    2017-01-15

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of European freshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has faced some challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the European monitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science and suggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensive prioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters. The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integrated strategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approaches to advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic "chemical status" assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historical burdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessment of contamination. Solution-oriented management should apply a tiered approach in investigative monitoring to identify toxicity drivers, strengthen consistent legislative frameworks and apply solutions-oriented approaches that explore risk reduction scenarios before and along with risk assessment.

  10. A stochastic dynamic model to assess land use change scenarios on the ecological status of fluvial water bodies under the Water Framework Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Samantha Jane, E-mail: shughes@utad.pt [Fluvial Ecology Laboratory, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Cabral, João Alexandre, E-mail: jcabral@utad.pt [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Bastos, Rita, E-mail: ritabastos@utad.pt [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Cortes, Rui, E-mail: rcortes@utad.pt [Fluvial Ecology Laboratory, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Vicente, Joana, E-mail: jsvicente@fc.up.pt [Centro de Investigacão em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos (CIBIO), Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Eitelberg, David, E-mail: d.a.eitelberg@vu.nl [Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yu, Huirong, E-mail: h.yu@vu.nl [Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuanmingyuan W. Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

    2016-09-15

    This method development paper outlines an integrative stochastic dynamic methodology (StDM) framework to anticipate land use (LU) change effects on the ecological status of monitored and non-monitored lotic surface waters under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Tested in the Alto Minho River Basin District in North West Portugal, the model is an innovative step towards developing a decision-making and planning tool to assess the influence impacts such as LU change and climate change on these complex systems. Comprising a series of sequential steps, a Generalized Linear Model based, competing model Multi Model Inference (MMI) approach was used for parameter estimation to identify principal land use types (distal factors) driving change in biological and physicochemical support elements (proximal factors) in monitored water bodies. The framework integrated MMI constants and coefficients of selected LU categories in the StDM simulations and spatial projections to simulate the ecological status of monitored and non-monitored lotic waterbodies in the test area under 2 scenarios of (1) LU intensification and (2) LU extensification. A total of 100 simulations were run for a 50 year period for each scenario. Spatially dynamic projections of WFD metrics were obtained, taking into account the occurrence of stochastic wildfire events which typically occur in the study region and are exacerbated by LU change. A marked projected decline to “Moderate” ecological status for most waterbodies was detected under intensification but little change under extensification; only a few waterbodies fell to “moderate” status. The latter scenario describes the actual regional socio-economic situation of agricultural abandonment due to rural poverty, partly explaining the projected lack of change in ecological status. Based on the WFD “one out all out” criterion, projected downward shifts in ecological status were due to physicochemical support elements, namely increased

  11. EU Water Framework Directive and Stockholm Convention: can we reach the targets for priority substances and persistent organic pollutants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerhacker, Maria

    2009-08-01

    Water is a renewable resource and acceptable quality is important for human health, ecological and economic reasons, but human activity can cause great damage to the natural aquatic environment. Managing the water cycle in a sustainable way is the key to protect natural resources and human health. On a global level, the microbiological contamination of water sources is a major problem in connection with poverty and the United Nations Millennium Development Declaration is an important initiative to handle this problem. In terms of environmental health, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) circulate globally; as they travel long distances, they are found in remote areas far from their original source of application and can cause damage wherever they move to. On a global scale, United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) issued the Stockholm Convention to reduce POPs; in the European Union (EU), one intention of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) is to reach the good chemical status of waters; beside these regulations, there are other directives in support of these goals. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether the Stockholm Convention and the WFD allows meeting the targets of protection of human and environmental health, which are established in the different directives and how could we approach the targets. The aims and scopes of different directives are compiled and compared with the actual quality of water, different approaches of standard settings are compared and potential treatment options are discussed. Under the Stockholm Convention on POPs, which came into force in May 2004, governments are required to develop a National Implementation Plan (NIP) setting out how they will address their obligations under the convention and how they will take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment by the use of best available techniques (BAT) and application of best environmental practices (BEP). On a European level, the WFD has been in

  12. Invertebrate distribution patterns and river typology for the implementation of the water framework directive in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadet C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, Europe’s Water Framework Directive provided compelling reasons for developing tools for the biological assessment of freshwater ecosystem health in member States. Yet, the lack of published study for Europe’s overseas regions reflects minimal knowledge of the distribution patterns of aquatic species in Community’s outermost areas. Benthic invertebrates (84 taxa and land-cover, physical habitat and water chemistry descriptors (26 variables were recorded at fifty-one stations in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles. Canonical Correspondence Analysis and Ward’s algorithm were used to bring out patterns in community structure in relation to environmental conditions, and variation partitioning was used to specify the influence of geomorphology and anthropogenic disturbance on invertebrate communities. Species richness decreased from headwater to lowland streams, and species composition changed from northern to southern areas. The proportion of variation explained by geomorphological variables was globally higher than that explained by anthropogenic variables. Geomorphology and land cover played key roles in delineating ecological sub-regions for the freshwater biota. Despite this and the small surface area of Martinique (1080 km2, invertebrate communities showed a clear spatial turnover in composition and biological traits (e.g., insects, crustaceans and molluscs in relation to natural conditions.

  13. Ecotoxicological classification of the Berlin river system using bioassays in respect to the European Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huschek, Gerd; Hansen, P-D

    2006-10-01

    Bioassays as well as biochemical responses (biomarkers) in ecosystems due to environmental stress provide us with signals (environmentally signalling) of potential damage in the environment. If these responses are perceived in this early stage in ecosystems, the eventual damage can be prevented. Once ecosystem damage has occurred, the remedial action processes for recovery could be expensive and pose certain logistical problems. Ideally, "early warning signals" in ecosystems using sensing systems of biochemical responses (biomarkers) would not only tell us the initial levels of damage, but these signals will also provide us with answers by the development of control strategies and precautionary measures in respect to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Clear technical guidelines or technical specifications on monitoring are necessary to establish and characterise reference conditions for use in an ecological status classification system for surface water bodies. For the Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment (ERA) of endocrine effects we used an approach of the exposure - dose - response concept. Based on the "Ecototoxicological Classification System of Sediments" that uses pT-values to classify effects in different river systems, we transferred the bio-monitoring data to the five-level ecological system of the WFD. To understand the complexity of the structure of populations and processes behind the health of populations, communities and ecosystems an ERA should establish links between natural factors, chemicals, and biological responses so as to assess causality. So, our ecological monitoring assessment has incorporated exposure & effects data.

  14. Using multi-criteria analysis to explore non-market monetary values of water quality changes in the context of the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ortega, Julia; Berbel, Julio

    2010-09-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive represents a major change in the management of water resources and sets ambitious ecological objectives for all European waters. In the Directive, the economic assessment of the non-market environmental benefits of water quality improvements plays a crucial role. Studies valuing these benefits are now appearing in the literature, applying stated preference valuation techniques. However, these techniques are often criticized for providing only narrow mono-criterion information to the decision-making process. The research presented here builds on a recent line of investigation that combines monetary stated preference tools, in this case a choice experiment, with multi-criteria analysis, in this case the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). We argue that the AHP can contribute to a better understanding and interpretation of the choice experiment results by exploring the criteria involved in respondents' trade-off between the attributes. The AHP provides relevant insights for the application of use-based water quality ladders in the valuation of environmental benefits in the context of the WFD. Results also show the importance of the spatial dimension of preferences for water quality.

  15. Participation for effective environmental governance? Evidence from Water Framework Directive implementation in Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochskämper, Elisa; Challies, Edward; Newig, Jens; Jager, Nicolas W

    2016-10-01

    Effectiveness of participation in environmental governance is a proliferating assertion in literature that is also reflected in European legislation, such as the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). The Directive mandates participatory river basin management planning across the EU aiming at the delivery of better policy outputs and enhanced implementation. Yet, the impact of this planning mode in WFD implementation remains unclear, though the first planning phase was completed in 2009 and the first implementation cycle by the end of 2015. Notwithstanding the expanding body of literature on WFD implementation, a rather scattered single case study approach seems to predominate. This paper reports on implementation of the WFD in three case studies from Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom, reflecting three substantially different approaches to participatory river basin management planning, on the basis of a comparative case study design. We ask if and how participation improved the environmental standard of outputs and the quality of implementation. We found an increasing quality of outputs with increasing intensity of local participation. Further, social outcomes such as learning occurred within dialogical settings, whereas empowerment and network building emerged also in the case characterized mainly by one-way information. Finally, one important finding deviant from the literature is that stakeholder acceptance seems to be more related to processes than to outputs.

  16. Sediment and water nutrients and microalgae in a coastal shallow lagoon, Ria Formosa (Portugal): Implications for the Water Framework Directive

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Ana; Newton, Alice; Tett, Paul; Fernandes, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Coastal shallow lagoons are considered to be highly important systems, which have specific biogeochemical cycles and characteristics. The assessment of sediment–water interfaces is essential to understand nutrient dynamics and to evaluate the vulnerability to eutrophication, especially in regions of restricted water exchange (RRE), such as the Ria Formosa, which have natural conditions for the accumulation of nutrients. Water samples were collected during the years of 2006 and 2007–08 for ...

  17. A Fresh Perspective for Managing Water in California: Insights from Applying the European Water Framework Directive to the Russian River

    OpenAIRE

    Grantham, Ted; Christian-Smith, Juliet; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Scheuer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the world there is increasing public awareness of the importance of sustainable water management to meet both growing human demands and ecosystem needs. Predictions of increased climate variability and indicators of ecological and water quality deterioration have made water management a salient political issue, particularly in arid climate regions such as western North America and the Iberian Peninsula. In recent years, substantial effort has been focused on adopting sustainable wa...

  18. Experimental design for TBT quantification by isotope dilution SPE-GC-ICP-MS under the European water framework directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasonati, Enrica; Fabbri, Barbara; Fettig, Ina; Yardin, Catherine; Del Castillo Busto, Maria Estela; Richter, Janine; Philipp, Rosemarie; Fisicaro, Paola

    2015-03-01

    In Europe the maximum allowable concentration for tributyltin (TBT) compounds in surface water has been regulated by the water framework directive (WFD) and daughter directive that impose a limit of 0.2 ng L(-1) in whole water (as tributyltin cation). Despite the large number of different methodologies for the quantification of organotin species developed in the last two decades, standardised analytical methods at required concentration level do not exist. TBT quantification at picogram level requires efficient and accurate sample preparation and preconcentration, and maximum care to avoid blank contamination. To meet the WFD requirement, a method for the quantification of TBT in mineral water at environmental quality standard (EQS) level, based on solid phase extraction (SPE), was developed and optimised. The quantification was done using species-specific isotope dilution (SSID) followed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analytical process was optimised using a design of experiment (DOE) based on a factorial fractionary plan. The DOE allowed to evaluate 3 qualitative factors (type of stationary phase and eluent, phase mass and eluent volume, pH and analyte ethylation procedure) for a total of 13 levels studied, and a sample volume in the range of 250-1000 mL. Four different models fitting the results were defined and evaluated with statistic tools: one of them was selected and optimised to find the best procedural conditions. C18 phase was found to be the best stationary phase for SPE experiments. The 4 solvents tested with C18, the pH and ethylation conditions, the mass of the phases, the volume of the eluents and the sample volume can all be optimal, but depending on their respective combination. For that reason, the equation of the model conceived in this work is a useful decisional tool for the planning of experiments, because it can be applied to predict the TBT mass fraction recovery when the

  19. Integrating the fish embryo toxicity test as triad element for sediment toxicity assessment based on the water framework directive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzke, Mariana [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Dept. Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Delov, Vera [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Ecotoxicology, Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Aachen (Germany); Stahlschmidt-Allner, Petra; Allner, Bernhard [Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Oehlmann, Joerg [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to complement analyses according to the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) with a sediment toxicity analysis as part of an integrated river assessment. To this end, Hessian water courses were analyzed using the sediment quality triad concept according to Chapman with chemical analyses, in situ effect evaluations, and ecotoxicological assessments. For the ecotoxicological assessment (fish embryo toxicity test with Danio rerio), a new evaluation scheme was developed, the fish teratogenicity index (FTI), that allows for a classification of sediments into ecological quality classes compliant to the WFD. Materials and methods sediment and macrozoobenthos samples were taken from tributaries of the rivers Fulda and Lahn. Sediments were characterized regarding particle size, carbon, heavy metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken via multi-habitat sampling. The fish embryo toxicity test with D. rerio was conducted as a contact assay on the basis of DIN 38415-6. Results and discussion The integrated assessment indicated a significant influence of heavy metals and carbon content on macroinvertebrate communities. The bioaccessibility of sediment pollutants were clearly demonstrated by the FTI, which showed a wide range of adverse effects. A significant linear relationship between metals and the FTI was detected. However, there was no statistically significant evidence that macroinvertebrate communities were affected by the hydromorphological quality clements at the sampling sites. Conclusions The new scheme for the assessment of fish embryo toxicity test was successfully applied. The results suggest that sediment compounds impact macroinvertebrate communities and early development of fish. It demonstrates that the quality of sediments should be evaluated on a routine basis as part of an integrated river assessment. (orig.)

  20. A methodology for defining homogeneous water bodies in estuaries - Application to the transitional systems of the EU Water Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, JG; Nobre, AM; Sirnas, TC; Silva, MC; Newton, A; Bricker, SB; Wolff, WJ; Stacey, PE; Sequeira, A; Simas, T.C.; Sequiera, A.

    2006-01-01

    A methodology is developed and tested for division of estuarine and coastal systems into water bodies for monitoring and management purposes. This division is often implicit in the choice of sampling stations and in pollution abatement measures applied to different locations - it is now an explicit

  1. Systems analysis approach to the design of efficient water pricing policies under the EU water framework directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels, Niels; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Doulgeris, Charalampos

    2013-01-01

    -value crops and from small urban/domestic locations to larger locations. Because growers of low-value crops will suffer the most from water price increases, the use of energy costs to control groundwater use offers the advantage of reducing this burden. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers....

  2. A methodology for defining homogeneous water bodies in estuaries - Application to the transitional systems of the EU Water Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, JG; Nobre, AM; Sirnas, TC; Silva, MC; Newton, A; Bricker, SB; Wolff, WJ; Stacey, PE; Sequeira, A; Simas, T.C.; Sequiera, A.

    2006-01-01

    A methodology is developed and tested for division of estuarine and coastal systems into water bodies for monitoring and management purposes. This division is often implicit in the choice of sampling stations and in pollution abatement measures applied to different locations - it is now an explicit

  3. N management in agrosystems in relation to the water framework directive : proceedings of the 14th N Workshop, October 2005, Maastricht, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Neeteson, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen management in agrosystems in relation to the water framework directive was the overall theme for the 14th Nitrogen Workshop. This report is a synthesis of the contributions from this workshop, drawn from oral and poster presentations and from the discussions in the various working groups. T

  4. Deconstructing public participation in the Water Framework Directive: implementation and compliance with the letter or with the spirit of the law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ker Rault, P.A.; Jeffrey, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a fresh reading of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and of the Common Implementation Strategy guidance document number 8 on public participation (PP) aimed at identifying the conditions required for successful implementation. We propose that a central barrier to implementing A

  5. N management in agrosystems in relation to the water framework directive : proceedings of the 14th N Workshop, October 2005, Maastricht, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Neeteson, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen management in agrosystems in relation to the water framework directive was the overall theme for the 14th Nitrogen Workshop. This report is a synthesis of the contributions from this workshop, drawn from oral and poster presentations and from the discussions in the various working groups.

  6. Natural attenuation of pesticide water contamination by using ecological adsorbents: Application for chlorinated pesticides included in European Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bakouri, Hicham; Morillo, José; Usero, José; Ouassini, Abdelhamid

    2009-01-01

    SummaryIn this work, a series of experiments were performed to demonstrate the potential use of natural organic substances (NOS) as an ecological technique to prevent pesticide contamination of ground water resources. A preliminary test has been carried out for determining the potentialities of ten NOS in the elimination of alachlor, aldrin, atrazine, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos, dieldrin, alpha-endosulfan, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH (lindane), simazine and trifluralin. The best adsorbents that present higher removal efficiency were date and olives stones, and in minor measurement Raphanus raphanistrum and Cistus ladaniferus. Experimental results showed that the pH and temperature of pesticide solutions negatively affect the adsorption process. According to adsorption kinetic data, 8 h were considered as the equilibrium time for realizing adsorption isotherms. Adsorption data were fit with Freundlich isotherm model which describes better the adsorption process. The K f values depended mainly on the nature of each adsorbent and ranged from 4.53 for Eucalyptus gomphocephala to 13.54 for date stones.

  7. Potentials of mathematical modeling and use of GIS in catchment management and the benefits for the Water Framework Directive fulfilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, T.; Krasa, J.

    2009-04-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) brings relatively strict demands concerning surface waters protection, soil protection and watershed management. Water quality and soil conservation are among the priorities of European environmental policy. The aims and corresponding limits are clearly and strictly formulated but the ways how to fulfill the task remain unspecified. Moreover the side effects and synergic effects are not considered. Therefore there is no recommended methodology for implementing the protection measures. At the Faculty of Civil Engineering (Czech Technical University in Prague) we deal with development and use of various methods routinely applicable in catchment management and engineering praxis. Mainly we focus on soil conservation, sediment transport assessment, retention capacity of landscape evaluation and flood prevention. Our contribution will present overview of applicable approaches and methods useful for the WFD implementation and for Watershed management strategy defining. Very important part of the problem is use of high precision data sources available for environmental modeling. Data in similar formats and precision (considering soil properties, land use and land cover, precipitation, etc.) exist throughout Europe, but the data availability for research is very limited. In spite of the INSPIRE Directive the European coordination here is low. Typical example can be found in Map of soil loss and sediment transport within Czech Republic. Methodically simple approach (using USLE - Wischmeier et al., 1978) was applied to whole Czech territory in coordination with GIS already in 2001 (Dostal et al.,2001). The map was consistently updated and in 2007 the LPIS database allowed us to estimate soil erosion rates in scale of individual parcels (Dostal et al., 2007). Each agricultural field block was assessed in 25m resolution raster (484 835 individual parcels, 35 301 km2). The data were then used for preparing Watershed management strategy

  8. New tools for modelling water quality of hydrosystems: an application in the Seine River basin in the frame of the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Stéphanie; Billen, Gilles; Bacq, Nicolas; Théry, Sylvain; Ruelland, Denis; Garnier, Josette; Cugier, Philippe; Poulin, Michel; Blanc, Stéphanie; Lamy, François; Paffoni, Catherine

    2007-04-01

    The implementation of the European Water Framework Directive requires new tools for predicting the effect of expected measures taken in the watershed on water quality at the scale of large regional river systems. In the Seine basin, four models, developed in a research context, have been chained to each other to simulate water quality and biogeochemical functioning of the hydrosystem from headwater streams to the coastal marine area. All four models are based on a similar deterministic approach and share a common description of the biogeochemical processes, allowing them to exchange information. Each model differently represents the hydro-sedimentological processes, and uses different time and space resolution, in order to tackle with the specific problematic of each sub-system. This cascade of models has been used for testing a prospective scenario of water resources management at the horizon of 2015, established by Water Authorities of the Seine-Normandy district. The simulation predicts a general improvement of water quality concerning those variables linked to point sources of pollution (ammonium, oxygen, phosphate), even if, locally, this improvement can be insufficient for meeting the expected quality standards. The predicted improvement of the quality of the Seine River downstream from Paris and its estuary is large. However, the predicted very significant drop of phosphate contamination, although beneficial for limiting the problems of coastal marine eutrophication, does not lead to a significant control of phytoplankton development in the rivers upstream from Paris. The simulation also predicts a general increase in nitrate contamination mainly linked to diffuse sources from agricultural areas.

  9. A water framework directive (WFD) compliant determination of eologically acceptable flows in alpine rivers - a river type specific approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Paul; Zitek, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Currently the EU-Water Framework Directive (WFD) represents the driving force behind the assessment for rehabilitation and conservation of aquatic resources throughout Europe. Hydropower production, often considered as "green energy", in the past has put significant pressures on river systems like fragmentation by weirs, impoundment, hydropeaking and water abstraction. Due to the limited availability of data for determining ecologically acceptable flow for rivers at water abstraction sites, a special monitoring program was conducted in the federal state of Salzburg in Austria from 2006 to 2009. Water abstraction sites at 19 hydropower plants, mostly within the trout region of the River Salzach catchment, were assessed in detail with regard to the effect of water abstraction on fish and macrozoobenthos. Based on a detailed assessment of the specific local hydro-morphological and biological situations, the validity of natural low flow criteria (Absolute Minimum Flow - AMF, the lowest daily average flow ever measured and Mean Annual Daily Low Flow - MADLF) as starting points for the determination of an ecologically acceptable flow was tested. It was assessed, if a good ecological status in accordance with the EU-WFD can be maintained at natural AMF. Additionally it was tested, if important habitat parameters describing connectivity, river type specific flow variability and river type specific habitats are maintained at this discharge. Habitat modelling was applied in some situations. Hydraulic results showed that at AMF the highest flow velocity classes were lost in most situations. When AMF was significantly undercut, flow velocities between 0,0 - 0,4 m/s became dominant, describing the loss of the river type specific flow character, leading to a loss of river type specific flow variability and habitats and increased sedimentation of fines. Furthermore limits for parameters describing connectivity for fish like maximum depth at the pessimum profile and minimum flow

  10. A stochastic dynamic model to assess land use change scenarios on the ecological status of fluvial water bodies under the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Samantha Jane; Cabral, João Alexandre; Bastos, Rita; Cortes, Rui; Vicente, Joana; Eitelberg, David; Yu, Huirong; Honrado, João; Santos, Mário

    2016-09-15

    This method development paper outlines an integrative stochastic dynamic methodology (StDM) framework to anticipate land use (LU) change effects on the ecological status of monitored and non-monitored lotic surface waters under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Tested in the Alto Minho River Basin District in North West Portugal, the model is an innovative step towards developing a decision-making and planning tool to assess the influence impacts such as LU change and climate change on these complex systems. Comprising a series of sequential steps, a Generalized Linear Model based, competing model Multi Model Inference (MMI) approach was used for parameter estimation to identify principal land use types (distal factors) driving change in biological and physicochemical support elements (proximal factors) in monitored water bodies. The framework integrated MMI constants and coefficients of selected LU categories in the StDM simulations and spatial projections to simulate the ecological status of monitored and non-monitored lotic waterbodies in the test area under 2 scenarios of (1) LU intensification and (2) LU extensification. A total of 100 simulations were run for a 50year period for each scenario. Spatially dynamic projections of WFD metrics were obtained, taking into account the occurrence of stochastic wildfire events which typically occur in the study region and are exacerbated by LU change. A marked projected decline to "Moderate" ecological status for most waterbodies was detected under intensification but little change under extensification; only a few waterbodies fell to "moderate" status. The latter scenario describes the actual regional socio-economic situation of agricultural abandonment due to rural poverty, partly explaining the projected lack of change in ecological status. Based on the WFD "one out all out" criterion, projected downward shifts in ecological status were due to physicochemical support elements, namely increased phosphorus levels

  11. Spatially explicit groundwater vulnerability assessment to support the implementation of the Water Framework Directive – a practical approach with stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Berkhoff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study presented in this paper was to develop an evaluation scheme which is suitable for spatially explicit groundwater vulnerability assessment according to the Water Framework Directive (WFD. Study area was the Hase river catchment, an area of about 3 000 km2 in north-west Germany which is dominated by livestock farming, in particular pig and poultry production. For the Hase river catchment, the first inventory of the WFD led to the conclusion that 98% of the catchment area is "unclear/unlikely" to reach a good groundwater status due to diffuse nitrogen emissions from agriculture. The groundwater vulnerability assessment was embedded in the PartizipA project ("Participative modelling, Actor and Ecosystem Analysis in Regions with Intensive Agriculture", www.partizipa.net, within which a so-called actors' platform was established in the study area. The objective of the participatory process was to investigate the effects of the WFD on agriculture as well as to discuss groundwater protection measures which are suitable for an integration in the programme of measures. The study was conducted according to the vulnerability assessment concept of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, considering sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity. Sensitivity was computed using the DRASTIC index of natural groundwater pollution potential. Exposure (for a reference scenario was computed using the STOFFBILANZ nutrient model. Several regional studies were analysed to evaluate the adaptive capacity. From these studies it was concluded that the adaptive capacity in the Hase river catchment is very low due to the economic importance of the agricultural sector which will be significantly affected by groundwater protection measures. As a consequence, the adaptive capacity was not considered any more in the vulnerability assessment. A groundwater vulnerability evaluation scheme is presented which enjoys the advantage that both

  12. Parameters optimization using experimental design for headspace solid phase micro-extraction analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in waters under the European water framework directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, F; Malleret, L; Sergent, M; Doumenq, P

    2015-08-07

    The water framework directives (WFD 2000/60/EC and 2013/39/EU) force European countries to monitor the quality of their aquatic environment. Among the priority hazardous substances targeted by the WFD, short chain chlorinated paraffins C10-C13 (SCCPs), still represent an analytical challenge, because few laboratories are nowadays able to analyze them. Moreover, an annual average quality standards as low as 0.4μgL(-1) was set for SCCPs in surface water. Therefore, to test for compliance, the implementation of sensitive and reliable analysis method of SCCPs in water are required. The aim of this work was to address this issue by evaluating automated solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) combined on line with gas chromatography-electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS). Fiber polymer, extraction mode, ionic strength, extraction temperature and time were the most significant thermodynamic and kinetic parameters studied. To determine the suitable factors working ranges, the study of the extraction conditions was first carried out by using a classical one factor-at-a-time approach. Then a mixed level factorial 3×2(3) design was performed, in order to give rise to the most influent parameters and to estimate potential interactions effects between them. The most influent factors, i.e. extraction temperature and duration, were optimized by using a second experimental design, in order to maximize the chromatographic response. At the close of the study, a method involving headspace SPME (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/ECNI-MS is proposed. The optimum extraction conditions were sample temperature 90°C, extraction time 80min, with the PDMS 100μm fiber and desorption at 250°C during 2min. Linear response from 0.2ngmL(-1) to 10ngmL(-1) with r(2)=0.99 and limits of detection and quantification, respectively of 4pgmL(-1) and 120pgmL(-1) in MilliQ water, were achieved. The method proved to be applicable in different types of waters and show key advantages, such

  13. Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Papadopoulou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing policies to achieve FWCR. These policies must be socially just to avoid any social injustice phenomena. This is a very delicate task to handle, especially within the fragile economic conditions that the EU is facing today. Water losses play a crucial role for the FWC estimation. Water losses should not be neglected since they are one of the major “water uses” in any water supply network. A methodology is suggested to reduce water losses and the related Non Revenue Water (NRW index. An Expert Decision Support System is proposed to assess the FWC incorporating the Water and Carbon Footprint costs.

  14. Disentangling Puzzles of Spatial Scales and Participation in Environmental Governance-The Case of Governance Re-scaling Through the European Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newig, Jens; Schulz, Daniel; Jager, Nicolas W

    2016-12-01

    This article attempts to shed new light on prevailing puzzles of spatial scales in multi-level, participatory governance as regards the democratic legitimacy and environmental effectiveness of governance systems. We focus on the governance re-scaling by the European Water Framework Directive, which introduced new governance scales (mandated river basin management) and demands consultation of citizens and encourages 'active involvement' of stakeholders. This allows to examine whether and how re-scaling through deliberate governance interventions impacts on democratic legitimacy and effective environmental policy delivery. To guide the enquiry, this article organizes existing-partly contradictory-claims on the relation of scale, democratic legitimacy, and environmental effectiveness into three clusters of mechanisms, integrating insights from multi-level governance, social-ecological systems, and public participation. We empirically examine Water Framework Directive implementation in a comparative case study of multi-level systems in the light of the suggested mechanisms. We compare two planning areas in Germany: North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. Findings suggest that the Water Framework Directive did have some impact on institutionalizing hydrological scales and participation. Local participation appears generally both more effective and legitimate than on higher levels, pointing to the need for yet more tailored multi-level governance approaches, depending on whether environmental knowledge or advocacy is sought. We find mixed results regarding the potential of participation to bridge spatial 'misfits' between ecological and administrative scales of governance, depending on the historical institutionalization of governance on ecological scales. Polycentricity, finally, appeared somewhat favorable in effectiveness terms with some distinct differences regarding polycentricity in planning vs. polycentricity in implementation.

  15. Disentangling Puzzles of Spatial Scales and Participation in Environmental Governance—The Case of Governance Re-scaling Through the European Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newig, Jens; Schulz, Daniel; Jager, Nicolas W.

    2016-12-01

    This article attempts to shed new light on prevailing puzzles of spatial scales in multi-level, participatory governance as regards the democratic legitimacy and environmental effectiveness of governance systems. We focus on the governance re-scaling by the European Water Framework Directive, which introduced new governance scales (mandated river basin management) and demands consultation of citizens and encourages `active involvement' of stakeholders. This allows to examine whether and how re-scaling through deliberate governance interventions impacts on democratic legitimacy and effective environmental policy delivery. To guide the enquiry, this article organizes existing—partly contradictory—claims on the relation of scale, democratic legitimacy, and environmental effectiveness into three clusters of mechanisms, integrating insights from multi-level governance, social-ecological systems, and public participation. We empirically examine Water Framework Directive implementation in a comparative case study of multi-level systems in the light of the suggested mechanisms. We compare two planning areas in Germany: North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. Findings suggest that the Water Framework Directive did have some impact on institutionalizing hydrological scales and participation. Local participation appears generally both more effective and legitimate than on higher levels, pointing to the need for yet more tailored multi-level governance approaches, depending on whether environmental knowledge or advocacy is sought. We find mixed results regarding the potential of participation to bridge spatial `misfits' between ecological and administrative scales of governance, depending on the historical institutionalization of governance on ecological scales. Polycentricity, finally, appeared somewhat favorable in effectiveness terms with some distinct differences regarding polycentricity in planning vs. polycentricity in implementation.

  16. Repercussions of the Water Framework Directive on the prices of urban water services; Repercusion de la Directiva Marco del Agua en la tarifas de los servicios de aguas urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardoy, J. M.

    2007-07-01

    The Water Framework directive obliges European Union member countries to comply with a number of requirements in order to achieve good water quality. to this end, the bodies-public, private and mixed-responsible for the integral water cycle will have to bear new costs in providing infrastructures, installations and equipment to improve water quality, which will lead to a new pricing policy allowing them to recover these costs. However, these new prices must be introduced gradually, as they will raise the price of water for all users, from professionals (irrigation, industry, etc.) to private individuals. (Author)

  17. Direct selenylation of mixed Ni/Fe metal-organic frameworks to NiFe-Se/C nanorods for overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Yang, He; Yuan, Lincheng; Sun, Yiqiang; Chen, Zhiming; Li, Cuncheng

    2017-10-01

    Development of low-cost, highly active bifunctional catalyst for efficient overall water splitting based on earth-abundant metals is still a great challenging task. In this work, we report a NiFe-Se/C composite nanorod as efficient non-precious-metal electrochemical catalyst derived from direct selenylation of a mixed Ni/Fe metal-organic framework. The as-obtained catalyst requires low overpotential to drive 10 mA cm-2 for HER (160 mV) and OER (240 mV) in 1.0 M KOH, respectively, and its catalytic activity is maintained for at least 20 h. Moreover, water electrolysis using this catalyst achieves high water splitting current density of 10 mA cm-2 at cell voltage of 1.68 V.

  18. Determining the Reference Ephemeroptera Communities in the Eastern Part of the Black Sea Region for the Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkmen Gencer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to determine the reference sites and their reference Ephemeroptera communities according to the Water Framework Directive methods in the Eastern Part of the Black Sea Region of Turkey between 2008-2011. From the area, twentyfour collecting sites were chosen. There were thirty Ephemeroptera species identified, belonging to seven families and eleven genres. Cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis similarities was applied. Reference habitat conditions of the studied sites and their reference Ephemeroptera communities were determined by combining both ecological and statistical results. As a result, sixteen sites had reference habitat conditions and their reference Ephemeroptera species were identified.

  19. Mussel production and Water Framework Directive targets in the Limfjord, Denmark: an integrated assessment for use in system-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Grete E.; Timmermann, K.; Roth, E.

    2011-01-01

    Growth of human activities often conflict with nature conservation requirements and integrated assessments are necessary to build reliable scenarios for management. In the Limfjord, Denmark’s largest estuary, nutrient loading reductions are necessary to fulfill EU regulations criteria...... and hard to predict. This study focuses on the usefulness of a System Approach Framework (SAF) implementation for stakeholder understanding of complex systems and development of sustainable management. Ecological-social-economic (ESE) model simulations clearly demonstrated the potential problems of WFD......, such as the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Cuts in nutrient loadings do not necessarily result in corresponding reductions in eutrophication impacts or in improving primary and higher trophic-level production. Similarly, the socioeconomic consequences of a mussel fishery and aquaculture production are complex...

  20. Exploring the Capacity of Water Framework Directive Indices to Assess Ecosystem Services in Fluvial and Riparian Systems: Towards a Second Implementation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Abarca, M. R.; Santos-Martín, F.; Martín-López, B.; Sánchez-Montoya, M. M.; Suárez Alonso, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    We explored the capacity of the biological and hydromorphological indices used in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) to assess ecosystem services by evaluating the ecological status of Spanish River Basins. This analysis relies on an exhaustive bibliography review which showed scientific evidence of the interlinkages between some ecosystem services and different hydromorphological and biological elements which have been used as indices in the WFD. Our findings indicate that, of a total of 38 ecosystem services analyzed, biological and hydromorphological indices can fully evaluate four ecosystem services. In addition, 18 ecosystem services can be partly evaluated by some of the analyzed indices, while 11 are not related with the indices. While Riparian Forest Quality was the index that was able to assess the largest number of ecosystem services ( N = 12), the two indices of macrophytes offered very poor guarantees. Finally, biological indices related to diatoms and aquatic invertebrates and the Fluvial Habitat Index can be related with 7, 6, and 6 ecosystem services, respectively. Because the WFD indices currently used in Spain are not able to assess most of the ecosystem services analyzed, we suggest that there is potential to develop the second phase of the WFD implementation taking this approach into consideration. The incorporation of the ecosystem services approach into the WFD could provide the framework for assess the impacts of human activities on the quality of fluvial ecosystems and could give insights for water and watershed management in order to guarantee the delivery of multiple ecosystem services.

  1. Ecological status in Catalonia rivers Evaluation of risk to not achieve the Water Framework Directive objectives; Estado ecologico de los rios en Cataluna. Diagnosis del riesgo de incumplimiento de los objetivos de la Directiva Marco del Agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munne, A.; Sola, C.; Prat, N.

    2006-07-01

    The Water Framework Directive needs to establish a methodology to analyze the ecological status according to the water bodies characteristics. This paper describe the steps followed in Catalonia to determine the ecological status in rivers, and to evaluate the risk to not achieve the Water Framework Directive objectives. This procedure includes the river typification, the establishment of reference water bodies, and reference conditions, the definition of biological, hydro morphological and physico-chemical quality indices,and finally, the evaluation of the ecological status combining several indices and metrics. (Author) 75 refs.

  2. Mussel Production and Water Framework Directive Targets in the Limfjord, Denmark: an Integrated Assessment for Use in System-Based Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grete E. Dinesen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of human activities often conflict with nature conservation requirements and integrated assessments are necessary to build reliable scenarios for management. In the Limfjord, Denmark's largest estuary, nutrient loading reductions are necessary to fulfill EU regulations criteria, such as the Water Framework Directive (WFD. Cuts in nutrient loadings do not necessarily result in corresponding reductions in eutrophication impacts or in improving primary and higher trophic-level production. Similarly, the socioeconomic consequences of a mussel fishery and aquaculture production are complex and hard to predict. This study focuses on the usefulness of a System Approach Framework (SAF implementation for stakeholder understanding of complex systems and development of sustainable management. Ecological-social-economic (ESE model simulations clearly demonstrated the potential problems of WFD implementation for mussel fishers and mussel farmers. Simulation of mussel fishery closures resulted in a tenfold increase in the hitherto fishable mussel biomass and a similar decrease in the biomass of shallow-water mussels and medium-sized ones in deep water. A total closure of the mussel fishery could result in an annual profit loss of ~€6.2 million. Scenario simulation of the introduction of one, two, three, and four mussel culture farms of ~19 ha showed that the introduction of line-mussels would decrease the biomass of wild mussels both in shallow and deep waters, affecting the catch and profit of fishers. The SAF, which included consultation with stakeholders at all stages, differs from the traditional public consultation process in that (1 communication was verbal and multilateral, (2 discussion among stakeholders was facilitated, and (3 stakeholder opinions and priorities formed the focus of the ESE assessment.

  3. Agro-Ecological Analysis for the EU Water Framework Directive: An Applied Case Study for the River Contract of the Seveso Basin (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchi, Stefano; La Rosa, Daniele; Pileri, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    The innovative approach to the protection and management of water resources at the basin scale introduced by the European Union water framework directive (WFD) requires new scientific tools. WFD implementation also requires the participation of many stakeholders (administrators, farmers and citizens) with the aim of improving the quality of river waters and basin ecosystems through cooperative planning. This approach encompasses different issues, such as agro-ecology, land use planning and water management. This paper presents the results of a methodology suggested for implementing the WFD in the case of the Seveso river contract in Italy, one of the recent WFD applications. The Seveso basin in the Lombardy region has been one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Italy over the last 50 years. First, land use changes in the last 50 years are assessed with the use of historical aerial photos. Then, elements of an ecological network along the river corridor are outlined, and different scenarios for enhancing existing ecological connections are assessed using indicators from graph theory. These scenarios were discussed in technical workshops with involved stakeholders of the river contract. The results show a damaged rural landscape, where urbanization processes have decimated the system of linear green features (hedges/rows). Progressive reconnections of some of the identified network nodes may significantly increase the connectivity and circuitry of the study area.

  4. Agro-ecological analysis for the EU water framework directive: an applied case study for the river contract of the Seveso basin (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchi, Stefano; La Rosa, Daniele; Pileri, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    The innovative approach to the protection and management of water resources at the basin scale introduced by the European Union water framework directive (WFD) requires new scientific tools. WFD implementation also requires the participation of many stakeholders (administrators, farmers and citizens) with the aim of improving the quality of river waters and basin ecosystems through cooperative planning. This approach encompasses different issues, such as agro-ecology, land use planning and water management. This paper presents the results of a methodology suggested for implementing the WFD in the case of the Seveso river contract in Italy, one of the recent WFD applications. The Seveso basin in the Lombardy region has been one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Italy over the last 50 years. First, land use changes in the last 50 years are assessed with the use of historical aerial photos. Then, elements of an ecological network along the river corridor are outlined, and different scenarios for enhancing existing ecological connections are assessed using indicators from graph theory. These scenarios were discussed in technical workshops with involved stakeholders of the river contract. The results show a damaged rural landscape, where urbanization processes have decimated the system of linear green features (hedges/rows). Progressive reconnections of some of the identified network nodes may significantly increase the connectivity and circuitry of the study area.

  5. Scenario Realism and Welfare Estimates in Choice Experiments: - A Non-Market Valuation Study on the European Water Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kataria, Mitesh; Bateman, Ian; Christensen, Tove;

    2012-01-01

    Using choice experiment data for economic valuation we analyse how disbelief in survey information could affect the retrieved welfare estimates. We distinguish between two types of survey information to the respondents. The first type of information concerns the current environmental status...... of a water body. This information is provided prior to the valuation questions and the corresponding beliefs in the provided information are also elicited before valuation. The second type of information concerns the proposed improvements in the environmental status of the water body. We find that average...

  6. Headwater streams in the EU Water Framework Directive: Evidence-based decision support to select streams for river basin management plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Larsen, Søren Erik; Andersen, Dagmar K.

    2018-01-01

    in these parameters. Next, threshold values for slope, width, sinuosity, and DHI were identified for selected probabilities of achieving minimum good ecological status. The obtained results can support managers and policy makers in prioritizing headwater streams for the 3rd RBMP. The approach applied is broadly......, however, it is intensely debated whether the small size and low slopes, typical of Danish streams, in combination with degraded habitat conditions obstruct their ability to fulfill the ecological quality objectives required by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). The purpose of this studywas to provide......-based thresholds for reaching good ecological status can be established for some or all of these criteria, thus creating a sound, scientifically based, and clear selection process. The hypotheses were tested using monitoring data on Danish streams from the period 2004–2015. Significant linear relationships were...

  7. Headwater streams in the EU Water Framework Directive: Evidence-based decision support to select streams for river basin management plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Larsen, Søren Erik; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel

    2017-01-01

    gradients in these parameters. Next, threshold values for slope, width, sinuosity, and DHI were identified for selected probabilities of achieving minimum good ecological status. The obtained results can support managers and policy makers in prioritizing headwater streams for the 3rd RBMP. The approach......). Currently, however, it is intensely debated whether the small size and low slopes, typical of Danish streams, in combination with degraded habitat conditions obstruct their ability to fulfill the ecological quality objectives required by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). The purpose of this study......) probability-based thresholds for reaching good ecological status can be established for some or all of these criteria, thus creating a sound, scientifically based, and clear selection process. The hypotheses were tested using monitoring data on Danish streams from the period 2004-2015. Significant linear...

  8. Probabilistic Evaluation of Ecological and Economic Objectives of River Basin Management Reveals a Potential Flaw in the Goal Setting of the EU Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerppe, Turo; Taskinen, Antti; Kotamäki, Niina; Malve, Olli; Kettunen, Juhani

    2017-04-01

    The biological status of European lakes has not improved as expected despite up-to-date legislation and ecological standards. As a result, the realism of objectives and the attainment of related ecological standards are under doubt. This paper gets to the bottom of a river basin management plan of a eutrophic lake in Finland and presents the ecological and economic impacts of environmental and societal drivers and planned management measures. For these purposes, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation of a diffuse nutrient load, lake water quality and cost-benefit models. Simulations were integrated into a Bayesian influence diagram that revealed the basic uncertainties. It turned out that the attainment of good ecological status as qualified in the Water Framework Directive of the European Union is unlikely within given socio-economic constraints. Therefore, management objectives and ecological and economic standards need to be reassessed and reset to provide a realistic goal setting for management. More effort should be put into the evaluation of the total monetary benefits and on the monitoring of lake phosphorus balances to reduce the uncertainties, and the resulting margin of safety and costs and risks of planned management measures.

  9. Probabilistic Evaluation of Ecological and Economic Objectives of River Basin Management Reveals a Potential Flaw in the Goal Setting of the EU Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerppe, Turo; Taskinen, Antti; Kotamäki, Niina; Malve, Olli; Kettunen, Juhani

    2017-04-01

    The biological status of European lakes has not improved as expected despite up-to-date legislation and ecological standards. As a result, the realism of objectives and the attainment of related ecological standards are under doubt. This paper gets to the bottom of a river basin management plan of a eutrophic lake in Finland and presents the ecological and economic impacts of environmental and societal drivers and planned management measures. For these purposes, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation of a diffuse nutrient load, lake water quality and cost-benefit models. Simulations were integrated into a Bayesian influence diagram that revealed the basic uncertainties. It turned out that the attainment of good ecological status as qualified in the Water Framework Directive of the European Union is unlikely within given socio-economic constraints. Therefore, management objectives and ecological and economic standards need to be reassessed and reset to provide a realistic goal setting for management. More effort should be put into the evaluation of the total monetary benefits and on the monitoring of lake phosphorus balances to reduce the uncertainties, and the resulting margin of safety and costs and risks of planned management measures.

  10. Palaeolimnological assessment of the reference conditions and ecological status of lakes in Estonia - implications for the European Union Water Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinsalu, Atko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD requires an assessment of reference conditions for lakes, i.e. the conditions expected with only minimal human impact on water bodies. Limnological monitoring records seldom go back more than a few decades and so rarely document the onset of human impact on lakes. Methods of palaeolimnological approaches especially fitted for the purposes of the WFD are described and two case studies, on lakes Rõuge Tõugjärv and Pappjärv, are presented. The palaeolimnological study of Rõuge Tõugjärv demonstrated that a commonly held belief that man-made eutrophication of Estonian lakes is a relatively modern matter of concern and is related to post-industrial population growth and intensification of agriculture is a misconception. The lakes, particularly those in rich soil areas, have been mediated by human impact over millennial time-scales. In many European countries it has been agreed that AD 1850 approximately represents the reference conditions for lakes. Our observations in Rõuge Tõugjärv showed that during that period anthropogenic disturbance on the lake was the greatest. Lake Pappjärv is an example of recent human influence on the aquatic ecosystem that has undergone severe degradation due to infiltration into the ground of a variety of substances from the local bitumen plant, mineral fertilizer storage tanks, and road service sand and salt mixing-grounds that have been accumulating in the lake since the 1950s.

  11. Addressing Analytical Challenges of the Environmental Monitoring for the Water Framework Directive: ERM-CE100, a New Biota Certified Reference Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosis, Ioannis; Ricci, Marina; Majoros, Laszlo; Lava, Roberto; Emteborg, Håkan; Held, Andrea; Emons, Hendrik

    2017-02-21

    In the context of supporting the EU Member States in the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), a project for the production of a fish reference material (ERM-CE100) certified for its content of the two priority substances hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) was carried out at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. The starting material was naturally contaminated Wels catfish (Silurus glanis), caught in the Ebro River (Spain). A novel approach for the processing of the fish was tested that resulted in a homogeneous and stable reference material in the form of a wet paste. The fresh-like texture of the matrix enhances the comparability of this material toward routinely analyzed environmental biota samples and facilitates its use as a quality assurance tool given that the WFD environmental quality standards (EQS) for biota are expressed as wet weight. Certified values for the mass fractions of HCB and HCBD were assigned with 120 ± 8 and 36 ± 4 μg/kg, respectively. The related interlaboratory comparison involved 13 expert laboratories applying a range of analytical methodologies. It is the first biota CRM ever available for HCBD. ERM-CE100 can be used to assess the performance of analytical methods employed in the mandatory monitoring of water bodies under the WFD, thus, providing a benchmark for establishing comparability among measurement results.

  12. The future of small hydropower within the European union. An environmental policy study based on the European Water framework directive and the renewable energy directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabbruwee, Kees

    2006-01-01

    Small hydropower facilities according to European Union (EU) standards have an installed capacity of less than 10 MW. The Renewable Energy Directive has set targets for installed capacity and electricity produced by small hydropower facilities to be reach

  13. Water stable metal-organic framework packed microcolumn for online sorptive extraction and direct analysis of naproxen and its metabolite from urine sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuling; Song, Chaoyong; Liao, Jia; Huang, Zelin; Li, Gongke

    2013-06-14

    The metal-organic framework MIL-101 was fabricated in a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tube as micro-trapping device, and applied to sorptive extraction of naproxen and its metabolite in urine samples. The remarkable water stability of the MIL-101 characterizes the material as being different from other moisture sensitive metal-organic framework. It is therefore suitable for extraction of pharmaceuticals from biological fluids. The adsorption isotherms in aqueous solution showed that the adsorption of naproxen on MIL-101 is endothermic. Additionally, MIL-101 exhibited higher extraction capacity to naproxen than that of C18-bonded silica and multi-walled nanotube. A specially designed in-tube sorptive extraction (ITSE) device endows the extraction process with the characteristic of rapidness, convenience, and easy of conjunction with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Finally the MIL-101 based ITSE method coupled with HPLC and fluorescence detection was applied to analysis of naproxen and 6-O-desmethylnaproxen in urine samples. Parameters that influence the online extraction procedure, including pH of the sample solution, flow rate of extraction, sample volume, desorption solvents and time were investigated. The method is proved to be highly sensitive with the linear range of 0.05-6.0μgL(-1) and the limits of detection of 0.034 and 0.011μgL(-1) for naproxen and 6-O-desmethylnaproxen, respectively. The recoveries in urine samples were 85.3-98.3% for naproxen and 94.0-97.3% for 6-O-desmethylnaproxen with intra- and inter-day RSDs of 2.7-5.2% and 7.1-8.1%, respectively. Urine samples could be directly subjected to analysis without any additional sample pretreatment. The proposed method was demonstrated an efficient, flexible and versatile extraction tool which is ideally suitable for online conjunction with chromatographic methods.

  14. Evaluation and optimization of groundwater protection programs according to EU-Water framework directive; Bewertung und Optimierung von Grundwasserschutz-Massnahmenprogrammen nach der EU-Wasserrahmenrichtlinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhr, Petra; Kunkel, Ralf; Wendland, Frank [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Inst. fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere (ICG) - Inst. 4: Agrosphaere; Baron, Ute; Voigt, Hans-Juergen [Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltgeologie

    2011-03-15

    In order to evaluate and optimize programmes of measures according to EU-Water framework directive a methodology has been developed which consists of three consecutive parts. In the first part the interrelations between matter inputs (contaminations), observed matter concentrations in groundwater and the hydrogeological system are analyzed based on a ''conceptual model''. Based on this a consistent evaluation of the extent of pollutant reduction necessary to reach good status of groundwater is carried out in the second part. The third part is an evaluation of the time gap between the introduction of a measure and its impact on the status of groundwater. The derived methodology is predominately based on digital datasets as input data which are available on the level of Germany's Federal States. Adapted to the sources of contamination of groundwater the methodology was successfully tested for diffuse nitrate sources in two regions in Lower Saxony/Northrhine-Westfalia and Hesse and for point sources in one region in Brandenburg. (orig.)

  15. Practical consequences of the Water Framework Directive implementation for combustion plants. New water cleaning technologies and methods for improvement of effluent discharges; Praktiska konsekvenser foer foerbraenningsanlaeggningar vid infoerandet av Vattendirektivet. Nya reningstekniker och foerbaettringsaatgaerder vid utslaepp till vatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Hansson, Christina [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    As a consequence of the growing impact on water resources the Water Framework Directive was legislated in 2000. The directive should ensure that a 'good water status' and entail a coordinated legislation striving for a long-term protection of all water resources. Stakeholders should be able to participate in the preparations of river basin management plans and programs of measures. District based water authorities will administrate the implementation and are mandated to decide upon regional environmental quality standards and promulgate fees for water use and discharges. The Directive contains a list of 33 prioritized substances that should be reduced or phased out. Discharges from combustion plants contain twelve, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals. PAH and heavy metals impacts growth and vital functions as respiration and photosynthesis of water living organisms and induces cancer in humans. NOEC-values (NO Effect Concentration) state manageable substance concentrations for an organism. Flue gas condensate contains concentrations of some of the substances which impact exceeds the critical state level. Extended sewage treatment could thus be needed. Sludge, wash and soot water contains elevated levels of heavy metals. This water is normally treated by municipal sewage treatment. Further treatment at plant site could be relevant. Presence of PAH and heavy metals in leach water depends on the precipitation. Additional flowing-independent water treatment could be relevant. It is very uncertain how plant owners will be affected. Licenses could be reviewed and standards could be raised for sensitive recipients; new limits for prioritized substances and standards for other types of discharges and water fees could be added. Respites could be given if costs exceed the benefits. Location, ecotoxicological risk assessments and precautionary measures could become more relevant in an EIA. Pricing of water could take place by using a system of emissions

  16. LAMMPS Framework for Directional Dynamic Bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    and bond types. When breaking bonds, all angular and dihedral interactions involving broken bonds are removed. The framework allows chemical reactions to be modeled, and use it to simulate a simplistic, coarse-grained DNA model. The resulting DNA dynamics illustrates the power of the present framework.......We have extended the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) to support directional bonds and dynamic bonding. The framework supports stochastic formation of new bonds, breakage of existing bonds, and conversion between bond types. Bond formation can be controlled...... to limit the maximal functionality of a bead with respect to various bond types. Concomitant with the bond dynamics, angular and dihedral interactions are dynamically introduced between newly connected triplets and quartets of beads, where the interaction type is determined from the local pattern of bead...

  17. Phytoplankton pigments and epifluorescence microscopy as tools for ecological status assessment in coastal and estuarine waters, within the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Sergio; Garmendia, Maialen; Revilla, Marta; Borja, Angel; Franco, Javier; Orive, Emma; Valencia, Victoriano

    2011-07-01

    Inverted microscopy is widespread employed for the analysis of phytoplankton composition within water quality monitoring networks. However, the analysis at the lowest taxonomical level is not always required for ecological status assessment. In addition, inverted microscopy can underestimate the small phytoplankton, and not always distinguish photoautotrophic from heterotrophic cells. In this study, as alternative tools, epifluorescence microscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were employed to characterize phytoplankton communities within waters of different trophic condition. Epifluorescence microscopy confirmed its effectiveness to count the small phytoplankton. Furthermore, significant correlations between nutrients of anthropogenic origin and nanoplankton abundances were found. However, this technique resulted very time-consuming. HPLC together with the CHEMTAX program was more appropriate than inverted microscopy, in terms of cost-effectiveness. Also, the main variability patterns observed in the phytoplankton community structure by HPLC coincided with previous findings in the study area. Nevertheless, a rapid screening at the inverted microscope is recommended.

  18. An ecotoxicological analysis of the sediment quality in a European Atlantic harbor emphasizes the current limitations of the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sandra F; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-07-15

    The "PortoNovo" project was developed to standardize the methodologies for water quality management in the port areas of coastal Atlantic regions to improve the Water Frame Directive (WFD) for these specific water bodies. Under this scope, water and sediment samples were collected from five sites within the Port of Aveiro, Portugal. According to the physical and chemical parameters that were analyzed (i.e., metals, total organic carbon, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), the sediments were not considered at risk based on European sediment quality laws. However, the bioassays that were performed on the sediment samples (Microtox®) and the standardized acute toxicity test using the marine rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, on sediment elutriates revealed higher toxicity levels. The use of bioassays to assess sediment quality clearly complements more conservative approaches and highlights current gaps within the WFD. The approach presented here can be easily transferred to other port areas for more reliable water quality management.

  19. Preliminary assessment of the eutrophication status of selected areas in the Polish sector of the Baltic Sea according to the EU Water Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Łysiak-Pastuszak

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directiverequired a number of tasks to be fulfilled: classifying the variouswater bodies into different types, defining reference conditionsfor each of the types and assessing their ecological qualitystatus - this last is based on biological, hydromorphologicaland physicochemical quality elements of the ecosystem.The paper presents an attempt to estimate reference values inselected areas of Polish coastal and transitional watersas well as in an open sea area following WFD principles.The preliminary eutrophication assessment showed all the assessedareas to be eutrophication problem areas.

  20. Can POCIS be used in Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) monitoring networks? A study focusing on pesticides in a French agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulier, Gaëlle; Lissalde, Sophie; Charriau, Adeline; Buzier, Rémy; Delmas, François; Gery, Kéwin; Moreira, Aurélie; Guibaud, Gilles; Mazzella, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the main current limitations in the application of the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) in regulatory monitoring programmes were evaluated. POCIS were exposed from March to December by successive periods of 14 days in the River Trec (Lot et Garonne, France) and analysed for 34 pesticides. The study of the uncertainty related to the POCIS data was performed and we concluded that it might be up to 138%, which is higher than European Union requirements but this issue was adequately counterbalanced by the gain of temporal representativeness. Comparison with data from the official monitoring programme from the French Water Agency showed that the POCIS is already suitable for both operational and investigative monitoring. The sampled fraction issue, and then compliance with Environmental Quality Standards, was also addressed. It was confirmed that POCIS samples only the dissolved fraction of dimethenamid and showed that for compounds like atrazine, desethylatrazine and metolachlor, the POCIS concentration is equivalent to the whole water concentration. For dimethenamid, which exhibited a tendency to adsorb on suspended matter, a method was suggested to assess the raw water concentration from the POCIS measure. Finally, an innovative procedure for using passive sampler data for compliance checks in the framework of surveillance monitoring is proposed.

  1. The income elasticity of Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) revisited: A meta-analysis of studies for restoring Good Ecological Status (GES) of water bodies under the Water Framework Directive (WFD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyllianakis, Emmanouil; Skuras, Dimitris

    2016-11-01

    The income elasticity of Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) is ambiguous and results from meta-analyses are disparate. This may be because the environmental good or service to be valued is very broadly defined or because the income measured in individual studies suffers from extensive non-reporting or miss reporting. The present study carries out a meta-analysis of WTP to restore Good Ecological Status (GES) under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). This environmental service is narrowly defined and its aims and objectives are commonly understood among the members of the scientific community. Besides income reported by the individual studies, wealth and income indicators collected by Eurostat for the geographic entities covered by the individual studies are used. Meta-regression analyses show that income is statistically significant, explains a substantial proportion of WTP variability and its elasticity is considerable in magnitude ranging from 0.6 to almost 1.7. Results are robust to variations in the sample of the individual studies participating in the meta-analysis, the econometric approach and the function form of the meta-regression. The choice of wealth or income measure is not that important as it is whether this measure is Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) adjusted among the individual studies.

  2. Method for the use of epiphytic diatoms in lakes following the requirements of the Water Framework Directive; Metodo de muestreo de diatomeas epifitas en lagunas para la aplicacion de la Directiva Marco del Agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Lanza, S.; Becares Mantecon, E.

    2006-07-01

    We propose a sampling method for the use of epiphytic diatoms as water quality indicators in lakes. This methodology will help in the assessment of ecological status in these aquatic systems following the requirements of the Water Framework Directive. The method is based on the use of Kornijow's samplers for the collection of epiphyton growing on helophytes. Preliminary results show the efficacy of this method for the evaluation of water quality. The application of this simple methodology will allow the use of epiphytic diatoms as biological indicators in a wide range of lacustrine environments, creating reproducible results in the long time and based on a common protocol easily applicable. (Author) 47 refs.

  3. Developing a water market readiness assessment framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Loch, Adam; Crase, Lin; Young, Mike; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2017-09-01

    Water markets are increasingly proposed as a demand-management strategy to deal with water scarcity. Water trading arrangements, on their own, are not about setting bio-physical limits to water-use. Nevertheless, water trading that mitigates scarcity constraints can assist regulators of water resources to keep water-use within limits at the lowest possible cost, and may reduce the cost of restoring water system health. While theoretically attractive, many practitioners have, at best, only a limited understanding of the practical usefulness of markets and how they might be most appropriately deployed. Using lessons learned from jurisdictions around the world where water markets have been implemented, this study attempts to fill the existing water market development gap and provide an initial framework (the water market readiness assessment (WMRA)) to describe the policy and administrative conditions/reforms necessary to enable governments/jurisdictions to develop water trading arrangements that are efficient, equitable and within sustainable limits. Our proposed framework consists of three key steps: 1) an assessment of hydrological and institutional needs; 2) a market evaluation, including assessment of development and implementation issues; and 3) the monitoring, continuous/review and assessment of future needs; with a variety of questions needing assessment at each stage. We apply the framework to three examples: regions in Australia, the United States and Spain. These applications indicate that WMRA can provide key information for water planners to consider on the usefulness of water trading processes to better manage water scarcity; but further practical applications and tests of the framework are required to fully evaluate its effectiveness.

  4. A changing framework for urban water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Janet G; Waite, T David; Luthy, Richard G; Drewes, Jörg E; Sedlak, David L

    2013-10-01

    Urban water infrastructure and the institutions responsible for its management have gradually evolved over the past two centuries. Today, they are under increasing stress as water scarcity and a growing recognition of the importance of factors other than the cost of service provision are forcing a reexamination of long-held ideas. Research and development that supports new technological approaches and more effective management strategies are needed to ensure that the emerging framework for urban water systems will meet future societal needs.

  5. New air quality guidelines: framework directive and daughter directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Fernández Patier

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The old Directives about air quality had some problems in their application, both in the management of ambient air quality and in the lack of public information. The new Directives, based in 96/62/EC Directive about assesment and management of ambient air resolve these problems. They are more strict in permited limit values of pollutants and establish new Directives for new pollutants. The new Directives have been transposed the national legislation in RD 1073/2002 of 18 October.

  6. Tunable water desalination across Graphene Oxide Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Adrien; Meunier, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    ``Water, water, everywhere, nor any drop to drink.'' wrote Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1798. Today's scientific advances in water desalination promise to change the second part of the sentence into ``and every drop to drink,'' by transforming sea water into fresh water and quench the thirst of 1.2B people facing shortages of water. To achieve this, the design of nanoporous materials with high water permeability and coupled with high salt rejection capacity is crucial. Graphene Oxide Frameworks (GOF) materials are a class of porous materials consisting of layers of graphene oxide sheets interconnected by linear boronic acid linkers. Water desalination across GOF is studied using classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. We used quantum mechanically obtained boron-related force field parameters to study the diffusion of water molecules inside bulk GOF. Properties, such as the self-diffusion coefficient of water molecules increases linearly with linker concentration n. Further, the desalination performance of GOF membranes reveals that the water permeability of GOF is several orders of magnitude higher than conventional membranes and an high water permeability can be coupled with a 100% efficiency of salt rejection by choosing the appropriate concentration n and thickness h.

  7. Scenario realism and welfare estimates in choice experiments--a non-market valuation study on the European water framework directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, M; Bateman, I; Christensen, T; Dubgaard, A; Hasler, B; Hime, S; Ladenburg, J; Levin, G; Martinsen, L; Nissen, C

    2012-02-01

    Using choice experiment data for economic valuation we analyse how disbelief in survey information could affect the retrieved welfare estimates. We distinguish between two types of survey information to the respondents. The first type of information concerns the current environmental status of a water body. This information is provided prior to the valuation questions and the corresponding beliefs in the provided information are also elicited before valuation. The second type of information concerns the proposed improvements in the environmental status of the water body. We find that average welfare measures differ considerably according to whether respondents who disagree with the status quo levels and find proposed scenarios unlikely are included or not.

  8. Steps toward nation-wide monitoring of non-indigenous species in Danish marine waters under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Kallenbach, Emilie; Hesselsøe, Martin

    This report is the outcome of MONIS 2 – or in full, “Monitoring of Non-Indigenous Species in Danish Marine Water, phase 2” – and includes three deliverable: (1) a national Target Species List including 50 species, (2) a draft Technical Guidance Report, and (3) in silico designed and tested primer...

  9. Steps toward nation-wide monitoring of non-indigenous species in Danish marine waters under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Møller, Peter Rask; Kallenbach, Emilie

    This report is the outcome of MONIS 2 – or in full, “Monitoring of Non-Indigenous Species in Danish Marine Water, phase 2” – and includes three deliverable: (1) a national Target Species List including 50 species, (2) a draft Technical Guidance Report, and (3) in silico designed and tested primers...

  10. Framework for Shared Drinking Water Risk Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peplinski, William John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Roger [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Binning, David [AEM Corp., Herndon, VA (United States); Meszaros, Jenny [AEM Corp., Herndon, VA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Central to protecting our nation's critical infrastructure is the development of methodologies for prioritizing action and supporting resource allocation decisions associated with risk-reduction initiatives. Toward this need a web-based risk assessment framework that promotes the anonymous sharing of results among water utilities is demonstrated. Anonymous sharing of results offers a number of potential advantages such as assistance in recognizing and correcting bias, identification of 'unknown, unknowns', self-assessment and benchmarking for the local utility, treatment of shared assets and/or threats across multiple utilities, and prioritization of actions beyond the scale of a single utility. The constructed framework was demonstrated for three water utilities. Demonstration results were then compared to risk assessment results developed using a different risk assessment application by a different set of analysts.

  11. A Dynamic Framework for Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Veena; Konar, Megan; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2017-04-01

    Water security is a multi-faceted problem, going beyond mere balancing of supply and demand. Conventional attempts to quantify water security starting rely on static indices at a particular place and point in time. While these are simple and scalable, they lack predictive or explanatory power. 1) Most static indices focus on specific spatial scales and largely ignore cross-scale feedbacks between human and water systems. 2) They fail to account for the increasing spatial specialization in the modern world - some regions are cities others are agricultural breadbaskets; so water security means different things in different places. Human adaptation to environmental change necessitates a dynamic view of water security. We present a framework that defines water security as an emergent outcome of a coupled socio-hydrologic system. Over the medium term (5-25 years), water security models might hold governance, culture and infrastructure constant, but allow humans to respond to changes and thus predict how water security would evolve. But over very long time-frames (25-100 years), a society's values, norms and beliefs themselves may themselves evolve; these in turn may prompt changes in policy, governance and infrastructure. Predictions of water security in the long term involve accounting for such regime shifts in the cultural and political context of a watershed by allowing the governing equations of the models to change.

  12. Application of the european water framework directive for the determination of the ecological quality of Alcanadre river and administration recommendations; Aplicaciond e la directiva europea del agua para la determinacion de la calidad ecologica dle rio Alcandre y recomendaciones de gesition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanaja, F. J.; Hernandez, C.; Bonilla, B.; Montull, B.

    2008-07-01

    Public entities, agricultural and industrial economic sectors, and ecosystems depend on the water supplied by the natural environment. The European Water Framework directive requirements, water demands and key surface water pollution problems identified in a river basin, lead to the need to develop a surface water quality indicator system. This tool allows the assessment of the pressure-state-impact of human activities on natural waters. It is shown that the most relevant questions for the implementation of an indicator system for the surface waters of this river basin are: eutrophication, bacterial contamination, presence of organic matter, oxidation state and organic metals coming from industrial wastewater discharges. (Author) 17 refs.

  13. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of ...

  14. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, Werner; Dulio, Valeria; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Allan, Ian; Altenburger, Rolf; Brinkmann, Markus; Bunke, Dirk; Burgess, Robert M.; Cousins, Ian; Escher, Beate I.; Hernández, Félix J.; Hewitt, L.M.; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Klauer, Bernd; Lindim, Claudia; Herráez, David López; Miège, Cécil; Munthe, John; O'Toole, Simon; Posthuma, Leo; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Sengl, Manfred; Smedes, Foppe; Meent, van de Dik; Brink, van den Paul J.; Gils, van Jos; Wezel, van Annemarie P.; Vethaak, A.D.; Vermeirssen, Etienne; Ohe, von der Peter C.; Vrana, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for

  15. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of ...

  16. Definition of the ecological status of Estanco River Basin (Antas de Ulla, Lugo, Spain) with Water Framework Directive; Definicion del estado ecologico de la cuenca del rio Estanco (Antas de Ulla, Lugo) segun la Directiva Marco del Agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muno Fafian, D.; Cuesta Garcia, T. S.; Cancela Barrio, J. J.; Marin Lopez, A.; Carballo, R.; Marin Lopez, A.; Neira Seijo, X. X.

    2007-07-01

    The Water Framework Directiva (WFD) extends the scope of protection to all water uses. The WDF defines the ecological status of water bodies by characterizing each water body type and establishing reference conditions for the quality elements. This paper identifies indicators for defining the ecological status of Estanco river Basin (Antas de Ulla, Lugo) by using the methodology proposed in the WFD. In additions, this study highlights the obstacles for a correct application of the WFD in the study river basin. this study presents conclusions about the usefulness of the WFD in the development of specific programmes for improving the ecological status of rivers. (Author) 16 refs.

  17. Indeterminate direction relation model based on fuzzy description framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The indetermination of direction relation is a hot topic for fuzzy GIS researchers. The existing models only study the effects of indetermination of spatial objects,but ignore the uncertainty of direction reference framework. In this paper,first a for-malized representation model of indeterminate spatial objects is designed based on quadruple (x,y,A,μ),then a fuzzy direction reference framework is constructed by revising the cone method,in which the partitions of direction tiles are smooth and continuous,and two neighboring sections are overlapped in the transitional zones with fuzzy method. Grounded on these,a fuzzy description model for indeterminate direction relation is proposed in which the uncertainty of all three parts (source object,reference object and reference frame) is taken into account simultaneously. In the end,case studies are implemented to test the rationality and validity of the model.

  18. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. K.

    2015-11-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative efforts have the potential to achieve this goal through more efficient use of common pool resources and access to funding opportunities for supply diversification projects. However, this requires a paradigm shift towards holistic solutions that address the complexity of hydrologic, socio-economic and governance dynamics surrounding water management issues. The objective of this work is to develop a regional integrative framework for the assessment of water resource sustainability under current management practices, as well as to identify opportunities for sustainability improvement in coupled socio-hydrologic systems. We define the sustainability of a water utility as the ability to access reliable supplies to consistently satisfy current needs, make responsible use of supplies, and have the capacity to adapt to future scenarios. To compute a quantitative measure of sustainability, we develop a numerical index comprised of supply, demand, and adaptive capacity indicators, including an innovative way to account for the importance of having diverse supply sources. We demonstrate the application of this framework to the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Our analyses demonstrate that water agencies that share common water supplies are in a good position to establish integrative regional management partnerships in order to achieve individual and collective short-term and long-term benefits.

  19. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gonzales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative efforts have the potential to achieve this goal through more efficient use of common pool resources and access to funding opportunities for supply diversification projects. However, this requires a paradigm shift towards holistic solutions that address the complexity of hydrologic, socio-economic and governance dynamics surrounding water management issues. The objective of this work is to develop a regional integrative framework for the assessment of water resource sustainability under current management practices, as well as to identify opportunities for sustainability improvement in coupled socio-hydrologic systems. We define the sustainability of a water utility as the ability to access reliable supplies to consistently satisfy current needs, make responsible use of supplies, and have the capacity to adapt to future scenarios. To compute a quantitative measure of sustainability, we develop a numerical index comprised of supply, demand, and adaptive capacity indicators, including an innovative way to account for the importance of having diverse supply sources. We demonstrate the application of this framework to the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Our analyses demonstrate that water agencies that share common water supplies are in a good position to establish integrative regional management partnerships in order to achieve individual and collective short-term and long-term benefits.

  20. Aerosol water parameterization: a single parameter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, S.; Steil, B.; Abdelkader, M.; Klingmüller, K.; Xu, L.; Penner, J. E.; Fountoukis, C.; Nenes, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a framework to efficiently parameterize the aerosol water uptake for mixtures of semi-volatile and non-volatile compounds, based on the coefficient, νi. This solute specific coefficient was introduced in Metzger et al. (2012) to accurately parameterize the single solution hygroscopic growth, considering the Kelvin effect - accounting for the water uptake of concentrated nanometer sized particles up to dilute solutions, i.e., from the compounds relative humidity of deliquescence (RHD) up to supersaturation (Köhler-theory). Here we extend the νi-parameterization from single to mixed solutions. We evaluate our framework at various levels of complexity, by considering the full gas-liquid-solid partitioning for a comprehensive comparison with reference calculations using the E-AIM, EQUISOLV II, ISORROPIA II models as well as textbook examples. We apply our parameterization in EQSAM4clim, the EQuilibrium Simplified Aerosol Model V4 for climate simulations, implemented in a box model and in the global chemistry-climate model EMAC. Our results show: (i) that the νi-approach enables to analytically solve the entire gas-liquid-solid partitioning and the mixed solution water uptake with sufficient accuracy, (ii) that, e.g., pure ammonium nitrate and mixed ammonium nitrate - ammonium sulfate mixtures can be solved with a simple method, and (iii) that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) simulations are in close agreement with remote sensing observations for the year 2005. Long-term evaluation of the EMAC results based on EQSAM4clim and ISORROPIA II will be presented separately.

  1. Aerosol water parameterisation: a single parameter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Swen; Steil, Benedikt; Abdelkader, Mohamed; Klingmüller, Klaus; Xu, Li; Penner, Joyce E.; Fountoukis, Christos; Nenes, Athanasios; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a framework to efficiently parameterise the aerosol water uptake for mixtures of semi-volatile and non-volatile compounds, based on the coefficient, νi. This solute-specific coefficient was introduced in Metzger et al. (2012) to accurately parameterise the single solution hygroscopic growth, considering the Kelvin effect - accounting for the water uptake of concentrated nanometer-sized particles up to dilute solutions, i.e. from the compounds relative humidity of deliquescence (RHD) up to supersaturation (Köhler theory). Here we extend the νi parameterisation from single to mixed solutions. We evaluate our framework at various levels of complexity, by considering the full gas-liquid-solid partitioning for a comprehensive comparison with reference calculations using the E-AIM, EQUISOLV II and ISORROPIA II models as well as textbook examples. We apply our parameterisation in the EQuilibrium Simplified Aerosol Model V4 (EQSAM4clim) for climate simulations, implemented in a box model and in the global chemistry-climate model EMAC. Our results show (i) that the νi approach enables one to analytically solve the entire gas-liquid-solid partitioning and the mixed solution water uptake with sufficient accuracy, (ii) that ammonium sulfate mixtures can be solved with a simple method, e.g. pure ammonium nitrate and mixed ammonium nitrate and (iii) that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) simulations are in close agreement with remote sensing observations for the year 2005. Long-term evaluation of the EMAC results based on EQSAM4clim and ISORROPIA II will be presented separately.

  2. Bringing Water into an Integrated Assessment Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Sands, Ronald; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2010-11-30

    We developed a modeling capability to understand how water is allocated within a river basin and examined present and future water allocations among agriculture, energy production, other human requirements, and ecological needs. Water is an essential natural resource needed for food and fiber production, household and industrial uses, energy production, transportation, tourism and recreation, and the functioning of natural ecosystems. Anthropogenic climate change and population growth are anticipated to impose unprecedented pressure on water resources during this century. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers have pioneered the development of integrated assessment (IA) models for the analysis of energy and economic systems under conditions of climate change. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort led to the development of a modeling capability to evaluate current and future water allocations between human requirements and ecosystem services. The Water Prototype Model (WPM) was built in STELLA®, a computer modeling package with a powerful interface that enables users to construct dynamic models to simulate and integrate many processes (biological, hydrological, economics, sociological). A 150,404-km2 basin in the United States (U.S.) Pacific Northwest region served as the platform for the development of the WPM. About 60% of the study basin is in the state of Washington with the rest in Oregon. The Columbia River runs through the basin for 874 km, starting at the international border with Canada and ending (for the purpose of the simulation) at The Dalles dam. Water enters the basin through precipitation and from streamflows originating from the Columbia River at the international border with Canada, the Spokane River, and the Snake River. Water leaves the basin through evapotranspiration, consumptive uses (irrigation, livestock, domestic, commercial, mining, industrial, and off-stream power generation), and streamflow

  3. Analytic TOF PET reconstruction algorithm within DIRECT data partitioning framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matej, Samuel; Daube-Witherspoon, Margaret E.; Karp, Joel S.

    2016-05-01

    Iterative reconstruction algorithms are routinely used for clinical practice; however, analytic algorithms are relevant candidates for quantitative research studies due to their linear behavior. While iterative algorithms also benefit from the inclusion of accurate data and noise models the widespread use of time-of-flight (TOF) scanners with less sensitivity to noise and data imperfections make analytic algorithms even more promising. In our previous work we have developed a novel iterative reconstruction approach (DIRECT: direct image reconstruction for TOF) providing convenient TOF data partitioning framework and leading to very efficient reconstructions. In this work we have expanded DIRECT to include an analytic TOF algorithm with confidence weighting incorporating models of both TOF and spatial resolution kernels. Feasibility studies using simulated and measured data demonstrate that analytic-DIRECT with appropriate resolution and regularization filters is able to provide matched bias versus variance performance to iterative TOF reconstruction with a matched resolution model.

  4. Analytic TOF PET reconstruction algorithm within DIRECT data partitioning framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matej, Samuel; Daube-Witherspoon, Margaret E; Karp, Joel S

    2016-05-07

    Iterative reconstruction algorithms are routinely used for clinical practice; however, analytic algorithms are relevant candidates for quantitative research studies due to their linear behavior. While iterative algorithms also benefit from the inclusion of accurate data and noise models the widespread use of time-of-flight (TOF) scanners with less sensitivity to noise and data imperfections make analytic algorithms even more promising. In our previous work we have developed a novel iterative reconstruction approach (DIRECT: direct image reconstruction for TOF) providing convenient TOF data partitioning framework and leading to very efficient reconstructions. In this work we have expanded DIRECT to include an analytic TOF algorithm with confidence weighting incorporating models of both TOF and spatial resolution kernels. Feasibility studies using simulated and measured data demonstrate that analytic-DIRECT with appropriate resolution and regularization filters is able to provide matched bias versus variance performance to iterative TOF reconstruction with a matched resolution model.

  5. A drinking water quality framework for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality Framework for South Africa to enable effective management of drinking water quality and the protection of public health. ... to monitor, manage, communicate and regulate drinking water quality. ... Inadequate WSA institutional capacity (staffing, funding, .... Although demonstrating compliance with regulatory limits.

  6. Applying Telecoupling Framework for Urban Water Sustainability Research and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Hyndman, D. W.; Winkler, J. A.; Viña, A.; Deines, J.; Lupi, F.; Luo, L.; Li, Y.; Basso, B.; Zheng, C.; Ma, D.; Li, S.; Liu, X.; Zheng, H.; Cao, G.; Meng, Q.; Ouyang, Z.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Urban areas, especially megacities (those with populations greater than 10 million), are hotspots of global water use and thus face intense water management challenges. Urban areas are influenced by local interactions between human and natural systems and also interact with distant systems through flows of water, food, energy, people, information, and capital. However, analyses of water sustainability and the management of water flows in urban areas are often fragmented. There is a strong need for applying integrated frameworks to systematically analyze urban water dynamics and factors influencing these dynamics. Here, we apply the framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances) to analyze urban water issues, using Beijing as a demonstration city. Beijing exemplifies the global water sustainability challenge for urban settings. Like many other cities, Beijing has experienced drastic reductions in quantity and quality of both surface water and groundwater over the past several decades; it relies on the import of real and virtual water from sending systems to meet its demand for clean water, and releases polluted water to other systems (spillover systems). The integrated framework presented here demonstrates the importance of considering socioeconomic and environmental interactions across telecoupled human and natural systems, which include not only Beijing (the water receiving system), but also water sending systems and spillover systems. This framework helps integrate important components of local and distant human-nature interactions and incorporates a wide range of local couplings and telecouplings that affect water dynamics, which in turn generate significant socioeconomic and environmental consequences including feedback effects. The application of the framework to Beijing reveals many research gaps and management needs. This study also provides a foundation to apply the telecoupling framework to better understand and

  7. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the ecosystem-based approach - pitfalls and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Torsten; FURHAUPTER Karin; GONCALVES TEIXEIRA HELIANA; Uusitalo, Laura; ZAMPOUKAS NIKOLAOS

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims at good environmental status (GES) in marine waters, following an ecosystem-based approach, focused on 11 descriptors related to ecosystem features, human drivers and pressures. Furthermore, 29 subordinate criteria and 56 attributes are detailed in an EU Commission Decision. The analysis of the Decision and the associated operational indicators revealed ambiguity in the use of terms, such as indicator, impact and habitat and c...

  8. Soil and Water Conservation for a Better America. A Framework Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Through this framework plan, the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) takes a look ahead to its soil and water conservation mission, a look at its direction and thrust in helping create a desirable America in the decades ahead. The plan attempts to define the nature of soil and water conservation efforts, to put them in perspective, and to present a…

  9. Implementing the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive: Scientific challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Alice; Borja, Angel; Solidoro, Cosimo; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD; EC, 2008) is an ambitious European policy instrument that aims to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in the 5,720,000 km2 of European seas by 2020, using an Ecosystem Approach. GES is to be assessed using 11 descriptors and up to 56 indicators (European Commission, 2010), and the goal is for clean, healthy and productive seas that are the basis for marine-based development, known as Blue-Growth. The MSFD is one of many policy instruments, such as the Water Framework Directive, the Common Fisheries Policy and the Habitats Directive that, together, should result in "Healthy Oceans and Productive Ecosystems - HOPE". Researchers working together with stakeholders such as the Member States environmental agencies, the European Environmental Agency, and the Regional Sea Conventions, are to provide the scientific knowledge basis for the implementation of the MSFD. This represents both a fascinating challenge and a stimulating opportunity.

  10. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  11. Direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, S. [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. Republica, Qta. do Marques (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Leitao, C. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Penetra, A.; Cardoso, V.V.; Ferreira, E.; Benoliel, M.J. [Empresa Portuguesa das Aguas Livres, S.A., Avenida de Berlim, 15, 1800-031 Lisboa (Portugal); Crespo, M.T. Barreto [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. Republica, Qta. do Marques (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Pereira, V.J., E-mail: vanessap@itqb.unl.pt [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. Republica, Qta. do Marques (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Low pressure UV photolysis can be used by drinking water utilities to degrade PAHs. {yields} Real water matrices with different compositions were tested. {yields} Photolysis kinetic parameters and by-product formation are described. {yields} The formation of photolysis by-products is highly dependent on the source waters. - Abstract: The widely used low pressure lamps were tested in terms of their efficiency to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons listed as priority pollutants by the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in water matrices with very different compositions (laboratory grade water, groundwater, and surface water). Using a UV fluence of 1500 mJ/cm{sup 2}, anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene were efficiently degraded, with much higher percent removals obtained when present in groundwater (83-93%) compared to surface water (36-48%). The removal percentages obtained for fluoranthene were lower and ranged from 13 to 54% in the different water matrices tested. Several parameters that influence the direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined and their photolysis by-products were identified by mass spectrometry. The formation of photolysis by-products was found to be highly dependent on the source waters tested.

  12. New directions in water resources management: The role of water pricing policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Eva; Blanco, MaríA.

    2008-06-01

    Water resources will face increasing competition and higher environmental concerns during this century. To meet these challenges, the new Water Framework Directive has drawn up an integrated framework and established the basic principles for a sustainable water policy in the European Union. The introduction of water prices reflecting the true cost of irrigation is one of its most innovative components. In this paper, a positive mathematical programming model is developed to assess the environmental and socio-economic impacts of water pricing policies in Spanish irrigated lands. The model interface allows friendly use and easy replication in a large number of irrigation districts, selected throughout the Spanish territory. The model results show the impact on environmental indicators, water consumption, cropping patterns, technology adoption, labor, farmers' income, and the water agency revenues when different scenarios of cost recovery are considered. It is argued that this modeling approach may be used as a management tool to assist in the implementation of the cost recovery approach of the new Water Framework Directive.

  13. Developing a national framework for safe drinking water--case study from Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-03-01

    Safe drinking water is one of the fundaments of society and experience has shown that a holistic national framework is needed for its effective provision. A national framework should include legal requirements on water protection, surveillance on drinking water quality and performance of the water supply system, and systematic preventive management. Iceland has implemented these requirements into legislation. This case study analyzes the success and challenges encountered in implementing the legislation and provide recommendations on the main shortcomings identified through the Icelandic experience. The results of the analysis show that the national framework for safe drinking water is mostly in place in Iceland. The shortcomings include the need for both improved guidance and control by the central government; and for improved surveillance of the water supply system and implementation of the water safety plan by the Local Competent Authorities. Communication to the public and between stakeholders is also insufficient. There is also a deficiency in the national framework regarding small water supply systems that needs to be addressed. Other elements are largely in place or on track. Most of the lessons learned are transferable to other European countries where the legal system around water safety is built on a common foundation from EU directives. The lessons can also provide valuable insights into how to develop a national framework elsewhere.

  14. Identification of sources of priority substances set out in Article 16 of the Water Framework Directive and estimation of their discharges into the German aquatic environment; Ermittlung der Quellen fuer die prioritaeren Stoffe nach Artikel 16 der Wasserrahmenrichtlinie und Abschaetzung ihrer Eintragsmengen in die Gewaesser in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Mueller, B.; Wiederhold, J.; Herrchen, M.; Klein, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is a new instrument, that inter alia has replaced, harmonized and further developed the control and reduction of point and diffuse discharges of dangerous substances according to Council Directive 76/464/EEC. Article 16 of the Water Framework Directive set out a 'Strategy against pollution of water' which demands specific measures against pollution of water by individual pollutants or groups of pollutants presenting a significant risk to or via the aquatic environment (e.g. by drinking water consumed). For these priority substances community-wide water quality standards and emission controls have to be established. On the basis of Article 16 of Directive 2000/60/EC a list of 33 priority substances has been adopted by the decision of the European Parliament and of the Council of November 2001. This list identifies 11 priority hazardous substances, 14 substances subject to a review for identification as possible priority hazardous substance and 8 priority substances. The Commission will make a proposal for the final classification of the 'substances subject to a review' (priority hazardous or priority substances) not later than 12 months after adoption of this list. The planned measures aim at the cessation or phasing out of discharges, emissions and losses to the aquatic environment within 20 years for the priority hazardous substances and at the progressive reduction for the priority substances. In this project the available data for these 33 substances resp. groups of substances for the Federal Republic of Germany were put forward and described in a standardized pattern. This pattern includes the following items: nomenclature and properties of the substances, monitoring data, production and fields of application of these substances, existing regulations in Germany, releases to environment and possibilities to reduce discharges to the aquatic environment. The basis of the data is the year 2000 as far as

  15. An Integrated Framework for Assessment of Hybrid Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Sapkota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban water managers around the world are adopting decentralized water supply systems, often in combination with centralized systems. While increasing demand for water arising from population growth is one of the primary reasons for this increased adoption of alternative technologies, factors such as climate change, increased frequency of extreme weather events and rapid urbanization also contribute to an increased rate of adoption of these technologies. This combination of centralized-decentralized water systems approach is referred to as “hybrid water supply systems” and is based on the premise that the provision of alternative water sources at local scales can both extend the capacity of existing centralized water supply infrastructures, and improve resilience to variable climatic conditions. It is important to understand, however, that decentralized water production and reuse may change the flow and composition of wastewater and stormwater, thereby potentially also having negative impacts on its effectiveness and performance. This paper describes a framework to assess the interactions between decentralized water supply systems and existing centralized water servicing approaches using several analytical tools, including water balance modelling, contaminant balance modelling and multi-criteria decision analysis. The framework enables the evaluation of impacts due to change in quantity and quality of wastewater and stormwater on the existing centralized system arising from the implementation of hybrid water supply systems. The framework consists of two parts: (1 Physical system analysis for various potential scenarios and (2 Ranking of Scenarios. This paper includes the demonstration of the first part of the framework for an area of Melbourne, Australia by comparing centralized water supply scenario with a combination of centralized water supply and reuse of treated waste water supply scenario.

  16. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative ef...

  17. Urban water transactions: the search of a comprehensive framework for interactions between water and urban systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, Hector; Domínguez, Efraín

    2013-04-01

    authors - faces two main limitations: (1) Most of water urban-water interactions occur at temporal or spatial scales associated with groups of cities - the urban system - rather than at the scale of an individual city, (2) Water, as a renewable resource, imposes some conceptual difficulties to quantify its availability if seen only through the lens of "metabolism" or "budget", because many water related activities use, but don't consume water. Understand this changes requires the integration of complementary metrics, such as variations in flow, energy or quality regime of a water systems. The Urban Water Transaction (UWT) framework is proposed as conceptual tool to set a common ground for the different types of direct and indirect interactions of urban systems and water, and to study the urban system properties associated with water integration. Import and export flows constitute the primary and most common examples of UWT that fundamentally occur at the Watershed level, and are mediated mostly by physical hydroclimatic water cycles and human basic water needs. However, with the advent of more complex systems of cities and their supporting water dependent systems, indirect, wider range and legacy flows such as hydrological regimes redistribution, virtual water flows and quality changes, are integrated through the concept of water transactions. In the view of the authors, the importance of this framework deals three aspects of study of the urbanization phenomena: The coupling characteristics urban systems and hydrological systems, the patterns in urban system as a result of the influence of water related constraints and the identification of urban systems properties that result critical towards the long-term viability of water resources.

  18. Heat Transfer in Directional Water Transport Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Directional water transport fabrics can proactively transfer moisture from the body. They show great potential in making sportswear and summer clothing. While moisture transfer has been previously reported, heat transfer in directional water transport fabrics has been little reported in research literature. In this study, a directional water transport fabric was prepared using an electrospraying technique and its heat transfer properties under dry and wet states were evaluated, and compared with untreated control fabric and the one pre-treated with NaOH. All the fabric samples showed similar heat transfer features in the dry state, and the equilibrium temperature in the dry state was higher than for the wet state. Wetting considerably enhanced the thermal conductivity of the fabrics. Our studies indicate that directional water transport treatment assists in moving water toward one side of the fabric, but has little effect on thermal transfer performance. This study may be useful for development of “smart” textiles for various applications.

  19. Global energy consumption for direct water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Miralles, D. G.; Teuling, R.; He, Y.; Niyogi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Despite significant efforts to quantify the mutual inter-dependence of the water and energy sectors, global energy for water (EFW) remains poorly understood, resulting in biases in energy accounting that directly affect water and energy management and policy. We firstly evaluate the global energy consumption for direct water use from 1973 to 2012 with sectoral, regional and process-level details. Over the 40-year period, we detected multiple shifts in EFW by county and region. For example, we find that India, the Middle East and China have surpassed the United States as the three largest consumers of EFW since 2003, mostly because of rapid growth in groundwater-based irrigation, desalination, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. Globally, EFW accounts for 1-3% of total primary energy consumption in 2010, of which 52% is surface water, 36% is groundwater, and 12% is non-fresh water. The sectoral allocation of EFW includes municipal (45%), industrial (29%), and agricultural use (26%), and process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (41%), water purification (19%), water distribution (13%) and wastewater treatment (22%). Our evaluation suggests that the EFW may increase in importance in the future due to growth in population and income, and depletion of surface and shallow aquifer water resources in water-scarce regions. We are incorporating this element into an integrated assessment model (IAM) and linking it back to energy balance within that IAM. By doing this, we will then explore the impacts of EFW on the global energy market (e.g., changes in the share of groundwater use and desalination), and the uncertainty of future EFW under different shared social pathway (SSP) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios, and consequences on the emission of greenhouse gases as well. We expect these EFW induced impacts will be considerable, and will then have significant implications for adaptive management and policy making.

  20. A National Modeling Framework for Water Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, J. D.; Cline, D. W.; Pietrowsky, R.

    2013-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), all Federal agencies with complementary water-resources activities, entered into an Interagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) "Collaborative Science Services and Tools to Support Integrated and Adaptive Water Resources Management" to collaborate in activities that are supportive to their respective missions. One of the interagency activities is the development of a highly integrated national water modeling framework and information services framework. Together these frameworks establish a common operating picture, improve modeling and synthesis, support the sharing of data and products among agencies, and provide a platform for incorporation of new scientific understanding. Each of the agencies has existing operational systems to assist in carrying out their respective missions. The systems generally are designed, developed, tested, fielded, and supported by specialized teams. A broader, shared approach is envisioned and would include community modeling, wherein multiple independent investigators or teams develop and contribute new modeling capabilities based on science advances; modern technology in coupling model components and visualizing results; and a coupled atmospheric - hydrologic model construct such that the framework could be used in real-time water-resources decision making or for long-term management decisions. The framework also is being developed to account for organizational structures of the three partners such that, for example, national data sets can move down to the regional scale, and vice versa. We envision the national water modeling framework to be an important element of North American Water Program, to contribute to goals of the Program, and to be informed by the science and approaches developed as a part of the Program.

  1. Template-Framework Interactions in Tetraethylammonium-Directed Zeolite Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Joel E.; Fu, Donglong; Deem, Michael W.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2016-01-01

    Zeolites, having widespread applications in chemical industries, are often synthesized using organic templates. These can be cost-prohibitive, motivating investigations into their role in promoting crystallization. Herein, the relationship between framework structure, chemical composition, synthesis

  2. Alcohol and water adsorption in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol) and water vapor adsorption in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF-8, ZIF-71 and ZIF-90) with similar crystal sizes was systematically studied. The feasibility of applying these ZIF materials to the recovery of bio-alcohols is evaluated by estimating the vapor-phase alcohol-water sorption selectivity. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Framework for continuous performance improvement in small drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Haider, Husnain; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Continuous performance improvement (CPI) can be a useful approach to overcome water quality problems impacting small communities. Small drinking water systems (SDWSs) struggle to meet regulatory requirements and often lack the economic and human resource flexibility for immediate improvement. A CPI framework is developed to provide SDWS managers and operators an approach to gauge their current performance against similar systems and to track performance improvement from the implementation of the new technologies or innovations into the future. The proposed CPI framework incorporates the use of a water quality index (WQI) and functional performance benchmarking to evaluate and compare drinking water quality performance of an individual water utility against that of a representative benchmark. The results are then used to identify and prioritize the most vulnerable water quality indicators and subsequently identify and prioritize performance improvement strategies. The proposed CPI framework has been demonstrated using data collected from SDWSs in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada and using the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) WQI.

  4. A quantitative framework for estimating water resources in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.; Kotamraju, V.; Shetye, S.R.

    . At the core of the framework is a hydrological routing model (HYDRA (Coe, 1998; Coe, 2000)) that has been used to study the water balance of basins on various scales, ranging from a few square kilometres to continents. The basic data needed for implementing...

  5. Template–Framework Interactions in Tetraethylammonium‐Directed Zeolite Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Joel E.; Fu, Donglong; Deem, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Zeolites, having widespread applications in chemical industries, are often synthesized using organic templates. These can be cost‐prohibitive, motivating investigations into their role in promoting crystallization. Herein, the relationship between framework structure, chemical composition, synthesis conditions and the conformation of the occluded, economical template tetraethylammonium (TEA+) has been systematically examined by experimental and computational means. The results show two distinct regimes of occluded conformer tendencies: 1) In frameworks with a large stabilization energy difference, only a single conformer was found (BEA, LTA and MFI). 2) In the frameworks with small stabilization energy differences (AEI, AFI, CHA and MOR), less than the interconversion of TEA+ in solution, a heteroatom‐dependent (Al, B, Co, Mn, Ti, Zn) distribution of conformers was observed. These findings demonstrate that host–guest chemistry principles, including electrostatic interactions and coordination chemistry, are as important as ideal pore‐filling. PMID:27874242

  6. The DPSIR Framework and a Pressure-Oriented Water Quality Monitoring Approach to Ecological River Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Frostell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Without monitoring anthropogenic pressures on the water environment, it is difficult to set realistic river restoration targets in relation to water quality. Therefore a more holistic approach is needed to systematically explore the links between socio-economic drivers and observed water quality-related impacts on river ecosystems. Using the DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State of the Environment-Impacts-Responses framework, this study linked ecological river restoration with the socio-economic sector, with the focus on promoting a pressure-oriented water quality monitoring system. Based on the European Water Framework Directive (WFD and relevant literature, it was found that most water quality-related indicators employed today are state/impacts-oriented, while very few are pressure-oriented. As a response, we call for more attention to a DPR (Drivers-Pressures-Responses framework in developing an industrial ecology-based pressure-oriented water quality monitoring system for aiding ecological river restoration planning. This approach is characterized in general by accounting for material-related flows throughout the socio-economic sector in relation to river ecosystem degradation. Then the obtained information would help decision makers take appropriate measures to alleviate various significant human-induced wastes and emissions at their sources. We believe that such a pressure-oriented monitoring system will substantially complement traditional state/impacts-oriented environmental and ecological monitoring and help develop more proactive planning and decision-making processes for specific river restoration projects and general water quality management.

  7. Constructing covalent organic frameworks in water via dynamic covalent bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thote, Jayshri; Barike Aiyappa, Harshitha; Rahul Kumar, Raya; Kandambeth, Sharath; Biswal, Bishnu P.; Balaji Shinde, Digambar; Chaki Roy, Neha; Banerjee, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    The formation of keto-enamine based crystalline, porous polymers in water is investigated for the first time. Facile access to the Schiff base reaction in water has been exploited to synthesize stable porous structures using the principles of Dynamic Covalent Chemistry (DCC). Most credibly, the water-based Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs) possess chemical as well as physical properties such as crystallinity, surface area and porosity, which is comparable to their solvothermal counterparts. The formation of COFs in water is further investigated by understanding the nature of the monomers formed using hydroxy and non-hydroxy analogues of the aldehyde. This synthetic route paves a new way to synthesize COFs using a viable, greener route by utilization of the DCC principles in conjunction with the keto–enol tautomerism to synthesize useful, stable and porous COFs in water. PMID:27840679

  8. Water adsorption and proton conduction in metal-organic frameworks: Insights from molecular simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesani, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a relatively new class of porous materials that hold great potential for a wide range of applications in chemistry, materials science, and nanoengineering. Compared to other porous materials such as zeolites, MOF properties are highly tunable. In particular, it has been shown that both size and shape of the MOF pores can be rationally designed for specific applications. For example, the ability to modify the framework properties with respect to hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and acidity/basicity can enable the direct control of proton conduction through carrier molecules adsorbed inside the pores. Here, I report on our current efforts aimed at providing a molecular-level characterization of water-mediated proton conduction through the MOF pores. Particular emphasis will be put on correlation between proton conduction and both structural and chemical properties of the frameworks as well as on the dynamical behavior of water confined in the MOF pores. NSF award number: DMR-130510

  9. Implementation of Theeuropeanwater Framework Directive In France: New Challenges For River Basin Organisat Ion, Planning and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, S.

    The European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) establishes a system of participatory river basin planning for national and international basins. The French institutional framework for water management is already very close to this system: the 1964 Water Law actually set up basin bodies, the Agences de l'Eau ("Water Agencies"), at the level of large river basins, and multipartite basin commissions, the Comités de Bassin ("River Basin Authorities"), in order to monitor the Agences de l'Eau's policies; besides, the 1992 Water Law created a planning procedure at this level, the Schéma Directeur d'Aménagement et de Gestion des Eaux (SDAGE : "General Water Management Plan"), aiming to determine general orientations for the management of water resources and having to be defined by the Comités de Bassin. At first glance therefore, the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive should not raise a lot of problems in France. However, a quick analysis of the current situation shows that it is not so obvious : if the French Water Policy set up two basin organisations, neither of them deals concretely with the management of the water resources, and the implementation of water management plans depends on many stakeholders; the SDAGE itself only partially meets the demands of the Directive, regarding e. g. the economic analysis; finally, in spite of the creation of multipartite basin commissions, the public participation is very restricted. Such an analysis leads to pay more attention to the relations to establish between organisation, planning and participation at the level of large river basins. An analysis of other elements of the French institutional framework can help us in this way : another planning procedure was actually created by the 1992 Water Law, the Schéma d'Aménagement et de Gestion des Eaux (SAGE : "Water Management Plan"), aiming to fix general objectives to manage the water resources at the level of small river basins, and having to be

  10. A Seamless Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Fisher, C. K.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ('From Observations to Decisions') recognizes that 'water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity', and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the development of a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions

  11. Tunable water desalination across Graphene Oxide Framework membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolai, Adrien [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

    2014-01-01

    The performance of graphene oxide framework (GOF) membranes for water desalination is assessed using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The coupling between water permeability and salt rejection GOF membranes is studied as a function of linker concentration n, thickness h and applied pressure DP. The simulations reveal that water permeability in GOF-(n,h) membranes can be tuned from 5 (n = 32 and h = 6.5 nm) to 400 L/cm2/day/MPa (n = 64 and h = 2.5 nm) and follows the law Cnh an . For a given pore size (n = 16 or 32), water permeability of GOF membranes increases when the pore spacing decreases, whereas for a given pore spacing (n = 32 or 64), water permeability increases by up to two orders of magnitude when the pore size increases. Furthermore, for linker concentrations n 32, the high water permeability corresponds to a 100% salt rejection, elevating this type of GOF membrane as an ideal candidate for water desalination. Compared to experimental performance of reverse osmosis membranes, our calculations suggest that under the same conditions of applied pressure and characteristics of membranes (DP 10 MPa and h 100 nm), one can expect a perfect salt rejection coupled to a water permeability two orders of magnitude higher than existing technologies, i.e., from a few cL/cm2/day/MPa to a few L/cm2/day/MPa.

  12. Water Resilience by Design: A water infrastructure planning framework for developing sustainable water management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.; Ray, P. A.; Freeman, S.

    2016-12-01

    Societal need for improved water management and concerns for the long-term sustainability of water resources systems are prominent around the world. The continued susceptibility of society to the harmful effects of hydrologic variability, pervasive concerns related to climate change and the emergent awareness of devastating effects of current practice on aquatic ecosystems all illustrate our limited understanding of how water ought to be managed in a dynamic world. To address these challenges, new problem solving approaches are required that acknowledge uncertainties, incorporate best available information, and link engineering design principles, typically based on determinism, with our best geoscience-based understanding of planetary change. In this presentation, we present and demonstrate a framework for developing water planning and management strategies that are resilient in the face of future uncertainties and our limited ability to anticipate the future. The approach begins with stakeholder engagement and decision framing to elicit relevant context, uncertainties, choices and connections that drive planning and serve as an entry point to exploring possible futures. The result is the development of water strategies that are informed by the best available predictive information and designed to perform well over a future of change. Examples from around the world are presented to illustrate the methodology.

  13. Overview of eutrophication indicators to assess environmental status within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João G.; Andersen, Jesper H.; Borja, Angel; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Camp, Jordi; Cardoso da Silva, Margarida; Garcés, Esther; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Humborg, Christoph; Ignatiades, Lydia; Lancelot, Christiane; Menesguen, Alain; Tett, Paul; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Claussen, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    In 2009, following approval of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission (EC) created task groups to develop guidance for eleven quality descriptors that form the basis for evaluating ecosystem function. The objective was to provide European countries with practical guidelines for implementing the MSFD, and to produce a Commission Decision that encapsulated key points of the work in a legal framework. This paper presents a review of work carried out by the eutrophication task group, and reports our main findings to the scientific community. On the basis of an operational, management-oriented definition, we discuss the main methodologies that could be used for coastal and marine eutrophication assessment. Emphasis is placed on integrated approaches that account for physico-chemical and biological components, and combine both pelagic and benthic symptoms of eutrophication, in keeping with the holistic nature of the MSFD. We highlight general features that any marine eutrophication model should possess, rather than making specific recommendations. European seas range from highly eutrophic systems such as the Baltic to nutrient-poor environments such as the Aegean Sea. From a physical perspective, marine waters range from high energy environments of the north east Atlantic to the permanent vertical stratification of the Black Sea. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of European seas, and that this information is potentially relevant in marine ecosystems worldwide. Given the spatial extent of the MSFD, innovative approaches are required to allow meaningful monitoring and assessment. Consequently, substantial logistic and financial challenges will drive research in areas such as remote sensing of harmful algal blooms, in situ sensor development, and mathematical models. Our review takes into

  14. A Hybrid Framework using RBF and SVM for Direct Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Govidarajan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available one of the major developments in machine learning in the past decade is the ensemble method, which finds highly accurate classifier by combining many moderately accurate component classifiers. This paper addresses using an ensemble of classification methods for direct marketing. Direct marketing has become an important application field for data mining. In direct marketing, companies or organizations try to establish and maintain a direct relationship with their customers in order to target them individually for specific product offers or for fund raising. A variety of techniques have been employed for analysis ranging from traditional statistical methods to data mining approaches. In this research work, new hybrid classification method is proposed by combining classifiers in a heterogeneous environment using arcing classifier and their performances are analyzed in terms of accuracy. A Classifier ensemble is designed using Radial Basis Function (RBF and Support Vector Machine (SVM as base classifiers. Here, modified training sets are formed by resampling from original training set; classifiers constructed using these training sets and then combined by voting. Empirical results illustrate that the proposed hybrid systems provide more accurate direct marketing system.

  15. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the ecosystem-based approach – pitfalls and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Torsten; Fürhaupter, Karin; Teixeira, Heliana; Uusitalo, Laura; Zampoukas, Nikolaos

    2015-07-15

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims at good environmental status (GES) in marine waters, following an ecosystem-based approach, focused on 11 descriptors related to ecosystem features, human drivers and pressures. Furthermore, 29 subordinate criteria and 56 attributes are detailed in an EU Commission Decision. The analysis of the Decision and the associated operational indicators revealed ambiguity in the use of terms, such as indicator, impact and habitat and considerable overlap of indicators assigned to various descriptors and criteria. We suggest re-arrangement and elimination of redundant criteria and attributes avoiding double counting in the subsequent indicator synthesis, a clear distinction between pressure and state descriptors and addition of criteria on ecosystem services and functioning. Moreover, we suggest the precautionary principle should be followed for the management of pressures and an evidence-based approach for monitoring state as well as reaching and maintaining GES. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Toward Nexus Equation: A Conceptual and Mathematical Framework for Water- Energy-Food Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Najm, Majdi; Higgins, Chad

    2016-04-01

    Water, energy, and agriculture are highly interdependent that attempts to achieve sustainability in any of those three domains will directly impact the others. These interdependencies, collectively known as the Water-Energy-Food Nexus, become more complex and more critical as the climate changes, the population grows, habits and lifestyles alternate, and the prices of water, energy, and food increase. However, and despite several attempts to incorporate the nexus, the global research community continues to focus on different subsets of the problem with limited holistic attempts to address the full problem. At best, interactions between two of the three domains were studied, often neglecting the impact of such interaction on the third domain. For example, agricultural researchers tracked water costs by applying concepts like virtual water or water footprint, or using large-scale system models to investigate food and water security, ignoring most often the corresponding energy footprint. Similarly, investigators quantified water-energy tradeoffs in the highly engineered, centralized systems of water and power management, paying no attention to water diversion from agriculture. Most nexus initiatives focused on reviews and data collection of existing knowledge and relevant facts, but unfortunately lacked a conceptual and mathematical framework that can integrate all the gathered knowledge and account for multiple interactions, feedbacks, or natural processes that occur across all three domains of the nexus. Here, we present an integrated conceptual and mathematical framework (roadmap) for the nexus. This framework is driven by spatiotemporal demands for water, energy, and food to be satisfied by resource management of the three domains, envisioned as a stepwise process, with each step requiring inputs from the three nexus domains and creating waste products. The efficiency of each step, combined with mass balances, create the linkages and feedback loops within the

  17. The natural background to the quality of groundwater: implications for the implementation of the Framework Water Directive in Europe; El fondo natural de la calidad del agua subterranea: implicaciones para la aplicacion de la Directiva Marco del Agua en Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano, M.; Custodio, E.; Nieto, P.

    2003-07-01

    The most recent water legislation issued world-wide require to establish a scientifically based definition for groundwater baseline quality, which is simple to use and nimble for politicians and managers. Derived from the European projects Baseline, groundwater baseline has been defined as the range of concentrations of a given element, species or chemical substance present is solution, being derived from natural geological, biogical, or atmospheric sources. The terms of this definition conforms the methodology to use to accomplish European water laws requirements: 1) to establish groundwater baseline for the European water bodies within next years: 2) to study hydrochemical trends and to distinguish baseline trends from pollution trends; 3) to inquiry the causes of pollution trends, set up restoration programs and monitor their success by determining the start of chemical trends reversals. The methodology used in the European project BaSeLiNe to answer these questions and the main methodological and conceptual conclusions are used to illustrate the need for an accurate determination of groundwater baseline. (Author) 4 refs.

  18. Foreign direct investments in Romania in EU28 framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Postoiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments flows are perceived by economic policymakers and by economic researchers as one of the key - determinants of the process of adjustment and structural modernization of emerging economies. They are also recognized in the economic literature as an important source of economic growth. This research aims to identify whether FDI can contribute to the economic growth of a country and to estimate whether the foreign investors are attracted to investin economies that recorded successive growth rates. This approach involves the use of econometric tools and descriptive statistics to empirically support the assumptions made. Thus, for the quantitative analysis Eviews 7 and ArcGIS software tools were used. For the case study we analysed the Romanian economic situation in the current European context. First we take a look at the main evolution of foreign direct investment flows in the European Union. Subsequently we focus on the FDI flows into the Romanian economy and we test the links between these FDI flows and the economic growth process.

  19. Application of a risk management framework to a drinking water supply augmented by stormwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderzalm, J L; Page, D W; Dillon, P J

    2011-01-01

    The Blue Lake is an important water resource for the city of Mount Gambier and the surrounding region, primarily as the drinking water supply source, but also as a tourist attraction. Mount Gambier's stormwater is discharged directly via drainage wells into the unconfined, karstic Gambier Limestone aquifer, which in turn provides the majority of recharge to Blue Lake. Discharge of urban runoff to the aquifer commenced in the 1800s as a means of stormwater management, but is now recognised as contributing to the drinking water supply in Blue Lake. Recently, guidelines for managing the risks associated with water recycling and augmenting drinking water supplies have been developed. This paper examines the organic chemical hazards associated with a stormwater to potable recycling scheme as an example of the current risk management framework.

  20. A framework for planning sustainable seawater desalination water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Maedeh P; McHugh, Adam; Anda, Martin; Ho, Goen

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative framework for sustainable desalination planning in metropolitan areas, which integrates the tools of mixed integer linear programming and life cycle assessment, is presented. The life cycle optimisation framework allows for optimal desalination planning by considering choices over intake type, staging and location of the infrastructure under different land-use, environmental and economic policies. Optimality is defined by the decision maker's selected objective function, being either an environmental impact or a levelised cost indicator. The framework was tested for future desalination planning scenarios in the northern metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. Results indicate that multi-staged construction and decentralised planning solutions may produce lower life cycle environmental impacts (58%) and at a lower levelised cost (24%) than a centralised desalination solution currently being considered by Western Australian water planners. Sensitivity analysis results suggest that the better environmental and economic performance of decentralised planning over centralised planning is highly sensitive to the proportion of land that can be made available for the siting of decentralised plants near the demand zone. Insight into land use policies is a critical factor to the initiation and success of decentralised solution in developed metropolitan areas.

  1. Developing a Framework of Innovative Trials to Support Water Companies Strategic Response to WFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Jodie; Cherry, Katherine; Revens, Neasa; O'Hanlon, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Slug control in high risk fields and catchments can have serious implications for water companies, threatening compliance with drinking water standards and challenging the Water Framework Directive's requirement that additional water treatment is avoided. Severn Trent Water has established a framework of innovative trails at a range of scales and locations to help shape the company's strategic, sustainable response to elevated metaldehyde concentrations at drinking water abstractions. Currently four contrasting trials are underway, two at the catchment scale, one at the field scale and one at the 'operational site' scale at locations across the English Midlands. This presentation provides an overview of the different approaches, their effectiveness to date and lessons learnt to aid strategy development. The first trial entitled Farmer's as Producers of Clean Water adopts a 'results orientated' approach, rewarding farmers for improvements in water quality at the catchment scale and allowing farmers to decide how best to manage the issue on their land with no prescribed measures. It acknowledges that co-ordinated action is needed across the catchment to see improvements in water quality, and that by incentivising outcomes rather than actions, land owners and farmers may take greater ownership of water quality issues. The second project explores the potential for a 'zero metaldehyde' catchment with all farmers throughout the catchment being financial supported to use a water friendly alternative to metaldehyde. This project is being compared to more voluntary approaches adopted elsewhere. The third project is a field scale trial to test the efficacy of alternative products to metaldehyde and different pellet formulations. Field drains are being sampled following heavy rain and crop damaged assessed to review the benefits to water quality and crops. The final project considers what Severn Trent Water can do from an operational perspective, investigating the size and

  2. Developing a multi-pollutant conceptual framework for the selection and targeting of interventions in water industry catchment management schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodworth, J W; Holman, I P; Burgess, P J; Gillman, S; Frogbrook, Z; Brown, P

    2015-09-15

    In recent years water companies have started to adopt catchment management to reduce diffuse pollution in drinking water supply areas. The heterogeneity of catchments and the range of pollutants that must be removed to meet the EU Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) limits make it difficult to prioritise areas of a catchment for intervention. Thus conceptual frameworks are required that can disaggregate the components of pollutant risk and help water companies make decisions about where to target interventions in their catchments to maximum effect. This paper demonstrates the concept of generalising pollutants in the same framework by reviewing key pollutant processes within a source-mobilisation-delivery context. From this, criteria are developed (with input from water industry professionals involved in catchment management) which highlights the need for a new water industry specific conceptual framework. The new CaRPoW (Catchment Risk to Potable Water) framework uses the Source-Mobilisation-Delivery concept as modular components of risk that work at two scales, source and mobilisation at the field scale and delivery at the catchment scale. Disaggregating pollutant processes permits the main components of risk to be ascertained so that appropriate interventions can be selected. The generic structure also allows for the outputs from different pollutants to be compared so that potential multiple benefits can be identified. CaRPow provides a transferable framework that can be used by water companies to cost-effectively target interventions under current conditions or under scenarios of land use or climate change.

  3. Reanalyzing Pentaquark Θ+(1540) in Framework of QCD Sum Rules Approach with Direct Instantons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we study the pentaquark state Θ+(1540) with a (scalar) diquark-(pseudoscalar) diquarkantiquark type interpolating current in the framework of the QCD sum rules approach by including the contributions from the direct instantons. The numerical results indicate that the contributions from the direct instantons are very small and can be safely neglected.

  4. Land Management, River Restoration and the Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben; Clifford, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    The influence of catchment land-use on river ecosystems is well established, with negative changes in hydrology, sediment supply and pollutants causing widespread degradation in modified catchments across Europe. The strength of relationship found between different land-use types and impacts on river systems varies from study to study as a result of issues around data quality, scale, study design and the interaction of stressors at multiple scales. Analysis of large-scale datasets can provide important information about the way that catchments pressures affect WFD objectives at a national scale. Comparisons of relationships between land-use and WFD status in different types of catchment within the UK allow an assessment of catchment sensitivity and analysis of the catchment characteristics which influence these relationships. The results suggest prioritising catchments at or near land-use thresholds, or targeting waterbodies with limited land-use pressures but which are failing to achieve GES or GEP. This paper uses UK datasets on land cover and WFD waterbody status to examine how catchment land-use impacts on WFD status and to evaluate opportunities to achieve Good Ecological Status or Good Ecological Potential. Agricultural and urban land-use are shown to have different types of relationship with respect to the likelihood of achieving Good Ecological Status, and with clear threshold effects apparent for urban land-use in the catchment. Broad-scale analysis shows the influence of different sized buffer strips in mitigating the negative effects of different types of land-cover, and reinforces the positive effects of riparian woodland on river ecosystems and their potential under the WFD.

  5. Decision-making in the European water framework directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Stuart Anthony Lewis

    2007-01-01

    draws attention to a potential development path, which the DCA process could take, based on an important guidance document on economics in the WFD (WATECO) and the AquaMoney project, a large neoclassical project established to produce guidelines for member states as to how to conduct DCA, essentially...... based on economic valuation methodologies, specifically contingent valuation and benefit transfer. The paper is critical of this potential approach based on a theoretical discussion, which concludes that deliberative approaches to decision-making appear to be more appropriate as they better fit...... the nature of environmental problems. The second part of the paper is an analysis of the decision-making process in the WFD. The WFD both introduces economic methodologies and public participation for river basin management. The paper concludes that the use of neoclassical methods, such as contingent...

  6. Linking Assessment to Decision Making in Water Resources Planning - Decision Making Frameworks and Case Study Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Simes, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate assessments have become an accepted and commonly used component of long term water management and planning. There is substantial variation in the methods used in these assessments; however, managers and decision-makers have come to value their utility to identify future system limitations, and to evaluate future alternatives to ensure satisfactory system performance. A new set of decision-making frameworks have been proposed, including robust decision making (RDM), and decision scaling, that directly address the deep uncertainties found in both future climate, and non-climatic factors. Promising results have been obtained using these new frameworks, offering a more comprehensive understanding of future conditions leading to failures, and identification of measures to address these failures. Data and resource constraints have limited the use of these frameworks within the Bureau of Reclamation. We present here a modified framework that captures the strengths of previously proposed methods while using a suite of analysis tool that allow for a 'rapid climate assessment' to be performed. A scalable approach has been taken where more complex tools can be used if project resources allow. This 'rapid assessment' is demonstrated through two case studies on the Santa Ana and Colorado Rivers where previous climate assessments have been completed. Planning-level measures are used to compare how decision making is affected when using this new decision making framework.

  7. Direct and indirect urban water footprints of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, Christopher M.; Konar, Megan; Stillwell, Ashlynn S.

    2017-01-01

    The water footprint of the urban environment is not limited to direct water consumption (i.e., municipal supplies); embedded water in imported resources, or virtual water transfers, provides an additional component of the urban water footprint. Using empirical data, our analysis extends traditional urban water footprinting analysis to quantify both direct and indirect urban resources for the United States. We determine direct water volumes and their embedded energy through open records requests of water utilities. The indirect component of the urban water footprint includes water indirectly consumed through energy and food, relating to the food-energy-water nexus. We comprehensively quantify the indirect water footprint for 74 metropolitan statistical areas through the combination of various databases, including the Commodity Flow Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Water Footprint Network, and the Energy Information Administration. We then analyze spatial heterogeneity in both direct and indirect water footprints, determining the average urban water footprint in the United States to be 1.64 million gallons of water per person per year [6200 m3/person/yr or 17,000 L/person/d], dominated by indirect water. Additionally, our study of the urban water cycle extends beyond considering only water resources to include embedded energy and equivalent carbon dioxide emissions. The inclusion of multiple sectors of the urban water cycle and their underlying processes provides important insights to the overall urban environment, the interdependencies of the food-energy-water nexus, and water resource sustainability. Our results provide opportunities for benchmarking the urban energy-water nexus, water footprints, and climate change potential.

  8. A new conceptual framework for water and sediment connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi; Parsons, Tony; Nunes, Joao Pedro; Saco, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    For many years scientists have tried to understand, describe and quantify sediment transport on multiple scales; from the geomorphological work triggered by a single thunderstorm to the geological time scale land scape evolution, and from particles and soil aggregates up to the continental scale. In the last two decades, a new concept called connectivity (Baartman et al., 2013; Bracken et al., 2013, 2015; Parsons et al., 2015) has been used by the scientific community to describe the connection between the different scales at which the sediment redistribution research along the watershed are being studied: pedon, slope tram, slope, watersheds, and basins. This concept is seen as a means to describe and quantify the results of processes influencing the transport of sediment on all these scales. Therefore the concept of connectivity and the way scales are used in the design of a measurement and monitoring scheme are interconnected (Cerdà et al., 2012), which shows that connectivity is not only a tool for process understanding, but also a tool to measure processes on multiple scales. This research aims to describe catchment system dynamics from a connectivity point of view. This conceptual framework can be helpful to look at catchment systems and synthesize which data are necessary to take into account when measuring or modelling water and sediment transfer in catchment systems, Identifying common patterns and generalities will help discover physical reasons for differences in responses and interaction between these processes. We describe a conceptual framework which is meant to bring a better understanding of the system dynamics of a catchment in terms of water and sediment transfer by breaking apart the system dynamics in stocks (the system state at a given moment) and flows (the system fluxes). Breaking apart the internal system dynamics that determine the behaviour of the catchment system is in our opinion a way to bring a better insight into the concepts of

  9. An optimization framework for the integration of water management and shale gas supply chain design

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, O. J.; Calderon, A. J.; Papageorgiou, L. G.; Siirola, J. J.; Reklaitis, G. V.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the mathematical formulation and implementation of a comprehensive optimization framework for the assessment of shale gas resources. The framework simultaneously integrates water management and the design and planning of the shale gas supply chain, from the shale formation to final product demand centers and from fresh water supply for hydraulic fracturing to water injection and/or disposal. The framework also addresses some issues regarding wastewater quality, i.e., total...

  10. Toward the Nexus Equation: A Conceptual and Mathematical Framework for Energy-Water-Food Nexus Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C. W.; Abou Najm, M.

    2015-12-01

    Water, energy, and agriculture depend on each other so strongly that attempts to achieve sustainability in any of those three domains will directly impact the others. These interdependencies, collectively known as the Water-Energy-Food Nexus, become more complex and more critical as the climate changes, the population grows, habits and lifestyle alternatives, and the prices of water, energy, and food increase. The U.S. National Intelligence Council has identified the nexus of water, energy, food, and climate change as one of four overarching megatrends that will shape the world in 2030. However, the global research community has rarely addressed the full problem and focused instead on different subsets of the problem. For example, interactions between two of the three domains were studied, often neglecting the impact of such interaction on the third domain. Investigators have quantified water-energy tradeoffs in the highly engineered, centralized systems of water and power management. Agricultural researchers have tracked water costs by applying the concept of virtual water (the total volume of water needed to produce and process a commodity or service) or using large-scale system models to investigate food and water security. Integrative nexus initiatives have focused on reviews and data collection of existing knowledge and relevant facts. They unfortunately lack a conceptual and mathematical framework that can integrate all the gathered knowledge and account for multiple interactions, feedbacks, or natural processes that occur across all three domains of the nexus. Here, we present an integrated conceptual and mathematical framework (roadmap) for the nexus. This framework is driven by spatiotemporal demands for water, energy, and food to be satisfied by resource management of the three domains, envisioned as a stepwise process, with each step requiring inputs from the three nexus domains and creating waste products. The efficiency of each step, combined with mass

  11. Law, Water and Sustainable Development: Framework of Nigerian Law - Country Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Ajai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The central issues of economic development and environmental protection in the current social, political and economic environment relate to water – an overlooked or less glamorous natural resource. For example, topical and sometimes controversial issues such as crude oil and minerals extraction, pollution control, biodiversity protection, energy and power, resource control, revenue allocation and political participation, etc., relate directly or indirectly to water resources management. This paper seeks to identify and present in a schematic and conceptual manner and to highlight the usefulness of folklore for sustainable development and evaluate the usefulness of recruiting traditional institutions into the institutional framework for modern sustainable water resources management in Nigeria It also discusses the emergent law on water resources as well as the issues concerning the domestic and international riparian law, in particular the River Niger and Lake Chad basins and explores how folklore, comparative law and international law may be adopted and adapted to aid the development and application of water law, and by direct implication sustainable development in Nigeria.

  12. Surveillance indicators and their use in implementation of the marine strategy framework directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shephard, Samuel; Greenstreet, S.P.R.; Piet, G.J.; Rindorf, Anna; Dickey-Collas, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) uses indicators to track ecosystem state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES). These indicators were initially expected to be "operational", i.e. To have well-understood relationships between state and specified anthropogenic

  13. Surveillance indicators and their use in implementation of the marine strategy framework directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shephard, Samuel; Greenstreet, S.P.R.; Piet, G.J.; Rindorf, Anna; Dickey-Collas, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) uses indicators to track ecosystem state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES). These indicators were initially expected to be "operational", i.e. To have well-understood relationships between state and specified anthropogenic

  14. Directional spread parameter at intermediate water depth

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C.; Anand, N.M.; AshokKumar, K.

    formulations (Niedzwecki and Whatley, 1991). The cosine power ‘2s’ model, originally proposed by Longuet-Higgins et al. (1963), is very popular due to its proven generality. 1.1. The cosine power ‘2s’ model The cosine power ‘2s’ model is as follows; D(f,u) 5 G...(s)cos 2s [(u2u m )/2] (1) where G(s) 5 2 2s 2p G 2 (s 1 1) G(2s 1 1) 5 1 2 p G(s 1 1) G(s 1 0.5) (2) and D(f,u) is directional spreading function, f is wave frequency, u is wave direction, u m is mean wave direction, G is gamma function and s is spreading...

  15. Framework for local government to implement integrated water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... resource management linked to water service delivery. EH Haigh, HE Fox and HD ..... maintenance and management of water and sanitation infrastructure including ...... water quality and drinking water quality regulations.

  16. OpenARC: Extensible OpenACC Compiler Framework for Directive-Based Accelerator Programming Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Directive-based, accelerator programming models such as OpenACC have arisen as an alternative solution to program emerging Scalable Heterogeneous Computing (SHC) platforms. However, the increased complexity in the SHC systems incurs several challenges in terms of portability and productivity. This paper presents an open-sourced OpenACC compiler, called OpenARC, which serves as an extensible research framework to address those issues in the directive-based accelerator programming. This paper explains important design strategies and key compiler transformation techniques needed to implement the reference OpenACC compiler. Moreover, this paper demonstrates the efficacy of OpenARC as a research framework for directive-based programming study, by proposing and implementing OpenACC extensions in the OpenARC framework to 1) support hybrid programming of the unified memory and separate memory and 2) exploit architecture-specific features in an abstract manner. Porting thirteen standard OpenACC programs and three extended OpenACC programs to CUDA GPUs shows that OpenARC performs similarly to a commercial OpenACC compiler, while it serves as a high-level research framework.

  17. Existing Opportunities to Adapt the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin Water Resources Allocation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzma Fabiola Nava

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the Rio Grande/Bravo (RGB Basin water allocation demonstrates how the United States (U.S. and Mexico have consolidated a transboundary framework based on water sharing. However, the water supply no longer meets the ever-increasing demand for water or the expectations of different stakeholders. This paper explores opportunities for an enhanced management regime that will address past problems and better examine how to balance demands for a precious resource and environmental needs. Based on an overview of the RGB Basin context and the water allocation framework, as well as a discussion on stakeholders’ ability to achieve solutions, this paper explores three key questions: (1 Does the current binational water allocation framework meet current and future human and environmental needs? (2 How can the U.S.-Mexico water allocation framework be adapted to balance social and environmental water demands so it can support and preserve the RGB Basin ecosystem? (3 What are the main opportunities to be explored for expanding the U.S.-Mexico water resources allocation framework? The U.S.-Mexico water resources framework is subject to broad interpretation and may be adapted to the circumstances taking the fullest advantage of its flexibility. Policy recommendations highlight the existing flexibility of the binational framework, the potential to move forward with an ad hoc institutional arrangement, and the creation of political will to achieve change through stakeholders recommendations.

  18. Direction of rational use of water at livestock facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potseluev, A. A.; Nazarov, I. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article notes the world water shortage problem. Against this background, Russia’s agricultural production is considered, in particular the livestock sector as the main consumer of water resources. The structure of the main technological processes at livestock facilities is given and possible technological damage is indicated in case of the lack of technological processes for servicing animals and poultry with water. The direction of rational use of water based on the introduction of new technical and technological solutions of water supply systems and means is substantiated. Constructive solutions of systems and facilities that help to reduce water consumption are presented, and as well a possible positive effect.

  19. Estimating water consumption of potential natural vegetation on global dry lands: building an LCA framework for green water flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Montserrat; Pfister, Stephan; Roux, Philippe; Antón, Assumpció

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to provide a framework for assessing direct soil-water consumption, also termed green water in the literature, in life cycle assessment (LCA). This was an issue that LCA had not tackled before. The approach, which is applied during the life cycle inventory phase (LCI), consists of quantifying the net change in the evapo(transpi)ration of the production system compared to the natural reference situation. Potential natural vegetation (PNV) is used as the natural reference situation. In order to apply the method, we estimated PNV evapotranspiration adapted to local biogeographic conditions, on global dry lands, where soil-water consumption impacts can be critical. Values are reported at different spatial aggregation levels: 10-arcmin global grid, ecoregions (501 units), biomes (14 units), countries (124 units), continents, and a global average, to facilitate the assessment for different spatial information detail levels available in the LCI. The method is intended to be used in rain-fed agriculture and rainwater harvesting contexts, which includes direct soil moisture uptake by plants and rainwater harvested and then reused in production systems. The paper provides the necessary LCI method and data for further development of impact assessment models and characterization factors to evaluate the environmental effects of the net change in evapo(transpi)ration.

  20. Rethinking Sustainability, Scaling Up, and Enabling Environment: A Framework for Their Implementation in Drinking Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urooj Q. Amjad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The terms sustainability, scaling up, and enabling environment are inconsistently used in implementing water supply projects. To clarify these terms we develop a framework based on Normalization Process Theory, and apply the framework to a hypothetical water supply project in schools. The resulting framework provides guidance on how these terms could be implemented and analyzed in water supply projects. We conclude that effective use of the terms sustainability, scaling up, and enabling environment would focus on purpose, process, and perspective. This is the first known attempt to analyze the implementation of the three terms together in the context of water supply services.

  1. A blue/green water-based accounting framework for assessment of water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dulce B. B.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Mendiondo, Eduardo M.

    2014-09-01

    A comprehensive assessment of water security can incorporate several water-related concepts, while accounting for Blue and Green Water (BW and GW) types defined in accordance with the hydrological processes involved. Here we demonstrate how a quantitative analysis of provision probability and use of BW and GW can be conducted, so as to provide indicators of water scarcity and vulnerability at the basin level. To illustrate the approach, we use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of an agricultural basin (291 km2) within the Cantareira Water Supply System in Brazil. To provide a more comprehensive basis for decision making, we analyze the BW and GW-Footprint components against probabilistic levels (50th and 30th percentile) of freshwater availability for human activities, during a 23 year period. Several contrasting situations of BW provision are distinguished, using different hydrological-based methodologies for specifying monthly Environmental Flow Requirements (EFRs), and the risk of natural EFR violation is evaluated by use of a freshwater provision index. Our results reveal clear spatial and temporal patterns of water scarcity and vulnerability levels within the basin. Taking into account conservation targets for the basin, it appears that the more restrictive EFR methods are more appropriate than the method currently employed at the study basin. The blue/green water-based accounting framework developed here provides a useful integration of hydrologic, ecosystem and human needs information on a monthly basis, thereby improving our understanding of how and where water-related threats to human and aquatic ecosystem security can arise.

  2. Structure-directing role of graphene in the synthesis of metal-organic framework nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Maryam; Bao, Qiaoliang; Yang, Jia-Xiang; Loh, Kian Ping

    2010-10-20

    Graphene can be decorated with functional groups on either side of its basal plane, giving rise to a bifunctional nanoscale building block that can undergo face-to-face assembly. We demonstrate that benzoic acid-functionalized graphene (BFG) can act as a structure-directing template in influencing the crystal growth of metal-organic framework (MOF). BFG is also incorporated into MOF as framework linker. Because of the high density of carboxylic groups on benzoic acid-functionalized graphene, an unusual MOF nanowire that grows in the [220] direction was synthesized. The diameter of the nanowire correlates closely with the lateral dimensions of the BFG. The intercalation of graphene in MOF imparts new electrical properties such as photoelectric transport in the otherwise insulating MOF. The results point to the possibility of using functionalized graphene to synthesize a wide range of structural motifs in MOF with adjustable metrics and properties.

  3. Microplastics in Seawater: Recommendations from the Marine Strategy Framework Directive Implementation Process

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in marine systems across the globe. The legacy of microplastics pollution in the marine environment today may remain for years to come due to the persistence of these materials. Microplastics are emerging contaminants of potential concern and as yet there are few recognised approaches for monitoring. In 2008, the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) included microplastics as an aspect to be measured. Here we outline the...

  4. Taiwanese Foreign Direct Investment in Southeast Asia: An Empirical Investigation of the OLI Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Kuan Chiu; Fang-Yi Lo; Yuliana Susy

    2015-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) is critical in the economies of both developing and developed countries. FDI is a new trend in emerging markets. The purpose of this study is to investigate entry mode choice through Dunning¡¦s eclectic paradigm within an ownership, location and internalization (OLI) framework, which is useful for explaining foreign investment activities. The data in this study were extracted from the Taiwanese electronics industry¡¦s FDI in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia,...

  5. Assessing water scarcity in agricultural production system based on the generalized water resources and water footprint framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinchun, Cao; Mengyang, Wu; Xiangping, Guo; Yalian, Zheng; Yan, Gong; Nan, Wu; Weiguang, Wang

    2017-12-31

    An indicator, agricultural water stress index (AWSI), was established based blue-green water resources and water footprint framework for regional water scarcity in agricultural production industry evaluation. AWSI is defined as the ratio of the total agricultural water footprint (AWF) to water resources availability (AWR) in a single year. Then, the temporal and spatial patterns of AWSI in China during 1999-2014 were analyzed based on the provincial AWR and AWF quantification. The results show that the annual AWR in China has been maintained at approximately 2540Gm(3), of which blue water accounted for >70%. The national annual AWF was approximately 1040Gm(3) during the study period and comprised 65.6% green, 12.7% blue and 21.7% grey WFs The space difference in both the AWF for per unit arable land (AWFI) and its composition was significant. National AWSI was calculated as 0.413 and showed an increasing trend in the observed period. This index increased from 0.320 (mid-water stress level) in 2000 to 0.490 (high water stress level) in the present due to the expansion of the agricultural production scale. The Northern provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities (PAMs) have been facing high water stress, particularly the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, which was at a very high water stress level (AWSI>0.800). Humid South China faces increasingly severe water scarcity, and most of the PAMs in the region have converted from low water stress level (AWSI=0.100-0.200) to mid water stress level (AWSI=0.200-0.400). The AWSI is more appropriate for reflecting the regional water scarcity than the existing water stress index (WSI) or the blue water scarcity (BWS) indicator, particularly for the arid agricultural production regions due to the revealed environmental impacts of agricultural production. China should guarantee the sustainable use of agricultural water resources by reducing its crop water footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrating water quality modeling with ecological risk assessment for nonpoint source pollution control: A conceptual framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.D.; McCutcheon, S.C.; Rasmussen, T.C.; Nutter, W.L.; Carsel, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The historical development of water quality protection goals and strategies in the United States is reviewed. The review leads to the identification and discussion of three components (i.e., management mechanism, environmental investigation approaches, and environmental assessment and criteria) for establishing a management framework for nonpoint source pollution control. Water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment are the two most important and promising approaches to the operation of the proposed management framework. A conceptual framework that shows the general integrative relationships between water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment is presented. (Copyright (c) 1993 IAWQ.)

  7. Managing the Marine Environment, Conceptual Models and Assessment Considerations for the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual models summarize, visualize and explain actual or predicted situations and how they might be tackled. In recent years, Pressure-State-Response (P-S-R frameworks have been central to conceptualizing marine ecosystem issues and then translating those to stakeholders, environmental managers and researchers. Society is concerned about the risks to the natural and human system posed by those Pressures (thus needing risk assessment and then needs to act to minimize or compensate those risks (as risk management. This research relates this to the DPSIR (Drivers-Pressure-State(change-Impact-Response hierarchical framework using standardized terminology/definitions and lists of impacting Activities and Pressures affecting ecosystem components, incorporating the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD legal decision components. This uses the example of fishing activity and the pressure of trawling from abrasion on the seabed and its effects on particular components. The mechanisms of Pressure acting on State changes are highlighted here as an additional refinement to DPSIR. The approach moves from conceptual models to actual assessments including: assessment methodologies (interactive matrices, ecosystem modeling, Bayesian Belief Networks, Bow-tie approach, some assessment tools data availability, confidence, scaling, cumulative effects and multiple simultaneous Pressures, which more often occur in multi-use and multi-user areas. In defining and describing the DPSIR Conceptual Framework we consider its use in re-world ecosystems affected by multiple pressures or multiple mechanisms of single pressures, and show how it facilitates management and assessment issues with particular relevance to the MSFD.

  8. Supramolecular organic frameworks: engineering periodicity in water through host-guest chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jia; Chen, Lan; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Liu, Yi; Li, Zhan-Ting

    2016-05-11

    The development of homogeneous, water-soluble periodic self-assembled structures comprise repeating units that produce porosity in two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) spaces has become a topic of growing interest in the field of supramolecular chemistry. Such novel self-assembled entities, known as supramolecular organic frameworks (SOFs), are the result of programmed host-guest interactions, which allows for the thermodynamically controlled generation of monolayer sheets or a diamondoid architecture with regular internal cavities or pores under mild conditions. This feature article aims at propagating the conceptually novel SOFs as a new entry into conventional supramolecular polymers. In the first section, we will describe the background of porous solid frameworks and supramolecular polymers. We then introduce the self-assembling behaviour of several multitopic flexible molecules, which is closely related to the design of periodic SOFs from rigid multitopic building blocks. This is followed by a brief discussion of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8])-encapsulation-enhanced aromatic stacking in water. The three-component host-guest pattern based on this stacking motif has been utilized to drive the formation of most of the new SOFs. In the following two sections, we will highlight the main advances in the construction of 2D and 3D SOFs and the related functional aspects. Finally, we will offer our opinions on future directions for both structures and functions. We hope that this article will trigger the interest of researchers in the field of chemistry, physics, biology and materials science, which should help accelerate the applications of this new family of soft self-assembled organic frameworks.

  9. Aquatic weed control within an integrated water management framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.

    1993-01-01

    Aquatic weed control, carried out by the water boards in the Netherlands, is required to maintain sufficient discharge capacity of the surface water system. Weed control affects the conditions of both surface water and groundwater. The physically based model MOGROW was developed to simulate the flow

  10. Surface Curvature-Induced Directional Movement of Water Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Lv, Cunjing; Yin, Yajun; Zheng, Quanshui

    2010-01-01

    Here we report a surface curvature-induced directional movement phenomenon, based on molecular dynamics simulations, that a nanoscale water droplet at the outer surface of a graphene cone always spontaneously moves toward the larger end of the cone, and at the inner surface toward the smaller end. The analysis on the van der Waals interaction potential between a single water molecule and a curved graphene surface reveals that the curvature with its gradient does generate the driving force resulting in the above directional motion. Furthermore, we found that the direction of the above movement is independent of the wettability, namely is regardless of either hydrophobic or hydrophilic of the surface. However, the latter surface is in general leading to higher motion speed than the former. The above results provide a basis for a better understanding of many reported observations, and helping design of curved surfaces with desired directional surface water transportation.

  11. A single theoretical framework for circular features processing in humans: orientation and direction of motion compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvetomir eTzvetanov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Common computational principles underly processing of various visual features in the cortex. They are considered to create similar patterns of contextual modulations in behavioral studies for different features as orientation and direction of motion. Here, I studied the possibility that a single theoretical framework, implemented in different visual areas, of circular feature coding and processing could explain these similarities in observations. Stimuli were created that allowed direct comparison of the contextual effects on orientation and motion direction with two different psychophysical probes: changes in weak and strong signal perception. One unique simplified theoretical model of circular feature coding including only inhibitory interactions, and decoding through standard vector average, successfully predicted the similarities in the two domains, while different feature population characteristics explained well the differences in modulation on both experimental probes. These results demonstrate how a single computational principle underlies processing of various features across the cortices.

  12. Thinking as the control of imagination: a conceptual framework for goal-directed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castelfranchi, Cristiano

    2009-07-01

    This paper offers a conceptual framework which (re)integrates goal-directed control, motivational processes, and executive functions, and suggests a developmental pathway from situated action to higher level cognition. We first illustrate a basic computational (control-theoretic) model of goal-directed action that makes use of internal modeling. We then show that by adding the problem of selection among multiple action alternatives motivation enters the scene, and that the basic mechanisms of executive functions such as inhibition, the monitoring of progresses, and working memory, are required for this system to work. Further, we elaborate on the idea that the off-line re-enactment of anticipatory mechanisms used for action control gives rise to (embodied) mental simulations, and propose that thinking consists essentially in controlling mental simulations rather than directly controlling behavior and perceptions. We conclude by sketching an evolutionary perspective of this process, proposing that anticipation leveraged cognition, and by highlighting specific predictions of our model.

  13. Surveillance indicators and their use in implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shephard, Samuel; Greenstreet, Simon P. R.; Piet, GerJan J.

    2015-01-01

    warning signals) that presents a broader and more holistic picture of state, and inform and support science, policy, and management. In this study,we (i) present a framework for including surveillance indicators into the Activity–Pressure–State– Response process, (ii) consider a range of possible......The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) uses indicators to track ecosystem state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES). These indicators were initially expected to be “operational”, i.e. to have well-understood relationships between state and specified anthropogenic...... pressure(s), and to have defined targets. Recent discussion on MSFD implementation has highlighted an additional class of “surveillance” indicators. Surveillance indicators monitor key aspects of the ecosystem for which there is: first, insufficient evidence to define targets and support formal state...

  14. Implementation of Electricity Business Competition Framework with Economic Dispatch Direct Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra Sabri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Technically, electricity business under competition structure is more complex than that of vertically integrated one. The main prolems here are how to create an applicable competition framework and to solve electric calculations very quickly to obtain an optimal energi pricing, cost of losses, congestion and transportation costs by less than 15 minutes. This paper proposes a competition framework with the electric calculations, where a bilateral contract has been accommodated. Optimal energy price in the paper is calculated based on direct method of economic dispatch to obtain the result very quickly. The proposed method has been simulated to a 4-bus system. The simulation results show that the method works well and complies with the expectation. Therefore, electric power business under competition structure can be well realized by the proposed method.

  15. Highly Selective Water Adsorption in a Lanthanum Metal-Organic Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plessius, R.; Kromhout, R.; Dantas Ramos, A.L.; Ferbinteanu, M.; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, M.C.; Krishna, R.; Rothenberg, G.; Tanase, S.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new metal-organic framework (MOF) built from lanthanum and pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxylate (pyzdc) ions. This MOF, [La(pyzdc)(1.5)(H2O)(2)]center dot 2H(2)O, is microporous, with 1D channels that easily accommodate water molecules. Its framework is highly robust to dehydration/hydration

  16. Rethinking the terrestrial water balance: Steps toward a comprehensive indicator framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, P. K.; Wolock, D.; Zarriello, P. J.; Vogel, R. M.; Brandt, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    Freshwater scarcity for humans and ecosystems is one of the most serious global challenges of the 21st century. Caused in part by human disturbance of the hydrologic cycle, patterns of water scarcity also reflect large, underlying variations in terrestrial water availability that precede human influence. In recent years, growing concerns about water scarcity have prompted the development and application of distributed, continental-to-global scale water balance models for water-resource assessment, fostering the important new sub-discipline of global hydrology. However, fundamental concepts of water availability have not kept pace with developments in modeling tools. To facilitate fundamental thinking and communication in this growing field, we introduce a new indicator framework based on a spatially distributed, time-dependent approach to the terrestrial water balance. The framework takes advantage of gridded climate, hydrology, and landscape data, is equally pertinent to dryland and humid regions of the world, and integrates traditional (runoff-based) and emerging perspectives on terrestrial water availability—including the blue/green water paradigm now gaining currency in the global water planning and management community. We derive the indicator framework from a general statement of the landscape water balance equation, and then illustrate the relevance of the framework to the extremely diverse hydroclimates of the conterminous United States.

  17. Statistical Framework for Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halekoh, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Administrators of recreational waters face the basic tasks of surveillance of water quality and decisions on beach closure in case of unacceptable quality. Monitoring and subsequent decisions are based on sampled water probes and fundamental questions are which type of data to extract from......-term actions, such as the closing of beaches and long-term monitoring tasks. Chapter 4 compares sampling plans as control charts and acceptance sampling and relates them to decision rules for closing beach waters. Chapter 5 contrasts modeling approaches using design-based sampling strategies either...... recreational governmental authorities controlling water quality. The book opens with a historical account of water quality criteria in the USA between 1922 and 2003. Five chapters are related to sampling strategies and decision rules. Chapter 2 discusses the dependence of decision-making rules on short...

  18. The direct heat measurement of mechanical energy storage metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julien; Beurroies, Isabelle; Loiseau, Thierry; Denoyel, Renaud; Llewellyn, Philip L

    2015-04-07

    In any process, the heat exchanged is an essential property required in its development. Whilst the work related to structural transitions of some flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been quantified and linked with potential applications such as molecular springs or shock absorbers, the heat related to such transitions has never been directly measured. This has now been carried out with MIL-53(Al) using specifically devised calorimetry experiments. We project the importance of these heats in devices such as molecular springs or dampers.

  19. Causality Analysis of fMRI Data Based on the Directed Information Theory Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Alahmadi, Ahmed; Zhu, David C; Li, Tongtong

    2016-05-01

    This paper aims to conduct fMRI-based causality analysis in brain connectivity by exploiting the directed information (DI) theory framework. Unlike the well-known Granger causality (GC) analysis, which relies on the linear prediction technique, the DI theory framework does not have any modeling constraints on the sequences to be evaluated and ensures estimation convergence. Moreover, it can be used to generate the GC graphs. In this paper, first, we introduce the core concepts in the DI framework. Second, we present how to conduct causality analysis using DI measures between two time series. We provide the detailed procedure on how to calculate the DI for two finite-time series. The two major steps involved here are optimal bin size selection for data digitization and probability estimation. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of DI-based causality analysis using both the simulated data and experimental fMRI data, and compare the results with that of the GC analysis. Our analysis indicates that GC analysis is effective in detecting linear or nearly linear causal relationship, but may have difficulty in capturing nonlinear causal relationships. On the other hand, DI-based causality analysis is more effective in capturing both linear and nonlinear causal relationships. Moreover, it is observed that brain connectivity among different regions generally involves dynamic two-way information transmissions between them. Our results show that when bidirectional information flow is present, DI is more effective than GC to quantify the overall causal relationship.

  20. Water-saving interventions assessment framework: an application for the Urmia Lake Restoration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Oel, Pieter; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco

    2017-04-01

    Increasing water demand often results in unsustainable water use leaving insufficient amounts of water for sustaining natural environments. Therefore, to save natural resources water-saving interventions have been introduced to the environmental policy agenda in many (semi)-arid regions. Many policies, however, have failed reaching their objectives to increase water availability for the environment. This calls for a comprehensive tool to assess water-saving policies. Therefore, this study introduces a constructive framework to assess the policies by estimating five components: 1) Total water demand under socio-economic scenarios, 2) Water supply under climate change scenarios, 3) Water withdrawal for different sectors, 4) Water depletion and 5) Environmental flow. The framework, was applied to assess Urmia Lake Restoration Program (ULRP), which aims to restore the drying Urmia Lake in north-western Iran by increasing the lake inflow by 3.1×106m3yr-1. Results suggest that although the ULRP helps to increase inflow by up to 57% it is unlikely to fully reach its target. The analysis shows that there are three main reasons for the potential poor performance. The first reason is decreasing return flows due to increasing irrigation efficiency. This means that the expected increase in lake inflow volume is smaller than the volume saved by increasing irrigation efficiency. The second reason is increased depletion which is due to neglecting the fact that agricultural water demand is currently higher than available water for agriculture. As a result, increasing water use efficiency may result in increased water depletion. The third reason is ignoring the potential impact of climate change, which might decrease future water availability by 3% to 15%. Our analysis suggests that to reach the intervention target, measures need to focus on reducing Water demand and Water depletion rather than on reducing Water withdrawals. The assessment framework can be used to comprehensively

  1. Existing opportunities to adapt the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin Water Resources Allocation Framework

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The study of the Rio Grande/Bravo (RGB) Basin water allocation demonstrates how the United States (U.S.) and Mexico have consolidated a transboundary framework based on water sharing. However, the water supply no longer meets the ever-increasing demand for water or the expectations of different stakeholders. This paper explores opportunities for an enhanced management regime that will address past problems and better examine how to balance demands for a precious resource and environmental nee...

  2. Spectral-directional reflectivity of Tyvek immersed in water

    CERN Document Server

    Filevich, A; Bianchi, H; Rodríguez-Martino, J; Torlasco, G

    1999-01-01

    Spectral-directional relative intensity of the light scattered by a Tyvek sample, immersed in water, has been measured for visible and UV wavelengths. The obtained information is useful to simulate the behavior of light in water Cherenkov detectors, such as those proposed for the observation of high energy cosmic ray air showers. In this work a simple empirical dependence of the scattering pattern on the angle was found, convenient to be used in Monte Carlo simulation programs.

  3. A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Lutz, James

    2011-12-02

    Reducing the water use of plumbing products—toilets, urinals, faucets, and showerheads —has been a popular conservation measure. Improved technologies have created opportunities for additional conservation in this area. However, plumbing products do not operate in a vacuum. This paper reviews the literature related to plumbing products to determine a systems framework for evaluating future conservation measures using these products. The main framework comprises the following categories: water use efficiency, product components, product performance, source water, energy, and plumbing/sewer infrastructure. This framework for analysis provides a starting point for professionals considering future water conservation measures to evaluate the need for additional research, collaboration with other standards or codes committees, and attachment of additional metrics to water use efficiency (such as performance).

  4. Foreign direct investment and policy framework: New Granger causality evidence from African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiu Adewale Aregbeshola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The strategic importance of foreign direct investment in the contemporary economies has been tremendous.While various countries (developed and developing economies have benefitted from the direct and spillovereffects of FDI, which range from improved technology and knowledge diffusion through to individual andcorporate capability enhancement, FDI outflow remains largely channelled to the developed countries, andthe rapidly developing countries in Asia and South America. Evidence suggests that the developmentenhancingeffects of FDI are felt more highly in the developing economies, such as economies in Africa.However, FDI inflow to the developing economies has been very low. Using data generated from the AfricanDevelopment Indicators (ADI between 1980 and 2008 in econometric estimations, this paper finds thatgovernment policies (especially fiscal and monetary policies play significant roles in facilitating FDI inflow tothe African countries studied. The study thereby suggests an improved regulatory framework to make Africamore attractive to inflow of FDI.

  5. Study of Water Pollution Early Warning Framework Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengfang, H.; Xiao, X.; Dingtao, S.; Bo, C.; Xiongfei, W.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, with the increasing world environmental pollution happening, sudden water pollution incident has become more and more frequently in China. It has posed a serious threat to water safety of the people living in the water source area. Conventional water pollution monitoring method is manual periodic testing, it maybe miss the best time to find that pollution incident. This paper proposes a water pollution warning framework to change this state. On the basis of the Internet of things, we uses automatic water quality monitoring technology to realize monitoring. We calculate the monitoring data with water pollution model to judge whether the water pollution incident is happen or not. Water pollution warning framework is divided into three layers: terminal as the sensing layer, it with the deployment of the automatic water quality pollution monitoring sensor. The middle layer is the transfer network layer, data information implementation is based on GPRS wireless network transmission. The upper one is the application layer. With these application systems, early warning information of water pollution will realize the high-speed transmission between grassroots units and superior units. The paper finally gives an example that applying this pollution warning framework to water quality monitoring of Beijing, China, it greatly improves the speed of the pollution warning responding of Beijing.

  6. A Framework for Analysis of Energy-Water Interdependency Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jeffers; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kristyn Scott

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of this work is to improve the holistic value of energy development strategies by integrating management criteria for water availability, water quality, and ecosystem health into the energy system planning process. The Snake River Basin (SRB) in southern Idaho is used as a case study to show options for improving full economic utilization of aquatic resources given multiple scenarios such as changing climate, additional regulations, and increasing population. Through the incorporation of multiple management criteria, potential crosscutting solutions to energy and water issues in the SRB can be developed. The final result of this work will be a multi-criteria decision support tool - usable by policy makers and researchers alike - that will give insight into the behavior of the management criteria over time and will allow the user to experiment with a range of potential solutions. Because several basins in the arid west are dealing with similar water, energy, and ecosystem issues, the tool and conclusions will be transferrable to a wide range of locations and applications. This is a very large project to be completed in phases. This paper deals with interactions between the hydrologic system and water use at a basin level. Future work will include the interdependency between energy use and water use in these systems.

  7. A Framework for Analysis of Energy-Water Interdependency Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Jeffers; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2011-08-01

    The overall objective of this work is to improve the holistic value of energy development strategies by integrating management criteria for water availability, water quality, and ecosystem health into the energy system planning process. The Snake River Basin (SRB) in southern Idaho is used as a case study to show options for improving full economic utilization of aquatic resources given multiple scenarios such as changing climate, additional regulations, and increasing population. Through the incorporation of multiple management criteria, potential crosscutting solutions to energy and water issues in the SRB can be developed. The final result of this work will be a multi-criteria decision support tool - usable by policy makers and researchers alike - that will give insight into the behavior of the management criteria over time and will allow the user to experiment with a range of potential solutions. Because several basins in the arid west are dealing with similar water, energy, and ecosystem issues, the tool and conclusions will be transferable to a wide range of locations and applications. This is a very large, multi-year project to be completed in phases. This paper deals with interactions between the hydrologic system and water use at a basin level. Future work will include the interdependency between energy use and water use in these systems.

  8. OpenACC to FPGA: A Framework for Directive-based High-Performance Reconfigurable Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Kim, Jungwon [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a directive-based, high-level programming framework for high-performance reconfigurable computing. It takes a standard, portable OpenACC C program as input and generates a hardware configuration file for execution on FPGAs. We implemented this prototype system using our open-source OpenARC compiler; it performs source-to-source translation and optimization of the input OpenACC program into an OpenCL code, which is further compiled into a FPGA program by the backend Altera Offline OpenCL compiler. Internally, the design of OpenARC uses a high- level intermediate representation that separates concerns of program representation from underlying architectures, which facilitates portability of OpenARC. In fact, this design allowed us to create the OpenACC-to-FPGA translation framework with minimal extensions to our existing system. In addition, we show that our proposed FPGA-specific compiler optimizations and novel OpenACC pragma extensions assist the compiler in generating more efficient FPGA hardware configuration files. Our empirical evaluation on an Altera Stratix V FPGA with eight OpenACC benchmarks demonstrate the benefits of our strategy. To demonstrate the portability of OpenARC, we show results for the same benchmarks executing on other heterogeneous platforms, including NVIDIA GPUs, AMD GPUs, and Intel Xeon Phis. This initial evidence helps support the goal of using a directive-based, high-level programming strategy for performance portability across heterogeneous HPC architectures.

  9. Structure-directing effects of ionic liquids in the ionothermal synthesis of metal–organic frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. Vaid

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional synthesis of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs involves the reaction of a metal-containing precursor with an organic linker in an organic solvent at an elevated temperature, in what is termed a `solvothermal' reaction. More recently, many examples have been reported of MOF synthesis in ionic liquids (ILs, rather than an organic solvent, in `ionothermal' reactions. The high concentration of both cations and anions in an ionic liquid allows for the formation of new MOF structures in which the IL cation or anion or both are incorporated into the MOF. Most commonly, the IL cation is included in the open cavities of the MOF, countering the anionic charge of the MOF framework itself and acting as a template around which the MOF structure forms. Ionic liquids can also serve other structure-directing roles, for example, when an IL containing a single enantiomer of a chiral anion leads to a homochiral MOF, even though the IL anion is not itself incorporated into the MOF. A comprehensive review of ionothermal syntheses of MOFs, and the structure-directing effects of the ILs, is given.

  10. Structure-directing effects of ionic liquids in the ionothermal synthesis of metal–organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Steven P.; Rogers, Robin D.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional synthesis of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) involves the reaction of a metal-containing precursor with an organic linker in an organic solvent at an elevated temperature, in what is termed a ‘solvothermal’ reaction. More recently, many examples have been reported of MOF synthesis in ionic liquids (ILs), rather than an organic solvent, in ‘ionothermal’ reactions. The high concentration of both cations and anions in an ionic liquid allows for the formation of new MOF structures in which the IL cation or anion or both are incorporated into the MOF. Most commonly, the IL cation is included in the open cavities of the MOF, countering the anionic charge of the MOF framework itself and acting as a template around which the MOF structure forms. Ionic liquids can also serve other structure-directing roles, for example, when an IL containing a single enantiomer of a chiral anion leads to a homochiral MOF, even though the IL anion is not itself incorporated into the MOF. A comprehensive review of ionothermal syntheses of MOFs, and the structure-directing effects of the ILs, is given. PMID:28875025

  11. Structure-directing effects of ionic liquids in the ionothermal synthesis of metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Thomas P; Kelley, Steven P; Rogers, Robin D

    2017-07-01

    Traditional synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) involves the reaction of a metal-containing precursor with an organic linker in an organic solvent at an elevated temperature, in what is termed a 'solvothermal' reaction. More recently, many examples have been reported of MOF synthesis in ionic liquids (ILs), rather than an organic solvent, in 'ionothermal' reactions. The high concentration of both cations and anions in an ionic liquid allows for the formation of new MOF structures in which the IL cation or anion or both are incorporated into the MOF. Most commonly, the IL cation is included in the open cavities of the MOF, countering the anionic charge of the MOF framework itself and acting as a template around which the MOF structure forms. Ionic liquids can also serve other structure-directing roles, for example, when an IL containing a single enantiomer of a chiral anion leads to a homochiral MOF, even though the IL anion is not itself incorporated into the MOF. A comprehensive review of ionothermal syntheses of MOFs, and the structure-directing effects of the ILs, is given.

  12. Direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from plasma-water interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Jiandi Liu; Bangbang He; Qiang Chen; Junshuai Li; Qing Xiong; Guanghui Yue; Xianhui Zhang; Size Yang; Hai Liu; Qing Huo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is usually considered to be an important reagent in green chemistry since water is the only by-product in H2O2 involved oxidation reactions. Early studies show that direct synthesis of H2O2 by plasma-water interactions is possible, while the factors affecting the H2O2 production in this method remain unclear. Herein, we present a study on the H2O2 synthesis by atmospheric pressure plasma-water interactions. The results indicate that the most important factors for the ...

  13. An Integrated Environmental and Water Accounting and Analytical Framework for Accountable water Governance: a Case Study for Haihe Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, C.

    2009-04-01

    Water is a critical issue in China for a variety of reasons. This is especially urgent in Haihe basin with poor water availability of 305 m3 per capita basis. With the rapid economic development and associated increases in water demand, the river basin has been enduring increasing water stress. Water for the ecosystem use has been compromised and the environment has been deteriorating. Water shortage and environmental degradation have become a bottleneck to the further development of the economy and society. On one side, previous water resource managers have emphasized the amount of water withdrawn but rarely take water quality into consideration. On the other side, environmental managers have usually ignored the importance of pollutant assimilating capacity of water flows for the wastewater control. It is especially important to measure the impacts of both water withdrawn and wastewater discharge on the hydro-ecosystem. Thus, water consumption should not only account for the amount of water inputs but also the amount of water contaminated in the hydro-ecosystem by the discharged wastewater. Water quantity and quality of return flows should also become the important components of such an environmental and water account. Because return flow from upstream sites represents an externality to downstream uses, which can be positive as an additional source and negative as a pollutant source. In this paper we present an integrated environmental and water accounting and analytical approach based on a distributed hydrological model WEP-L (Water and Energy transfer Process in Large river basins) combined with a simple water quality model. Our environmental and water accounting framework and analysis tool allows tracking water consumption on the input side, water pollution from the human system and water flows passing the hydrological system thus enabling us to deal with water resources of different qualities. Keywords: Environmental accounting; Water accounting; Water

  14. Direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from plasma-water interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiandi; He, Bangbang; Chen, Qiang; Li, Junshuai; Xiong, Qing; Yue, Guanghui; Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Size; Liu, Hai; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is usually considered to be an important reagent in green chemistry since water is the only by-product in H2O2 involved oxidation reactions. Early studies show that direct synthesis of H2O2 by plasma-water interactions is possible, while the factors affecting the H2O2 production in this method remain unclear. Herein, we present a study on the H2O2 synthesis by atmospheric pressure plasma-water interactions. The results indicate that the most important factors for the H2O2 production are the processes taking place at the plasma-water interface, including sputtering, electric field induced hydrated ion emission, and evaporation. The H2O2 production rate reaches ~1200 μmol/h when the liquid cathode is purified water or an aqueous solution of NaCl with an initial conductivity of 10500 μS cm‑1.

  15. Towards an urban CLEWs framework - a first iteration assessing water-energy interactions in the City of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerström, Rebecka; Howells, Mark; Destouni, Georgia; Bhatt, Vatsal; Bazilian, Morgan; Rogner, Hans-Holger

    2016-04-01

    Water and energy systems provide many key services in cities, and although the systems themselves are tightly interlinked they are often planned and operated in silos. This paper presents a prototype urban water-energy-nexus analysis framework. In it, a set of 'resource efficiency' and 'sustainability' interventions in the residential sector are evaluated from a water and energy perspective simultaneously. Results from this first application show that water-energy interactions from seemingly very different interventions can be graphically represented, quantified and compared. It further shows how interventions commonly motivated by primarily water sector needs could also be cost-competitive from an energy efficiency perspective. A novel graphical reference resource-to-service system is developed, that connects not only urban energy and water systems but also couples this to the urban services they provide. This design enable analysis of multi-functional urban interventions, whose total cost or benefit could not be fully accounted for in either a separate water or a separate energy system assessment. A framework that centres on urban service provision thereby opens up for fair comparison between, to their nature, very different infrastructure solutions for providing those services. In an indicative quantitative assessment, comparison of a set of plausible water-energy-system-related interventions in NYC - a shift to water conserving household-appliances and an ambitious installation of extensive green roof - reveals that resource efficiency gains, costs and payback times vary greatly between the compared interventions. Only two out of the four investigated interventions yield results comparable to those of direct energy-efficiency measures. A general recommendation to always seek nexus - or multi-resource - efficiency would therefore be blunt guidance for policy makers trying to make the most of their (likely limited) budget. To consider these urban resource

  16. Nanoparticle-Directed Metal-Organic Framework/Porous Organic Polymer Monolithic Supports for Flow-Based Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darder, María Del Mar; Salehinia, Shima; Parra, José B; Herrero-Martinez, José M; Svec, Frantisek; Cerdà, Víctor; Turnes Palomino, Gemma; Maya, Fernando

    2017-01-18

    A two-step nanoparticle-directed route for the preparation of macroporous polymer monoliths for which the pore surface is covered with a metal-organic framework (MOF) coating has been developed to facilitate the use of MOFs in flow-based applications. The flow-through monolithic matrix was prepared in a column format from a polymerization mixture containing ZnO-nanoparticles. These nanoparticles embedded in the precursor monolith were converted to MOF coatings via the dissolution-precipitation equilibrium after filling the pores of the monolith with a solution of the organic linker. Pore surface coverage with the microporous zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 resulted in an increase in surface area from 72 to 273 m(2) g(-1). Monolithic polymer containing ZIF-8 coating was implemented as a microreactor catalyzing the Knoevenagel condensation reaction and also in extraction column format enabling the preconcentration of trace levels of toxic chlorophenols in environmental waters. Our approach can be readily adapted to other polymers and MOFs thus enabling development of systems for flow-based MOF applications.

  17. Efficiency of energy recovery from waste incineration, in the light of the new Waste Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Mario; Motta, Astrid; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2010-07-01

    This paper deals with a key issue related to municipal waste incineration, which is the efficiency of energy recovery. A strong driver for improving the energy performances of waste-to-energy plants is the recent Waste Framework Directive (Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives), which allows high efficiency installations to benefit from a status of "recovery" rather than "disposal". The change in designation means a step up in the waste hierarchy, where the lowest level of priority is now restricted to landfilling and low efficiency wastes incineration. The so-called "R1 formula" reported in the Directive, which counts for both production of power and heat, is critically analyzed and correlated to the more scientific-based approach of exergy efficiency. The results obtained for waste-to-energy plants currently operating in Europe reveal some significant differences in their performance, mainly related to the average size and to the availability of a heat market (district heating).

  18. Options for future effective water management in Lombok: A multi-level nested framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjah, Taslim; Baldwin, Claudia

    2014-11-01

    Previous research on water use in Lombok identified reduced water available in springs and limits on seasonal water availability. It foreshadowed increasing competition for water resources in critical areas of Lombok. This study examines preliminary information on local social-institutional arrangements for water allocation in the context of Ostrom's rules for self-governing institutions. We identify robust customary mechanisms for decision-making about water sharing and rules at a local level and suggest areas of further investigation for strengthening multi-level networked and nested frameworks, in collaboration with higher levels of government.

  19. Direct detection of the Enceladus water torus with Herschel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartogh, P.; Lellouch, E.; Moreno, R.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Biver, N.; Cassidy, T.; Rengel, M.; Jarchow, C.; Cavalie, T.; Crovisier, J.; Helmich, F. P.; Kidger, M.

    Cryovolcanic activity near the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus produces plumes of H2O-dominated gases and ice particles, which escape and populate a torus-shaped cloud. Using submillimeter spectroscopy with Herschel, we report the direct detection of the Enceladus water vapor torus in four

  20. Direct detection of the Enceladus water torus with Herschel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartogh, P.; Lellouch, E.; Moreno, R.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Biver, N.; Cassidy, T.; Rengel, M.; Jarchow, C.; Cavalie, T.; Crovisier, J.; Helmich, F. P.; Kidger, M.

    2011-01-01

    Cryovolcanic activity near the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus produces plumes of H2O-dominated gases and ice particles, which escape and populate a torus-shaped cloud. Using submillimeter spectroscopy with Herschel, we report the direct detection of the Enceladus water vapor torus in four rot

  1. A framework for unravelling the complexities of unsustainable water resource use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermody, Brian; Bierkens, Marc; Wassen, Martin; Dekker, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The majority of unsustainable water resource use is associated with food production, with the agricultural sector accounting for up to 70% of total freshwater use by humans. Water resource use in food production emerges as a result of dynamic interactions between humans and their environment in importing and exporting regions as well as the physical and socioeconomic trade infrastructure linking the two. Thus in order to understand unsustainable water resource use, it is essential to understand the complex socioecological food production and trade system. We present a modelling framework of the food production and trade system that facilitates an understanding of complex socioenvironmental processes that lead to unsustainable water resource use. Our framework is based on a coupling of the global hydrological model PC Raster Global Water Balance (PCR-GLOBWB) with a multi-agent socioeconomic food production and trade network. In our framework, agents perceive environmental conditions. They make food supply decisions based upon those perceptions and the heterogeneous socioeconomic conditions in which they exist. Agent decisions modify land and water resources. Those environmental changes feedback to influence decision making further. The framework presented has the potential to go beyond a diagnosis of the causes of unsustainable water resource and provide pathways towards a sustainable food system in terms of water resources.

  2. Who wants to be an agent? A framework to analyse water politics and governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce a framework to analyse water politics and governance in order to highlight aspects that are lesser known within the South African water discourse and to introduce and further a critical understanding...

  3. An Integrated Hydro-Economic Modelling Framework to Evaluate Water Allocation Strategies I: Model Development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, B.; Malano, H.; Davidson, B.; Hellegers, P.; Bharati, L.; Sylvain, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an integrated modelling framework for water resources planning and management that can be used to carry out an analysis of alternative policy scenarios for water allocation and use is described. The modelling approach is based on integrating a network allocation model (REALM) and a soc

  4. Conceptual framework for analysis of water-resources management in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, B.T.; Hufschmidt, M.M.

    1984-10-01

    Effective and efficient water resources management to meet the increasing demands for food, energy, and domestic and industrial water is an imperative for Asian countries. As a basis for analyzing Asian water resource management problems, a three-element conceptual framework is presented: (1) water resources management as a system, composed of a set of facilities, operating rules, and incentives applied to water resources through an institutional arrangement; (2) water resources management as a process involving several stages beginning with planning and continuing with design, construction, operation, and maintenance; and (3) water resources management as a set of linked activities and tasks required to produce the desired outputs. Using this framework to assess performance, it is possible to analyze the linkages among water resources problems, water resources management, and water resources organizations and administrative arrangements. Examples are presented of such linkages as applied to problems of erosion and sedimentation, flooding, salinity, water demand-supply imbalances, and water pollution. Brief analytical summaries of eight critical water resources management problems in Asia are presented, along with an illustration of the complexity of water resources organization and administration, using Thailand as the example. 36 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Home water treatment by direct filtration with natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raveendra; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2005-03-01

    Seeds of the plant species Strychnos potatorum and Moringa oleifera contain natural polyelectrolytes which can be used as coagulants to clarify turbid waters. In laboratory tests, direct filtration of a turbid surface water (turbidity 15-25 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 280-500 cfu ml(-1), and fecal coliforms 280-500 MPN 100 ml(-1)), with seeds of S. potatorum or M. oleifera as coagulant, produced a substantial improvement in its aesthetic and microbiological quality (turbidity 0.3-1.5 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 5-20 cfu ml(-1) and fecal coliforms 5-10 MPN 100 ml(-1)). The method appears suitable for home water treatment in rural areas of developing countries. These natural coagulants produce a 'low risk' water; however, additional disinfection or boiling should be practised during localised outbreaks/epidemics of enteric infections.

  6. Development of a new risk-based framework to guide investment in water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Dani J; Ghadouani, Anas; Sinang, Som Cit; Ivey, Gregory N

    2014-04-01

    An innovative framework for optimising investments in water quality monitoring has been developed for use by water and environmental agencies. By utilising historical data, investigating the accuracy of monitoring methods and considering the risk tolerance of the management agency, this new methodology calculates optimum water quality monitoring frequencies for individual water bodies. Such information can be applied to water quality constituents of concern in both engineered and natural water bodies and will guide the investment of monitoring resources. Here we present both the development of the framework itself and a proof of concept by applying it to the occurrence of hazardous cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater lakes. This application to existing data demonstrates the robustness of the approach and the capacity of the framework to optimise the allocation of both monitoring and mitigation resources. When applied to cyanobacterial blooms in the Swan Coastal Plain of Western Australia, we determined that optimising the monitoring regime at individual lakes could greatly alter the overall monitoring schedule for the region, rendering it more risk averse without increasing the amount of monitoring resources required. For water resources with high-density temporal data related to constituents of concern, a similar reduction in risk may be observed by applying the framework.

  7. A multiobjective optimization framework for multicontaminant industrial water network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix, Marianne; Montastruc, Ludovic; Pibouleau, Luc; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine; Domenech, Serge

    2011-07-01

    The optimal design of multicontaminant industrial water networks according to several objectives is carried out in this paper. The general formulation of the water allocation problem (WAP) is given as a set of nonlinear equations with binary variables representing the presence of interconnections in the network. For optimization purposes, three antagonist objectives are considered: F(1), the freshwater flow-rate at the network entrance, F(2), the water flow-rate at inlet of regeneration units, and F(3), the number of interconnections in the network. The multiobjective problem is solved via a lexicographic strategy, where a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) procedure is used at each step. The approach is illustrated by a numerical example taken from the literature involving five processes, one regeneration unit and three contaminants. The set of potential network solutions is provided in the form of a Pareto front. Finally, the strategy for choosing the best network solution among those given by Pareto fronts is presented. This Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem is tackled by means of two approaches: a classical TOPSIS analysis is first implemented and then an innovative strategy based on the global equivalent cost (GEC) in freshwater that turns out to be more efficient for choosing a good network according to a practical point of view. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adsorption and Reactive Desorption on Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Direct Strategy for Lactic Acid Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassin, Timothée; Reinsch, Helge; Van de Voorde, Ben; Wuttke, Stefan; Medina, Dana D; Stock, Norbert; Bein, Thomas; Ameloot, Rob; De Vos, Dirk

    2017-02-08

    Biomass-derived lactic acid (LA) is an important platform chemical towards the sustainable production of numerous materials. However, the fermentation process currently in use is limited by the difficult recovery of the LA product from the fermentation broth and results in the generation of stoichiometric amounts of gypsum waste. Herein, we show that metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of the UiO-66(Zr) type are effective adsorbents for the separation of LA from aqueous (buffer) solutions. These frameworks based on zirconium clusters and terephthalic acid derivatives display a tremendous uptake (up to 42 wt %) and a high affinity for LA. The latter can further be tuned by changing the hydrogen-bonding properties of the functional groups present on the organic ligand. A Rietveld refinement disclosed the specific interaction of LA with the clusters of UiO-66(Zr) and a preferential adsorption on open zirconium sites. Taking advantage of the catalytic activity of UiO-66(Zr), desorption of LA was performed in alcohols to recover up to 73 % as ester. Applied to the recovery of LA, adsorption and reactive desorption offer a direct and gypsum-free strategy as an alternative for the current multi-step process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The water framework directive - a directive for the twenty-first century?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsson, Henrik; Baaner, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    vandrammedirektivet stemmer dog ikke overnes med det økologiske indhold i ”god økologisk tilstand”. Direktivets tilgang er den, at man vurderer strukturen og funktionaliteten af økosystemer ved at kvantificere en række faste biologiske kvalitetselementer. Denne fremgangsmåde underminerer muligheden for at nå målet om...

  10. Template-Directed Approach Towards the Realization of Ordered Heterogeneity in Bimetallic Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeok; Coskun, Ali

    2017-04-24

    Controlling the arrangement of different metal ions to achieve ordered heterogeneity in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been a great challenge. Herein, we introduce a template-directed approach, in which a 1D metal-organic polymer incorporating well-defined binding pockets for the secondary metal ions used as a structural template and starting material for the preparation of well-ordered bimetallic MOF-74s under heterogeneous-phase hydrothermal reaction conditions in the presence of secondary metal ions such as Ni(2+) and Mg(2+) in 3 h. The resulting bimetallic MOF-74s were found to possess a nearly 1:1 metal ratio regardless of their initial stoichiometry in the reaction mixture, thus demonstrating the possibility of controlling the arrangement of metal ions within the secondary building blocks in MOFs to tune their intrinsic properties such as gas affinity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Kinds of well-being: A conceptual framework that provides direction for caring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen T. Galvin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a conceptual framework by which different kinds and levels of well-being can be named, and as such, provides a foundation for a resource-oriented approach in situations of illness and vulnerability (rather than a deficit-oriented approach. Building on a previous paper that articulated the philosophical foundations of an existential theory of well-being (“Dwelling-mobility”, we show here how the theory can be further developed towards practice-relevant concerns. We introduce 18 kinds of well-being that are intertwined and inter-related, and consider how each emphasis can lead to the formulation of resources that have the potential to give rise to well-being as a felt experience. By focusing on a much wider range of well-being possibilities, practitioners may find new directions for care that are not just literal but also at an existential level.

  12. Microplastics in seawater: Recommendations from the Marine Strategy Framework Directive implementation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Gago

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in marine systems across the globe. The legacy of microplastics pollution in the marine environment today may remain for years to come due to the persistence of these materials. Microplastics are emerging contaminants of potential concern and as yet there are few recognised approaches for monitoring. In 2008, the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC included microplastics as an aspect to be measured. Here we outline the approach as discussed by the European Union expert group on marine litter, the technical Subgroup on Marine litter (TSG-ML, with a focus on the implementation of monitoring microplastics in seawater in European seas. It is concluded that harmonization and coherence is needed to achieve reliable monitoring.

  13. [DIRECTIONALITY OF THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF DRINKING WATER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, K K; Karasev, A K; Marasanov, A V; Stekhin, A A; Iakovleva, G V

    2015-01-01

    There have been performed the studies of the dimensional parameters of peroxide associates in drinking water, per- forming regulatory functions in cellular metabolism, that determine the character of the biological response of the human body to drinking water The direction of action of peroxide associates type Σ [(HO2-(*) ... OH-(*) (H2O) tp)]q, (where (H2O) tp is an associate with the tetragonal structure (Walrafen pentamer Is ice VI), q is the degree of association p--parameter of ion coordination) on the cellular structures of the organism is associated with their quantum properties, determining the macroscopic parameters of the electron wave packets. Research has confirmed the addressness of the nonlocal entering electron to certain cellular structures of the body, which is determined by the structural similarity of centers of condensation of electrons in the cells of systems and organs of the body with the parameters of the electron wave packets in the associates. Methodology for the estimation of the orientation of biological effect of the drinking water to the systems of the body on the base of the analysis of variations in heart rhythm under non-contact influence of water on the human body and its relationship with the dimensional parameters and peroxide activity of associates in drinking water can be suggested for the implementation of screening tests for drinking water quality, taking into account both the individualfeatures of responses of body systems to drinking water and its group action.

  14. A water sustainability index for West Java. Part 1: developing the conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwana, I; Perera, B J C; Muttil, N

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable water resources management is essential since it ensures the integration of social, economical and environmental issues into all stages of water resources management. The development and application of water sustainability indices to achieve sustainable water management has been successfully done in the last few years. Although existing water sustainability indices have successfully provided information on current conditions of water resources and prioritised water related issues, they have been developed for specific case study areas. This study therefore aims at developing a water sustainability index for West Java, Indonesia. The overall steps for developing the index include developing a conceptual framework, application of Delphi technique to finalise the components/indicators of the index, applying the index to case studies and robustness analysis of the index. This paper, which is the first in a two-part series, discusses the first step, namely developing the conceptual framework of the West Java Water Sustainability Index (WJWSI). It outlines the criteria for identifying the initial set of components/indicators and based on those criteria, a detailed justification for selecting each component and indicator is also presented. The second paper of the series presents the application of Delphi technique to finalise the framework of WJWSI based on feedback from selected stakeholders. The remaining steps of developing WJWSI will be undertaken in the future.

  15. Use of macroalgae stored in an Environmental Specimen Bank for application of some European Framework Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, I G; Aboal, J R; Fernández, J A; Real, C; Villares, R; Carballeira, A

    2010-03-01

    Different European Framework Directives have established a series of objectives for conservation of the coast, and monitoring tools must be made available to test compliance with these aims. In the present study the use of macroalgae deposited in an Environmental Specimen Bank was evaluated as a possible environmental tool for monitoring the coastal ecosystem. The concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in three species of the genus Fucus (Fucus spiralis, Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus ceranoides) were measured at sampling sites distributed along the coast of Galicia (NW Spain). In the period 1990-2001, the concentrations of the metals were higher in 1990 than in 2001, with the exception of: i) Mn in F. ceranoides and Fe in F. spiralis-F. vesiculosus, for which there were no differences between the sampling periods, and ii) Zn in F. vesiculosus and Fe in F. ceranoides, for which the concentrations were higher in 2001 than in 1990. In the period 2001-2007 concentrations of the metals were more stable, especially in F. ceranoides (e.g. Al, Fe, Hg, Ni and V). The concentrations were also more stable vin F. vesiculosus in 2005 (i.e. Al, Cr, Fe, Mn and Zn). The population density distributions are consistent with the results of the statistical tests. The results indicate that macroalgae of the genus Fucus may be useful for applying different European Framework Directives, given that the macroalgae are sufficiently sensitive to changes in concentrations of metals, and may be suitable for long-term monitoring and used for the detection of increased concentrations of metals (real-time monitoring). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Life Cycle Network Modeling Framework and Solution Algorithms for Systems Analysis and Optimization of the Water-Energy Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Garcia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The water footprint of energy systems must be considered, as future water scarcity has been identified as a major concern. This work presents a general life cycle network modeling and optimization framework for energy-based products and processes using a functional unit of liters of water consumed in the processing pathway. We analyze and optimize the water-energy nexus over the objectives of water footprint minimization, maximization of economic output per liter of water consumed (economic efficiency of water, and maximization of energy output per liter of water consumed (energy efficiency of water. A mixed integer, multiobjective nonlinear fractional programming (MINLFP model is formulated. A mixed integer linear programing (MILP-based branch and refine algorithm that incorporates both the parametric algorithm and nonlinear programming (NLP subproblems is developed to boost solving efficiency. A case study in bioenergy is presented, and the water footprint is considered from biomass cultivation to biofuel production, providing a novel perspective into the consumption of water throughout the value chain. The case study, optimized successively over the three aforementioned objectives, utilizes a variety of candidate biomass feedstocks to meet primary fuel products demand (ethanol, diesel, and gasoline. A minimum water footprint of 55.1 ML/year was found, economic efficiencies of water range from −$1.31/L to $0.76/L, and energy efficiencies of water ranged from 15.32 MJ/L to 27.98 MJ/L. These results show optimization provides avenues for process improvement, as reported values for the energy efficiency of bioethanol range from 0.62 MJ/L to 3.18 MJ/L. Furthermore, the proposed solution approach was shown to be an order of magnitude more efficient than directly solving the original MINLFP problem with general purpose solvers.

  17. Evaluation of geohydrologic framework, recharge estimates and ground-water flow of the Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tracy; Izbicki, John A.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Ground water historically has been the sole source of water supply for the community of Joshua Tree in the Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin of the Morongo ground-water basin in the southern Mojave Desert. The Joshua Basin Water District (JBWD) supplies water to the community from the underlying Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin. The JBWD is concerned with the long-term sustainability of the underlying aquifer. To help meet future demands, the JBWD plans to construct production wells in the adjacent Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin. As growth continues in the desert, there may be a need to import water to supplement the available ground-water resources. In order to manage the ground-water resources and to identify future mitigating measures, a thorough understanding of the ground-water system is needed. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) improve the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins, (2) determine the distribution and quantity of recharge using field and numerical techniques, and (3) develop a ground-water flow model that can be used to help manage the water resources of the region. The geohydrologic framework was refined by collecting and interpreting water-level and water-quality data, geologic and electric logs, and gravity data. The water-bearing deposits in the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins are Quarternary alluvial deposits and Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits. The Quarternary alluvial deposits were divided into two aquifers (referred to as the 'upper' and the 'middle' alluvial aquifers), which are about 600 feet (ft) thick, and the Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits were assigned to a single aquifer (referred to as the 'lower' aquifer), which is as thick as 1,500 ft. The ground-water quality of the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins was defined by collecting 53 ground-water samples from 15 wells (10 in the

  18. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-03

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  19. Decontamination of drinking water by direct heating in solar panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjendbo Jørgensen, A J; Nøhr, K; Sørensen, H; Boisen, F

    1998-09-01

    A device was developed for direct heating of water by solar radiation in a flow-through system of copper pipes. An adjustable thermostat valve prevents water below the chosen temperature from being withdrawn. The results show that it is possible to eliminate coliform and thermotolerant coliform bacteria from naturally contaminated river water by heating to temperatures of 65 degrees C or above. Artificial additions of Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli to contaminated river water were also inactivated after heating to 65 degrees C and above. The total viable count could be reduced by a factor of 1000. The heat-resistant bacteria isolated from the Mlalakuva River (Tanzania) were spore-forming bacteria which exhibited greater heat resistance than commonly used test bacteria originating from countries with colder climates. To provide a good safety margin it is recommended that an outlet water temperature of 75 degrees C be used. At that temperature the daily production was about 501 of decontaminated water per m2 of solar panel, an amount that could be doubled by using a heat exchanger to recycle the heat.

  20. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination

  1. Hydrogeologic framework refinement, ground-water flow and storage, water-chemistry analyses, and water-budget components of the Yuma area, southwestern Arizona and southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Land, Michael; Faunt, Claudia C.; Leake, S.A.; Reichard, Eric G.; Fleming, John B.; Pool, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    The ground-water and surface-water system in the Yuma area in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California is managed intensely to meet water-delivery requirements of customers in the United States, to manage high ground-water levels in the valleys, and to maintain treaty-mandated water-quality and quantity requirements of Mexico. The following components in this report, which were identified to be useful in the development of a ground-water management model, are: (1) refinement of the hydrogeologic framework; (2) updated water-level maps, general ground-water flow patterns, and an estimate of the amount of ground water stored in the mound under Yuma Mesa; (3) review and documentation of the ground-water budget calculated by the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior (Reclamation); and (4) water-chemistry characterization to identify the spatial distribution of water quality, information on sources and ages of ground water, and information about the productive-interval depths of the aquifer. A refined three-dimensional digital hydrogeologic framework model includes the following hydrogeologic units from bottom to top: (1) the effective hydrologic basement of the basin aquifer, which includes the Pliocene Bouse Formation, Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and pre-Tertiary metamorphic and plutonic rocks; (2) undifferentiated lower units to represent the Pliocene transition zone and wedge zone; (3) coarse-gravel unit; (4) lower, middle, and upper basin fill to represent the upper, fine-grained zone between the top of the coarse-gravel unit and the land surface; and (5) clay A and clay B. Data for the refined model includes digital elevation models, borehole lithology data, geophysical data, and structural data to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units. The top surface of the coarse-gravel unit, defined by using borehole and geophysical data, varies similarly to terraces resulting from the down cutting of the Colorado River. Clay A

  2. Towards a global water scarcity risk assessment framework: using scenarios and risk distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted; Wada, Yoshihide; Aerts, Jeroen; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions have led to increased water scarcity problems. A large number of studies have shown that these water scarcity conditions will worsen in the near future. Despite numerous calls for risk-based assessments of water scarcity, a framework that includes UNISDR's definition of risk does not yet exist at the global scale. This study provides a first step towards such a risk-based assessment, applying a Gamma distribution to estimate water scarcity conditions at the global scale under historic and future conditions, using multiple climate change projections and socioeconomic scenarios. Our study highlights that water scarcity risk increases given all future scenarios, up to >56.2% of the global population in 2080. Looking at the drivers of risk, we find that population growth outweigh the impacts of climate change at global and regional scales. Using a risk-based method to assess water scarcity in terms of Expected Annual Exposed Population, we show the results to be less sensitive than traditional water scarcity assessments to the use of fixed threshold to represent different levels of water scarcity. This becomes especially important when moving from global to local scales, whereby deviations increase up to 50% of estimated risk levels. Covering hazard, exposure, and vulnerability, risk-based methods are well-suited to assess water scarcity adaptation. Completing the presented risk framework therefore offers water managers a promising perspective to increase water security in a well-informed and adaptive manner.

  3. An economic framework for valuing information in water scarce irrigation districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaune, Alexander; Werner, Micha; Karimi, Poolad; de Fraiture, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Data and information plays a crucial role in quantifying the abundance of the available water resource and the demand placed on it in water scarce regions, and is central to decision making. This is particularly so for water allocation decisions in large irrigation districts. However, in most irrigation schemes data collection is normally limited due to the economic investments required. As a result, water allocation decisions are normally taken based on incomplete or uncertain data on the current or forecast situation, leading to less optimal decisions being taken in system planning and operation. Wrong water allocation decisions can lead to economic loss in agricultural production, implying low performance of the system and possible impact on the users' livelihoods. The objective of this research is to assess available frameworks in valuing information and to adapt these to support water allocation decisions in irrigation districts. Water allocation decisions made in the planning of irrigation districts as well as in their operation will be evaluated through a decision framework that considers a discrete set of options, each generating different agricultural production loss scenarios relative to uncertain water scarcity conditions. Additional information obtained from improved data can support better decision making and thus constitutes added value. This added value can be interpreted as the marginal benefit of the improved data. The marginal benefit of information will be determined following an economic framework based on the Relative Economic Value theory that is applied in making decisions in a Bayesian setting. Through this framework it is expected to provide economic values of information in support of water allocation decisions in vulnerable irrigation districts. This is an essential step to provide insight on the value of information in water allocation decisions in planning and operation, and ultimately to reduce agricultural production loss.

  4. A Framework for Curriculum Reform: Re-designing a Curriculum for Self-directed Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Thornton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to this new SiSAL column, which will examine a long-term project conducted at one institution in depth over several issues. The focus of this column will be the curriculum design project currently being undertaken at the Self-Access Learning Centre (SALC at Kanda University of International Studies (KUIS in Chiba, Japan. In my role as Academic Coordinator of the SALC from 2011-2013, I was in charge of leading this project in its initial stages, before I moved institution. As editor, it is from this perspective, as someone familiar but no longer directly involved in the project, that I hope to collate and introduce a number of columns from the learning advisors and teachers who are conducting the research and designing the new self-directed learning curriculum. In this first installment, a revision of an earlier article which first appeared in the IATEFL Learner Autonomy SIG newsletter, Independence, (Thornton, 2012 I present the background to the project, the framework used to guide it and the results of the first stage, the environment analysis.

  5. Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES): Conceptual framework and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Lidia Del; Finset, Arnstein; Mellblom, Anneli V; Figueiredo-Braga, Margarida; Korsvold, Live; Zhou, Yuefang; Zimmermann, Christa; Humphris, Gerald

    2017-06-21

    To discuss the theoretical and empirical framework of VR-CoDES and potential future direction in research based on the coding system. The paper is based on selective review of papers relevant to the construction and application of VR-CoDES. VR-CoDES system is rooted in patient-centered and biopsychosocial model of healthcare consultations and on a functional approach to emotion theory. According to the VR-CoDES, emotional interaction is studied in terms of sequences consisting of an eliciting event, an emotional expression by the patient and the immediate response by the clinician. The rationale for the emphasis on sequences, on detailed classification of cues and concerns, and on the choices of explicit vs. non-explicit responses and providing vs. reducing room for further disclosure, as basic categories of the clinician responses, is described. Results from research on VR-CoDES may help raise awareness of emotional sequences. Future directions in applying VR-CoDES in research may include studies on predicting patient and clinician behavior within the consultation, qualitative analyses of longer sequences including several VR-CoDES triads, and studies of effects of emotional communication on health outcomes. VR-CoDES may be applied to develop interventions to promote good handling of patients' emotions in healthcare encounters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Absorption type water chiller fired directly by waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, K. L.; Kalwar, K.

    1982-08-01

    The direct use of waste heat as heating element in a water chiller of the absorption type was studied. The chilled water is used as cooling element in the industrial process, producing the waste heat or for conditioning the workplace or further located places. The heat source is gaseous or liquid. The cooling capacity is in the range from 10 to 120 kW. After reviewing the different absorption systems, LiBr/H20 proved to be the most suitable. The process retained for experimenting was the manufacturing of synthetic materials polymer industry and was tested in two different factories. It is proved that the use of absorption type water chillers is practicable with an efficiency of 10% to 25% of the waste heat energy, but that the existing chillers need extensive conversion for obtaining economical operation when using a low temperature heating source.

  7. Towards a comprehensive assessment and framework for low and high flow water risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motschmann, Alina; Huggel, Christian; Drenkhan, Fabian; León, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Driven by international organizations such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) the past years have seen a move from a vulnerability concept of climate change impacts towards a risk framework. Risk is now conceived at the intersection of climate-driven hazard and socioeconomic-driven vulnerability and exposure. The concept of risk so far has been mainly adopted for sudden-onset events. However, for slow-onset and cumulative climate change impacts such as changing water resources there is missing clarity and experience how to apply a risk framework. Research has hardly dealt with the challenge of how to integrate both low and high flow risks in a common framework. Comprehensive analyses of risks related to water resources considering climate change within multi-dimensional drivers across different scales are complex and often missing in climate-sensitive mountain regions where data scarcity and inconsistencies represent important limitations. Here we review existing vulnerability and risk assessments of low and high flow water conditions and identify critical conceptual and practical gaps. Based on this, we develop an integrated framework for low and high flow water risks which is applicable to both past and future conditions. The framework explicitly considers a water balance model simulating both water supply and demand on a daily basis. We test and apply this new framework in the highly glacierized Santa River catchment (SRC, Cordillera Blanca, Peru), representative for many developing mountain regions with both low and high flow water risks and poor data availability. In fact, in the SRC, both low and high flow hazards, such as droughts and floods, play a central role especially for agricultural, hydropower, domestic and mining use. During the dry season (austral winter) people are increasingly affected by water scarcity due to shrinking glaciers supplying melt water. On the other hand during the wet season (austral summer) high flow water

  8. Diagnosing water security in the rural North with an environmental security framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Henry J F; Loring, Philip A; Schnabel, William E

    2017-09-01

    This study explores the nature of water security challenges in rural Alaska, using a framework for environmental security that entails four interrelated concepts: availability, access, utility, and stability of water resources. Many researchers and professionals agree that water insecurity is a problem in rural Alaska, although the scale and nature of the problem is contested. Some academics have argued that the problem is systemic, and rooted in an approach to water security by the state that prioritizes economic concerns over public health concerns. Health practitioners and state agencies, on the other hand, contend that much progress has been made, and that nearly all rural households have access to safe drinking water, though many are still lacking 'modern' in-home water service. Here, we draw on a synthesis of ethnographic research alongside data from state agencies to show that the persistent water insecurity problems in rural Alaska are not a problem of access to or availability of clean water, or a lack of 'modern' infrastructure, but instead are rooted in complex human dimensions of water resources management, including the political legacies of state and federal community development schemes that did not fully account for local needs and challenges. The diagnostic approach we implement here helps to identify solutions to these challenges, which accordingly focus on place-based needs and empowering local actors. The framework likewise proves to be broadly applicable to exploring water security concerns elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Demand for water resources information: a conceptual framework and empirical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    This study develops and presents a conceptual framework that builds upon and extends the economics of information literature. Combining observations that emerge from a review of literature concerning organizational decision processes, this framework considers the nature of the demand and value for water resource information by individuals who participate in the decision making process found within public water management organizations. Based upon this conceptual framework, the paper reports the results of an empirical model relating decision participant use of the Water Resource Council's Second National Water Assessment and hypothetical expenditures on national assessment type information to personal and agency characteristics in two water basin management situations. Results of the investigations indicate that previous use of specific water information products and the level of expenditures made on certain types of water information are influenced by personal and organizational characteristics. Consequently, there can exist no correct information system and thus no correct data collection plan in the absence of knowledge concerning information value.

  10. Multi-Criteria Framework to Assess Large Scale Water Resources Policy Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Udias

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess water efficiency options on the European scale, a multi-criteria integrative hydro-economic modeling framework has been developed. With this framework, it is possible to assess combinations of measures which could help reducing the gap between water demand and water availability, while taking into account ecological, water quality, flood risk and economic aspects. The assessed measures include water retention, water savings and nutrient reduction measures. The presented work was carried out within the framework of the “Blueprint to safeguard Europe’s waters” policy initiative of the European Commission. Contrary to earlier studies concentrating on single measures in single river basins, this study shows that this modeling environment can evaluate combinations of measures in multiple river basins that meet the considered objectives, and in general can improve various water quantity and quality indicators as compared to the baseline situation. However, additional work is needed on for example quantifying the economics of damage and benefits before the modelling environment may be used for policy advice.

  11. A framework for understanding risk perception, explored from the perspective of the water practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbie, Meredith Frances; Brown, Rebekah Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Sustainable urban water systems are likely to be hybrids of centralized and decentralized infrastructure, managed as an integrated system in water-sensitive cities. The technology for many of these systems is available. However, social and institutional barriers, which can be understood as deeply embedded risk perceptions, have impeded their implementation. Risk perceptions within the water sector are often unrecognized or unacknowledged, despite their role in risk management generally in informing value judgments and specifically in ranking risks to achieve management objectives. There has been very little examination of the role of these risk perceptions in advancing more sustainable water supply management through the adoption of alternative sources. To address this gap, this article presents a framework that can be used as a tool for understanding risk perceptions. The framework is built on the relational theory of risk and presents the range of human phenomena that might influence the perception of an "object at risk" in relation to a "risk object." It has been synthesized from a critical review of theoretical, conceptual, and empirical studies of perception broadly and risk perception specifically, and interpreted in relation to water practitioners. For a water practitioner, the risk object might be an alternative water system, a component, a process, or a technology, and the object at risk could be public or environmental health, profitability, or professional reputation. This framework has two important functions: to allow practitioners to understand their own and others' risk perceptions, which might differ, and to inform further empirical research.

  12. A social-economic-engineering combined framework for decision making in water resources planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Chung

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a social-economic-engineering combined framework for decision making in water resources planning. This framework consists of four parts which are to spatially identify the grades on hydrological vulnerability (potential streamflow depletion and potential water quality deterioration, to evaluate the monetary values of improvements on hydrological vulnerability grades using the choice experiment method, to derive an alternative evaluation index (AEI to quantify the effectiveness of all alternatives, and to combine the derived willingness-to-pays (WTPs with the AEI and do the cost-benefit analysis of feasible alternatives. This framework includes the stakeholder participation in order to quantify the preferences with regard to management objectives (water quantity and quality and WTPs of alternatives. Finally, the economic values of each alternative can be estimated by this study which combines the WTPs for improvements on hydrologic vulnerability grades with the AEI. The proposed procedure is applied in the Anyangcheon watershed which has been highly urbanized for past thirty years. As a result, WTPs are $0.24~$10.08/month-household for water quantity and $0.80~$8.60/month-household for water quality and residents of the five regions among six have higher WTPs for water quality improvement. Finally, since three of ten alternatives have BC>0, they can be proposed to the decision makers. This systematic screening procedure will provide decision makers with the flexibility to obtain stakeholders' consensus for water resources planning.

  13. Improving the relevance and impact of decision support research: A co-production framework and water management case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Dilling, L.; Basdekas, L.; Kaatz, L.

    2016-12-01

    context. We also describe the development of, and experiences from, the second workshop which included activities for water managers to interact directly with MOEA testbed results. Finally, we evaluate the co-production framework itself and the potential for the feedback from managers to shape future development of decision support tools.

  14. The new German drinking water directive; Die neue Trinkwasserverordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castell-Exner, C. [Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches - Technisch-wissenschatlicher Verein, Bonn (Germany); Seeliger, P. [Bundesverband der Deutschen Gas- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V., Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    With effect from 1 January 2003 the new German statutory instrument on drinking water will implement the EC drinking water directive as amended at the end of 1998 under national legislation. The paper presents drinking water quality requirements as set out in the draft statutory instrument and compares these with current provisions. The paper discusses in detail changes in quality standards (provisions concerning the preparation of untreated water with microbiological contamination, differentiation of chemical parameters according to their degradation in both public and domestic distribution systems, deletion of parameters not considered as health-relevant, introduction of so-called 'indicator parameters', etc.) and quality assurance (analysis methods and analysis agencies, monitoring, duties of the Public Health Office, responsibilities of owners of premises), as well as examining in depth legal aspects, such as premises where water is supplied for human consumption, measures in the event of noncompliance, notification and investigation obligations, point of compliance, criminal offences and non-criminal offences. (orig.)

  15. The structure-directing effect of n-propylamine in the crystallization of open-framework aluminophosphates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU HuiYing; YAN Yan; TONG XiaoQiang; YAN WenFu; YU JiHong; XU RuRen

    2014-01-01

    Using n-propylamine as a template,deioned water and secondary-butanol(butan-2-ol)as solvents,a three-dimensional(3D)open-framework aluminophosphate[C3NH10]·[HAl3P3O13](1)and a two-dimensional layered aluminophosphate[C3NH10]3·[Al3P4O16](2)were crystallized from the initial mixtures with compositions of Al2O3:2.4 P2O5:5.0 n-propylamine:100 H2O/butan-2-ol,respectively.They are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction(XRD),thermogravimetric(TG),and elemental(CHN)analyses and structurally determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a=0.85831(13)nm,b=1.7677(3)nm,c=1.04353(12)nm,=123.887(9)°,and V=1.3143(3)nm3.Compound 2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a=1.1313(2)nm,b=1.4874(3)nm,c=1.8020(6)nm,=125.07(2)°,and V=2.4817(11)nm3.The results show that the properties of solvent have a significant influence on the structure-directing effect of n-propylamine in the crystallization of the open-framework aluminophosphates.

  16. Water Isotope framework for lake water balance monitoring and modelling in the Nam Co Basin, Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichang Kang

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights: A water isotope framework for the Nam Co basin, including the Local Meteoric Water Line, limiting isotopic composition of evaporation and two hypothetical evaporation trajectories, is established. We further applied the isotope mass balance model to estimate the overall isotopic composition of input water to the Nam Co, the evaporation over inputs ratios (E/I for three consecutive years, and the water yields (Wy, depth equivalent runoff at a basin scale. Our results clearly suggest a positive water budget (i.e., E/I < 1, providing another line of evidence that the subsurface leakage from Nam Co is likely. The discrepancy between isotope-based water yields estimations and field-based runoff observations suggest that, compared to the well-studied Nyainqentanglha Mountains and southwestern mountains, the ridge-and-valley landscape in the western highlands and northwestern hogbacks are possibly low yields area, which should draw more research attentions in future hydrological investigations.

  17. Van der Waals density functional study of water binding in metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyuho; Smit, Berend; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    2013-03-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising candidate materials for gas storage, gas separation and catalysis. However, MOFs are vulnerable to humid air and effective surface area drops dramatically on an exposure to water. In this theoretical study, we investigate the interaction of single water molecule with MOF-74 on different binding sites by using van der Waals density functionals. We also explore how different type of metal cations affect the interaction.

  18. Characterization of Adsorption Enthalpy of Novel Water-Stable Zeolites and Metal-Organic Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunho Kim; H. Jeremy Cho; Shankar Narayanan; Sungwoo Yang; Hiroyasu Furukawa; Scott Schiffres; Xiansen Li; Yue-Biao Zhang; Juncong Jiang; Yaghi, Omar M.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-01-01

    Water adsorption is becoming increasingly important for many applications including thermal energy storage, desalination, and water harvesting. To develop such applications, it is essential to understand both adsorbent-adsorbate and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, and also the energy required for adsorption/desorption processes of porous material-adsorbate systems, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In this study, we present a technique to characterize the enthalpy of ads...

  19. A novel water quality data analysis framework based on time-series data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weihui; Wang, Guoyin

    2017-07-01

    The rapid development of time-series data mining provides an emerging method for water resource management research. In this paper, based on the time-series data mining methodology, we propose a novel and general analysis framework for water quality time-series data. It consists of two parts: implementation components and common tasks of time-series data mining in water quality data. In the first part, we propose to granulate the time series into several two-dimensional normal clouds and calculate the similarities in the granulated level. On the basis of the similarity matrix, the similarity search, anomaly detection, and pattern discovery tasks in the water quality time-series instance dataset can be easily implemented in the second part. We present a case study of this analysis framework on weekly Dissolve Oxygen time-series data collected from five monitoring stations on the upper reaches of Yangtze River, China. It discovered the relationship of water quality in the mainstream and tributary as well as the main changing patterns of DO. The experimental results show that the proposed analysis framework is a feasible and efficient method to mine the hidden and valuable knowledge from water quality historical time-series data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Toward a social capital based framework for understanding the water-health nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisung, Elijah; Elliott, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in social capital theory in both research and policy arenas. Social capital has been associated with many aspects of improvements in health, environment and development. This paper assesses the theoretical support for a social capital based analysis of environment and health issues with a focus on the water-health nexus in low and middle income countries. We review conceptualisation of social capital by Pierre Bourdieu in relation to his concepts of "fields" and "habitus" as well as other conceptualisations of social capital by James Coleman and Robert Putnam. We integrate these authors' ideas with ecosocial analysis of social and geographical patterns of access to safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene and the resulting health impacts. Further, we develop a conceptual framework for linking social capital and health through the water-health nexus. The framework focuses on the role of social capital in improving water-related knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as facilitating collective action towards improving access to water and sanitation. The proposed framework will facilitate critical engagement with the pathways through which social processes and interactions influence health within the context of access to water, sanitation and hygiene in low and middle income countries.

  1. An expanded conceptual framework for solution-focused management of chemical pollution in European waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, John; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Rahmberg, Magnus; Posthuma, Leo; Altenburger, Rolf; Brack, Werner; Bunke, Dirk; Engelen, Guy; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Gils, Jos; Herráez, David López; Rydberg, Tomas; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; van Wezel, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual framework for solutions-focused management of chemical contaminants built on novel and systematic approaches for identifying, quantifying and reducing risks of these substances. The conceptual framework was developed in interaction with stakeholders representing relevant authorities and organisations responsible for managing environmental quality of water bodies. Stakeholder needs were compiled via a survey and dialogue. The content of the conceptual framework was thereafter developed with inputs from relevant scientific disciplines. The conceptual framework consists of four access points: Chemicals, Environment, Abatement and Society, representing different aspects and approaches to engaging in the issue of chemical contamination of surface waters. It widens the scope for assessment and management of chemicals in comparison to a traditional (mostly) perchemical risk assessment approaches by including abatement- and societal approaches as optional solutions. The solution-focused approach implies an identification of abatement- and policy options upfront in the risk assessment process. The conceptual framework was designed for use in current and future chemical pollution assessments for the aquatic environment, including the specific challenges encountered in prioritising individual chemicals and mixtures, and is applicable for the development of approaches for safe chemical management in a broader sense. The four access points of the conceptual framework are interlinked by four key topics representing the main scientific challenges that need to be addressed, i.e.: identifying and prioritising hazardous chemicals at different scales; selecting relevant and efficient abatement options; providing regulatory support for chemicals management; predicting and prioritising future chemical risks. The conceptual framework aligns current challenges in the safe production and use of chemicals. The current state of knowledge and implementation

  2. Drivers of Microbial Risk for Direct Potable Reuse and de Facto Reuse Treatment Schemes: The Impacts of Source Water Quality and Blending

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia M. Chaudhry; Kerry A. Hamilton; Haas, Charles N.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2017-01-01

    Although reclaimed water for potable applications has many potential benefits, it poses concerns for chemical and microbial risks to consumers. We present a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) Monte Carlo framework to compare a de facto water reuse scenario (treated wastewater-impacted surface water) with four hypothetical Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) scenarios for Norovirus, Cryptosporidium, and Salmonella. Consumer microbial risks of surface source water quality (impacted by 0–100% ...

  3. An ecoclimatic framework for evaluating the resilience of vegetation to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick J; O'Grady, Anthony P; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Brodribb, Timothy J; Arndt, Stefan K; Blackman, Chris J; Duursma, Remko A; Fensham, Rod J; Hilbert, David W; Nitschke, Craig R; Norris, Jaymie; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Ruthrof, Katinka X; Tissue, David T

    2016-05-01

    The surge in global efforts to understand the causes and consequences of drought on forest ecosystems has tended to focus on specific impacts such as mortality. We propose an ecoclimatic framework that takes a broader view of the ecological relevance of water deficits, linking elements of exposure and resilience to cumulative impacts on a range of ecosystem processes. This ecoclimatic framework is underpinned by two hypotheses: (i) exposure to water deficit can be represented probabilistically and used to estimate exposure thresholds across different vegetation types or ecosystems; and (ii) the cumulative impact of a series of water deficit events is defined by attributes governing the resistance and recovery of the affected processes. We present case studies comprising Pinus edulis and Eucalyptus globulus, tree species with contrasting ecological strategies, which demonstrate how links between exposure and resilience can be examined within our proposed framework. These examples reveal how climatic thresholds can be defined along a continuum of vegetation functional responses to water deficit regimes. The strength of this framework lies in identifying climatic thresholds on vegetation function in the absence of more complete mechanistic understanding, thereby guiding the formulation, application and benchmarking of more detailed modelling. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Discovering Resilient Pathways for South African Water Management: Two Frameworks for a Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Bohensky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Factors that constitute resilience can themselves change over time in social-ecological systems. This poses a major challenge for understanding resilience and suggests greater investigation is needed of how social-ecological systems evolve through time and how to manage along more resilient pathways given continuous change. Resilient pathways account for the changing context of social-ecological systems, such as changing management discourses and their societal inclusiveness, changing system boundaries and external connections, and lingering consequences of past management actions. In this paper I use two well-known conceptual frameworks to explore change in social-ecological systems and associated resilience in the case of water management in South Africa, which is undergoing a major transformation: (1 the conceptual framework of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA and (2 the adaptive cycle described by Holling and others. Both frameworks, with minor adaptations, illustrate the system's shift from a centralized command-and-control style bureaucracy to a decentralized system guided by new legislation and a vision to balance efficiency, equity, and sustainability. During the former era, water managers attempted to maintain system stability and productivity through institutional and technical means that favored certain sectors of society, but resilience of the water management system declined as a result of increasingly unpopular policies and loss of ecosystem services. In using both frameworks, it becomes clear that the water management system contains two distinct social subsystems, representing South Africa's previously advantaged and disadvantaged populations, and that these do not progress through the phases of the MA framework and adaptive cycle uniformly. This implies particular challenges for achieving the water management vision: (1 the potential for management discourses to be manipulated by powerful groups, (2 equity issues that

  5. Direct measurement of adsorbed gas redistribution in metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Pin; Liu, Yangyang; Liu, Dahuan; Bosch, Mathieu; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2015-03-04

    Knowledge about the interactions between gas molecules and adsorption sites is essential to customize metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as adsorbents. The dynamic interactions occurring during adsorption/desorption working cycles with several states are especially complicated. Even so, the gas dynamics based upon experimental observations and the distribution of guest molecules under various conditions in MOFs have not been extensively studied yet. In this work, a direct time-resolved diffraction structure envelope (TRDSE) method using sequential measurements by in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction has been developed to monitor several gas dynamic processes taking place in MOFs: infusion, desorption, and gas redistribution upon temperature change. The electron density maps indicate that gas molecules prefer to redistribute over heterogeneous types of sites rather than to exclusively occupy the primary binding sites. We found that the gas molecules are entropically driven from open metal sites to larger neighboring spaces during the gas infusion period, matching the localized-to-mobile mechanism. In addition, the partitioning ratio of molecules adsorbed at each site varies with different temperatures, as opposed to an invariant distribution mode. Equally important, the gas adsorption in MOFs is intensely influenced by the gas-gas interactions, which might induce more molecules to be accommodated in an orderly compact arrangement. This sequential TRDSE method is generally applicable to most crystalline adsorbents, yielding information on distribution ratios of adsorbates at each type of site.

  6. Direct Phase Equilibrium Simulations of NIPAM Oligomers in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boţan, Vitalie; Ustach, Vincent; Faller, Roland; Leonhard, Kai

    2016-04-07

    NIPAM (N-isopropylacrylamide)-based polymers in water show many interesting properties in experiments, including a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at 305 K and a conformational transition of single chains at the same temperature. The results of many simulation studies suggest that standard force fields are able to describe the conformational transition and the phase equilibrium well. We show by performing long molecular dynamics simulations of the direct liquid-liquid phase equilibrium of NIPAM trimers in water that there is no LCST in the expected temperature range for any of the force fields under study. The results show further that the relaxation times of single-chain simulations are considerably longer than anticipated. Conformational transitions of single polymers can therefore not necessarily be used as surrogates for a real phase transition.

  7. Experimental study of hydrogen production by direct decomposition of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgen, E.; Galindo, J.; Baykara, S. Z.

    The hydrogen production by direct decomposition of water in a solar furnace is studied. The set-up is a horizontal axis system consisting of two 1.0 kW parabolic concentrators, both powered by a single heliostat. A temperature of 3000 K is possible. The water is fed to the reactor installed at the focal space of the concentrator, and the steam is decomposed at about 2500 K. The reactor consisted of a cylindrical cavity type refractory receiver covered with a silica cupola. The steam was introduced at a known rate into the cavity and the product gases were quenched. After the condensation of steam, hydrogen and oxygen were collected in a reservoir. Results indicate that with an optimized system, it is possible to produce hydrogen at about 70 percent rate of the theoretical value at the temperature level studied.

  8. Establishing and testing a catchment water footprint framework to inform sustainable irrigation water use for an aquifer under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, Betsie; van der Laan, Michael; Vahrmeijer, Teunis; Bristow, Keith L; Annandale, John G

    2017-12-01

    Future water scarcities in the face of an increasing population, climate change and the unsustainable use of aquifers will present major challenges to global food production. The ability of water footprints (WFs) to inform water resource management at catchment-scale was investigated on the Steenkoppies Aquifer, South Africa. Yields based on cropping areas were multiplied with season-specific WFs for each crop to determine blue and green water consumption by agriculture. Precipitation and evapotranspiration of natural vegetation and other uses of blue water were included with the agricultural WFs to compare water availability and consumption in a catchment sustainability assessment. This information was used to derive a water balance and develop a catchment WF framework that gave important insights into the hydrology of the aquifer through a simplified method. This method, which requires the monitoring of only a few key variables, including rainfall, agricultural production, WFs of natural vegetation and other blue water flows, can be applied to inform the sustainability of catchment scale water use (as opposed to more complex hydrological studies). Results indicate that current irrigation on the Steenkoppies Aquifer is unsustainable. This is confirmed by declining groundwater levels, and suggests that there should be no further expansion of irrigated agriculture on the Steenkoppies Aquifer. Discrepancies between in- and outflows of water in the catchment indicated that further development of the WF approach is required to improve understanding of the geohydrology of the aquifer and to set and meet sustainability targets for the aquifer. It is envisaged that this 'working' framework can be applied to other water-stressed aquifers around the world. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. All inorganic semiconductor nanowire mesh for direct solar water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wu, Cheng-Hao; Miao, Jianwei; Yang, Peidong

    2014-11-25

    The generation of chemical fuels via direct solar-to-fuel conversion from a fully integrated artificial photosynthetic system is an attractive approach for clean and sustainable energy, but so far there has yet to be a system that would have the acceptable efficiency, durability and can be manufactured at a reasonable cost. Here, we show that a semiconductor mesh made from all inorganic nanowires can achieve unassisted solar-driven, overall water-splitting without using any electron mediators. Free-standing nanowire mesh networks could be made in large scales using solution synthesis and vacuum filtration, making this approach attractive for low cost implementation.

  10. Simulation-based optimization framework for reuse of agricultural drainage water in irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, A; Tawfik, A; Yoshimura, C; Fleifle, A

    2016-05-01

    A simulation-based optimization framework for agricultural drainage water (ADW) reuse has been developed through the integration of a water quality model (QUAL2Kw) and a genetic algorithm. This framework was applied to the Gharbia drain in the Nile Delta, Egypt, in summer and winter 2012. First, the water quantity and quality of the drain was simulated using the QUAL2Kw model. Second, uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation were performed to assess QUAL2Kw's performance and to identify the most critical variables for determination of water quality, respectively. Finally, a genetic algorithm was applied to maximize the total reuse quantity from seven reuse locations with the condition not to violate the standards for using mixed water in irrigation. The water quality simulations showed that organic matter concentrations are critical management variables in the Gharbia drain. The uncertainty analysis showed the reliability of QUAL2Kw to simulate water quality and quantity along the drain. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis showed that the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorous are highly sensitive to point source flow and quality. Additionally, the optimization results revealed that the reuse quantities of ADW can reach 36.3% and 40.4% of the available ADW in the drain during summer and winter, respectively. These quantities meet 30.8% and 29.1% of the drainage basin requirements for fresh irrigation water in the respective seasons.

  11. Risk management frameworks: supporting the next generation of Murray-Darling Basin water sharing plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podger, G. M.; Cuddy, S. M.; Peeters, L.; Smith, T.; Bark, R. H.; Black, D. C.; Wallbrink, P.

    2014-09-01

    Water jurisdictions in Australia are required to prepare and implement water resource plans. In developing these plans the common goal is realising the best possible use of the water resources - maximising outcomes while minimising negative impacts. This requires managing the risks associated with assessing and balancing cultural, industrial, agricultural, social and environmental demands for water within a competitive and resource-limited environment. Recognising this, conformance to international risk management principles (ISO 31000:2009) have been embedded within the Murray-Darling Basin Plan. Yet, to date, there has been little strategic investment by water jurisdictions in bridging the gap between principle and practice. The ISO 31000 principles and the risk management framework that embodies them align well with an adaptive management paradigm within which to conduct water resource planning. They also provide an integrative framework for the development of workflows that link risk analysis with risk evaluation and mitigation (adaptation) scenarios, providing a transparent, repeatable and robust platform. This study, through a demonstration use case and a series of workflows, demonstrates to policy makers how these principles can be used to support the development of the next generation of water sharing plans in 2019. The workflows consider the uncertainty associated with climate and flow inputs, and model parameters on irrigation and hydropower production, meeting environmental flow objectives and recreational use of the water resource. The results provide insights to the risks associated with meeting a range of different objectives.

  12. Demand for water-resources information: a conceptual framework and empirical investigation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabman, L.A.; Osborn, C.T.

    1986-06-01

    The continued effectiveness of the Federal water-data-collection effort is an area of special concern to many, because more than 30 Federal agencies collect some form of data. With less funding available, agencies are exploring methods to increase the efficiency of their data-collection programs and the value of the information produced. A framework based on a literature review of organizational decision processes has been developed to consider the nature of the demand and the value for decision makers in public water-management organizations. The paper reports the results of an empirical model that relates decision maker's use of the Water Resource Council's Second National Water Assessment and hypothetical expenditures on national assessment information to agency characteristics in two water basin management situations: instream versus offstream water-use competition in the Missouri River basin, and low freshwater inflows to Chesapeake Bay.

  13. Sustainable Water Systems for the City of Tomorrow—A Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin (Cissy Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban water systems are an example of complex, dynamic human–environment coupled systems which exhibit emergent behaviors that transcend individual scientific disciplines. While previous siloed approaches to water services (i.e., water resources, drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater have led to great improvements in public health protection, sustainable solutions for a growing global population facing increased resource constraints demand a paradigm shift based on holistic management to maximize the use and recovery of water, energy, nutrients, and materials. The objective of this review paper is to highlight the issues in traditional water systems including water demand and use, centralized configuration, sewer collection systems, characteristics of mixed wastewater, and to explore alternative solutions such as decentralized water systems, fit for purpose and water reuse, natural/green infrastructure, vacuum sewer collection systems, and nutrient/energy recovery. This review also emphasizes a system thinking approach for evaluating alternatives that should include sustainability indicators and metrics such as emergy to assess global system efficiency. An example paradigm shift design for urban water system is presented, not as the recommended solution for all environments, but to emphasize the framework of system-level analysis and the need to visualize water services as an organic whole. When water systems are designed to maximize the resources and optimum efficiency, they are more prevailing and sustainable than siloed management because a system is more than the sum of its parts.

  14. Using Probabilistic Methods in Water Scarcity Assessments: A First Step Towards a Water Scarcity Risk Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted; Wada, Yoshihide; Aerts, Jeroen; Ward, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity -driven by climate change, climate variability, and socioeconomic developments- is recognized as one of the most important global risks, both in terms of likelihood and impact. Whilst a wide range of studies have assessed the role of long term climate change and socioeconomic trends on global water scarcity, the impact of variability is less well understood. Moreover, the interactions between different forcing mechanisms, and their combined effect on changes in water scarcity conditions, are often neglected. Therefore, we provide a first step towards a framework for global water scarcity risk assessments, applying probabilistic methods to estimate water scarcity risks for different return periods under current and future conditions while using multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios.

  15. Synthesis of cobalt-, nickel-, copper-, and zinc-based, water-stable, pillared metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Himanshu; Jiao, Yang; Burtch, Nicholas C; Huang, You-gui; Walton, Krista S

    2014-12-02

    The performance of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in humid or aqueous environments is a topic of great significance for a variety of applications ranging from adsorption separations to gas storage. While a number of water-stable MOFs have emerged recently in the literature, the majority of MOFs are known to have poor water stability compared to zeolites and activated carbons, and there is therefore a critical need to perform systematic water-stability studies and characterize MOFs comprehensively after water exposure. Using these studies we can isolate the specific factors governing the structural stability of MOFs and direct the future synthesis efforts toward the construction of new, water-stable MOFs. In this work, we have extended our previous work on the systematic water-stability studies of MOFs and synthesized new, cobalt-, nickel-, copper-, and zinc-based, water-stable, pillared MOFs by incorporating structural factors such as ligand sterics and catenation into the framework. Stability is assessed by using water vapor adsorption isotherms along with powder X-ray diffraction patterns and results from BET modeling of N2 adsorption isotherms before and after water exposure. As expected, our study demonstrates that unlike the parent DMOF structures (based on Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn metals), which all collapse under 60% relative humidity (RH), their corresponding tetramethyl-functionalized variations (DMOF-TM) are remarkably stable, even when adsorbing more than 20 mmol of H2O/g of MOF at 80% RH. This behavior is due to steric factors provided by the methyl groups grafted on the BDC (benzenedicarboxylic acid) ligand, as shown previously for the Zn-based DMOF-TM. Moreover, 4,4',4″,4‴-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetrayltetrabenzoic acid based, pillared MOFs (based on Co and Zn metals) are also found to be stable after 90% RH exposure, even when the basicity of the bipyridyl-based pillar ligand is low. This is due to the presence of catenation in their frameworks, similar to

  16. A hydroeconomic modeling framework for optimal integrated management of forest and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Prats, Alberto; del Campo, Antonio D.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Forests play a determinant role in the hydrologic cycle, with water being the most important ecosystem service they provide in semiarid regions. However, this contribution is usually neither quantified nor explicitly valued. The aim of this study is to develop a novel hydroeconomic modeling framework for assessing and designing the optimal integrated forest and water management for forested catchments. The optimization model explicitly integrates changes in water yield in the stands (increase in groundwater recharge) induced by forest management and the value of the additional water provided to the system. The model determines the optimal schedule of silvicultural interventions in the stands of the catchment in order to maximize the total net benefit in the system. Canopy cover and biomass evolution over time were simulated using growth and yield allometric equations specific for the species in Mediterranean conditions. Silvicultural operation costs according to stand density and canopy cover were modeled using local cost databases. Groundwater recharge was simulated using HYDRUS, calibrated and validated with data from the experimental plots. In order to illustrate the presented modeling framework, a case study was carried out in a planted pine forest (Pinus halepensis Mill.) located in south-western Valencia province (Spain). The optimized scenario increased groundwater recharge. This novel modeling framework can be used in the design of a "payment for environmental services" scheme in which water beneficiaries could contribute to fund and promote efficient forest management operations.

  17. Application of a QMRA Framework to Inform Selection of Drinking Water Interventions in the Developing Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, S R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a modified quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) framework that could be applied as a decision support tool to choose between alternative drinking water interventions in the developing context. The impact of different household water treatment (HWT) interventions on the overall incidence of diarrheal disease and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was estimated, without relying on source water pathogen concentration as the starting point for the analysis. A framework was developed and a software tool constructed and then implemented for an illustrative case study for Nepal based on published scientific data. Coagulation combined with free chlorine disinfection provided the greatest estimated health gains in the short term; however, when long-term compliance was incorporated into the calculations, the preferred intervention was porous ceramic filtration. The model demonstrates how the QMRA framework can be used to integrate evidence from different studies to inform management decisions, and in particular to prioritize the next best intervention with respect to estimated reduction in diarrheal incidence. This study only considered HWT interventions; it is recognized that a systematic consideration of sanitation, recreation, and drinking water pathways is important for effective management of waterborne transmission of pathogens, and the approach could be expanded to consider the broader water-related context.

  18. Water adsorption in porous metal-organic frameworks and related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Gándara, Felipe; Zhang, Yue-Biao; Jiang, Juncong; Queen, Wendy L; Hudson, Matthew R; Yaghi, Omar M

    2014-03-19

    Water adsorption in porous materials is important for many applications such as dehumidification, thermal batteries, and delivery of drinking water in remote areas. In this study, we have identified three criteria for achieving high performing porous materials for water adsorption. These criteria deal with condensation pressure of water in the pores, uptake capacity, and recyclability and water stability of the material. In search of an excellently performing porous material, we have studied and compared the water adsorption properties of 23 materials, 20 of which are metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Among the MOFs are 10 zirconium(IV) MOFs with a subset of these, MOF-801-SC (single crystal form), -802, -805, -806, -808, -812, and -841 reported for the first time. MOF-801-P (microcrystalline powder form) was reported earlier and studied here for its water adsorption properties. MOF-812 was only made and structurally characterized but not examined for water adsorption because it is a byproduct of MOF-841 synthesis. All the new zirconium MOFs are made from the Zr6O4(OH)4(-CO2)n secondary building units (n = 6, 8, 10, or 12) and variously shaped carboxyl organic linkers to make extended porous frameworks. The permanent porosity of all 23 materials was confirmed and their water adsorption measured to reveal that MOF-801-P and MOF-841 are the highest performers based on the three criteria stated above; they are water stable, do not lose capacity after five adsorption/desorption cycles, and are easily regenerated at room temperature. An X-ray single-crystal study and a powder neutron diffraction study reveal the position of the water adsorption sites in MOF-801 and highlight the importance of the intermolecular interaction between adsorbed water molecules within the pores.

  19. An Integrated Framework for Analysis of Water Supply Strategies in a Developing City: Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Goulder, L.

    2009-12-01

    Indian cities are facing a severe water crisis: rapidly growing population, low tariffs, high leakage rates, inadequate reservoir storage, are straining water supply systems, resulting in unreliable, intermittent piped supply. Conventional approaches to studying the problem of urban water supply have typically considered only centralized piped supply by the water utility. Specifically, they have tended to overlook decentralized actions by consumers such as groundwater extraction via private wells and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We present an innovative integrative framework for analyzing urban water supply in Indian cities. The framework is used in a systems model of water supply in the city of Chennai, India that integrates different components of the urban water system: water flows into the reservoir system, diversion and distribution by the public water utility, groundwater flow in the urban aquifer, informal water markets and consumer behavior. Historical system behavior from 2002-2006 is used to calibrate the model. The historical system behavior highlights the buffering role of the urban aquifer; storing water in periods of surplus for extraction by consumers via private wells. The model results show that in Chennai, distribution pipeline leaks result in the transfer of water from the inadequate reservoir system to the urban aquifer. The systems approach also makes it possible to evaluate and compare a wide range of centralized and decentralized policies. Three very different policies: Supply Augmentation (desalination), Efficiency Improvement (raising tariffs and fixing pipe leaks), and Rainwater Harvesting (recharging the urban aquifer by capturing rooftop and yard runoff) were evaluated using the model. The model results suggest that a combination of Rainwater Harvesting and Efficiency Improvement best meets our criteria of welfare maximization, equity, system reliability, and utility profitability. Importantly, the study shows that

  20. Water quality standards for imidacloprid : Proposal for an update according to the Water Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit CE; MSP; M& V

    2014-01-01

    Herziening waterkwaliteitsnormen voor imidacloprid
    Het RIVM stelt voor om de waterkwaliteitsnorm voor het bestrijdingsmiddel imidacloprid te verlagen van 67 naar 8,3 nanogram per liter. Uit nieuwe onderzoeken blijkt dat de schadelijke effecten van imidacloprid op waterorganismen zich al bij

  1. An appraisal of policies and institutional frameworks impacting on smallholder agricultural water management in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyagumbo, I.; Rurinda, J.

    Policies and institutional frameworks associated with and / or impacting on agricultural water management (AWM) in smallholder farming systems in Zimbabwe were analyzed through literature reviews, feedback from stakeholder workshops, key informant interviews and evaluation of policy impacts on implemented case study projects/programmes. The study showed that Zimbabwe has gone a long way towards developing a water management policy addressing both equity and access, through the Water and ZINWA of 1998. However, lack of incentives for improving efficient management and utilization of water resources once water has reached the farm gate was apparent, apart from punitive economic instruments levied on usage of increased volumes of water. For example, the new water reforms of 1998 penalized water savers through loss of any unused water in their permits to other users. In addition, the ability of smallholder farmers to access water for irrigation or other purposes was influenced by macro and micro-economic policies such as Economic Structural and Adjustment Programme (ESAP), Zimbabwe Programme for Economic and Social Transformation (ZIMPREST), prevailing monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the Land and Agrarian Reform policies. For instance, the implementation of ESAP from 1991 to 95 resulted in a decline in government support to management of communal irrigation schemes, and as a result only gravity-fed schemes survived. Also AWM projects/programmes that were in progress were prematurely terminated. While considerable emphasis was placed on rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure since the fast track land reform in 1998, the policies remained rather silent on strategies for water management in rainfed systems. The piecemeal nature and fragmentation of policies and institutional frameworks scattered across government ministries and sectors were complex and created difficulties for smallholder farmers to access water resources. Poor policy implementation

  2. Thoughts on access to water in Peru within the new Water Resources Law framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Ruiz Ostoic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty involved addressing issues related with water management in Peru is the article’s starting point. Therefore, the water issue approach is introduced explaining its administrative procedures, the rights involved and making a critical analysis of 2008 Water Resources Law. Finally, the need for an integrated management analysis of the water resource is highlighted by integrally understanding the General Water Law as well as the current Water Resources Law, and encouraging dialogue among social actors involved in order to avoid future conflicts.

  3. A flexible and efficient multi-model framework in support of water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfs, Vincent; Tran Quoc, Quan; Willems, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Flexible, fast and accurate water quantity models are essential tools in support of water management. Adjustable levels of model detail and the ability to handle varying spatial and temporal resolutions are requisite model characteristics to ensure that such models can be employed efficiently in various applications. This paper uses a newly developed flexible modelling framework that aims to generate such models. The framework incorporates several approaches to model catchment hydrology, rivers and floodplains, and the urban drainage system by lumping processes on different levels. To illustrate this framework, a case study of integrated hydrological-hydraulic modelling is elaborated for the Grote Nete catchment in Belgium. Three conceptual rainfall-runoff models (NAM, PDM and VHM) were implemented in a generalized model structure, allowing flexibility in the spatial resolution by means of an innovative disaggregation/aggregation procedure. They were linked to conceptual hydraulic models of the rivers in the catchment, which were developed by means of an advanced model structure identification and calibration procedure. The conceptual models manage to emulate the simulation results of a detailed full hydrodynamic model accurately. The models configured using the approaches of this framework are well-suited for many applications in water management due to their very short calculation time, interfacing possibilities and adjustable level of detail.

  4. Assessing the state of pelagic fish communities within an ecosystem approach and the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shephard, Samuel; Rindorf, Anna; Dickey-Collas, Mark

    2014-01-01

    time-series are calculated for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive “Celtic Seas” (CS) and “Greater North Sea” subregions. Precautionary reference points are proposed for each indicator and a simple decision process is then used to aggregate indicators into a GES assessment for each subregion...

  5. Zeolite-like metal-organic frameworks (ZMOFs) based on the directed assembly of finite metal-organic cubes (MOCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkordi, Mohamed H; Brant, Jacilynn A; Wojtas, Lukasz; Kravtsov, Victor Ch; Cairns, Amy J; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2009-12-16

    Two zeolite-like metal-organic frameworks (ZMOFs) with lta- and ast- topologies, zeolitic nets that can be interpreted as augmented edge-transitive 8-connected nets, are targeted through directed self-assembly of metal-organic cubes (MOCs) as supermolecular building blocks (SBBs).

  6. Formation of Two-dimensional Metal-water Framework Containing (H2O)2O Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN,Ya-Guang; DING,Fu; GU,Xiao-Fu; ZHANG,Wan-Zhong; WEI,De-Zhou; GAO,En-Jun

    2008-01-01

    [Cd(phen)2(male)(H2O)]·9.5H2O (1) has been synthesized by the reaction of Cd(NO3)2 with phen and male (phen= 1,10-phenanthroline, H2male=maleic acid) in a mixture solvent of ethanol and distilled water. The complex was characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectrum and thermal gravimetric analyses. The crystal structure was determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. In 1, a novel 1D water chain containing water (H2O)20 cluster was formed. Further hydrogen bonding interaction between the water chain and [Cd(phen)2(male)(H2O)] constructs a unique metal-water 2D framework.

  7. Analysis of the effect of water activity on ice formation using a new thermodynamic framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barahona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a new thermodynamic framework is developed and used to investigate the effect of water activity on the formation of ice within supercooled droplets. The new framework is based on a novel concept where the interface is assumed to be made of liquid molecules "trapped" by the solid matrix. Using this concept new expressions are developed for the critical ice germ size and the nucleation work, with explicit dependencies on temperature and water activity. However unlike previous approaches, the new model does not depend on the interfacial tension between liquid and ice. Comparison against experimental results shows that the new theory is able to reproduce the observed effect of water activity on nucleation rate and freezing temperature. It allows for the first time a phenomenological derivation of the constant shift in water activity between melting and nucleation. The new framework offers a consistent thermodynamic view of ice nucleation, simple enough to be applied in atmospheric models of cloud formation.

  8. Stable water isotope patterns in a climate change hotspot: the isotope hydrology framework of Corsica (western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Kuhlemann, Joachim; Schiebel, Ralf; Taubald, Heinrich; Barth, Johannes A C

    2014-06-01

    The Mediterranean is regarded as a region of intense climate change. To better understand future climate change, this area has been the target of several palaeoclimate studies which also studied stable isotope proxies that are directly linked to the stable isotope composition of water, such as tree rings, tooth enamel or speleothems. For such work, it is also essential to establish an isotope hydrology framework of the region of interest. Surface waters from streams and lakes as well as groundwater from springs on the island of Corsica were sampled between 2003 and 2009 for their oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions. Isotope values from lake waters were enriched in heavier isotopes and define a local evaporation line (LEL). On the other hand, stream and spring waters reflect the isotope composition of local precipitation in the catchment. The intersection of the LEL and the linear fit of the spring and stream waters reflect the mean isotope composition of the annual precipitation (δP) with values of-8.6(± 0.2) ‰ for δ(18)O and-58(± 2) ‰ for δ(2)H. This value is also a good indicator of the average isotope composition of the local groundwater in the island. Surface water samples reflect the altitude isotope effect with a value of-0.17(± 0.02) ‰ per 100 m elevation for oxygen isotopes. At Vizzavona Pass in central Corsica, water samples from two catchments within a lateral distance of only a few hundred metres showed unexpected but systematic differences in their stable isotope composition. At this specific location, the direction of exposure seems to be an important factor. The differences were likely caused by isotopic enrichment during recharge in warm weather conditions in south-exposed valley flanks compared to the opposite, north-exposed valley flanks.

  9. A real-time control framework for urban water reservoirs operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.; Schwanenberg, D.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water demand in urban areas is growing parallel to the worldwide urban population, and it is acquiring an increasing part of the total water consumption. Since the delivery of sufficient water volumes in urban areas represents a difficult logistic and economical problem, different metropolitan areas are evaluating the opportunity of constructing relatively small reservoirs within urban areas. Singapore, for example, is developing the so-called 'Four National Taps Strategies', which detects the maximization of water yields from local, urban catchments as one of the most important water sources. However, the peculiar location of these reservoirs can provide a certain advantage from the logistical point of view, but it can pose serious difficulties in their daily management. Urban catchments are indeed characterized by large impervious areas: this results in a change of the hydrological cycle, with decreased infiltration and groundwater recharge, and increased patterns of surface and river discharges, with higher peak flows, volumes and concentration time. Moreover, the high concentrations of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges can cause further water quality problems. In this critical hydrological context, the effective operation of urban water reservoirs must rely on real-time control techniques, which can exploit hydro-meteorological information available in real-time from hydrological and nowcasting models. This work proposes a novel framework for the real-time control of combined water quality and quantity objectives in urban reservoirs. The core of this framework is a non-linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, which employs the current state of the system, the future discharges furnished by a predictive model and a further model describing the internal dynamics of the controlled sub-system to determine an optimal control sequence over a finite prediction horizon. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its reduced

  10. An efficient water flow control approach for water heaters in direct load control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belov, Alexander; Meratnia, Nirvana; Zwaag, van der Berend Jan; Havinga, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Tank water heaters (WHs) are present in a prevailing number of European households. Serving as energy buffers WHs have come under the spotlight of various direct load control (DLC) programs over the last few decades. Although DLC has proven to be an efficient measure towards daily peak demand shavin

  11. A risk-based framework for water resource management under changing water availability, policy options, and irrigation expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Long-term water resource management requires the capacity to evaluate alternative management options in the face of various sources of uncertainty in the future conditions of water resource systems. This study proposes a generic framework for determining the relative change in probabilistic characteristics of system performance as a result of changing water availability, policy options and irrigation expansion. These probabilistic characteristics can be considered to represent the risk of failure in the system performance due to the uncertainty in future conditions. Quantifying the relative change in the performance risk can provide a basis for understanding the effects of multiple changing conditions on the system behavior. This framework was applied to the water resource system of the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. A "bottom-up" flow reconstruction algorithm was used to generate multiple realizations for water availability within a feasible range of change in streamflow characteristics. Consistent with observed data and projected change in streamflow characteristics, the historical streamflow was perturbed to stochastically generate feasible future flow sequences, based on various combinations of changing annual flow volume and timing of the annual peak. In addition, five alternative policy options, with and without potential irrigation expansion, were considered. All configurations of water availability, policy decisions and irrigation expansion options were fed into a hydro-economic water resource system model to obtain empirical probability distributions for system performance - here overall and sectorial net benefits - under the considered changes. Results show that no one specific policy can provide the optimal option for water resource management under all flow conditions. In addition, it was found that the joint impacts of changing water availability, policy, and irrigation expansion on system performance are complex and

  12. Mineral waters in Brazil: an analysis of the market and institutional framework for integrated and sustainable management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro dos Santos Portugal Júnior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the mineral water market in Brazil, based on three important considerations: first, the market structure prevailing in this segment is analyzed, addressing the evolution and main groups that make up the Brazilian market for mineral waters; next, we make a brief reference to the legal and institutional framework on mineral waters; and finally, we analyze the directions for integrated and sustainable environmental management in this segment. In this way, we sought to contextualize the market’s legal, institutional and economic parameters, as well as the implications of these parameters that can be decisive in the environmental management process, which companies can use to enhance the excellence of that process. These changes imply that mineral water be included in the national policy of water resources, named the PNRH, and not as an ore. It should also be included in the National Plan of Solid Waste (PNRS, with a complete view of the product life cycle.

  13. A comprehensive framework for the assessment of new end uses in recycled water schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Lim, Richard; Wang, Xiaochang C; O'Halloran, Kelly; Listowski, Andrzej; Corby, Nigel; Miechel, Clayton

    2014-02-01

    Nowadays, recycled water has provided sufficient flexibility to satisfy short-term freshwater needs and increase the reliability of long-term water supplies in many water scarce areas, which becomes an essential component of integrated water resources management. However, the current applications of recycled water are still quite limited that are mainly associated with non-potable purposes such as irrigation, industrial uses, toilet flushing and car washing. There is a large potential to exploit and develop new end uses of recycled water in both urban and rural areas. This can greatly contribute to freshwater savings, wastewater reduction and water sustainability. Consequently, the paper identified the potentials for the development of three recycled water new end uses, household laundry, livestock feeding and servicing, and swimming pool, in future water use market. To validate the strengths of these new applications, a conceptual decision analytic framework was proposed. This can be able to facilitate the optional management strategy selection process and thereafter provide guidance on the future end use studies within a larger context of the community, processes, and models in decision-making. Moreover, as complex evaluation criteria were selected and taken into account to narrow down the multiple management alternatives, the methodology can successfully add transparency, objectivity and comprehensiveness to the assessment. Meanwhile, the proposed approach could also allow flexibility to adapt to particular circumstances of each case under study.

  14. Alberta's evolving water use regulatory framework for energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, J.; Sultan, R. [Waterline Resources Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil and gas industry, water is a critical component of production; in Alberta, 75% of oil production is water-assisted. The use of water in Alberta is regulated by two organisms, Alberta Environment (AENV) and the Energy Resources and Conservation Board (ERCB), with the goal of sustainable management of water resources. AENV regulates the use of non-saline water by the industry and the ERCB regulates access to saline water for energy projects. Non-saline water is defined as having a concentration of less than 4,000 mg/L of total dissolved solids and saline water as having a concentration above 4,000mg/L. The regulatory framework is in constant evolution and the aim of this paper is to provide detail and clarity on the current and future situations. This paper highlights current and emerging regulations on water use in Alberta so that industrial operators can better understand what is and will be asked of them.

  15. Regional water quality patterns in an alluvial aquifer: direct and indirect influences of rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillieux, A; Campisi, D; Jammet, N; Bucher, S; Hunkeler, D

    2014-11-15

    The influence of rivers on the groundwater quality in alluvial aquifers can be twofold: direct and indirect. Rivers can have a direct influence via recharge and an indirect one by controlling the distribution of fine-grained, organic-carbon rich flood deposits that induce reducing conditions. These direct and indirect influences were quantified for a large alluvial aquifer on the Swiss Plateau (50km(2)) in interaction with an Alpine river using nitrate as an example. The hydrochemistry and stable isotope composition of water were characterized using a network of 115 piezometers and pumping stations covering the entire aquifer. Aquifer properties, land use and recharge zones were evaluated as well. This information provided detailed insight into the factors that control the spatial variability of groundwater quality. Three main factors were identified: (1) diffuse agricultural pollution sources; (2) dilution processes resulting from river water infiltrations, revealed by the δ(18)OH2O and δ(2)HH2O contents of groundwater; and (3) denitrification processes, controlled by the spatial variability of flood deposits governed by fluvial depositional processes. It was possible to quantify the dependence of the nitrate concentration on these three factors at any sampling point of the aquifer using an end-member mixing model, where the average nitrate concentration in recharge from the agricultural area was evaluated at 52mg/L, and the nitrate concentration of infiltrating river at approximately 6mg/L. The study shows the importance of considering the indirect and direct impacts of rivers on alluvial aquifers and provides a methodological framework to evaluate aquifer scale water quality patterns.

  16. Dynamically adaptive Lattice Boltzmann simulation of shallow water flows with the Peano framework

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2015-09-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. We present a dynamically adaptive Lattice Boltzmann (LB) implementation for solving the shallow water equations (SWEs). Our implementation extends an existing LB component of the Peano framework. We revise the modular design with respect to the incorporation of new simulation aspects and LB models. The basic SWE-LB implementation is validated in different breaking dam scenarios. We further provide a numerical study on stability of the MRT collision operator used in our simulations.

  17. A Generalized Decision Framework Using Multi-objective Optimization for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdekas, L.; Stewart, N.; Triana, E.

    2013-12-01

    Colorado Springs Utilities (CSU) is currently engaged in an Integrated Water Resource Plan (IWRP) to address the complex planning scenarios, across multiple time scales, currently faced by CSU. The modeling framework developed for the IWRP uses a flexible data-centered Decision Support System (DSS) with a MODSIM-based modeling system to represent the operation of the current CSU raw water system coupled with a state-of-the-art multi-objective optimization algorithm. Three basic components are required for the framework, which can be implemented for planning horizons ranging from seasonal to interdecadal. First, a water resources system model is required that is capable of reasonable system simulation to resolve performance metrics at the appropriate temporal and spatial scales of interest. The system model should be an existing simulation model, or one developed during the planning process with stakeholders, so that 'buy-in' has already been achieved. Second, a hydrologic scenario tool(s) capable of generating a range of plausible inflows for the planning period of interest is required. This may include paleo informed or climate change informed sequences. Third, a multi-objective optimization model that can be wrapped around the system simulation model is required. The new generation of multi-objective optimization models do not require parameterization which greatly reduces problem complexity. Bridging the gap between research and practice will be evident as we use a case study from CSU's planning process to demonstrate this framework with specific competing water management objectives. Careful formulation of objective functions, choice of decision variables, and system constraints will be discussed. Rather than treating results as theoretically Pareto optimal in a planning process, we use the powerful multi-objective optimization models as tools to more efficiently and effectively move out of the inferior decision space. The use of this framework will help CSU

  18. [Water quality forewarning model in the framework of water pollution forewarning DSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Jia, Hai-Feng

    2010-12-01

    In order to deal with the water pollution accident and take emergency measures effectively, water pollution forewarning decision support systems (DSS) is important to be established and water quality forewarning model is one of the hard points of DSS. Miyun Reservoir is the most important surface water sources of Beijing. Baihe River, which is the upstream river of Miyun Reservoir, is selected as the case study in this paper. The three-layer frame of the water pollution forewarning DSS is proposed with the core of mathematical model; then model development and parameterization are studied. Finally, a typical accident of NaCN pollution is taken for instance; the scenario of the accident is simulated and analyzed by DSS. The case study shows that the DSS could precisely analyze and forecast the pollution development trend, and simulate the different impact of emergency proposal. The result could support the primary decision of the emergency proposal to meet the functional requirement of the system.

  19. Making the most of data: An information selection and assessment framework to improve water systems operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Pianosi, F.; Castelletti, A.

    2015-11-01

    Advances in Environmental monitoring systems are making a wide range of data available at increasingly higher temporal and spatial resolution. This creates an opportunity to enhance real-time understanding of water systems conditions and to improve prediction of their future evolution, ultimately increasing our ability to make better decisions. Yet, many water systems are still operated using very simple information systems, typically based on simple statistical analysis and the operator's experience. In this work, we propose a framework to automatically select the most valuable information to inform water systems operations supported by quantitative metrics to operationally and economically assess the value of this information. The Hoa Binh reservoir in Vietnam is used to demonstrate the proposed framework in a multiobjective context, accounting for hydropower production and flood control. First, we quantify the expected value of perfect information, meaning the potential space for improvement under the assumption of exact knowledge of the future system conditions. Second, we automatically select the most valuable information that could be actually used to improve the Hoa Binh operations. Finally, we assess the economic value of sample information on the basis of the resulting policy performance. Results show that our framework successfully select information to enhance the performance of the operating policies with respect to both the competing objectives, attaining a 40% improvement close to the target trade-off selected as potentially good compromise between hydropower production and flood control.

  20. A framework to facilitate self-directed learning, assessment and supervision in midwifery practice: a qualitative study of supervisors' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embo, M; Driessen, E; Valcke, M; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2014-08-01

    Self-directed learning is an educational concept that has received increasing attention. The recent workplace literature, however, reports problems with the facilitation of self-directed learning in clinical practice. We developed the Midwifery Assessment and Feedback Instrument (MAFI) as a framework to facilitate self-directed learning. In the present study, we sought clinical supervisors' perceptions of the usefulness of MAFI. Interviews with fifteen clinical supervisors were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using Atlas-Ti software for qualitative data analysis. Four themes emerged from the analysis. (1) The competency-based educational structure promotes the setting of realistic learning outcomes and a focus on competency development, (2) instructing students to write reflections facilitates student-centred supervision, (3) creating a feedback culture is necessary to achieve continuity in supervision and (4) integrating feedback and assessment might facilitate competency development under the condition that evidence is discussed during assessment meetings. Supervisors stressed the need for direct observation, and instruction how to facilitate a self-directed learning process. The MAFI appears to be a useful framework to promote self-directed learning in clinical practice. The effect can be advanced by creating a feedback and assessment culture where learners and supervisors share the responsibility for developing self-directed learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Paradigms and Theories Influencing Policies in the South African and International Water Sectors: PULSE³, A Framework for Policy Analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available  Meissner Paradigms and Theories Influencing Policies in the South African and International Water Sectors PULSE3, A Framework for Policy Analysis Paradigms and Theories Influencing Policies in the South African and International Water Sectors rmeissner...@csir.co.za Richard Meissner Paradigms and Theories Influencing Policies in the South African and International Water Sectors PULSE3, A Framework for Policy Analysis 123 rmeissner@csir.co.za Richard Meissner Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR...

  2. Developing Design Criteria and Scale Up Methods for Water-Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks for Adsorption Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-08

    COBALT, NICKEL, COPPER , AND ZINC- BASED WATER STABLE PILLARED METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS 121 6.1 Introduction 121 6.2 Experimental Section 126...SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL COBALT, NICKEL, COPPER , AND ZINC- BASED WATER STABLE PILLARED METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS This work was conducted in collaboration with...by synthesizing cobalt, nickel, copper , and zinc-based new water stable pillared MOFs of similar topology (Figure 6.1b, Appendix D, Figure D.1

  3. Indicators for the Sea-floor Integrity of the Hellenic Seas under the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive: establishing the thresholds and standards for Good Environmental Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A data set of 625 samples of benthic macroinvertebrates collected from the Hellenic Seas (Ionian and Aegean was used to establish thresholds and reference standards for two of the indicators addressing the descriptors of Sea-floor Integrity under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD: species diversity and richness and the ratio of sensitive species to tolerant species. The dataset was categorised according to the baseline ecological status assessment of the respective water bodies under the Water Framework Directive (WFD. Species diversity and richness were characterised using the Shannon diversity and species richness indices, respectively, and were analysed for three pre-defined substrate types, three depth zones and three sample-size categories, and the significant categories were statistically validated. Good Environmental Status (GEnS threshold and reference values were established for the valid combinations of categories denoted as ‘ecotypes’ through the use of a boxplot and an analysis of variance. The limitations and specifications for an overall GEnS assessment using the above indices are highlighted based on the WFD experience. For the ratio of sensitive species to tolerant species, the BENTIX index classification scale is proposed for GEnS assessment, and an integrated approach to the assessment of diversity and species richness is suggested. Finally, the regionality of the tested indices in relation to the two Mediterranean sub-regions, including the Hellenic area, was tested.

  4. Recent Progress in Metal-Organic Frameworks for Applications in Electrocatalytic and Photocatalytic Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping

    2017-04-01

    The development of clean and renewable energy materials as alternatives to fossil fuels is foreseen as a potential solution to the crucial problems of environmental pollution and energy shortages. Hydrogen is an ideal energy material for the future, and water splitting using solar/electrical energy is one way to generate hydrogen. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous materials with unique properties that have received rapidly growing attention in recent years for applications in water splitting due to their remarkable design flexibility, ultra-large surface-to-volume ratios and tunable pore channels. This review focuses on recent progress in the application of MOFs in electrocatalytic and photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen generation, including both oxygen and hydrogen evolution. It starts with the fundamentals of electrocatalytic and photocatalytic water splitting and the related factors to determine the catalytic activity. The recent progress in the exploitation of MOFs for water splitting is then summarized, and strategies for designing MOF-based catalysts for electrocatalytic and photocatalytic water splitting are presented. Finally, major challenges in the field of water splitting are highlighted, and some perspectives of MOF-based catalysts for water splitting are proposed.

  5. Modelling water quality in drinking water distribution networks from real-time direction data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazarovs

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of contamination spread and location of contamination source in a water distribution network is an important task. The paper considers applicability of real-time flow direction data based model for contaminant transport for a distribution network of a city. Simulations of several contamination scenarios are made to evaluate necessary number of flow direction sensors. It is found that for a model, containing major pipes of Riga distribution system, sensor number decrease from 927 to 207 results in average 20% increase of simulated contaminated length of pipes. Simulation data suggest that optimal number of sensors for Riga model is around 200.

  6. Targeted manipulation of metal-organic frameworks to direct sorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneemann, Andreas; Henke, Sebastian; Schwedler, Inke; Fischer, Roland A

    2014-04-01

    Metal-organic frameworks are promising materials for manifold applications. This Minireview highlights approaches for the fine-tuning of specific sorption properties (e.g. capacity, selectivity, and breathing behavior) of this interesting class of materials. Central aspects covered are the control over the crystal morphology, the targeted tuning of sorption properties by judicious choice of metal centers and linkers, and the preparation of host-guest systems. We want to introduce the reader to these topics on the basis of the manipulation of a handful of outstanding prototypical metal-organic frameworks.

  7. Narrowing the range of water availability projections in China using the Budyko framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Joe; Lambert, Hugo

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing demand for reliable 21st-century projections of water availability at the regional scale. Used alone, global climate models (GCMs) are unsuitable for generating such projections at catchment scales in the presence of simulated aridity biases. This is because the Budyko framework dictates that the partitioning of precipitation into runoff and evapotranspiration scales as a non-linear function of aridity. Therefore, GCMs are typically used in tandem with global hydrological models (GHMs), but this process is computationally expensive. Here, considering a Chinese case study, we utilise the Budyko framework to make use of plentiful GCM output, without the need for GHMs. We first apply the framework to 20th-century observations to show that the significant declines in Yellow river discharge between 1951 and 2000 cannot be accounted for by modelled climate change alone, with human activities playing a larger but poorly quantified role. We further show that the Budyko framework can be used to narrow the range of water availability projections in the Yangtze and Yellow river catchments by 33% an 72%, respectively, in the 21st-century RCP8.5 business-as-usual emission scenario. In the Yellow catchment the best-guess end-of-21st-century change in runoff decreases from an increase of 0.09 mm/d in raw multi-model mean output to an increase of 0.04 mm/d in Budyko corrected multi-model mean output. While this is a valuable finding, we stress that these changes could be dwarfed by changes due to human activity in the 21st century, unless strict water management policies are implemented.

  8. Estimating Riverine Water and Constiuent Fluxes in a Data Assimilation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, B. M.; Saile, P.

    2012-12-01

    River systems are the primary means of transporting waters over the landscape from headwaters to basin mouth while carrying various constituents. Rivers give home to diverse aquatic habitats, while serving humans water needs. River discharge is the most accurately measured component of the hydrological cycle, when it is carried out on the ground using traditional in-situ measurements. While in-situ river monitoring is cost competitive to remote sensing alternatives, comprehensive water flux assessments need to combine in-situ and remote sensing observations with hydrological modeling. The capabilities of in-situ vs. remote sensing sensors are largely complementary that data assimilation frameworks built on top of hydrological models can utilize. The Global Terrestrial Networks for Hydrology (GTN-H) effort of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) was designed to implement such data assimilation on top of the data assets from its partner institutions. GTN-H seeks to hold a comprehensive repository of a wide range of hydrological information ranging from climate data (including various reanalysis and precipitation data products) that are available for near realtime hydrological simulations, in-situ discharge records collected by the Global Runoff Data Centre, Koblenz, Germany, complemented by key water quality variables from UNEP's Global Environmental Monitoring - Water (GEMS/Water) programme. The modeling platform serving GTN-H is currently built on the Framework for Aquatic Modeling of the Earth System (FrAMES) developed by the CUNY Environmental CrossRoads Initiative with contributions from the University of New Hampshire and Colorado University. FrAMES offers high degree of flexibility in configuring large scale hydrological simulations coupled with the capability of tracking dissolved and suspended constituents. This presentation will show the key components of the GTN-H data archive and the application of FrAMES to produce value added hydrological

  9. A framework for joint management of regional water-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira-Cardenal, S.J.

    2013-09-15

    -power system, and the results compared with traditional methods that represent hydropower benefits through exogenous prices. It was found that representing hydropower benefits through a constant price can be inadequate because it does not reflect the seasonality in power demand and water inflows, which affect the availability, and therefore value, of hydropower. Monthly prices were able to represent seasonality but resulted in unrealistic operation rules, such as emptying the reservoir during the month with the highest price, which can only be avoided through the inclusion of additional constraints. In contrast, including a simple representation of the power market into a hydro-economic model resulted in more realistic reservoir operation policies that adapted to changing inflow conditions. The effects of spatial aggregation on the analysis of water-power systems were evaluated by comparing results from an aggregated and a partially disaggregated model. The aggregated model, where all reservoirs were represented as a single equivalent energy reservoir, provided valuable insights into the management of water and power systems, but only at the Peninsula scale. The disaggregated model revealed that optimal allocations were achieved by managing water resources differently in each river basin according to local inflow, storage capacity, hydropower productivity, and irrigation demand and productivity. This highlights the importance of considering spatial differences in this type of analysis. The method was successfully used to assess linkages between the water and the power systems of the Iberian Peninsula. The framework is flexible and can potentially be used to model more aspects of the water-energy nexus, for instance: the energy requirements of the transport sector and the impact of biofuels on agriculture; the impact of reduced river discharge on cooling of thermal power plants; or the impact of carbon capture and storage on water resources. The increasing pressure of

  10. Domestic Water Service Delivery Indicators and Frameworks for Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy and Planning: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Bartram

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator—service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled.

  11. Domestic Water Service Delivery Indicators and Frameworks for Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy and Planning: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Georgia L.; Moriarty, Patrick; Fonseca, Catarina; Bartram, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator—service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled. PMID:24157507

  12. Curriculum of EFL Teacher Education and Indonesian Qualification Framework: A Blip of the Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo

    2015-01-01

    Indonesian Qualification Framework (IQF) is a description of qualification levels for all Indonesian learning outcomes or certificate statements in Indonesian schooling from year 9 to higher education. The IQF holds a legal endorsement in the form of Presidential Decree no. 8/2012. This IQF will specify equivalencies between Indonesian and foreign…

  13. Direct measurements of quantum kinetic energy tensor in stable and metastable water near the triple point: an experimental benchmark

    CERN Document Server

    Andreani, Carla; Senesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first direct and quantitative measurements of the nuclear momentum distribution anisotropy and the quantum kinetic energy tensor in stable and metastable (supercooled) water near its triple point using Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS). From the experimental spectra accurate lineshapes of the hydrogen momentum distributions are derived using an anisotropic Gaussian and a model independent framework. The experimental results, benchmarked with those obtained for the solid phase, provide the state of the art directional values of the hydrogen mean kinetic energy in metastable water. The determinations of the direction kinetic energies in the supercooled phase, benchmarked with ice at the same temperature, provide accurate and quantitative measurements of these dynamical observables in metastable and stable phases, {i.e.} key insight in the physical mechanisms of the hydrogen quantum state in both disordered and polycrystalline systems. The remarkable findings of this study establis...

  14. Using remote sensing as a support to the implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive in SW Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina, Sónia; Icely, John; Costa Goela, Priscila; Angel DelValls, Tomás; Newton, Alice

    2015-10-01

    The exclusive economic zones (EEZ) of coastal countries are coming under increasing pressure from various economic sectors such as fishing, aquaculture, shipping and energy production. In Europe, there is a policy to expand the maritime economic sector without damaging the environment by ensuring that these activities comply with legally binding Directives, such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). However, monitoring an extensive maritime area is a logistical and economic challenge. Remote sensing is considered one of the most cost effective methods for providing the spatial and temporal environmental data that will be necessary for the effective implementation of the MSFD. However, there is still a concern about the uncertainties associated with remote sensed products. This study has tested how a specific satellite product can contribute to the monitoring of a MSFD Descriptor for "good environmental status" (GES). The results show that the quality of the remote sensing product Algal Pigment Index 1 (API 1) from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) sensor of the European Space Agency for ocean colour products can be effectively validated with in situ data from three stations off the SW Iberian Peninsula. The validation results show good agreement between the MERIS API 1 and the in situ data for the two more offshore stations, with a higher coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.79, and with lower uncertainties for the average relative percentage difference (RPD) of 24.6% and 27.9% and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.40 and 0.38 for Stations B and C, respectively. Near to the coast, Station A has the lowest R2 of 0.63 and the highest uncertainties with an RPD of 112.9% and a RMSE of 1.00. It is also the station most affected by adjacency effects from the land: when the Improved Contrast between Ocean and Land processor (ICOL) is applied the R2 increases to 0.77 and there is a 30% reduction in the uncertainties estimated by RPD. The

  15. Water masses as a unifying framework for understanding the Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Iudicone

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The scientific motivation for this study is to understand the processes in the ocean interior controlling carbon transfer across 30° S. To address this, we have developed a unified framework for understanding the interplay between physical drivers such as buoyancy fluxes and ocean mixing, and carbon-specific processes such as biology, gas exchange and carbon mixing. Given the importance of density in determining the ocean interior structure and circulation, the framework is one that is organized by density and water masses, and it makes combined use of Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics. This is achieved through application to a global ice-ocean circulation model and an ocean biogeochemistry model, with both components being part of the widely-used IPSL coupled ocean/atmosphere/carbon cycle model.

    Our main new result is the dominance of the overturning circulation (identified by water masses in setting the vertical distribution of carbon transport from the Southern Ocean towards the global ocean. A net contrast emerges between the role of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW, associated with large northward transport and ingassing, and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW, associated with a much smaller export and outgassing. The differences in their export rate reflects differences in their water mass formation processes. For SAMW, two-thirds of the surface waters are provided as a result of the densification of thermocline water (TW, and upon densification this water carries with it a substantial diapycnal flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC. For AAIW, principal formatin processes include buoyancy forcing and mixing, with these serving to lighten CDW. An additional important formation pathway of AAIW is through the effect of interior processing (mixing, including cabelling that serve to densify SAMW.

    A quantitative evaluation of the contribution of mixing, biology and gas exchange to the DIC evolution per water mass reveals that

  16. Industrial process water treatment and reuse: A framework for synthesis and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Pennati, Alessandra; Bogataj, Milos;

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical optimization has shown the potential to contribute to industrial water management, through the development of the solution methods needed for optimization-based design of wastewater treatment and reuse networks (also called water networks). Nevertheless, the application...... and solution of the design problems with fair complexity representative of industrial applications. The framework is demonstrated through the solution of a case study dealing with the treatment and reuse of water effluent produced by an oil refinery. The problem is solved, and a win−win solution is identified...... of this approach is still limited to motivating examples lacking the ability to handle problems with complexity of industrial relevance. To address this challenge, in this contribution, we focus on the integration of wastewater engineering concepts and models, together with optimization methods and solution...

  17. Characterization of Adsorption Enthalpy of Novel Water-Stable Zeolites and Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunho; Cho, H. Jeremy; Narayanan, Shankar; Yang, Sungwoo; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Schiffres, Scott; Li, Xiansen; Zhang, Yue-Biao; Jiang, Juncong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-01-01

    Water adsorption is becoming increasingly important for many applications including thermal energy storage, desalination, and water harvesting. To develop such applications, it is essential to understand both adsorbent-adsorbate and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, and also the energy required for adsorption/desorption processes of porous material-adsorbate systems, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In this study, we present a technique to characterize the enthalpy of adsorption/desorption of zeolites and MOF-801 with water as an adsorbate by conducting desorption experiments with conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). With this method, the enthalpies of adsorption of previously uncharacterized adsorbents were estimated as a function of both uptake and temperature. Our characterizations indicate that the adsorption enthalpies of type I zeolites can increase to greater than twice the latent heat whereas adsorption enthalpies of MOF-801 are nearly constant for a wide range of vapor uptakes.

  18. Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good environmental status, within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Angel; Uyarra, María C.

    2014-05-01

    Marine natural resources and ecosystem services constitute the natural capital that supports economies, societies and individual well-being. Good governance requires a quantification of the interactions and trade-offs among ecosystem services and understanding of how biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services across time, scales and sectors. Marine biodiversity is a key descriptor for the assessment within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), approved in 2008, which comprises a total of 11 descriptors. However, the relationships between pressures from human activities and climatic influences and their effects on marine biological diversity are still only partially understood. Hence, these relationships need to be better understood in order to fully achieve a good environmental status (GEnS), as required by the MSFD. This contribution is based upon the FP7 EU project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status), which focus on developing innovative conceptual frameworks, methods and coherent, shared protocols to provide consistent datasets and knowledge at different scales, within four regional seas (Black Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic Sea). This project is developing innovative approaches to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services and to develop public goods and sustainable economic activities from them. The research will benefit sea users and stakeholders, and will contribute to assess and monitor the environmental status of marine waters. The main objectives are: (i) to improve our understanding of the impact of human activities and variations associated to climate on marine biodiversity, (ii) to test indicators (referred in the Commission Decision on GEnS) and develop new ones for assessment at several ecological levels (species, habitat, ecosystems) and for the characterization and status classification of the marine waters, (iii) to develop, test

  19. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  20. A water sustainability index for West Java - Part 2: refining the conceptual framework using Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwana, I; Perera, B J C; Muttil, N

    2010-01-01

    In the first paper of this two-part series on the development of a water sustainability index for West Java, a conceptual framework of West Java Water Sustainability Index (WJWSI) was developed. It consists of three main parts: components, indicators/sub-indicators and threshold values. This second paper of the series presents the application of the Delphi technique, followed by in-depth interviews with selected key experts, to refine the conceptual WJWSI framework. The Delphi application includes the design of the questionnaires, the selection of respondents, the distribution and collection of the completed questionnaires and the analysis of data. After Round One of the Delphi application, the respondents reached consensus for all proposed components in the conceptual framework. However, some modifications to the components were also suggested by few respondents. Regarding the indicators/sub-indicators, consensus for 9 of the proposed 12 indicators was reached, and 5 new indicators were suggested. For the threshold values, consensus was reached for threshold values of 5 indicators. In Round Two of the Delphi application, respondents were asked questions related to results from Round One, which include the modification on the components, indicators/sub-indicators which have not been agreed, and newly suggested indicators/sub-indicators and threshold values. Results of Round Two show that modifications on the components were agreed, and consensus was reached for 8 out of the proposed 9 indicators/sub-indicators. In terms of its components and indicators, the framework was then finalised in the in-depth interview with four key experts, selected from different respondent categories. For the threshold values not yet finalised, further study will be carried out, as there was not much input from the respondents in the Delphi application and the in-depth interview.

  1. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget of the Kitsap Peninsula, west-central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Wendy B.; Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater-flow system on the Kitsap Peninsula, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework, groundwater recharge and discharge, groundwater levels and flow directions, seasonal groundwater-level fluctuations, interactions between aquifers and the surface‑water system, and a water budget. The Kitsap Peninsula is in the Puget Sound lowland of west-central Washington, is bounded by Puget Sound on the east and by Hood Canal on the west, and covers an area of about 575 square miles. The peninsula encompasses all of Kitsap County, the part of Mason County north of Hood Canal, and part of Pierce County west of Puget Sound. The peninsula is surrounded by saltwater and the hydrologic setting is similar to that of an island. The study area is underlain by a thick sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the central part of the study area. Geologic units were grouped into 12 hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was developed and used with well information from 2,116 drillers’ logs to construct 6 hydrogeologic sections and unit extent and thickness maps. Unconsolidated aquifers typically consist of moderately to well-sorted alluvial and glacial outwash deposits of sand, gravel, and cobbles, with minor lenses of silt and clay. These units often are discontinuous or isolated bodies and are of highly variable thickness. Unconfined conditions occur in areas where aquifer units are at land surface; however, much of the study area is mantled by glacial till, and confined aquifer conditions are common. Groundwater in the unconsolidated aquifers generally flows radially off the peninsula in the direction of Puget Sound and Hood Canal. These generalized flow patterns likely are complicated by the presence of low

  2. A GIS/Simulation Framework for Assessing Change in Water Yield over Large Spatial Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.; Hargrove, W.W.; Huff, D.D.; Nikolov, N.; Tharp, M.L.

    1999-11-13

    Recent legislation to,initiate vegetation management in the Central Sierra hydrologic region of California includes a focus on corresponding changes in water yield. This served as the impetus for developing a combined geographic information system (GIS) and simulation assessment framework. Using the existing vegetation density condition, together with proposed rules for thinning to reduce fire risk, a set of simulation model inputs were generated for examining the impact of the thinning scenario on water yield. The approach allows results to be expressed as the mean and standard deviation of change in water yield for each 1 km2 map cell that is treated. Values for groups of cells are aggregated for typical watershed units using area-weighted averaging. Wet, dry and average precipitation years were simulated over a large region. Where snow plays an important role in hydrologic processes, the simulated change in water yield was less than 0.5% of expected annual runoff for a typical water shed. Such small changes would be undetectable in the field using conventional stream flow analysis. These results suggest that use of water yield increases to help justify forest-thinning activities or offset their cost will be difficult.

  3. A framework for the direct evaluation of large deviations in non-Markovian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Massimo; Harris, Rosemary J.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a general framework to simulate stochastic trajectories with arbitrarily long memory dependence and efficiently evaluate large deviation functions associated to time-extensive observables. This extends the ‘cloning’ procedure of Giardiná et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 120603) to non-Markovian systems. We demonstrate the validity of this method by testing non-Markovian variants of an ion-channel model and the totally asymmetric exclusion process, recovering results obtainable by other means.

  4. Determination of the priority substances regulated by 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC Directives in the surface waters supplying water treatment plants of Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfinopoulos, Spyros K; Nikolaou, Anastasia D; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Kotrikla, Anna Maria; Vagi, Maria C; Petsas, Andreas S; Lekkas, Demetris F; Lekkas, Themistokles D

    2017-03-21

    An investigation into the occurrence of priority substances regulated by 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and 2008/105/EC Directive was conducted for a period of one year in the surface water sources supplying the water treatment plants (WTPs) of Athens and in the raw water of WTPs. Samples from four reservoirs and four water treatment plants of Athens were taken seasonally. The substances are divided into seven specific groups, including eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), diethylhexylphthalate, four organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), three organophosphorus/organonitrogen pesticides (OPPs/ONPs), four triazines and phenylurea herbicides, pentachlorophenol, and four metals. The aforementioned substances belong to different chemical categories, and different analytical methods were performed for their determination. The results showed that the surface waters that feed the WTPs of Athens are not burdened with significant levels of toxic substances identified as European Union (EU) priority substances. Atrazine, hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan, trifluralin, anthracene and 4-nonylphenol were occasionally observed at very low concentrations. Their presence in a limited number of cases could be attributed to waste disposal, agricultural activities, and to a limited industrial activity in the area nearby the water bodies.

  5. A Framework for Developing Indicators Linking Socio-Economic and Ecological Impacts of Water Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, L.; Game, E.; Calvache, A.; Moreno, P.; Morales, A.; Rivera, B.; Rodriguez, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Growing interest in the equity and sustainability of water funds and other investment in watershed services programs has spurred interest in evaluation of program impacts on ecosystem services and human well-being. Yet, programs often lack a systematic framework to select indicators that are both important to stakeholders and relevant to hypothesized program impact. To fill this gap, we developed a participatory indicator selection methodology and piloted it in Fondo Agua por La Vida y la Sostenibilidad in the East Cauca Valley Colombia. We started by linking program activities to anticipated ecological and socio-economic impacts through stakeholder developed results chains. Using results chains as the framework, we constructed fuzzy cognitive models to explore the relative impact of program activities on social and ecological attributes. To prioritize indicators to monitor, we combined our fuzzy modelling results with an assessment of the perceived importance of different attributes for stakeholders in the water fund. We used the selected indicators to design a monitoring program that will allow the water fund to track and communicate its impact over the long-term.

  6. Incorporating water quality responses into the framework of best management practices optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Wei, Guoyuan; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-10-01

    Determining cost-effective configurations of best management practices (BMPs) is a notably complex problem, especially for large-scale watersheds. In this paper, a Markov-based simulator that has been developed to quantify water quality responses is described, and a new framework is also proposed for the optimal design of BMPs by integrating the Markov approach, a watershed model, and an evolutionary algorithm. This new framework was then tested in a typical watershed, the Three Georges Reservoir Region in China. The results obtained from this application indicate the integration of water quality responses is vital for the optimal design of BMPs, especially for the downstream areas of the targeted river assessment section. The Markov-based algorithm had a computational advantage over traditional algorithm and this new algorithm offers the prospect of providing more cost-effective medium-cost solutions. The relative impacts of upstream BMPs were also highlighted in protecting water quality at multiple river assessment sections. This new algorithm can easily be extended to any other watershed to aid decision managers in the optimal design of BMPs at the watershed scale.

  7. Consumers' Perspectives on Water Issues: Directions for Educational Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, Denise E.; Hagen, Scott C.; Stout, I. Jack

    2003-01-01

    Explores the relationship between population growth, development, and water resources to glean insight for environmental education campaigns. Reports high awareness and moderate concern about rapid growth and development, dissatisfaction with water resource quantity and quality, and varied water management strategies among consumers. (Contains 37…

  8. A Statistical Framework for Automatic Leakage Detection in Smart Water and Gas Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fagiani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, due to the technological improvement of advanced metering infrastructures, water and natural gas grids can be regarded as smart-grids, similarly to power ones. However, considering the number of studies related to the application of computational intelligence to distribution grids, the gap between power grids and water/gas grids is notably wide. For this purpose, in this paper, a framework for leakage identification is presented. The framework is composed of three sections aimed at the extraction and the selection of features and at the detection of leakages. A variation of the Sequential Feature Selection (SFS algorithm is used to select the best performing features within a set, including, also, innovative temporal ones. The leakage identification is based on novelty detection and exploits the characterization of a normality model. Three statistical approaches, The Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM, Hidden Markov Model (HMM and One-Class Support Vector Machine (OC-SVM, are adopted, under a comparative perspective. Both residential and office building environments are investigated by means of two datasets. One is the Almanac of Minutely Power dataset (AMPds, and it provides water and gas data consumption at 1, 10 and 30 min of time resolution; the other is the Department of International Development (DFID dataset, and it provides water and gas data consumption at 30 min of time resolution. The achieved performance, computed by means of the Area Under the Curve (AUC, reaches 90 % in the office building case study, thus confirming the suitability of the proposed approach for applications in smart water and gas grids.

  9. Density Functional Theory Meta-GGA+U Study of Water Incorporation in the Metal Organic Framework Material Cu-BTC

    OpenAIRE

    Cockayne, Eric; Nelson, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    Water absorption in the metal-organic framework (MOF) material Cu-BTC, up to a concentration of 3.5 H$_2$O per Cu ion, is studied via density functional theory at the meta-GGA+U level. The stable arrangements of water molecules show chains of hydrogen-bonded water molecules and a tendency to form closed cages at high concentration. Water clusters are stabilized primarily by a combination of water-water hydrogen bonding and Cu-water oxygen interactions. Stability is further enhanced by van der...

  10. Ultrafast water sensing and thermal imaging by a metal-organic framework with switchable luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Ye, Jia-Wen; Wang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Mei; Yin, Shao-Yun; Wei, Zhang-Wen; Zhang, Lu-Yin; Wu, Kai; Fan, Ya-Nan; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2017-06-01

    A convenient, fast and selective water analysis method is highly desirable in industrial and detection processes. Here a robust microporous Zn-MOF (metal-organic framework, Zn(hpi2cf)(DMF)(H2O)) is assembled from a dual-emissive H2hpi2cf (5-(2-(5-fluoro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)isophthalic acid) ligand that exhibits characteristic excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). This Zn-MOF contains amphipathic micropores (<3 Å) and undergoes extremely facile single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation driven by reversible removal/uptake of coordinating water molecules simply stimulated by dry gas blowing or gentle heating at 70 °C, manifesting an excellent example of dynamic reversible coordination behaviour. The interconversion between the hydrated and dehydrated phases can turn the ligand ESIPT process on or off, resulting in sensitive two-colour photoluminescence switching over cycles. Therefore, this Zn-MOF represents an excellent PL water-sensing material, showing a fast (on the order of seconds) and highly selective response to water on a molecular level. Furthermore, paper or in situ grown ZnO-based sensing films have been fabricated and applied in humidity sensing (RH<1%), detection of traces of water (<0.05% v/v) in various organic solvents, thermal imaging and as a thermometer.

  11. Dispersing molecular cobalt in graphitic carbon nitride frameworks for photocatalytic water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guigang; Huang, Caijin; Wang, Xinchen

    2015-03-01

    The development of water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) to cooperate with light-energy transducers for solar energy conversion by water splitting and CO2 fixation is a demanding challenge. The key measure is to develop efficient and sustainable WOCs that can support a sustainable photocatalyst to reduce over-potentials and thus to enhance reaction rate of water oxidation reaction. Cobalt has been indentified as active component of WOCs for photo/electrochemical water oxidation, and its performance relies strongly on the contact and adhesion of the cobalt species with photoactive substrates. Here, cobalt is homogeneously engineered into the framework of pristine graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) via chemical interaction, establishing surface junctions on the polymeric photocatalyst for the water oxidation reaction. This modification promotes the surface kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction by the g-C3 N4 -based photocatalytic system made of inexpensive substances, and further optimizations in the optical and textural structure of Co-g-C3 N4 is envisaged by considering ample choice of modification schemes for carbon nitride materials.

  12. Electrochemical Water Oxidation by a Catalyst-Modified Metal-Organic Framework Thin Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shaoyang; Pineda-Galvan, Yuliana; Maza, William A.; Epley, Charity C.; Zhu, Jie; Kessinger, Matthew C.; Pushkar, Yulia; Morris, Amanda J. (VP); (Purdue)

    2016-12-15

    Water oxidation, a key component in artificial photosynthesis, requires high overpotentials and exhibits slow reaction kinetics that necessitates the use of stable and efficient heterogeneous water-oxidation catalysts (WOCs). Here, we report the synthesis of UiO-67 metal–organic framework (MOF) thin films doped with [Ru(tpy)(dcbpy)OH2]2+ (tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, dcbpy=5,5'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine) on conducting surfaces and their propensity for electrochemical water oxidation. The electrocatalyst oxidized water with a turnover frequency (TOF) of (0.2±0.1) s-1 at 1.71 V versus the normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) in buffered solution (pH~7) and exhibited structural and electrochemical stability. The electroactive sites were distributed throughout the MOF thin film on the basis of scan-ratedependent voltammetry studies. This work demonstrates a promising way to immobilize large concentrations of electroactive WOCs into a highly robust MOF scaffold and paves the way for future photoelectrochemical water-splitting systems.

  13. A simple framework to analyze water constraints on seasonal transpiration in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessada eSopharat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and fast extension in climatically suboptimal areas threaten the sustainability of rubber tree cultivation. A simple framework based on reduction factors of potential transpiration was tested to evaluate the water constraints on seasonal transpiration in tropical sub-humid climates, according pedoclimatic conditions. We selected a representative, mature stand in a drought-prone area. Tree transpiration, evaporative demand and soil water availability were measured every day over 15 months. The results showed that basic relationships with evaporative demand, leaf area index and soil water availability were globally supported. However the implementation of a regulation of transpiration at high evaporative demand whatever soil water availability was necessary to avoid large overestimates of transpiration. The details of regulation were confirmed by the analysis of canopy conductance response to vapour pressure deficit. The final objective of providing hierarchy between the main regulation factors of seasonal and annual transpiration was achieved. In the tested environmental conditions, the impact of atmospheric drought appeared larger importance than soil drought contrary to expectations. Our results support the interest in simple models to provide a first diagnosis of water constraints on transpiration with limited data, and to help decision making towards more sustainable rubber plantations.

  14. Overview of the National Energy-Water System (NEWS) Assessment Framework Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Miara, A.; Rosenzweig, B.; Corsi, F.; Piasecki, M.; Celicourt, P.; Fekete, B. M.; Macknick, J.; Melillo, J. M.; Newmark, R. L.; Tidwell, V. C.; Suh, S.; Prousevitch, A.

    2015-12-01

    In practical terms, strategic planning for the nation's economic, social and environmental future increasingly centers on issues relating to fresh water. U.S. energy security is highly dependent on electricity generated by the nation's fleet of thermoelectric power stations, which today contribute 90% to total electricity production. This presentation summarizes the overall structure and recent progress on a study devoted to climate adaptation and the reliability of power sector infrastructure and operations, when viewed through the lens of strategic water issues. The focus is on electric power infrastructure, i.e., the types, spatial distributions and levels of investment in technologies that deliver or could deliver electricity to the U.S. economy. The work is guided by a central hypothesis, that today's portfolio of electric power sector infrastructure is unsustainable in the context of satisfying its water needs under anticipated climate change and rising electricity demands. Insofar as water-mediated feedbacks reverberate throughout the national economy, we include macro-economic perspectives as well. The work is organized around the technical development of the NEWS framework which is then used to evaluate, in the context of anticipated climate, economic change and regulatory context: the performance of the nation's electricity sector, the feasibility of alternative pathways to improve climate adaptation, and impacts of energy technology. Scenarios are co-designed with a stakeholder community, and investment tradeoffs are considered with respect to the productivity of the economy, water availability and aquatic ecosystem condition.

  15. Development of a Framework for a Lean based Water and Energy Efficiency Assessment Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Davies

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry of South Africa is the sector consuming the largest portion of the total energy consumption and second largest portion of total water consumption per annum nationally. With a significant increase in electrical energy cost in recent years, together with the reserve energy margin dropping below the minimum level required for sustainable operation of energy utilities, energy efficiency improvement is becoming imperative for organisational success as well as national economical sustainability. This paper explores selected Lean manufacturing principles and its positive effect on energy and water efficiency. Although the implementation of Lean manufacturing techniques naturally leads to the improvement of energy and water intensity, the author believes that there is even greater potential in the development of a Lean based tool which will specifically focus on the improvement of energy and water efficiency. For this purpose the value stream mapping tool was chosen as the foundation. This paper continues to explain the process undergone to develop standardised energy and water specific waste categories to be used in conjunction with the traditional Lean wastes. The study concludes by detailing the development of the tool, together with its framework for implementation and a brief discussion on the forecasting model incorporated.

  16. Direct On-Surface Patterning of a Crystalline Laminar Covalent Organic Framework Synthesized at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña Ruigómez, Alejandro; Rodríguez-San-Miguel, David; Stylianou, Kyriakos C; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Gentili, Denis; Liscio, Fabiola; Milita, Silvia; Roscioni, Otello Maria; Ruiz-González, Maria Luisa; Carbonell, Carlos; Maspoch, Daniel; Mas-Ballesté, Rubén; Segura, José Luis; Zamora, Félix

    2015-07-20

    We report herein an efficient, fast, and simple synthesis of an imine-based covalent organic framework (COF) at room temperature (hereafter, RT-COF-1). RT-COF-1 shows a layered hexagonal structure exhibiting channels, is robust, and is porous to N2 and CO2 . The room-temperature synthesis has enabled us to fabricate and position low-cost micro- and submicropatterns of RT-COF-1 on several surfaces, including solid SiO2 substrates and flexible acetate paper, by using lithographically controlled wetting and conventional ink-jet printing.

  17. Direct Observation of Hydrogen Adsorption Sites and Nanocage Formation in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, T.; Hartman, M. R.

    2005-11-01

    The hydrogen adsorption sites in MOF5 were determined using neutron powder diffraction along with first-principles calculations. The metal-oxide cluster is primarily responsible for the adsorption while the organic linker plays only a secondary role. Equally important, at low temperatures and high-concentration, H2 molecules form unique interlinked high-symmetry nanoclusters with intermolecular distances as small as 3.0 Å and H2 uptake as high as 11 wt %. These results hold the key to optimizing metal-organic framework (MOF) materials for hydrogen storage applications and also suggest that MOFs can be used as templates to create artificial interlinked hydrogen nanocages with novel properties.

  18. A planning-oriented sustainability assessment framework for peri-urban water management in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkl, Markus; Brunner, Norbert; López, Eduardo; Martínez-Ruiz, José Luis

    2013-12-15

    DPSIR and the three-pillar model are well-established frameworks for sustainability assessment. This paper proposes a planning-oriented sustainability assessment framework (POSAF). It is informed by those frameworks but differs insofar as it puts more emphasis on a constructivist conception which recognises that sustainability needs to be defined anew for each planning problem. In finding such a consensus definition, POSAF uses participatory scenario analysis and participatory planning, technical feasibility study, participatory assessment, analysis of trade-offs and social networks in an unusual combination and for goals that differ from the original conceptions of these methods. POSAF was applied in a peri-urban area of Mexico City for the design of improved water service provision, integrating solid waste management. It supported consensus amongst users about the importance of environmental issues, informed planners about the values of stakeholders and users, detected local differences, and identified possible conflicts at an early stage of decision-making. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrathin metal-organic framework array for efficient electrocatalytic water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingjing; Chen, Sheng; Zhao, Chuan

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks represent a family of materials with attractive chemical and structural properties, which are usually prepared in the form of bulk powders. Here we show a generic approach to fabricate ultrathin nanosheet array of metal-organic frameworks on different substrates through a dissolution-crystallization mechanism. These materials exhibit intriguing properties for electrocatalysis including highly exposed active molecular metal sites owning to ultra-small thickness of nanosheets, improved electrical conductivity and a combination of hierarchical porosity. We fabricate a nickel-iron-based metal-organic framework array, which demonstrates superior electrocatalytic performance towards oxygen evolution reaction with a small overpotential of 240 mV at 10 mA cm-2, and robust operation for 20,000 s with no detectable activity decay. Remarkably, the turnover frequency of the electrode is 3.8 s-1 at an overpotential of 400 mV. We further demonstrate the promise of these electrodes for other important catalytic reactions including hydrogen evolution reaction and overall water splitting.

  20. A conceptual framework for the direct marketing process using business intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Flici, Adel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Direct marketing is becoming a key strategy for organisations to develop and maintain strong customer relationships. This method targets specific customers with personalised advertising and promotional campaigns in order to help organisations increase campaign responses and to get a higher return on their investments. There are, however, many issues related to direct marketing, ranging from t...

  1. A causal framework for discovering and removing direct and indirect discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lu; Yongkai WU; Wu, Xintao

    2016-01-01

    Anti-discrimination is an increasingly important task in data science. In this paper, we investigate the problem of discovering both direct and indirect discrimination from the historical data, and removing the discriminatory effects before the data is used for predictive analysis (e.g., building classifiers). We make use of the causal network to capture the causal structure of the data. Then we model direct and indirect discrimination as the path-specific effects, which explicitly distinguis...

  2. Evaluation of water-energy balance frameworks to predict the sensitivity of streamflow to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Renner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Long term average change in streamflow is a major concern in hydrology and water resources management. Some simple analytical methods exist for the assessment of the sensitivity of streamflow to climatic variations. These are based on the Budyko hypothesis, which assumes that long term average streamflow can be predicted by climate conditions, namely by annual average precipitation and evaporative demand. Recently, Tomer and Schilling (2009 presented an ecohydrological concept to distinguish between effects of climate change and basin characteristics change on streamflow. We relate the concept to a coupled consideration of the water and energy balance. We show that the concept is equivalent to the assumption that the sum of the ratio of annual actual evapotranspiration to precipitation and the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration is constant, even when climate conditions are changing.

    Here, we use this assumption to derive analytical solutions to the problem of streamflow sensitivity to climate. We show how, according to this assumption, climate sensitivity would be influenced by different climatic conditions and the actual hydrological response of a basin. Finally, the properties and implications of the method are compared with established Budyko sensitivity methods and illustrated by three case studies. It appears that the largest differences between both approaches occur under limiting conditions. Specifically, the sensitivity framework based on the ecohydrological concept does not adhere to the water and energy limits, while the Budyko approach accounts for limiting conditions by increasing the sensitivity of streamflow to a catchment parameter encoding basin characteristics. Our findings do not support any application of the ecohydrological concept under conditions close to the water or energy limits, instead we suggest a correction based on the Budyko framework.

  3. Water Desalination through Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Membranes: Significant Role of Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Krishna M; Zhang, Kang; Jiang, Jianwen

    2015-12-08

    A molecular simulation study is reported for water desalination through five zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes, namely ZIF-25, -71, -93, -96, and -97. The five ZIFs possess identical rho-topology but differ in functional groups. The rejection of salt (NaCl) is found to be around 97% in ZIF-25, and 100% in the other four ZIFs. The permeance ranges from 27 to 710 kg/(m(2)·h·bar), about one∼two orders of magnitude higher compared with commercial reverse osmosis membranes. Due to a larger aperture size da, ZIF-25, -71, and -96 exhibit a much higher water flux than ZIF-93 and -97; however, the flux in ZIF-25, -71, and -96 is governed by the polarity of functional group rather than da. With the hydrophobic CH3 group, ZIF-25 has the highest flux despite the smallest da among ZIF-25, -71, and -96. The lifetime of hydrogen bonding in ZIF-25 is shorter than that in ZIF-71 and -96. Furthermore, water molecules undergo a fast flushing motion in ZIF-25, but frequent jumping in ZIF-96 and particularly in ZIF-97. An Arrhenius-type relationship is found between water flux in ZIF-25 and temperature, and the activation energy is predicted to be 6.5 kJ/mol. This simulation study provides a microscopic insight into water desalination in a series of ZIFs, reveals the key factors (aperture size and polarity of functional group) governing water flux, and suggests that ZIF-25 might be an interesting reverse osmosis membrane for high-performance water desalination.

  4. A framework for analysing water quality observations to detect change in the context of natural variability and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, C.; Freer, J.; Johnes, P.; Collins, A.

    2012-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is a main driver for enhancing water management policies and increasing infrastructure investment to improve all water bodies to good ecological status. This requires scientists, managers and regulators to develop an effective evidence base for understanding which strategies maximise the cost-benefit associated with water quality improvements. Such evidence is underpinned by national monitoring and predictions of change are often quantified through the application of computer models. This paper is associated with understanding how observations of water quality within river systems at different temporal resolutions and types of monitoring strategies enable us to understand and detect changes over and above the natural variability. Therefore we explore the inter- and intra-annual variabilities of water quality data in the form of concentrations and loads to benchmark the expected variability and uncertainty under different sampling regimes. Recent research has investigated the effects of sampling designs on commonly used metrics for assessing nutrient fluxes, such as the estimation of annual pollutant loads in catchments. However, there have been significantly fewer studies which have considered the effect of sampling frequencies on the detection of inter- and intra-annual variability in water quality time-series and which include the uncertainty estimates in such data. This is important as it determines both the resolution of sampling which is needed for effective monitoring schemes and also the length of dataset which is necessary to characterise baseline and post-remediation behaviours adequately. Without this, we do not have an effective evidence base that enables us to quantify changes in pollutants when improving water quality management plans and associated infrastructure investment. The study uses a Monte-Carlo based approach to generate deviate sample sets of varying time resolutions from measured continuous time

  5. Managing Urban Water: Opportunities and Limitations of the Ecosystem Services Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, P.; Keeler, B.; Donahue, M.; Hobbie, S. E.; Finlay, J. C.; Brauman, K. A.; Vogl, A.

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally applied to rural environments, the concept of ES is gaining traction in urban areas, overlapping with a number of existing management frameworks in engineering, policy science, political ecology, or urban planning. Given this overlap, it is legitimate to question the value added by the ES concept, either as a theoretical or practical framework. This is particularly the case for urban water management, where new paradigms in engineering and socio-hydrology are increasingly bringing a social dimension to problem solving. In this talk, I will illustrate key opportunities and limitations of the ES framework with a focus on the service of stormwater retention. Drawing from examples in the Global North and South (including Melbourne, Australia, and Cape Town, South Africa), I will show that the ES lens allows: i) an explicit linkage between beneficiaries and grey and green infrastructure, which improves visibility and credibility of techniques valuing urban nature; ii) an improved understanding of tradeoffs and synergies between services, even in regions with limited environmental or socio-economic data; and iii) the development of powerful visualization techniques, enhancing communication with a broad range of stakeholders. These strengths make ES assessments a powerful tool to raise awareness or assist urban planners in realizing their vision of green cities. However, in cities like Melbourne with high capacity and innovative governance, I will argue that the instrumental use of ES is limited and may even be detrimental; limitations of the ES framework, which include a perceived partiality and vagueness, may be used by detractors to undermine the work of urban planners envisioning a greener city. To conclude the talk, I will present the work that the Natural Capital Project is conducting on the application of the ES concept for global indicators of sustainable development, thereby supporting the monitoring and implementation of urban Sustainable

  6. Stabilization of acyclic water tetramer in a copper(II) malonate framework structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Megha S; Kumbhar, Avinash S; Näther, Christian

    2010-10-14

    Copper(II) complex [Cu(dpq)(mal)(H(2)O)]·3H(2)O (1) (dpq = dipyrido-[3,2-d:2',3'-f]-quinoxaline, mal = malonato) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The single-crystal X-ray structure of 1 reveals a square pyramidal structure, with the dipyrido-[3,2-d:2',3'-f]-quinoxaline and malonato at the equatorial positions and a water molecule at the axial position. The molecule acts as a building block generating a supramolecular three-dimensional metal-organic framework (MOF) encapsulating metal linked acyclic water tetramer. The H-bonding capacity of malonato and the π-π stacking interactions of dipyrido-[3,2-d:2',3'-f]-quinoxaline further reinforce the framework. The copper(II) bound hydroxyl group is demonstrated to mediate hydrolytic cleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA under dark conditions.

  7. Zirconium-Based Metal–Organic Framework for Removal of Perrhenate from Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Xu, Wenqian; Nie, Zimin; Johnson, Lewis E. V.; Coghlan, Campbell; Sushko, Maria L.; Kim, Dongsang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Doonan, Christian J.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2016-09-06

    Efficient removal of pertechnetate (TcO4-) anions from liquid waste or melter off-gas solution for alternative treatment is one of the promising options to manage 99Tc in legacy nuclear waste. Safe immobilization of 99Tc is of major importance due to its long half-life (t1/2= 2.13 × 105 yrs) and environmental mobility. Different types of inorganic and solid state ion-exchange materials such as layered double hydroxides have been shown to absorb TcO4- anions from water. However, both high capacity and selectivity have yet to be achieved in a single material. Herein, we show that a protonated version of an ultra-stable zirconium based metal-organic framework can adsorb perrhenate (ReO4-) anions, a non-radioactive sur-rogate for TcO4-, from water even in the presence of other common anions. Synchrotron based powder X-ray diffraction and molecular simulations were used to identify the position of the adsorbed ReO4- (surrogate for TcO4-) molecule within the framework.

  8. Groundwater Storage vs. Surface Water Storage - Why Sustainability Requires a Different Management Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, S.; Davids, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Storing water in times of excess for use in times of shortage is an essential water-management tool, especially in climates typified by precipitation in one season and demand in another. The three primary water storage mechanisms in the Western US, and much of the world in fact, are: seasonal snow pack, surface water reservoirs, and groundwater aquifers. In California, nearly every major river has one or more large dam and reservoir and current focus has shifted toward off-stream storage. In addition to California's surface reservoirs, groundwater aquifers provide huge volumes of water storage that are heavily utilized during times of drought. With California's new Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) substantial attention is presently focused on developing strategies for using groundwater storage more effectively in conjunction with surface-storage reservoirs. However, compared to surface water storage, we need to think differently and develop new frameworks if we want to manage groundwater storage sustainably. Despite its immense capacity, groundwater storage is harder to manage because there are physical constraints to how fast water can be put into and withdrawn from aquifers, its boundaries are not as well defined as those of a surface reservoir, and it is part of a dynamic, porous media flow system where the Theis concepts of capture govern. Therefore, groundwater does not behave as a level pool like surface water reservoirs, which has several implications for effective management: 1) extraction/injection locations can have substantial impacts on the system, 2) interactions with the surface water systems can be nonlinear and complex and 3) hydraulic effects can continue long after pumping/injection has stopped. These nonlinear spatial and temporal responses, coupled with long time scales, makes management of groundwater storage much different than surface water storage. Furthermore, failure to fully understand these issues can lead to mismanagement

  9. COMPARISON OF EU FRAMEWORK AND DAUGHTER DIRECTIVES AND CURRENT SERBIAN LEGISLATION ON AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. OKIEIMEN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel formulations of PVC plastisols based on blends of bio-based and synthetic plasticizers were prepared and characterized. A traditional phthalate plasticizer, dioctylphthalate, was replaced in the plastisols studied by the epoxidized rubber seed oil (4.5 % oxirane content. The plastisols formed were processed into plastigels and characterized in terms of permanence properties using leaching and migration tests and water vapour barrier properties. It was found that the permanence properties of PVC/DOP plastigels were maintained in the presence of up to 50 % ERSO, and that blending with DOP did not impair the water barrier properties of PVC plastigels.

  10. A social-economic-engineering combined framework for decision making in water resources planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Chung

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new methodology not only to evaluate willingness to pays (WTPs for the improvement of hydrological vulnerability using a choice experiment (CE method but also to do a cost-benefit analysis (CBA of some feasible alternatives combing the derived WTPs with an alternative evaluation index (AEI. The hydrological vulnerability consists of potential streamflow depletion (PSD, and potential water quality deterioration (PWQD and can be quantified using a multi-criteria decision making technique and pressure-state-response (PSR framework. PSD and PWQD not only provide survey respondents with sufficient site-specific information to avoid scope sensitivity in a choice experiment but also support the standard of dividing the study watershed into six sub-regions for site-fitted management. Therefore CE was applied to six regions one after the other, in order to determine WTPs for improvements on hydrological vulnerability considering the characteristics which are vulnerability, location, and preferences with regard to management objectives. The AEI was developed to prioritize the feasible alternatives using a continuous water quantity/quality simulation model as well as multi-criteria decision making techniques. All criteria for alternative performance were selected based on a driver-pressures-state-impact-response (DPSIR framework, and their weights were estimated using an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. In addition, the AEI that reflects on residents' preference with regard to management objectives was proposed in order to incite the stakeholder to participate in the decision making process. Finally, the economic values of each alternative are estimated by a newly developed method which combines the WTPs for improvements on hydrologic vulnerability with the AEI. This social-economic-engineering combined framework can provide the decision makers with more specific information as well as decrease the uncertainty of the CBA.

  11. An integrative water balance model framework for a changing glaciated catchment in the Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkhan, Fabian; Huggel, Christian; García Hernández, Javier; Fluixá-Sanmartín, Javier; Seidel, Jochen; Muñoz Asmat, Randy

    2017-04-01

    In the Santa River catchment [SRC] (Cordillera Blanca, Andes of Peru), human livelihoods strongly depend on year-round streamflow from glaciers and reservoirs, particularly in the dry season and in adjacent arid lowlands. Perennial glacial streamflow represents a buffer to water shortages, annual discharge variability and river contamination levels. However, climate change impacts, consecutive glacier shrinkage as well as new irrigated agriculture and hydropower schemes, population growth and thus water allocation might increase water scarcity in several areas of the SRC. This situation exerts further pressure and conflict potential over water resources and stresses the need to analyze both water supply and demand trends in a multidisciplinary and interlinked manner. In this context, an integrative glacio-hydrological framework was developed based on the Glacier and Snow Melt (GSM) and SOil CONTribution (SOCONT) models using the semi-distributed free software RS MINERVE. This water balance model incorporates hydroclimatic, socioeconomic and hydraulic objects and data at daily scale (with several gaps) for the last 50 years (1965-2015). A particular challenge in this context represents the poor data availability both in quantity and quality. Therefore, the hydroclimatic dataset to be used had to be carefully selected and data gaps were filled applying a statistical copula-based approach. The socioeconomic dataset of water demand was elaborated using several assumptions based on further census information and experiences from other projects in the region. Reservoirs and hydropower models were linked with additional hydraulic data. In order to increase model performance within a complex topography of the 11660 km2 SRC, the area was divided into 22 glaciated (GSM) and 42 non-glaciated (SOCONT) subcatchment models. Additionally, 382 elevation bands at 300 m interval were created and grouped into 22 different calibration zones for the whole SRC. The model was calibrated

  12. Groundwater resource-directed measures software | Dennis | Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the need to promote social and economic development through the use of water, ... To be able to implement the National Water Act (NWA), the Minister needs to ... in resource quality objectives which are based on both the classification and ...

  13. Quantum field theory with a preferred direction: The very special relativity framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Yang

    2016-02-01

    The theory of very special relativity (VSR) proposed by Cohen and Glashow contains an intrinsic preferred direction. Starting from the irreducible unitary representation of the inhomogeneous VSR group I S I M (2 ), we present a rigorous construction of quantum field theory with a preferred direction. We find that although the particles and their quantum fields between the VSR and Lorentz sectors are physically different, they share many similarities. The massive spin-half and spin-one vector fields are local and satisfy the Dirac and Proca equations, respectively. This result can be generalized to higher-spin field theories. By studying the Yukawa and standard gauge interactions, we obtain a qualitative understanding on the effects of the preferred direction. Its effect is manifest for polarized processes but are otherwise absent.

  14. Atomistic insight into adsorption, mobility, and vibration of water in ion-exchanged zeolite-like metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalaparaju, A; Babarao, R; Zhao, X S; Jiang, J W

    2009-09-22

    The adsorption, mobility, and vibration of water in ion-exchanged rho-zeolite-like metal-organic frameworks (ZMOFs) are investigated using atomistic simulations. Because of the high affinity for the ionic framework and nonframework ions, water is strongly adsorbed in rho-ZMOFs with a three-step adsorption mechanism. At low pressures, water is preferentially adsorbed onto Na(+) ions, particularly at site II; with increasing pressure, adsorption occurs near the framework and finally in the large cage. Upon water adsorption, Na(+) ions are observed to redistribute from site I to site II and gradually hydrated with increasing pressure. In Li-, Na-, and Cs-exchanged rho-ZMOFs, the adsorption capacity and isosteric heat decrease with increasing ionic radius attributed to the reduced electrostatic interaction and free volume. The mobility of water in Na-rho-ZMOF increases at low pressures but decreases upon approaching saturation. With sufficient amount of water present, the mobility of Na(+) ions is promoted. The vibrational spectra of water in Na-rho-ZMOF exhibit distinct bands for librational motion, bending, and stretching. The librational motion has a frequency higher than bulk water due to confinement. With increasing loading and hence stronger coordinative attraction, the bending frequency shows a blue shift. Symmetric and asymmetric modes are observed in the stretching as a consequence of the strong water-ion interaction. This study provides a fundamental microscopic insight into the static and dynamic properties of water in charged ZMOFs and reveals the subtle interplay between water and nonframework ions.

  15. Development cooperation in water and sanitation: is it based on the human rights framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin; Heller, Léo

    2017-07-01

    The water and sanitation sector is verifiably receiving increased attention and funding through international development cooperation. Not least because of the way that it affects incentives and institutions in partner countries, development cooperation can have either positive or negative effects on human rights though. The consolidated frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation is becoming linked to the international community's coordinated development efforts, as evidenced notably in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, a review of major funders' official policies for development cooperation in the sector suggests that many only partially endorse the frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation. An observation of development cooperation flows to the sector allows the hypothesis to be advanced that worldwide inequalities in access to these services may be reduced through a full and clear application of the human rights framework in development cooperation activities. The article presents findings of this research and explores key stakes for development cooperation in the water and sanitation sector that are relevant for their ability to either negatively or positively contribute to the realization of human rights. Resumen El sector de agua y saneamiento ha recibido creciente atención y financiación a través de la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo. La cooperación para el desarrollo puede tener efectos tanto positivos cuanto negativos sobre los derechos humanos. El hito que consolida los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están articulados a esfuerzos de cooperación para el desarrollo promovidos por la comunidad internacional, como se evidencia en la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible. Sin embargo, una revisión de las políticas oficiales de los principales financiadores del sector sugiere que muchos de ellos aprueban solo parcialmente los hitos de los derechos humanos al agua y el

  16. Implementing sustainable drainage systems for urban surface water management within the regulatory framework in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J Bryan; Lundy, Lian

    2016-12-01

    The UK 2007 floods resulted in damages estimated to exceed over £4 billion. This triggered a national review of strategic flood risk management (Pitt, 2008) with its recommendations informing and implemented by the Flood and Water Management, Act (FWMA, 2010). Estimating that up to two-thirds of properties flooded in the 2007 event as a direct result of overloaded sewer systems, the FWMA set out an ambitious overhaul of flood risk management approaches including identifying bodies responsible for the management of local flood risk (local municipalities) and the development of over-arching Lead Local Flood Authorities (LLFAs) at a regional level. LLFAs duties include developing local flood risk management strategies and, aligned with this, many LLFAs and local municipalities produced sustainable drainage system (SUDS) guidance notes. In parallel, changes to the national planning policy framework (NPPF) in England give priority to the use of SUDS in new major developments, as does the related Town and Country Planning Order (2015). However, whilst all three pieces of legislation refer to the preferential use of SUDs, these requirements remain "economically proportionate" and thus the inclusion of SUDS within development controls remain desirable - but not mandatory - obligations. Within this dynamic policy context, reignited most recently by the December 2015 floods, this paper examines some of the challenges to the implementation of SUDS in England and Wales posed by the new regulatory frameworks. In particular, it examines how emerging organisational procedures and processes are likely to impact on future SUDS implementation, and highlights the need for further cross-sectoral working to ensure opportunities for cross-sectoral benefits- such as that accrued by reducing stormwater flows within combined sewer systems for water companies, property developers and environmental protection - are not lost.

  17. From Framework to Practice: Person-Directed Planning in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn; Grandia, Philip; Ouellette-Kuntz, Hélène; Cobigo, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Person-directed planning (PDP) is an approach to planning supports that aims to redistribute power from the service system to individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and natural supports, improve relationships and build community. To do this, the right people with the right attitudes engaging in the right…

  18. Continued challenges in the policy and legal framework for collaborative water planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Poh-Ling; Bowmer, K. H.; Baldwin, C.

    2012-12-01

    SummaryWe consider the implementation of Australian water reform over the last two decades and into the future. Reform was to provide security for consumptive users and adequate rights for the environment. Overallocation, a key threat to both these aims, continues to challenge planners particularly in the Murray-Darling Basin and cannot be addressed without community support. We draw from four major studies to provide insights on how implementation needs to be underpinned by theory. From the perspective of institutional design for collaborative and sustainable water planning, seven major improvements are required: (1) Provision of detailed policy guidelines to support general legal requirements, particularly practical advice for interpreting and applying the precautionary principle. (2) Tools to identify and engage unorganised or neglected community sectors, for example Indigenous peoples and youth. (3) Procedural fairness and transparent decision making, to build confidence in reform; use of independent experts and visual tools to improve the quality of discussion and increase the acceptability of trade-offs. (4) Clearer documentation and language in planning, as more litigation is likely. (5) In accord with international literature, the development of comprehensive policy and legislative framework allowing a systems approach to consensus building, especially when the science is contested. (6) Information on exactly how much water is required and where, by capturing societal choices on environmental assets. (7) Planning for sustainable contraction where cutbacks to water use is required, as an additional strategy to the current emphasis on buying water or building infrastructure. In summary we advocate collaborative water planning processes to engender community confidence in planning.

  19. A direct immunoassay for detecting diatoms in groundwater as an indicator of the direct influence of surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C.E.; Schrock, R.M.; Reilly, T.J.; Baehr, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GWUDISW) is of concern in communities where growing public demand on groundwater resources has resulted in increased withdrawals and hydraulic stress near surface water bodies. Under these conditions, contaminants such as methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) and biological materials have been detected in domestic wells. Other contaminants and pathogens associated with surface water are not routinely tested for in groundwater-supplied systems. To address the need for methods to easily identify potentially vulnerable supplies, a direct immunoassay for the quantitative detection of diatoms in raw water samples was developed as a measure of surface water influence on groundwater. Cell wall preparations from Nitzschia palea Ku??tzing, a freshwater diatom found throughout North America, were used to produce a polyclonal antibody that was applied in a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed to detect the presence of N. palea cell wall components. The direct immunoassay allows detection at 500 cells L-1, a level similar to diatom concentrations observed in samples of groundwater collected near the test site. This investigation was the first attempt to utilize an ELISA as an indicator of surface water influence on groundwater. Further research is needed to develop more specific diatom-based monoclonal antibodies, determine cross-reactivity, and optimize sample processing and ELISA procedures for development of a standardized method. ?? Springer 2005.

  20. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  1. Leaf water oxygen isotope measurement by direct equilibration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, Xin; Barbour, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of leaf water imparts a signal to a range of molecules in the atmosphere and biosphere, but has been notoriously difficult to measure in studies requiring a large number...

  2. Development and assessment of an integrated ecological modelling framework to assess the effect of investments in wastewater treatment on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin-Gonzalez, Javier E; Boets, Pieter; Everaert, Gert; Pauwels, Ine S; Lock, Koen; Gobeyn, Sacha; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Amerlinck, Youri; Nopens, Ingmar; Goethals, Peter L M

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, large investments in wastewater treatment are made to improve water quality. However, the impacts of these investments on river water quality are often not quantified. To assess water quality, the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires an integrated approach. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated ecological modelling framework for the River Drava (Croatia) that includes physical-chemical and hydromorphological characteristics as well as the ecological river water quality status. The developed submodels and the integrated model showed accurate predictions when comparing the modelled results to the observations. Dissolved oxygen and nitrogen concentrations (ammonium and organic nitrogen) were the most important variables in determining the ecological water quality (EWQ). The result of three potential investment scenarios of the wastewater treatment infrastructure in the city of Varaždin on the EWQ of the River Drava was assessed. From this scenario-based analysis, it was concluded that upgrading the existing wastewater treatment plant with nitrogen and phosphorus removal will be insufficient to reach a good EWQ. Therefore, other point and diffuse pollution sources in the area should also be monitored and remediated to meet the European WFD standards.

  3. Drinking Water Management and Governance in Canada: An Innovative Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Framework for a Safe Drinking Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Rodriguez, Manuel J.; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water management in Canada is complex, with a decentralized, three-tiered governance structure responsible for safe drinking water throughout the country. The current approach has been described as fragmented, leading to governance gaps, duplication of efforts, and an absence of accountability and enforcement. Although there have been no major waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada since 2001, a lack of performance improvement, especially in small drinking water systems, is evident. The World Health Organization water safety plan approach for drinking water management represents an alternative preventative management framework to the current conventional, reactive drinking water management strategies. This approach has seen successful implementation throughout the world and has the potential to address many of the issues with drinking water management in Canada. This paper presents a review and strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats analysis of drinking water management and governance in Canada at the federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels. Based on this analysis, a modified water safety plan (defined as the plan-do-check-act (PDCA)-WSP framework) is proposed, established from water safety plan recommendations and the principles of PDCA for continuous performance improvement. This proposed framework is designed to strengthen current drinking water management in Canada and is designed to fit within and incorporate the existing governance structure.

  4. Verifying a biotope classification using benthic communities--an analysis towards the implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L

    2014-01-15

    The HELCOM Red List biotopes project proposed a Baltic Sea wide classification consisting of six levels: The HELCOM Underwater biotopes/habitats classification system (HELCOM HUB). We present a case study from the south-western Baltic Sea where we tested the applicability of this system. More than 500 sampling stations were analyzed regarding macrozoobenthic communities and their linkage to environmental parameters. Based on the analyses of biotic and abiotic data, 21 groups were assigned to 13 biotopes of the classification. For some biotopes varying states of communities were recognized. Even though not all abiotic parameters are considered directly in the hierarchy of the classification in general, all soft-bottom communities could be allocated to a corresponding biotope. The application of the HELCOM HUB for the south-western Baltic Sea is feasible, in regard to the implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive as well as the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

  5. Estimation of wave directional spreading in shallow water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C.; Anand, N.M.; Chandramohan, P.

    ) G(2s +1) (5) and G is the gamma function, s is the spreading parameter and u m is the mean wave direction. Here the value of the parameter s controls directional spreading around the mean wave direction. Cartwright (1963) showed that s can be related... = a 2 2 + b 2 2 a 0 (7) For fairly steady wind condition and mild sea states parameter s can be expressed as a function of relative frequency (f/f m ) and wave age (c m /U) (Mitsuyasu et al., 1975), as under: s 3 = 11.5(c m /U) 2.5 (f/f m ) b (8) where...

  6. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget in the Puyallup River Watershed and vicinity, Pierce and King Counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Wendy B.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Savoca, Mark E.; Lane, Ron C.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Marshall, Cameron; Clothier, Burt G.; Knoedler, Eric N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater-flow system in the Puyallup River Watershed and vicinity, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework; groundwater recharge and discharge; groundwater levels and flow directions; seasonal groundwater level fluctuations; interactions between aquifers and the surface-water system; and a water budget. The study area covers about 1,220 square miles in northern Pierce and southern King Counties, Washington; extends north to the Green River and Auburn Valley and southwest to the Puyallup River and adjacent uplands; and is bounded on the south and east by foothills of the Cascade Range and on the west by Puget Sound. The area is underlain by a northwest-thickening sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits, which overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the foothills along the southern and eastern margin of the study area. Geologic units were grouped into 13 hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was developed and used with well information from 1,012 drillers’ logs to construct 8 hydrogeologic sections, and unit extent and thickness maps.

  7. Site-specific water quality guidelines: 2. Development of a water quality regulation framework for pulse exposures of mine water discharges at a uranium mine in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, A; Tayler, K; van Dam, R; Hogan, A

    2014-01-01

    The Ranger Uranium Mine, in northern Australia, is monitored by the Supervising Scientist Division (SSD) of the Australian Government to ensure that it does not impact on the highly valued aquatic ecosystems of Kakadu National Park. In 2010, the SSD adopted the continuous monitoring of electrical conductivity (EC) and turbidity, in combination with event-triggered automated grab samples, as its primary water quality monitoring method. The continuous monitoring of EC has shown that mine discharges typically occur over short-term 'pulse' durations of minutes to hours. Given that magnesium (Mg) is the most likely mine-derived solute to approach or exceed the applicable water quality limit value, the focus has been on developing a pulse exposure assessment framework for Mg, as represented by its proxy EC, which is tracked by the continuous monitoring system. This study presents a possible ecotoxicologically derived Mg pulse exposure limit and trigger regulation framework for Magela and Gulungul Creeks and an assessment of historic continuous monitoring EC data from these creeks. This framework demonstrates potential to supersede the current EC guideline and associated trigger levels, which are statistically derived from historic grab sample data.

  8. Effect of water electrolysis temperature of hydrogen production system using direct coupling photovoltaic and water electrolyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuhiko Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose control methods of a photovoltaic (PV-water electrolyzer (ELY system that generates hydrogen by controlling the number of ELY cells. The advantage of this direct coupling between PV and ELY is that the power loss of DC/DC converter is avoided. In this study, a total of 15 ELY cells are used. In the previous researches, the electrolyzer temperature was constantly controlled with a thermostat. Actually, the electrolyzer temperature is decided by the balance of the electrolysis loss and the heat loss to the outside. Here, the method to control the number of ELY cells was investigated. Maximum Power Point Tracking efficiency of more than 96% was achieved without ELY temperature control. Furthermore we construct a numerical model taking into account of ELY temperature. Using this model, we performed a numerical simulation of 1-year. Experimental data and the simulation results shows the validity of the proposed control method.

  9. The correspondence between water temperature and coiling direction in Bulimina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Laurel S.

    1990-06-01

    The influence of temperature on the direction of coiling in the benthic foraminifera Bulimina marginata d'Orbigny and B. aculeata d'Orbigny is investigated by direct comparison of specimens and temperature data measured at or near the sites of collection. Nine samples from the Gulf of Mexico and 16 samples from the Gulf of Maine south to New Jersey are used. These areas include cold temperate and subtropical regions, the continental shelf, slope, and a semirestricted gulf. Complicating factors of life cycle stage and possible ontogenetic change are eliminated. Dextrality is strongly associated with warm temperatures, but cold temperatures do not produce predominantly sinistrally coiled individuals. This is the first demonstration of an unambiguous correlation between temperature and coiling direction in benthic foraminifera.

  10. Establishing the Framework for Land Data Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakumura, C.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Yang, Z. L.; Save, H.; McCullough, C.

    2015-12-01

    Assimilation of terrestrial water storage (TWS) data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission into current land surface models can correct model deficiencies due to errors in the model structure, atmospheric forcing datasets, parameters, etc. However, the assimilation process is complicated by spatial and temporal resolution discrepancies between the model and observational datasets, characterization of the error in each, and limitations of the algorithms used to calculate and update the model state. This study aims to establish a framework for hydrological data assimilation with GRACE. GRACE is an independent and accurate but coarse resolution terrestrial water storage dataset. While the models cannot attain the accuracy of GRACE, they are effective in interpretation and downscaling of the product and providing continuity over space and time. Accurate assimilation of GRACE TWS into LSMs thus will take the best characteristics of each and create a combined product that outperforms each individual source. More specifically, this framework entails a comprehensive analysis of the deficiencies and potential improvements of the satellite data products, the assimilation procedures and error characterization, and assimilation effectiveness. A daily sliding window mascon GRACE TWS product, presented previously, was developed to reduce smoothing in time and space during assimilation into the Community Land Model 4.0. The Ensemble Kalman Filter assimilation algorithms are analyzed and adapted for use with the new products, GRACE error information, and model characteristics. Additional assimilation tools such as Gaspari-Cohn localization and ensemble inflation are implemented and tuned for the model and observation properties. Analysis of the observational data, model data, sensitivity and effectiveness of the assimilation routines, and the assimilated results is done through regional comparison with independent in-situ datasets and external model

  11. Direct uses of hot water (geothermal) in dairying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barmettler, E.R.; Rose, W.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Digital computer simulation was used to investigate the peak, steady energy utilization of a geothermal energy-supported dairy. A digital computer program was also written to assess the lifetime economics of the dairy operation. A dynamic simulation program was written to design water storage tanks under diurnal transient loading. The geothermal site specified is the artesian spring named Hobo Wells near Susanville, California. The dairy configuration studies are unique, but consist of conventional processing equipment. In the dairy, cattle waste would be used to generate methane and carbon dioxide by anaerobic digestion. Some carbon dioxide would be removed from the gas stream with a pressurized water scrubber to raise the heating value. The product gas would be combusted in a spark ignition engine connected to an electric generator. The electrical power produced would be used for operation of fans, pumps, lights and other equipment in the dairy. An absorption chiller using a geothermal water driven generator would provide milk chilling. Space heating would be done with forced air hot water unit heaters.

  12. Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinosa, C.

    1984-05-01

    The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

  13. Design Preliminaries for Direct Drive under Water Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen; Argeseanu, Alin

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the preliminary design process of a 20 MW electric generator. The application calls for an offshore, vertical axis, direct drive wind turbine. Arguments for selecting the type of electric machine for the application are presented and discussed. Comparison criteria for deciding...

  14. Hydrogeologic framework and groundwater/surface-water interactions of the South Fork Nooksack River Basin, northwestern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    A hydrogeologic framework of the South Fork (SF) Nooksack River Basin in northwestern Washington was developed and hydrologic data were collected to characterize the groundwater-flow system and its interaction with surface‑water features. In addition to domestic, agricultural, and commercial uses of groundwater within the SF Nooksack River Basin, groundwater has the potential to provide ecological benefits by maintaining late-summer streamflows and buffering stream temperatures. Cold-water refugia, created and maintained in part by groundwater, have been identified by water-resource managers as key elements to restore the health and viability of threatened salmonids in the SF Nooksack River. The SF Nooksack River drains a 183-square mile area of the North Cascades and the Puget Lowland underlain by unconsolidated glacial and alluvial sediments deposited over older sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous bedrock. The primary aquifer that interacts with the SF Nooksack River was mapped within unconsolidated glacial outwash and alluvial sediment. The lower extent of this unit is bounded by bedrock and fine-grained, poorly sorted unconsolidated glaciomarine and glaciolacustrine sediments. In places, these deposits overlie and confine an aquifer within older glacial sediments. The extent and thickness of the hydrogeologic units were assembled from mapped geologic units and lithostratigraphic logs of field-inventoried wells. Generalized groundwater-flow directions within the surficial aquifer were interpreted from groundwater levels measured in August 2012; and groundwater seepage gains and losses to the SF Nooksack River were calculated from synoptic streamflow measurements made in the SF Nooksack River and its tributaries in September 2012. A subset of the field-inventoried wells was measured at a monthly interval to determine seasonal fluctuations in groundwater levels during water year 2013. Taken together, these data provide the foundation for a future groundwater

  15. Directional Charge-Carrier Transport in Oriented Benzodithiophene Covalent Organic Framework Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Dana D; Petrus, Michiel L; Jumabekov, Askhat N; Margraf, Johannes T; Weinberger, Simon; Rotter, Julian M; Clark, Timothy; Bein, Thomas

    2017-02-22

    Charge-carrier transport in oriented COF thin films is an important factor for realizing COF-based optoelectronic devices. We describe how highly oriented electron-donating benzodithiophene BDT-COF thin films serve as a model system for a directed charge-transport study. Oriented BDT-COF films were deposited on different electrodes with excellent control over film roughness and topology, allowing for high-quality electrode-COF interfaces suitable for device fabrication. Hole-only devices were constructed to study the columnar hole mobility of the BDT-COF films. The transport measurements reveal a clear dependency of the measured hole mobilities on the BDT-COF film thickness, where thinner films showed about two orders of magnitude higher mobilities than thicker ones. Transport measurements under illumination yielded an order of magnitude higher mobility than in the dark. In-plane electrical conductivity values of up to 5 × 10(-7) S cm(-1) were obtained for the oriented films. Impedance measurements of the hole-only devices provided further electrical description of the oriented BDT-COF films in terms of capacitance, recombination resistance, and dielectric constant. An exceptionally low dielectric constant value of approximately 1.7 was estimated for the BDT-COF films, a further indication of their highly porous nature. DFT and molecular-dynamics simulations were carried out to gain further insights into the relationships between the COF layer interactions, electronic structure, and the potential device performance.

  16. Direct simulation of liquid water dynamics in the gas channel of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, C.; Rensink, D.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Fell, S.

    2012-01-01

    For better water management in gas channels (GCs) of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), a profound understanding of the liquid water dynamics is needed. In this study, we propose a novel geometrical setup to conduct a series of direct simulations of the liquid water dynamics in a GC. The conduc

  17. Water-Based Assembly of Polymer-Metal Organic Framework (MOF) Functional Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Souvik [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, 77843-3122 TAMU College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Nandasiri, Manjula I. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Schaef, Herbert T. [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; McGrail, Benard Peter [Energy & Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Nune, Satish K. [Energy & Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L. [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, 77843-3122 TAMU College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Texas A& M University, 3122 TAMU College Station TX 77843-3122 USA

    2016-12-27

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained tremendous attention for their porosity, size selectivity, and structural diversity. There is a need for MOF-based coatings, particularly in applications such as separations, electronics and energy; yet forming thin, functional, conformal coatings is prohibitive because MOFs exist as a powder. Layer-by- layer assembly, a versatile thin film coating approach, offers a unique solution to this problem, but this approach requires MOFs that are water-dispersible and bear a surface charge. Here, we address these issues by examining water-based dispersions of MIL-101(Cr) that facilitate the formation of robust polymer-MOF hybrid coatings. Specifically, the substrate to be coated is alternately exposed to an aqueous solution of poly(styrene sulfonate) and dispersion MIL-101(Cr), yielding linear film growth and coatings with a MOF content as high as 77 wt%.This approach is surface-agnostic, in which the coating is successfully applied to silicon, glass, flexible plastic, and even cotton fabric, conformally coating individual fibers. In contrast, prior attempts at forming MOF-coatings were severely limited to a handful of surfaces, required harsh chemical treatment, and were not conformal. The approach presented here unambiguously confirms that MOFs can be conformally coated onto complex and unusual surfaces, opening the door for a wide variety of applications.

  18. Physically based estimation of soil water retention from textural data: General framework, new models, and streamlined existing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, J.R.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Laguna, Luna A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous models are in widespread use for the estimation of soil water retention from more easily measured textural data. Improved models are needed for better prediction and wider applicability. We developed a basic framework from which new and existing models can be derived to facilitate improvements. Starting from the assumption that every particle has a characteristic dimension R associated uniquely with a matric pressure ?? and that the form of the ??-R relation is the defining characteristic of each model, this framework leads to particular models by specification of geometric relationships between pores and particles. Typical assumptions are that particles are spheres, pores are cylinders with volume equal to the associated particle volume times the void ratio, and that the capillary inverse proportionality between radius and matric pressure is valid. Examples include fixed-pore-shape and fixed-pore-length models. We also developed alternative versions of the model of Arya and Paris that eliminate its interval-size dependence and other problems. The alternative models are calculable by direct application of algebraic formulas rather than manipulation of data tables and intermediate results, and they easily combine with other models (e.g., incorporating structural effects) that are formulated on a continuous basis. Additionally, we developed a family of models based on the same pore geometry as the widely used unsaturated hydraulic conductivity model of Mualem. Predictions of measurements for different suitable media show that some of the models provide consistently good results and can be chosen based on ease of calculations and other factors. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  19. Vapor-Phase Deposition and Modification of Metal-Organic Frameworks: State-of-the-Art and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassen, Ivo; De Vos, Dirk; Ameloot, Rob

    2016-10-04

    Materials processing, and thin-film deposition in particular, is decisive in the implementation of functional materials in industry and real-world applications. Vapor processing of materials plays a central role in manufacturing, especially in electronics. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of nanoporous crystalline materials on the brink of breakthrough in many application areas. Vapor deposition of MOF thin films will facilitate their implementation in micro- and nanofabrication research and industries. In addition, vapor-solid modification can be used for postsynthetic tailoring of MOF properties. In this context, we review the recent progress in vapor processing of MOFs, summarize the underpinning chemistry and principles, and highlight promising directions for future research. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The role of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in a dualistic growth framework: A smooth coefficient semi-parametric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeb Aurangzeb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and economic growth. We extend the dualistic growth framework by Feder (1982, whereby we divide the economy into an exports and a non-exports sector and assume that the FDI is mainly entering the former. In order to empirically estimate the effects of FDI on economic growth, we employ a smooth coefficient semi-parametric approach. Our results show that countries with higher levels of FDI inflows experience higher productivity in the exports sector as compared with those with low level of FDI inflows. In general, we provide some evidence that FDI inflows play an important role during the development process: Initially, as an important determinant of growth, later on, by helping improve factor productivity in the exports sector and finally, through spillover effects due to fostering the linkages between the Multinational Corporations (MNC and their host economy partners.

  1. Towards a three-dimensional framework of centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhorst, Andreas; Micklewright, Dominic; Noakes, Timothy D

    2017-08-23

    The Central Governor Model (CGM) ignited a paradigm shift from concepts of catastrophic failure towards central regulation of exercise performance. However, the CGM has focused on the central integration of afferent feedback in homeostatic control. Accordingly, it neglected the important role of volitional self-regulatory control and the integration of affective components inherently attached to all physiological cues. Another limitation is the large reliance on the Gestalt phenomenon of perceived exertion. Thus, progress towards a comprehensive multidimensional model of perceived fatigability and exercise regulation is needed. Drawing on Gate Control Theory of pain, we propose a three-dimensional framework of centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour, which differentiates between sensory, affective and cognitive processes shaping the perceptual milieu during exercise. We propose that: (A) perceived mental strain and perceived physical strain are primary determinants of pacing behaviour reflecting sensory-discriminatory processes necessary to align planned behaviour with current physiological state, (B) core affect plays a primary and mediatory role in exercise and performance regulation, and its underlying two dimensions hedonicity and arousal reflect affective-motivational processes triggering approach and avoidance behaviour, and (C) the mindset-shift associated with an action crisis plays a primary role in volitional self-regulatory control reflecting cognitive-evaluative processes between further goal-pursuit and goal-disengagement. The proposed framework has the potential to enrich theory development in centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour by emphasising the multidimensional dynamic processes underpinning perceived fatigability and provides a practical outline for investigating the complex interplay between the psychophysiological determinants of pacing and performance during prolonged endurance exercise. © Article author

  2. The direct and indirect effects of watershed land use and soil type on stream water metal concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taka, M.; Aalto, J.; Virkanen, J.; Luoto, M.

    2016-10-01

    Identifying the factors controlling stream water pollutants is challenged by the diversity of potential sources, pathways, and processes. This study tests the effects of watershed characteristics on stream water metal concentrations across environmental gradients. By using an extensive data set of 83 watersheds in southern Finland and structural equation modeling (SEM), the direct and indirect effects of land use and soil type on metal concentrations were explored. Both land use and soil type resulted in statistically significant direct effects on metals; for example, land use was found to control dissolved metal concentrations, whereas soil type had the strongest links for total metal concentrations. The consideration of indirect correlation further strengthened the effects of soil type up to 50%, thus suggesting the dominant role of soil across land use intensities. Moreover, the results indicate that modified landscapes mediate the effect of natural soil processes in controlling stream metal concentrations. This work highlights the benefits of structural equation model framework, as the underlying paths for water quality are more likely to be identified, compared to traditional regression methods. Thus, the implementation of SEM on water quality studies is highly encouraged.

  3. Multi-agent modelling framework for water, energy and other resource networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, S.; Selby, P. D.; Meier, P.; Harou, J. J.; Yoon, J.; Lachaut, T.; Klassert, C. J. A.; Avisse, N.; Mohamed, K.; Tomlinson, J.; Khadem, M.; Tilmant, A.; Gorelick, S.

    2015-12-01

    Bespoke modelling tools are often needed when planning future engineered interventions in the context of various climate, socio-economic and geopolitical futures. Such tools can help improve system operating policies or assess infrastructure upgrades and their risks. A frequently used approach is to simulate and/or optimise the impact of interventions in engineered systems. Modelling complex infrastructure systems can involve incorporating multiple aspects into a single model, for example physical, economic and political. This presents the challenge of combining research from diverse areas into a single system effectively. We present the Pynsim 'Python Network Simulator' framework, a library for building simulation models capable of representing, the physical, institutional and economic aspects of an engineered resources system. Pynsim is an open source, object oriented code aiming to promote integration of different modelling processes through a single code library. We present two case studies that demonstrate important features of Pynsim's design. The first is a large interdisciplinary project of a national water system in the Middle East with modellers from fields including water resources, economics, hydrology and geography each considering different facets of a multi agent system. It includes: modelling water supply and demand for households and farms; a water tanker market with transfer of water between farms and households, and policy decisions made by government institutions at district, national and international level. This study demonstrates that a well-structured library of code can provide a hub for development and act as a catalyst for integrating models. The second focuses on optimising the location of new run-of-river hydropower plants. Using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, this study analyses different network configurations to identify the optimal placement of new power plants within a river network. This demonstrates that Pynsim can be

  4. Water sandwiched by a pair of aromatic rings in a proton-conducting metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xi-Yan; Li, Xue; Li, Bo; Zhu, Yan-Yan; Zang, Shuang-Quan; Tang, Ming-Sheng

    2016-11-15

    The interactions between water molecules and aromatic rings are known to be common and important in physics, chemistry and life sciences. Benzene-water complexes are the main prototype systems for O-Hπ and lone-pair (lp)π interactions in theoretical research, however solid state examples are very rare. Here, the solid state example of water sandwiched by a pair of aromatic rings is observed in a silver-mellitate framework, where lpπ and O-Hπ interactions coexist. The coexistence of these two interactions has been further verified by theoretical calculations. In addition, ammonium ions and water molecules as proton sources, and strongly H-bonded nets as the pathway of proton transport, make the reported MOFs (metal-organic frameworks) exhibit distinct proton conduction.

  5. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  6. Directing Soft Matter in Water Using Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Asdonk, Pim; Kragt, Stijn; Kouwer, Paul H J

    2016-06-29

    Directing the spatial organization of functional supramolecular and polymeric materials at larger length scales is essential for many biological and molecular optoelectronic applications. Although the application of electrical fields is one of the most powerful approaches to induce spatial control, it is rarely applied experimentally in aqueous solutions, since the low susceptibility of soft and biological materials requires the use of high fields, which leads to parasitic heating and electrochemical degradation. In this work, we demonstrate that we can apply electric fields when we use a mineral liquid crystal as a responsive template. Besides aligning and positioning functional soft matter, we show that the concentration of the liquid crystal template controls the morphology of the assembly. As our setup is very easy to operate and our approach lacks specific molecular interactions, we believe it will be applicable for a wide range of (aqueous) materials.

  7. Analytical Frameworks for Addressing Physical, Social, and Institutional Changes in Water Resources Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    conceptual ) framework . The Delft AF includes three phases: inception, development, and selection (Figure 2; Loucks and van Beek 2005). The framework ...as impacts from existing policies and policy changes. This AF is based on the following topics: • policy, legal and administrative framework (for...NEPA process • Requiring project construction and operational measures to be environmentally- based , including the incorporation of mitigation measures

  8. Development of a Computational Framework for Stochastic Co-optimization of Water and Energy Resource Allocations under Climatic Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Y.; Mahinthakumar, K.; Arumugam, S.; DeCarolis, J.

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the lack of a consistent approach to assimilate probabilistic forecasts for water and energy systems, utilization of climate forecasts for conjunctive management of these two systems is very limited. Prognostic management of these two systems presents a stochastic co-optimization problem that seeks to determine reservoir releases and power allocation strategies while minimizing the expected operational costs subject to probabilistic climate forecast constraints. To address these issues, we propose a high performance computing (HPC) enabled computational framework for stochastic co-optimization of water and energy resource allocations under climate uncertainty. The computational framework embodies a new paradigm shift in which attributes of climate (e.g., precipitation, temperature) and its forecasted probability distribution are employed conjointly to inform seasonal water availability and electricity demand. The HPC enabled cyberinfrastructure framework is developed to perform detailed stochastic analyses, and to better quantify and reduce the uncertainties associated with water and power systems management by utilizing improved hydro-climatic forecasts. In this presentation, our stochastic multi-objective solver extended from Optimus (Optimization Methods for Universal Simulators), is introduced. The solver uses parallel cooperative multi-swarm method to solve for efficient solution of large-scale simulation-optimization problems on parallel supercomputers. The cyberinfrastructure harnesses HPC resources to perform intensive computations using ensemble forecast models of streamflow and power demand. The stochastic multi-objective particle swarm optimizer we developed is used to co-optimize water and power system models under constraints over a large number of ensembles. The framework sheds light on the application of climate forecasts and cyber-innovation framework to improve management and promote the sustainability of water and energy systems.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Lead-Bismuth-Water Direct Contact Boiling Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yumi; Takahashi, Minoru

    Direct contact boiling heat transfer of sub-cooled water with lead-bismuth eutectic (Pb-Bi) was investigated for the evaluation of the performance of steam generation in direct contact of feed water with primary Pb-Bi coolant in upper plenum above the core in Pb-Bi-cooled direct contact boiling water fast reactor. An analytical two-fluid model was developed to estimate the heat transfer numerically. Numerical results were compared with experimental ones for verification of the model. The overall volumetric heat transfer coefficient was calculated from heat exchange rate in the chimney. It was confirmed that the calculated results agreed well with the experimental result.

  10. A probabilistic framework for assessing vulnerability to climate variability and change: The case of the US water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano Foti; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a probabilistic framework for vulnerability analysis and use it to quantify current and future vulnerability of the US water supply system. We also determine the contributions of hydro-climatic and socio-economic drivers to the changes in projected vulnerability. For all scenarios and global climatemodels examined, the US Southwest including California and...

  11. Human health and the water environment: using the DPSEEA framework to identify the driving forces of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-15

    There is a growing awareness of global forces that threaten human health via the water environment. A better understanding of the dynamic between human health and the water environment would enable prediction of the significant driving forces and effective strategies for coping with or preventing them. This report details the use of the Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework to explore the linkage between water-related diseases and their significant driving forces. The DPSEEA frameworks indicate that a select group of driving forces, including population growth, agriculture, infrastructure (dams and irrigation), and climate change, is at the root cause of key global disease burdens. Construction of the DPSEEA frameworks also allows for the evaluation of public health interventions. Sanitation was found to be a widely applicable and effective intervention, targeting the driver/pressure linkage of most of the water-related diseases examined. Ultimately, the DPSEEA frameworks offer a platform for constituents in both the health and environmental fields to collaborate and commit to a common goal targeting the same driving forces.

  12. The cost of hybrid waste water systems : A systematic framework for specifying minimum cost-connection rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard; Maurer, Max

    2016-01-01

    To determine the optimal connection rate (CR) for regional waste water treatment is a challenge that has recently gained the attention of academia and professional circles throughout the world. We contribute to this debate by proposing a framework for a total cost assessment of sanitation infrastruc

  13. SUSTAIN – A Framework for Placement of Best Management Practices in Urban Watersheds to Protect Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate alternative plans for water quality management and flow abatement techniques in urban and developing areas. A watershed-scale, decision-support framework that is based on cost optimization is needed to support gov...

  14. Palladium nanoparticles encapsulated in a metal-organic framework as efficient heterogeneous catalysts for direct C2 arylation of indoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanbiao; Lin, Zujin; Cao, Rong

    2011-11-04

    Highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) encapsulated in the mesoporous cages of the metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr) have been prepared by using the wetness impregnation method. The Pd NPs were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), N(2) adsorption, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The particles size ((2.6±0.5) nm) of the obtained Pd NPs was in good agreement with the cage diameters (2.9 and 3.4 nm) of the MOF. The resulting Pd/MIL-101(Cr) catalyst exhibited extremely high catalytic activities in the direct C2 arylation of substituted indoles by using only 0.1 mol% of the Pd catalyst. Moreover, the catalyst is easily recoverable and can be reused several times without leaching into solution and loss of activity. The combination of the highly dispersible Pd NPs within the accessible mesoporous cages and the favorable adsorption of the aryl halides on MIL-101 are suspected to be the main reasons for the observed high activities of the Pd/MIL-101(Cr) catalyst in the direct C2 arylation of indoles.

  15. The structure-directed effect of Al-based metal–organic frameworks on fabrication of alumina by thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dandan, E-mail: liudandan_upc@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Dai, Fangna, E-mail: fndai@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Collage of Science, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Tang, Zhe, E-mail: tangzhe1983@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Liu, Yunqi, E-mail: liuyq@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Liu, Chenguang, E-mail: cgliu@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We use Al-MOFs as precursor in the fabrication process of mesoporous alumina by thermal treatment. • The obtained mesoporous alumina has dual pore system and five-fold aluminum. • The aluminum building units in the precursor show structure-directed effect on the formation of alumina. - Abstract: In this work, the block-shaped Al-based metal–organic frameworks (Al-MOFs) MIL-53 have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. To detect the correlation between the structure of Al-MOFs and the formation of alumina, the ligands are eliminated by thermal treatment. MIL-53 and the calcination products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption–desorption and solid-state {sup 27}Al nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 27}Al NMR). It was found that after calcination, the block-shaped Al-MOFs precursor turns into high-crystallinity mesoporous alumina nanosheets, and the thermal treatment product γ-alumina possesses a dual pore system and a large surface area (146 m{sup 2}/g), with five-fold aluminum. During the thermal treatment process, the structure of MIL-53 and its secondary building units have structure-directed effect in the formation of alumina.

  16. The European Water Framework Directive beyond 2010: Let actions speak louder than words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brils, J.; Quevauviller, P.; Slob, A.; Blind, M.; Davy, T.; Carere, M.; Amorsi, N.; Brack, W.; Borchers, U.; Thompson, C.; Villessot, D.

    2010-01-01

    The first generation of WFD River Basin Management Plans is now available. This is a formidable achievement and a great step towards addressing Europe's deteriorated river systems. However, plans are only words: only the actual implementation of the selected measures will result in achievement of go

  17. The European Water Framework Directive beyond 2010: Let actions speak louder than words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brils, J.; Quevauviller, P.; Slob, A.; Blind, M.; Davy, T.; Carere, M.; Amorsi, N.; Brack, W.; Borchers, U.; Thompson, C.; Villessot, D.

    2010-01-01

    The first generation of WFD River Basin Management Plans is now available. This is a formidable achievement and a great step towards addressing Europe's deteriorated river systems. However, plans are only words: only the actual implementation of the selected measures will result in achievement of go

  18. Governance Strengths and Weaknesses to implement the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in European Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Koss, Rebecca; Piotr, Margonski

    2014-01-01

    addresses the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) of the current European marine governance structures and its relationship to implement the MSFD. Results of the SWOT analysis were acquired through a combination of approaches with MSFD experts and stakeholders including: 30 face......-to-face interviews, an online survey with 264 stakeholder respondents and focus groups within each European marine region. The SWOT analysis concurrently identifies common strengths and weakness and key governance issues for implementing the MSFD for European marine regions. This paper forms one assessment within...

  19. An organosilane-directed growth-induced etching strategy for preparing hollow/yolk–shell mesoporous organosilica nanospheres with perpendicular mesochannels and amphiphilic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Houbing

    2014-06-27

    We have developed an organosilane-directed growth-induced etching strategy to prepare hollow periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) nanospheres with perpendicular mesoporous channels and a clear hollow interior as well as an amphiphilic framework. This facile strategy is simple, efficient, and highly controllable. Silica nanospheres were utilized as hard templates to obtain hollow PMO nanospheres through a one-step route, with the structure parameter highly controlled by adjusting the synthesis conditions. Different organosilanes were used to obtain bridged hollow PMO nanospheres of different organic groups and showed different directed capacities. The integrity of the bridged organic group was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that the growth of the PMO shell and the dissolution of the silica nanosphere core occurred simultaneously for each nanosphere, while 29Si NMR spectra revealed that the dissolved silica species from the silica nanospheres transformed into PMO shells by co-condensation with hydrolyzed organosilane oligomers. As a result, the obtained hollow nanospheres were amphiphilic, which can even be used as a particle emulsifier for O-W or W-O emulsion in various systems. These materials can also be served as an efficient sorbent for removal of hydrophobic contaminants in water. Using the proposed formation mechanism, this strategy can be extended to transform silica-coated composite materials into yolk-shell structures with a functional interior core and a perpendicular mesoporous amphiphilic shell. As a nanoreactor, the -Ph- bridged amphiphilic shell showed a faster diffusion rate for organic reactants in water than the hydrophilic silica shell, and thus better catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  20. Synthesis of magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) for efficient removal of organic dyes from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuangliu; Tang, Zhi; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Meng, Wei; Wu, Fengchang; Giesy, John P.

    2015-07-01

    A novel, simple and efficient strategy for fabricating a magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) as sorbent to remove organic compounds from simulated water samples is presented and tested for removal of methylene blue (MB) as an example. The novel adsorbents combine advantages of MOFs and magnetic nanoparticles and possess large capacity, low cost, rapid removal and easy separation of the solid phase, which makes it an excellent sorbent for treatment of wastewaters. The resulting magnetic MOFs composites (also known as MFCs) have large surface areas (79.52 m2 g-1), excellent magnetic response (14.89 emu g-1), and large mesopore volume (0.09 cm3 g-1), as well as good chemical inertness and mechanical stability. Adsorption was not drastically affected by pH, suggesting π-π stacking interaction and/or hydrophobic interactions between MB and MFCs. Kinetic parameters followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and adsorption was described by the Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption capacity was 84 mg MB g-1 at an initial MB concentration of 30 mg L-1, which increased to 245 mg g-1 when the initial MB concentration was 300 mg L-1. This capacity was much greater than most other adsorbents reported in the literature. In addition, MFC adsorbents possess excellent reusability, being effective after at least five consecutive cycles.

  1. Adsorptive removal of 1-naphthol from water with Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinlong; Hu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Shiyu; Zhou, Min

    2017-08-01

    1-Naphthol is widely used as an intermediate in the plastics, dyes, fibers and rubbers production areas, leading to the increasing detection of 1-naphthol in the soil and water environment, which is of particular concern due to its acute toxicity and negative environmental impacts. Considering the high surface area and good stability of ZIFs (zeolitic imidazole frameworks) material, ZIF-67 (a representative cobalt-based ZIFs material) was synthesized and applied as an adsorbent for removal of 1-naphthol from aqueous solution. The obtained ZIF-67 was characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, N2 physisorption and TG, and the adsorption isotherm, kinetics, and regeneration of the adsorbent were studied in detail. The adsorption of 1-naphthol on ZIF-67 followed a pseudo-second-order equation kinetics and fitted Langmuir adsorption model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 339 mg/g at 313 K, which is much higher than that of the common adsorbents reported such as activated carbon and carbon nanotubes et al. The solution pH was found to be an important factor influencing the adsorption process, which could be explained by the predominant mechanism controlling the process, i.e. electrostatic attraction. In addition, the ZIF-67 showed desirable reusability toward 1-naphthol removal from alkaline aqueous solution.

  2. Towards high water permeability in triazine-framework-based microporous membranes for dehydration of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu Pan; Wang, Huan; Chung, Tai Shung

    2015-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of a series of triazine framework-based microporous (TFM) membranes under different conditions has been explored in this work. The pristine TFM membrane is in situ fabricated in the course of polymer synthesis via a facile Brønsted-acid-catalyzed cyclotrimerizaiton reaction. The as-synthesized polymer exhibits a microporous network with high thermal stability. The free volume size of the TFM membranes gradually evolved from a unimodal distribution to a bimodal distribution under annealing, as analyzed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The emergence of the bimodal distribution is probably ascribed to the synergetic effect of quenching and thermal cyclization reaction. In addition, the fractional free volume (FFV) of the membranes presents a concave trend with increasing annealing temperature. Vapor sorption tests reveal that the mass transport properties are closely associated with the free volume evolution, which provides an optimal condition for dehydration of biofuels. A promising separation performance with extremely high water permeability has been attained for dehydration of an 85 wt % ethanol aqueous solution at 45 °C. The study on the free volume evolution of the TFM membranes may provide useful insights about the microstructure and mass transport behavior of the microporous polymeric materials.

  3. Evaluation of two methods for direct detection of Fusarium spp. in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Mariana G; van der Heijden, Inneke M; Perdigão, Lauro; Taira, Cleison; Costa, Silvia F; Levin, Anna S

    2016-04-01

    Fusarium is a waterborne fungus that causes severe infections especially in patients with prolonged neutropenia. Traditionally, the detection of Fusarium in water is done by culturing which is difficult and time consuming. A faster method is necessary to prevent exposure of susceptible patients to contaminated water. The objective of this study was to develop a molecular technique for direct detection of Fusarium in water. A direct DNA extraction method from water was developed and coupled to a genus-specific PCR, to detect 3 species of Fusarium (verticillioides, oxysporum and solani). The detection limits were 10 cells/L and 1 cell/L for the molecular and culture methods, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first method developed to detect Fusarium directly from water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Conceptual framework for public-private partnerships model for water services infrastructure assets: case studies from municipalities in the Limpopo and Gauteng provinces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matji, MP

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for public-private partnerships PPP) in local government water services infrastructure. Water services infrastructure assets are key to the provision of basic services. Data were collected from various stakeholders, i...

  5. The direct filtration in a conventional water treatment plant; La filtracion directa en una ETAP convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Quiros, F. [Canal de Isabel II, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-06-01

    The article describes the difficulty of the decantation of low turbidity water. Direct filtration and in-line filtration can be available alternative treatment process to coagulation, flocculation, with the minimum required chemical dosage especially coagulants, less sludge production and lower operation cost. The adaptation of conventional treatment plant to direct filtration system with recuperation of filters backwash water by eliminating the decantation, is relatively simple. The result to apply this process shows an efficient filters performance for the same effluent quality. (Author)

  6. A conceptual framework for addressing complexity and unfolding transition dynamics when developing sustainable adaptation strategies in urban water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farné Fratini, Chiara; Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2012-01-01

    To achieve a successful and sustainable adaptation to climate change we need to transform the way we think about change. Much water management research has focused on technical innovation with a range of new solutions developed to achieve a “more sustainable and integrated urban water management...... of standardized methods and guidelines to organize transdisciplinary processes where different types of knowledge and perspectives are taken into account. On the base of the macro-meso-micro pattern inspired by complexity science and transition theory, we developed a conceptual framework to organize processes...... addressing the complexity characterizing urban water management in the context of climate change. In this paper the framework is used to organize a research processes aiming at understanding and unfolding urban dynamics for sustainable transition. The final goal is to enable local authorities and utilities...

  7. Environmental stratification framework and water-quality monitoring design strategy for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Mauritania anticipates an increase in mining activities throughout the country and into the foreseeable future. Because mining-induced changes in the landscape are likely to affect their limited ground-water resources and sensitive aquatic ecosystems, a water-quality assessment program was designed for Mauritania that is based on a nationally consistent environmental stratification framework. The primary objectives of this program are to ensure that the environmental monitoring systems can quantify near real-time changes in surface-water chemistry at a local scale, and quantify intermediate- to long-term changes in groundwater and aquatic ecosystems over multiple scales.

  8. Water Rights Transfer of Binhai New Area under the Framework of Water Rights System%水权制度框架下的滨海新区水权运营

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沃耘

    2011-01-01

    Binhai New Area has a very special strategic position,and demands much water.Integrity and development of water rights system is directly related to the building process of Binhai New Area.In order to avoid failure or alienation of water rights market,limited government intervention is essential.In the legal system of water rights within the basic framework,Binhai New Area should establish water allocation,the initial configuration of water rights,water rights transfer and water rights compensation.%滨海新区经济发展战略地位特殊、水资源需求量大,水权制度的健全和发展直接关系到滨海新区的建设进程。为避免水权市场失效或发生异化,有限度的政府干预必不可少。在水权法律制度基本框架内,应构建以水量分配、水权初始配置、水权转让和水权运营补偿机制为主要内容的滨海新区水权运营具体模式。

  9. Sustainable Water Systems for the City of Tomorrow—A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban water systems are an example of complex, dynamic human-environment coupled systems, which exhibit emergent behaviors that transcends individual scientific disciplines. While previous siloed approaches to water services (i.e., water resources, drinking water, wastewater, and...

  10. Pathways and impacts of nitrogen in water bodies: establishing a framework for integrated assessment modelling of management benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Kronvang, Brian; Carstensen, Jacob

    the study demonstrates how state-of-the-art environmental modelling can be linked with valuation to provide an adequate cross-media assessment framework relevant to integrated water quality management. The results must be regarded as illustrative and more research is required in several areas to consolidate...... pollution, whereby both ecosystem and human health effects are considered. Diffuse nitrogen-loss from agricultural activities is the main pollution source in focus within the framework, while the catchments explored are situated in Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway and UK. Methodologically...

  11. Comparing administered and market-based water allocation systems through a consistent agent-based modeling framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianshi; Cai, Ximing; Wang, Zhongjing

    2013-07-15

    Water allocation can be undertaken through administered systems (AS), market-based systems (MS), or a combination of the two. The debate on the performance of the two systems has lasted for decades but still calls for attention in both research and practice. This paper compares water users' behavior under AS and MS through a consistent agent-based modeling framework for water allocation analysis that incorporates variables particular to both MS (e.g., water trade and trading prices) and AS (water use violations and penalties/subsidies). Analogous to the economic theory of water markets under MS, the theory of rational violation justifies the exchange of entitled water under AS through the use of cross-subsidies. Under water stress conditions, a unique water allocation equilibrium can be achieved by following a simple bargaining rule that does not depend upon initial market prices under MS, or initial economic incentives under AS. The modeling analysis shows that the behavior of water users (agents) depends on transaction, or administrative, costs, as well as their autonomy. Reducing transaction costs under MS or administrative costs under AS will mitigate the effect that equity constraints (originating with primary water allocation) have on the system's total net economic benefits. Moreover, hydrologic uncertainty is shown to increase market prices under MS and penalties/subsidies under AS and, in most cases, also increases transaction, or administrative, costs.

  12. Understanding the Impact of Open-Framework Conglomerates on Water-Oil Displacements: Victor Interval of the Ivishak Reservoir, Prudhoe Bay Field, Alaska

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenzon, Naum I; Ritzi, Robert W; Dominic, David F

    2014-01-01

    The Victor Unit of the Ivishak Formation in the Prudhoe Bay Oilfield is characterized by high net-to-gross fluvial sandstones and conglomerates. The highest permeability is found within sets of cross-strata of open-framework conglomerate (OFC). They are preserved within unit bar deposits and assemblages of unit bar deposits within compound (braid) bar deposits. They are thief zones limiting enhanced oil recovery. We incorporate recent research that has quantified important attributes of their sedimentary architecture within preserved deposits. We use high-resolution models to demonstrate the fundamental aspects of their control on oil production rate, water breakthrough time, and spatial and temporal distribution of residual oil saturation. We found that when the pressure gradient is oriented perpendicular to the paleoflow direction, the total oil production and the water breakthrough time are larger, and remaining oil saturation is smaller, than when it is oriented parallel to paleoflow. The pressure differe...

  13. A risk-based framework to assess long-term effects of policy and water supply changes on water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Climate uncertainty can affect water resources availability and management decisions. Sustainable water resources management therefore requires evaluation of policy and management decisions under a wide range of possible future water supply conditions. This study proposes a risk-based framework to integrate water supply uncertainty into a forward-looking decision making context. To apply this framework, a stochastic reconstruction scheme is used to generate a large ensemble of flow series. For the Rocky Mountain basins considered here, two key characteristics of the annual hydrograph are its annual flow volume and the timing of the seasonal flood peak. These are perturbed to represent natural randomness and potential changes due to future climate. 30-year series of perturbed flows are used as input to the SWAMP model - an integrated water resources model that simulates regional water supply-demand system and estimates economic productivity of water and other sustainability indicators, including system vulnerability and resilience. The simulation results are used to construct 2D-maps of net revenue of a particular water sector; e.g., hydropower, or for all sectors combined. Each map cell represents a risk scenario of net revenue based on a particular annual flow volume, timing of the peak flow, and 200 stochastic realizations of flow series. This framework is demonstrated for a water resources system in the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. Critical historical drought sequences, derived from tree-ring reconstructions of several hundred years of annual river flows, are used to evaluate the system's performance (net revenue risk) under extremely low flow conditions and also to locate them on the previously produced 2D risk maps. This simulation and analysis framework is repeated under various reservoir operation strategies (e.g., maximizing flood protection or maximizing water supply security); development proposals, such as irrigation

  14. Informing the operations of water reservoirs over multiple temporal scales by direct use of hydro-meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaro, Simona; Anghileri, Daniela; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    Water reservoir systems may become more adaptive and reliable to external changes by enlarging the information sets used in their operations. Models and forecasts of future hydro-climatic and socio-economic conditions are traditionally used for this purpose. Nevertheless, the identification of skillful forecasts and models might be highly critical when the system comprises several processes with inconsistent dynamics (fast and slow) and disparate levels of predictability. In these contexts, the direct use of observational data, describing the current conditions of the water system, may represent a practicable and zero-cost alternative. This paper contrasts the relative contribution of state observations and perfect forecasts of future water availability in improving multipurpose water reservoirs operation over short- and long-term temporal scales. The approach is demonstrated on the snow-dominated Lake Como system, operated for flood control and water supply. The Information Selection Assessment (ISA) framework is adopted to retrieve the most relevant information to be used for conditioning the operations. By explicitly distinguishing between observational dataset and future forecasts, we quantify the relative contribution of current water system state estimates and perfect streamflow forecasts in improving the lake regulation with respect to both flood control and water supply. Results show that using the available observational data capturing slow dynamic processes, particularly the snow melting process, produces a 10% improvement in the system performance. This latter represents the lower bound of the potential improvement, which may increase to the upper limit of 40% in case skillful (perfect) long-term streamflow forecasts are used.

  15. Assessing Land Degradation and Desertification Using Vegetation Index Data: Current Frameworks and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. Higginbottom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation and desertification has been ranked as a major environmental and social issue for the coming decades. Thus, the observation and early detection of degradation is a primary objective for a number of scientific and policy organisations, with remote sensing methods being a candidate choice for the development of monitoring systems. This paper reviews the statistical and ecological frameworks of assessing land degradation and desertification using vegetation index data. The development of multi-temporal analysis as a desertification assessment technique is reviewed, with a focus on how current practice has been shaped by controversy and dispute within the literature. The statistical techniques commonly employed are examined from both a statistical as well as ecological point of view, and recommendations are made for future research directions. The scientific requirements for degradation and desertification monitoring systems identified here are: (I the validation of methodologies in a robust and comparable manner; and (II the detection of degradation at minor intensities and magnitudes. It is also established that the multi-temporal analysis of vegetation index data can provide a sophisticated measure of ecosystem health and variation, and that, over the last 30 years, considerable progress has been made in the respective research.

  16. Automatic media-adventitia IVUS image segmentation based on sparse representation framework and dynamic directional active contour model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Fahimeh Sadat; Setarehdan, Seyed Kamaledin; Norouzi, Somayye

    2017-03-25

    Segmentation of the arterial wall boundaries from intravascular ultrasound images is an important image processing task in order to quantify arterial wall characteristics such as shape, area, thickness and eccentricity. Since manual segmentation of these boundaries is a laborious and time consuming procedure, many researchers attempted to develop (semi-) automatic segmentation techniques as a powerful tool for educational and clinical purposes in the past but as yet there is no any clinically approved method in the market. This paper presents a deterministic-statistical strategy for automatic media-adventitia border detection by a fourfold algorithm. First, a smoothed initial contour is extracted based on the classification in the sparse representation framework which is combined with the dynamic directional convolution vector field. Next, an active contour model is utilized for the propagation of the initial contour toward the interested borders. Finally, the extracted contour is refined in the leakage, side branch openings and calcification regions based on the image texture patterns. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by comparing the results to those manually traced borders by an expert on 312 different IVUS images obtained from four different patients. The statistical analysis of the results demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed method in the media-adventitia border detection with enough consistency in the leakage and calcification regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water Expert: a conceptualized framework for development of a rule-based decision support system for distribution system decontamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Gutenson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Significant drinking water contamination events pose a serious threat to public and environmental health. Water utilities often must make timely, critical decisions without evaluating all facets of the incident, as the data needed to enact informed decisions are inevitably dispersant and disparate, originating from policy, science, and heuristic contributors. Water Expert is a functioning hybrid decision support system (DSS and expert system framework, with emphases on meshing parallel data structures to expedite and optimize the decision pathway. Delivered as a thin-client application through the user's web browser, Water Expert's extensive knowledgebase is a product of inter-university collaboration that methodically pieced together system decontamination procedures through consultation with subject matter experts, literature review, and prototyping with stakeholders. This paper discusses development of Water Expert, analyzing the development process underlying the DSS and the system's existing architecture specifications.

  18. A conceptual framework for addressing complexity and unfolding transition dynamics when developing sustainable adaptation strategies in urban water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Chiara; Elle, Morten; Jensen, M. B.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve a successful and sustainable adaptation to climate change we need to transform the way we think about change. Much water management research has focused on technical innovation with a range of new solutions developed to achieve a 'more sustainable and integrated urban water management ...... to create the basis for managing and catalysing the technical and organizational innovation necessary for a sustainable transition towards climate change adaptation in urban areas.......To achieve a successful and sustainable adaptation to climate change we need to transform the way we think about change. Much water management research has focused on technical innovation with a range of new solutions developed to achieve a 'more sustainable and integrated urban water management...... addressing the complexity characterizing urban water management in the context of climate change. In this paper the framework is used to organize a research process aiming at understanding and unfolding urban dynamics for sustainable transition. The final goal is to enable local authorities and utilities...

  19. A mathematical framework for analysis of water tracers: Part 1: Development of theory and application to the preindustrial mean state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H. A.; Bitz, C. M.; Nusbaumer, J.; Noone, D. C.

    2016-06-01

    A new matrix operator framework is developed to analyze results from climate modeling studies that employ numerical water tracers (WTs), which track the movement of water in the aerial hydrological cycle from evaporation to precipitation. Model WT output is related to the fundamental equation of hydrology, and the moisture flux divergence is subdivided into the divergence of locally evaporated moisture and the convergence of remotely evaporated moisture. The formulation also separates locally and remotely sourced precipitation. The remote contribution (also the remote moisture convergence) may be further subdivided into zonal, meridional, intrabasin, and interbasin parts. This framework is applied to the preindustrial climate as simulated by a global climate model in which water has been tagged in 10° latitude bands in each of the major ocean basins, and in which each major land mass has been tagged separately. New insights from the method reveal fundamental differences between the major ocean basins in locally sourced precipitation, remotely sourced precipitation, and their relative partitioning. Per unit area, the subtropical Atlantic is the largest global moisture source, providing precipitable water to adjacent land areas and to the eastern Pacific tropics while retaining the least for in situ precipitation. Subtropical moisture is least divergent over the Pacific, which is the smallest moisture source (per unit area) for global land areas. Basins also differ in how subtropical moisture is partitioned between tropical, midlatitude, and land regions. Part II will apply this framework to hydrological cycle perturbations due to CO2 doubling.

  20. Aluminium fumarate metal-organic framework: A super adsorbent for fluoride from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmakar, Sankha [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Dechnik, Janina [Institut fur Anorganische Chemie und Strukturchemie, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, 40204 Düsseldorf (Germany); Janiak, Christoph, E-mail: janiak@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institut fur Anorganische Chemie und Strukturchemie, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, 40204 Düsseldorf (Germany); De, Sirshendu, E-mail: sde@che.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Maximum adsorption of fluoride on AlFu MOF occurred at 293 K. • Maximum adsorption capacity for fluoride was 600 mg/g at 293 K. • The MOF exhibited adequate charge characteristic and high surface area (1156 m{sup 2}/g). • Second order reaction and intra particle diffusion (first 1.5 h) was prevalent. • AlFu MOF exhibited high potential for fluoride removal from water. - Abstract: Potential of aluminium fumarate metal organic framework (MOF) for fluoride removal from groundwater has been explored in this work. The laboratory produced MOF exhibited characteristics similar to the commercial version. MOF was found to be micro-porous with surface area of 1156 m{sup 2}/g and average pore size 17 Å. Scanning electron micrograph of the AlFu MOF showed minute pores and texture was completely different from either of the parent materials. Change in the composition of AlFu MOF after fluoride adsorption was evident from powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal stability of the AlFu MOF up to 700 K was established by thermo-gravimetric analysis. Incorporation of fluoride phase after adsorption was confirmed by X-ray fluorescence analysis. As observed from FTIR study, hydroxyl ions in AlFu MOF were substituted by fluoride. 0.75 g/l AlFu MOF was good enough for complete removal of 30 mg/l fluoride concentration in feed solution. The maximum adsorption capacity for fluoride was 600, 550, 504 and 431 mg/g, respectively, at 293, 303, 313 and 333 K.

  1. A process-driven sedimentary habitat modelling approach, explaining seafloor integrity and biodiversity assessment within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galparsoro, Ibon; Borja, Ángel; Kostylev, Vladimir E.; Rodríguez, J. Germán; Pascual, Marta; Muxika, Iñigo

    2013-10-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) seeks to achieve good environmental status, by 2020, for European seas. This study analyses the applicability of a process-driven benthic sedimentary habitat model, to be used in the implementation of the MSFD in relation to biodiversity and seafloor integrity descriptors for sedimentary habitats. Our approach maps the major environmental factors influencing soft-bottom macrobenthic community structure and the life-history traits of species. Among the 16 environmental variables considered, a combination of water depth, mean grain size, a wave-induced sediment resuspension index and annual bottom maximum temperature, are the most significant factors explaining the variability in the structure of benthic communities in the study area. These variables are classified into those representing the ‘Disturbance' and ‘Scope for Growth' components of the environment. It was observed that the habitat classes defined in the process-driven model reflected different structural and functional characteristics of the benthos. Moreover, benthic community structure anomalies due to human pressures could also be detected within the model produced. Thus, the final process-driven habitat map can be considered as being highly useful for seafloor integrity and biodiversity assessment, within the European MSFD as well as for conservation, environmental status assessment and managing human activities, especially within the marine spatial planning process.

  2. Design of a Metal Oxide-Organic Framework (MoOF) Foam Microreactor: Solar-Induced Direct Pollutant Degradation and Hydrogen Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liangliang; Fu Tan, Chuan; Gao, Minmin; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2015-12-16

    A macroporous carbon network combined with mesoporous catalyst immobilization by a template method gives a metal-oxide-organic framework (MoOF) foam microreactor that readily soaks up pollutants and localizes solar energy in itself, leading to effective degradation of water pollutants (e.g., methyl orange (MO) and also hydrogen generation. The cleaned-up water can be removed from the microreactor simply by compression, and the microreactor used repeatedly.

  3. Risk assessment of agricultural water requirement based on a multi-model ensemble framework, southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Reza; Akhond-Ali, Ali-Mohammad; Roozbahani, Abbas; Fattahi, Rouhollah

    2017-08-01

    Water shortage and climate change are the most important issues of sustainable agricultural and water resources development. Given the importance of water availability in crop production, the present study focused on risk assessment of climate change impact on agricultural water requirement in southwest of Iran, under two emission scenarios (A2 and B1) for the future period (2025-2054). A multi-model ensemble framework based on mean observed temperature-precipitation (MOTP) method and a combined probabilistic approach Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator (LARS-WG) and change factor (CF) have been used for downscaling to manage the uncertainty of outputs of 14 general circulation models (GCMs). The results showed an increasing temperature in all months and irregular changes of precipitation (either increasing or decreasing) in the future period. In addition, the results of the calculated annual net water requirement for all crops affected by climate change indicated an increase between 4 and 10 %. Furthermore, an increasing process is also expected regarding to the required water demand volume. The most and the least expected increase in the water demand volume is about 13 and 5 % for A2 and B1 scenarios, respectively. Considering the results and the limited water resources in the study area, it is crucial to provide water resources planning in order to reduce the negative effects of climate change. Therefore, the adaptation scenarios with the climate change related to crop pattern and water consumption should be taken into account.

  4. Risk assessment of agricultural water requirement based on a multi-model ensemble framework, southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Reza; Akhond-Ali, Ali-Mohammad; Roozbahani, Abbas; Fattahi, Rouhollah

    2016-06-01

    Water shortage and climate change are the most important issues of sustainable agricultural and water resources development. Given the importance of water availability in crop production, the present study focused on risk assessment of climate change impact on agricultural water requirement in southwest of Iran, under two emission scenarios (A2 and B1) for the future period (2025-2054). A multi-model ensemble framework based on mean observed temperature-precipitation (MOTP) method and a combined probabilistic approach Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator (LARS-WG) and change factor (CF) have been used for downscaling to manage the uncertainty of outputs of 14 general circulation models (GCMs). The results showed an increasing temperature in all months and irregular changes of precipitation (either increasing or decreasing) in the future period. In addition, the results of the calculated annual net water requirement for all crops affected by climate change indicated an increase between 4 and 10 %. Furthermore, an increasing process is also expected regarding to the required water demand volume. The most and the least expected increase in the water demand volume is about 13 and 5 % for A2 and B1 scenarios, respectively. Considering the results and the limited water resources in the study area, it is crucial to provide water resources planning in order to reduce the negative effects of climate change. Therefore, the adaptation scenarios with the climate change related to crop pattern and water consumption should be taken into account.

  5. Water Hydraulic 2/2 Directional Valve with Plane Piston Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yongjun; YANG Huayong; WANG Zuwen

    2009-01-01

    Due to the fire resistance and environmental compatibility, using water as the working fluid in hydraulic circuits is receiving an increasing attention by both manufactures and users. This hydraulic directional valve is developed. When new water hydraulic directional valve is designed and manufactured, this paper introduces a water hydraulic 2/2 directional valve and its principle. The valve is composed of a hydraulically operated seat valve and a magnetic 3/2 direction valve. Aimed at the serious leakage and impact generating easily in reversing suddenly, an improved structure of water space seal is changed to direct seal, compaction force between main valve spool and main valve pocket was logically designed and damper in pilot valve port is matched with sensitive cavity in main valve. From the view of flow control, the methods of cavitation resistance of the directional water hydraulic valve are investigated. The computational fluid dynamics approaches are applied to obtain static pressure distributions and cavitation images in the channel of the main stage of the valve with two kinds of structure. The results show that the method of optimized spout can effectively restrain cavitation. The work provides some useful reference for developing water hydraulic control valve with the Dower noise and lower vibration. Meantime, the structural parameters are optimized on the basis of information obtained from simulation. Static test, dynamic test and life test are accomplished, and the results show that the water hydraulic directional valve possesses good property, its pressure loss is 1.1 MPa lower, switching time is shorter than 0.025 s, and its strike crest is 0.8 MPa lower. The valve possess fine dynamic performance with the characteristic rapidly action and lower implusion.

  6. Hydrogeologic framework and groundwater/surface-water interactions of the upper Yakima River Basin, Kittitas County, central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Ely, D. Matthew; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Kahle, Sue C.; Welch, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogeology, hydrology, and geochemistry of groundwater and surface water in the upper (western) 860 square miles of the Yakima River Basin in Kittitas County, Washington, were studied to evaluate the groundwater-flow system, occurrence and availability of groundwater, and the extent of groundwater/surface-water interactions. The study area ranged in altitude from 7,960 feet in its headwaters in the Cascade Range to 1,730 feet at the confluence of the Yakima River with Swauk Creek. A west-to-east precipitation gradient exists in the basin with the western, high-altitude headwaters of the basin receiving more than 100 inches of precipitation per year and the eastern, low-altitude part of the basin receiving about 20 inches of precipitation per year. From the early 20th century onward, reservoirs in the upper part of the basin (for example, Keechelus, Kachess, and Cle Elum Lakes) have been managed to store snowmelt for irrigation in the greater Yakima River Basin. Canals transport water from these reservoirs for irrigation in the study area; additional water use is met through groundwater withdrawals from wells and surface-water withdrawals from streams and rivers. Estimated groundwater use for domestic, commercial, and irrigation purposes is reported for the study area. A complex assemblage of sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous bedrock underlies the study area. In a structural basin in the southeastern part of the study area, the bedrock is overlain by unconsolidated sediments of glacial and alluvial origin. Rocks and sediments were grouped into six hydrogeologic units based on their lithologic and hydraulic characteristics. A map of their extent was developed from previous geologic mapping and lithostratigraphic information from drillers’ logs. Water flows through interstitial space in unconsolidated sediments, but largely flows through fractures and other sources of secondary porosity in bedrock. Generalized groundwater-flow directions within the

  7. Unified approach for the optimization of energy and water in multipurpose batch plants using a flexible scheduling framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekola, O

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available and energy separately is achievable. The ability of the current method to handle industrial scale problems is also highlighted using a complex case study. Opportunities for direct water reuse and indirect water reuse, using wastewater storage, are explored...

  8. A Framework for Sustainable Urban Water Management through Demand and Supply Forecasting: The Case of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalçıntaş

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Istanbul is becoming overcrowded and the demand for clean water is steeply rising in the city. The use of analytical approaches has become more and more critical for forecasting the water supply and demand balance in the long run. In this research, Istanbul’s water supply and demand data is collected for the period during 2006 and 2014. Then, using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model, the time series water supply and demand forecasting model is constructed for the period between 2015 and 2018. Three important sustainability metrics such as water loss to supply ratio, water loss to demand ratio, and water loss to residential demand ratio are also presented. The findings show that residential water demand is responsible for nearly 80% of total water use and the consumption categories including commercial, industrial, agriculture, outdoor, and others have a lower share in total water demand. The results also show that there is a considerable water loss in the water distribution system which requires significant investments on the water supply networks. Furthermore, the forecasting results indicated that pipeline projects will be critical in the near future due to expected increases in the total water demand of Istanbul. The authors suggest that sustainable management of water can be achieved by reducing the residential water use through the use of water efficient technologies in households and reduction in water supply loss through investments on distribution infrastructure.

  9. Framework for Enhancing the Supply-Demand Balance of a Tri-Supply Urban Water Scheme in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Bertone

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fit-for-purpose potable source substitution of appropriate water end uses with rainwater or recycled water is often essential to maintain water security in growing urban regions. This paper provides the results of a detailed supply-demand forecasting review of a unique tri-supply (i.e., potable, A+ recycled and rain water sources reticulated to household urban water scheme located in Queensland, Australia. Despite the numerous benefits of this scheme, system efficiency (e.g., reduced demand levels, water treatment, low chemical and energy use and economic viability (i.e., capital and operating costs per kL of supply aspects need to be considered against derived potable water savings. The review underpinned the design of a framework to enhance the schemes supply-demand balance and reduce the unit cost of alternative source supplies. Detailed scenario and sensitivity analysis identified the possibility of a refined scheme design, whereby the A+ recycled water supply would be reticulated to the cold water input tap to the washing machine, and the rain tank that originally supplied this end use be removed from future constructed households. The refined scheme design enhances the present recycled plant utilisation rate and reduces the cost to home owners when building their dwelling due to the removed requirement to install a rain tank to indoor end uses; such actions reduce the overall unit cost of the scheme.

  10. Using the politicized institutional analysis and development framework to analyze (adaptive comanagement: farming and water resources in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Whaley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of managing water resources in England is becoming increasingly complex and uncertain, a situation reflected in many countries around the world. Cooperative and participatory forms of governance are now seen as one way of addressing this challenge. We investigated this assertion by focusing on five farmer irrigator groups in the low-lying east of England. The groups' relationship with water resources management was interpreted through the lens of comanagement, which over the past decade has increasingly merged with the field of adaptive management and related concepts that derive from resilience thinking and complex adaptive systems theory. Working within a critical realist paradigm, our analysis was guided by the politicized institutional analysis and development (IAD framework. Two previous studies concerned with the broader context surrounding farming and water governance in lowland England revealed low levels of trust between farmers, and between farmers and water managers, as well as a power dynamic that stands in the way of farmer cooperation and participation. Within this context, our findings pointed to a number of mechanisms and structural conditions that appear to generate or facilitate comanagement. Of these, institution building through the specific group strategy of adopting a company structure and the "stationarity" of the resource group members extract from were seen to be the most crucial. These and other key findings were used to inform a discussion of farming and water resources management in England going forward. In doing so, we also reflected on the relationship between comanagement and market-based approaches to managing water resources. Beyond this, the research serves as a practical demonstration of how the politicized IAD framework can be used to analyze potential (adaptive comanagement situations and the related benefits. The analysis complements a previous submission to this journal, in which we discussed

  11. Estimating the direct and indirect water use of tourism in the eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikakou, Michalis; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Miller, Graham

    2013-01-15

    The impact of tourism activities on local water resources remains a largely understudied issue in environmental and sustainable tourism management. The aim of the paper is to present a simple methodology that allows an estimate of direct and indirect local water use associated with different holiday packages and to then discuss relevant management implications. This is explored through the creation of five illustrative examples of holidays to semi-arid eastern Mediterranean destinations: Cyprus (2), Turkey, Greece and Syria. Using available data on water use associated with different forms of travel, accommodation and tourist activities, indicative water footprints are calculated for each of the illustrative examples. Food consumption by tourists appears to have by far the most significant impact on the overall water footprint and this aspect of water use is explored in detail in the paper. The paper also suggests a way of employing the water footprint methodology along with import/export balance sheets of main food commodities to distinguish between the global and local pressure of tourism demand on water resources. Water resource use is likely to become an increasingly important issue in tourism management and must be considered alongside more established environmental concerns such as energy use, using methodologies that can capture direct as well as supply chain impacts.

  12. A comparison of the degree of implementation of marine biodiversity indicators by European countries in relation to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Herman; Frost, Matt; Juanes, Jose A.; Kochmann, Judith; Bolde, Carlos F. Castellanos Perez; Aneiros, Fernando; Vandenbosch, Francois; Franco, Joao N.; Echavarri, Beatriz; Guinda, Xabier; Puente, Araceli; Fernandez, Camino; Galvan, Cristina; Merino, Maria; Ramos, Elvira; Fernandez, Paloma; Pitacco, Valentina; Alberte, Madara; Wojcik, Dagmara; Grabowska, Monika; Jahnke, Marlene; Crocetta, Fabio; Carugati, Laura; Scorrano, Simonetta; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Perez Garcia, Patricia; Fernandez, Jose Antonio Sanabria; Poromov, Artem; Iurchenko, Anna; Isachenko, Artem; Chava, Alexandra; Pavloudi, Christina; Bordeyne, Francois; Andersen, Simone Fie; Eronat, Elizabeth Grace Tunka; Cakmak, Taylan; Louizidou, Paraskevi; Rico, Jose; Ruci, Stela; Diego, David Corta; Mendez, Sara; Rousou, Maria; De Clippele, Laurence; Eriksson, Annukka; Van Zanten, Winnie; Diamant, Anna; De Matos, Valentina Kirienko Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    The degree of development and operability of the indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) using Descriptor 1 (D1) Biological Diversity was assessed. To this end, an overview of the relevance and degree of operability of the underlying parameters across 20 European countries was

  13. A comparison of the degree of implementation of marine biodiversity indicators by European countries in relation to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, Herman; Frost, Matt; Juanes, José A.

    2015-01-01

    The degree of development and operability of the indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) using Descriptor 1 (D1) Biological Diversity was assessed. To this end, an overview of the relevance and degree of operability of the underlying parameters across 20 European countries w...

  14. A lanthanum chelate possessing an open-channel framework with water nanotubes: properties and desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao-Long; Guo, Yi-Chao; Yang, Fang; Liang, Jin-Xia; Cao, Ze-Xing; Zhou, Zhao-Hui

    2014-04-28

    A new type of thermally stable chelate {La(H2O)4[La(1,3-pdta)(H2O)]3}n · 12nH2O (1) [1,3-H4pdtaCH2[CH2N(CH2CO2H)2]2] with an open-channel shows significant and unusual solvent transport properties and demonstrates a use for low-pressure desalination, which is constructed by cheap and available lanthanum salt and 1,3-propanediaminetetraacetate. The chelate could be converted reversibly to its trihydrate {La(H2O)4[La(1,3-pdta)(H2O)]3}n · 3nH2O (1a), dehydrated product {La(H2O)4[La(1,3-pdta)(H2O)]3}n (1b) and ethanol adduct {La(H2O)4[La(1,3-pdta)(H2O)]3}n · 3nH2O · 3nEtOH (1c). The latter nano-confined ethanol shows a remarkable downfield shift (Δδ = 6.0 ppm) for the methylene group in the solid 13C NMR spectrum compared with that of the free EtOH. Crystal 1 with a regular hexagonal appearance can be used directly for saline water desalination on a small-scale at an ambient temperature, demonstrating a low energy consumption and environmentally friendly method. This is attributed to the 10.0 Å hydrophobic open-channel containing water nanotubes (WNTs, Φ = 4.2 Å). The nano-confined WNTs can be removed at a low temperature (45 °C).

  15. High-Throughput Screening of Metal-Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture in the Presence of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Chung, Yongchul G; Snurr, Randall Q

    2016-10-11

    Competitive coadsorption of water is a major problem in the deployment of adsorption-based CO2 capture. Water molecules may compete for adsorption sites, reducing the capacity of the material, and dehumidification prior to separating CO2 from N2 increases process complexity and cost. The development of adsorbent materials that can selectively adsorb CO2 in the presence of water would be a major step forward in the deployment of CO2 capture materials in practice. In this study, large-scale computational screening was carried out to search for metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with high selectivity toward CO2 over H2O. Calculating framework charges for thousands of MOFs is a significant challenge, so initial screening used a fast, but approximate, charge calculation method. On the basis of the initial screening, 15 MOFs were selected, and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to compute the adsorption isotherms for these MOFs using more accurate framework charges calculated by density functional theory. A detailed investigation was performed on the effect of using different methods for calculating partial charges, and it was found that electrostatic interactions contribute the majority of the adsorption energy of H2O in the selected MOFs.

  16. Remote sensing of water vapour profiles in the framework of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that the near infrared solar absorption spectra recorded in the framework of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON can be used to derive the vertical distribution of tropospheric water vapour. The resolution of the TCCON spectra of 0.02 cm−1 is sufficient for retrieving lower and middle/upper tropospheric water vapour concentrations with a vertical resolution of about 3 and 8 km, respectively. We document the good quality of the remotely-sensed profiles by comparisons with coincident in-situ Vaisala RS92 radiosonde measurements. Due to the high measurement frequency, the TCCON water vapour profile data offer novel opportunities for estimating the water vapour variability at different timescales and altitudes.

  17. Field-testing of a Passive Surface Water Flux Meter for the Direct Measurement of Water and Solute Mass Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, E. C.; Jawitz, J. W.; Annable, M. D.; Klammler, H.; Hatfield, K.

    2007-05-01

    The measurement of water and solute mass discharges in surface water flow systems is a fundamental hydrologic task for ecological and economic decision making. However, due to the extensive monetary, labor, and time costs of traditional monitoring devices and methods, many water quality monitoring programs lack the resources necessary to provide comprehensive descriptions of surface water impairments. The Passive Surface Water Flux Meter (PSFM) is a recently developed passive sampling device that measures water and solute fluxes within flowing surface water bodies. Devoid of mechanical components and power supply requirements, the relatively low-maintenance, low-cost design of the PSFM gives it considerable potential as a tool for extensive, large-scale surface water quality characterization and monitoring. The novelty of the PSFM extends to its direct mass-based approach to solute flux measurement, as compared to conventional, indirect concentration-based approaches. During this field-testing campaign, the PSFM was deployed in flowing surface water bodies of north- central Florida. The device contained a dual-packed porous media cartridge that performed simultaneous ion exchange to determine phosphate mass flux and equilibrium tracer desorption to determine water flux within the stream. The PSFM demonstrated accurate measurement of steady-state water and phosphate mass fluxes to within 15% over a range of stream velocities, solute concentrations, and deployment durations. The PSFM design described here was found to perform well in steady-flow conditions. The device was also shown to be effective under transient conditions of limited variability, but full transient testing remains for future work.

  18. Water transport mechanism through open capillaries analyzed by direct surface modifications on biological surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Daisuke; Horiguchi, Hiroko; Hirai, Yuji; Yabu, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Ijiro, Kuniharu; Tsujii, Kaoru; Shimozawa, Tateo; Hariyama, Takahiko; Shimomura, Masatsugu

    2013-10-01

    Some small animals only use water transport mechanisms passively driven by surface energies. However, little is known about passive water transport mechanisms because it is difficult to measure the wettability of microstructures in small areas and determine the chemistry of biological surfaces. Herein, we developed to directly analyse the structural effects of wettability of chemically modified biological surfaces by using a nanoliter volume water droplet and a hi-speed video system. The wharf roach Ligia exotica transports water only by using open capillaries in its legs containing hair- and paddle-like microstructures. The structural effects of legs chemically modified with a self-assembled monolayer were analysed, so that the wharf roach has a smart water transport system passively driven by differences of wettability between the microstructures. We anticipate that this passive water transport mechanism may inspire novel biomimetic fluid manipulations with or without a gravitational field.

  19. Density functional theory meta-GGA + U study of water incorporation in the metal-organic framework material Cu-BTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockayne, Eric; Nelson, Eric B.

    2015-07-01

    Water absorption in the metal-organic framework (MOF) material Cu-BTC, up to a concentration of 3.5 H2O per Cu ion, is studied via density functional theory at the meta-GGA + U level. The stable arrangements of water molecules show chains of hydrogen-bonded water molecules and a tendency to form closed cages at high concentration. Water clusters are stabilized primarily by a combination of water-water hydrogen bonding and Cu-water oxygen interactions. Stability is further enhanced by van der Waals interactions, electric field enhancement of water-water bonding, and hydrogen bonding of water to framework oxygens. We hypothesize that the tendency to form such stable clusters explains the particularly strong affinity of water to Cu-BTC and related MOFs with exposed metal sites.

  20. Helical water chain mediated proton conductivity in homochiral metal-organic frameworks with unprecedented zeolitic unh-topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Subash Chandra; Kundu, Tanay; Banerjee, Rahul

    2011-11-09

    Four new homochiral metal-organic framework (MOF) isomers, [Zn(l-L(Cl))(Cl)](H(2)O)(2) (1), [Zn(l-L(Br))(Br)](H(2)O)(2) (2), [Zn(d-L(Cl))(Cl)](H(2)O)(2) (3), and [Zn(d-L(Br))(Br)](H(2)O)(2) (4) [L = 3-methyl-2-(pyridin-4-ylmethylamino)butanoic acid], have been synthesized by using a derivative of L-/D-valine and Zn(CH(3)COO)(2)·2H(2)O. A three-periodic lattice with a parallel 1D helical channel was formed along the crystallographic c-axis. Molecular rearrangement results in an unprecedented zeolitic unh-topology in 1-4. In each case, two lattice water molecules (one H-bonded to halogen atoms) form a secondary helical continuous water chain inside the molecular helix. MOFs 1 and 2 shows different water adsorption properties and hence different water affinity. The arrangement of water molecules inside the channel was monitored by variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which indicated that MOF 1 has a higher water holding capacity than MOF 2. In MOF 1, water escapes at 80 °C, while in 2 the same happens at a much lower temperature (∼40 °C). All the MOFs reported here shows reversible crystallization by readily reabsorbing moisture. In MOFs 1 and 2, the frameworks are stable after solvent removal, which is confirmed by a single-crystal to single-crystal transformation. MOFs 1 and 3 show high proton conductivity of 4.45 × 10(-5) and 4.42 × 10(-5) S cm(-1), respectively, while 2 and 4 shows zero proton conductivity. The above result is attributed to the fact that MOF 1 has a higher water holding capacity than MOF 2.

  1. Water flows in the Spanish economy: agri-food sectors, trade and households diets in an input-output framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazcarro, Ignacio; Duarte, Rosa; Sánchez-Chóliz, Julio

    2012-06-19

    Seeking to advance our knowledge of water flows and footprints and the factors underlying them, we apply, on the basis of an extended 2004 Social Accounting Matrix for Spain, an open Leontief model in which households and foreign trade are the exogenous accounts. The model shows the water embodied in products bought by consumers (which we identify with the Water Footprint) and in trade (identified with virtual water trade). Activities with relevant water inflows and outflows such as the agrarian sector, textiles, and the agri-food industry are examined in detail using breakdowns of the relevant accounts. The data reflect only physical consumption, differentiating between green and blue water. The results reveal that Spain is a net importer of water. Flows are then related to key trading partners to show the large quantities involved. The focus on embodied (or virtual) water by activity is helpful to distinguish indirect from direct consumption as embodied water can be more than 300 times direct consumption in some food industry activities. Finally, a sensitivity analysis applied to changes in diets shows the possibility of reducing water uses by modifying households' behavior to encourage healthier eating.

  2. A framework for assessing technology and management options to reduce water losses.

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Tim M.; Knox, Jerry W.

    2013-01-01

    Water saving in agriculture often refers to reducing the amount of water abstracted or diverted and used for different purposes. However, this is not the only option: reductions in water use can also be achieved by using appropriate techniques for irrigation, applying relevant management practices, using water from alternative sources or influencing behaviour – for example, via awareness-raising, dissemination of best practices, regulation, water pricing and/or the use of financial incentives...

  3. Thermal and electrical energy yield analysis of a directly water cooled photovoltaic module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtunzi Busiso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy of photovoltaic modules drops by 0.5% for each degree increase in temperature. Direct water cooling of photovoltaic modules was found to give improved electrical and thermal yield. A prototype was put in place to analyse the field data for a period of a year. The results showed an initial high performance ratio and electrical power output. The monthly energy saving efficiency of the directly water cooled module was found to be approximately 61%. The solar utilisation of the naturally cooled photovoltaic module was found to be 8.79% and for the directly water cooled module its solar utilisation was 47.93%. Implementation of such systems on households may reduce the load from the utility company, bring about huge savings on electricity bills and help in reducing carbon emissions.

  4. Towards a Global Water Scarcity Risk Assessment Framework: Incorporation of Probability Distributions and Hydro-Climatic Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions increasingly put pressure on fresh water resources and are expected to aggravate water scarcity conditions towards the future. Despite numerous calls for risk-based water scarcity assessments, a global-scale framework that includes UNISDR's definition of risk does not yet exist. This study provides a first step towards such a risk based assessment, applying a Gamma distribution to estimate water scarcity conditions at the global scale under historic and future conditions, using multiple climate change and population growth scenarios. Our study highlights that water scarcity risk, expressed in terms of expected annual exposed population, increases given all future scenarios, up to greater than 56.2% of the global population in 2080. Looking at the drivers of risk, we find that population growth outweigh the impacts of climate change at global and regional scales. Using a risk-based method to assess water scarcity, we show the results to be less sensitive than traditional water scarcity assessments to the use of fixed threshold to represent different levels of water scarcity. This becomes especially important when moving from global to local scales, whereby deviations increase up to 50% of estimated risk levels.

  5. Towards a Global Water Scarcity Risk Assessment Framework: Incorporation of Probability Distributions and Hydro-Climatic Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions increasingly put pressure on fresh water resources and are expected to aggravate water scarcity conditions towards the future. Despite numerous calls for risk-based water scarcity assessments, a global-scale framework that includes UNISDR's definition of risk does not yet exist. This study provides a first step towards such a risk based assessment, applying a Gamma distribution to estimate water scarcity conditions at the global scale under historic and future conditions, using multiple climate change and population growth scenarios. Our study highlights that water scarcity risk, expressed in terms of expected annual exposed population, increases given all future scenarios, up to greater than 56.2% of the global population in 2080. Looking at the drivers of risk, we find that population growth outweigh the impacts of climate change at global and regional scales. Using a risk-based method to assess water scarcity, we show the results to be less sensitive than traditional water scarcity assessments to the use of fixed threshold to represent different levels of water scarcity. This becomes especially important when moving from global to local scales, whereby deviations increase up to 50% of estimated risk levels.

  6. A framework for using connectivity to measure and model water and sediment fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keessta, Saskia; Saco, Patricia; Nunes, Joao; Parsons, Tony; Poeppl, Ronny; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Jordán, Antonio; Masselink, Rens; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    For many years, scientists have tried to understand, describe and quantify water and sediment fluxes at multiple scales (Cerdà et al., 2013; Parsons et al., 2015; Poeppl et al., 2016; Masselink et al., 2016a; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016). In the past two decades, a new concept called connectivity has been used by Earth Scientists as a means to describe and quantify the influences on the fluxes of water and sediment on different scales: aggregate, pedon, location on the slope, slope, watershed, and basin (Baartman et al., 2013; Parsons et al., 2015; López-Vicente et al., 2015; 2016; Masselink 2016b; Marchamalo et al., 2016; Mekonnen et al., 2016). A better understanding of connectivity can enhance our comprehension of landscape processes and provide a basis for the development of better measurement and modelling approaches, further leading to a better potential for implementing this concept as a management tool. Our research provides a short review of the State-of-the-Art of the connectivity concept, from which we conclude that scientists have been struggling to find a way to quantify connectivity so far. We adapt the knowledge of connectivity to better understand and quantify water and sediment transfers in catchment systems. First, we introduce a new approach to the concept of connectivity to study water and sediment transfers. In this approach water and sediment dynamics are divided in two parts: the system consists of phases and fluxes, each being separately measurable. This approach enables us to: i) better conceptualize our understanding of system dynamics at different timescales, including long timescales; ii) identify the main parameters driving system dynamics, and devise monitoring strategies which capture them; and, iii) build models with a holistic approach to simulate system dynamics without excessive complexity. Secondly, we discuss the role of system boundaries in designing measurement schemes and models. Natural systems have boundaries within which

  7. A Framework to Evaluate the Impact of Armourstones on the Chemical Quality of Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Brinkmann, Corinna; Fabricius, Anne-Lena; Meermann, Björn; Pelzer, Juergen; Ecker, Dennis; Renner, Monika; Schmid, Harald; Ternes, Thomas A.; Heininger, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Today, basic requirements for construction works include the protection of human health and of the environment. In the tension area between economic demands, circular flow economy and environmental safety, a link between the results from standardized leaching tests and the respective environmental quality standards must be created. To derive maximum release limits of metals and metalloids for armourstones in hydraulic engineering, this link is accomplished via a simple model approach. By treating natural materials and industrial by-products the same way, the article delivers an overview on the recent regulative situation in Europe as well as describes and discusses an innovative approach to derive maximum release limits for monolithic construction products in hydraulic engineering on a conceptual level. On a practical level, a list of test parameters is derived by connecting an extensive dataset (seven armourstone materials with five repetitions and 31 elements tested with the worldwide applied dynamic surface leaching test) with surface water quality standards and predicted no effect concentrations. Finally, the leaching tests results are compared with the envisaged maximum release limits, offering a direct comparison between natural materials and industrial by-products. PMID:28060850

  8. Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous

  9. On the calculation of the water particle kinematics arising in a directionally spread wavefield

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, W J D; Taylor, P H

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns the calculation of the water particle kinematics generated by the propagation of surface gravity waves. The motivation for this work lies in recent advances in the description of the water surface elevation associated with extreme waves that are highly nonlinear and involve a spread of wave energy in both frequency and direction. To provide these exact numerical descriptions the nonlinear free-surface boundary conditions are time-marched, with the most efficient solutions simply based upon the water surface elevation, eta, and the velocity potential, phi, on that surface. In many broad-banded problems, computational efficiency is not merely desirable but absolutely essential to resolve the complex interactions between wave components with widely varying length-scales and different directions of propagation. Although such models have recently been developed, the calculation of the underlying water particle kinematics, based on the surface properties alone, remains a significant obstacle to ...

  10. Environmental risk limits for silver : A proposal for water quality standards in accordance with the Water Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moermond CTA; van Herwijnen R; SEC; mev

    2012-01-01

    Contains Appendix with Detailed ecotoxicity data. The data are included with hard copies of the report as a CD. With digital versions, the data are included as a separate pdf file ( http://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/601714023_appendix.pdf 225 Kb). Since 2012-11-09 pdf includes appendix 2: de

  11. Direction of ground-water flow and ground-water quality near a landfill in Falmouth, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A landfill in Falmouth, Massachusetts, is upgradient of a pond used for municipal water supply, but analysis of groundwater flow directions and groundwater quality indicates that leachate from the landfill does not threaten the municipal water supply. A network of water table observation wells was established, and water table altitudes were measured in these wells on several dates in 1981. Water quality analyses and specific conductance measurements were made on water samples from several wells in the vicinity of the landfill between October 1980 and April 1983. A water table altitude contour map of the area between the landfill and Long Pond for April 16-17, 1981, indicates that the direction of groundwater flow is primarily southwest from the landfill to Buzzards Bay. A similar map for September 2, 1981--a time at which the water table was unusually low--indicates the possibility of groundwater discharge to Long Pond from the landfill site. Groundwater quality beneath the landfill exceeded U.S. EPA water quality criteria for domestic water supply for manganese and total dissolved solids. Concentrations as high as 52 mg/L of nitrogen as ammonia and 4,500 micrograms/L (ug/L) of manganese were found. Concentrations of ammonia, manganese, calcium, potassium, and alkalinity exceeded local background levels by more than a factor of 100; specific-conductance levels and concentrations of hardness, barium, chloride, sodium, magnesium, iron, and strontium exceeded local background levels by more than a factor of 10; and cadmium concentrations exceeded local background levels by more than a factor of 5. Water quality analyses and field specific conductance measurements indicate the presence of a volume of leachate extending south-southwest from the landfill. Average chloride concentrations of landfill leachate, precipitation on the surface of Long Pond, and recharge from the remainder of the recharge area were 180, 3, and 9 mg/L, respectively. No significant degradation of

  12. [Hygienic maintenance of water mist-generating equipment that couples directly to the tap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamatake, Michiko; Aoki, Rie; Yamazaki, Mitsugu; Ohnishi, Kenjiro; Matsumoto, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Water mist is usually generated using equipment directly connected to the water tap, as its installation is relatively easy. However, there is no legal regulation regarding the maintenance of this equipment, and the quality of the mist has not been sufficiently well investigated. In this study, we sought to establish methods that allow the hygienic maintenance of this equipment. We monitored the use of the mist generating equipment in five of the 61 institutions in the jurisdiction of Ichinomiya Health Center, examined the resulting water quality, and tested for Legionella bacteria in the mist. If equipment was found to contain bacteria, the contaminated part was identified by counting the number of bacteria in the water after sequentially washing and disinfecting parts of the equipment. We also identified the predominant bacterial species. In the water mists from three of 5 institutions, the number of bacteria greatly exceeded that permitted for drinking-water, even though the residual chlorine level was >0.1 mg/l. However, no Legionella bacteria were detected. Brevundimonas species were predominant in the water mists at each institute. The hose was found to be the contaminated component in each case. Our findings suggest that the number of bacteria in the water mist exceeded the drinking-water quality standard, even with a residual chlorine level of >0.1 mg/l. This study also revealed the importance of the continued drainage of water, following suitable cleaning and disinfection for maintenance of the mist-generating equipment.

  13. A direct measurement of the stable isotopes of transpired water vapor in a northern Michigan forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, P.; Poulsen, C. J.; Fiorella, R.

    2016-12-01

    The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water vapor track hydrologic processes as phase changes of water preferentially partition heavy isotopes (18O and 2H) into the condensate and light isotopes (16O and 1H) into the vapor phase. As a result, the isotopic composition of water vapor can be used to identify water fluxes and cycling through natural environments. Forest water vapor is comprised of terrestrial (evaporation and transpiration) and atmospheric (tropospheric mixing, precipitation, and condensation) components. Within the isotopic record of forest water vapor, stable isotopes of transpired water (δT) comprise an important component but is typically either assumed to be non-fractionating or estimated indirectly. However, on small time scales (minutes to hours), non-steady state forest systems experience isotopic enrichment during early morning and late afternoon when transpiration rates are low. We deployed two Picarro Cavity Ring-Down spectrometers (L2120-i and L2130-i, respectively) in the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) forest near Pellston, MI to measure the isotopic composition of near-surface ambient water vapor and the transpired vapor component directly. Both ambient a