Sample records for water exploration ip

  1. Application of vertical electrical sounding combined with induced polarization method in ground water exploration; IP koka wo koryoshita hiteikoho suichoku tansa no chikasui chosa eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, M.; Sakurada, H. [Sumiko Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Hokkaido Development Bureau, Hokkaido Development Agency, Sapporo (Japan)


    For ground water exploration using vertical Schlumberger exploration method, measurement and analysis combined with induced polarization (IP) effect were conducted as trial. For the Schlumberger method, potential is measured at the center between potential electrodes during flow of dc current between current electrodes. In the case of vertical exploration, measurements are repeated with fixed potential electrodes by extending the distance between current electrodes. Ground water exploration was conducted using this method at Otaki village, Hokkaido. Geology of surveyed plateau consists of a basement of Pliocene tuffs and Quaternary Pleistocene sediments covering on the surface. For the results of analysis, four to seven beds were detected from the resistivity. The depth up to the lowest bed was between 25 and 85 m, the resistivity of each bed was between 9 and 8,000 ohm{times}m, and the polarizability was between 1 and 15 mV/V. Among these resistivity zones, it was judged that zones satisfying following three conditions correspond to coarse grain sediments saturated with ground water, and can be expected as aquifers; having resistivity ranging between 100 and 1,000 ohm{times}m, polarizability higher than 10 mV/V, and relatively large thickness. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Data exploration, quality control and statistical analysis of ChIP-exo/nexus experiments. (United States)

    Welch, Rene; Chung, Dongjun; Grass, Jeffrey; Landick, Robert; Keles, Sündüz


    ChIP-exo/nexus experiments rely on innovative modifications of the commonly used ChIP-seq protocol for high resolution mapping of transcription factor binding sites. Although many aspects of the ChIP-exo data analysis are similar to those of ChIP-seq, these high throughput experiments pose a number of unique quality control and analysis challenges. We develop a novel statistical quality control pipeline and accompanying R/Bioconductor package, ChIPexoQual, to enable exploration and analysis of ChIP-exo and related experiments. ChIPexoQual evaluates a number of key issues including strand imbalance, library complexity, and signal enrichment of data. Assessment of these features are facilitated through diagnostic plots and summary statistics computed over regions of the genome with varying levels of coverage. We evaluated our QC pipeline with both large collections of public ChIP-exo/nexus data and multiple, new ChIP-exo datasets from Escherichia coli. ChIPexoQual analysis of these datasets resulted in guidelines for using these QC metrics across a wide range of sequencing depths and provided further insights for modelling ChIP-exo data. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Exploratorium: Exploring Water. (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.


    This issue of Exploratorium focuses on water and its varied uses in our environment. Articles include: (1) "Adventures with Water" (Eric Muller); (2) "Water: The Liquid of Life" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (3) "Water-Drop Projector" (Gorazd Planinsic); (4) "Waterways and Means" (Pearl Tesler); (5) "Explore Natural Phenomena in the Museum--and Just…

  4. Space exploration by dendritic cells requires maintenance of myosin II activity by IP3 receptor 1 (United States)

    Solanes, Paola; Heuzé, Mélina L; Maurin, Mathieu; Bretou, Marine; Lautenschlaeger, Franziska; Maiuri, Paolo; Terriac, Emmanuel; Thoulouze, Maria-Isabel; Launay, Pierre; Piel, Matthieu; Vargas, Pablo; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria


    Dendritic cells (DCs) patrol the interstitial space of peripheral tissues. The mechanisms that regulate their migration in such constrained environment remain unknown. We here investigated the role of calcium in immature DCs migrating in confinement. We found that they displayed calcium oscillations that were independent of extracellular calcium and more frequently observed in DCs undergoing strong speed fluctuations. In these cells, calcium spikes were associated with fast motility phases. IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) channels, which allow calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum, were identified as required for immature DCs to migrate at fast speed. The IP3R1 isoform was further shown to specifically regulate the locomotion persistence of immature DCs, that is, their capacity to maintain directional migration. This function of IP3R1 results from its ability to control the phosphorylation levels of myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC) and the back/front polarization of the motor protein. We propose that by upholding myosin II activity, constitutive calcium release from the ER through IP3R1 maintains DC polarity during migration in confinement, facilitating the exploration of their environment. PMID:25637353

  5. Exploring User’s Habits and Virtual Communities to Improve IP-Connectivity Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigolin Ferreira Lopes, R.; Yokoyama, Roberta Sadao; Kimura, Bruno Yuji Lino; Pawar, P.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; dos Sandos Moreira, Edson


    A wireless connectivity island is a geographic area covered by a particular wireless ISP. Nowadays, mobile users possessing multi-homing mobile devices can have IP-connectivity almost everywhere, while being on the move. In terms of vertical handover, these users jump from a connectivity island to

  6. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.


    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  7. Potable Water Emergency/Contingency Plan. Water Supply Information Paper; No. IP-31-020

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grover, Gregory


    This paper provides guidance to installations for preparing an emergency/contingency plan to effectively address potential contamination of drinking water supplies, and for providing potable water during emergencies...

  8. A Reactive and Cycle-True IP Emulator for MPSoC Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar; Angiolini, Federico; Sparsø, Jens


    traffic patterns. We compare the RIPE models with cycle-true functional simulation of complex application behavior (tasksynchronization, multitasking, and input/output operations). Our results demonstrate high-accuracy and significant speedups. Furthermore, via a case study, we show the potential use...... of the RIPE in a design-space-exploration context....

  9. Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3 (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.


    Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

  10. Mars exploration: follow the water (United States)

    Park, Young Ho


    Over the centuries, the red planet Mars has been a subject of imagination as well as intense scientific interest. As the overwhelming success of two Mars Exploration Rovers unfolds before us, this article provides an overview of and rationale for NASA's Mars exploration program.

  11. Production test IP-750 raw water as a reactor coolant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frymier, J.W.; Geier, R.G.


    Approximately ten years ago single-tube tests demonstrated the feasibility of using unfiltered river water as a reactor coolant from the standpoint of aluminum corrosion and film formation. However, some effluent activity penalty was indicated. Inasmuch as both current water plant operation and the characteristics of Columbia River water have changed, it was deemed appropriate to reinvestigate the use of partially treated water as a reactor coolant. This report summarizes the results of a half-reactor test carried out at F Reactor.

  12. Ogbuewu, IP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogbuewu, IP. Vol 13 (2011) - Articles Egg Production Potentials of Muscovy Ducks (Cairina moschata) Raised Under Three Management Systems in the Humid Tropics Abstract. ISSN: 1119-4308. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  13. Mobile IP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert; Sallent, S.; Pras, Aiko


    The Internet is growing exponentially, both in the amount of traffic carried, and in the amount of hosts connected. IP technology is becoming more and more important, in company networks (Intranets), and also in the core networks for the next generation mobile networks. Further, wireless access to

  14. Foundations of hardware IP protection

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lionel


    This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the design of security-hardened, hardware intellectual property (IP). Readers will learn how IP can be threatened, as well as protected, by using means such as hardware obfuscation/camouflaging, watermarking, fingerprinting (PUF), functional locking, remote activation, hidden transmission of data, hardware Trojan detection, protection against hardware Trojan, use of secure element, ultra-lightweight cryptography, and digital rights management. This book serves as a single-source reference to design space exploration of hardware security and IP protection. · Provides readers with a comprehensive overview of hardware intellectual property (IP) security, describing threat models and presenting means of protection, from integrated circuit layout to digital rights management of IP; · Enables readers to transpose techniques fundamental to digital rights management (DRM) to the realm of hardware IP security; · Introduce designers to the concept of salutar...

  15. IP over DWDM Technologies


    Qiong Wang


    This study has discussed some shortages of IP over SDH used currently, and has proposed the necessities of IP over DWDM. It has given the structure of IP over DWDM, and has explained why it can increase its bandwidth when transiting IP packets over DWDM. The study has also discussed the two methods of realizing IP over DWDM transmission network.

  16. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality" (United States)

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman


    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  17. PVM and IP multicast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.H.; Hall, K.A.


    This report describes a 1994 demonstration implementation of PVM that uses IP multicast. PVM`s one-to-many unicast implementation of its pvm{_}mcast() function is replaced with reliable IP multicast. Performance of PVM using IP multicast over local and wide-area networks is measured and compared with the original unicast implementation. Current limitations of IP multicast are noted.

  18. New Moon water, exploration, and future habitation

    CERN Document Server

    Crotts, Arlin


    Explore Earth's closest neighbor, the Moon, in this fascinating and timely book and discover what we should expect from this seemingly familiar but strange, new frontier. What startling discoveries are being uncovered on the Moon? What will these tell us about our place in the Universe? How can exploring the Moon benefit development on Earth? Discover the role of the Moon in Earth's past and present; read about the lunar environment and how it could be made more habitable for humans; consider whether continued exploration of the Moon is justified; and view rare Apollo-era photos and film still

  19. Expresso: A database and web server for exploring the interaction of transcription factors and their target genes inArabidopsis thalianausing ChIP-Seq peak data. (United States)

    Aghamirzaie, Delasa; Raja Velmurugan, Karthik; Wu, Shuchi; Altarawy, Doaa; Heath, Lenwood S; Grene, Ruth


    Motivation: The increasing availability of chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) data enables us to learn more about the action of transcription factors in the regulation of gene expression. Even though in vivo transcriptional regulation often involves the concerted action of more than one transcription factor, the format of each individual ChIP-Seq dataset usually represents the action of a single transcription factor. Therefore, a relational database in which available ChIP-Seq datasets are curated is essential. Results: We present Expresso (database and webserver) as a tool for the collection and integration of available Arabidopsis ChIP-Seq peak data, which in turn can be linked to a user's gene expression data. Known target genes of transcription factors were identified by motif analysis of publicly available GEO ChIP-Seq data sets. Expresso currently provides three services: 1) Identification of target genes of a given transcription factor; 2) Identification of transcription factors that regulate a gene of interest; 3) Computation of correlation between the gene expression of transcription factors and their target genes. Availability : Expresso is freely available at

  20. Mobile IP: Security & application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuquerres, G.; Salvador, M.R.; Sprenkels, Ron


    As required in the TGS Mobile IP Advanced Module, this paper presents a survey of common security threats which mobile IP networks are exposed to as well as some proposed solutions to deal with such threats.

  1. Ensuring Software IP Cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshad Koohgoli


    Full Text Available At many points in the life of a software enterprise, determination of intellectual property (IP cleanliness becomes critical. The value of an enterprise that develops and sells software may depend on how clean the software is from the IP perspective. This article examines various methods of ensuring software IP cleanliness and discusses some of the benefits and shortcomings of current solutions.

  2. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description (United States)

    Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael


    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial control is a 0.1 micron point of use filter that will be used at the outlet of the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD). Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for longterm missions that does not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point of use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform testing to help alleviate those concerns related to the CEV water system. Results from the test plans laid out in the paper presented to SAE last year (Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Coordination, 2008012083) will be detailed in this paper. Additionally, recommendations for the CEV verification will be described for risk mitigation in meeting the physicochemical and microbiological requirements on the CEV PWS.

  3. Exploring deep potential aquifer in water scarce crystalline rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Characterization of the shear zone with pole–pole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was carried out to explore deep groundwater potential zone in a water scarce granitic area. As existing field conditions does not always allow to plant the remote electrodes at sufficiently far of distance, the effect of insufficient distance ...

  4. Exploring deep potential aquifer in water scarce crystalline rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Characterization of the shear zone with pole–pole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was carried out to explore deep groundwater potential zone in a water scarce granitic area. As existing field condi- tions does not always allow to plant the remote electrodes at sufficiently far of distance, the effect of insufficient distance ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  6. Crew Exploration Vehicle Potable Water System Verification Description (United States)

    Tuan, George; Peterson, Laurie J.; Vega, Leticia M.


    A stored water system on the crew exploration vehicle (CEV) will supply the crew with potable water for: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain the quality of the water, transferred from the orbiter to the International Space Station, stored in contingency water containers. In the CEV water system, a depletion of the ionic silver biocide is expected due to ionic silver-plating onto the surfaces of materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for long-term missions that do not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point-of-use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform the testing that will help alleviate concerns related to the CEV water system.

  7. Exploring the energy benefits of advanced water metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hans, Liesel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piscopo, Kate [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Recent improvements to advanced water metering and communications technologies have the potential to improve the management of water resources and utility infrastructure, benefiting both utilities and ratepayers. The highly granular, near-real-time data and opportunity for automated control provided by these advanced systems may yield operational benefits similar to those afforded by similar technologies in the energy sector. While significant progress has been made in quantifying the water-related benefits of these technologies, the research on quantifying the energy benefits of improved water metering is underdeveloped. Some studies have quantified the embedded energy in water in California, however these findings are based on data more than a decade old, and unanimously assert that more research is needed to further explore how topography, climate, water source, and other factors impact their findings. In this report, we show how water-related advanced metering systems may present a broader and more significant set of energy-related benefits. We review the open literature of water-related advanced metering technologies and their applications, discuss common themes with a series of water and energy experts, and perform a preliminary scoping analysis of advanced water metering deployment and use in California. We find that the open literature provides very little discussion of the energy savings potential of advanced water metering, despite the substantial energy necessary for water’s extraction, conveyance, treatment, distribution, and eventual end use. We also find that water AMI has the potential to provide water-energy co-efficiencies through improved water systems management, with benefits including improved customer education, automated leak detection, water measurement and verification, optimized system operation, and inherent water and energy conservation. Our findings also suggest that the adoption of these technologies in the water sector has been slow

  8. Evaluation of IP Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng


    As a result of an inquiry concerning how to evaluate IP (intellectual property) portfolios in order to enable the best possible use of IP resources within organizations, an IP evaluation approach primarily applicable for patents and utility models is developed. The developed approach is useful...... in order to discuss, visualize and align IPR issues with different management functions within the organization. Unlike existing approaches the present approach takes into account such value indicators as remaining lifetime, geographical range, broadness of scope and product strategic considerations...

  9. Agency IP Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Public data set for NASA Agency Intellectual Property (IP). The distribution contains both Patent information as well as General Release of Open Source Software.

  10. Mobile IP and protocol authentication extension


    Nguyen, Phuc V.


    Mobile IP is an open standard, defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) RFC 3220. By using Mobile IP, you can keep the same IP address, stay connected, and maintain ongoing applications while roaming between IP networks. Mobile IP is scalable for the Internet because it is based on IP - any media that can support IP can support Mobile IP.

  11. Crystal Water on Mars: Insights from the Mars Exploration Rovers (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Clark, B. C.


    The purpose of this paper is to constrain the total water contents from crystal H2O and OH in several materials analyzed by the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). Crystal H2O is part of the unit cell and cannot be removed without changing the structure. Minerals that contain only OH in their structures are anhydrous minerals containing hydroxyls, although they are formed as a product of aqueous activity and will decompose with evolution of H2O when heated. The crystal water and OH contents of a bulk material at the MER landing sites can be estimated from mineralogical composition, which is determined by a combination of Fe-mineralogy obtained by the Mossbauer Spectrometer and mineral abundances based upon the chemical composition determined by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer. Jarosite, along with Ca- and Mg-sulfates, have been suggested as the sulfur-bearing phases in Meridiani Planum outcrop. Models of various hydration states of Fe-, Ca-, and Mg-sulfates and other possible secondary phases suggest that 6 to 22 wt.% of the outcrop may occur as crystal H2O and/or OH (Clark et al., 2005). This estimate of water is consistent with measurements from the Odyssey orbiter, where 7 % H2O-equivalent H was measured down to a depth of approximately 1 m for the region (Feldman et al., 2004).

  12. To be or not IP? Exploring limits within patent law for the constitutionalization of intellectual property rights and the governance of synthetic biology in human health. (United States)

    Schneider, Ingrid


    The article explores limits within patent law for the constitutionalization of Intellectual Property Rights and the governance of synthetic biology in human health. To this end, it starts by explaining the inherent rationales of two fundamental limits within European patent law, namely (1) the boundary between discovery and invention (Art. 52 EPC); (2) the ordre public and public policy clause (Art. 53 (a) EPC). Both these exclusions from patent eligibility bear a normative function but rely on opposing inherent logics, functions, and regulatory aims. While in the first type of logics, "enabling access for all" is the guiding principle, in the second, converse logics, no one should have access to the technological knowledge in question. The second part contends that decisions on whether and how to grant patents in synthetic biology are not independent from institutional frameworks: The arena in which synthetic biology patenting will be dealt with will be decisive for whether and how boundaries will be deployed. From a political science perspective, the administrative, legislative and judicial arena can be distinguished. If synthetic biology will be negotiated in the legislative arena, in particular in the European Parliament, the probabilities will be higher that either the discovery clause or the ordre public clause will be applied. In contrast, patent offices and courts have, at least in the past decades, employed a narrow interpretation of these absolute exemptions from patentability and hardly ever used them. The third part asserts that metaphoric framing of synthetic biology is another crucial factor for patentability questions. Semantic framing may relate to the articulation and mobilization of consent or dissent, and thus public acceptance of synthetic biology. Whether applications of synthetic biology are conceived as "natural" or "synthetic" DNA may have an influence on whether patenting might become contested as "patenting life" or accepted as novel, and

  13. Stud.IP


    Stockmann, Ralf; Berg, Alexander


    Dieser Beitrag beschreibt die Konzeption, den Funktionsumfang und Erfahrungswerte der Open-Source-eLearning-Plattform Stud.IP. Der Funktionsumfang umfasst für jede einzelne Veranstaltung Ablaufpläne, das Hochladen von Hausarbeiten, Diskussionsforen, persönliche Homepages, Chaträume u.v.a. Ziel ist es hierbei, eine Infrastruktur des Lehrens und Lernens anzubieten, die dem Stand der Technik entspricht. Wissenschaftliche Einrichtungen finden zudem eine leistungsstarke Umgebung zur Verwaltung ihr...

  14. Perception vs. reality in deep-water exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, G. (Mobil Exploration Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States))


    The common perception in exploration is that deep-water sands are predominantly a product of low- and high-density turbidity currents, and that submarine-fan models with channel/levee and lobe elements are the norm. The reality, however, is that deep-water systems are extremely complex and variable in terms of depositional processes and sand-body geometries. For example, the Bourna Sequence, composed of T[sub a], T[sub b], T[sub c], T[sub d], and T[sub e] divisions, is believed to be the product of a turbidity current. However, recent core and outcrop studies show that the complete and partial Bouma sequences also can be explained by processes other than turbidity currents, such as sandy debris flows (i.e., [open quotes]T[sub a][close quotes]) and bottom-current reworking (i.e., [open quotes]T[sub b], T[sub c] and T[sub d][close quotes]). Massive sands are interpreted routinely as high-density turbidites, but the reality is that the term [open quotes]high-density turbidity current[close quotes] commonly refers to sandy debris flow in terms of flow theology and sediment-support mechanism. Deep-water sequences in the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Offshore Gabon, Offshore Nigeria, Gulf of Mexico, and the Ouachita Mountains are generally considered to be turbidite-rich submarine fans. However, the reality is that these sequences are composed predominantly of sandy slumps and debris flows, not turbidites. Fan models are attractive to explorationists because of their predictable sheet-like geometries; however, these simplistic conceptual models are obsolete because they defy reality. Although the turbidite paradigm is alive and well for now in the minds of many sedimentologists and sequence stratigraphers, the turbidites themselves that form the foundation for fan models are becoming an endangered facies

  15. Perception vs. reality in deep-water exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, G. [Mobil Exploration & Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)


    The common perception in exploration is that deep-water sands are predominantly a product of low- and high-density turbidity currents, and that submarine-fan models with channel/levee and lobe elements are the norm. The reality, however, is that deep-water systems are extremely complex and variable in terms of depositional processes and sand-body geometries. For example, the Bourna Sequence, composed of T{sub a}, T{sub b}, T{sub c}, T{sub d}, and T{sub e} divisions, is believed to be the product of a turbidity current. However, recent core and outcrop studies show that the complete and partial Bouma sequences also can be explained by processes other than turbidity currents, such as sandy debris flows (i.e., {open_quotes}T{sub a}{close_quotes}) and bottom-current reworking (i.e., {open_quotes}T{sub b}, T{sub c} and T{sub d}{close_quotes}). Massive sands are interpreted routinely as high-density turbidites, but the reality is that the term {open_quotes}high-density turbidity current{close_quotes} commonly refers to sandy debris flow in terms of flow theology and sediment-support mechanism. Deep-water sequences in the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Offshore Gabon, Offshore Nigeria, Gulf of Mexico, and the Ouachita Mountains are generally considered to be turbidite-rich submarine fans. However, the reality is that these sequences are composed predominantly of sandy slumps and debris flows, not turbidites. Fan models are attractive to explorationists because of their predictable sheet-like geometries; however, these simplistic conceptual models are obsolete because they defy reality. Although the turbidite paradigm is alive and well for now in the minds of many sedimentologists and sequence stratigraphers, the turbidites themselves that form the foundation for fan models are becoming an endangered facies!

  16. WAVE-E: The WAter Vapour European-Explorer Mission (United States)

    Jimenez-LLuva, David; Deiml, Michael; Pavesi, Sara


    In the last decade, stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes in the Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) have been increasingly recognized to severely impact surface climate and high-impact weather phenomena. Weakened stratospheric circumpolar jets have been linked to worldwide extreme temperature and high-precipitation events, while anomalously strong stratospheric jets can lead to an increase in surface winds and tropical cyclone intensity. Moreover, stratospheric water vapor has been identified as an important forcing for global decadal surface climate change. In the past years, operational weather forecast and climate models have adapted a high vertical resolution in the UTLS region in order to capture the dynamical processes occurring in this highly stratified region. However, there is an evident lack of available measurements in the UTLS region to consistently support these models and further improve process understanding. Consequently, both the IPCC fifth assessment report and the ESA-GEWEX report 'Earth Observation and Water Cycle Science Priorities' have identified an urgent need for long-term observations and improved process understanding in the UTLS region. To close this gap, the authors propose the 'WAter Vapour European - Explorer' (WAVE-E) space mission, whose primary goal is to monitor water vapor in the UTLS at 1 km vertical, 25 km horizontal and sub-daily temporal resolution. WAVE-E consists of three quasi-identical small ( 500 kg) satellites (WAVE-E 1-3) in a constellation of Sun-Synchronous Low Earth Orbits, each carrying a limb sounding and cross-track scanning mid-infrared passive spectrometer (824 cm-1 to 829 cm-1). The core of the instruments builds a monolithic, field-widened type of Michelson interferometer without any moving parts, rendering it rigid and fault tolerant. Synergistic use of WAVE-E and MetOp-NG operational satellites is identified, such that a data fusion algorithm could provide water vapour profiles from the

  17. Vertical displacement of Ips Latidens and Ips Pini (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller


    The effect of semiochemical interruptants was examined for Ips latidens (LeConte) and Ips pini (Say) using artificial trees (tall-traps) consisting of an array of seven Lindgren multiple-funnel traps suspended vertically on a rope ladder. S-(+)- Ipsdienol reduced the numbers of I. latidens captured in (±)-ipsenol...

  18. Identification of a major IP5 kinase in Cryptococcus neoformans confirms that PP-IP5/IP7, not IP6, is essential for virulence


    Cecilia Li; Sophie Lev; Adolfo Saiardi; Desmarini Desmarini; Sorrell, Tania C.; Djordjevic, Julianne T.


    Fungal inositol polyphosphate (IP) kinases catalyse phosphorylation of IP3 to inositol pyrophosphate, PP-IP5/IP7, which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcal Kcs1 converts IP6 to PP-IP5/IP7, but the kinase converting IP5 to IP6 is unknown. Deletion of a putative IP5 kinase-encoding gene (IPK1) alone (ipk1Δ), and in combination with KCS1 (ipk1Δkcs1Δ), profoundly reduced virulence in mice. However, deletion of KCS1 and IPK1 had a greater impact on virulence attenua...

  19. Water Column Exploration Field Trial I (EX0904, EM302) aboard the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the Gorda Ridge, off the coasts of Oregon and California (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise is a water column exploration field trial cruise, designed to test and refine operations for conducting water column exploration using NOAA Ship Okeanos...

  20. Beyond iPS!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available It’s undoubtedly a jubilant moment for scientists and clinicians working in the stem cell arena as Prof. Gurdon and Prof. Shinya Yamanaka have been chosen for the Nobel Prize in Physiology & Medicine this year. The mystery of cell biology is something unfathomable and probably the work of this duo as well as the other scientists, who have put their hands on in- vitro de-differentiation have opened our eyes to a new window or a new paradigm in cell biology. The iPS invention has brought a lot of hope in terms of potential direct benefits to treat several diseases, which have no definite options at the moment. But, we envisage that several spin-offs could come out of this invention and one very significant spin-off finding recently witnessed is the finding by Prof. Masaharu Seno and his team of researchers at the Okayama University, Japan (Chen L, et al. 2012, PLoS ONE 7(4:e33544.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033544. According to Prof. Seno, mouse iPS cells (miPS when cultured in the conditioned medium derived from cancer cell lines, differentiate into cancer stem cells (CSCs. While differentiating into CSCs, they do retain the potential to develop endothelial progenitor cells. Several questions arise here: 1.Are these miPS derived CSCs really pluripotent, even if the terminal differentiation destined to specific phenotypes? 2.Shouldn’t the Cancer Stem Cells be termed as cancer progenitor cells, as till date they are considered to be producing only cancer cells but not pluripotent to yield other types of normal tissues? The spin-offs could be infinite as the process of differentiation and de-differentiation happening due to trillions of signals and pathways, most still remaining not-so-well understood. A special mention should be made to Prof. Shinya Yamanaka as he has several sterling qualities to be a role-model for budding scientists. Apart from his passion for science, which made him shift his career from orthopedics to a cell biologist, his

  1. Porous organic cage membranes for water desalination: a simulation exploration. (United States)

    Kong, Xian; Jiang, Jianwen


    Porous organic cages (POCs) have emerged as a new class of porous materials and received considerable interest for their potential applications. Herein we report the first proof-of-concept simulation study on POC membranes for water desalination. Five [4+6] POCs (CC1, CC2, CC3, CC16, and CC17) are considered with similar crystal structures, but different periphery groups and pore morphologies. CC1 is found to be impermeable to water due to disconnected pores. With an interconnected tetrahedral pore network, CC3 and CC16 have an intermediate water permeability of 1-5 × 10-7 kg m (m2 h bar)-1. CC2 and CC17 contain straight pores and a widely open pore network, respectively, thus exhibit a high water permeability of 2-3 × 10-6 kg m (m2 h bar)-1; nevertheless, salt rejection in CC17 is only 89%. Among the five POC membranes, CC2 is the best for water desalination with performance superior to other membranes reported in the literature. The membrane flexibility is revealed to have a weak effect on water permeation. To provide further microscopic understanding, the permeation duration, diffusion and hydrogen bonding of water in the POC membranes are quantitatively analyzed. From this simulation study, the key factors governing water permeation in the POC membranes are unraveled and CC2 is identified to be an interesting candidate for water desalination.

  2. Identification of a major IP5 kinase in Cryptococcus neoformans confirms that PP-IP5/IP7, not IP6, is essential for virulence. (United States)

    Li, Cecilia; Lev, Sophie; Saiardi, Adolfo; Desmarini, Desmarini; Sorrell, Tania C; Djordjevic, Julianne T


    Fungal inositol polyphosphate (IP) kinases catalyse phosphorylation of IP3 to inositol pyrophosphate, PP-IP5/IP7, which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcal Kcs1 converts IP6 to PP-IP5/IP7, but the kinase converting IP5 to IP6 is unknown. Deletion of a putative IP5 kinase-encoding gene (IPK1) alone (ipk1Δ), and in combination with KCS1 (ipk1Δkcs1Δ), profoundly reduced virulence in mice. However, deletion of KCS1 and IPK1 had a greater impact on virulence attenuation than that of IPK1 alone. ipk1Δkcs1Δ and kcs1Δ lung burdens were also lower than those of ipk1Δ. Unlike ipk1Δ, ipk1Δkcs1Δ and kcs1Δ failed to disseminate to the brain. IP profiling confirmed Ipk1 as the major IP5 kinase in C. neoformans: ipk1Δ produced no IP6 or PP-IP5/IP7 and, in contrast to ipk1Δkcs1Δ, accumulated IP5 and its pyrophosphorylated PP-IP4 derivative. Kcs1 is therefore a dual specificity (IP5 and IP6) kinase producing PP-IP4 and PP-IP5/IP7. All mutants were similarly attenuated in virulence phenotypes including laccase, urease and growth under oxidative/nitrosative stress. Alternative carbon source utilisation was also reduced significantly in all mutants except ipk1Δ, suggesting that PP-IP4 partially compensates for absent PP-IP5/IP7 in ipk1Δ grown under this condition. In conclusion, PP-IP5/IP7, not IP6, is essential for fungal virulence.

  3. In Situ Water Isotope Analyzer for Moon Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Studying the isotopic composition of materials is an established method to obtain detailed insight into formation and evolution processes in our Universe. Water may...

  4. Gevaar VoIP voor telecomsector overdreven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, M.O. van; Wegberg, M. van


    Het is een hype Voice-over-IP (VoIP) voor te stellen als een ontwrichtende technologie die de telecomindustrie ingrijpend zal veranderen. Maar hoe ontwrichtend is VoIP eigenlijk? Oskar van Deventer en Marc van Wegberg analyseren drie vormen van VoIP en laten zien dat alleen ‘VoIP-chat’ potentieel

  5. Exploration (United States)

    Wilburn, D.R.


    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  6. Exploring the chemical composition of water in the Kandalaksha Bay (United States)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Khaitov, Vadim; Maksimova, Victoria; Belkina, Natalia


    Oil films were noted at the head of the Kandalaksha Bay as far back as in 1971, as soon as the first stage of the oil tank farm had been commissioned (the autumn of 1970). In 1997-1998 there were accidental oil spills posing a real threat to the Kandalaksha Reserve biota. In May 2011, oil spills from the Belomorsk oil tank farm resulted in a local environmental emergency. In this work we have traced the evolution of polluted water by means of hydrogeochemical monitoring and reconstructing the chemical composition of surface and near-bottom water of the Kandalaksha Bay by using physical-chemical modeling (Selector software package, Chudnenko, 2010). The surface and near-bottom water was sampled in the summer of 2012 and 2013 at the following sites: under the numbers 3 (N 67.2.673, E 32.23.753); 4 (N 67.3.349, E 32.28.152); 1 (N 67.5.907, E 32.29.779), and 2 (N 67.6.429, E 32.30.539). The monitored objects and sampling time were sensitive to both the effects of the White Sea water (high tide), fresh water, and water affected by human impact (the oil tank farm). At each site, three samples were taken. The next stage involved reconstructing of the sea water ion composition by modeling within the Al-B-Br-Ar-He-Ne-C-Ca-Cl-F-K-Mg-Mn-N-Na-P-S-Si-Sr-Cu-Zn-H-O-e system, where e is an electron. Modeling of the chemical composition of near-bottom water (site 3) has revealed high contents of carbon dioxide, hydrogen disulphide, hydrocarbonates, and no oxygen (Eh<0). All this suggests a transformation of hydrocarbons that might have got to the sampling area in May 2011, or as the result of constant leakage of petroleum hydrocarbons from the oil tank farm. Sampling at site 4 in 2013 has revealed petroleum hydrocarbons both in surface (0.09 mg/l) and near-bottom (0.1 mg/l) water. Both monitoring and modeling have demonstrated that hydrobionts on areas adjoining the oil tank farm are far from prospering. Monitoring should be accompanied by express analysis of oxidizing conditions

  7. Innovative water service operation and maintenance: exploration of franchising partnerships

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K


    Full Text Available backup off-site skills together with the incentive to both call for those skills and to make them available. Findings indicate that many opportunities lie in the franchising of suitable elements in the water services value chain, and a selection...

  8. Exploration of water-recycled cassava bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 13, 2010 ... fermentation. An anaerobic digestion effluent from an alcohol waste water treatment plant is applicable for single use in ethanol fermentation. ... batch fermentation recycling its DS achieved ~10.5% of ethanol production and > 90% of starch .... mesophilic one (Disiman Citric Acid (Wuxi) Co., Ltd, Jiangsu.

  9. Hardware IP security and trust

    CERN Document Server

    Bhunia, Swarup; Tehranipoor, Mark


    This book provides an overview of current Intellectual Property (IP) based System-on-Chip (SoC) design methodology and highlights how security of IP can be compromised at various stages in the overall SoC design-fabrication-deployment cycle. Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of the security vulnerabilities of different types of IPs. This book would enable readers to overcome these vulnerabilities through an efficient combination of proactive countermeasures and design-for-security solutions, as well as a wide variety of IP security and trust assessment and validation techniques. This book serves as a single-source of reference for system designers and practitioners for designing secure, reliable and trustworthy SoCs.

  10. Mineralization and geophysical exploration by IP/RS and ground magnetic survey in MA-I and surrounding area, Maherabad porphyry Cu-Au prospect area, east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Malekzadeh Shafaroudi


    Full Text Available Maherabad prospect area, which is studied in detail, is the first porphyry Cu-Au mineralization in the east of Iran. Based on relation of mineralization with subvolcanic intrusive bodies mostly monzonitic with porphyry texture, extent and types of alteration including potassic, sericitic- potassic, quartz- sericite- carbonate- pyrite, quartz- carbonate- pyrite, silicification- propylitic, propylitic, stockwork mineralization, assemblages hypogene mineralization including pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite and magnetite and high anomalies of Cu and Au, Mineralization is porphyry Cu-Au-type. MA-I area, which is covered by regolith from its surrounding is the most important section of mineralization in the region because of intensive of quartz-sericite-carbonate-pyrite alteration and very high dense quartz-sulfide veinlets. IP/RS and ground magnetic surveys were conducted in the MA-I prospect area and its surrounding plain. Drilling on the IP suede section anomaly resulted to the recognition of sulfide mineralization in on extensive area under the regolith. Surface and underground detailed studies of geology, alteration, mineralization and geochemistry confirm the extension of covered mineralization to the south and west of the area. Based on the ground magnetic anomaly, the center of mineralization system, potassic zone, to the southwest of the area was recognized. Quartz0sericite-carbonate-pyrite alteration zone, which is located around the potassic zone, has very low magnetic response. IP/RS and ground magnetic surveys in a broader area than before are strongly recommended.

  11. An overview of shipwreck explorations in Goa waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    countries (Gune 1990:117-136). The depiction of a naval battle in the memorial stones (l2th-13th centuries) exhibited in the Archaeological Museum, Old Goa, reflect the maritime activity of this region (Rajagopalan 1987:35; Sila Tripati 2006... Aguada and also resemble the anchors kept in the Archaeological Museum at Old Goa and Goa State Museum, Panaji (Sila Tripati, et al. 2003a: 97-106). The exploration led to the recovery of eight elephant tusks (65 to 32 cm in length) only partially...

  12. Exploring Multiscale Materials From Water, DNA to Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Jie


    at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface. Further, we build a graphene device on Si/SiO2 substrate to study the doping effect both atmosphere and substrate. In the DNA self-assembly projects, we employ both AFM and TEM, particular thermal control AFM and Cyro-EM to investigate the structure, thermodynamics...... filamentous bacteria with an occurrence and structure suggesting that they can transport electrons from sulphide to oxygen over centimetres distances in marine sediment. At the same time, with these three typical topics in exploring the multifunctional biomaterials, it could be easy to extend the nanotools...

  13. Complexes of myo-Inositol-Hexakisphosphate (IP6) with Zinc or Lanthanum for the Decorporation of Radiocesium. (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Aoki, Miho; Fukuda, Tadahisa; Kadono, Sumi; Kiwada, Tatsuto; Odani, Akira


    Radioactive nuclides leak into the surrounding environment after nuclear power plant disasters, such as the Chernobyl accident and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) (t1/2=30.1 year), a water-soluble radionuclide with a long physical half-life, contaminates aquatic ecosystems and food products. In humans, (137)Cs concentrates in muscle tissue and has a long biological half-life, indicating it may be harmful. myo-Inositol-hexakisphosphate (IP6) is a compound found in grain, beans, and oil seeds. IP6 has the ability to form insoluble complexes with metals, including lanthanum (La) and zinc (Zn). We hypothesized that La-IP6 and Zn-IP6 may promote the elimination of (137)Cs from the body through the adsorption of La-IP6 and Zn-IP6 to (137)Cs in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the adsorptive capacity of La-IP6 and Zn-IP6 complexes with (137)Cs in vitro and in vivo. La-IP6 and Zn-IP6 complexes were stable in acidic solution (pH 1.2) at 37°C. In vitro binding assays indicated that La-IP6 and Zn-IP6 complexes adsorbed (137)Cs, with the adsorption capacity of Zn-IP6 to (137)Cs greater than that of La-IP6. To evaluate the usefulness of La-IP6 and Zn-IP6 in vivo, La-IP6 or Zn-IP6 was administrated to mice after intravenous injection of (137)Cs. However, the biodistribution of (137)Cs in the La-IP6 treated group and the Zn-IP6 treated group was nearly identical to the non-treated control group, indicating that La-IP6 and Zn-IP6 were not effective at promoting the elimination of (137)Cs in vivo.

  14. An exploration of factors that influence the regular consumption of water by Irish primary school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, C Johnston


    Inadequate hydration has been linked to many factors that may impact on children\\'s education and health. Teachers play an important role in the education and behaviour of children. Previous research has demonstrated low water intake amongst children and negative teachers\\' attitudes to water in the classroom. The present study aimed to explore teachers\\' knowledge about water and the perceived barriers to allowing children access to water during lesson time.

  15. Exploration and excavation of shipwrecks in Goa and adjoining waters 2002-2003

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    . After ascertaining the distribution of objects, positions were taken by Global Positioning System (GPS). This survey marks systematic approach for exploration of shipwrecks in shallow as well as deep waters off Goa....

  16. CATCHprofiles: Clustering and Alignment Tool for ChIP Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. G. Nielsen, Fiona; Galschiøt Markus, Kasper; Møllegaard Friborg, Rune


    Chromatin Immuno Precipitation (ChIP) profiling detects in vivo protein-DNA binding, and has revealed a large combinatorial complexity in the binding of chromatin associated proteins and their post-translational modifications. To fully explore the spatial and combinatorial patterns in ChIP-profil......Chromatin Immuno Precipitation (ChIP) profiling detects in vivo protein-DNA binding, and has revealed a large combinatorial complexity in the binding of chromatin associated proteins and their post-translational modifications. To fully explore the spatial and combinatorial patterns in Ch......IP-profiling data and detect potentially meaningful patterns, the areas of enrichment must be aligned and clustered, which is an algorithmically and computationally challenging task. We have developed CATCHprofiles, a novel tool for exhaustive pattern detection in ChIP profiling data. CATCHprofiles is built upon...... a computationally efficient implementation for the exhaustive alignment and hierarchical clustering of ChIP profiling data. The tool features a graphical interface for examination and browsing of the clustering results. CATCHprofiles requires no prior knowledge about functional sites, detects known binding patterns...

  17. Running TCP/IP over ATM Networks. (United States)

    Witt, Michael


    Discusses Internet protocol (IP) and subnets and describes how IP may operate over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). Topics include TCP (transmission control protocol), ATM cells and adaptation layers, a basic architectural model for IP over ATM, address resolution, mapping IP to a subnet technology, and connection management strategy. (LRW)

  18. Offloading IP Flows onto Lambda-Connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fioreze, Tiago; Oude Wolbers, Mattijs; van de Meent, R.; Pras, Aiko


    Optical networks are capable of switching IP traffic via lambda connections. In this way, big IP flows that overload the regular IP routing level may be moved to the optical level, where they get better Quality of Service (QoS). At the same time, the IP routing level is off-loaded and can serve



    BOLARIĆ, SNJEŽANA; Trusk, Marija; Kozumplik, Vinko; Vokurka, Aleš


    Usporedno s razvojem DNA molekularnih markera kao ishodišnih tehnologija analiza DNA, 90-tih godina prošlog stoljeća znanstvenici su počeli razvijati novu tehnologiju nazvanu DNA-čip. Naziv dolazi od toga što se, tehnički gledano, na maloj staklenoj površini nalaze oligonukleotidni lanci poznatog slijeda baza, što podsječa na elektronički čip. Ostali nazivi koji se spominju u literaturi su: biochip, DNA microarray, gene array, gene chip i drugi. Prema namjeni eksperimenata razvijena su tri gl...

  20. Security Risks in IP Telephony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rezac


    Full Text Available This paper deals with VoIP communication security and various techniques of VoIP attacks. We divided these threats in several categories according to their specific behaviour and their impact on the affected system. We also tried to find effective methods to prevent or mitigate these attacks. We focused our work on Spam over Internet Telephony (SPIT as a real threat for the future. We have developed both a tool generating SPIT attacks and AntiSPIT tool defending communication systems against SPIT attacks. AntiSPIT represents an effective protection based on statistical blacklist and works without participation of the called party which is a significant advantage.

  1. Continuously Connected With Mobile IP (United States)


    Cisco Systems developed Cisco Mobile Networks, making IP devices mobile. With this innovation, a Cisco router and its connected IP devices can roam across network boundaries and connection types. Because a mobile user is able to keep the same IP address while roaming, a live IP connection can be maintained without interruption. Glenn Research Center jointly tested the technology with Cisco, and is working to use it on low-earth-orbiting research craft. With Cisco's Mobile Networks functionality now available in Cisco IOS Software release 12.2(4)T, the commercial advantages and benefits are numerous. The technology can be applied to public safety, military/homeland security, emergency management services, railroad and shipping systems, and the automotive industry. It will allow ambulances, police, firemen, and the U.S. Coast Guard to stay connected to their networks while on the move. In the wireless battlefield, the technology will provide rapid infrastructure deployment for U.S. national defense. Airline, train, and cruise passengers utilizing Cisco Mobile Networks can fly all around the world with a continuous Internet connection. Cisco IOS(R) Software is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems.

  2. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim


    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  3. Clustering of IP3 receptors by IP3 retunes their regulation by IP3 and Ca2+


    Taufiq-Ur-Rahman,; Skupin, Alexander; Falcke, Martin; Taylor, Colin W.


    The versatility of Ca2+ signals derives from their spatio-temporal organization1,2. For Ca2+ signals initiated by inositol trisphosphate (IP3) this requires local interactions between IP3 receptors (IP3R)3,4 mediated by their rapid stimulation and slower inhibition4 by cytosolic Ca2+. This allows hierarchical recruitment of Ca2+ release events as the IP3 concentration increases5. Single IP3R respond first, then clustered IP3R open together giving a local Ca2+ puff, and as puffs become more fr...

  4. Virtual water trade of agricultural products: A new perspective to explore the Belt and Road. (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jin-He; Tian, Qing; Liu, Ze-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Lei


    The Belt and Road is an initiative of cooperation and development that was proposed by China. Moreover, most of the spanning countries faced water shortages and agriculture consumed a lot of water. Virtual water links water, food and trade and is an effective tool to ease water shortages. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the Belt and Road from the new perspective of virtual water trade of agricultural products. We considered agricultural products trade from 2001 to 2015. On the whole, the results indicated that China was in virtual water trade surplus with the countries along the Belt and Road. However, in terms of each country, >40 spanning countries were in virtual water trade surplus with China and eased water shortages. Russia had the largest net imported virtual water from China. Furthermore, the proportion of the grey water footprint that China exported to the spanning countries was much higher than that imported, no matter from the whole or different geographical regions. Moreover, more than half of the countries' virtual water trade with China conformed to the virtual water strategy, which helped to ease water crises. Furthermore, the products that they exported to China were mainly advantageous products that each spanning countries have. Virtual water trade is a new perspective to explore the Belt and Road. Agricultural products trade with China definitely benefits both the countries along the Belt and Road and China from the perspective of virtual water. The findings are beneficial for the water management of the countries along the Belt and Road and China, alleviating water shortages, encouraging the rational allocation of water resources in the various departments. They can provide references for optimizing trade structures as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Jelić


    Full Text Available Water exploration at several localities of the Adriatic karst sea-shore band was carried out by the dual gradient mapping of apparent electrical resistivity. By this method controlling the resistivity relation with depth by constant electric stream fields of different depth actions, the anomalies were obtained with apparent resistivity which can be related to deep karst fault zones, used as communication of water from coast background with off-shore springs and submarine springs. The advantage of this method in comparison with the usual geoelectric exploration methods of water in karst is, that electric fields are kept constant by lateral control of the apparent resistivity at some depth interval, which decreases the impact of surface inhomogenuities and electrically visible infrastructural constructions in urban environment on the correct interpretation of measured anomalies. The sea water as a big mass with low resistivity represents a disadvantage for geoelectrical exploration on the sea shore, which masks the explored anomalies at depth. Although, this anomalies can be recognised by this method. The report discusses the case of a successful exploration on the coastal area upwards of Opatija, where efforts have been made for many years to trap water flowing out of many off-shore and submarine springs (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Comparative proteomics exploring the molecular mechanism of eutrophic water purification using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). (United States)

    Li, Xiong; Xi, Houcheng; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yunqiang; Yang, Shihai; Zhou, Yanli; Zhou, Xinmao; Yang, Yongping


    Eutrophication is a serious threat to ecosystem stability and use of water resources worldwide. Accordingly, physical, chemical, and biological technologies have been developed to treat eutrophic water. Phytoremediation has attracted a great deal of attention, and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is regarded as one of the best plants for purification of eutrophic water. Previous studies have shown that water hyacinths remove nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) via diverse processes and that they can inhibit the growth of algae. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these processes, especially the role of proteins, are unknown. In this study, we applied a proteomics approach to investigate the protein dynamics of water hyacinth under three eutrophication levels. The results suggested that proteins with various functions, including response to stress, N and P metabolic pathways, synthesis and secretion, photosynthesis, biosynthesis, and energy metabolism, were involved in regulating water hyacinth to endure the excess-nutrient environment, remove N and P, and inhibit algal growth. The results help us understand the mechanism of purification of eutrophic water by water hyacinth and supply a theoretical basis for improving techniques for phytoremediation of polluted water.

  7. [Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell - issues for clinical application - ]. (United States)

    Aoi, Takashi


    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from somatic cells by introducing small sets of transcription factors. iPS cells demonstrate pluripotency and the ability to self-renew. In addition, iPS cells can be generated from donor individuals with particular characteristics. Based on these features, iPS cells are expected to be applicable in drug discovery, the study of disease mechanisms and cell therapy. From a technical point of view, "diversity" is the key word. At present, iPS cells can be derived using various techniques, resulting in diversity in the quality of iPS cells generated. Therefore, optimization of the derivation technology is one of the most important issues. Another "diversity" is in the propensities amongst iPS cell lines derived using similar techniques. Thus, strategies for selecting good quality lines remain to be established. Considering such technical hurdles, establishment of an iPS cell bank consisting of high quality and versatile iPS lines is a promising idea because of the merits of cost and quality control. Now, we are exploring relevant parameters for the quality control of banked cells. The challenges facing clinical application of iPS cells are new but not unprecedented. To realize clinical applications of iPS cells, we need to make these challenges clear and overcome them through partnership not only with industry, governments and universities, but also patients and society at large.

  8. Exploration of Impinging Water Spray Heat Transfer at System Pressures Near the Triple Point (United States)

    Golliher, Eric L.; Yao, Shi-Chune


    The heat transfer of a water spray impinging upon a surface in a very low pressure environment is of interest to cooling of space vehicles during launch and re-entry, and to industrial processes where flash evaporation occurs. At very low pressure, the process occurs near the triple point of water, and there exists a transient multiphase transport problem of ice, water and water vapor. At the impingement location, there are three heat transfer mechanisms: evaporation, freezing and sublimation. A preliminary heat transfer model was developed to explore the interaction of these mechanisms at the surface and within the spray.

  9. Evaluation and Investigation of the Delay in VoIP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Janata


    Full Text Available The paper is focused mainly on the delay problems, which considerably influence the final quality of connections in VoIP (Voice over IP networks. The paper provides a detailed exploration of the nature and mechanisms of the delay. The main purpose of the investigation was an attempt to formulate a mathematical model of delay in the VoIP network and its subsequent analysis by laboratory data.

  10. Evolving science enhanced with iPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Dear friends, Greetings from all in the team. With the stage set for online submissions and the review-response-revision-resubmission process standardized, we have come with the first regular issue and from now there will be quarterly issues of the journal. Since the starting of the JSRM in a short span there have been a lot of developments, which we would rather say as "evolutions" keeping in mind, the recent iPS! This evolution we would like you to see from a background of the various developments in the art and science of medicine throughout in the past three centuries. We have come across the era of investigative tools such as bamboo made laryngoscopes to era of vaccines and antibiotics followed by the era of revolutionary non-invasive procedures and recently the nano technology based drugs and now the iPS! Macro to Micro, but still more to go. All through the influence of the society, religions, philosophies have been playing a very important role in every step the science of biology moves ahead. Starting with the contraception, assisted reproduction then the gene modified plants....and now the embryonic stem cells! With the advent of the iPS, though the issues of oncogenes, teratoma yet to be ruled out, we have found there is a way which can bypass the ES cells! Hats off to those scientists who have burnt their midnight oil to have found this way out! The lesson we learn is to explore things with an open mind and continue to proceed further without spending much time fingers crossed. Yours sincerely,The Editorial team.

  11. Exploring the dynamics of water innovation: Foundations for water innovation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehn, U.; Montalvo, C.


    The urgent need for innovation to address multifaceted and intertwined water-related challenges is becoming increasingly clear, acknowledged and responded to with cumulating sources and amounts of funding. Nevertheless, the water sector has been claimed to be less innovative than other sectors. This

  12. Empirical assessment of VoIP overload detection tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Żuraniewski, P.; Mandjes, M.; Mellia, M.


    The control of communication networks critically relies on procedures capable of detecting unanticipated load changes. In this paper we explore such techniques, in a setting in which each connection consumes roughly the same amount of bandwidth (with VoIP as a leading example). We focus on

  13. Exploring water and food security: the water footprint of domestic food production in the Gaza Strip (United States)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Dotelli, Giovanni; Melià, Paco


    Water scarcity and food security are major issues in the Gaza Strip. This area is characterized by one of the highest densities in the world and it is affected by both severe scarcity of water resources and limited trading possibilities.Given this context, the enhancement of domestic food production is considered a fundamental strategy in achieving food security in the area. For this reason, rural people play a crucial role in implementing sustainable strategies for enhancing the domestic food production while preserving water resources. In order to investigate the effectiveness of existing agricultural scenarios in achieving food security in a sustainable manner, we propose a framework to assess food production systems in terms of their contribution to the nutritional and economic conditions of rural households and their impact on water resources. In particular, the latter has been carried out through the water footprint indicator proposed by the Water Footprint Network. The case study analyzed is a sample farm located in the Gaza Strip, whose food production is based on horticulture, animal husbandry and aquaculture. The study is articulated into two main parts: first, we compare alternative scenarios of vegetal and animal food production in terms of food supply, water consumption and economic income at the household scale; then, we extend the analysis to evaluate the potential contribution of domestic food production to the food security in the whole Gaza Strip, focusing on the nutritional dimension, and providing a preliminary assessment of the environmental and economic sustainability. In particular, we evaluate water appropriation for domestic food production and compare it with the availability of water resources in the region. The outcomes highlight that the domestic food production can potentially satisfy both a basic diet and economic income for rural household, but the related appropriation of freshwater results unsustainable with respect to the fresh

  14. Internetworking with TCP/IP

    CERN Document Server

    Comer, Douglas E


    An internationally best-selling, conceptual introduction to the TCP/IP protocols and Internetworking, this book interweaves a clear discussion of fundamentals and scientific principles with details and examples drawn from the latest technologies. Leading author Douglas Comer covers layering and packet formats for all the Internet protocols, includingTCP, IPv4, IPv6, DHCP, and DNS. In addition, the text explains new trends in Internet systems, including packet classification, Software Defined Networking (SDN), and mesh protocols used in The Internet of Things. The text is appropriate for individuals interested in learning more about TCP/IP protocols, Internet architecture, and current networking technologies, as well as engineers who build network systems. It is suitable for junior to graduate-level courses in Computer Networks, Data Networks, Network Protocols, and Internetworking.

  15. OSI and TCP/IP (United States)

    Randolph, Lynwood P.


    The Open Systems Interconnection Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (OSI TCP/IP) and the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) are compared and described in terms of Federal internetworking. The organization and functions of the Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel (FIRP) are discussed and the panel's conclusions and recommendations with respect to the standards and implementation of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) are presented.

  16. Role of Ipsdienol, Ipsenol, and cis-Verbenol in chemical ecology of Ips avulsus, Ips calligraphus, and Ips grandicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) (United States)

    Jeremy D. Allison; Jessica I. McKenney; Daniel R. Miller; Matthew L. Gimmel


    ABSTRACT Stressed or damaged pine (Pinus sp.) trees in the southeastern United States are often colonized simultaneously by three southern Ips species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): small southern pine engraver, Ips avulsus (Eichhoff); sixspined ips, Ips calligraphus (Germar); and...

  17. Ips Bark Beetles in the South (United States)

    Michael D. Conner; Robert C. Wilkinson


    Ips beetles usually attack weakened, dying, or recently felled trees and fresh logging debris. Large numbers Ips may build up when natural events such as lightning storms, ice storms, tornadoes, wildfires, and droughts create large amounts of pine suitable for the breeding of these beetles. Ips populations may also build up following forestry activities, such as...

  18. Exploring pathways for sustainable water management in river deltas in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Middelkoop, H.; Offermans, A.; van Beek, Eelco; van Deursen, W.P.A.


    Exploring adaptation pathways into an uncertain future can support decisionmaking in achieving sustainable water management in a changing environment. Our objective is to develop and test a method to identify such pathways by including dynamics from natural variability and the interaction between

  19. The future water environment--using scenarios to explore the significant water management challenges in England and Wales to 2050. (United States)

    Henriques, C; Garnett, K; Weatherhead, E K; Lickorish, F A; Forrow, D; Delgado, J


    Society gets numerous benefits from the water environment. It is crucial to ensure that water management practices deliver these benefits over the long-term in a sustainable and cost-effective way. Currently, hydromorphological alterations and nutrient enrichment pose the greatest challenges in European water bodies. The rapidly changing climatic and socio-economic boundary conditions pose further challenges to water management decisions and the achievement of policy goals. Scenarios are a strategic tool useful in conducting systematic investigations of future uncertainties pertaining to water management. In this study, the use of scenarios revealed water management challenges for England and Wales to 2050. A set of existing scenarios relevant to river basin management were elaborated through stakeholder workshops and interviews, relying on expert knowledge to identify drivers of change, their interdependencies, and influence on system dynamics. In a set of four plausible alternative futures, the causal chain from driving forces through pressures to states, impacts and responses (DPSIR framework) was explored. The findings suggest that scenarios driven by short-term economic growth and competitiveness undermine current environmental legislative requirements and exacerbate the negative impacts of climate change, producing a general deterioration of water quality and physical habitats, as well as reduced water availability with adverse implications for the environment, society and economy. Conversely, there are substantial environmental improvements under the scenarios characterised by long-term sustainability, though achieving currently desired environmental outcomes still poses challenges. The impacts vary across contrasting generic catchment types that exhibit distinct future water management challenges. The findings suggest the need to address hydromorphological alterations, nutrient enrichment and nitrates in drinking water, which are all likely to be

  20. Security of IP Telephony in Ecuador: Online Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Estrada


    Full Text Available Telephony is a global service and thus telephone networks have been a coveted target for criminals. Now that voice can be transported over IP and that multiple services are integrated in a convergent model through Internet, there are more incentives to attack and more attackers. Moreover, the development of open source telephone applications has encouraged the massive use of IP telephony, but not an increased awareness about embedded security risks. Due to the current and intensive adoption of IP telephony systems in Ecuador, we conducted an exploration based on public information to obtain statistics about telephone systems connected to Internet in Ecuador. Additionally, using a deliberately vulnerable IP telephony system, we collected more data to do a preliminary analysis of threats to such systems. We found that hundreds of telephone systems were publicly available on the Internet and using outdated versions of Asterisk-based applications. We also found thousands of malicious interactions on the IP telephony system we deployed on the Internet.

  1. Challenges Regarding IP Core Functional Reliability (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.


    For many years, intellectual property (IP) cores have been incorporated into field programmable gate array (FPGA) and application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design flows. However, the usage of large complex IP cores were limited within products that required a high level of reliability. This is no longer the case. IP core insertion has become mainstream including their use in highly reliable products. Due to limited visibility and control, challenges exist when using IP cores and subsequently compromise product reliability. We discuss challenges and suggest potential solutions to critical application IP insertion.

  2. Mobile-ip Aeronautical Network Simulation Study (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Tran, Diepchi T.


    NASA is interested in applying mobile Internet protocol (mobile-ip) technologies to its space and aeronautics programs. In particular, mobile-ip will play a major role in the Advanced Aeronautic Transportation Technology (AATT), the Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM), and the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) aeronautics programs. This report presents the results of a simulation study of mobile-ip for an aeronautical network. The study was performed to determine the performance of the transmission control protocol (TCP) in a mobile-ip environment and to gain an understanding of how long delays, handoffs, and noisy channels affect mobile-ip performance.

  3. Optical switching using IP protocol (United States)

    Utreras, Andres J.; Gusqui, Luis; Reyes, Andres; Mena, Ricardo I.; Licenko, Gennady L.; Amirgaliyev, Yedilkhan; Komada, Paweł; Luganskaya, Saule; Kashaganova, Gulzhan


    To understand and evaluate the Optical Layer, and how it will affect the IP protocols over WDM (Switching), the present analyse is proposed. Optical communications have attractive proprieties, but also have some disadvantages, so the challenge is to combine the best of both branches. In this paper, general concepts for different options of switching are reviewed as: optical burst switching (OBS) and automatically switching optical network (ASON). Specific details such as their architectures are also discussed. In addition, the relevant characteristics of each variation for switching are reviewed.

  4. TCP/IP Network Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Craig


    This complete guide to setting up and running a TCP/IP network is essential for network administrators, and invaluable for users of home systems that access the Internet. The book starts with the fundamentals -- what protocols do and how they work, how addresses and routing are used to move data through the network, how to set up your network connection -- and then covers, in detail, everything you need to know to exchange information via the Internet. Included are discussions on advanced routing protocols (RIPv2, OSPF, and BGP) and the gated software package that implements them, a tutorial

  5. IPS y el Tercer Mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Savio


    Full Text Available CHASQUI, entrevistó al periodista italo-argentino Roberto Savio, director fundador de la IPS, quien respondió a interrogantes como: En América Latina no hay sociedades de comunicación sino de información? ¿ Por qué y cúal la diferencia? ¿Cómo se puede hacer una sociedad comunicacional en A. Latina? ¿Cuál es la diferencia entre comunicación alternativa y popular? ¿Qué hacer para ampliar el mercado de lectores?¿Qué opina de ASIN y ALASE?

  6. IP Profiling via Service Cluster Membership Vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoletti, A


    This study investigates the feasibility of establishing and maintaining a system of compact IP behavioral profiles as a robust means of computer anomaly definition and detection. These profiles are based upon the degree to which a system's (IP's) network traffic is distributed among stable characteristic clusters derived of the aggregate session traffic generated by each of the major network services. In short, an IP's profile represents its degree of membership in these derived service clusters. The goal is to quantify and rank behaviors that are outside of the statistical norm for the services in question, or present significant deviation from profile for individual client IPs. Herein, we establish stable clusters for accessible features of common session traffic, migrate these clusters over time, define IP behavior profiles with respect to these clusters, migrate individual IP profiles over time, and demonstrate the detection of IP behavioral changes in terms of deviation from profile.

  7. Voice over IP in Wireless Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Chakraborty, Shyam; Prasad, Ramjee

    with the deployment of wireless heterogeneous systems, both speech and data traffic are carrried over wireless links by the same IP-based packet-switched infrastructure. However, this combination faces some challenges due to the inherent properties of the wireless network. The requirements for good quality VoIP...... communications are difficult to achieve in a time-varying environment due to channel errors and traffic congestion and across different systems. The provision of VoIP in wireless heterogeneous networks requires a set of time-efficient control mechanisms to support a VoIP session with acceptable quality....... The focus of Voice over IP in Wierless Heterogeneous Networks is on mechanisms that affect the VoIP user satisfaction  while not explicitly involved in the media session. This relates to the extra delays introduced by the security and the signaling protocols used to set up an authorized VoIP session...

  8. Air and Water System (AWS) Design and Technology Selection for the Vision for Space Exploration (United States)

    Jones, Harry; Kliss, Mark


    This paper considers technology selection for the crew air and water recycling systems to be used in long duration human space exploration. The specific objectives are to identify the most probable air and water technologies for the vision for space exploration and to identify the alternate technologies that might be developed. The approach is to conduct a preliminary first cut systems engineering analysis, beginning with the Air and Water System (AWS) requirements and the system mass balance, and then define the functional architecture, review the International Space Station (ISS) technologies, and discuss alternate technologies. The life support requirements for air and water are well known. The results of the mass flow and mass balance analysis help define the system architectural concept. The AWS includes five subsystems: Oxygen Supply, Condensate Purification, Urine Purification, Hygiene Water Purification, and Clothes Wash Purification. AWS technologies have been evaluated in the life support design for ISS node 3, and in earlier space station design studies, in proposals for the upgrade or evolution of the space station, and in studies of potential lunar or Mars missions. The leading candidate technologies for the vision for space exploration are those planned for Node 3 of the ISS. The ISS life support was designed to utilize Space Station Freedom (SSF) hardware to the maximum extent possible. The SSF final technology selection process, criteria, and results are discussed. Would it be cost-effective for the vision for space exploration to develop alternate technology? This paper will examine this and other questions associated with AWS design and technology selection.

  9. The Spacelab IPS Star Simulator (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C., III

    The cost of doing business in space is very high. If errors occur while in orbit the costs grow and desired scientific data may be corrupted or even lost. The Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS) Star Simulator is a unique test bed that allows star trackers to interface with simulated stars in a laboratory before going into orbit. This hardware-in-the loop testing of equipment on earth increases the probability of success while in space. The IPS Star Simulator provides three fields of view 2.55 x 2.55 degrees each for input into star trackers. The fields of view are produced on three separate monitors. Each monitor has 4096 x 4096 addressable points and can display 50 stars (pixels) maximum at a given time. The pixel refresh rate is 1000 Hz. The spectral output is approximately 550 nm. The available relative visual magnitude range is 2 to 8 visual magnitudes. The star size is less than 100 arc seconds. The minimum star movement is less than 5 arc seconds and the relative position accuracy is approximately 40 arc seconds. The purpose of this paper is to describe the LPS Star Simulator design and to provide an operational scenario so others may gain from the approach and possible use of the system.

  10. Building a framework to explore water-human interaction for sustainable agro ecosystems in US Midwest (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Ding, D.; Rapolu, U.


    Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. On this context, this team has investigated connections among agriculture, policy, climate, land use/land cover, and water quality in Iowa over the past couple of years. To help explore these connections the team is developing a variety of cyber infrastructure tools that facilitate the collection, analysis and visualization of data, and the simulation of system dynamics. In an ongoing effort, the prototype system is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa in the US Midwest, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems. The primary aim of this research is to understand the connections that exist among the agricultural and biofuel economy, land use/land cover change, and water quality. To help explore these connections an agent-based model (ABM) of land use change has been developed that simulates the decisions made by farmers given alternative assumptions about market forces, farmer characteristics, and water quality regulations. The SWAT model was used to simulate the impact of these decisions on the movement of sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus across the landscape. The paper also demonstrate how through the use of this system researchers can, for example, search for scenarios that lead to desirable socio-economic outcomes as well as preserve water quantity and quality.

  11. Enabling IP Header Compression in COTS Routers via Frame Relay on a Simplex Link (United States)

    Nguyen, Sam P.; Pang, Jackson; Clare, Loren P.; Cheng, Michael K.


    NASA is moving toward a networkcentric communications architecture and, in particular, is building toward use of Internet Protocol (IP) in space. The use of IP is motivated by its ubiquitous application in many communications networks and in available commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology. The Constellation Program intends to fit two or more voice (over IP) channels on both the forward link to, and the return link from, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) during all mission phases. Efficient bandwidth utilization of the links is key for voice applications. In Voice over IP (VoIP), the IP packets are limited to small sizes to keep voice latency at a minimum. The common voice codec used in VoIP is G.729. This new algorithm produces voice audio at 8 kbps and in packets of 10-milliseconds duration. Constellation has designed the VoIP communications stack to use the combination of IP/UDP/RTP protocols where IP carries a 20-byte header, UDP (User Datagram Protocol) carries an 8-byte header, and RTP (Real Time Transport Protocol) carries a 12-byte header. The protocol headers total 40 bytes and are equal in length to a 40-byte G.729 payload, doubling the VoIP latency. Since much of the IP/UDP/RTP header information does not change from IP packet to IP packet, IP/UDP/RTP header compression can avoid transmission of much redundant data as well as reduce VoIP latency. The benefits of IP header compression are more pronounced at low data rate links such as the forward and return links during CEV launch. IP/UDP/RTP header compression codecs are well supported by many COTS routers. A common interface to the COTS routers is through frame relay. However, enabling IP header compression over frame relay, according to industry standard (Frame Relay IP Header Compression Agreement FRF.20), requires a duplex link and negotiations between the compressor router and the decompressor router. In Constellation, each forward to and return link from the CEV in space is treated

  12. Implementasi Sistem IP PBX menggunakan Briker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstrak VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol adalah komunikasi suara jarak jauh yang digunakan melalui jaringan IP. Pada penelitian ini dirancang sistem IP PBX dengan menggunakan teknologi berbasis VoIP. IP PBX adalah perangkat switching komunikasi telepon dan data berbasis teknologi Internet Protocol (IP yang mengendalikan ekstension telepon analog maupun ekstension IP Phone. Software VirtualBox digunakan dengan tujuan agar lebih memudahkan dalam sistem pengoperasian Linux yang dimana program untuk membuat IP PBX adalah menggunakan Briker yang bekerja pada Operating System Linux 2.6. Setelah proses penginstalan Briker pada Virtualbox dilakukan implementasi jaringan IP PBX. Setelah mengimplementasikan jaringan IP PBX sesuai dengan topologi, kemudian melakukan pengujian success call rate dan analisis Quality of Service (QoS. Pengukuran QoS menggunakan parameter jitter, delay, dan packet loss yang dihasilkan dalam sistem IP PBX ini. Nilai jitter sesama user Briker (baik pada smartphone maupun komputer mempunyai rata-rata berada pada nilai 16,77 ms. Sedangkan nilai packetloss yang didapat pada saat terdapat pada saat user 1 sebagai pemanggil telepon adalah 0%. Sedangkan persentase packet loss pada saat user 1 sebagai penerima telepon adalah 0,01%. Nilai delay pada saat berkomunikasi antar user berada pada 11,75 ms. Secara keseluruhan nilai yang didapatkan melalui penelitian ini, dimana hasil pengujian parameter-parameter QOS sesuai dengan standar yang telah direkomendasikan oleh ITU dan didapatkan nilai QoS dengan hasil “baik”. Kata Kunci : Briker, VoIP, QoS, IP PBX, Smartphone. Abstract VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol is a long-distance voice communications over IP networks are used. In this study, IP PBX systems designed using VoIP -based technologies. IP PBX is a telephone switching device and data communication technology-based Internet Protocol (IP which controls the analog phone extensions and IP Phone extensions. VirtualBox software is

  13. Applying a gaming approach to IP strategy. (United States)

    Gasnier, Arnaud; Vandamme, Luc


    Adopting an appropriate IP strategy is an important but complex area, particularly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors, in which aspects such as regulatory submissions, high competitive activity, and public health and safety information requirements limit the amount of information that can be protected effectively through secrecy. As a result, and considering the existing time limits for patent protection, decisions on how to approach IP in these sectors must be made with knowledge of the options and consequences of IP positioning. Because of the specialized nature of IP, it is necessary to impart knowledge regarding the options and impact of IP to decision-makers, whether at the level of inventors, marketers or strategic business managers. This feature review provides some insight on IP strategy, with a focus on the use of a new 'gaming' approach for transferring the skills and understanding needed to make informed IP-related decisions; the game Patentopolis is discussed as an example of such an approach. Patentopolis involves interactive activities with IP-related business decisions, including the exploitation and enforcement of IP rights, and can be used to gain knowledge on the impact of adopting different IP strategies.

  14. Vaccines and IP Rights: A Multifaceted Relationship. (United States)

    Durell, Karen


    Just as there are many forms of vaccines and components to vaccines-particular compositions, delivery systems, components, and distribution networks-there are a variety of intellectual property (IP) protections applicable for vaccines. IP rights such as patent, copyright, trademarks, plant breeders' rights, and trade secrets may all be applicable to vaccines. Thus, discussion of IP rights and vaccines should not begin and end with the application of one IP right to a vaccine. The discussion should engage considerations of multiple IP rights applicable to a vaccine and how these can be utilized in an integrated manner in a strategy aimed at supporting the development and distribution of the vaccine. Such an approach to IP rights to vaccines allows for the integrated rights to be considered in light of the justifications for protecting vaccines with IP rights, as well as the issues relating to specific IP rights for vaccines, such as compulsory license regimes, available humanitarian purpose IP credits, etc. To view vaccines as the subject of multiple IP protections involves a refocusing, but the outcome can provide significant benefits for vaccine development and distribution.

  15. Exploring the temporal effects of seasonal water availability on the snail kite of Florida: Part III (United States)

    Mooij, Wolf M.; Martin, Julien; Kitchens, Wiley M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Bissonette, John A.; Storch, Ilse


    The Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is an endangered raptor that occurs as an isolated population, currently of about 2,000 birds, in the wetlands of southern and central Florida, USA. Its exclusive prey species, the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) is strongly influenced by seasonal changes in water abundance. Droughts during the snail kite breeding season have a direct negative effect on snail kite survival and reproduction, but droughts are also needed to maintain aquatic vegetation types favorable to snail kite foraging for snails. We used a spatially explicit matrix model to explore the effects of temporal variation in water levels on the viability of the snail kite population under different temporal drought regimes in its wetland breeding habitat. We focused on three aspects of variations in water levels that were likely to affect kites: (1) drought frequency; (2) drought duration; and (3) drought timing within the year. We modeled a 31-year historical scenario using four different scenarios in which the average water level was maintained constant, but the amplitude of water level fluctuations was modified. Our results reveal the complexity of the effects of temporal variation in water levels on snail kite population dynamics. Management implications of these results are discussed. In particular, management decisions should not be based on annual mean water levels alone, but must consider the intra-annual variability.

  16. A practitioner's guide for exploring water quality patterns using principal components analysis and Procrustes. (United States)

    Sergeant, C J; Starkey, E N; Bartz, K K; Wilson, M H; Mueter, F J


    To design sustainable water quality monitoring programs, practitioners must choose meaningful variables, justify the temporal and spatial extent of measurements, and demonstrate that program objectives are successfully achieved after implementation. Consequently, data must be analyzed across several variables and often from multiple sites and seasons. Multivariate techniques such as ordination are common throughout the water quality literature, but methods vary widely and could benefit from greater standardization. We have found little clear guidance and open source code for efficiently conducting ordination to explore water quality patterns. Practitioners unfamiliar with techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) are faced with a steep learning curve to summarize expansive data sets in periodic reports and manuscripts. Here, we present a seven-step framework for conducting PCA and associated tests. The last step is dedicated to conducting Procrustes analysis, a valuable but rarely used test within the water quality field that describes the degree of concordance between separate multivariate data matrices and provides residual values for similar points across each matrix. We illustrate the utility of these tools using three increasingly complex water quality case studies in US parklands. The case studies demonstrate how PCA and Procrustes analysis answer common applied monitoring questions such as (1) do data from separate monitoring locations describe similar water quality regimes, and (2) what time periods exhibit the greatest water quality regime variability? We provide data sets and annotated R code for recreating case study results and as a base for crafting new code for similar monitoring applications.

  17. The exploration and prevention of mine water invasion in Feicheng area based on RS (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Guo; Wang, Ping; Ting, He


    Recently, when the ninth and tenth were mined in Feiching city mining area, several mine wells occurred on water invasion. Based on systematic interpretation of TMimages in Fei Cheng mining area, authors find that there are five zones of NS trending lineaments, which nearly distribute in radial in TM images. Image processing can be divided into three types, they are spectrum enhancement, spatial filtering and data fusion, the useful methods in this area are auto-adaptive enhancement, density slicing and K-L transform. With ninth and tenth seam coals mined, three mines of east area have broken out serious accidents of water. Statistical materials and the test of water quality drawing off five limestone indicates water-yielding zone near NS, NNE, and NW trending faults, or near intersection point of its and others. In order to solve the problem, using remote sensing and other techniques, we try to find some influential factors on mine flow. Further analyses, such as, the exploration of geology on earth, and microcosmic from rock slice, the authors find that there are some reasons which lead to water invasion such as geological structure, karsts, index and so on, in which the main reason might be north-south deep fracture which is the pathway of well water's distribution, migration and recharge of mine water. There being more complicate geologic structure in the west of mine area, at last, with RS authors point out important zone of mine water invasion which the prevention-control of hazards from mine water and some measures to avoid water blast in future.

  18. Explorative catalyst screening studies on reforming of glycerol in supercritical water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, J. G.; Kirillov, V. A.; Amosov, Y. I.; Krieger, T.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Assink, D.; Lemmens, K. P. J.; Heeres, H. J.


    An explorative screening study with Pt/CeZrO2, Ni/ZrO2. Ni/CaO-6Al(2)O(3), NiCu/CeZrO2, and a CuZn alloy was carried out to investigate the influence of different catalysts on the carbon-to-gas efficiency and gas composition in the reforming of glycerol in supercritical water. Experiments were

  19. Radiant Cooling for Closed-Loop Water Containment: Exploration of Possible Application in Dry Docks (United States)


    Radiant Cooling For Closed-Loop Water Containment: Exploration of Possible Application in Dry Docks by Trevor R. Murphy, Mechanical...Organization: SPAWAR Sponsoring Organization: NESDI Keywords: Dry Dock Cooling, Heat Transfer, Closed Loop, Pipe System, Cost, Pareto List of Programs...provide data for estimating the cost of implementing a closed-loop radiant cooling system for ships in dry docks . Depending on the material used, pipe

  20. Performance of VoIP on HSDPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Bang; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Kolding, Troels E.


    This paper provides packet scheduler design and performance simulations for running VoIP services over high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) in WCDMA. The main challenge of supporting VoIP service on HSDPA is the tight delay requirement combined with the small VoIP packet size. A packet...... scheduler design incorporating VoIP packet aggregation and user multiplexing is proposed and the VoIP capacity is studied for a macro-cellular environment. Results are obtained for different delay budgets and packet scheduling settings, using either blind round robin or a slightly modified version...... of proportional fair scheduling. For proportional fair scheduling with code-multiplexing of 4-users, the downlink VoIP cell capacity on HSDPA is found to be in the range 72-104 users depending on whether the delay budget for the Node-B scheduling and user reception equals 80 ms or 150 ms, respectively....

  1. Universal Space IP Transparent Proxy Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Communications applications are strategically moving toward Internet Protocol-based architectures and technologies. Despite IP's huge potential, (e.g. cost...

  2. Application of AI on exploring the relationship between fish community and water quality (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Ping; Chang, Fi-John


    Subject to the geographic environment and climatic conditions of Taiwan, rivers in Taiwan are of steep slopes and flow into oceans very quickly. Due to the severe intensity and short duration of typhoons and storms, sudden rainfall would easily cause huge variations and significant impacts on riverine eco-hydrological environments. To make an effective and comprehensive assessment for sustainable water resources management, this study aims to investigate the relationship between river flow and water quality on fish communities in order to comprehend the situations of the eco-hydrological system in this river basin. We collect a complete set of observational heterogeneity data, which include water quality parameters, stream flow and fish species in the Danshui River of northern Taiwan. This study attempts to improve the understanding of the relationship between water quality parameters, flow regime and fish species by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The Self-organizing feature map (SOM) is an unsupervised learning algorithm used to cluster, analyze and visualize a large number of data. The results of map size selection for the SOM show that nine clusters (3x3) form the optimum map size based on the local minimum values of both quantization error (QE) and topographic error (TE). The clustering results demonstrate that the SOM is capable of clustering the datasets suitably and can be considered as a powerful tool for further exploration of the relationship between water quality parameters and fish species. It is noted that according to the results of the structure index, the representative indicators of water quality parameters and fish species in the Dahan River, the main tributary of the Danshui River, consist of dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), water temperature, Onychostoma barbatulum, Rhinogobius candidianus, Unidentified Opsariichthys/Zacco spp., Formosania lacustre, Candidia barbata and Hemimyzon formosanus, respectively. The results of

  3. Exploring soil water budget of a pristine oak wood in peri-urban Rome, central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Moretti


    Full Text Available 72 544x376 Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";} Exploring soil water budget of a pristine oak wood in peri-urban Rome, central Italy. The water budget in bounded and fenced areas was assessed by analyzing pedo-climatic conditions and the soil moisture content. Water content in the soil was measured using a Theta Probe Soil Moisture sensor (ML2x by Delta-T-Devices with a direct read-out device that provides soil moisture estimates as percent volume. The correlation between the experimental values obtained by the gravimetricmethod and thevalues directly measured by Theta Probe was found significant. Soil moisture at 100 cm depth indicates soil water as permanently available for plants through the year except during exceptionally dry summer periods. Therefore, oaks experienced no water deficiency with normal rainfall rates, possibly suffering root asphyxia during rainy years. Results are collected in fenced areas, sheltered by the action of the local fauna.

  4. Results of the Alternative Water Processor Test, A Novel Technology for Exploration Wastewater Remediation (United States)

    Vega, Leticia; Meyer, Caitlin


    Biologically-based water recovery systems are a regenerative, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes to reclaim water from wastewater. This paper summarizes the results of the Alternative Water Processor (AWP) test conducted over one year. The AWP recovered 90% of water from four crewmembers using (4) membrane aerated bioreactors (MABRs) to remove carbon and nitrogen from an exploration mission wastewater, including urine, hygiene, laundry and humidity condensate. Downstream, a coupled forward and reverse osmosis system removed large organics and inorganic salts from the biological system effluent. The system exceeded the overall objectives of the test by recovering 90% of the influent wastewater processed and a 29% reduction of consumables from the current state of the art water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS). However the biological system fell short of its test goals, failing to remove 75% and 90% of the influent ammonium and organic carbon, respectively. Despite not meeting its test goals, the BWP demonstrated the feasibility of an attached-growth biological system for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, an innovative, volume and consumable-saving design that doesn't require toxic pretreatment. This paper will explain the reasons for this and will discuss steps to optimize each subsystem to increase effluent quality from the MABRs and the FOST to advance the system.

  5. Localitzador Gràfic de Direccions IP 'IpLocInspector'


    Ordóñez Chapado, Miguel


    En aquest treball s'ha desenvolupat una aplicació capaç de localitzar adreces IP. En este trabajo se ha desarrollado una aplicación capaz de localizar direcciones IP. In this work an application was developed capable of locating IP addresses.

  6. Comparing genome-wide chromatin profiles using ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, Frank; Wardenaar, Rene; Colomé Tatché, Maria; Mousson, Florence; de Graaf, Petra; Mokry, Michal; Guryev, Victor; Timmers, H. Th. Marc; Cuppen, Edwin; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Bateman, Alex


    Motivation: ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq technologies provide genomewide measurements of various types of chromatin marks at an unprecedented resolution. With ChIP samples collected from different tissue types and/ or individuals, we can now begin to characterize stochastic or systematic changes in

  7. Comparing genome-wide chromatin profiles using ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, F.; Wardenaar, R.; Colome-Tatche, M.; Mousson, F.; de Graaf, P.; Mokry, M.; Guryev, V.; Timmers, H.T.; Cuppen, E.; Jansen, R.


    MOTIVATION: ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq technologies provide genome-wide measurements of various types of chromatin marks at an unprecedented resolution. With ChIP samples collected from different tissue types and/or individuals, we can now begin to characterize stochastic or systematic changes in

  8. 75 FR 13235 - IP-Enabled Services (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 63 IP-Enabled Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Final rule... interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) service the discontinuance obligations that apply to domestic...

  9. Water ice clouds on Mars: Exploring processes through modeling and laboratory work (United States)

    Santiago-Materese, Delia Liza

    Water ice clouds on Mars are an important component of the hydrologic cycle as well as the overall climate system of the planet. The goal of this research is to better understand water ice cloud formation and behavior on Mars. We use modeling and laboratory experiments to explore different processes related to water ice cloud formation and evolution. The first goal of this work is to examine how well the Martian water cycle is simulated by the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model. The simulation predicts atmospheric water vapor amounts approximately half of those observed, globally. We identify water ice clouds as being a major contributor to this discrepancy. The model closely reproduces the convective aphelion cloud belt at the equator, but deviates substantially from observations over the North Polar Cap region. Modifying the nucleation scheme within the cloud microphysical model brings model results closer to observations and affects the surface radiative balance, which affects the annual cycle of sublimation and deposition of water ice at the residual North Polar Cap. The most realistic global water vapor and cloud patterns come from limiting the nucleation rate of particles at the poles. Our simulations show that the North Polar Cap region exhibits atmospheric dynamics where stratiform clouds form. We hypothesize that the modified nucleation scheme compensates for biases in the radiative properties of the stratiform clouds expected over the North Polar Cap. More broadly, this study illustrates the strong sensitivity of the Martian global water cycle to clouds over the North Polar Cap region. The second goal of this work is to assess the ability of various salts to serve as water ice cloud condensation nuclei under Martian conditions. We use a vacuum chamber to simulate the cold, lower pressure atmospheric conditions on Mars and find the critical saturation ratios at which the substrates nucleate water ice. We find no significant difference between sodium

  10. Computational insights into the selectivity mechanism of APP-IP over matrix metalloproteinases (United States)

    Geng, Lingling; Gao, Jian; Cui, Wei; Tang, Yancheng; Ji, Mingjuan; Chen, Bozhen


    In this work, selectivity mechanism of APP-IP inhibitor (β-amyloid precursor protein-derived inhibitory peptide) over matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs including MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and MMP-14) was investigated by molecular modeling methods. Among MMPs, MMP-2 is the most favorable one for APP-IP interacting based on our calculations. The predicted binding affinities can give a good explanation of the activity difference of inhibitor APP-IP. In Comparison with MMP-2/APP-IP complex, the side chain of Tyr214MMP-7 makes the binding pocket so shallow that the whole side chain of Tyr3APP-IP can not be fully embraced, thus unfavorable for the N-terminal of APP-IP binding to MMP-7. The poor selectivity of APP-IP toward MMP-9 is mainly related with the decrease of interaction between the APP-IP C-terminal and MMP-9 due to the bulky side chains of Pro193 and Gln199, which is in agreement with experiment. The mutations at residues P193A and Q199G of MMP-9 alternate the binding pattern of the C-terminal of APP-IP by forming two new hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with MMP-9. The mutants favor the binding affinity of MMP-9 largely. For MMP-14/APP-IP, the large steric effect of Phe204MMP-14 and the weak contributions of the polar residues Asn231MMP-14 and Thr190MMP-14 could explain why MMP-14 is non-selective for APP-IP interacting. Here, the molecular modeling methods were successfully employed to explore the selective inhibitor of MMPs, and our work gives valuable information for future rational design of selective peptide inhibitors toward individual MMP.

  11. The Moulin Explorer: A Novel Instrument to Study Greenland Ice Sheet Melt-Water Flow. (United States)

    Behar, A.; Wang, H.; Elliott, A.; O'Hern, S.; Martin, S.; Lutz, C.; Steffen, K.; McGrath, D.; Phillips, T.


    Recent data shows that the Greenland ice sheet has been melting at an accelerated rate over the past decade. This melt water flows from the surface of the glacier to the bedrock below by draining into tubular crevasses known as moulins. Some believe these pathways eventually converge to nearby lakes and possibly the ocean. The Moulin Explorer Probe has been developed to traverse autonomously through these moulins. It uses in-situ pressure, temperature, and three-axis accelerometer sensors to log data. At the end of its journey, the probe will surface and send GPS coordinates using an Iridium satellite tracker so it may be retrieved via helicopter or boat. The information gathered when retrieved can be used to map the pathways and water flow rate through the moulins. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory- California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. Support was provided by the NASA Earth Science, Cryosphere program

  12. Explore the Impacts of River Flow and Water Quality on Fish Communities (United States)

    Tsai, W. P.; Chang, F. J.; Lin, C. Y.; Hu, J. H.; Yu, C. J.; Chu, T. J.


    Owing to the limitation of geographical environment in Taiwan, the uneven temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall would cause significant impacts on river ecosystems. To pursue sustainable water resources development, integrity and rationality is important to water management planning. The water quality and the flow regimes of rivers are closely related to each other and affect river ecosystems simultaneously. Therefore, this study collects long-term observational heterogeneity data, which includes water quality parameters, stream flow and fish species in the Danshui River of norther Taiwan, and aims to explore the complex impacts of water quality and flow regime on fish communities in order to comprehend the situations of the eco-hydrological system in this river basin. First, this study improves the understanding of the relationship between water quality parameters, flow regime and fish species by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The Self-organizing feature map (SOM) is an unsupervised learning process used to cluster, analyze and visualize a large number of data. The results of SOM show that nine clusters (3x3) forms the optimum map size based on the local minimum values of both quantization error (QE) and topographic error (TE). Second, the fish diversity indexes are estimated by using the Adapted network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based on key input factors determined by the Gamma Test (GT), which is a useful tool for reducing model dimension and the structure complexity of ANNs. The result reveals that the constructed models can effectively estimate fish diversity indexes and produce good estimation performance based on the 9 clusters identified by the SOM, in which RMSE is 0.18 and CE is 0.84 for the training data set while RMSE is 0.20 and CE is 0.80 for the testing data set.

  13. Securing VoIP keeping your VoIP network safe

    CERN Document Server

    (Bud) Bates, Regis J Jr


    Securing VoIP: Keeping Your VoIP Network Safe will show you how to take the initiative to prevent hackers from recording and exploiting your company's secrets. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and case studies, technology guru Bud Bates discusses the business realities that necessitate VoIP system security and the threats to VoIP over both wire and wireless networks. He also provides essential guidance on how to conduct system security audits and how to integrate your existing IT security plan with your VoIP system and security plans, helping you prevent

  14. Space Network IP Services (SNIS): An Architecture for Supporting Low Earth Orbiting IP Satellite Missions (United States)

    Israel, David J.


    The NASA Space Network (SN) supports a variety of missions using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which includes ground stations in White Sands, New Mexico and Guam. A Space Network IP Services (SNIS) architecture is being developed to support future users with requirements for end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP) communications. This architecture will support all IP protocols, including Mobile IP, over TDRSS Single Access, Multiple Access, and Demand Access Radio Frequency (RF) links. This paper will describe this architecture and how it can enable Low Earth Orbiting IP satellite missions.

  15. Exploring dissociative water adsorption on isoelectronically BN doped graphene using alchemical derivatives (United States)

    Al-Hamdani, Yasmine S.; Michaelides, Angelos; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole


    The design and production of novel 2-dimensional materials have seen great progress in the last decade, prompting further exploration of the chemistry of such materials. Doping and hydrogenating graphene are an experimentally realised method of changing its surface chemistry, but there is still a great deal to be understood on how doping impacts on the adsorption of molecules. Developing this understanding is key to unlocking the potential applications of these materials. High throughput screening methods can provide particularly effective ways to explore vast chemical compositions of materials. Here, alchemical derivatives are used as a method to screen the dissociative adsorption energy of water molecules on various BN doped topologies of hydrogenated graphene. The predictions from alchemical derivatives are assessed by comparison to density functional theory. This screening method is found to predict dissociative adsorption energies that span a range of more than 2 eV, with a mean absolute error water is reduced by almost an order of magnitude (down to ˜0.02 eV) after filtering out poor predictions. The findings point the way towards a reliable use of first order alchemical derivatives for efficient screening procedures.

  16. Exploring Water Resources as a Study Abroad Experience in Northern India (United States)

    Vulava, V. M.; Callahan, T. J.


    Water and environmental resources are of high interest for students at the College of Charleston. These issues are covered in varying levels of detail in the Geology Department in introductory to advanced courses, some of which include field and laboratory components. While courses stress the importance of understanding global water resource issues, students are rarely given hands-on exposure beyond local problems. To address this, we designed a course that explored water resource issues along the entire length of the Ganges River from headwaters to the mouth, a region in which water is seen as a critical economic, environmental, and cultural resource. The 2500-km long Ganges River in northern India is stressed due to large demand and cyclical, yet unpredictable, supply. This region has a population of over 700 million who speak different languages, have diverse cultures, and varied states of development, economic access, and planning, and diverse geologic and ecological settings. Poor river management, inconsistent precipitation during monsoons likely affected by climate change and pollution from insufficient waste management practices and a burgeoning population has resulted in additional stress on the river and its ecosystems. A three-week travel-intensive study abroad course covered three important reaches of the river in the headwaters (Himalayan glaciers, steep mountain landscapes, and large hydroelectric dams in Uttarakhand state), the plains (industrial heartland and large population centers in Uttar Pradesh state), and the mouth (coastal development, Sunderbans mangrove forest, and coastal hazards near Bay of Bengal in West Bengal state). The course was timed to coincide with the pre-monsoon summer season to show students the importance of the monsoon season to this region. The course had two modules: (1) water resource and hydrology principles that delve into specific issues, including impacts of river management for economic development and associated

  17. Exploring a Multiresolution Modeling Approach within the Shallow-Water Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringler, Todd D.; Jacobsen, Doug; Gunzburger, Max; Ju, Lili; Duda, Michael; Skamarock, William


    The ability to solve the global shallow-water equations with a conforming, variable-resolution mesh is evaluated using standard shallow-water test cases. While the long-term motivation for this study is the creation of a global climate modeling framework capable of resolving different spatial and temporal scales in different regions, the process begins with an analysis of the shallow-water system in order to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of the approach developed herein. The multiresolution meshes are spherical centroidal Voronoi tessellations where a single, user-supplied density function determines the region(s) of fine- and coarsemesh resolution. The shallow-water system is explored with a suite of meshes ranging from quasi-uniform resolution meshes, where the grid spacing is globally uniform, to highly variable resolution meshes, where the grid spacing varies by a factor of 16 between the fine and coarse regions. The potential vorticity is found to be conserved to within machine precision and the total available energy is conserved to within a time-truncation error. This result holds for the full suite of meshes, ranging from quasi-uniform resolution and highly variable resolution meshes. Based on shallow-water test cases 2 and 5, the primary conclusion of this study is that solution error is controlled primarily by the grid resolution in the coarsest part of the model domain. This conclusion is consistent with results obtained by others.When these variable-resolution meshes are used for the simulation of an unstable zonal jet, the core features of the growing instability are found to be largely unchanged as the variation in the mesh resolution increases. The main differences between the simulations occur outside the region of mesh refinement and these differences are attributed to the additional truncation error that accompanies increases in grid spacing. Overall, the results demonstrate support for this approach as a path toward

  18. IPS guidestar selection for stellar mode (ASTRO) (United States)

    Mullins, Larry; Wooten, Lewis


    This report describes how guide stars are selected for the Optical Sensor Package (OSP) for the Instrument Pointing System (IPS) when it is operating in the stellar mode on the ASTRO missions. It also describes how the objective loads are written and how the various roll angles are related; i.e., the celestial roll or position angle, the objective load roll angles, and the IPS gimbal angles. There is a brief description of how the IPS operates and its various modes of operation; i.e., IDOP, IDIN, and OSPCAL.

  19. Exploration: subsurface lithology prediction in deep-water depositional systems - present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadler-Jacobsen, F.; Johnson, D.; Kristensen, J.B.; Ashton, N.; Lervik, K.S. [Statoil (Norway)


    Exploration for and exploitation of deep-water depositional systems requires accurate prediction of static reservoir and seal distribution as well as dynamic reservoir behaviour. Application of integrated techniques to refine quantitative and qualitative understanding of lithology and fluid distribution is considered to be a necessity for efficient E and P performance today, and increasingly so in the future. Seismic data provides the majority of information for subsurface evaluation which is nowadays available in its 3-D form at local to semi-regional scales (e.g. Statoil holds a continuous merged 3-D seismic dataset covering 16,000 sq. km.). Extensive seismic 3-D coverage combined with refined mapping and imaging techniques has significantly contributed to, and to some degree altered, our perception of deep-water systems. Many deep-water hydrocarbon targets lie at shallow burial depths with high frequency seismic data that enable us to characterise subsurface systems as volume based seismic facies. Subsurface characterisation of lithology can crudely be subdivided into two categories: i) qualitative techniques and ii) quantitative ('Seismic LFP') techniques. This paper will focus on the first category, although we consider the integration of the two categories to be essential. (authors)

  20. 77 FR 33227 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) (United States)


    ... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY... Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Sector Outreach and...--Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT). DHS previously...

  1. Intellectual Property and Strategic Agreements (IP/SA) | FNLCR (United States)

    What does IP/SA handle? IP/SA handles all invention issues including patents and copyrights. All employee inventionreports are filed through the IP/SA office for all activities under the OTS contract.Additionally,&nbs

  2. Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR - A new method for exploration of ground water and aquifer properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Yaramanci


    Full Text Available The Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR method is a fairly new technique in geophysics to assess ground water, i.e. existence, amount and productibility by measurements at the surface. The NMR technique used in medicine, physics and lately in borehole geophysics was adopted for surface measurements in the early eighties, and commercial equipment for measurements has been available since the mid nineties. The SNMR method has been tested at sites in Northern Germany with Quaternary sand and clay layers, to examine the suitability of this new method for groundwater exploration and environmental investigations. More information is obtained by SNMR, particularly with respect to aquifer parameters, than with other geophysical techniques. SNMR measurements were carried out at three borehole locations, together with 2D and 1D direct current geoelectrics and well logging (induction log, gamma-ray log and pulsed neutron-gamma log. Permeabilities were calculated from the grain-size distributions of core material determined in the laboratory. It is demonstrated that the SNMR method is able to detect groundwater and the results are in good agreement with other geophysical and hydrogeological data. Using the SNMR method, the water content of the unsaturated and saturated zones (i.e. porosity of an aquifer can be reliably determined. This information and resistivity data permit in-situ determination of other aquifer parameters. Comparison of the SNMR results with borehole data clearly shows that the water content determined by SNMR is the free or mobile water in the pores. The permeabilities estimated from the SNMR decay times are similar to those derived from sieve analysis of core material. Thus, the combination of SNMR with geoelectric methods promises to be a powerful tool for studying aquifer properties.

  3. Exploring Perceptions and Behaviors about Drinking Water in Australia and New Zealand: Is It Risky to Drink Water, When and Why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Crampton


    Full Text Available Consumers in most developed countries, including Australia and New Zealand, presume their drinking water is safe. How social perceptions about drinking water are formed, however, remains inadequately explored in the research literature. This research contributes exploratory insights by examining factors that affect consumer perceptions and behaviors. Individual perceptions of drinking water quality and actions undertaken to mitigate perceived risks were collected during 183 face-to-face interviews conducted at six research sites. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed the majority did not consider drinking water a “risky” activity, trusted water management authorities to manage all safety issues and believed self-evaluation of drinking water’s taste and appearance were sufficient measures to ensure safe consumption. Quantitatively, significant relationships emerged between water quality perceptions and sex, employment status, drinking water treatment and trust in government to provide safe water. Expert advice was rarely sought, even by those who believed drinking tap water posed some health risks. Generational differences emerged in media usage for drinking water advice. Finally, precautionary measures taken at home and abroad often failed to meet national drinking water guidelines. Three major conclusions are drawn: a. broad lack of awareness exists about the most suitable and safe water treatment activities, as well as risks posed; b. health literacy and interest may be improved through greater consumer involvement in watershed management; and c. development of health campaigns that clearly communicate drinking water safety messages in a timely, relevant and easily understandable fashion may help mitigate actual risks and dispel myths.

  4. Examples of modelling IP in AEM data: synthetic and real data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viezzoli, Andrea; Kaminskiy, Vladislav; Fiandaca, Gianluca

    There have been multiple evidences in the literature in the past several years of what has been referred to as IP effect in the Time Domain Airborne EM data (TDEM). This phenomenon is known to be responsible for incorrect inversion modelling of electrical resistivity, lower interpreted depth...... of investigation and lost information about chargeability of the subsurface as well as about other valuable parameters. Historically there have been many suggestions to account for the IP effect using the Cole-Cole model. In current paper we are showing the possibility to extract IP information from airborne TDEM...... with both high electrical conductivity and in resistive environments. Furthermore, modelling of IP effects allows corrected resistivity models. The Amakinskaya kimberlite pipe results highlight the relevance of chargeability for kimberlite exploration....

  5. ChIP-seq Analysis of Condensin Complex in Cultured Mammalian Cells. (United States)

    Sakata, Toyonori; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Sutani, Takashi


    ChIP-seq, or chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with massively parallel DNA sequencing, is a powerful technique to investigate in vivo protein-DNA interactions on a genome-wide scale at high resolution. Here we describe a ChIP-seq protocol optimized for analysis of condensin I complex on human mitotic chromosomes. The protocol includes procedures of intensive cell fixation by two cross-linking reagents and thorough chromatin shearing by nuclease and sonication treatments, both of which contribute to improving the signal-to-noise ratio of condensin I ChIP-seq profiles. The optimized protocol may also be helpful to explore chromosomal binding sites of other "hard-to-see" proteins by ChIP-seq.

  6. Water for Two Worlds: Designing Terrestrial Applications for Exploration-class Sanitation Systems (United States)

    Adams, Constance; Andersson, Ingvar; Feighery, John


    At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September of 2000, the world leaders agreed on an ambitious agenda for reducing poverty and improving lives: the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a list of issues they consider highly pernicious, threatening to human welfare and, thereby, to global security and prosperity. Among the eight goals are included fundamental human needs such as the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, the promotion of gender equality, the reduction of child mortality and improvement of maternal health, and ensuring the sustainability of our shared environment. In order to help focus the efforts to meet these goals, the United Nations (UN) has established a set of eighteen concrete targets, each with an associated schedule. Among these is Target 10: "By 2015, reduce by half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water." A closely related target of equal dignity was agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, September 2002): "By 2015, reduce by half the proportion of people without access to basic sanitation." One of the greatest successes in the development of Exploration-class technologies for closed-loop, sustainable support of long-duration human space missions has been the work both ESA and NASA have done in bioregenerative water reclamation (WRS), and secondarily, in solid-waste management. Solid-waste and WRS systems tend to be combined in the commercial world into the field of sanitation, although as we will see, the most essential principles of sustainable terrestrial sanitation actually insist upon the separation of solid and liquid excreta. Seeing the potential synergy between the space program ALS technologies developed for Mars and the urgent needs of hundreds of millions of people for secure access to clean water here on Earth, we set out to organize the adaptation of these technologies to help the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) meet Target 10. In this paper, we will

  7. Integrative analysis of ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq dataset. (United States)

    Zhu, Lihua Julie


    Epigenetic regulation and interactions between transcription factors and regulatory genomic regions play crucial roles in controlling transcriptional regulatory networks that drive development, environmental responses, and disease. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) and ChIP followed by genomic tiling microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) are the two of the most widely used technologies for genome-wide identification of DNA protein interactions and histone modification in vivo. Many algorithms and tools have been developed and evaluated that allow identification of transcription factor binding sites from ChIP-seq or ChIP-chip datasets. However, binding site identification is only the first step; the ultimate goal is to discover the regulatory network of the transcription factor (TF). Here, we present a common workflow for downstream analysis of ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq with an emphasis on annotating binding sites and integration with gene expression data to identify direct and indirect targets of the TF. These tools will help with the overall goal of unraveling transcriptional regulatory networks using datasets publicly available in GEO.

  8. Capturing value from Intellectual Property (IP) in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcácer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno


    in patents, trademarks, and industrial designs used by firms to protect their IP globally. We then show that IP protection remains fragmented; the quality of IP applications might be questionable; and developing a comprehensive IP footprint worldwide is very costly. Growing numbers of applications...

  9. A survey of IP over ATM architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Tsang, R.; Brandt, J.; Hutchins, J.


    Over the past decade, the Internet has burgeoned into a worldwide information highway consisting of approximately 5 million hosts on over 45,000 interconnected networks. This unprecedented growth, together with the introduction of multimedia workstations, has spurred the development of innovative applications that require high speed, low latency, and real-time transport. Today`s Internet can neither scale in its bandwidth nor guarantee the Quality of Services (QoS) necessary to meet these performance requirements. Many network researchers propose to use the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology as the underlying infrastructure for the next generation of workgroup, campus, and enterprise IP networks. Since ATM is significantly different from today`s legacy network technologies, efficient implementation of IP over ATM is especially challenging. This tutorial paper covers several existing proposals that integrate IP over ATM.

  10. Optimization of OSPF Routing in IP Networks (United States)

    Bley, Andreas; Fortz, Bernard; Gourdin, Eric; Holmberg, Kaj; Klopfenstein, Olivier; Pióro, Michał; Tomaszewski, Artur; Ümit, Hakan

    The Internet is a huge world-wide packet switching network comprised of more than 13,000 distinct subnetworks, referred to as Autonomous Systems (ASs) autonomous system AS . They all rely on the Internet Protocol (IP) internet protocol IP for transport of packets across the network. And most of them use shortest path routing protocols shortest path routing!protocols , such as OSPF or IS-IS, to control the routing of IP packets routing!of IP packets within an AS. The idea of the routing is extremely simple — every packet is forwarded on IP links along the shortest route between its source and destination nodes of the AS. The AS network administrator can manage the routing of packets in the AS by supplying the so-called administrative weights of IP links, which specify the link lengths that are used by the routing protocols for their shortest path computations. The main advantage of the shortest path routing policy is its simplicity, allowing for little administrative overhead. From the network engineering perspective, however, shortest path routing can pose problems in achieving satisfactory traffic handling efficiency. As all routing paths depend on the same routing metric routing!metric , it is not possible to configure the routing paths for the communication demands between different pairs of nodes explicitly or individually; the routing can be controlled only indirectly and only as a whole by modifying the routing metric. Thus, one of the main tasks when planning such networks is to find administrative link weights that induce a globally efficient traffic routing traffic!routing configuration of an AS. It turns out that this task leads to very difficult mathematical optimization problems. In this chapter, we discuss and describe exact integer programming models and solution approaches as well as practically efficient smart heuristics for such shortest path routing problems shortest path routing!problems .

  11. The Advanced Exploration Systems Water Recovery Project: Innovation on 2 Fronts (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam M.; Neumeyer, Derek; Shull, Sarah


    As NASA looks forward to sending humans farther away from Earth, we will have to develop a transportation architecture that is highly reliable and that can sustain life for long durations without the benefit of Earth s proximity for continuous resupply or even operational guidance. NASA has consistently been challenged with performing great feats of innovation, but particularly in this time of economic stress, we are challenged to go farther with less. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects were implemented to address both of these needs by not only developing innovative technologies, but by incorporating innovative management styles and processes that foster the needed technical innovation given a small amount of resources. This presentation explains how the AES Water Recovery Project is exhibiting innovation on both fronts; technical and process. The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is actively engineering innovative technologies in order to maximize the efficiency of water recovery. The development of reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support (ECLS) is critical to enable long-duration human missions outside of low-Earth orbit. Recycling of life support consumables is necessary to reduce resupply mass and provide for vehicle autonomy. To address this, the WRP is working on a rotary distiller that has shown enhanced performance over the state-of-the-art (SOA). Additionally, the WRP is looking at innovative ways to address issues present in the state-of-the-art (SOA) systems pertaining to toxicity and calcium scale buildup. As an AES project, the WRP has a more streamlined Skunk Works like approach to technology development intended to reduce overhead but achieve a more refined end product. The project has incorporated key partnerships between NASA centers as well as between NASA and industry. A minimal project management style has been implemented such that risks are managed and

  12. Secure IP mobility management for VANET

    CERN Document Server

    Taha, Sanaa


    This brief presents the challenges and solutions for VANETs' security and privacy problems occurring in mobility management protocols including Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6), Proxy MIPv6 (PMIPv6), and Network Mobility (NEMO). The authors give an overview of the concept of the vehicular IP-address configurations as the prerequisite step to achieve mobility management for VANETs, and review the current security and privacy schemes applied in the three mobility management protocols. Throughout the brief, the authors propose new schemes and protocols to increase the security of IP addresses within VANETs in

  13. Analysis list: Terf2ip [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Terf2ip Embryonic fibroblast + mm9

  14. 76 FR 81955 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) (United States)


    ... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY... Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Sector Specific Agency.../IP/SSA EMO, 245 Murray Lane SW., Mail Stop 0640, Arlington, VA 20598-0630. Emailed requests should go...

  15. An overview on exploration and environmental impact of unconventional gas sources and treatment options for produced water. (United States)

    Silva, Tânia L S; Morales-Torres, Sergio; Castro-Silva, Sérgio; Figueiredo, José L; Silva, Adrián M T


    Rising global energy demands associated to unbalanced allocation of water resources highlight the importance of water management solutions for the gas industry. Advanced drilling, completion and stimulation techniques for gas extraction, allow more economical access to unconventional gas reserves. This stimulated a shale gas revolution, besides tight gas and coalbed methane, also causing escalating water handling challenges in order to avoid a major impact on the environment. Hydraulic fracturing allied to horizontal drilling is gaining higher relevance in the exploration of unconventional gas reserves, but a large amount of wastewater (known as "produced water") is generated. Its variable chemical composition and flow rates, together with more severe regulations and public concern, have promoted the development of solutions for the treatment and reuse of such produced water. This work intends to provide an overview on the exploration and subsequent environmental implications of unconventional gas sources, as well as the technologies for treatment of produced water, describing the main results and drawbacks, together with some cost estimates. In particular, the growing volumes of produced water from shale gas plays are creating an interesting market opportunity for water technology and service providers. Membrane-based technologies (membrane distillation, forward osmosis, membrane bioreactors and pervaporation) and advanced oxidation processes (ozonation, Fenton, photocatalysis) are claimed to be adequate treatment solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploration and excavation of shipwrecks in Goa and adjoining waters 2005-2006

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    As a part of the institutional project, 'Application of Geological and Geophysical methods in Marine Archaeology and Underwater Explorations, (OLP 0008)', exploration and excavation of shipwrecks have been carried out from 23 Jan 2006 to 21 Feb 2006...

  17. ChIP-chip versus ChIP-seq: Lessons for experimental design and data analysis (United States)


    Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) or high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) allows genome-wide discovery of protein-DNA interactions such as transcription factor bindings and histone modifications. Previous reports only compared a small number of profiles, and little has been done to compare histone modification profiles generated by the two technologies or to assess the impact of input DNA libraries in ChIP-seq analysis. Here, we performed a systematic analysis of a modENCODE dataset consisting of 31 pairs of ChIP-chip/ChIP-seq profiles of the coactivator CBP, RNA polymerase II (RNA PolII), and six histone modifications across four developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster. Results Both technologies produce highly reproducible profiles within each platform, ChIP-seq generally produces profiles with a better signal-to-noise ratio, and allows detection of more peaks and narrower peaks. The set of peaks identified by the two technologies can be significantly different, but the extent to which they differ varies depending on the factor and the analysis algorithm. Importantly, we found that there is a significant variation among multiple sequencing profiles of input DNA libraries and that this variation most likely arises from both differences in experimental condition and sequencing depth. We further show that using an inappropriate input DNA profile can impact the average signal profiles around genomic features and peak calling results, highlighting the importance of having high quality input DNA data for normalization in ChIP-seq analysis. Conclusions Our findings highlight the biases present in each of the platforms, show the variability that can arise from both technology and analysis methods, and emphasize the importance of obtaining high quality and deeply sequenced input DNA libraries for ChIP-seq analysis. PMID:21356108

  18. Teaching Network Security with IP Darkspace Data (United States)

    Zseby, Tanja; Iglesias Vázquez, Félix; King, Alistair; Claffy, K. C.


    This paper presents a network security laboratory project for teaching network traffic anomaly detection methods to electrical engineering students. The project design follows a research-oriented teaching principle, enabling students to make their own discoveries in real network traffic, using data captured from a large IP darkspace monitor…

  19. Wireless IP and building the mobile Internet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dixit, Sudhir; Prasad, Ramjee


    ..., as well as the shortage of technical material in a single place in the field of wireless IP and closely related technologies that form the critical success factors. Therefore, we decided to invite the experts who are truly active in the field: the equipment manufacturers, mobile operators, and those working in research laboratories and unive...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessyanto Boedi P


    Full Text Available Ipsec (IP Security and SSL (Secure Socket Layer is the most widely used techniques to secure data communications over the Internet. Both of these techniques has advantages and disadvantages of each. The purpose of this study is to present an analysis of the two techniques above in terms of security and performance.

  1. Relationship between Interplanetary (IP) Parameters and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    environment results in various space weather changes, including the phenomenon of the geomagnetic storm and its manifestations (Chapman 1936). Since the 1960s, orbiting and geostationary satellites have made it possible to study the linkage between solar emissions, their manifestations in IP space, and geomagnetic ...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of IP-10.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...

  3. Using System Dynamics to Explore the Water Supply and Demand Dilemmas of a Small South African Municipality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clifford Holmes, J.K.; Slinger, J.H.; Musango, J.K.; Brent, A.C.; Palmer, C.G.


    This paper explores the challenges faced by small municipalities in providing water services in a developing-world context of increasing urban demand. The paper uses a case study of the Sundays River Valley Municipality (SRVM) in South Africa. The municipality faces multiple dilemmas in reconciling

  4. Prospects for Learning in River Management: Exploring the Initial Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in a Swedish River Basin (United States)

    Lundmark, Carina; Jonsson, Gunnar


    This case study explores the initial implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the Lule River basin, Sweden, examining how and to what extent administrative procedures enable learning through dialogue and stakeholder collaboration. Theorising on adaptive co-management and social learning is used to structure what is to be learnt,…

  5. 10th anniversary of iPS cells: the challenges that lie ahead. (United States)

    Aoi, Takashi


    In 2006, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated by Yamanaka and Takahashi for the first time from a mouse fibroblast culture by introducing four factors. In the 10 years since then, this breakthrough discovery has been making waves in the fields of biology and medical science. For example, various technologies for generating iPS cells have been developed, and we have cultivated a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in reprogramming. In addition, many researchers have explored the applications of iPS cells, such as drug discovery, the study of disease mechanisms and regenerative medicine, and the development of advanced technologies for the differentiation and qualification of the cells. Furthermore, the concept of iPS cell generation has inspired a number of studies that do not use iPS cells. We herein review and discuss the past, present and future of iPS cells and their related issues. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Working with mental health problems: clients' experiences of IPS, vocational rehabilitation and employment. (United States)

    Koletsi, Marsha; Niersman, Astrid; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Catty, Jocelyn; Becker, Thomas; Burns, Tom; Fioritti, Angelo; Kalkan, Rana; Lauber, Christoph; Rössler, Wulf; Tomov, Toma; Wiersma, Durk


    Although the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS) has been well established, little is known about clients' perceptions of the model compared to usual vocational rehabilitation, nor about their experiences of searching for and returning to work with this kind of support. This qualitative study aimed to explore clients' views of the difficulties of obtaining and maintaining employment, their experiences of the support received from their IPS or Vocational Service workers and the perceived impact of work on clients' lives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 48 people with psychotic disorders participating in a six-centre international randomised controlled trial of IPS compared to usual vocational rehabilitation. To assess their experiences of the services and the perceived effects of working, two IPS and two Vocational Service clients at each centre who had found work during the study period were interviewed, along with two IPS and two Vocational Service clients at each centre who had not. IPS clients reported having received more help seeking and maintaining employment, whereas Vocational Service clients reported having received more help in finding sheltered employment or placements. Clients who had worked associated this with financial stability, improved social lives, increased self-esteem, integration into society and amelioration of their symptoms, as well as reduced feelings of boredom and isolation, but also reported increased levels of stress. IPS clients as well as Vocational Service ones reported not receiving enough follow-up support, despite this being proposed as a key feature of the model. Findings from the in-depth interviews reflect differences in service models that have also been tested quantitatively but further work in disaggregating the IPS model and assessing the impact of each component would be valuable.

  7. A Review of the Experimental and Modeling Development of a Water Phase Change Heat Exchanger for Future Exploration Support Vehicles (United States)

    Cognata, Thomas; Leimkuehler, Thomas; Ramaswamy, Balasubramaniam; Nayagam, Vedha; Hasan, Mohammad; Stephan, Ryan


    Water affords manifold benefits for human space exploration. Its properties make it useful for the storage of thermal energy as a Phase Change Material (PCM) in thermal control systems, in radiation shielding against Solar Particle Events (SPE) for the protection of crew members, and it is indisputably necessary for human life support. This paper envisions a single application for water which addresses these benefits for future exploration support vehicles and it describes recent experimental and modeling work that has been performed in order to arrive at a description of the thermal behavior of such a system. Experimental units have been developed and tested which permit the evaluation of the many parameters of design for such a system with emphasis on the latent energy content, temperature rise, mass, and interstitial material geometry. The experimental results are used to develop a robust and well correlated model which is intended to guide future design efforts toward the multi-purposed water PCM heat exchanger envisioned.

  8. Compatibility Study of Silver Biocide in Drinking Water with Candidate Metals for Crew Exploration Vehicle Potable Water System (United States)

    Adam, Niklas M.


    The stability of silver biocide, used to keep drinking water on the CEV potable water sterile, is unknown as the system design is still in progress. Silver biocide in water can deplete rapidly when exposed to various metal surfaces. Additionally, silver depletion rates may be affected by the surface-area-to-volume (SA/V) ratios in the water system. Therefore, to facilitate the CEV water system design, it would be advantageous to know the biocide depletion rates in water exposed to the surfaces of these candidate metals at various SA/V ratios. Certain surface treatments can be employed to reduce the depletion rates of silver compared to the base metal. The purpose of this work is to determine the compatibility of specific spaceflight-certified metals that could used in the design of the CEV potable water system with silver biocide as well as understand the effect of surface are to volume ratios of metals used in the construction of the potable water system on the silver concentration.

  9. Explore the impacts of river flow and quality on biodiversity for water resources management by AI techniques (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Tsai Tsai, Wen-Ping; Chang, Li-Chiu


    Water resources development is very challenging in Taiwan due to her diverse geographic environment and climatic conditions. To pursue sustainable water resources development, rationality and integrity is essential for water resources planning. River water quality and flow regimes are closely related to each other and affect river ecosystems simultaneously. This study aims to explore the complex impacts of water quality and flow regimes on fish community in order to comprehend the situations of the eco-hydrological system in the Danshui River of northern Taiwan. To make an effective and comprehensive strategy for sustainable water resources management, this study first models fish diversity through implementing a hybrid artificial neural network (ANN) based on long-term observational heterogeneity data of water quality, stream flow and fish species in the river. Then we use stream flow to estimate the loss of dissolved oxygen based on back-propagation neural networks (BPNNs). Finally, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is established for river flow management over the Shihmen Reservoir which is the main reservoir in this study area. In addition to satisfying the water demands of human beings and ecosystems, we also consider water quality for river flow management. The ecosystem requirement takes the form of maximizing fish diversity, which can be estimated by the hybrid ANN. The human requirement is to provide a higher satisfaction degree of water supply while the water quality requirement is to reduce the loss of dissolved oxygen in the river among flow stations. The results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can offer diversified alternative strategies for reservoir operation and improve reservoir operation strategies for producing downstream flows that could better meet both human and ecosystem needs as well as maintain river water quality. Keywords: Artificial intelligence (AI), Artificial neural networks (ANNs), Non

  10. An Integrated Simulation Model for Dynamically Exploring the Optimal Solution to Mitigating Water Scarcity and Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang


    Full Text Available An integrated optimization simulation model has been developed based on an input-output approach to mitigate water pollution and water scarcity through embedding environmental economic policies and applicable technologies into a complex environ-economic system to obtain an optimal set of policies and technologies that promotes the maximization of the regional economy under the constraints of water pollutant discharge and water availability. An empirical study is undertaken with the Source Region of Liao River as the target area to verify the performance of the model. The relationships between the water environment and socio-economic systems are presented by clarifying the trends in economic development, water pollutant discharge and water supply and demand during a time horizon from 2011 to 2020. The endogenously-formed optimal set of policies and industrial restructuring simultaneously facilitate the reduction of water pollutant discharge and water consumption and increase the water supply. The extent of the mitigation of water pollution and water scarcity via applied policies and technologies promoted by the subsidies provided by the government are specified, and the mechanism of the policy application and subsidization distribution is explained. This model has applicability for other regions in terms of giving an optimal solution via comprehensive assessment of all of the proposed sustainability-related policies with sufficient data accessibility to achieve regional sustainable development.

  11. Exploring options for improving water and nitrogen use efficiency in crop production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, W.


    Water and nitrogen (N) are two key limiting factors in global crop production. However, the optimization of water and N use is often studied separately, and the interactions between water and N use in crop production are often neglected. Lack of systematic

  12. Exploring the Politics of Water Grabbing: The Case of Large Mining Operations in the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Sosa


    Full Text Available The operations of the large mining company Yanacocha in Cajamarca (Peru provoke and require a fundamental reshuffling of how rights to water are allocated, resulting in changes in the distribution of the benefits and burdens of accessing water. We use this paper to argue that these changes in water use and tenure can be understood as a form of water grabbing, since they result in a transfer of water control from farmers’ collectives and government agencies to the mining company, with the company also assuming de facto responsibility over executing water allocation and safeguarding certain water-quality levels. We illustrate – by using two cases: La Ramada canal and the San José reservoir – the company’s overt and covert strategies to achieve control over water, showing how these are often backed up by neo-liberal government policies and by permissive local water authorities. Next to active attempts to obtain water rights, these strategies also include skilfully bending and breaking the resistance of (some farmers through negotiation and offering compensation. The de facto handing over of water governance powers to a multinational mining company raises troubling questions about longer-term water management, such as who controls the mining company, to whom are they accountable, and what will happen after mining operations stop.

  13. Human security and access to water, sanitation, and hygiene: exploring the drivers and nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.; Gupta, J.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Badhuri, A.; Gupta, J.


    Water security challenges are mostly covered in the literature on the food and energy nexus. This chapter however adopts a broader conception of water security in relation to lack of access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and argues that the human rights approach could be instrumental in

  14. Opportunities for IP  in Communications Beyond 3G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Jacobsen, Rune H.


    Future communication will be based on TCP/IP as common network and transport layers to provide global connectivity to users and applications. IP is used to provide ubiquitous access across different access networks and exploits the benefits of a common connectivity layer while reducing the cost...... of operation and maintenance of the network. This paper discusses the opportunities for IP in the evolution towards a future broadband, all-IP mobile communication network. In particular, we argue for three opportunities for the future: Interworking access technologies over IP, IP layer transparency...

  15. Modelling ChIP-seq Data Using HMMs. (United States)

    Vinciotti, Veronica


    Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments have now become routine in biology for the detection of protein binding sites. In this chapter, we show how hidden Markov models can be used for the analysis of data generated by ChIP-seq experiments. We show how a hidden Markov model can naturally account for spatial dependencies in the ChIP-seq data, how it can be used in the presence of data from multiple ChIP-seq experiments under the same biological condition, and how it naturally accounts for the different IP efficiencies of individual ChIP-seq experiments.

  16. Impact of VoIP and QoS on Open and Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay JASOLA


    Full Text Available Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP is becoming a reality in many organizations. The potential for mobility in voice over wi-fi networks will derive demand for the technology. Wireless VoIP is poised to rival VoIP as an alternative telephony tool. Internet has been used to transport data in the form of packet. In the past, Internet did not support any kind of sophisticated quality of service (QoS mechanism. Although the type of service (TOS field in the Internet protocol (IP header has been existing and has been allowing the differentiated treatment of packets, it was never really used on a large scale. The voice is sensitive to delay and jitter so bandwidth must be guaranteed while transporting it. With the extensive use of Internet for carrying voice, there is a need to add QoS functionality in it. QoS with reference to VoIP has been discussed in the paper. Limited bandwidth and network latency are the issues which need to be considered while using wireless LAN for packetized voice data. Efforts of standards like 802.11e which will take care of these issues, have also been explored. The impact of these technologies on distance education has also been explored in the paper.

  17. Exploring water cycle dynamics by sampling multiple stable water isotope pools in a developed landscape in Germany (United States)

    Orlowski, Natalie; Kraft, Philipp; Pferdmenges, Jakob; Breuer, Lutz


    A dual stable water isotope (δ2H and δ18O) study was conducted in the developed (managed) landscape of the Schwingbach catchment (Germany). The 2-year weekly to biweekly measurements of precipitation, stream, and groundwater isotopes revealed that surface and groundwater are isotopically disconnected from the annual precipitation cycle but showed bidirectional interactions between each other. Apparently, snowmelt played a fundamental role for groundwater recharge explaining the observed differences to precipitation δ values. A spatially distributed snapshot sampling of soil water isotopes at two soil depths at 52 sampling points across different land uses (arable land, forest, and grassland) revealed that topsoil isotopic signatures were similar to the precipitation input signal. Preferential water flow paths occurred under forested soils, explaining the isotopic similarities between top- and subsoil isotopic signatures. Due to human-impacted agricultural land use (tilling and compression) of arable and grassland soils, water delivery to the deeper soil layers was reduced, resulting in significant different isotopic signatures. However, the land use influence became less pronounced with depth and soil water approached groundwater δ values. Seasonally tracing stable water isotopes through soil profiles showed that the influence of new percolating soil water decreased with depth as no remarkable seasonality in soil isotopic signatures was obvious at depths > 0.9 m and constant values were observed through space and time. Since classic isotope evaluation methods such as transfer-function-based mean transit time calculations did not provide a good fit between the observed and calculated data, we established a hydrological model to estimate spatially distributed groundwater ages and flow directions within the Vollnkirchener Bach subcatchment. Our model revealed that complex age dynamics exist within the subcatchment and that much of the runoff must has been stored

  18. Exploring the behaviour of water in glycerol solutions by using delayed luminescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Grasso

    Full Text Available The crucial role of water in the engine of life have encouraged many researchers in studying, both theoretically and experimentally, the possible "structure" of water. Many properties of water have been related to the interplay between two distinct and interconverting structural species, namely the low-density water (LDW and the high-density water (HDW. Supported by the results obtained with other aqueous solutions, this paper deals with the possibility of using the ultra-weak delayed luminescence (DL to investigate water structuring in a mixture with glycerol, characterized only by hydrogen bonds between the various molecules. Spectral and temporal characteristics of DL decays give information on the two components of the mixture, by evidencing the contribution of water at glycerol concentrations close to the values used in cryopreservation. DL results have shown a correlation with LDW clusters size as determined by other researchers on the basis of neutron diffraction experiments and computational modelling, as reported in Literature.

  19. Automatic Classification of Attacks on IP Telephony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Safarik


    Full Text Available This article proposes an algorithm for automatic analysis of attack data in IP telephony network with a neural network. Data for the analysis is gathered from variable monitoring application running in the network. These monitoring systems are a typical part of nowadays network. Information from them is usually used after attack. It is possible to use an automatic classification of IP telephony attacks for nearly real-time classification and counter attack or mitigation of potential attacks. The classification use proposed neural network, and the article covers design of a neural network and its practical implementation. It contains also methods for neural network learning and data gathering functions from honeypot application.

  20. Compostos orgânicos como substratos na formação de mudas de ipê-amarelo (Tabebuia Chrysotricha (Mart. Ex. Dc. Standl irrigadas com água residuária Organic compound as substrate in the formation of the yellow-ipe (tabebuia chrysotricha (mart. Ex dc. Standl sedlings irrigated with residuary water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo I. Muraishi


    Full Text Available A necessidade de estudar a utilização dos resíduos de podas de árvores é de grande importância ambiental para solucionar os problemas de resíduos sólidos existentes nas áreas urbanas junto com os resíduos de lixos domésticos. O estudo destes materiais foi avaliado com o desenvolvimento de mudas de ipê-amarelo (Tabebuia Chrysotricha (Mart. Ex. Dc. sandl em diferentes misturas de substratos e tipos de água para irrigação. O experimento foi instalado no Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal. Foram realizados dois experimentos, avaliados juntamente com delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, de oito substratos, duas qualidades de águas e quatro repetições, totalizando 64 parcelas. Cada parcela foi composta por 30 plantas (cinco linhas de seis plantas, sendo consideradas como úteis as três linhas de quatro plantas centrais da parcela. Foram testados oito substratos, resultantes da combinação de substrato comercial, composto de lixo e composto de poda de árvores com dois tipos de água de irrigação (água potável e residuária e quatro repetições. Para acompanhar o desenvolvimento das mudas de ipê-amarelo, foram avaliados a altura da parte aérea das plantas (H e o diâmetro do colmo (D. As características foram avaliadas aos 21; 42; 63 e 84 dias após a emergência. Da análise dos resultados, possibilitou-se concluir que os substratos estudados promoveram diferenças significativas para a altura média das plantas e o diâmetro de colmo, em todos os períodos de avaliação. Os substratos 4 e 5 e a água residuária apresentaram os melhores resultados no desenvolvimento das mudas de ipê-amarelo.The need to study the use of waste of tree pruning is of great importance to solve the environmental problems of solid waste in the urban areas along with the household waste. The study of these materials was evaluated with the development

  1. TCP/IP Implementations and Vendors Guide, (United States)


    IMAGEN and others. The applications are integrated inwo the generic device, pathname...8217 . + ’. ’, " . . " .’ .- . - .- - - -- .. .- . . . . ’ - . . + ’ - .’ . . . , . ..++ - . -. ". , .-’ . , , - - . . . -+ ’- - - - , , - - , . . .. ... , - . % F 2.8. Imagen 2.8.1. Imprint-10 PRODUCT NAME: IMPRINT-10 TCP/IP Ethernet Printer DESCRIPTION: 4. The IMPRINT-10 is an...hardware O/S: Proprietary, not user-programmable IMPLEMENTATION-LANGUAGE: C DISTRIBUTOR: Imagen Corporation 2660 Marine

  2. La competenza per materia delle sezioni IP


    Luigi Carlo Ubertazzi


    Italian Law 12/12/2002, n. 273 [0] as implemented through the Legislative Decree 168/2003 [1] has created "specialized sections" for IP-related matters in the courts (both first and second level) of Bari, Bologna, Catania, Firenze, Genova, Milano, Napoli, Palermo, Roma, Torino, Trieste and Venezia. These sections "deal with cases of national and communitarian trademarks, patents for inventions and new plant varieties, utility models, pictures and models, author rights and all cases of unfair ...

  3. Research study on IPS digital controller design (United States)

    Kuo, B. C.; Folkerts, C.


    The performance is investigated of the simplified continuous-data model of the Instrument Pointing System (IPS). Although the ultimate objective is to study the digital model of the system, knowledge on the performance of the continuous-data model is important in the sense that the characteristics of the digital system should approach those of the continuous-data system as the sampling period approaches zero.

  4. Exploring the energy-water-food-climate nexus for the Indian Economy in 2030 (United States)

    Taheripour, F.; Hertel, T. W.; Gopalakrishnan, B. N.


    The economy of India is expected to face serious environmental challenges over the coming decades. Population growth, coupled with economic growth of nearly 7%/year to 2030 will translate into strong growth in energy demands - particularly electricity. The electricity sector's claim on total available water could grow from 4% to more than 10% in India in 2030, if the use of wet cooling technologies persists (IGES 2013). Water-saving, dry cooling technologies are available for coal-fired power plants, but this requires significant investment and must be done at the time of construction. Growing water demands from electricity generation, when coupled with industrial, residential and commercial demands, are projected to result in water shortages for irrigation in some key river basins such as Indus, Ganges, Subernarekha, Krishna, and Chotanagpui (Rosegrant et al., 2013). The resulting pressure on agricultural production is likely to be exacerbated by climate change, which itself may increase demands for irrigation as an adaptation strategy to higher temperatures and more variable rainfall (AgMIP, 2013). In this paper we examine the impact of water scarcity on economic growth, food, and energy security in India using an enhanced version of the GTAP-AEZ-WATER model. We find that investments in water-saving technology in the electricity sector are less costly than developing new water supply. However, even when these technologies are implemented, we project shortfalls in water available for irrigated agriculture. These shortfalls result in the contraction of irrigated area and diminished food production relative to the unconstrained baseline. However, trade could help India to mitigate a portion of this pressure by importing more food products from water abundant regions. In addition, allowing for the trading of water within river basins helps to alleviate some of the consequences of water scarcity.

  5. Intellectual Property and Strategic Agreements (IP/SA) | FNLCR Staging (United States)

    IP/SA handles all invention issues including patents and copyrights. All employee inventionreports are filed through the IP/SA office for all activities under the OTS contract.Additionally,request for assignment ofcopyri

  6. Media Distribution in Heterogeneous Environments using IP-Multicast


    Parnes, Peter


    This document discusses problems and solutions around distribution of media in heterogeneous environments when using IP-multicast. This document discusses problems and solutions around distribution of media in heterogeneous environments when using IP-multicast.

  7. Modeling low-carbon US electricity futures to explore impacts on national and regional water use (United States)

    Clemmer, S.; Rogers, J.; Sattler, S.; Macknick, J.; Mai, T.


    The US electricity sector is currently responsible for more than 40% of both energy-related carbon dioxide emissions and total freshwater withdrawals for power plant cooling (EIA 2012a Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (Washington, DC: US Department of Energy), Kenny et al 2009 Estimated Use of Water in the United States 2005 (US Geological Survey Circular vol 1344) (Reston, VA: US Geological Survey)). Changes in the future electricity generation mix in the United States will have important implications for water use, particularly given the changing water availability arising from competing demands and climate change and variability. However, most models that are used to make long-term projections of the electricity sector do not have sufficient regional detail for analyzing water-related impacts and informing important electricity- and water-related decisions. This paper uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) to model a range of low-carbon electricity futures nationally that are used to calculate changes in national water use (a sample result, on water consumption, is included here). The model also produces detailed sub-regional electricity results through 2050 that can be linked with basin-level water modeling. The results will allow for sufficient geographic resolution and detail to be relevant from a water management perspective.

  8. Role of ipsdienol, ipsenol, and cis-verbenol in chemical ecology of Ips avulsus, Ips calligraphus, and Ips grandicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). (United States)

    Allison, Jeremy D; McKenney, Jessica L; Miller, Daniel R; Gimmel, Matthew L


    Stressed or damaged pine (Pinus sp.) trees in the southeastern United States are often colonized simultaneously by three southern Ips species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): small southern pine engraver, Ips avulsus (Eichhoff); sixspined ips, Ips calligraphus (Germar); and eastern fivespined ips, Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff). All three species mediate colonization of host material with volatile pheromones. All of the southern Ips produce cis-verbenol, and either ipsdienol or ipsenol, and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that all three southern Ips are able to detect all three compounds. This study examined the role of ipsdienol, ipsenol, and cis-verbenol in the chemical ecology of the southern Ips in Georgia and Louisiana. The most attractive blends of pheromones, with the fewest number of components, were ipsdienol plus ipsenol for I. avulsus, cis-verbenol plus ipsdienol for I. calligraphus, and either cis-verbenol plus ipsenol or ipsdienol plus ipsenol for I. grandicollis. Cross-attraction of I. grandicollis to the pheromone blend most attractive to I. avulsus was observed. Although the presence of heterospecific pheromone reduced the catches of all three species (i.e., the tertiary blend captured fewer beetles than the most attractive binary blends) in both states (significantly in two cases), high numbers of all three species were still captured in traps baited with all three compounds. These results suggest that the pheromones cis-verbenol, ipsdienol, and ipsenol can be combined for monitoring all three species of the southern Ips simultaneously.

  9. Using Causal Loop Diagramming to Explore the Drivers of the Sustained Functionality of Rural Water Services in Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Neely


    Full Text Available It is recognized that international water sector development work has issues with a lack of sustained positive outcomes. A large driver of this outcome is how NGOs work with communities to implement and then manage water services. Many NGOs tend to focus their efforts on improving their reach and organisational growth by continually engaging in new projects. This behaviour is largely driven by short-term donor funding models that reward extended coverage, leaving little focus on sustained outcomes. Similarly, community-based management (CBM schemes often impede sustained services as a result of the community’s limited capacity to operate and maintain the technology. To explore these complicated drivers on water service sustainability, we used causal loop diagramming to analyse the key aspect influencing the combined dynamics between NGOs, donors and CBM. We demonstrate this methodology through a study in Timor-Leste, where we gathered data necessary to develop and apply causal loop diagrams to analyse rural water supply program outcomes. The analysis of these diagrams allowed identification of leverage points used to suggest structural changes for sustained benefits of water services. These structural changes emphasize the importance of increased robustness and reliability of water technology and the associated impact this has on community satisfaction and, conjointly, on water service sustainability.

  10. Implementing the South African water policy: holding the vision while exploring an uncharted mountain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    MacKay, HM


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the long-term implementation of the South African National Water Policy of 1997, and addresses some of the difficult issues of the management and leadership of large change processes. Although the vision established by the water...

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Critical Thinking Style and Water Conservation Behavior: Implications for Extension (United States)

    Owens, Courtney T.; Lamm, Alexa J.


    In the past several years Cooperative Extension has focused on developing educational programs that address water conservation, specifically for individuals using exorbitant amounts of water, with limited success. However, few research studies have examined how the way people think, including their critical thinking styles, can be used to inform…

  12. An interdisciplinary political ecology of drinking water quality. Exploring socio-ecological inequalities in Lilongwe's water supply network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusca, Maria; Boakye-Ansah, Akosua Sarpong; Loftus, Alex; Ferrero, Giuliana; van der Zaag, P.


    Urban political ecology attempts to unravel and politicize the socio-ecological processes that produce uneven waterscapes. At the core of this analysis are the choreographies of power that influence how much water flows through urban infrastructure as well as where it flows, thereby shaping

  13. Exploring the utility of Posidonia oceanica chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of water quality within the European Water Framework Directive. (United States)

    Gera, Alessandro; Alcoverro, Teresa; Mascaró, Oriol; Pérez, Marta; Romero, Javier


    The European Water Framework Directive commits partner countries to evolve uniform protocols for monitoring the environmental condition of natural water bodies, crucially integrating biological and ecological criteria from the associated ecosystems. This has encouraged considerable research on the development of bioindicator-based systems of water quality monitoring. A critical step towards this end is providing evidence that the proposed bioindicator system adequately reflects the human pressures to which a specific water body is submitted. Here we investigate the utility of pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry, a fast, non-destructive and increasingly popular bioindicator-based method, in assessing water quality based on the widespread Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, an important constituent of submersed benthic vegetation. Specifically, we evaluated the ability of PAM to discriminate between sites along a pre-established gradient of anthropogenic pressures and the consistency and reliability of PAM parameters across spatial scales. Our results show that the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), representing the structural photosynthetic efficiency of the plant, responds significantly to the degree of site-level anthropogenic pressure. However, Fv/Fm values in our study increased with increasing pressure, in striking contrast with other studies that report declines in Fv/Fm values with increasing stress. A potential explanation for this discrepancy is that our study sites were influenced by multiple diffuse stressors (characteristic of most coastal waters) that could potentially interact with each other to influence Fv/Fm values in often unpredictable ways. The photosynthetic variables calculated from rapid light curves (ETR(max), maximum electron transport rate; α, initial slope of the curve; I (k), saturating irradiance), which represent an instant picture of the photosynthetic activity of the plant, were unable to clearly discriminate between sites

  14. Dynamic Mobile IP routers in ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, B.A.; Schmidt, J.R.


    This paper describes a concept combining mobile IP and ad hoc routing to create a robust mobile network. In this network all nodes are mobile and globally and locally reachable under the same IP address. Essential for implementing this network are the dynamic mobile IP routers. They act as gateways

  15. A Survey of Voice over IP Security Research (United States)

    Keromytis, Angelos D.

    We present a survey of Voice over IP security research. Our goal is to provide a roadmap for researchers seeking to understand existing capabilities and, and to identify gaps in addressing the numerous threats and vulnerabilities present in VoIP systems. We also briefly discuss the implications of our findings with respect to actual vulnerabilities reported in a variety VoIP products.

  16. Impact of genome assembly status on ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET data mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachs Laurent


    Full Text Available Abstract Background ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET can potentially be used with any genome for genome wide profiling of protein-DNA interaction sites. Unfortunately, it is probable that most genome assemblies will never reach the quality of the human genome assembly. Therefore, it remains to be determined whether ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET are practicable with genome sequences other than a few (e.g. human and mouse. Findings Here, we used in silico simulations to assess the impact of completeness or fragmentation of genome assemblies on ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET data mapping. Conclusions Most currently published genome assemblies are suitable for mapping the short sequence tags produced by ChIP-Seq or ChIP-PET.

  17. Water exploration using Magnetotelluric and gravity data analysis; Wadi Nisah, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; Saud, Ramzi; Asch, Theodore; Aldamegh, Khaled; Mogren, Saad


    Saudi Arabia is a desert country with no permanent rivers or lakes and very little rainfall. Ground water aquifers are the major source of water in Saudi Arabia. In the Riyadh region, several Wadies including Wadi Nisah store about 14 × 106 m3 of water, which is extracted for local irrigation purposes. In such areas, the water wells are as shallow as 200-300 m in depth. The importance of Wadi Nisah is because the subsurface water aquifers that are present there could support the region for many years as a water resource. Accordingly, in this study, we performed a Magnetotelluric survey using a portable broadband sounding system (MT24/LF) to evaluate the ground water aquifer at great depths. We collected 10 broadband Magnetotelluric sounding stations (1 station/day) with an interval of about 2-3 km reaching a profile length of about 25-30 km along Wadi Nisah. Additionally, we used available gravity data to image the subsurface structure containing the aquifer. MT results indicated a low resistivity layer, associated with alluvium deposits, which was defined at a depth of about 1-2 km and extended horizontally about 15 km. Gravity data analysis was used to model this resistivity layer indicating a basement surface at 3-4 km depth.

  18. Exploring the Legionella pneumophila positivity rate in hotel water samples from Antalya, Turkey. (United States)

    Sepin Özen, Nevgün; Tuğlu Ataman, Şenay; Emek, Mestan


    The genus Legionella is a fastidious Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in natural waters and man made water supply systems. Legionella pneumophila is the aetiological agent of approximately 90% of reported Legionellosis cases, and serogroup 1 is the most frequent cause of infections. Legionnaires' disease is often associated with travel and continues to be a public health concern at present. The correct water management quality practices and rapid methods for analyzing Legionella species in environmental water is a key point for the prevention of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks. This study aimed to evaluate the positivity rates and serotyping of Legionella species from water samples in the region of Antalya, Turkey, which is an important tourism center. During January-December 2010, a total of 1403 samples of water that were collected from various hotels (n = 56) located in Antalya were investigated for Legionella pneumophila. All samples were screened for L. pneumophila by culture method according to "ISO 11731-2" criteria. The culture positive Legionella strains were serologically identified by latex agglutination test. A total of 142 Legionella pneumophila isolates were recovered from 21 (37.5%) of 56 hotels. The total frequency of L. pneumophila isolation from water samples was found as 10.1%. Serological typing of 142 Legionella isolates by latex agglutination test revealed that strains belonging to L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 predominated in the examined samples (85%), while strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 were less numerous (15%). According to our knowledge, our study with the greatest number of water samples from Turkey demonstrates that L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 is the most common isolate. Rapid isolation of L. pneumophila from environmental water samples is essential for the investigation of travel related outbreaks and the possible resources. Further studies are needed to have epidemiological data and to determine the types of L

  19. How can we integrate IP strategy with corporate strategy? Combining IP strategy with management strategy making process


    田中, 義敏; Tanaka, Yoshitoshi


    Intellectual property systems have been introduced and used in manycountries as a global standard. However, its practical utilisation is still not yetmature because of the lack of IP strategy. Each enterprise has to define aunique IP strategy and be differentiated by other enterprises because the outsideenvironment and internal resource are different. IP people have to havebetter understandings on strategy making process, which is fundamental to themanagement field. In addition, IP strategy s...

  20. IPS observations of heliospheric density structures associated with active regions (United States)

    Hick, P.; Jackson, B. V.; Altrock, R.; Woan, G.; Slater, G.


    Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) measurements of the 'disturbance factor' g, obtained with the Cambridge (UK) array can be used to explore the heliospheric density structure. We have used these data to construct synoptic (Carrington) maps, representing the large-scale enhancements of the g-factor in the inner heliosphere. These maps emphasize the stable corotating, rather than the transient heliospheric density enhancements. We have compared these maps with Carrington maps of Fe XIV observations National Solar Observatory ((NSO), Sacramento Peak) and maps based on Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) X-ray observations. Our results indicate that the regions of enhanced g tend to map to active regions rather than the current sheet. The implication is that act ve regions are the dominant source of the small-scale (approximately equal 200 km) density variations present in the quiet solar wind.

  1. Syndromes of the global water crisis - exploring the emergent dynamics through socio-hydrological modeling (United States)

    Kuil, Linda; Levy, Morgan; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitch; Penny, Gopal; Scott, Christopher; Srinivasan, Veena; Thompson, Sally; Troy, Tara


    There is a great variety of human water systems at the global scale due to the types and timing of water supply/availability, and the high diversity in water use, management, and abstraction methods. Importantly, this is largely driven by differences in welfare, social values, institutional frameworks, and cultural traditions of communities. The observed trend of a growing world population in combination with changing habits that generally increase our water consumption per capita implies that an increasing number of communities will face water scarcity. Over the years much research has been done in order to increase our understanding of human water systems and their associated water problems, using both top-down and bottom-up approaches. Despite these efforts, the challenge has remained to generalize findings beyond the areas of interests and to establish a common framework in order to compare and learn from different cases as a basis for finding solutions. In a recent analysis of multiple interdisciplinary subnational water resources case studies, it was shown that a suite of distinct resources utilization patterns leading to a water crisis can be identified, namely: 1) groundwater depletion, 2) ecological destruction, 3) drought-driven conflicts, 4) unmet subsistence needs, 5) resource capture by elite and 6) water reallocation to nature (Srinivasan et al., 2012). The effects of these syndromes on long-lasting human wellbeing can be grouped in the following outcomes: unsustainability, vulnerability, chronic scarcity and adaptation. The aim of this group collaboration is to build on this work through the development of a socio-hydrological model that is capable of reproducing the above syndromes and outcomes, ultimately giving insight in the different pathways leading to the syndromes. The resulting model will be distinct compared to existing model frameworks for two reasons. First of all, feedback loops between the hydrological, the environmental and the human

  2. Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Jimmy


    In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

  3. Exploring the under-investigated “microbial dark matter” of drinking water treatment plants (United States)

    Bruno, Antonia; Sandionigi, Anna; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bernasconi, Marzia; Vicario, Saverio; Galimberti, Andrea; Cocuzza, Clementina; Labra, Massimo; Casiraghi, Maurizio


    Scientists recently reported the unexpected detection of unknown or poorly studied bacterial diversity in groundwater. The ability to uncover this neglected biodiversity mainly derives from technical improvements, and the term “microbial dark matter” was used to group taxa poorly investigated and not necessarily monophyletic. We focused on such under-investigated microbial dark matter of drinking water treatment plant from groundwater, across carbon filters, to post-chlorination. We tackled this topic using an integrated approach where the efficacy of stringent water filtration (10000 MWCO) in recovering even the smallest environmental microorganisms was coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing to depict an informative spectrum of the neglected microbial diversity. Our results revealed that the composition of bacterial communities varies across the plant system: Parcubacteria (OD1) superphylum is found mainly in treated water, while groundwater has the highest heterogeneity, encompassing non-OD1 candidate phyla (Microgenomates, Saccharibacteria, Dependentiae, OP3, OP1, BRC1, WS3). Carbon filters probably act as substrate for microorganism growth and contribute to seeding water downstream, since chlorination does not modify the incoming bacterial community. New questions arise about the role of microbial dark matter in drinking water. Indeed, our results suggest that these bacteria might play a central role in the microbial dynamics of drinking water. PMID:28290543

  4. Exploring the under-investigated "microbial dark matter" of drinking water treatment plants. (United States)

    Bruno, Antonia; Sandionigi, Anna; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bernasconi, Marzia; Vicario, Saverio; Galimberti, Andrea; Cocuzza, Clementina; Labra, Massimo; Casiraghi, Maurizio


    Scientists recently reported the unexpected detection of unknown or poorly studied bacterial diversity in groundwater. The ability to uncover this neglected biodiversity mainly derives from technical improvements, and the term "microbial dark matter" was used to group taxa poorly investigated and not necessarily monophyletic. We focused on such under-investigated microbial dark matter of drinking water treatment plant from groundwater, across carbon filters, to post-chlorination. We tackled this topic using an integrated approach where the efficacy of stringent water filtration (10000 MWCO) in recovering even the smallest environmental microorganisms was coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing to depict an informative spectrum of the neglected microbial diversity. Our results revealed that the composition of bacterial communities varies across the plant system: Parcubacteria (OD1) superphylum is found mainly in treated water, while groundwater has the highest heterogeneity, encompassing non-OD1 candidate phyla (Microgenomates, Saccharibacteria, Dependentiae, OP3, OP1, BRC1, WS3). Carbon filters probably act as substrate for microorganism growth and contribute to seeding water downstream, since chlorination does not modify the incoming bacterial community. New questions arise about the role of microbial dark matter in drinking water. Indeed, our results suggest that these bacteria might play a central role in the microbial dynamics of drinking water.

  5. Impact of artefact removal on ChIP quality metrics in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Samuel Carroll


    Full Text Available With the advent of ChIP-seq multiplexing technologies and the subsequent increase in ChIP-seq throughput, the development of working standards for the quality assessment of ChIP-seq studies has received significant attention. The ENCODE consortium’s large scale analysis of transcription factor binding and epigenetic marks as well as concordant work on ChIP-seq by other laboratories has established a new generation of ChIP-seq quality control measures. The use of these metrics alongside common processing steps has however not been evaluated. In this study, we investigate the effects of blacklisting and removal of duplicated reads on established metrics of ChIP-seq quality and show that the interpretation of these metrics is highly dependent on the ChIP-seq preprocessing steps applied. Further to this we perform the first investigation of the use of these metrics for ChIP-exo data and make recommendations for the adaptation of the NSC statistic to allow for the assessment of ChIP-exo efficiency.

  6. Impact of artifact removal on ChIP quality metrics in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo data (United States)

    Carroll, Thomas S.; Liang, Ziwei; Salama, Rafik; Stark, Rory; de Santiago, Ines


    With the advent of ChIP-seq multiplexing technologies and the subsequent increase in ChIP-seq throughput, the development of working standards for the quality assessment of ChIP-seq studies has received significant attention. The ENCODE consortium's large scale analysis of transcription factor binding and epigenetic marks as well as concordant work on ChIP-seq by other laboratories has established a new generation of ChIP-seq quality control measures. The use of these metrics alongside common processing steps has however not been evaluated. In this study, we investigate the effects of blacklisting and removal of duplicated reads on established metrics of ChIP-seq quality and show that the interpretation of these metrics is highly dependent on the ChIP-seq preprocessing steps applied. Further to this we perform the first investigation of the use of these metrics for ChIP-exo data and make recommendations for the adaptation of the NSC statistic to allow for the assessment of ChIP-exo efficiency. PMID:24782889

  7. Analysis list: Atf7ip [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Atf7ip Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 ...

  8. Water stress as a trigger of demand change: exploring the implications for drought planning (United States)

    Garcia, M. E.; Islam, S.; Portney, K. E.


    Drought in the Anthropocene is a function of both supply and demand. Despite its importance, demand is typically incorporated into planning models exogenously using a single scenario of demand change over time. Alternatively, demand is incorporated endogenously in hydro-economic models based on the assumption of rationality. However, actors are constrained by limited information and information processing capabilities, casting doubt on the rationality assumption. Though the risk of water shortage changes incrementally with demand growth and hydrologic change, significant shifts in management are punctuated and often linked to periods of stress. The observation of lasting decreases in per capita demands in a number of cities during periods of water stress prompts an alternate hypothesis: the occurrence of water stress increases the tendency of cities to promote and enforce efficient technologies and behaviors and the tendency of users to adopt them. We show the relevance of this hypothesis by building a model of a hypothetical surface water system to answer the following question: what is the impact of reservoir operation policy on the reliability of water supply for a growing city? The model links the rate of demand decreases to the past reliability to compare standard operating policy (SOP) with hedging policy (HP). Under SOP, demand is fulfilled unless available supply drops below demand; under HP, water releases are reduced in anticipation of a deficit to decrease the risk of a large shortfall. The model shows that reservoir storage acts both as a buffer for variability and as a delay triggering oscillations around a sustainable level of demand. HP reduces the threshold for action thereby decreasing the delay and the oscillation effect. As a result per capita demand decrease during periods of water stress are more frequent but less drastic and the additive effect of small adjustments decreases the tendency of the system to overshoot available supplies.

  9. ejIP: A TCP/IP Stack for Embedded Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin


    To enable Java on resource constraint embedded devices, the whole system should be implemented in a single programming language to avoid overheads on language boundaries. However, most of the functionality that is dedicated to the operating system layer is usually written in C. In this paper we...... present the design and implementation of a network stack written entirely in Java. This implementation serves as an example how to implement system functions in a safe language and gives evidence that Java can be used for operating system related functionality. The described TCP/IP stack ejIP has already...... been successfully used in industrial projects on pure Java embedded systems....

  10. Water for rice farming and biodiversity: Exploring choices for adaptation in Doñana, southern Spain (United States)

    De Stefano, Lucia; Hernández Mora, Nuria; Iglesias, Ana; Sánchez, Berta


    This paper showcases the tension between the need of higher in-stream flows in the Lower Gualdaquivir River Basin, in Sothern Spain, to sustain its ecosystems and the high dependence of rice farming on large amounts of water for irrigation. Climate change projections suggest that this tension is likely to be exacerbated due to a reduction in precipitation and an increase in temperature. The main actors of the Lower Guadalquivir do perceive changes in water availability and quality as well as climatic conditions and are exploring options to cope with them. Equally important for the future of the area are economic and political factors such as the evolution of rice prices in international markets and subsidies of the European Common Agricultural Policy. Stakeholders in the area believe that rice farming is likely to remain central in the socio-economic structure of the Lower Guadalquivir, but are increasingly aware that new development strategies need to be adopted to face a changing world. Discussed options combine technical measures to improve the guarantee of water provision - modernization of irrigation systems, water works to control water salinity - with 'soft' measures that should improve water use and governance - transfer of research results, higher control of land and water uses, water trading and farmers training and advice. Moreover, there is a general awareness of the compelling needs for diversification of economic activity to reduce the risks linked to monoculture and for increasing the competitiveness of economic activities. Perhaps the main barrier to adaptation is that adapting to shrinking and more variable water resources creates a dilemma between water for rice farming or water for nature - mainly the Gualdaquivir estuary and the associated ecosystems. However, there are a number of adaptation measures that could help harmonize those two apparently conflicting interests. To identify and reach a consensus about possible strategies to adapt to

  11. [Preliminary exploring of hyperspectral remote sensing experiment for nitrogen and phosphorus in water]. (United States)

    Gong, Shao-Qi; Huang, Jia-Zhu; Li, Yun-Mei; Lu, Wan-Ning; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Guo-Xiang


    The content of nitrogen and phosphorus in the waters is an important index to measure water quality, and the technique of remote sensing plays a large role in monitoring the change in environment. The reflectance spectra of nitrogen and phosphorus with different concentrations were measured to discover their special features under pure water condition in the laboratory by hyperspectral remote sensing technique. The result shows that nitrogen has reflectance peaks at 404 and 477 nm, and phosphorus at 350 nm, and these reflectance peaks have a good correlation with their concentrations, then a quantitative retrieval model was deduced for nitrogen and phosphorus based on that. These results will lay an important basis for further monitoring nitrogen and phosphorus by remote sensing technique in the big inland lakes, reservoirs and rivers.

  12. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic evaluation of surface waters from a coal exploration region. (United States)

    Porta, Cynthia Silva; Dos Santos, Débora Lemes; Bernardes, Hélio Vieira; Bellagamba, Bruno Corrêa; Duarte, Anaí; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Fernanda Rabaioli; Lehmann, Mauricio; da Silva, Juliana; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues


    Coal mining generates a considerable amount of waste, which is disposed of in piles or dams near mining sites. As a result, leachates may reach rivers and streams, promoting the wide dispersion of contaminants in solution and as particulate matter. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic action of surface waters collected around a thermoelectric power plant and the largest mining area in Brazil (Candiota). Four sites in Candiota stream were selected, and samples were collected in winter and summer. Water samples were analyzed using the comet and CBMN assays in V79 and HepG2 cells. Furthermore, genotoxicity of water samples was evaluated in vivo using the SMART in Drosophila melanogaster. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic elements were quantified. The results indicate that water samples exhibited no genotoxic and mutagenic activities, whether in vitro or in vivo. On the other hand, surface water samples collected in sites near the power plant in both summer and winter inhibited cell proliferation and induced increased frequencies of V79 cell death, apoptosis, and necrosis. The cytotoxicity observed may be associated with the presence of higher concentration of inorganic elements, especially aluminum, silicon, sulfur, titanium and zinc at sites 1 and 2 in the stream, as well as with the complex mixture present in the coal, in both seasons. Therefore, the results obtained point to the toxicity potential of water samples with the influence of coal mining and combustion processes and the possible adverse effects on the health of exposed organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Participation, politics, and panaceas: exploring the possibilities and limits of participatory urban water governance in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Morinville


    Full Text Available Water governance debates have increasingly recognized the importance of adaptive governance for short- and long-term sustainability, especially with respect to increasing climate unpredictability and growing urbanization. A parallel focus on enhancing community participation pervades international development recommendations and policy literature. Indeed, there are often implicit and explicit connections made between the participatory character of water governance institutions and their adaptive capacity. The social-ecological systems literature, however, has also urged caution with respect to embracing panaceas, with increasing calls to be attentive to the limitations of proposed "solutions." We discuss the parallels between the adaptive governance, comanagement, and participatory resource governance literatures and analyze efforts to encourage such participation in urban water governance through Local Water Boards in Accra, Ghana. Drawing on interview data, participant observations, and a survey of 243 individuals, we explored what participatory spaces have been opened or foreclosed as well as the possibilities for adaptive urban water governance in Accra. Applying insights from recent debates about panaceas, we argue that discerning the potential and limits for sustainable resource governance and associated development goals requires that participatory mechanisms be subjected to systematic and contextual analysis.

  14. Exploring the spatio-temporal interrelation between groundwater and surface water by using the self-organizing maps (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ting; Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John


    In this study, we propose a soft-computing methodology to visibly explore the spatio-temporal groundwater variations of the Kuoping River basin in southern Taiwan. The self-organizing map (SOM) is implemented to investigate the interactive mechanism between surface water and groundwater over the river basin based on large high-dimensional data sets coupled with their occurrence times. We find that extracting the occurrence time from each 30-day moving average data set in the clustered neurons of the SOM is a crucial step to learn the spatio-temporal interaction between surface water and groundwater. We design 2-D Topological Bubble Map to summarize all the groundwater values of four aquifers in a neuron, which can visibly explore the major features of the groundwater in the vertical direction. The constructed SOM topological maps nicely display that: (1) the groundwater movement, in general, extends from the eastern area to the western, where groundwater in the eastern area can be easily recharged from precipitation in wet seasons and discharged into streams during dry seasons due to the high permeability in this area; (2) the water movements in the four aquifers of the study area are quite different, and the seasonal variations of groundwater in the second and third aquifers are larger than those of the others; and (3) the spatial distribution and seasonal variations of groundwater and surface water are comprehensively linked together over the constructed maps to present groundwater characteristics and the interrelation between groundwater and surface water. The proposed modeling methodology not only can classify the large complex high-dimensional data sets into visible topological maps to effectively facilitate the quantitative status of regional groundwater resources but can also provide useful elaboration for future groundwater management.

  15. Exploring fungal biodiversity for the production of water-soluble pigments as potential natural food colorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld


    be produced in high yields. The recent authorization of a fungal food colorant has fuelled research to explore the extraordinary chemical diversity and biodiversity of fungi for the biotechnological production of pigments as natural food colorants. These studies require an appropriate use of chernotaxonomic...... technology, in the future it should be possible to employ metabolic engineering to create microbial cell factories for the production of food colorants....

  16. La competenza per materia delle sezioni IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Carlo Ubertazzi


    Full Text Available Italian Law 12/12/2002, n. 273 [0] as implemented through the Legislative Decree 168/2003 [1] has created "specialized sections" for IP-related matters in the courts (both first and second level of Bari, Bologna, Catania, Firenze, Genova, Milano, Napoli, Palermo, Roma, Torino, Trieste and Venezia. These sections "deal with cases of national and communitarian trademarks, patents for inventions and new plant varieties, utility models, pictures and models, author rights and all cases of unfair competition when these cases interfere with the protection of industrial and intellectual property". This paper discusses the different positions of Italian law scholars and lawyers as to whether the list of subjects, on which the specialized sections are competent as written in the law, is intensive or extensive - in other words, whether the specialized sections should take care *only* of the matters that the law clearly specifies, or whether they should take care of everything "related to" intellectual and industrial property. In this paper several justifications are made for giving full responsibility to IP sections over all law cases dealing with intellectual property (extensive interpretation, together with a rebuttal of the most relevant positions advocating an intensive interpretation of the law.

  17. IPS - a vision aided navigation system (United States)

    Börner, Anko; Baumbach, Dirk; Buder, Maximilian; Choinowski, Andre; Ernst, Ines; Funk, Eugen; Grießbach, Denis; Schischmanow, Adrian; Wohlfeil, Jürgen; Zuev, Sergey


    Ego localization is an important prerequisite for several scientific, commercial, and statutory tasks. Only by knowing one's own position, can guidance be provided, inspections be executed, and autonomous vehicles be operated. Localization becomes challenging if satellite-based navigation systems are not available, or data quality is not sufficient. To overcome this problem, a team of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) developed a multi-sensor system based on the human head and its navigation sensors - the eyes and the vestibular system. This system is called integrated positioning system (IPS) and contains a stereo camera and an inertial measurement unit for determining an ego pose in six degrees of freedom in a local coordinate system. IPS is able to operate in real time and can be applied for indoor and outdoor scenarios without any external reference or prior knowledge. In this paper, the system and its key hardware and software components are introduced. The main issues during the development of such complex multi-sensor measurement systems are identified and discussed, and the performance of this technology is demonstrated. The developer team started from scratch and transfers this technology into a commercial product right now. The paper finishes with an outlook.

  18. A method to explore social response for water management strategies under changing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, Astrid; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Valkering, Pieter


    Society aims at sustainable water management, which means that it is effective (meeting targets for people, planet and profit), robust (able to cope with uncertainties) and flexible (easily adaptable to changing conditions). The past has demonstrated that extreme weather events and their impacts are

  19. SMART Infrastructure & Mobility : Exploring Water, Mobility & Infrastructure in São Paulo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccinini, D.; Rocco, R.; Bacchin, T.


    This booklet presents the outcomes of the 2014 eligible course ‘Smart Infrastructure and Mobility’ (SIM), of the Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment Urbanism MSc. The course builds on the theme of the São Paulo Water Ring, locally known as ‘Hidro-Anel’ –

  20. Nano-exploration of organic conditioning film formed on polymeric surfaces exposed to drinking water. (United States)

    Francius, Grégory; El Zein, Racha; Mathieu, Laurence; Gosselin, Florence; Maul, Armand; Block, Jean-Claude


    Adsorption of organic macromolecules onto surfaces in contact with waters forms a so-called conditioning film and induces modifications of the surface properties. Here, we characterized conditioning films formed onto two hydrophobic materials (used as pipe liner) and immersed for 24 h in tap water. Using combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), and chemical force microscopy (CFM), we detected some changes in roughness and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance of the surface of the tested coupons, and also the deposition of numerous organic polymers (few millions/cm(2)) randomly distributed on the surface. The maximum molecular extension of these organic polymers was in the range of 250-1250 nm according to the tested materials. Systematic analysis of the force curves with the theoretical models (WLC and FJC) allowed determining the proportion of rupture events related to the unfolding of both polysaccharide and polypeptide segments, which represented 75-80% and 20-25% of the analyzed curves, respectively. The number of autochthonous drinking water bacteria, which attached to the material within the same period of time was 10000-folds lower than the detected number of polymers attached to the surface. Even in drinking water systems with relatively low organic matter (dissolved organic carbon < 1.1 mg/L), the potential of formation of a conditioning biofilm is important. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrogen-bond dynamics in water explored by heterodyne-detected photon echo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeremenko, S; Pshenichnikov, MS; Wiersma, DA; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.


    Results of heterodyne-detected photon echo experiments on the OH stretching mode of water are reported and discussed. Two vibrational dynamical processes with time constants of 130 and 900 fs were identified. The former is attributed to bond breaking dynamics of a single hydrogen bond, the latter to

  2. Ground-water exploration in the Bosque del Apache Grant, Socorro County, New Mexico (United States)

    Cooper, James B.


    Test drilling along the Rio Grande in the Bosque del Apache Grant in Socorro County, New Mexico has shown that the area is hydrologically complex and that the quality of the ground water varies from saline to fresh within short distances both laterally and vertically. Nearly all of the riverside land in the Grant is occupied by the migratory waterfowl refuge of the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. Potable and near-potable water is obtained from 12 wells in this area that tap sand and gravel, and the wells are capable of yielding 1,000 gallons per minute or more. Stallion Range Center, a military installation on the White Sands Missile Range, about 15 miles east of =he waterfowl refuge, needs about 100,000 gallons per day of potable water. Potable water in large quantities is not known to be available at a location closer to the Center than the refuge area. The Fish and Wildlife Service, which operates the waterfowl refuge, gave permission to White Sands Missile Range to test drill and to develop a supply well in certain areas along the Rio Grande outside the managed lands of the refuge. The U.S. Geological Survey was then asked by White Sands Missile Range to choose locations for test drilling and to monitor drilling and testing of the wells. Between 1963 and 1967 test wells were drilled and a suitable location for a supply well as found. The well would be about 250 feet deep and would tap a body of potable water that is about 100 feet in thickness and is thought to underlie an area of at least 5 square miles. This report contains diagrammatic sections that show the lateral and vertical relation of waters of different quality along the Rio Grande in a part of the Bosque del Apache Grant. Basic data are given in tables; they include records of 7 test wells and 12 high-yield supply wells, and 52 chemical analyses of ground water from the wells.

  3. Some Strategic Considerations Related to the Potential Use of Water Resource Deposits on Mars by Future Human Explorers (United States)

    Beaty, D.W.; Mueller, R.P.; Bussey, D.B.; Davis, R.M.; Hays, L.E.; Hoffman, S.J.


    A long-term base on Mars, at the center of an "Exploration Zone", would require substantial quantities of in-situ resources. Although water is not the only resource on Mars of potential interest, it stands out as the one that most dominates long-lead strategic planning. It is needed for multiple purposes for various human activities (including our own survival!), and in significant quantities. The absence of viable deposits could make a surface "field station" logistically unsustainable. Therefore, identification of deposits, and development of the technology needed to make use of these deposits, are an important priority in the period leading up to a human mission to Mars. Given our present understanding of Mars, ice and hydrated minerals appear to be the best potential sources for the quantity of water expected to be needed. The methods for their extraction would be different for these two classes of deposits, and at the present time it is unknown which would ultimately be an optimal solution. The deposits themselves would also ultimately have to be judged by certain economics that take into account information about geologic and engineering attributes and the "cost" of obtaining this information. Ultimately much of this information would need to come from precursor missions, which would be essential if utilization of martian is situ water resources is to become a part of human exploration of Mars.

  4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of plant transcription factors followed by sequencing (ChIP-SEQ) or hybridization to whole genome arrays (ChIP-CHIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, K.; Muiño, J.M.; Østerås, M.; Farinelli, L.; Krajewski, P.; Angenent, G.C.


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful technique to study interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and DNA in vivo. For genome-wide de novo discovery of TF-binding sites, the DNA that is obtained in ChIP experiments needs to be processed for sequence identification. The sequences

  5. Treatment of germinated wheat to increase levels of GABA and IP6 catalyzed by endogenous enzymes. (United States)

    Nagaoka, Hiroyuki


    We found that the levels of bioactive products from wheat can be increased dramatically by manipulating germination conditions and taking advantage of the activity of endogenous enzymes. The yield of phytic acid (IP(6)) from wheat germinated in the presence of high, controlled levels of dissolved oxygen (188 +/- 28 mg/100 g wheat) was almost three times greater than that from wheat germinated with no supplemental oxygen (74 +/- 10 mg/100 g wheat). The yield of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from wheat germinated in the presence of uncontrolled levels of dissolved oxygen was 18 +/- 3 times greater than that from nonsupplemented wheat (1 mg/100 g wheat). The concentration of GABA was much greater in wheat germ than in whole wheat, and the yield of GABA from wheat germ processed with supplemental water (163 +/- 7 mg/100 g wheat germ) was notably greater than that from wheat germ processed with no supplemental water (100 +/- 2 mg/100 g wheat germ). In contrast, IP(6) was more concentrated in wheat bran, and the yield of IP(6) from wheat bran processed with supplemental water (3100 +/- 12 mg/100 g wheat bran) was notably higher than that from wheat bran processed with no supplemental water (2420 +/- 13 mg/100 g wheat bran). We conclude that the large amount of GABA extracted from wheat germ is likely due to high glutamate decarboxylase activity and low aminotransferase activity and that the large amount of IP(6) extracted from wheat bran is likely due to high levels of tyrosinase activity. Our findings indicate that bioactive molecules such as GABA and IP(6) can be successfully mass-produced by taking advantage of endogenous enzymatic activities.

  6. ChIP-seq in studying epigenetic mechanisms of disease and promoting precision medicine: progresses and future directions. (United States)

    Yan, Huihuang; Tian, Shulan; Slager, Susan L; Sun, Zhifu


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) is widely used for mapping histone modifications, histone proteins, chromatin regulators, transcription factors and other DNA-binding proteins. It has played a significant role in our understanding of disease mechanisms and in exploring epigenetic changes for potential clinical applications. However, the conventional protocol requires large amounts of starting material and does not quantify the actual occupancy, limiting its applications in clinical settings. Herein we summarize the latest progresses in utilizing ChIP-seq to link epigenetic alterations to disease initiation and progression, and the implications in precision medicine. We provide an update on the newly developed ChIP-seq protocols, especially those suitable for scare clinical samples. Technical and analytical challenges are outlined together with recommendations for improvement. Finally, future directions in expediting ChIP-seq use in clinic are discussed.

  7. Exploring the under-investigated ?microbial dark matter? of drinking water treatment plants


    Bruno, Antonia; Sandionigi, Anna; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bernasconi, Marzia; Vicario, Saverio; Galimberti, Andrea; Cocuzza, Clementina; Labra, Massimo; Casiraghi, Maurizio


    Scientists recently reported the unexpected detection of unknown or poorly studied bacterial diversity in groundwater. The ability to uncover this neglected biodiversity mainly derives from technical improvements, and the term ?microbial dark matter? was used to group taxa poorly investigated and not necessarily monophyletic. We focused on such under-investigated microbial dark matter of drinking water treatment plant from groundwater, across carbon filters, to post-chlorination. We tackled t...

  8. Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR) - A new method for exploration of ground water and aquifer properties


    Yaramanci, U.


    The Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR) method is a fairly new technique in geophysics to assess ground water, i.e. existence, amount and productibility by measurements at the surface. The NMR technique used in medicine, physics and lately in borehole geophysics was adopted for surface measurements in the early eighties, and commercial equipment for measurements has been available since the mid nineties. The SNMR method has been tested at sites in Northern Germany with Quaternary sand a...

  9. Exploring sustainable urban water governance: a case study of institutional capacity. (United States)

    van de Meene, S J; Brown, R R; Farrelly, M A


    The sustainable urban water management system is likely to be characterised by complex and flexible governance arrangements, increased inter-organisational interaction and wide stakeholder participation, which contrasts significantly with the traditional approach. Recently there has been significant financial investment in urban water reform, however the reforms have not been as successful as anticipated and numerous institutional barriers remain. Understanding and assessing institutional capacity is central to addressing institutional impediments. Institutional capacity comprises individual, intra- and inter-organisational and external rules and incentives capacities. This paper reports on the first case study of a social research project that aims to develop an institutional capacity assessment framework. Empirical data from semi-structured interviews with 59 water industry experts in Sydney, Australia, and a broad literature survey were used. The key capacity attributes identified could form the basis of an institutional capacity assessment tool and reveal common and differing attributes across stakeholder groups which provide insight into stakeholder relations. Synthesis of the results revealed that intra- and inter-organisational capacities were facing particular challenges and should be explicitly addressed in reform, policy and capacity development initiatives.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masagus Zainuri


    Full Text Available AbstractInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS are adult cells which the genetic information in the nucleus of those cells being reprogrammed (reprogram by inserting exogenous pluripotential genes. The exogenous gene transduction is using vectors, such as lentivirus, retrovirus, or adenovirus, which suppressed the gene expression of the original cells, so they will express the transduced exogenous gene. Viral vectors are then used to reprogramming and producing iPS clones that are pluripotent. iPS derived from adult cells of patient with certain diseases will be used as a tool to study the mechanisms of those specific diseases and the effects of selected drugs against the diseases. Several previous studies have shown that iPS clones developed from specific genetic disease have its original genotype and retain the character of the response to the drug that similar as the original adult cells. Opportunities for the utilization of autologous iPS cell therapy in the future is wide open as expected iPS transplant will not be rejected when transplanted back to the patient. Behind all its potential, iPS production is still facing some problems to be applicable clinically. The use of viruses as vectors may cause problems due to virus gene sequences may be integrated into the genome of the DNA donor cell, thereby causing mutations of the iPS clones. Several subsequent studies have succeeded in replacing the use of viruses as vectors, but the level of efficiency obtained is still very low. Another problem that arises is that epigenetic changes may occur in iPS cultures. Many advanced research related to iPS may be developed in Indonesia and is necessary to improve the production efficiency of iPS and solve iPS clones epigenetic changes problems in the future.Keywords: iPS, pluripotency, transduction, transfection.AbstrakInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS adalah sel somatic dewasa yang informasi genetika dalam inti selnyadiprogram ulang (reprogram dengan cara

  11. Using Games To Explore The Nexus of Climate, Energy, and Water (United States)

    Hall, M. K.; Mayhew, M. A.


    We have developed a set of card games to teach teens and adults about the interdependency of energy demand, water consumption, and climate change, which we term the nexus of energy, water, and climate. The latest game challenges players to construct arguments around issues related to the nexus, such as the benefits of carbon sequestration or the negative impacts of consuming corn biofuel. The game has been through several rounds of playtesting, both with teens and adults, and in formal and informal learning environments, such as our ongoing teen Cafe Scientifique program ( The card game consists of two types of cards, "Challenge" and "Policy." Each round, one player acting as the Judge draws a Challenge card and reads the adjective—for example, dangerous, clean, catastrophic, awesome— and its definition displayed on the card. The other players hold Policy cards containing 3 or 4 facts related to nexus concepts. For example, the Algae bio-diesel fuel policy card contains the fact, "Algae can produce 100 times more fuel per acre that any other biofuel crop". A fact on the Tight shale gas policy card reads, "Chemicals used in 'fracking' can contaminate water supplies." Using the facts on a single Policy card, each player constructs an argument aligned with the adjective—and presents it to the Judge. This requires players to synthesize the given facts and any prior knowledge about the topic into a coherent argument. As players make their arguments, everyone is challenged to think about the nuances and implications of the myriad choices we have in balancing the needs for water and energy resources with the challenge of minimizing climate change. The Judge decides which player makes the policy argument that best aligns with the adjective, and that player wins the round. Players take turns being the Judge. The first player to win three rounds wins the game. The game has been well received by both teen and adult audiences. It is a highly social game

  12. Ground-water exploration in Al Marj area, Cyrenaica, United Kingdom of Libya (United States)

    Newport, T.G.; Haddor, Yousef


    The present report, based largely on fieldwork during 1959-61, describes the results of reconnaissance hydrogeologic studies and exploratory drilling to evaluate the general water-bearing properties of the rocks and the availability of groundwater supplies for irrigation, stock, and village uses in Al Marj area. These studies and the drilling were conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Operations Mission of the International Cooperation Administration. Al Marj area, located in the Province of Cyrenaica on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, contains a land area of about 6,770 square kilometers. Along the Mediterranean shore is a narrow coastal plain that rises evenly to the base of an escarpment that forms the seaward front of an undulating plateau known as. Al Jabal al Akhgiar. The climate is semiarid; seasonal rainfall occurs during the winter months. Owing to orographic effects, the rainfall is somewhat higher in the Jabal than in the coastal plain. The average annual rainfall ranges from about 250 millimeters in the coastal plain to 450 millimeters on the Jabal. All the streams (wadis) of the area are ephemeral and flow only in response to heavy rains of the winter season. From a drainage divide on the Jabal some streams flow north and northwest toward the sea and the others, south and southeast to the interior desert. Solution features, such as limestone sink holes, are common in the coastal plain and a large solution depression occurs near Al Marj. The rocks of A1 Marj area consist predominantly of limestone and some sandstone and shale; they range from Cretaceous to Miocene age. On the coastal plain Miocene limestone is locally mantled by Quaternary alluvial, beach and lagoonal deposits. The Miocene and older beds have a regional southerly dip. These rocks are broken by northeast-trending normal faults in the coastal and inland escarpments. The ground-water reservoir is contained chiefly in fractures, bedding planes, and solution openings in the

  13. Hydrocarbon accumulation conditions and exploration direction of Baiyun–Liwan deep water areas in the Pearl River Mouth Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heming Lin


    Full Text Available An integrated geologic study was performed in the Baiyun–Liwan deep water areas, Pearl River Mouth Basin, based on the achievements obtained during the past five exploration stages. The following understandings were obtained. (1 The Baiyun Sag has superior source rock conditions and has experienced three tectonic evaluation stages like rifting, rifting-depression and depression. The Wenchang–Enping Fms deposited during the rifting stage have large hydrocarbon generation potentials. During the rifting-depression and depression stages, the deposition in the study area was controlled by the Oligocene and Miocene shelf slope break zones. The Oligocene Zhuhai Fm shallow marine delta-longshore depositional system and the Miocene Zhujiang–Hanjiang Fms deep fan depositional system were formed, and they are the most favorable reservoir-caprock assemblages in the study area. (2 The Hydrocarbon accumulation pattern in the deep waters is different from that in the northern shallow waters. Shelf slope break zone, composite conduction system consisting of structural ridge, fault, sandbody, unconformity and fluid diapir as well as late tectonic movement are the three major factors controlling hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the study area. (3 The Liwan 3-1 gas field is a typical example. The superior trapping conditions, high-quality reservoirs of delta distributary channel controlled by shelf slope break zone, vertical conduction system consisting of fault and diapir, as well as the overlying massive marine mudstone caprock provide favorable geologic conditions for the formation of large gas fields. Four areas were identified as the targets of gas exploration in the near future: the deep water fan system in the central sag, the structural-stratigraphic traps in the uplifted areas on both sides of the main sag of Baiyun, a series of large structural traps on the fault terrace to the southwest of the main sag, and the ultra-deep frontiers in

  14. Evaluation of VoIP QoS Performance in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tariq Meeran


    Full Text Available The main focus of this research article is the evaluation of selected voice over Internet protocol (VoIP solutions in wireless mesh network (WMN scenarios. While WMNs have self-healing, self-forming, and dynamic topology features, they still pose challenges for the implementation of multimedia applications such as voice in various scenarios. Therefore, various solutions to make WMN more suitable for VoIP application have been proposed in the scientific literature. In this work, we have extensively explored a set of applicable scenarios by conducting experiments by means of a network simulator. The following scenarios were selected as the most representatives for performance evaluation: first responders, flooded village, remote village, and platoon deployment. Each selected scenario has been studied under six sub-scenarios corresponding to various combinations of the IEEE 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11s, and 802.11e standards; the G.711 and G.729 codecs; and the ad hoc on demand distance vector (AODV and hybrid wireless mesh protocol (HWMP routing protocols. The results in terms of quality of service (measured with the mean opinion score rating scale, supported by the analysis of delay, jitter and packet loss, show that 802.11g integration with both VoIP codecs and AODV routing protocol results in better VoIP performance as compared to most other scenarios. In case of 802.11g integration with 802.11s, VoIP performance decreases as compared to the other sub-scenarios without 802.11s. The results also show that 802.11n integration with 802.11e decreases VoIP performance in larger deployments. We conclude the paper with some recommendations in terms of combinations of those standards and protocols with a view to achieve a higher quality of service for the given scenarios.

  15. Hydrolysis of phytic acid by intrinsic plant and supplemented microbial phytase (Aspergillus niger) in the stomach and small intestine of minipigs fitted with re-entrant cannulas. 3. Hydrolysis of phytic acid (IP6) and occurrence of hydrolysis products (IP5, IP4, IP3 and IP2). (United States)

    Rapp, C; Lantzsch, H J; Drochner, W


    Hydrolysis of phytate in the stomach and the small intestine as influenced by intrinsic plant (wheat) and supplemented microbial phytase (Aspergillus niger) were investigated with six minipigs (40-50 kg initial body weight) fitted with re-entrant cannulas in the duodenum, 30 cm posterior to the pylorus (animals 1, 4, 5 and 6) and ileocecal re-entrant cannulas, 5 cm prior the ileocecal junction (animals 1, 2 and 3), respectively. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) diet 1, a corn-based diet [43 U phytase/kg dry matter (DM)]; (2) diet 2, diet 1 supplemented with microbial phytase (818 U/kg DM); and (3) diet 3, a wheat-based diet (1192 U/kg DM). At 07 30 h and 19 30 h, each animal was fed 350 g diet mixed with 1050 ml de-ionized water. Digesta were collected continuously and completely during a 12-h period after feeding. Mean hydrolysis rates of IP6 in the stomach as measured at the proximal duodenum of animals 1, 4, 5 and 6 were 9.0, 77.2 and 66.2% for diet 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Microbial phytase was much more effective in phytate hydrolysis than wheat phytase. Mean IP6 hydrolysis rates of the respective diets in the stomach and small intestine as measured at the distal ileum of animals 1, 2 and 3 were 19.0, 62.6 and 64.6% and were lower than treatment means of the stomach only. Differences existed between experimental animals with respect to their ability to hydrolyse IP6 in the stomach independent of the presence and source of dietary phytase. Considerable amounts of hydrolysis products occurred in both the duodenal and ileal digesta when diets 2 and 3 were fed; however, only traces were determined after ingestion of diet 1. Independent of dietary treatment, four IP5 isomers were detected, but in different amounts.

  16. Exploring the Effects of Climate Variability and Land Use Change on Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions (United States)

    Duncan, L. L.; Hornberger, G. M.


    Locke Island is a 3.5-km long and 375-m wide differentially cemented sand and gravel, mid-channel island located in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Across the eastern channel of the Columbia River from the island is the large Locke Island landslide complex, originating from the White Bluffs. There is evidence that landslides occurred along the White Bluffs in prehistoric times, within the last 11,000 years or so, and evidence of younger landslides, active in the last several hundred years. Irrigation of the land adjacent to the bluffs, and subsequent creation of unlined irrigation wastewater ponds behind the bluffs, is one of the hypotheses concerning the major cause of modern landsliding in this area, which began in the late 1960s. The estimated eight-fold increase in water delivered to the semi-arid area over the course of a decade resulted in an increase in the annual flow through the groundwater system. Similar to land use impacts, changes in the flow through groundwater systems as a result of variations in climate can alter groundwater-surface water exchange processes and connectivity too. We use a vertical two-dimensional finite element model to simulate variably saturated and unsaturated flow in the subsurface porous media along a cross-section of the hillslope-river-island continuum. Our work characterizes the hydraulic gradients and quantifies the outflows at the toe of the landslide and along the banks of the island, in response to creation of ponds behind the bluffs and decadal to multi-decadal changes in patterns of dryness. Understanding the effects of climate variability and land use change on groundwater-surface water exchanges, both separately and in combination, provides insight to the relative importance of these different mechanisms in landslide activity.

  17. Exploring critical pathways for urban water management to identify robust strategies under deep uncertainties. (United States)

    Urich, Christian; Rauch, Wolfgang


    Long-term projections for key drivers needed in urban water infrastructure planning such as climate change, population growth, and socio-economic changes are deeply uncertain. Traditional planning approaches heavily rely on these projections, which, if a projection stays unfulfilled, can lead to problematic infrastructure decisions causing high operational costs and/or lock-in effects. New approaches based on exploratory modelling take a fundamentally different view. Aim of these is, to identify an adaptation strategy that performs well under many future scenarios, instead of optimising a strategy for a handful. However, a modelling tool to support strategic planning to test the implication of adaptation strategies under deeply uncertain conditions for urban water management does not exist yet. This paper presents a first step towards a new generation of such strategic planning tools, by combing innovative modelling tools, which coevolve the urban environment and urban water infrastructure under many different future scenarios, with robust decision making. The developed approach is applied to the city of Innsbruck, Austria, which is spatially explicitly evolved 20 years into the future under 1000 scenarios to test the robustness of different adaptation strategies. Key findings of this paper show that: (1) Such an approach can be used to successfully identify parameter ranges of key drivers in which a desired performance criterion is not fulfilled, which is an important indicator for the robustness of an adaptation strategy; and (2) Analysis of the rich dataset gives new insights into the adaptive responses of agents to key drivers in the urban system by modifying a strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploration of Portuguese shipwreck in Goa waters of India: With special reference to Sunchi reef

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Stones displayed in the Archaeological Museum at Old Goa depict naval battle scenes (12th-13th century AD) that indirectly indicate that there might be shipwrecks of the Kadamba period in Goa waters. Further, Mascarenhas [4] mentions that a Kadamba... resembles the anchors, kept in the Archaeological Museum at Old Goa, the one kept at Marine Archaeology Centre of NIO and others found in Aguada Bay. In these types of iron anchors wooden stocks were used, however the stock of the anchor is missing...

  19. Platform for capacity reservation in IP networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Nataša


    Full Text Available The fast development of multimedia devices and services causes the need for increase of the transport capacity of packet networks. OSPF-TE uses both the information about network topology and the link utilization when finding the routing path. Accordingly, it might find path even in the cases when the shortest path routing would cause overloaded link and dropped packets. In this paper we develop the platform for capacity reservation in IP networks. We implement OSPF-TE protocol as an extension of the existing OSPF. In addition, the basic functionalities of the reservation protocol and the user interface are implemented. We present the simulation environment for the verification of our implementation and for the analysis of various routing algorithms based on the information conveyed by OSPF-TE.

  20. Telemetry and Communication IP Video Player (United States)

    OFarrell, Zachary L.


    Aegis Video Player is the name of the video over IP system for the Telemetry and Communications group of the Launch Services Program. Aegis' purpose is to display video streamed over a network connection to be viewed during launches. To accomplish this task, a VLC ActiveX plug-in was used in C# to provide the basic capabilities of video streaming. The program was then customized to be used during launches. The VLC plug-in can be configured programmatically to display a single stream, but for this project multiple streams needed to be accessed. To accomplish this, an easy to use, informative menu system was added to the program to enable users to quickly switch between videos. Other features were added to make the player more useful, such as watching multiple videos and watching a video in full screen.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Fitrohtur Rohmah


    Full Text Available Text book is an instructional material which is often used in learning. Text book which is used in learning should be contextual with students’ characteristic and environment. The aim of this research is to develop supplement book in learning that is contextual Social Studies Textbooks which is valid, interesting, practical, and effective. Data are collected by questionnaire, test, and documentation. Based on data analysis, it shows that the text book is valid, interseting, practical, and effective to use in learning. Buku ajar merupakan bahan ajar yang sering digunakan dalam pembelajaran. Buku ajar yang digunakan dalam pembelajaran hendaknya kontekstual dengan karakteristik dan lingkungan siswa. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengembangkan buku suplemen dalam pembelajaran berupa buku ajar IPS SD berbasis kontekstual yang valid, menarik, praktis, dan efektif. Data dikumpulkan melalui angket, tes, dan dokumentasi. Berdasarkan analisis data, menunjukkan bahwa buku yang dikembangkan valid, menarik, praktis, dan efektif digunakan dalam pembelajaran.

  2. Machinability of IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic. (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Weigl, P


    Using ceramic materials for an automatic production of ceramic dentures by CAD/CAM is a challenge, because many technological, medical, and optical demands must be considered. The IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic meets most of them. This study shows the possibilities for machining this ceramic with economical parameters. The long life-time requirement for ceramic dentures requires a ductile machined surface to avoid the well-known subsurface damages of brittle materials caused by machining. Slow and rapid damage propagation begins at break outs and cracks, and limits life-time significantly. Therefore, ductile machined surfaces are an important demand for machine dental ceramics. The machining tests were performed with various parameters such as tool grain size and feed speed. Denture ceramics were machined by jig grinding on a 5-axis CNC milling machine (Maho HGF 500) with a high-speed spindle up to 120,000 rpm. The results of the wear test indicate low tool wear. With one tool, you can machine eight occlusal surfaces including roughing and finishing. One occlusal surface takes about 60 min machining time. Recommended parameters for roughing are middle diamond grain size (D107), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 1000 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.06 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm, and for finishing ultra fine diamond grain size (D46), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 100 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.02 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm. The results of the machining tests give a reference for using IPS Empress(R) 2 framework ceramic in CAD/CAM systems. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Exploring Pacific Climate Variability and Its Impacts on East African Water Resources and Food Security (United States)

    Funk, C. C.; Hoerling, M. P.; Hoell, A.; Liebmann, B.; Verdin, J. P.; Eilerts, G.


    In 8 out the past 15 boreal springs (1999, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013), substantial parts of eastern East Africa experienced very low boreal spring rains. These rainfall deficits have triggered widespread food insecurity, and even contributed to the outbreak of famine conditions in Somalia in 2011. At both seasonal and decadal time scales, new science supported by the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network seeks to understand the mechanisms producing these droughts. We present research suggesting that the ultimate and proximate causes of these increases in aridity are i) stronger equatorial Pacific SST gradients and ii) associated increases in the strength of the Indo-Pacific Walker circulation. Using observations and new modeling ensembles, we explore the relative contributions of Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) and global warming under warm and cold east Pacific Ocean states. This question is addressed in two ways: by using atmospheric GCMs forced with full and ENSO-only SSTs, and ii) by decomposing coupled ocean-atmosphere climate simulations into PDV and non-PDV components. These analyses allow us to explore the Walker circulation's sensitivity to climate change under various PDV states, and inform a tentative bracketing of 2030 climate conditions. We conclude by discussing links to East African development. Regions of high rainfall sensitivity are delineated and intersected with recent changes in population and land cover/land use. The interaction of elevation and climate is shown to create climatically secure regions that are likely to remain viable even under drier and warmer conditions; such regions may be logical targets for agricultural intensification. Conversely, arid low elevation regions are likely to experience substantial temperature impacts. Continued expansion into these areas may effectively create more 'drought' even if rainfall increases.

  4. Exploring the Elevated Water Vapor Signal Associated with Biomass Burning Aerosol over the Southeast Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Pistone, Kristina; Redemann, Jens; Wood, Rob; Zuidema, Paquita; Flynn, Connor; LeBlanc, Samuel; Noone, David; Podolske, James; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Shinozuka, Yohei; hide


    The quantification of radiative forcing due to the cumulative effects of aerosols, both directly and on cloud properties, remains the biggest source of uncertainty in our understanding of the physical climate. How the magnitude of these effects may be modified by meteorological conditions is an important aspect of this question. The Southeast Atlantic Ocean (SEA), with seasonal biomass burning (BB) smoke plumes overlying a persistent stratocumulus cloud deck, offers a perfect natural observatory in which to study the complexities of aerosol-cloud interactions. The NASA ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) campaign consists of three field deployments over three years (2016-2018) with the goal of gaining a better understanding of the complex processes (direct and indirect) by which BB aerosols affect clouds. We present results from the first ORACLES field deployment, which took place in September 2016 out of Walvis Bay, Namibia. Two NASA aircraft were flown with a suite of aerosol, cloud, radiation, and meteorological instruments for remote-sensing and in-situ observations. A strong correlation was observed between the aircraft-measured pollution indicators (carbon monoxide and aerosol properties) and atmospheric water vapor content, at all altitudes. Atmospheric reanalysis indicates that convective dynamics over the continent, near likely contribute to this elevated signal. Understanding the mechanisms by which water vapor covaries with plume strength is important to quantifying the magnitude of the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects in the region.

  5. Exploration and characterization of new synthesis methods for C60 colloidal suspensions in water (United States)

    Hilburn, Martha E.

    Buckminsterfullerene, C60, has been used in the production of several commercial products from badminton racquets and lubricants for their mechanical properties to cosmetics and even dietary supplements for their "antioxidant" properties. Multi-ton production of C60 began in 2003 encouraging serious consideration of its fate in the environment in the case of an accidental release or improper disposal. Although C60 is practically insoluble in water, it readily forms stable aqueous colloidal suspensions (termed nC60) through solvent exchange methods or long-term vigorous stirring in water. Two new solvent exchange methods for synthesizing nC60 are presented. These methods combine key advantages of multiple existing synthesis methods including high yield, narrow particle size distribution, short synthesis time, and an absence of solvents such as tetrahydrofuran that have historically caused problems in laboratory synthesized aggregates. The resulting samples are attractive candidates for use in controlled environmental impact, biological, and toxicity studies. An improved method for quantifying residual solvents in nC60 samples utilizing solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) is also discussed.

  6. Exploring Water Level Sensitivity for Metropolitan New York during Sandy (2012 Using Ensemble Storm Surge Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Colle


    Full Text Available This paper describes storm surge simulations made for Sandy (2012 for the Metropolitan New York (NYC area using the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC model forced by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The atmospheric forecast uncertainty was quantified using 11-members from an atmospheric Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF system. A control WRF member re-initialized every 24 h demonstrated the capability of the WRF-ADCIRC models to realistically simulate the 2.83 m surge and 4.40 m storm tide (surge + astronomical tide above mean lower low water (MLLW for NYC. Starting about four days before landfall, an ensemble of model runs based on the 11 “best” meteorological predictions illustrate how modest changes in the track (20–100 km and winds (3–5 m s−1 of Sandy approaching the New Jersey coast and NYC can lead to relatively large (0.50–1.50 m storm surge variations. The ensemble also illustrates the extreme importance of the timing of landfall relative to local high tide. The observed coastal flooding was not the worst case for this particular event. Had Sandy made landfall at differing times, locations and stages of the tide, peak water levels could have been up to 0.5 m higher than experienced.

  7. Extending Tactical Fleet Communications Through VoIP (United States)


    Router Network SPIT Spam-over-Internet- Telephony SRTP Secure Real-time Transport Protocol SVoIP Secure Voice Over IP TCP Transmission Control...that encodes and decodes (digital to analog or analog to digital) a signal for efficient transmission . In VoIP terminology the term codec describes the...designed for this purpose [47]. It takes an analog audio signal on a voice interface port and converts it to RTP audio packets for digital transmission

  8. Diffusion of IP Telephony in Undergraduate Private Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Olson, PhD


    Full Text Available Over the summer of 2000 Menlo College implemented enterprise wide Internet Protocol (IP Telephony (Voice over Internet Protocol [VoIP]. More than five years have passed, and analysts are predicting that in the near future the only available Private Branch Exchange (PBX solutions will be VoIP [4]. In view of this market trend, the diffusion of this technology in these institutions seems slow. The Menlo College implementation is very successful, but has the concept diffused to other institutions? What factors influence the diffusion of this technology to other institutions? This paper examines the status of VoIP at these institutions.

  9. Mobile location services over the next generation IP core network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thongthammachart, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning


    network is changing from circuit-switched to packet-switched technology and evolving to an IP core network based on IPv6. The IP core network will allow all IP devices to be connected seamlessly. Due to the movement detection mechanism of Mobile IPv6, mobile terminals will periodically update....... The concept of mobile location services over the next generation IP networks is described. We also discuss the effectiveness of the short-range wireless network regarding a mobile user's position inside buildings and hotspot areas....

  10. Overview of the Moral Status of iPS Cells. (United States)

    Martinho, Andreia Martins


    The production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 by Takahashi and Yamanaka was a major breakthrough in stem cell research. IPS cells technology holds great promise for cell therapy, disease modelling, and drug testing, but it poses ethical questions concerning the moral status of somatic cells, which can re-gain pluripotency (iPS cells). This article provides an overview of the arguments that substantiate the debate on the moral assessment of iPS cells: potentiality argument; relational properties/standard view; and genetic basis for moral status.

  11. Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency. (United States)

    Ohno, Yohei; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Egashira, Toru; Seki, Tomohisa; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Tohyama, Shugo; Saito, Yuki; Kunitomi, Akira; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Onizuka, Takeshi; Kageyama, Toshimi; Yae, Kojiro; Tanaka, Tomofumi; Kaneda, Ruri; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Kimura, Kensuke; Fukuda, Keiichi


    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1) the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2) the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine.

  12. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6): a novel treatment for pancreatic cancer. (United States)

    Somasundar, Ponnandai; Riggs, Dale R; Jackson, Barbara J; Cunningham, Cynthia; Vona-Davis, Linda; McFadden, David W


    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate found in food sources high in fiber content. IP6 has been reported to have significant inhibitory effects against a variety of primary tumors including breast and colon. The effects of IP6 have not been evaluated in pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that IP6 would significantly inhibit cell growth and increase the apoptotic rate of pancreatic cancer in vitro. Two pancreatic cancer cell lines (MIAPACA and PANC1) were cultured using standard techniques and treated with IP6 at doses of 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mm. Cell viability was measured by MTT at 24 and 72 h. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC and results calculated using FACS analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. Significant reductions (P < 0.01) in cellular proliferation were observed with all IP6 concentrations tested in both cell lines and at both time points. Reductions in cell proliferation ranged from 37.1 to 91.5%. IP6 increased early and late apoptotic activity (P < 0.01). Treatment of pancreatic cancer with the common dietary polyphosphorylated carbohydrate IP6 significantly decreased cellular growth and increased apoptosis. Our findings suggest that IP6 has the potential to become an effective adjunct for pancreatic cancer treatment. Further in vivo and human studies are needed to evaluate safety and clinical utility of this agent in patients with pancreatic cancer.

  13. CUAHSI-HIS: an Internet based system to facilitate public discovery, access, and exploration of different water science data sources (United States)

    Arrigo, J. S.; Hooper, R. P.; Choi, Y.; Ames, D. P.; Kadlec, J.; Whiteaker, T.


    learning. Many example exercises educators create around water may list several websites and data sources (e.g. EPA, USGS, etc.) an educator needs to prepare even a simple exercise. HydroDesktop can simplify this process by providing unified access to several sources. The GIS interface can be used to incorporate local spatial data to allow students to explore environmental factors, and to illustrate concepts, such as watershed delineation. Simple graphing and time series tools can be used to illustrate relationships between different types of data and important water science concepts. CUAHSI is interested in partnering with science PIs to facilitate access to their project data and creating education and outreach materials around them, as well as with educators, public policy professionals and other constituencies to explore how CUAHSI HIS services can be utilized to foster public understanding and consumption of water information.

  14. An atomic charge model for graphene oxide for exploring its bioadhesive properties in explicit water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, D.; Dragneva, N.; Floriano, W. B.; Rubel, O. [Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute, 290 Munro St, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 6V4 (Canada); Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7A 7T1 (Canada); Mawhinney, R. C. [Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7A 7T1 (Canada); Fanchini, G. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); French, S. [University of Calgary, South Health Campus, 4448 Front St. SE, Calgary, Alberta T3M 1M4 (Canada)


    Graphene Oxide (GO) has been shown to exhibit properties that are useful in applications such as biomedical imaging, biological sensors, and drug delivery. The binding properties of biomolecules at the surface of GO can provide insight into the potential biocompatibility of GO. Here we assess the intrinsic affinity of amino acids to GO by simulating their adsorption onto a GO surface. The simulation is done using Amber03 force-field molecular dynamics in explicit water. The emphasis is placed on developing an atomic charge model for GO. The adsorption energies are computed using atomic charges obtained from an ab initio electrostatic potential based method. The charges reported here are suitable for simulating peptide adsorption to GO.

  15. People and water: Exploring the social-ecological condition of watersheds of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray W. Scown


    Full Text Available A recent paradigm shift from purely biophysical towards social-ecological assessment of watersheds has been proposed to understand, monitor, and manipulate the myriad interactions between human well-being and the ecosystem services that watersheds provide. However, large-scale, quantitative studies in this endeavour remain limited. We utilised two newly developed ‘big-data’ sets—the Index of Watershed Integrity (IWI and the Human Well-Being Index (HWBI—to explore the social-ecological condition of watersheds throughout the conterminous U.S., and identified environmental and socio-economic influences on watershed integrity and human well-being. Mean county IWI was highly associated with ecoregion, industry-dependence, and state, in a spatially-explicit regression model (R2 = 0.77, 'P' < 0.001, whereas HWBI was not (R2 = 0.31, 'P' < 0.001. HWBI is likely influenced by factors not explored here, such as governance structure and formal and informal organisations and institutions. ‘Win-win’ situations in which both IWI and HWBI were above the 75th percentile were observed in much of Utah, Colorado, and New Hampshire, and lessons from governance that has resulted in desirable outcomes might be learnt from here. Eastern Kentucky and West Virginia, along with large parts of the desert southwest, had intact watersheds but low HWBI, representing areas worthy of further investigation of how ecosystem services might be utilised to improve well-being. The Temperate Prairies and Central USA Plains had widespread areas of low IWI but high HWBI, likely a result of historic exploitation of watershed resources to improve well-being, particularly in farming-dependent counties. The lower Mississippi Valley had low IWI and HWBI, which is likely related to historical (temporal and upstream (spatial impacts on both watershed integrity and well-being. The results emphasise the importance of considering spatial and temporal trade-offs when utilising the

  16. Water pollution in relation to mineral exploration: a case study from Alayi-Ovim area of southeastern Nigeria. (United States)

    Ibe, Kalu K; Akaolisa, Casmir C Zanders


    Water samples from rivers, streams, springs, and shallow wells in Alayi-Ovim area of southeast Nigeria have been analyzed for Pb, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mg, PO(4), NO(3), CO(3), SO(4), Cl, and pH. The analyses were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer and Hach Direct Reading Equipment. Results of the analyses from the area conform to the WHO (1995) standards for drinking water. However, the results show relative enrichment of Ca, pH, Mg, CO(3), and Cl. Low values were obtained for Fe, SO(4), and NO(3). While the Cl and Pb enrichment in the area north of Alayi-Ovim axis is attributed to proximity to the lead-zinc and chloride-rich formations of the Turonian Eze-Aku and the Albian Asu River; the Ca, Mg, SO(4), and CO(3) enrichment in Southern part of Alayi-Ovim is due to the limestone-bearing Late Maastrichtian Nsukka Formation. Furthermore, the very low values of less than 5 ppm for these characters in water in the central region correlate well with the relatively clean Maastrichtian quartz arenite Ajali Sandstone Formation. The Pb-Zn and Cl incursions into the water system from the Older Albian Asu River/Turonian Eze-Aku Formations in the northern part of Alayi-Ovim area and the leaching of Mg, and Ca into the water system in the Maastrichtian limestone area in the south thus constitute geochemical indices for chemical pollution and mineral exploration for brine and dolomitic limestone in the area.

  17. Whole Genome Chromatin IP-Sequencing (ChIP-Seq) in Skeletal Muscle Cells. (United States)

    So, Karl Kamhei; Peng, Xianlu Laura; Sun, Hao; Wang, Huating


    Transcriptional control of gene expression in skeletal muscle cell is involved in different processes ranging from muscle formation to regeneration. The identification of an increasing number of transcription factors, co-factors, and histone modifications has been greatly advanced by methods that allow studies of genome-wide chromatin-protein interactions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel DNA sequencing, or ChIP-seq, is a powerful tool for identifying binding sites of TFs/co-factors and histone modifications. The major steps of this technique involve immunoprecipitation of fragmented chromatin, followed by high-throughput sequencing to identify the protein bound regions genome-wide. Here, in this protocol, we will illustrate how the entire ChIP-seq is performed using global H3K27ac profiling in myoblast cells as an example.

  18. Secure Protocol and IP Core for Configuration of Networking Hardware IPs in the Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Urbina


    Full Text Available Nowadays, the incorporation and constant evolution of communication networks in the electricity sector have given rise to the so-called Smart Grid, which is why it is necessary to have devices that are capable of managing new communication protocols, guaranteeing the strict requirements of processing required by the electricity sector. In this context, intelligent electronic devices (IEDs with network architectures are currently available to meet the communication, real-time processing and interoperability requirements of the Smart Grid. The new generation IEDs include an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA, to support specialized networking switching architectures for the electric sector, as the IEEE 1588-aware High-availability Seamless Redundancy/Parallel Redundancy Protocol (HSR/PRP. Another advantage to using an FPGA is the ability to update or reconfigure the design to support new requirements that are being raised to the standards (IEC 61850. The update of the architecture implemented in the FPGA can be done remotely, but it is necessary to establish a cyber security mechanism since the communication link generates vulnerability in the case the attacker gains physical access to the network. The research presented in this paper proposes a secure protocol and Intellectual Property (IP core for configuring and monitoring the networking IPs implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. The FPGA based implementation proposed overcomes this issue using a light Layer-2 protocol fully implemented on hardware and protected by strong cryptographic algorithms (AES-GCM, defined in the IEC 61850-90-5 standard. The proposed secure protocol and IP core are applicable in any field where remote configuration over Ethernet is required for IP cores in FPGAs. In this paper, the proposal is validated in communications hardware for Smart Grids.

  19. Individuals Matter: Exploring Strategies of Individuals to Change the Water Policy for the Tisza River in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia E. Werners


    Full Text Available This paper offers a novel interpretation of the introduction of floodplain rehabilitation and rural development into the water policy for the Tisza River in Hungary. It looks at the role of individuals and the strategies that they used to bring about water policy change. Five strategies are explored: developing new ideas, building coalitions to sell ideas, using windows of opportunity, playing multiple venues and orchestrating networks. Our discussion on the importance of each strategy and the individuals behind it is based on interviews, group discussions and a literature review. The international and political attention sparked by a series of floods, dike failure and a major cyanide spill, which preceded national elections, opened a window of opportunity for launching ideas. A new regional coalition successfully introduced floodplain rehabilitation into the water policy arena. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of a responsible civil servant who recognizes a new policy idea at an abstract level and a credible regional coalition that advocates the new idea regionally.

  20. Preferences for tap water attributes within couples: An exploration of alternative mixed logit parameterizations (United States)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Thiene, Mara; Hensher, David A.


    Preferences for attributes of complex goods may differ substantially among members of households. Some of these goods, such as tap water, are jointly supplied at the household level. This issue of jointness poses a series of theoretical and empirical challenges to economists engaged in empirical nonmarket valuation studies. While a series of results have already been obtained in the literature, the issue of how to empirically measure these differences, and how sensitive the results are to choice of model specification from the same data, is yet to be clearly understood. In this paper we use data from a widely employed form of stated preference survey for multiattribute goods, namely choice experiments. The salient feature of the data collection is that the same choice experiment was applied to both partners of established couples. The analysis focuses on models that simultaneously handle scale as well as preference heterogeneity in marginal rates of substitution (MRS), thereby isolating true differences between members of couples in their MRS, by removing interpersonal variation in scale. The models employed are different parameterizations of the mixed logit model, including the willingness to pay (WTP)-space model and the generalized multinomial logit model. We find that in this sample there is some evidence of significant statistical differences in values between women and men, but these are of small magnitude and only apply to a few attributes.

  1. Clean hot water drilling for exploration of the Antarctic deep subglacial environment (United States)

    Makinson, K.; Pearce, D.; Hodgson, D.; Bentley, M.; Smith, A.; Tranter, M.; Rose, M. C.; Ross, N.; Mowlem, M. C.; Parnell, J.; Siegert, M. J.


    Overlain by several kilometres of ice, the subglacial environments deep beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet are regarded as extreme habitats for microbial life and repositories of important paleoclimate records. Of significant scientific interest, yet remaining largely unexplored, accessing and sampling these environments presents several challenges to existing drilling technologies. With over half of the ice sheet believed to be resting on a wet bed, much of it part of a hydrological drainage network, accessing of this environment must conform to international environmental contamination protocols. This makes hot water drilling the most viable option for clean, fast, access through thick ice. After two decades of planning, involving the development of drilling techniques for subglacial access, instrument design and logistics set up, significant progress has been made in attempts to directly access, measure, and sample subglacial lakes and sediments. Combining the experiences from the notable setbacks and successes, as well as recent field testing for this drilling technique, the most practical technical options and operational procedures for future clean entry into Subglacial Lake Ellsworth and other deep (>3000 m) access targets will be presented.

  2. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhen Ji

    Full Text Available Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells. Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  3. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells. (United States)

    Ji, Guangzhen; Ruan, Weimin; Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Sakellariou, Despoina; Chen, Jijun; Yang, Yang; Okuka, Maja; Han, Jianyong; Liu, Zhonghua; Lai, Liangxue; Gagos, Sarantis; Xiao, Lei; Deng, Hongkui; Li, Ning; Liu, Lin


    Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  4. Protection against cancer by dietary IP6 and inositol. (United States)

    Vucenik, Ivana; Shamsuddin, AbulKalam M


    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP(6)) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate, abundantly present in many plant sources and in certain high-fiber diets, such as cereals and legumes. In addition to being found in plants, IP(6) is contained in almost all mammalian cells, although in much smaller amounts, where it is important in regulating vital cellular functions such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, and differentiation. For a long time IP(6) has been recognized as a natural antioxidant. Recently IP(6) has received much attention for its role in cancer prevention and control of experimental tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. In addition, IP(6) possesses other significant benefits for human health, such as the ability to enhance immune system, prevent pathological calcification and kidney stone formation, lower elevated serum cholesterol, and reduce pathological platelet activity. In this review we show the efficacy and discuss some of the molecular mechanisms that govern the action of this dietary agent. Exogenously administered IP(6) is rapidly taken up into cells and dephosphorylated to lower inositol phosphates, which further affect signal transduction pathways resulting in cell cycle arrest. A striking anticancer action of IP(6) was demonstrated in different experimental models. In addition to reducing cell proliferation, IP(6) also induces differentiation of malignant cells. Enhanced immunity and antioxidant properties also contribute to tumor cell destruction. Preliminary studies in humans show that IP(6) and inositol, the precursor molecule of IP(6), appear to enhance the anticancer effect of conventional chemotherapy, control cancer metastases, and improve quality of life. Because it is abundantly present in regular diet, efficiently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and safe, IP(6) + inositol holds great promise in our strategies for cancer prevention and therapy. There is clearly enough evidence to justify the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisna Handayani


    Full Text Available Tujuan  penelitian adalah menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran IPS dengan Pendekatan Inquiry. Penelitian pengembangan ini menggunakan langkah-langkah Borg and Gall yang terdiri dari tiga tahapan utama yaitu pendahuluan, pengembangan dan validasi. Data yang diperoleh adalah hasil belajar, aktivitas diskusi dan respon peserta didik. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis deskriptif dan uji t. Penggunaan pendekatan inquiry sebagai salah satau strategi pembelajaran IPS dapat dilakukan dengan mempersiapkan terlebih dahulu perangkat pembelajarannya. Hasil pengembangan divalidasi oleh pakar, diujicobakan pada kelas terbatas dan selanjutnya dilakukan ujicoba pada kelas eksperimen yang dibandingkan hasilnya dengan kelas kontrol. Perangkat pembelajaran tergolong efektif untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar peserta didik di kelas VII SMP Negeri 2 Jepara, terbukti dari adanya peningkatan yang nyata terbukti dari hasil uji paired sampel t-test dengan nilai signifikansi 0,000 <0,05, dan terjadi peningkatan yang tinggi (gain > 0,7, serta hasil belajar yang dicapai berbeda secara signifikan dengan kelompok kontrol. Di samping hasil belajar, pembelajaran yang dilakukan juga berdampak pada proses belajar yang membawa tingginya aktivitas peserta didik dalam memberikan gagasan, kerjasama, inisiatif, keaktifan dan kedisiplinan. The purpose of this research is creating Social Lesson Material with Inquiry Approach.This developing of the research is used of  the steps of Borg and Gall. They are Introducing, developing and evaluating. Learning materials are developed and validity by expert. Datas are gooten by study result, discussion activity and students, respone. Analizing datas are used descriptive analize and t- try out. The use of inquiry approach as one of learning strategy on Social Lesson Material can be done by preparing those. The result of  developing are being validity by expert,  try out on limited group and experiment group ad compare with control group

  6. Developing and Implementing Inquiry-Based, Water Quality Laboratory Experiments for High School Students to Explore Real Environmental Issues Using Analytical Chemistry (United States)

    Mandler, Daphna; Blonder, Ron; Yayon, Malka; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi


    This paper describes the rationale and the implementation of five laboratory experiments; four of them, intended for high-school students, are inquiry-based activities that explore the quality of water. The context of water provides students with an opportunity to study the importance of analytical methods and how they influence our everyday…

  7. Exploring the potential impact of implementing carbon capture technologies in fossil fuel power plants on regional European water stress index levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, W.B.; Pfister, Stephan; Ramirez, C.A.

    Equipping power plants with carbon capture technology can affect cooling demand and water use. This study has explored the potential impact of large scale deployment of power plants with carbon capture technologies on future regional water stress in Europe. A database including 458 of European

  8. Exploring the Coupling and Decoupling Relationships between Urbanization Quality and Water Resources Constraint Intensity: Spatiotemporal Analysis for Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Bao


    Full Text Available China is faced with great challenges for its low urbanization quality and high water stress. Moreover, the relationship between urbanization quality and water resources is still ambiguous. Therefore, we firstly constructed an urbanization quality index (UQI and a water resources constraint intensity index (WRCI by a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method with multi-objectives and multi-hierarchies. Secondly, based on the concept and method of “coupling” and “decoupling”, we provided a method to explore the coordinated and uncoordinated relationships between UQI and WRCI from a spatiotemporal perspective. Finally, we used the statistical data of 51 prefecture level regions in Northwest China from the period 2000–2014 to analyze the spatiotemporal variation of the coupling and decoupling relationships between UQI and WRCI. Results show that, the UQI and WRCI in the whole Northwest China both belonged to low level, and that they had achieved strong decoupling during 2000–2014. However, the coupling and decoupling relationships between UQI and WRCI in Northwest China had great spatial disparity. From the HL-type regions (regions with high UQI & low WRCI and strong decoupling type regions, we can find key development areas of Northwest China, where the relationships between UQI and WRCI were optimal and coordinated. From the LH-type regions (regions with low UQI & high WRCI and strong negative decoupling type regions, we can find key problem areas, where the relationships between UQI and WRCI were the worst and uncoordinated. Our study developed an effective method for evaluating the sustainable development level of urbanization constrained by water resources in Northwest China and similar regions, which is significant for the New-Type Urbanization research in China.

  9. Is the IP response related to geology or contaminants in a leachate plume at the Grindsted Landfill, Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ingelise; Maurya, Pradip Kumar; Balbarini, Nicola

    with sediment types and pore water resistivity representing the concentrations of the contaminants show that the formation resistivity primarily is controlled by the contaminant concentrations while the IP parameters primarily are related to the clay content and grain size distribution of sandy sediments...... a leachate plume from a landfill hosting both household and chemical waste, borehole IP data, geological samples, grain size, and contaminant concentrations in water samples are examined for correlations related to geology and concentrations of contaminants. Results relating the Cole-Cole parameters...

  10. IP-10 release assays in the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Aabye, Martine G; Ravn, Pernille


    The current state-of-the-art tests for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis - the IFN-γ release assays - rely on accurate measurement of the cytokine IFN-γ. Many other potential biomarkers are expressed in concert with IFN-γ, and IP-10 in particular has shown promising results. IP-10...

  11. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    of patenting globally. For trademarks and industrial designs, globalization has created more potential infringers and an increase in piracy, as evidenced by a significant increase in customs seizures. The problems with IP even go beyond individual firms, as when governments use IP policies to favor local firms...

  12. Special rights for the development of Indigenous Peoples (IPS) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous Peoples (IPs) have been subjected to a series of humiliation, discrimination and in some cases dis-membership of a state. This is germane, but not peculiar, to the developing states with special reference to Africa. Globalization and efforts to link human, cultural and social rights to the IPs remain blurred and ...

  13. Probabilistic Route Selection Algorithm for IP Traceback (United States)

    Yim, Hong-Bin; Jung, Jae-Il

    DoS(Denial of Service) or DDoS(Distributed DoS) attack is a major threaten and the most difficult problem to solve among many attacks. Moreover, it is very difficult to find a real origin of attackers because DoS/DDoS attacker uses spoofed IP addresses. To solve this problem, we propose a probabilistic route selection traceback algorithm, namely PRST, to trace the attacker's real origin. This algorithm uses two types of packets such as an agent packet and a reply agent packet. The agent packet is in use to find the attacker's real origin and the reply agent packet is in use to notify to a victim that the agent packet is reached the edge router of the attacker. After attacks occur, the victim generates the agent packet and sends it to a victim's edge router. The attacker's edge router received the agent packet generates the reply agent packet and send it to the victim. The agent packet and the reply agent packet is forwarded refer to probabilistic packet forwarding table (PPFT) by routers. The PRST algorithm runs on the distributed routers and PPFT is stored and managed by routers. We validate PRST algorithm by using mathematical approach based on Poisson distribution.

  14. Research on implementation of proxy Arp in IP DSLAM (United States)

    Cheng, Chuanqing; Wang, Li; Huang, Qiugen


    While the ethernet is applied more and more in public network environment and xdsl service become the most common access mode ,IP kenel DSLAM undertakes some functions such as service distribution and convergence ,security management and customer management.Facing the contradiction of the need of port isolation and the shortage of ip address,VLAN aggregation technology is applied in DSLAM.How to implement the communicatio between the two vlan but share the same ip subnet,proxy arp does this. This paper introduces how to implement proxy arp in the DSLAM. TCP/IP communication detail procedure betweent two host ,the relation of VLAN and network segment are discussed. The proxy arp model and its implementation in IP DSLAM is also expatiated in this paper and a conformance tesing is given.

  15. COPAR: A ChIP-Seq Optimal Peak Analyzer. (United States)

    Tang, Binhua; Wang, Xihan; Jin, Victor X


    Sequencing data quality and peak alignment efficiency of ChIP-sequencing profiles are directly related to the reliability and reproducibility of NGS experiments. Till now, there is no tool specifically designed for optimal peak alignment estimation and quality-related genomic feature extraction for ChIP-sequencing profiles. We developed open-sourced COPAR, a user-friendly package, to statistically investigate, quantify, and visualize the optimal peak alignment and inherent genomic features using ChIP-seq data from NGS experiments. It provides a versatile perspective for biologists to perform quality-check for high-throughput experiments and optimize their experiment design. The package COPAR can process mapped ChIP-seq read file in BED format and output statistically sound results for multiple high-throughput experiments. Together with three public ChIP-seq data sets verified with the developed package, we have deposited COPAR on GitHub under a GNU GPL license.

  16. Defining bacterial regulons using ChIP-seq. (United States)

    Myers, Kevin S; Park, Dan M; Beauchene, Nicole A; Kiley, Patricia J


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a powerful method that identifies protein-DNA binding sites in vivo. Recent studies have illustrated the value of ChIP-seq in studying transcription factor binding in various bacterial species under a variety of growth conditions. These results show that in addition to identifying binding sites, correlation of ChIP-seq data with expression data can reveal important information about bacterial regulons and regulatory networks. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about ChIP-seq methodology in bacteria, from sample preparation to raw data analysis. We also describe visualization and various bioinformatic analyses of processed ChIP-seq data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Defining Bacterial Regulons Using ChIP-seq Methods (United States)

    Myers, Kevin S.; Park, Dan M.; Beauchene, Nicole A.; Kiley, Patricia J.


    Chromatin immunoprecitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a powerful method that identifies protein-DNA binding sites in vivo. Recent studies have illustrated the value of ChIP-seq in studying transcription factor binding in various bacterial species under a variety of growth conditions. These results show that in addition to identifying binding sites, correlation of ChIP-seq data with expression data can reveal important information about bacterial regulons and regulatory networks. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about ChIP-seq methodology in bacteria, from sample preparation to raw data analysis. We also describe visualization and various bioinformatic analyses of processed ChIP-seq data. PMID:26032817

  18. Computational methodology for ChIP-seq analysis (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjin; Liu, Tao; Duan, Xikun; Zhang, Yong; Liu, X. Shirley


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a powerful technology to identify the genome-wide locations of DNA binding proteins such as transcription factors or modified histones. As more and more experimental laboratories are adopting ChIP-seq to unravel the transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, computational analyses of ChIP-seq also become increasingly comprehensive and sophisticated. In this article, we review current computational methodology for ChIP-seq analysis, recommend useful algorithms and workflows, and introduce quality control measures at different analytical steps. We also discuss how ChIP-seq could be integrated with other types of genomic assays, such as gene expression profiling and genome-wide association studies, to provide a more comprehensive view of gene regulatory mechanisms in important physiological and pathological processes. PMID:25741452

  19. Anti-angiogenic activity of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6). (United States)

    Vucenik, Ivana; Passaniti, Antonino; Vitolo, Michele I; Tantivejkul, Kwanchanit; Eggleton, Paul; Shamsuddin, Abulkalam M


    A significant anticancer activity of the naturally occurring carbohydrate inositol hexaphosphate (IP(6)) has been reported against numerous cancer models. Since tumors require angiogenesis for growth and metastasis, we hypothesize that IP(6) reduces tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. Because angiogenesis depends on the interaction between endothelial and tumor cells, we investigated the effect of IP(6) on both. IP(6) inhibited the proliferation and induced the differentiation of endothelial cells in vitro; the growth of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) evaluated by MTT proliferation assay was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50) = 0.74 mM). The combination of IP(6) and vasostatin, a calreticulin fragment with anti-angiogenic activity, was synergistically superior in growth inhibition than either compound. IP(6) inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation (in vitro capillary differentiation) on a reconstituted extracellular matrix, Matrigel, and disrupted pre-formed tubes. IP(6) significantly reduced basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced vessel formation (P < 0.01) in vivo in Matrigel plug assay. Exposure of HepG2, a human hepatoma cell line, to IP(6) for 8 h, resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as assessed by RT-PCR. IP(6) treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h also significantly reduced the VEGF protein levels in conditioned medium, in a concentration-dependent manner (P = 0.012). Thus, IP(6) has an inhibitory effect on induced angiogenesis.

  20. A highly efficient and effective motif discovery method for ChIP-seq/ChIP-chip data using positional information. (United States)

    Ma, Xiaotu; Kulkarni, Ashwinikumar; Zhang, Zhihua; Xuan, Zhenyu; Serfling, Robert; Zhang, Michael Q


    Identification of DNA motifs from ChIP-seq/ChIP-chip [chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)] data is a powerful method for understanding the transcriptional regulatory network. However, most established methods are designed for small sample sizes and are inefficient for ChIP data. Here we propose a new k-mer occurrence model to reflect the fact that functional DNA k-mers often cluster around ChIP peak summits. With this model, we introduced a new measure to discover functional k-mers. Using simulation, we demonstrated that our method is more robust against noises in ChIP data than available methods. A novel word clustering method is also implemented to group similar k-mers into position weight matrices (PWMs). Our method was applied to a diverse set of ChIP experiments to demonstrate its high sensitivity and specificity. Importantly, our method is much faster than several other methods for large sample sizes. Thus, we have developed an efficient and effective motif discovery method for ChIP experiments.

  1. Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) generated by IP5K mediates cullin-COP9 signalosome interactions and CRL function. (United States)

    Scherer, Paul C; Ding, Yan; Liu, Zhiqing; Xu, Jing; Mao, Haibin; Barrow, James C; Wei, Ning; Zheng, Ning; Snyder, Solomon H; Rao, Feng


    The family of cullin-RING E3 Ligases (CRLs) and the constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN) form dynamic complexes that mediate ubiquitylation of 20% of the proteome, yet regulation of their assembly/disassembly remains poorly understood. Inositol polyphosphates are highly conserved signaling molecules implicated in diverse cellular processes. We now report that inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is a major physiologic determinant of the CRL-CSN interface, which includes a hitherto unidentified electrostatic interaction between the N-terminal acidic tail of CSN subunit 2 (CSN2) and a conserved basic canyon on cullins. IP6, with an EC50 of 20 nM, acts as an intermolecular "glue," increasing cullin-CSN2 binding affinity by 30-fold, thereby promoting assembly of the inactive CRL-CSN complexes. The IP6 synthase, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 2-kinase (IPPK/IP5K) binds to cullins. Depleting IP5K increases the percentage of neddylated, active Cul1 and Cul4A, and decreases levels of the Cul1/4A substrates p27 and p21. Besides dysregulating CRL-mediated cell proliferation and UV-induced apoptosis, IP5K depletion potentiates by 28-fold the cytotoxic effect of the neddylation inhibitor MLN4924. Thus, IP5K and IP6 are evolutionarily conserved components of the CRL-CSN system and are potential targets for cancer therapy in conjunction with MLN4924.

  2. Attributes associated with probability of infestation by the pinon Ips, Ips confusus, (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in pinon pine, Pinus edulis (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Jill L. Wilson


    (Please note, this is an abstract only) We examined attributes associated with the probability of infestation by pinon ips (Ips confusus), in pinon pine (Pinus edulis), in an outbreak in the Coconino National Forest, Arizona. We used data collected from 87 plots, 59 infested and 28 uninfested, and a logistic regression approach to estimate the probability of...

  3. Environmental Data-Driven Inquiry and Exploration (EDDIE)- Water Focused Modules for interacting with Big Hydrologic Data (United States)

    Meixner, T.; Gougis, R.; O'Reilly, C.; Klug, J.; Richardson, D.; Castendyk, D.; Carey, C.; Bader, N.; Stomberg, J.; Soule, D. C.


    High-frequency sensor data are driving a shift in the Earth and environmental sciences. The availability of high-frequency data creates an engagement opportunity for undergraduate students in primary research by using large, long-term, and sensor-based, data directly in the scientific curriculum. Project EDDIE (Environmental Data-Driven Inquiry & Exploration) has developed flexible classroom activity modules designed to meet a series of pedagogical goals that include (1) developing skills required to manipulate large datasets at different scales to conduct inquiry-based investigations; (2) developing students' reasoning about statistical variation; and (3) fostering accurate student conceptions about the nature of environmental science. The modules cover a wide range of topics, including lake physics and metabolism, stream discharge, water quality, soil respiration, seismology, and climate change. In this presentation we will focus on a sequence of modules of particular interest to hydrologists - stream discharge, water quality and nutrient loading. Assessment results show that our modules are effective at making students more comfortable analyzing data, improved understanding of statistical concepts, and stronger data analysis capability. This project is funded by an NSF TUES grant (NSF DEB 1245707).

  4. Starr: Simple Tiling ARRay analysis of Affymetrix ChIP-chip data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresch Achim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with DNA microarrays (ChIP-chip is an assay used for investigating DNA-protein-binding or post-translational chromatin/histone modifications. As with all high-throughput technologies, it requires thorough bioinformatic processing of the data for which there is no standard yet. The primary goal is to reliably identify and localize genomic regions that bind a specific protein. Further investigation compares binding profiles of functionally related proteins, or binding profiles of the same proteins in different genetic backgrounds or experimental conditions. Ultimately, the goal is to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effects of DNA binding events on gene expression. Results We present a free, open-source R/Bioconductor package Starr that facilitates comparative analysis of ChIP-chip data across experiments and across different microarray platforms. The package provides functions for data import, quality assessment, data visualization and exploration. Starr includes high-level analysis tools such as the alignment of ChIP signals along annotated features, correlation analysis of ChIP signals with complementary genomic data, peak-finding and comparative display of multiple clusters of binding profiles. It uses standard Bioconductor classes for maximum compatibility with other software. Moreover, Starr automatically updates microarray probe annotation files by a highly efficient remapping of microarray probe sequences to an arbitrary genome. Conclusion Starr is an R package that covers the complete ChIP-chip workflow from data processing to binding pattern detection. It focuses on the high-level data analysis, e.g., it provides methods for the integration and combined statistical analysis of binding profiles and complementary functional genomics data. Starr enables systematic assessment of binding behaviour for groups of genes that are alingned along arbitrary genomic features.

  5. Exploring the potential of the cosmic-ray neutron method to simultaneously predict soil water and vegetation dynamics (United States)

    Bogena, H. R.; Fuchs, H.; Jakobi, J.; Huisman, J. A.; Diekkrüger, B.; Vereecken, H.


    Cosmic-ray neutron soil moisture probes are an emerging technology that rely on the negative correlation between near-surface fast neutron counts and soil moisture content since hydrogen atoms in the soil, which are mainly present as water, moderate the secondary neutrons on the way back to the surface. Any application of this method needs to consider the sensitivity of the neutron counts to additional sources of hydrogen (e.g. above- and below-ground biomass, humidity of the lower atmosphere, lattice water of the soil minerals, organic matter and water in the litter layer, intercepted water in the canopy, and soil organic matter). In this study, we analyzed the effects of temporally changing above- and below-ground biomass and intercepted water in the canopy on the cosmic-ray neutron counts and the calibration parameter N0. For this, two arable fields cropped with winter wheat and sugar beet were instrumented with several cosmic-ray neutron probes and a wireless sensor network with more than 200 in-situ soil moisture sensors. In addition, we measured rainfall interception in the wheat canopy at several locations in the field using totalisators and leaf wetness sensors. In order to track the changes in above- and below-ground biomass, roots and plants were sampled approximately every four weeks and LAI was measured weekly during the growing season. Weekly biomass changes were derived by relating LAI to total biomass. As expected, we found an increasing discrepancy between cosmic-ray-derived and in-situ measured soil moisture during the growing season and a sharp decrease in discrepancy after the harvest. In order to quantify the effect of hydrogen stored in the vegetation on fast neutron intensity, we derived time series of the calibration parameter N0 using a weekly moving-window optimization. We found a linear negative relationship between N0 and total fresh biomass and N0 and intercepted precipitation. Using these relationships for the correction of fast neutron

  6. Controversies in the Hydrosphere: an iBook exploring current global water issues for middle school classrooms (United States)

    Dufoe, A.; Guertin, L. A.


    This project looks to help teachers utilize iPad technology in their classrooms as an instructional tool for Earth system science and connections to the Big Ideas in Earth Science. The project is part of Penn State University's National Science Foundation (NSF) Targeted Math Science Partnership grant, with one goal of the grant to help current middle school teachers across Pennsylvania engage students with significant and complex questions of Earth science. The free Apple software iBooks Author was used to create an electronic book for the iPad, focusing on a variety of controversial issues impacting the hydrosphere. The iBook includes image slideshows, embedded videos, interactive images and quizzes, and critical thinking questions along Bloom's Taxonomic Scale of Learning Objectives. Outlined in the introductory iBook chapters are the Big Ideas of Earth System Science and an overview of Earth's spheres. Since the book targets the hydrosphere, each subsequent chapter focuses on specific water issues, including glacial melts, aquifer depletion, coastal oil pollution, marine debris, and fresh-water chemical contamination. Each chapter is presented in a case study format that highlights the history of the issue, the development and current status of the issue, and some solutions that have been generated. The next section includes critical thinking questions in an open-ended discussion format that focus on the Big Ideas, proposing solutions for rectifying the situation, and/or assignments specifically targeting an idea presented in the case study chapter. Short, comprehensive multiple-choice quizzes are also in each chapter. Throughout the iBook, students are free to watch videos, explore the content and form their own opinions. As a result, this iBook fulfills the grant objective by engaging teachers and students with an innovative technological presentation that incorporates Earth system science with current case studies regarding global water issues.

  7. An IP-10 (CXCL10)-Derived Peptide Inhibits Angiogenesis (United States)

    Yates-Binder, Cecelia C.; Rodgers, Margaret; Jaynes, Jesse; Wells, Alan; Bodnar, Richard J.; Turner, Timothy


    Angiogenesis plays a critical role in processes such as organ development, wound healing, and tumor growth. It requires well-orchestrated integration of soluble and matrix factors and timely recognition of such signals to regulate this process. Previous work has shown that newly forming vessels express the chemokine receptor CXC receptor 3 (CXCR3) and, activation by its ligand IP-10 (CXCL10), both inhibits development of new vasculature and causes regression of newly formed vessels. To identify and develop new therapeutic agents to limit or reverse pathological angiogenesis, we identified a 21 amino acid fragment of IP-10, spanning the α-helical domain residues 77–98, that mimic the actions of the whole IP-10 molecule on endothelial cells. Treatment of the endothelial cells with the 22 amino acid fragment referred to as IP-10p significantly inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial motility and tube formation in vitro, properties critical for angiogenesis. Using a Matrigel plug assay in vivo, we demonstrate that IP-10p both prevented vessel formation and induced involution of nascent vessels. CXCR3 neutralizing antibody was able to block the inhibitory effects of the IP-10p, demonstrating specificity of the peptide. Inhibition of endothelial function by IP-10p was similar to that described for IP-10, secondary to CXCR3-mediated increase in cAMP production, activation of PKA inhibiting cell migration, and inhibition of VEGF-mediated m-calpain activation. IP-10p provides a novel therapeutic agent that inhibits endothelial cell function thus, allowing for the modulation of angiogenesis. PMID:22815829

  8. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) inhibits cellular proliferation in melanoma. (United States)

    Rizvi, Irfan; Riggs, Dale R; Jackson, Barbara J; Ng, Alex; Cunningham, Cynthia; McFadden, David W


    Inositol Hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate found in food sources high in fiber content. We have previously reported IP6 to have significant inhibitory effects against pancreatic cancer in vitro. We hypothesized that the IP6 would significantly inhibit cell growth of cutaneous melanoma in vitro. The melanoma line HTB68 was cultured using standard techniques and treated with IP6 at doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 mM/well. Cell viability was measured by MTT at 72 h. VEGF production was measured in the cell supernatants by ELISA. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC and results calculated using FACS analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. Significant reductions (P < 0.001) in cellular proliferation were observed with IP6. Overall, IP6 exhibited a mean inhibition of cell growth of 52.1 +/- 11.5% (range, 1.6-83.0%) at 72 h of incubation. VEGF production was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) by the addition of IP6 (7.5 pg/ml) compared to control (40.9 pg/ml). IP6 significantly increased (P = 0.029) late apoptosis from 5.3 to 7.0% gated events. No changes in necrosis or early apoptosis were observed. Adjuvant treatment of melanoma continues to challenge clinicians and patients. Our findings that IP6 significantly decreased cellular growth, VEGF production and increased late apoptosis in melanoma suggest its potential therapeutic value. Further in vivo studies are planned to evaluate safety and clinical utility of this agent.

  9. Efficient Preparation of High-Complexity ChIP-Seq Profiles from Early Xenopus Embryos. (United States)

    Gentsch, George E; Smith, James C


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) has become a powerful tool to acquire a precise and genome-wide snapshot of many chromatin features in vivo. These chromatin profiles are obtained by immunoprecipitation of cross-linked chromatin fragments to enrich the feature of interest. Sequencing and aligning the underlying DNA sequences to the genome make it possible to virtually reconstruct the global distribution of most chromatin features. We present here recent improvements to the ChIP-seq protocol by means of Xenopus embryos to prepare high-complexity DNA libraries from small amounts of biological material. This approach allows researchers to explore the landscape of chromatin regulators and states in early vertebrate embryos or in any biological entity with small numbers of cells.

  10. Induced polarization (IP) imaging for the improved characterization of clay-rich landslides (United States)

    Gallistl, Jakob; Flores-Orozco, Adrián; Ottowitz, David; Gautier, Stéphanie; Malet, Jean-Philippe


    Landslides pose a significant socio-economical natural hazard, in particular those developed in clay-rich environments due to their suddenness, volumes and propagations. Typically induced by meteorological phenomena (i.e. strong precipitations) the understanding of water circulation in clayey landslides is critical for an adequate hydromechanical modeling and the development of accurate early warning systems. In recent years, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been widely applied to characterize the structure of landslides and monitoring of hydrogeological changes, aiming at an improved understanding of the water flow patterns. However, clay-rich sediments limit the applicability of ERT due the low contrast in the electrical signatures of clay minerals and saturated soil. Taking into account the strong induced polarization (IP) response in the presence of clay minerals, we propose the application of the IP imaging method to improve the delineation of structures and heterogeneities controlling water flow circulation in clayey landslides. To better evaluate the IP method at different geological conditions, here we discuss IP imaging results for data collected at two different landslides located in France (La Valette in the South East Alps, and Lodève located in the southern border of the Massif Central Massif) as well as two sites in Austria. These sites were selected due to the extensive non-geophysical information available and the ERT monitoring data measured over several years. IP measurements have been collected in both time- and frequency-domain to further assess the advantages of the different techniques in particular towards the quantification of hydrogeological parameters, such as dominating grain size and hydraulic conductivity. Imaging results demonstrate an improved lithological characterization, permitting the delineation of the sliding plane as well as a better discrimination of clay lenses with enhanced resolution. Nevertheless the clay

  11. Protecting LHC IP1/IP5 Components Against Radiation Resulting from Colliding Beam Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N V; Kerby, J S; Strait, J B


    Beam-induced energy deposition in the LHC high luminosity interaction region (IR) components due to both pp collisions and beam loss in the IR vicinity is a significant challenge for the design of the high luminosity insertions. It was shown in our previous studies that a set of absorbers would reduce both the peak power density and total heat load to tolerable levels. In this paper the results of further optimization and comprehensive MARS calculations are summarized for the LHC lattice, version 6.4, for the updated IP1 and IP5 layouts and a baseline pp-collision source term. Power density, power dissipation, particle fluxes and spectra, accumulated dose and residual dose rates are studied in the components of the inner triplets including their TAS absorbers, the TAN neutral beam absorbers, separation dipoles, and quadrupoles of the outer triplets and possible collimators there. Results are given for the nominal luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The current design is proved to provide the best safety margin under...

  12. On the Cryptographic Features of a VoIP Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Alvanos


    Full Text Available Security issues of typical Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP applications are studied in this paper; in particular, the open source Linphone application is being used as a case study. An experimental analysis indicates that protecting signalling data with the TLS protocol, which unfortunately is not always the default option, is needed to alleviate several security concerns. Moreover, towards improving security, it is shown that a VoIP application may operate over a virtual private network without significantly degrading the overall performance. The conclusions of this study provide useful insights to the usage of any VoIP application.

  13. Lessons from Korea Telecom's VoIP testbed (United States)

    Lee, Ki Jong; Yang, Junhwan; Kim, Dongkweon


    This paper describers the results and lessons from the voice over IP trial service on the Korea Telecom's VoIP Testbed. The testbed was made up of four different vendors' systems and solutions constituted four separate zones. Even though the backbone network of the testbed was not commercial IP network, we could comprehend some engineering parameters essential to packetized voice QoS. And we got some know-how. These kinds of results will be much help to traditional telco confronted with many difficult issues especially on packet voice network.

  14. Actuator development for the Instrument Pointing System (IPS) (United States)

    Suttner, K.


    The mechanisms of the instrument pointing system (IPS) are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the actuators which are necessary for operating the IPS. The actuators are described as follows: (1) two linear actuators that clamp the gimbals down during ascent and descent; (2) two linear actuators that attach the payload to the IPS during the mission, and release it into the payload clamps; (3) one rotational actuator that opens and closes the payload clamps; and (4) three identical drive units that represent the three orthogonal gimbal axes and are the prime movers for pointing. Design features, manufacturing problems, test performance, and results are presented.

  15. A Novel Smart Meter Controlling System with Dynamic IP Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manembu, Pinrolinvic; Welang, Brammy; Kalua Lapu, Aditya


    Smart meters are the electronic devices for measuring energy consumption in real time. Usually, static public IP addresses are allocated to realize the point-to-point (P2P) communication and remote controlling for smart metering systems. This, however, restricts the wide deployment of smart meters......, due to the deficiency of public IP resources. This paper proposes a novel subscription-based communication architecture for the support of dynamic IP addresses and group controlling of smart meters. The paper evaluates the proposed architecture by comparing the traditional P2P architecture...

  16. Application of Mobile-ip to Space and Aeronautical Networks (United States)

    Leung, Kent; Shell, Dan; Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is interested in applying mobile Internet protocol (mobile-ip) technologies to its space and aeronautics programs. In particular, mobile-ip will play a major role in the Advanced Aeronautic Transportation Technology (AAT-F), the Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM), and the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) aeronautics programs. This paper describes mobile-ip and mobile routers--in particular, the features, capabilities, and initial performance of the mobile router are presented. The application of mobile-router technology to NASA's space and aeronautics programs is also discussed.

  17. Water and Productivity of Floodplain Grasslands: Exploring Linkages through Experimentations and Models in the Tana River Delta, Kenya (United States)

    Leauthaud, C.; Musila, W.; Kergoat, L.; Hiernaux, P.; Manuela, G.; Duvail, S.


    Floodplain grasslands have one of the highest productivities of non-cultivated ecosystems on Earth. They procure a wide variety of benefits to human beings. In Eastern Africa, grasslands of Echinochloa stagnina are primordial for pastoralists as highly productive dry-season grazing zones. Regular flooding is a critical property in maintaining their productivity and resulting services. Yet, construction of hydrologic infrastructure modifies the flooding regime of rivers and the consequences on downstream floodplain grasslands need to be assessed. This presentation focuses on quantifying the productivity of the floodplain grasslands in the Tana River Delta, Kenya, in order to assess potential changes under varying flooding regimes. The interactions between growth and floods are explored firstly at an experimental site, then through the construction of a process-based plant growth model adapted to floodplain grasslands. The 15-month experiment consisted in quantifying daily growth rates under various rainfall, irrigation, cutting and flooding regimes . Floods increased growth rates three-folds, and high productivities were maintained after the floods. The cutting regime and contribution of non-flood water also influenced productivity. Modelling allowed exploring the underlying processes explaining such behaviour. In an exploratory endeavour, the productivity of the grassland at the ecosystem scale was assessed with the model for a variety of flood and non-flooded scenarios. Decreasing floods led to a drop in annual productivity that could have serious consequences for the livestock keeping activities of the zone. This research highlights the importance of floods in the maintenance of high productivities for a floodplain grassland typical of East Africa, and maybe of the Sahelian band. The model, once further validated, could be used on other floodplain grasslands, such as those of the Niger delta. Results for the Tana River Delta would need to be discussed with the

  18. Exploring geographic distributions of high-risk water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and their association with child diarrhea in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuaki Hirai


    Full Text Available Background: High-risk water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH practices are still prevalent in most low-income countries. Because of limited access to WASH, children may be put at an increased risk of diarrheal diseases. Objectives: This study aims to 1 develop a new measure of WASH-induced burden, the WASH Resource Index (WRI, and estimate its correlation with child diarrhea and an additive index of high-risk WASH practices; 2 explore the geographic distribution of high-risk WASH practices, child diarrhea, and summary indices at the cluster level; and 3 examine the association between the WRI and child diarrhea at the individual level. Design: A sample of 7,019 children from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2011 were included in this study. Principal component analysis was used to develop a WRI, and households were classified as WASH poorest, poorer, middle, richer, and richest. A hot spot analysis was conducted to assess whether and how high-risk WASH practices and child diarrhea were geographically clustered. A potential association between the WRI and child diarrhea was examined through a nested regression analysis. Results: High-risk WASH practices were clustered at geographically distant regions from Kampala. The 2-week prevalence of child diarrhea, however, was concentrated in Eastern and East Central regions where high-risk WASH practices were not prevalent. At the individual level, none of the high-risk WASH practices were significantly associated with child diarrhea. Being in the highest WASH quintile was, however, significantly associated with 24.9% lower prevalence of child diarrhea compared to being in the lowest quintile (p<0.05. Conclusions: Only a weak association was found between the WRI and child diarrhea in this study. Future research should explore the potential utility of the WRI to examine WASH-induced burden.

  19. Temperature-dependent expression of immune-relevant genes in rainbow trout following Yersinia ruckeri i.p. vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt


    The immune response in rainbow trout against a bacterin of Yersinia ruckeri, a bacterial pathogen causing enteric red mouth disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout were immunized by i.p. injection of a Y. ruckeri (serotype O1) water based bacterin and compared to control...

  20. Is the IP response related to geology or contaminants in a leachate plume at the Grindsted Landfill, Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ingelise; Maurya, Pradip Kumar; Balbarini, Nicola

    a leachate plume from a landfill hosting both household and chemical waste, borehole IP data, geological samples, grain size, and contaminant concentrations in water samples are examined for correlations related to geology and concentrations of contaminants. Results relating the Cole-Cole parameters...

  1. Reliable Mobile IP Multicast Based on Hierarchical Local Registration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huanming Zhang; Quanlong Guan; Zi Zhao Zhu; Weiqi Luo


    .... In order to resolve the problems of multicast reliability in wireless networks, a framework architecture of the mobile IP multicast is proposed, which is a reliable multicast architecture based...

  2. Systems Biology Analyses in Chicken: Workflow for Transcriptome and ChIP-Seq Analyses Using the Chicken Skin Paradigm. (United States)

    Lai, Yung-Chih; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming


    With advances in molecular biology, various biological phenomena can now be explored at higher resolution using mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq), two powerful high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. While methods are used widely in mouse, human, etc., less information is available in other animals, such as the chicken. Here we assemble a workflow of the RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq analyses for the chicken studies using chicken skin appendage tissue as an example. We present guidelines for RNA-Seq quality control, alignment, quantification, normalization, and differentially expressed gene analysis. In the meantime, we outline a bioinformatics pipeline for ChIP-Seq quality control, alignment, peak calling, super-enhancer identification, and differential enrichment analysis.

  3. Telemetry Transmission over Internet Protocol (TMoIP) Standard (United States)


    which might go to network-critical traffic such as Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Open Shortest Path First ( OSPF ) table updates. Values five and...Protocol (TMoIP), RCC Standard 218-10, October 2010 B-4 OSPF Open Shortest Path First: a protocol used by IP routers to determine most efficient paths...for traffic. It is generally acknowledged that OSPF is superior to and the successor to Routing Information Protocol (RIP). packet A formatted

  4. Mathematical Representation of VoIP Connection Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Halas


    Full Text Available The main topic of this article is to define mathematical formulation of VoIP connection delay model. It handles about all partial delay components, the mechanism of their generation, facilities and their mathematical formulation. Thereafter based on mathematical formulation of all partial delay components, the final mathematical model of whole VoIP call delay is created. In conclusion of this article the results of the designed mathematical model are compared with the experimentally gained results.

  5. Growth and symptomatological aspects in the acclimatization of ipê roxo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Rodrigues Martins


    Full Text Available This work evaluated the influence of seal type and substrate type on pre-acclimatization, and symptomatological aspects relating to acclimatization of ipê-roxo. For the pre-acclimatization, ipê-roxo plants obtained through an in vitro zygotic embryo culture were aseptically inoculated in test tubes with different types of seal (cotton plug, plastic cap + parafilm and plastic lid and different substrates (agar, vermiculite and Plantmax® supplemented with a WPM culture medium with 1 gL-1 of activated charcoal, 10 mgL-1 of citric acid and 30 gL-1 of sucrose added. For the acclimatization, in vitro ipê-roxo plants were transplanted into 56-cm3 plastic tubes containing vermiculite and Plantmax® at a 2:1 ratio which had been previously autoclaved at 121oC and 1 atm for 20 minutes. Once transplanted, the plants were irrigated with different concentrations of the MS medium (25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and 150%, using distilled water as control. After 30 days, the effects of seal type and substrate type on pre-acclimatization were examined. Cotton can be recommended where Plantmax® or vermiculite is used as substrate. In the acclimatization it was noted that where plants were irrigated with distilled water and concentrations < 50% they showed symptoms of nutritional deficiency. Similar symptoms were observed when using MS medium at a concentration equal to or greater than 100%. The 75% MS concentration was found to be the most effective at maintaining the nutritional vigor of ipê-roxo seedlings in the process of acclimatization.

  6. IP voice over ATM satellite: experimental results over satellite channels (United States)

    Saraf, Koroush A.; Butts, Norman P.


    IP telephony, a new technology to provide voice communication over traditional data networks, has the potential to revolutionize telephone communication within the modern enterprise. This innovation uses packetization techniques to carry voice conversations over IP networks. This packet switched technology promises new integrated services, and lower cost long-distance communication compared to traditional circuit switched telephone networks. Future satellites will need to carry IP traffic efficiently in order to stay competitive in servicing the global data- networking and global telephony infrastructure. However, the effects of Voice over IP over switched satellite channels have not been investigated in detail. To fully understand the effects of satellite channels on Voice over IP quality; several experiments were conducted at Lockheed Martin Telecommunications' Satellite Integration Lab. The result of those experiments along with suggested improvements for voice communication over satellite are presented in this document. First, a detailed introduction of IP telephony as a suitable technology for voice communication over future satellites is presented. This is followed by procedures for the experiments, along with results and strategies. In conclusion we hope that these capability demonstrations will alleviate any uncertainty regarding the applicability of this technology to satellite networks.

  7. IP6K gene identification in plant genomes by tag searching


    Fassetti, Fabio; Leone, Ofelia; Palopoli, Luigi; Rombo, Simona E.; Saiardi, Adolfo


    Background Plants have played a special role in inositol polyphosphate (IP) research since in plant seeds was discovered the first IP, the fully phosphorylated inositol ring of phytic acid (IP6). It is now known that phytic acid is further metabolized by the IP6 Kinases (IP6Ks) to generate IP containing pyro-phosphate moiety. The IP6K are evolutionary conserved enzymes identified in several mammalian, fungi and amoebae species. Although IP6K has not yet been identified in plant chromosomes, t...

  8. Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) generated by IP5K mediates cullin-COP9 signalosome interactions and CRL function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul C. Scherer; Yan Ding; Zhiqing Liu; Jing Xu; Haibin Mao; James C. Barrow; Ning Wei; Ning Zheng; Solomon H. Snyder; Feng Rao


    .... We now report that inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is a major physiologic determinant of the CRL-CSN interface, which includes a hitherto unidentified electrostatic interaction between the N-terminal acidic tail of CSN subunit 2 (CSN2...

  9. Embodied experiences for science learning: A cognitive linguistics exploration of middle school students' language in learning about water (United States)

    Salinas Barrios, Ivan Eduardo

    I investigated linguistic patterns in middle school students' writing to understand their relevant embodied experiences for learning science. Embodied experiences are those limited by the perceptual and motor constraints of the human body. Recent research indicates student understanding of science needs embodied experiences. Recent emphases of science education researchers in the practices of science suggest that students' understanding of systems and their structure, scale, size, representations, and causality are crosscutting concepts that unify all scientific disciplinary areas. To discern the relationship between linguistic patterns and embodied experiences, I relied on Cognitive Linguistics, a field within cognitive sciences that pays attention to language organization and use assuming that language reflects the human cognitive system. Particularly, I investigated the embodied experiences that 268 middle school students learning about water brought to understanding: i) systems and system structure; ii) scale, size and representations; and iii) causality. Using content analysis, I explored students' language in search of patterns regarding linguistic phenomena described within cognitive linguistics: image schemas, conceptual metaphors, event schemas, semantical roles, and force-dynamics. I found several common embodied experiences organizing students' understanding of crosscutting concepts. Perception of boundaries and change in location and perception of spatial organization in the vertical axis are relevant embodied experiences for students' understanding of systems and system structure. Direct object manipulation and perception of size with and without locomotion are relevant for understanding scale, size and representations. Direct applications of force and consequential perception of movement or change in form are relevant for understanding of causality. I discuss implications of these findings for research and science teaching.

  10. New-generation security network with synergistic IP sensors (United States)

    Peshko, Igor


    Global Dynamic Monitoring and Security Network (GDMSN) for real-time monitoring of (1) environmental and atmospheric conditions: chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear hazards, climate/man-induced catastrophe areas and terrorism threats; (2) water, soil, food chain quantifiers, and public health care; (3) large government/public/ industrial/ military areas is proposed. Each GDMSN branch contains stationary or mobile terminals (ground, sea, air, or space manned/unmanned vehicles) equipped with portable sensors. The sensory data are transferred via telephone, Internet, TV, security camera and other wire/wireless or optical communication lines. Each sensor is a self-registering, self-reporting, plug-and-play, portable unit that uses unified electrical and/or optical connectors and operates with IP communication protocol. The variant of the system based just on optical technologies cannot be disabled by artificial high-power radio- or gamma-pulses or sunbursts. Each sensor, being supplied with a battery and monitoring means, can be used as a separate portable unit. Military personnel, police officers, firefighters, miners, rescue teams, and nuclear power plant personnel may individually use these sensors. Terminals may be supplied with sensors essential for that specific location. A miniature "universal" optical gas sensor for specific applications in life support and monitoring systems was designed and tested. The sensor is based on the physics of absorption and/or luminescence spectroscopy. It can operate at high pressures and elevated temperatures, such as in professional and military diving equipment, submarines, underground shelters, mines, command stations, aircraft, space shuttles, etc. To enable this capability, the multiple light emitters, detectors and data processing electronics are located within a specially protected chamber.

  11. Exploring Northwest China's agricultural water-saving strategy: analysis of water use efficiency based on an SE-DEA model conducted in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province. (United States)

    Mu, L; Fang, L; Wang, H; Chen, L; Yang, Y; Qu, X J; Wang, C Y; Yuan, Y; Wang, S B; Wang, Y N

    Worldwide, water scarcity threatens delivery of water to urban centers. Increasing water use efficiency (WUE) is often recommended to reduce water demand, especially in water-scarce areas. In this paper, agricultural water use efficiency (AWUE) is examined using the super-efficient data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach in Xi'an in Northwest China at a temporal and spatial level. The grey systems analysis technique was then adopted to identify the factors that influenced the efficiency differentials under the shortage of water resources. From the perspective of temporal scales, the AWUE increased year by year during 2004-2012, and the highest (2.05) was obtained in 2009. Additionally, the AWUE was the best in the urban area at the spatial scale. Moreover, the key influencing factors of the AWUE are the financial situations and agricultural water-saving technology. Finally, we identified several knowledge gaps and proposed water-saving strategies for increasing AWUE and reducing its water demand by: (1) improving irrigation practices (timing and amounts) based on compatible water-saving techniques; (2) maximizing regional WUE by managing water resources and allocation at regional scales as well as enhancing coordination among Chinese water governance institutes.

  12. Water (United States)

    ... Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  13. Added value of IP-10 as a read-out of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenum, Synne; Dhanasekaran, Sivmakumaran; Ritz, Christian


    We have explored the added value of IFNγ-inducible protein 10 as a read-out of Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific immunity in young Indian children where the sensitivity of the IGRA for tuberculosis (TB) is poor. Reduced frequency of indeterminate results and an increased sensitivity for TB......, suggest a potential for fewer missed cases with a combined IFNγ/IP-10 read-out in a 4 generation IGRA.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share...

  14. Deregulated MicroRNA-21 Expression in Monocytes from HIV-Infected Patients Contributes to Elevated IP-10 Secretion in HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Wu


    Full Text Available Persistent activation and inflammation impair immune response and trigger disease progression in HIV infection. Emerging evidence supports the supposition that excessive production of interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10, a critical inflammatory cytokine, leads to immune dysfunction and disease progression in HIV infection. In this study, we sought to elucidate the cause of the upregulated production of IP-10 in HIV infection and explore the underlying mechanisms. Bolstering miR-21 levels using mimics resulted in the obvious suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced IP-10 in monocyte leukemia cells THP-1 and vice versa. The analysis of the primary monocytes of HIV patients revealed significantly less miR-21 than in healthy controls; this was opposite to the tendency of IP-10 levels in plasma. The secretion of IP-10 due to LPS stimulation was not affected by miR-21 modulation in the differentiated THP-1 macrophages (THP-1-MA. We found a novel switch, IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15, which triggers the expression of IP-10 and is significantly upregulated during the differentiation of THP-1 into THP-1-MA. The inhibition of ISG15 can restore the regulation of IP-10 by miR-21. In summary, IP-10 expression in monocytes is regulated by miR-21, whereas in macrophages, this fine-tuning is attenuated by the enhanced expression of ISG15. This study paves the way to a comprehensive understanding of the molecular regulatory mechanism of IP-10, a key point in immune intervention strategy.

  15. The centriolar satellite protein SSX2IP promotes centrosome maturation. (United States)

    Bärenz, Felix; Inoue, Daigo; Yokoyama, Hideki; Tegha-Dunghu, Justus; Freiss, Stephanie; Draeger, Stefanie; Mayilo, Dmytro; Cado, Ivana; Merker, Sabine; Klinger, Maren; Hoeckendorf, Burkhard; Pilz, Sahra; Hupfeld, Kerstin; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Lorenz, Holger; Ruppert, Thomas; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Gruss, Oliver J


    Meiotic maturation in vertebrate oocytes is an excellent model system for microtubule reorganization during M-phase spindle assembly. Here, we surveyed changes in the pattern of microtubule-interacting proteins upon Xenopus laevis oocyte maturation by quantitative proteomics. We identified the synovial sarcoma X breakpoint protein (SSX2IP) as a novel spindle protein. Using X. laevis egg extracts, we show that SSX2IP accumulated at spindle poles in a Dynein-dependent manner and interacted with the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) and the centriolar satellite protein PCM-1. Immunodepletion of SSX2IP impeded γ-TuRC loading onto centrosomes. This led to reduced microtubule nucleation and spindle assembly failure. In rapidly dividing blastomeres of medaka (Oryzias latipes) and in somatic cells, SSX2IP knockdown caused fragmentation of pericentriolar material and chromosome segregation errors. We characterize SSX2IP as a novel centrosome maturation and maintenance factor that is expressed at the onset of vertebrate development. It preserves centrosome integrity and faithful mitosis during the rapid cleavage division of blastomeres and in somatic cells.

  16. A method for determining and exploring the distribution of organic matters and hardness salts in natural waters (United States)

    Sargsyan, Suren


    A question regarding how organic matters in water are associated with hardness salts hasn't been completely studied. For partially clarifying this question, a water fractional separation and investigation method has been recommended. The experiments carried out by the recommended method showed that the dynamics of the distribution of total hardness and permanganate oxidation values in the fractions of frozen and melted water samples coincided completely based on which it has been concluded that organic matters in natural waters are associated with hardness salts and always distributed in this form. All these findings are useful information for the deep study of macro- and microelements in water.

  17. Implementasi Server VoIP Berbasis SIP Pada LAN Nirkabel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoffa Al Arofat


    Full Text Available Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP merupakan teknologi yang memungkinkan percakapan suara jarak jauh melalui protokol internet. Dalam telekomunikasi, diperlukan teknologi pensinyalan yang berguna untuk membangun, mengawasi, dan melepas hubungan antara dua titik. Salah satu teknologi pensinyalan yang banyak digunakan untuk VoIP adalah Session Initiation Protocol, dengan implementasinya yang berupa perangkat lunak Open SIP Server. Selain pensinyalan, ada beberapa parameter yang perlu diperhatikan dalam implementasi VoIP, yaitu Mean Opinion Score (MOS, network impairment, dan bandwidth. Pengujian dilakukan terhadap enam codec, yaitu G.722, PCMA, PCMU, Speex, GSM, dan BV16. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa codec yang menggunakan bandwidth paling rendah adalah Speex (27,12 kbps; Rata-rata delay yang dihasilkan oleh sipdroid lebih baik daripada jitsi.

  18. Speciální aplikace VoIP


    Lembard, Tomáš


    Cílem této diplomové práce je návrh a následná realizace zařízení pro přenos hlasu v lokální síti a popisem použitých obvodů a řešení po stránce hw i sw. Zabývá se problematikou digitalizace nízkofrekvenčních signálů, strukturou IP a UDP protokolů, implementací TCP/IP stacku cIPS The aim of this master's thesis is suggestion and following realization of voice transmission over the local network equipment and a description of used circuits and solutions in terms of hardware and software. Th...

  19. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    Executive Summary The authors argue that challenges to capturing value from know-how and reputation through the use of different IP tools will be an increasingly important matter of strategy for global enterprises. This has important implications for management practice. Global enterprises......), develop their know-how, and build and maintain their reputation globally during the last decades. We focus on three tools: patents, trademarks, and industrial designs. We find that, although most IP applications come from a few countries (the United States, European Union, Japan, China, and South Korea......), most growth in IP activity has come from middle-income countries, especially in Asia. We observe important differences in the origins of this growth. For example, while in India most applicants were foreign firms, in China most were local. However, most Indian innovations are also applied overseas...

  20. An inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)-IP3 receptor pathway is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 translocation and glucose uptake in cardiomyocytes. (United States)

    Contreras-Ferrat, A E; Toro, B; Bravo, R; Parra, V; Vásquez, C; Ibarra, C; Mears, D; Chiong, M; Jaimovich, E; Klip, A; Lavandero, S


    contribution of IP3-sensitive Ca2+ stores to insulin action. This pathway may influence cardiac metabolism in conditions yet to be explored in adult myocardium.

  1. Laboratory study on streaming potential for exploring underground water flow; Shitsunai jikken ni yoru ryudo den`i wo mochiita mizu michi tansa no kanosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H.; Shima, H. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    To investigate a possibility of exploration of underground water flow as well as to grasp the underground fluid flow by measuring streaming potential at the ground surface, some experiments were conducted using a model unit by considering the difference of permeability. For this experimental unit, water is driven by adding head difference between the polyethylene vessel filled with water and the experimental water tank. The size of water tank is 350{times}160 mm with a height of 160 mm. Twenty platinum electrodes are set on the cover of water tank. Toyoura standard sand and Kanto loam were used for the experiments. For the experiments, fluid was injected in various combined models by considering the permeability, to measure the streaming potential. As a result, it was explained by the streaming potential that the fluid flows in a form of laminar flow in the experimental water tank, and that the movement of fluid in the Kanto loam is quite slow. It was also confirmed that the streaming potential method is an effective technique for grasping the movement of fluid. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Remembering the body: Deleuze's recollection-image, and the spectacle of physical memory in Yip Man/Ip Man(2008)


    Martin-Jones, David


    This article explores how Gilles Deleuze’s conceptualization of the flashback, as‘recollection-image’, can assist our understanding of the rendering spectacular of\\ud physical memory in contemporary Chinese martial arts movies. The focus is a prominent flashback in the climactic duel in the kung fu movie, Yip Man/Ip Man (Yip, 2008). This recollection-image demonstrates how trained bodies in Chinese martial art movies suggest a slightly different understanding of time and affect from that whic...

  3. Individuals matter: exploring strategies of individuals to change the water policy for the Tisza River in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, S.E.; Matczak, P.; Flachner, Z.


    This paper offers a novel interpretation of the introduction of floodplain rehabilitation and rural development into the water policy for the Tisza River in Hungary. It looks at the role of individuals and the strategies that they used to bring about water policy change. Five strategies are

  4. Mars Exploration: Is There Water on Mars? An Educator's Guide with Activities for Physical and Earth and Space Science. (United States)

    TERC, Cambridge, MA.

    This educator's guide discusses whether there is water on the planet Mars. The activities, written for grades 9-12, concern physical, earth, and space sciences. By experimenting with water as it changes state and investigating some effects of air pressure, students not only learn core ideas in physical science but can also deduce the water…

  5. Symposium proceedings: Exploring transdisciplinarity to address change in the SADC water sector: Establishing the role of social scientists in this vision

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M


    Full Text Available an opportunity for inter-generational learning as a ‘community of elders’ or more experienced professionals was present to engage young professionals on the topics at hand. • Publishing opportunities for selected papers are being explored. Inspired..., perceptions and beliefs related to education, training, culture, tradition and assumptions of different disciplines. In order to survive these water-related human health challenges in a rapidly changing world, there needs to be a concerted and cooperative...

  6. IP-Based TV Technologies, Services and Multidisciplinary Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.M. Bonastre; M.J. Montpetit; P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)


    htmlabstractThe move to Internet Protocol (IP)-based content delivery services has challenged the television industry by allowing high-quality television content to be delivered using the Internet, wired and wireless, private and public. The new convergence paradigm is already playing out its

  7. Construction of a nuclear data server using TCP/IP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Sakai, Osamu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)


    We construct a nuclear data server which provides data in the evaluated nuclear data library through the network by means of TCP/IP. The client is not necessarily a user but a computer program. Two examples with a prototype server program are demonstrated, the first is data transfer from the server to a user, and the second is to a computer program. (author)

  8. Credibility and validation of simulation models for tactical IP networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boltjes, B.; Thiele, F.; Diaz, I.F.


    The task of TNO is to provide predictions of the scalability and performance of the new all-IP tactical networks of the Royal Netherlands Army (RNLA) that are likely to be fielded. The inherent properties of fielded tactical networks, such as low bandwidth and Quality of Service (QoS) policies

  9. The Verb Always Leaves IP in V2 Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.; Vikner, Sten


    (1989) we claimed that all V2 clauses were CPs, and we referred to this analysis as the 'traditional' analysis. In this paper we shall call it the 'V2 outside IP' analysis, and by using this term we want to convey that although in what follows we will adhere to the view that the verb moves to Cº, any......-initial and non-subject-initial V2 clauses, the former being only IPs and the latter CPs, as suggested by Travis (1984, 1986, 1991) and Zwart (1990, 1991). Below we will refer to this analysis as the 'V2 asymmetry' analysis. The other alternative analysis is that V2 takes place inside IP, as suggested by Diesing......The verb second (V2) phenomenon, as it is found in the Germanic languages, has been the focus of much attention within recent syntactic research. In most of the literature on V2, it is assumed that the verb in all V2 clauses has moved to a head position outside IP, e.g. Cº. In Schwartz & Vikner...

  10. Designing TCP/IP Checksum Function for Acceleration in FPGA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    bus speed limits. Consequently, for a higher throughput and speedy delivery of information between hosts on the internet, there is the need to identify those performance-critical TCP/IP functions ... instruction fetching and decoding, bus speed constraints, latency due to buffer/memory ... functions in FPGA that can be updated.

  11. TTI ARO Opportunity Fund: IPS | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will allow the Think Tank Initiative grantee, the Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka (IPS), to undertake quality, policy-oriented labour migration research. The research will focus on some of the issues identified by the National Human Resources and Employment Policy for Sri Lanka.

  12. Changepoint detection techniques for VoIP traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.; Zuraniewski, P.W.


    The control of communication networks critically relies on procedures capable of detecting unanticipated load changes. In this chapter we present an overview of such techniques, in a setting in which each connection consumes roughly the same amount of bandwidth (with VoIP as a leading example). For

  13. Changepoint Detection Techniques for VoIP Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.; Żuraniewski, P.; Biersack, E.; Callegari, C.; Matijasevic, M.


    The control of communication networks critically relies on procedures capable of detecting unanticipated load changes. In this chapter we present an overview of such techniques, in a setting in which each connection consumes roughly the same amount of bandwidth (with VoIP as a leading example). For

  14. Biobjective VoIP Service Management in Cloud Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Cortés-Mendoza


    Full Text Available Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP allows communication of voice and/or data over the internet in less expensive and reliable manner than traditional ISDN systems. This solution typically allows flexible interconnection between organization and companies on any domains. Cloud VoIP solutions can offer even cheaper and scalable service when virtualized telephone infrastructure is used in the most efficient way. Scheduling and load balancing algorithms are fundamental parts of this approach. Unfortunately, VoIP scheduling techniques do not take into account uncertainty in dynamic and unpredictable cloud environments. In this paper, we formulate the problem of scheduling of VoIP services in distributed cloud environments and propose a new model for biobjective optimization. We consider the special case of the on-line nonclairvoyant dynamic bin-packing problem and discuss solutions for provider cost and quality of service optimization. We propose twenty call allocation strategies and evaluate their performance by comprehensive simulation analysis on real workload considering six months of the MIXvoip company service.

  15. Aspects of the epidemiology of intestinal parasitosis (IP) in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal parasitoses (IP) have been demonstrated to pose a major public health problem in the tropics. It is hypothesized that children are continually exposed to re- infection despite interventions. We conducted this hospital-based study to investigate knowledge, practices and perceptions among mothers of ...

  16. TTI ARO Opportunity Fund: IPS | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will allow the Think Tank Initiative grantee, the Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka (IPS), to undertake quality, policy-oriented labour migration research. The research will focus on some of the issues identified by the National Human Resources and Employment Policy for Sri Lanka.

  17. Voice over IP phone calls from your smartphone

    CERN Multimedia


    All CERN users do have a Lync account (see here) and can use Instant Messaging, presence and other features. In addition, if your number is activated on Lync IP Phone(1) system then you can make standard phone calls from your computer (Windows/Mac).   Recently, we upgraded the infrastructure to Lync 2013. One of the major features is the possibility to make Voice over IP phone calls from a smartphone using your CERN standard phone number (not mobile!). Install Lync 2013 on iPhone/iPad, Android or Windows Phone, connect to WiFi network and make phone calls as if you were in your office. There will be no roaming charges because you will be using WiFi to connect to CERN phone system(2). Register here to the presentation on Tuesday 29 April at 11 a.m. in the Technical Training Center and see the most exciting features of Lync 2013.   Looking forward to seeing you! The Lync team (1) How to register on Lync IP Phone system:

  18. TCP/IP communication between two USRP-E110


    Sanabria-Russo, Luis


    This short report intends to provide an overview of the procedure and statistics of establishing a TCP/IP link between two USRP-E110. The testings are performed using an example GNURadio code and the networking protocol stack provided by the Linux operating system embedded in the USRP-E110.

  19. Load characterization and anomaly detection for voice over IP traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel); I. Saniee; A. Stolyar


    textabstractWe consider the problem of traffic anomaly detection in IP networks. Traffic anomalies typically arise when there is focused overload or when a network element fails and it is desired to infer these purely from the measured traffic. We derive new general formulae for the variance of the

  20. Managing wireless IP-Connectivity Experience as Mobile Social Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigolin Ferreira Lopes, R.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; dos Santos Moreira, Edson


    Social media is the meaningful digital content that results from interaction or collaboration between users through web-based applications, e.g. blogs and virtual communities. While on the move, people can create or consume mobile social media using portable devices with IP-connectivity. Our

  1. QoS-aware bandwidth provisioning for IP network links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, H; Mandjes, M.R.H.; van de Meent, R.; Pras, A.; Roijers, F.; Venemans, P.H.A.


    Current bandwidth provisioning procedures for IP network links are mostly based on simple rules of thumb, using coarse traffic measurements made on a time scale of e.g., 5 or 15 minutes. A crucial question, however, is whether such coarse measurements give any useful insight into the capacity

  2. QoS aware bandwidth provisioning of IP links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Hans Leo; Altman, E; Mandjes, M.R.H.; van de Meent, R.; Pras, Aiko; Roijers, Frank; Venemans, Pieter

    Current bandwidth provisioning procedures for IP network links are mostly based on simple rules of thumb, using coarse traffic measurements made on a time scale of e.g., 5 or 15 min. A crucial question, however, is whether such coarse measurements give any useful insight into the capacity actually

  3. QoS-aware bandwidth provisioning for IP network links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.L. van den; Mandjes, M.; Meent, R. van de; Pras, A.; Roijers, F.; Venemans, P.


    Current bandwidth provisioning procedures for IP network links are mostly based on simple rules of thumb, using coarse traffic measurements made on a time scale of e.g., 5 or 15 min. A crucial question, however, is whether such coarse measurements give any useful insight into the capacity actually

  4. VoIP makes voice heard--functionality is up. (United States)

    Wade, Phil; Wakelam, Mathew


    Phil Wade, sales and marketing director, and Mathew Wakelam, VoIP product manager, at alarm and communication specialist Static Systems Group, discuss wireless VoLP's potential in healthcare establishments and examine how, in particular, the technology can be successfully integrated with nurse call systems.

  5. Sensing CMEs Propagating in the Interplanetary Medium. MEXART IPS Observations (United States)

    Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Romero Hernandez, E.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ontiveros-Hernandez, V.; Rodriguez-Martinez, M. R.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.


    The Mexican Array Radiotelescope (MEXART) is a ground instrument fully dedicated to perform Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) observations to track large-scale solar wind disturbances within the Sun and the Earth. The MEXART is located at Michoacan (19 degrees 48' North, 101 degrees 41' West) and has an operation frequency of 140 MHz. The IPS technique is based on the scintillations that interplanetary disturbances (e.g., ICMEs) causes on the signal of small diameter cosmic radio sources detected by a radiotelescope. We report the tracking of the first solar disturbances detected by the instrument during the maximum of solar cycle 24. We estimated solar wind velocities and scintillation indexes (m). We present the first curves of the variation of the scintillating index with respect to the heliocentric distance for some strong radio sources using IPS observations at 140 MHZ. We identified events associated with strong scintilltaion in our data. We combine the IPS data with white light chronograph observations to identify the first CMEs in the interplanetary medium detected by the instrument.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayani Nurhayani


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of the use of libraries on social study learning achievement through learning motivation, either directly or indirectly. The type of this research was quantitative Ex post facto. The sampling technique used probability sampling with total of the students consisted of 156. Collecting data used a Likert questionnaire and students’ report documentation. The data analysis used path analysis and assisted by SPSS for windows version 20. The results (1 there was a direct effect of the use of libraries on the learning motivation; (2 there was a direct effect of the use of libraries to the learning achievement of Social Study; (3 there was a direct effect of learning motivation towards learning achievement of Social Study; (4 there was an indirect effect on social study learning achievement library through learning motivation. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemanfaatan perpustakaan terhadap prestasi belajar IPS melalui motivasi belajar, baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Jenis penelitian adalah kuantitatif Ex Post Facto. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan probability sampling sebanyak 156 siswa. Pengumpulan data menggunakan angket skala likert dan dokumentasi nilai rapor. Analisis data menggunakan analisis jalur dan dibantu program SPSS for window versi 20. Hasil penelitian (1 terdapat pengaruh langsung pemanfaatan perpustakaan terhadap motivasi belajar; (2 terdapat pengaruh langsung pemanfaatan perpustakaan terhadap Prestasi belajar IPS; (3 terdapat pengaruh langsung motivasi belajar terhadap prestasi belajar IPS; (4 terdapat pengaruh tidak langsung pemanfaatan perpustakaan terhadap prestasi belajar IPS melalui motivasi belajar.

  7. Sister broods in the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davídková, Markéta; Doležal, Petr


    Roč. 405, DEC 01 (2017), s. 13-21 ISSN 0378-1127 Grant - others:Lesy ČR(CZ) 08/2009- 2015 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : re-emergence * sister broods * Ips typographus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016

  8. Understanding Innovative Potential (IP) in an ICT Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Sudhanshu

    a dynamic perspective in its conception, operation and instantiation. I conclude this paper with insights on what I call the dynamic IP threshold arguing that being dynamic cannot be seen as a point in time but a threshold existing over time. I then discuss some implications. I suggest that firms need...

  9. Wastewater treatment and reuse in urban agriculture: exploring the food, energy, water, and health nexus in Hyderabad, India (United States)

    Miller-Robbie, Leslie; Ramaswami, Anu; Amerasinghe, Priyanie


    Nutrients and water found in domestic treated wastewater are valuable and can be reutilized in urban agriculture as a potential strategy to provide communities with access to fresh produce. In this paper, this proposition is examined by conducting a field study in the rapidly developing city of Hyderabad, India. Urban agriculture trade-offs in water use, energy use and GHG emissions, nutrient uptake, and crop pathogen quality are evaluated, and irrigation waters of varying qualities (treated wastewater, versus untreated water and groundwater) are compared. The results are counter-intuitive, and illustrate potential synergies and key constraints relating to the food-energy-water-health (FEW-health) nexus in developing cities. First, when the impact of GHG emissions from untreated wastewater diluted in surface streams is compared with the life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment with reuse in agriculture, the treatment-plus-reuse case yields a 33% reduction in life cycle system-wide GHG emissions. Second, despite water cycling benefits in urban agriculture, only wastewater treatment results in pathogen indicator organism concentrations in irrigation water to be reduced by 99.9% (three orders of magnitude) compared to the untreated case, crop pathogen content was reduced by much less, largely due to environmental contamination and farmer behavior and harvesting practices. The study uncovers key physical, environmental, and behavioral factors that constrain benefits achievable at the FEW-health nexus in urban areas.

  10. Understanding the interface between silicon-based materials and water: Molecular-dynamics exploration of infrared spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Martinez-Gonzalez


    Full Text Available Molecular-dynamics simulations for silicon, hydrogen- and hydroxyl-terminated silicon in contact with liquid water, at 220 and 300 K, display water-density ‘ordering’ along the laboratory z-axis, emphasising the hydrophobicity of the different systems and the position of this first adsorbed layer. Density of states (DOS of the oxygen and proton velocity correlation functions (VACFs and infrared (IR spectra of the first monolayer of adsorbed water, calculated via Fourier transformation, indicate similarities to more confined, ice-like dynamical behaviour (redolent of ice. It was observed that good qualitative agreement is obtained between the DOS for this first layer in all systems. The DOS for the lower-frequency zone indicates that for the interface studied (i.e., the first layer near the surface, the water molecules try to organise in a similar form, and that this form is intermediate between liquid water and ice. For IR spectra, scrutiny of the position of the highest-intensity peaks for the stretching and bending bands indicate that such water molecules in the first solvating layer are organised in an intermediate fashion between ice and liquid water.

  11. CtIP Mutations Cause Seckel and Jawad Syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Qvist


    Full Text Available Seckel syndrome is a recessively inherited dwarfism disorder characterized by microcephaly and a unique head profile. Genetically, it constitutes a heterogeneous condition, with several loci mapped (SCKL1-5 but only three disease genes identified: the ATR, CENPJ, and CEP152 genes that control cellular responses to DNA damage. We previously mapped a Seckel syndrome locus to chromosome 18p11.31-q11.2 (SCKL2. Here, we report two mutations in the CtIP (RBBP8 gene within this locus that result in expression of C-terminally truncated forms of CtIP. We propose that these mutations are the molecular cause of the disease observed in the previously described SCKL2 family and in an additional unrelated family diagnosed with a similar form of congenital microcephaly termed Jawad syndrome. While an exonic frameshift mutation was found in the Jawad family, the SCKL2 family carries a splicing mutation that yields a dominant-negative form of CtIP. Further characterization of cell lines derived from the SCKL2 family revealed defective DNA damage induced formation of single-stranded DNA, a critical co-factor for ATR activation. Accordingly, SCKL2 cells present a lowered apoptopic threshold and hypersensitivity to DNA damage. Notably, over-expression of a comparable truncated CtIP variant in non-Seckel cells recapitulates SCKL2 cellular phenotypes in a dose-dependent manner. This work thus identifies CtIP as a disease gene for Seckel and Jawad syndromes and defines a new type of genetic disease mechanism in which a dominant negative mutation yields a recessively inherited disorder.

  12. A Political Ecology of the Citarum River Basin: Exploring "Integrated Water Resources Management" in West Java, Indonesia


    Cavelle, Jenna


    Over the past twenty years, the Indonesian government and international development agencies have ranked the Citarum River among the most polluted rivers in the world. Pollution, flooding, sedimentation, deforestation and over-pumping of ground water, combined with inadequate policy enforcement and poor coordination between government agencies are compromising Indonesian livelihoods.  In 2007, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) loaned Indonesia $500 million to implement “Integrated Water Resour...

  13. Unjuk Kerja IP PBX Asterisk dan FreeSWITCH pada Topologi Bertingkat di Jaringan Kampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Setiawan


    Full Text Available Internet Protocol-based Private Branch Exchange (IP PBX diperlukan untuk menghubungkan panggilan antar perangkat komunikasi Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP di sebuah jaringan lokal (LAN. Dengan adanya IP PBX, layanan VoIP dapat disediakan di atas jaringan data/IP yang sudah tergelar. Penelitian ini kami lakukan untuk mengetahui unjuk kerja VoIP pada dua IP PBX yang menggunakan perangkat lunak server Asterisk dan FreeSWITCH. Kami merancang sebuah arsitektur jaringan eksperimen yang diadaptasi dari topologi bertingkat pada jaringan kampus (CAN di lokasi penelitian dengan hierarki perangkat yang terdiri dari core switch, distribution switch, dan access switch. Kedua IP PBX ditempatkan pada hierarki yang berbeda pada topologi jaringan tersebut agar dapat diketahui pengaruhnya terhadap unjuk kerja VoIP. Konsep eksperimen ini diharapkan dapat menjadi salah satu dasar untuk mendesain arsitektur IP PBX secara terpusat dan tersebar pada jaringan kampus. Unjuk kerja VoIP kami ukur dengan parameter-parameter Quality of Service (QoS dan Quality of Experience (QoE. Selain itu, kami juga mengukur konsumsi prosesor dan memori yang dipakai oleh perangkat lunak server VoIP pada saat komunikasi terjadi. Pengukuran dilakukan dengan skenario phone-to-phone pada jaringan eksperimen yang terhubung ke jaringan kampus aktif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penempatan IP PBX di hierarki yang berbeda pada topologi jaringan berpengaruh terhadap unjuk kerja VoIP khususnya pada IP PBX Asterisk. Ketika dibandingkan, unjuk kerja IP PBX FreeSWITCH dalam hal QoS dan QoE sedikit lebih baik daripada Asterisk pada rerata latensi/delay, jitter, Mean Opinion Score (MOS, dan konsumsi memori yaitu 41,012 ms, 0,060 ms, 5, dan 1 % untuk IP PBX 1 serta 41,016 ms, 0,066 ms, 5, dan 0,5 % untuk IP PBX 2

  14. A randomised controlled trial of time-limited individual placement and support: IPS-LITE trial. (United States)

    Burns, Tom; Yeeles, Ksenija; Langford, Oliver; Montes, Maria Vazquez; Burgess, Jennifer; Anderson, Catriona


    Individual placement and support (IPS) has been repeatedly demonstrated to be the most effective form of mental health vocational rehabilitation. Its no-discharge policy plus fixed caseloads, however, makes it expensive to provide. To test whether introducing a time limit for IPS would significantly alter its clinical effectiveness and consequently its potential cost-effectiveness. Referrals to an IPS service were randomly allocated to either standard IPS or to time-limited IPS (IPS-LITE). IPS-LITE participants were referred back to their mental health teams if still unemployed at 9 months or after 4 months employment support. The primary outcome at 18 months was working for 1 day. Secondary outcomes comprised other vocational measures plus clinical and social functioning. The differential rates of discharge were used to calculate a notional increased capacity and to model potential rates and costs of employment. A total of 123 patients were randomised and data were collected on 120 patients at 18 months. The two groups (IPS-LITE = 62 and IPS = 61) were well matched at baseline. Rates of employment were equal at 18 months (IPS-LITE = 24 (41%) and IPS = 27 (46%)) at which time 57 (97%) had been discharged from the IPS-LITE service and 16 (28%) from IPS. Only 11 patients (4 IPS-LITE and 7 IPS) obtained their first employment after 9 months. There were no significant differences in any other outcomes. IPS-LITE discharges generated a potential capacity increase of 46.5% compared to 12.7% in IPS which would translate into 35.8 returns to work in IPS-LITE compared to 30.6 in IPS over an 18-month period if the rates remained constant. IPS-LITE is equally effective to IPS and only minimal extra employment is gained by persisting beyond 9 months. If released capacity is utilised with similar outcomes, IPS-LITE results in an increase by 17% in numbers gaining employment within 18 months compared to IPS and will increase with prolonged follow-up. IPS-LITE may be more cost

  15. Geometry of Exploration: Water below the Surface of Mars? NASA Connect: Program 3 in the 1999-2000 Series. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    This teaching unit is designed to help students in grades 4-8 explore the concepts of geometry in the context of space navigation. The units in this series have been developed to enhance and enrich mathematics, science, and technology education and to accommodate different teaching and learning styles. Each unit consists of a storyline presenting…

  16. Geoelectrical exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Said Barseem


    Full Text Available Sinai development is a goal of successive governments in Egypt. The present study is a geoelectrical exploration to find appropriate solutions of the problems affecting the land of a Research Station in Southeast Al Qantara. This research station is one of the Desert Research Center stations to facilitate the development of desert land for agriculture by introducing applied research. It suffers from some problems which can be summarized in the shortage of irrigation water and water logging. The appropriate solutions of these problems have been delineated by the results of 1D and 2D geoelectrical measurements. Electrical resistivity (ER revealed the subsurface sedimentary sequences and extension of subsurface layers in the horizontal and vertical directions, especially, the water bearing layer. Additionally it helped to choose the most suitable places to drill productive wells with a good condition.

  17. [Retinal Cell Therapy Using iPS Cells]. (United States)

    Takahashi, Masayo


    Progress in basic research, starting with the work on neural stem cells in the middle 1990's to embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells at present, will lead the cell therapy (regenerative medicine) of various organs, including the central nervous system to a big medical field in the future. The author's group transplanted iPS cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell sheets to the eye of a patient with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2014 as a clinical research. Replacement of the RPE with the patient's own iPS cell-derived young healthy cell sheet will be one new radical treatment of AMD that is caused by cellular senescence of RPE cells. Since it was the first clinical study using iPS cell-derived cells, the primary endpoint was safety judged by the outcome one year after surgery. The safety of the cell sheet has been confirmed by repeated tumorigenisity tests using immunodeficient mice, as well as purity of the cells, karyotype and genetic analysis. It is, however, also necessary to prove the safety by clinical studies. Following this start, a good strategy considering cost and benefit is needed to make regenerative medicine a standard treatment in the future. Scientifically, the best choice is the autologous RPE cell sheet, but autologous cell are expensive and sheet transplantation involves a risky part of surgical procedure. We should consider human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched allogeneic transplantation using the HLA 6 loci homozyous iPS cell stock that Prof. Yamanaka of Kyoto University is working on. As the required forms of donor cells will be different depending on types and stages of the target diseases, regenerative medicine will be accomplished in a totally different manner from the present small molecule drugs. Proof of concept (POC) of photoreceptor transplantation in mouse is close to being accomplished using iPS cell-derived photoreceptor cells. The shortest possible course for treatment

  18. Using mental-modelling to explore how irrigators in the Murray–Darling Basin make water-use decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Douglas


    New hydrological insights for the region: Results suggest support for greater local and irrigator involvement in water management decisions. Many, if not most, of the irrigators understood the need for, or at least the inevitability of, governmental policies and regulations. However, a lack of accountability, predictability, and transparency has added to the uncertainty in farm-based water decision-making. Irrigators supported the concept of environmental sustainability, although they might not always agree with how the concept is implemented. The mental modelling approach facilitated knowledge sharing among stakeholders and can be used to identify common goals. Future research utilizing the mental modelling approach may encourage co-management and knowledge partnerships between irrigators, water managers and government officials.

  19. Exploration of the phase diagram of liquid water in the low-temperature metastable region using synthetic fluid inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Chen; Krüger, Yves; Wilke, Max


    water with a density of 0.921 kg/m3 remains in a homogeneous state during cooling down to the temperaure of −30.5 °C, where it is transformed into ice whose density corresponds to zero pressure. iii) ice melting. Ice melting temperatures of up to 6.8 °C were measured in absence of the vapour bubble, i......We present new experimental data of the low-temperature metastable region of liquid water derived from high-density synthetic fluid inclusions (996−916 kg/m3) in quartz. Microthermometric measurements include: i) Prograde (upon heating) and retrograde (upon cooling) liquid-vapour homogenisation. We...... used single ultrashort laser pulses to stimulate vapour bubble nucleation in initially monophase liquid inclusions. Water densities were calculated based on prograde homogenisation temperatures using the IAPWS-95 formulation. We found retrograde liquid-vapour homogenisation temperatures in excellent...

  20. An energy balance model exploration of the impacts of interactions between surface albedo, water vapour and clouds on polar amplification (United States)

    Sodergren, Helena; McDonald, Adrian; Bodeker, Greg


    The interactions between surface albedo, water vapour and clouds, and how these interactions change with carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere, are examined with a newly developed energy balance model. A particular focus is the non-linear interactions of these climate system attributes on polar amplification. Polar amplification is defined here as the ratio of the annual rate of surface warming over the polar regions (latitudes poleward of 60o) to the surface warming over equatorial regions (latitudes equatorward of 30o), and is termed the polar amplification factor. Changes in surface albedo plays a major role in polar amplification as might be expected, due to its amplifying effects of CO2 -induced warming of the polar regions, and relatively small warming effects in the equatorial regions. When considered in isolation from the other climate system components, i.e. when water vapour and cloud cover are prescribed, changes in surface albedo result in a polar amplification factor of 4.83 for a doubling of CO2, compared to 5.54 for the full feedback simulation, i.e. the simulation where all three components are allowed to simultaneously change with temperature. In our simple model framework, changes in surface albedo are responsible for 43% of the polar warming from the full feedback run, and 49% of the equatorial warming. The polar amplification for the simulation with isolated climate feedback from cloud cover variations is smaller than the simulation with isolated surface albedo feedback, mainly due to a weaker warming in the polar regions. The polar amplification factor for the isolated cloud cover feedback simulation is 3.73, contributing 30% of the warming in the polar regions to the full feedback simulation and 45% in the equatorial regions. The amplifying effect from changing surface albedo on polar warming and polar amplification is enhanced when surface albedo interacts with cloud cover or water vapour. The polar amplification factor is

  1. Briefer assessment of social network drinking: A test of the Important People Instrument-5 (IP-5). (United States)

    Hallgren, Kevin A; Barnett, Nancy P


    The Important People instrument (IP; Longabaugh et al., 2010) is one of the most commonly used measures of social network drinking. Although its reliability and validity are well-supported, the length of the instrument may limit its use in many settings. The present study evaluated whether a briefer, 5-person version of the IP (IP-5) adequately reproduces scores from the full IP. College freshmen (N = 1,053) reported their own past-month drinking, alcohol-related consequences, and information about drinking in their close social networks at baseline and 1 year later. From this we derived network members' drinking frequency, percentage of drinkers, and percentage of heavy drinkers, assessed for up to 10 (full IP) or 5 (IP-5) network members. We first modeled the expected concordance between full-IP scores and scores from simulated shorter IP instruments by sampling smaller subsets of network members from full IP data. Then, using quasi-experimental methods, we administered the full IP and IP-5 and compared the 2 instruments' score distributions and concurrent and year-lagged associations with participants' alcohol consumption and consequences. Most of the full-IP variance was reproduced from simulated shorter versions of the IP (ICCs ≥ 0.80). The full IP and IP-5 yielded similar score distributions, concurrent associations with drinking (r = 0.22 to 0.52), and year-lagged associations with drinking. The IP-5 retains most of the information about social network drinking from the full IP. The shorter instrument may be useful in clinical and research settings that require frequent measure administration, yielding greater temporal resolution for monitoring social network drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Validation of the Revised Individual Placement and Support Fidelity Scale (IPS-25). (United States)

    Bond, Gary R; Peterson, Alison E; Becker, Deborah R; Drake, Robert E


    The individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment for people with severe mental illness is an evidence-based practice. The 15-item IPS Fidelity Scale (IPS-15) was developed to measure program fidelity and has been shown to have good psychometric properties, including predictive validity. On the basis of field experience and research updates, the authors developed an expanded and revised version of this scale, the IPS-25, also known as the Supported Employment Fidelity Scale. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the IPS-25. In addition to data on the local unemployment rate and program longevity, the authors collected IPS-25 ratings and employment data for 79 sites in eight states participating in a learning collaborative devoted to implementing the IPS model. Descriptive data for items and the total scale and predictive validity were examined. Internal consistency reliability for the IPS-25 was .88. Predictive validity, measured as the correlation between the IPS-25 and site-level employment rate, was .34. Eight of the IPS-25 items were significantly positively correlated with employment rate. Items related to the vocational generalist role, disclosure, follow-along support, and vocational unit were the most strongly correlated with employment. Program longevity was positively associated with employment, whereas the unemployment rate was not. The IPS-25 has promising psychometric properties, with greater precision and content coverage than the IPS-15. However, it has not demonstrated an advantage over the IPS-15 in predictive validity. Research directly comparing the two scales is needed.

  3. Evaluation of the International Prognostic Score (IPS-7) and a Simpler Prognostic Score (IPS-3) for advanced Hodgkin lymphoma in the modern era. (United States)

    Diefenbach, Catherine S; Li, Hailun; Hong, Fangxin; Gordon, Leo I; Fisher, Richard I; Bartlett, Nancy L; Crump, Michael; Gascoyne, Randy D; Wagner, Henry; Stiff, Patrick J; Cheson, Bruce D; Stewart, Douglas A; Kahl, Brad S; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Blum, Kristie A; Habermann, Thomas M; Tuscano, Joseph M; Hoppe, Richard T; Horning, Sandra J; Advani, Ranjana H


    The International Prognostic Score (IPS-7) is the most commonly used risk stratification tool for advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), however recent studies suggest the IPS-7 is less discriminating due to improved outcomes with contemporary therapy. We evaluated the seven variables for IPS-7 recorded at study entry for 854 patients enrolled on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 2496 trial. Univariate and multivariate Cox models were used to assess their prognostic ability for freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS). The IPS-7 remained prognostic however its prognostic range has narrowed. On multivariate analysis, two factors (age, stage) remained significant for FFP and three factors (age, stage, haemoglobin level) for OS. An alternative prognostic index, the IPS-3, was constructed using age, stage and haemoglobin level, which provided four distinct risk groups [FFP (P = 0·0001) and OS (P IPS-3 outperformed the IPS-7 on risk prediction for both FFP and OS by model fit and discrimination criteria. Using reclassification calibration, 18% of IPS-7 low risk patients were re-classified as intermediate risk and 13% of IPS-7 intermediate risk patients as low risk. For patients with advanced HL, the IPS-3 may provide a simpler and more accurate framework for risk assessment in the modern era. Validation of these findings in other large data sets is planned. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Diseño e implementación de una plataforma para Voz sobre IP basado en FPGA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Landrove Gámez


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} El desarrollo de sistemas con microprocesadores embebidos dentro de un chip FPGA toma importancia pues permite diseños híbridos entre módulos hardware que ofrecen velocidad de procesamiento, e inteligencia a través de aplicaciones de alto nivel  sobre un microprocesador, todo dentro de un mismo dispositivo. Muchos de ellos se sirven de sistemas operativos con aplicaciones multitareas que logran el procesamiento eficiente de protocolos modernos para las telecomunicaciones. Asimismo es notable el crecimiento de aplicaciones de voz sobre IP (VoIP sobre las múltiples redes estándares de telecomunicaciones, debido a su flexibilidad, gran capacidad de diseño y actualización que tributa a servicios cada vez más completos. En este trabajo se describe la utilización del microprocesador MicroBlaze embebido sobre un Virtex5, una de las familias de FPGA de Xilinx. Se presentan sus módulos hardwares para albergar un sistema operativo con el kernel 2.6 de Linux, probándose con la Tarjeta de Desarrollo ML507 de Xilinx. Se utilizan aplicaciones sobre protocolos que se compilan e introducen dentro de los ficheros del Linux, soportado a su vez por el sistema MicroBlaze embebido dentro del FPGA. Se obtiene un cliente VoIP capaz de establecer comunicación y registro con el servidor VoIP y demás clientes de la red IP, llámese teléfonos IP, software VoIP. Se logra el funcionamiento del protocolo SIP, así como la preparación del protocolo RTP para su utilizaci

  5. Exploring the Spatial-Seasonal Dynamics of Water Quality, Submerged Aquatic Plants and Their Influencing Factors in Different Areas of a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li


    Full Text Available The degradation of water quality in lakes and its negative effects on freshwater ecosystems have become a serious problem worldwide. Exploring the dynamics in the associated factors is essential for water pollution management and control. GIS interpolation, principal component analysis (PCA and multivariate statistical techniques were used to identify the main pollution sources in different areas of Honghu Lake. The results indicate that the spatial distribution of the concentrations of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphate (TP, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+–N, and permanganate index (CODMn have similar characteristics and that their values gradually increased from south to north during the three seasons in Honghu Lake. The major influencing factors of water quality varied across the different areas and seasons. The relatively high concentrations of TN and TP, which might limit the growth of submerged aquatic plants, were mainly caused by anthropogenic factors. Our work suggests that spatial analyses combined with PCA are useful for investigating the factors that influence water quality and submerged aquatic plant biomass in different areas of a lake. These findings provide sound information for the future water quality management of the lake or even the entire lake basin.

  6. Crecimiento estructurado y sostenible de NovaIP SAS


    Urrutia Muñoz, Nidia Johana


    El presente documento tiene como objetivo, el diseño del plan estratégico para el crecimiento estructurado y sostenible de la compañía Colombia de telecomunicaciones NovaIP SAS. NovaIP SAS es una compañía colombiana multilatina, del sector de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones, fundada en Cali en el año 2013. Nace con el propósito de ofrecer soluciones informáticas y de telecomunicaciones innovadoras y a la medida para los sectores público y privado, en pequeñas y media...

  7. Congested Link Inference Algorithms in Dynamic Routing IP Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen


    Full Text Available The performance descending of current congested link inference algorithms is obviously in dynamic routing IP network, such as the most classical algorithm CLINK. To overcome this problem, based on the assumptions of Markov property and time homogeneity, we build a kind of Variable Structure Discrete Dynamic Bayesian (VSDDB network simplified model of dynamic routing IP network. Under the simplified VSDDB model, based on the Bayesian Maximum A Posteriori (BMAP and Rest Bayesian Network Model (RBNM, we proposed an Improved CLINK (ICLINK algorithm. Considering the concurrent phenomenon of multiple link congestion usually happens, we also proposed algorithm CLILRS (Congested Link Inference algorithm based on Lagrangian Relaxation Subgradient to infer the set of congested links. We validated our results by the experiments of analogy, simulation, and actual Internet.

  8. Exploring industry specific social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked terrestrial and marine ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebeling, P.C.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Grieken, van M.E.


    Marine ecosystems are severely affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments, while these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental as well as an economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance the marginal

  9. Exploring amino acid side chain decomposition using enzymatic digestion and HPLC-MS: combined lysine transformations in chlorinated waters. (United States)

    Walse, Spencer S; Plewa, Michael J; Mitch, William A


    Characterizing the transformations of polypeptides is important across a broad range of scientific disciplines. As polypeptides are an important constituent of dissolved organic matter within seawater and freshwater, it is important to understand their (bio)geochemical fate. Oxidants, formed in blood as part of the immunological response or applied to waters for disinfection, react with polypeptides to form transformation products that may exert toxicity. An analytical method was developed to characterize and quantify modifications to the side chains of amino acid residues within polypeptides. Enzymatic digestion of polypeptides using Pronase E, a protease cocktail, proved preferable to common strong acid digestion techniques, because the circumneutral pH conditions employed during enzymatic digestion prevent artifacts arising from extreme pH conditions. Lysine nitrile, one of the predicted transformation products of lysine residues within polypeptides, was destroyed during strong acid digestion but not enzymatic digestion. Due to the potential variability in enzymatic digestion efficiencies, the liberation of a mass-labeled leucine monomer from an octapeptide spiked standard was employed as a measure of complete digestion efficiency for each sample and enabled quantification of modified amino acid residues within polypeptides. A multivariate statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence on digestion efficiency of Pronase E loadings, salinity, natural organic matter concentration, and pH across the range of conditions relevant to blood, seawater, and concentrated freshwaters and disinfected drinking/recreational waters. At Pronase E loadings of 10 mg, the analysis indicated that digestion efficiencies ranged from 25 to 55% over the range of conditions expected for typical drinking waters concentrated from 1 L to 10 mL. The analytical method was applied to triplicate 1 L samples of a chlorinated tap water and a chlorinated indoor pool water. For the

  10. Implementation of Cloud Computing into VoIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana GEREA


    Full Text Available This article defines Cloud Computing and highlights key concepts, the benefits of using virtualization, its weaknesses and ways of combining it with classical VoIP technologies applied to large scale businesses. The analysis takes into consideration management strategies and resources for better customer orientation and risk management all for sustaining the Service Level Agreement (SLA. An important issue in cloud computing can be security and for this reason there are several security solution presented.

  11. Science spin: iPS cell research in the news. (United States)

    Caulfield, T; Rachul, C


    Big scientific developments have always been spun to meet particular social agendas. We have seen it in the context of global warming, nuclear power, and genetically modified organisms. But few stories illustrate the phenomenon of spin as well as the reaction, and concomitant media coverage, that surrounded the November 2007 announcement regarding the reprogramming of skin cells to produce cells with qualities comparable to those of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) known as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

  12. Demand Engineering: IP Network Optimisation Through Intelligent Demand Placement


    Evans, John; Afrakteh, Arash; Xiu, Ruoyang


    Traffic engineering has been used in IP and MPLS networks for a number of years as a tool for making more efficient use of capacity by explicitly routing traffic demands where there is available network capacity that would otherwise be unused. Deployment of traffic engineering imposes an additional layer of complexity to network design and operations, however, which has constrained its adoption for capacity optimisation. The rise of Software Defined Networks has renewed interest in the use of...

  13. A Multimedia over IP Integrated System for Military Communications (United States)


    Alessandro Cignoni, Carlo Roatta *Istituto per le Telecomunicazioni e l’Elettronica “Giancarlo Vallauri” Telecommunications Department Viale Italia n°72...for a real battlefield scenario. Cignoni, A.; Garroppo, R.G.; Martucci, A.; Roatta , C. (2006) A Multimedia over IP Integrated System for Military...October 2003. Rome, 18-19 April 2005 RTO-IST-054 Paper 14 Alessandro CIGNONI, Rosario G. GARROPPO, Alessandro MARTUCCI, Carlo ROATTA A Multimedia

  14. Exploring the water storage changes in the largest lake (Selin Co) over the Tibetan Plateau during 2003-2012 from a basin-wide hydrological modeling (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yinsheng; Guo, Yanhong


    Lake water storage change (DSw) is an important indicator of the hydrologic cycle and greatly influences lake expansion/shrinkage over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Accurate estimation of DSw will contribute to improved understanding of lake variations in the TP. Based on a water balance, this study explored the variations of DSw for the Lake Selin Co (the largest closed lake on the TP) during 2003-2012 using the Water and Energy Budget-based Distributed Hydrological Model (WEB-DHM) together with two different evapotranspiration (ET) algorithms (the Penman-Monteith method and a simple sublimation estimation approach for water area in unfrozen and frozen period). The contributions of basin discharge and climate causes to the DSw are also quantitatively analyzed. The results showed that WEB-DHM could well reproduce daily discharge, the spatial pattern, and basin-averaged values of MODIS land surface temperature (LST) during nighttime and daytime. Compared with the ET reference values estimated from the basin-wide water balance, our ET estimates showed better performance than three global ET products in reproducing basin-averaged ET. The modeled ET at point scale matches well with short-term in situ daily measurements (RMSE=0.82 mm/d). Lake inflows and precipitation over the water area had stronger relationships with DSw in the warm season and monthly scale, whereas evaporation from the water area had remarkable effects on DSw in the cold season. The total contribution of the three factors to DSw was about 90%, and accounting for 49.5%, 22.1%, and 18.3%, respectively.

  15. Watermarking strategies for IP protection of micro-processor cores (United States)

    Parrilla, L.; Castillo, E.; Meyer-Bäse, U.; García, A.; González, D.; Todorovich, E.; Boemo, E.; Lloris, A.


    Reuse-based design has emerged as one of the most important methodologies for integrated circuit design, with reusable Intellectual Property (IP) cores enabling the optimization of company resources due to reduced development time and costs. This is of special interest in the Field-Programmable Logic (FPL) domain, which mainly relies on automatic synthesis tools. However, this design methodology has brought to light the intellectual property protection (IPP) of those modules, with most forms of protection in the EDA industry being difficult to translate to this domain. However, IP core watermarking has emerged as a tool for IP core protection. Although watermarks may be inserted at different levels of the design flow, watermarking Hardware Description Language (HDL) descriptions has been proved to be a robust and secure option. In this paper, a new framework for the protection of μP cores is presented. The protection scheme is derived from the IPP@HDL procedure and it has been adapted to the singularities of μP cores, overcoming the problems for the digital signature extraction in such systems. Additionally, the feature of hardware activation has been introduced, allowing the distribution of μP cores in a "demo" mode and a later activation that can be easily performed by the customer executing a simple program. Application examples show that the additional hardware introduced for protection and/or activation has no effect over the performance, and showing an assumable area increase.

  16. A Framework for an IP-Based DVB Transmission Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimbe L. Ewald-Arostegui


    Full Text Available One of the most important challenges for next generation all-IP networks is the convergence and interaction of wireless and wired networks in a smooth and efficient manner. This challenge will need to be faced if broadcast transmission networks are to converge with IP infrastructure. The 2nd generation of DVB standards supports the Generic Stream, allowing the direct transmission of IP-based content using the Generic Stream Encapsulation (GSE, in addition to the native Transport Stream (TS. However, the current signalling framework is based on MPEG-2 Tables that rely upon the TS. This paper examines the feasibility of providing a GSE signalling framework, eliminating the need for the TS. The requirements and potential benefits of this new approach are described. It reviews prospective methods that may be suitable for network discovery and selection and analyses different options for the transport and syntax of this signalling metadata. It is anticipated that the design of a GSE-only signalling system will enable DVB networks to function as a part of the Internet.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Inriyani


    Full Text Available Extracurricular activities will have great contribution to develop and accommodate those two factors. The ex post facto design will be employed in this research. Instrument to get data from students extracurricular activities and motivation, concurrently students achievement from students' report book, SPSS for windows version 20 will be employ to analyze score from questionnaire using path analyzis. And the findings are (1 there is significant impact between extracurricular activities to students' achievement in social science and students' motivation, (2 there is significant impact between extracurricular activities to students' motivation, (3 there is non-direct impact between extracurricular activities to students' achievement through motivation. Students' motivation variable was reinforce the direct impact of extracurricular activities to students' achievement in social science. Kegiatan ekstrakurikuler berkontribusi dalam kegiatan siswa di sekolah. Jenis penelitian ini termasuk penelitian ex post facto. Data menggunakan angket sebagai instrumen variabel kegiatan ekstrakurikuler dan motivasi belajar, prestasi belajar diambil dari nilai rapot semester ganjil. Perolehan hasil menggunakan path analyzis dibantu SPSS for windows versi 20. Analisis data menjelaskan hasilnya (1 terdapat pengaruh langsung yang signifikan antara kegiatan ekstrakurikuler terhadap prestasi belajar IPS dan kegiatan ekstrakurikuler terhadap motivasi belajar siswa, (2 terdapat pengaruh langsung yang signifikan antara motivasi terhadap prestasi belajar IPS, dan (3 terdapat pengaruh tidak langsung antara kegiatan ekstrakurikuler terhadap prestasi belajar siswa melalui motivasi belajar. Variabel motivasi belajar memperkuat pengaruh langsung kegiatan ekstrakurikuler terhadap prestasi belajar IPS bagi siswa.

  18. Systematic discovery of cofactor motifs from ChIP-seq data by SIOMICS. (United States)

    Ding, Jun; Dhillon, Vikram; Li, Xiaoman; Hu, Haiyan


    Understanding transcriptional regulatory elements and particularly the transcription factor binding sites represents a significant challenge in computational biology. The chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments provide an unprecedented opportunity to study transcription factor binding sites on the genome-wide scale. Here we describe a recently developed tool, SIOMICS, to systematically discover motifs and binding sites of transcription factors and their cofactors from ChIP-seq data. Unlike other tools, SIOMICS explores the co-binding properties of multiple transcription factors in short regions to predict motifs and binding sites. We have previously shown that the original SIOMICS method predicts motifs and binding sites of more cofactors in more accurate and time-effective ways than two popular methods. In this paper, we present the extended SIOMICS method, SIOMICS_Extension, and demonstrate its usage for systematic discovery of cofactor motifs and binding sites. The SIOMICS tool, including SIOMICS and SIOMICS_Extension, are available at Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 47 CFR 64.606 - VRS and IP Relay provider and TRS program certification. (United States)


    ... Services and Related Customer Premises Equipment for Persons With Disabilities § 64.606 VRS and IP Relay... establishes that its program in no way conflicts with federal law. (2)Requirements for VRS and IP Relay...

  20. Intelligent Advanced Communications IP Telephony Feasibility for the U.S. Navy (DVD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binns, Todd D; Naas, Bill


    ...: 2 DVD-ROMs; 4 3/4 in.; 2.68 GB. ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research paper is to research technologies and solutions supporting the communications infrastructure necessary to implement an integrated VoIP (IP telephony...

  1. Sensor proxy mobile IPv6 (SPMIPv6)--a novel scheme for mobility supported IP-WSNs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Islam, Md Motaharul; Huh, Eui-Nam


    IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are gaining importance for their broad range of applications in health-care, home automation, environmental monitoring, industrial control, vehicle telematics and agricultural monitoring...

  2. On the implementation of IP protection using biometrics based information hiding and firewall (United States)

    Basu, Abhishek; Nandy, Kingshuk; Banerjee, Avishek; Giri, Supratick; Sarkar, Souvik; Sarkar, Subir Kumar


    System-on-chip-based design style creates a revolution in very large scale integration industry with design efficiency, operating speed and development time. To support this process, reuse and exchange of components are essential in electronic form called intellectual property (IP). This, however, increases the possibility of encroachment of IP of the design. So copyright protection of IP against piracy is the most important concern for IP vendors. The existing solutions for IP protection are still not secure enough with flexibility, cost, etc. This paper proposes an information-hiding-based solution for IP protection by embedding a biometric copyright information and firewall inside an IP in the form of a finite state machine with unique configuration. The scheme first introduces biometric signature-based copyright as ownership proof. Second, firewall interrupts the normal functionality of IP at the end of the user time period. The experimental outcomes of field-programmable-gate-array implementation illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  3. Download - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us ChIP-Atla...tory of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive ...

  4. Measuring Sister Chromatid Cohesion Protein Genome Occupancy in Drosophila melanogaster by ChIP-seq. (United States)

    Dorsett, Dale; Misulovin, Ziva


    This chapter presents methods to conduct and analyze genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation of the cohesin complex and the Nipped-B cohesin loading factor in Drosophila cells using high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq). Procedures for isolation of chromatin, immunoprecipitation, and construction of sequencing libraries for the Ion Torrent Proton high throughput sequencer are detailed, and computational methods to calculate occupancy as input-normalized fold-enrichment are described. The results obtained by ChIP-seq are compared to those obtained by ChIP-chip (genomic ChIP using tiling microarrays), and the effects of sequencing depth on the accuracy are analyzed. ChIP-seq provides similar sensitivity and reproducibility as ChIP-chip, and identifies the same broad regions of occupancy. The locations of enrichment peaks, however, can differ between ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq, and low sequencing depth can splinter broad regions of occupancy into distinct peaks.

  5. Water (United States)

    ... environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Health effects of water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  6. Prevalence and Quality of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) Supported Employment in the United States. (United States)

    Johnson-Kwochka, Annalee; Bond, Gary R; Becker, Deborah R; Drake, Robert E; Greene, Mary Ann


    The individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment for people with serious mental illness is an evidence-based practice. Factors including a national learning community promoting IPS and enforcement of the Supreme Court's Olmstead decision have spurred the growth of IPS nationwide. In this study we first evaluated the national prevalence and quality of IPS programs. We then evaluated the impact of learning community membership and Olmstead settlements on IPS program penetration and quality across the United States. We interviewed representatives from 48 state behavioral health agencies and 51 state vocational rehabilitation agencies. Survey questions examined the number of IPS programs in each state, the presence of an Olmstead settlement mandating employment services for people with serious mental illness, and the presence of three indicators of quality in IPS programs: collaboration between state behavioral health and vocational rehabilitation agencies, regular, independent fidelity monitoring, and technical assistance and training for IPS programs. Respondents from 38 (75%) states, including 19 states in the IPS Learning Community and 19 outside the learning community, reported a total of 523 IPS programs nationwide (M = 14, SD = 16). The state IPS program penetration rate (number of IPS programs per 1,000,000 people) ranged from 0.05 to 16.62 (M = 3.61, SD = 3.62) among states with IPS. The penetration rate was similar for learning community and non-learning community states with IPS, but learning community states were much more likely than non-learning community states with IPS to report the presence of each of three quality indicators. Eleven states reported Olmstead or other settlements that positively impacted employment services for people with serious mental illness, but among the 38 states with IPS programs, Olmstead states did not differ from non-Olmstead states in IPS program penetration or on the quality

  7. Exploring the Behaviour of Emerging Contaminants in the Water Cycle using the Capabilities of High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Hollender, Juliane; Bourgin, Marc; Fenner, Kathrin B; Longrée, Philipp; Mcardell, Christa S; Moschet, Christoph; Ruff, Matthias; Schymanski, Emma L; Singer, Heinz P


    To characterize a broad range of organic contaminants and their transformation products (TPs) as well as their loads, input pathways and fate in the water cycle, the Department of Environmental Chemistry (Uchem) at Eawag applies and develops high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) methods combined with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS). In this article, the background and state-of-the-art of LC-HRMS/MS for detection of i) known targets, ii) suspected compounds like TPs, and iii) unknown emerging compounds are introduced briefly. Examples for each approach are taken from recent research projects conducted within the department. These include the detection of trace organic contaminants and their TPs in wastewater, pesticides and their TPs in surface water, identification of new TPs in laboratory degradation studies and ozonation experiments and finally the screening for unknown compounds in the catchment of the river Rhine.

  8. Exploration of the phase diagram of liquid water in the low-temperature metastable region using synthetic fluid inclusions. (United States)

    Qiu, C; Krüger, Y; Wilke, M; Marti, D; Rička, J; Frenz, M


    We present new experimental data of the low-temperature metastable region of liquid water derived from high-density synthetic fluid inclusions (996-916 kg m-3) in quartz. Microthermometric measurements include: (i) prograde (upon heating) and retrograde (upon cooling) liquid-vapour homogenisation. We used single ultrashort laser pulses to stimulate vapour bubble nucleation in initially monophase liquid inclusions. Water densities were calculated based on prograde homogenisation temperatures using the IAPWS-95 formulation. We found retrograde liquid-vapour homogenisation temperatures in excellent agreement with IAPWS-95. (ii) Retrograde ice nucleation. Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the nucleation of ice in the absence of the vapour bubble. Our ice nucleation data in the doubly metastable region are inconsistent with the low-temperature trend of the spinodal predicted by IAPWS-95, as liquid water with a density of 921 kg m-3 remains in a homogeneous state during cooling down to a temperature of -30.5 °C, where it is transformed into ice whose density corresponds to zero pressure. (iii) Ice melting. Ice melting temperatures of up to 6.8 °C were measured in the absence of the vapour bubble, i.e. in the negative pressure region. (iv) Spontaneous retrograde and, for the first time, prograde vapour bubble nucleation. Prograde bubble nucleation occurred upon heating at temperatures above ice melting. The occurrence of prograde and retrograde vapour bubble nucleation in the same inclusions indicates a maximum of the bubble nucleation curve in the ϱ-T plane at around 40 °C. The new experimental data represent valuable benchmarks to evaluate and further improve theoretical models describing the p-V-T properties of metastable water in the low-temperature region.

  9. Geoacoustic seafloor exploration with a towed array in a shallow water area of the Strait of Sicily (2)


    Caiti, A.; Jesus, S.M.; Kristensen, Age


    Acoustic propagation in shallow water is greatly dependent on the geoacoustic properties of the seabottom. This paper exploits this dependence for estimating geoacoustic sediment properties from the bottom acoustic returns of known signals received on a hydrophone line array. There are two major issues in this approach: one is the feasibility of acoustic inversion with a limited aperture line array, the other is related to the knowledge of the geometry of the experimental...

  10. Developing analytical approaches to explore the connection between endocrine-active pharmaceuticals in water to effects in fish (United States)

    Jones-Lepp, Tammy L.; Taniguchi-Fu, Randi L.; Morgan, Jade; Nance Jr., Trevor; Ward, Matthew; Alvarez, David A.; Mills, Lesley


    The emphasis of this research project was to develop and optimize a solid-phase extraction method and highperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionizationmass spectrometry method, such that a linkage between the detection of endocrine-active pharmaceuticals (EAPs) in the aquatic environment and subsequent effects on fish populations could eventually be studied. Four EAPs were studied: tamoxifen (TAM), exemestane (EXE), letrozole (LET), anastrozole (ANA); and three TAM metabolites: 4- hydroxytamoxifen, e/z endoxifen, and n-desmethyl tamoxifen. In aqueous matrices, the use of isotopically labeled standards for the EAPs allowed for the generation of good recoveries, greater than 80 %, and low relative standard deviations (% RSDs) (3 to 27 %). TAM metabolites had lower recoveries in the spiked water matrices: 35 to 93 % in waste/source water compared to 58 to 110 % in DI water. The precision in DI water was acceptable ranging from 8 to 38 % RSD. However, the precision in real environmental wastewaters could be poor, ranging from 15 to 120 % RSD, dependent upon unique matrix effects. In plasma, the overall recoveries of the EAPs were acceptable: 88 to 110 %, with %RSDs of 6 to 18 % (Table 3). The spiked recoveries of the TAM metabolites from plasma were good, ranging from 77 to 120 %, with %RSDs ranging from 27 to 32 %. Two of the TAM metabolites, 4- hydroxytamoxifen and n-desmethyl tamoxifen, were confirmed in most of the environmental aqueous samples. The discovery of TAM metabolites demonstrates that the source of the TAM metabolites, TAM, is constant, introducing a pseudo-persistence of this chemical into the environment.

  11. PageRank versatility analysis of multilayer modality-based network for exploring the evolution of oil-water slug flow. (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Dang, Wei-Dong; Li, Shan; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Sheng, Jing-Ran; Wang, Xiao-Fan


    Numerous irregular flow structures exist in the complicated multiphase flow and result in lots of disparate spatial dynamical flow behaviors. The vertical oil-water slug flow continually attracts plenty of research interests on account of its significant importance. Based on the spatial transient flow information acquired through our designed double-layer distributed-sector conductance sensor, we construct multilayer modality-based network to encode the intricate spatial flow behavior. Particularly, we calculate the PageRank versatility and multilayer weighted clustering coefficient to quantitatively explore the inferred multilayer modality-based networks. Our analysis allows characterizing the complicated evolution of oil-water slug flow, from the opening formation of oil slugs, to the succedent inter-collision and coalescence among oil slugs, and then to the dispersed oil bubbles. These properties render our developed method particularly powerful for mining the essential flow features from the multilayer sensor measurements.

  12. [Suitable investigation method of exploration and suggestions for investigating Chinese materia medica resources from wetland and artificial water of Hongze Lake region]. (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Yan, Hui; Duan, Jin-Ao; Liu, Xing-Jian; Ren, Quan-Jin; Li, Hui-Wei; Bao, Bei-Hua; Zhang, Zhao-Hui


    According to the technology requirements of the fourth national survey of Chinese Materia Medica resources (pilot), suitable investigation method of exploration and suggestions for investigating Chinese Materia Medica resources was proposed based on the type of wetland and artificial water of Hongze Lake region. Environment of Hongze Lake and overview of wetland, present situation of ecology and vegetation and vegetation distribution were analyzed. Establishment of survey plan, selection of sample area and sample square and confirmation of representative water area survey plan were all suggested. The present study provide references for improving Chinese materia medica resources survey around Hongze Lake, and improving the technical specifications. It also provide references for investigating Chinese Materia Medica resources survey on similar ecological environment under the condition of artificial intervention. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. A survey of Attacks on VoIP networks and Countermeasures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a fast pace of growth in the use of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) networks owing to the fact that more organisations are deploying IP based voice networks. This invariably has a security concern for the payload as the traffic on IP based voice networks is exposed to threats similar to those found on regular data ...

  14. 78 FR 14701 - Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications... Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services... to Use IP Captioned Telephone Service, CG Docket Nos. 13-24 and 03-123. Form Number: N/A. Type of...

  15. Genomic imprinting is variably lost during reprogramming of mouse iPS cells. (United States)

    Takikawa, Sachiko; Ray, Chelsea; Wang, Xin; Shamis, Yulia; Wu, Tien-Yuan; Li, Xiajun


    Derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is mainly an epigenetic reprogramming process. It is still quite controversial how genomic imprinting is reprogrammed in iPS cells. Thus, we derived multiple iPS clones from genetically identical mouse somatic cells. We found that parentally inherited imprint was variably lost among these iPS clones. Concurrent with the loss of DNA methylation imprint at the corresponding Snrpn and Peg3 imprinted regions, parental origin-specific expression of the Snrpn and Zim1 imprinted genes was also lost in these iPS clones. This loss of parental genomic imprinting in iPS cells was likely caused by the reprogramming process during iPS cell derivation because extended culture of iPS cells did not lead to significant increase in the loss of genomic imprinting. Intriguingly, one to several paternal chromosomes appeared to have acquired de novo methylation at the Snrpn and Zac1 imprinted regions in a high percentage of iPS clones. These results might have some implications for future therapeutic applications of iPS cells. Since DNA methylation imprint can be completely erased in some iPS clones at multiple imprinted regions, iPS cell reprogramming may also be employed to dissect the underlying mechanisms of erasure, reacquisition and maintenance of genomic imprinting in mammals. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of IP Hopping via an Address Routing Gateway (United States)


    IPsec IP Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 IPv4 IP version...algorithms are widely used today in protocols like IP Security ( IPsec ) [MG98] and user-level data like email [RT10]. HMAC works through a series of...DYNAT with IPsec and strongly suggests a combination of the two. First, the encryption from IPsec avoids the ineffectiveness of address space

  17. Native Chromatin Immunoprecipitation-Sequencing (ChIP-Seq) from Low Cell Numbers. (United States)

    Ribarska, Teodora; Gilfillan, Gregor D


    ChIP-seq is the current method of choice for genome-wide protein location analysis. Here, we present a native (non-cross-linked) ChIP procedure suitable for histone proteins, coupled with an efficient library preparation technique for subsequent next-generation sequencing. The method enables ChIP-seq starting with 50,000 or more cells.

  18. Single-tube linear DNA amplification (LinDA) for robust ChIP-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shankaranarayanan, P.; Mendoza-Parra, M.A.; Walia, M.; Wang, L.; Li, N.; Trindade, L.M.; Gronemeyer, H.


    Genome-wide profiling of transcription factors based on massive parallel sequencing of immunoprecipitated chromatin (ChIP-seq) requires nanogram amounts of DNA. Here we describe a high-fidelity, single-tube linear DNA amplification method (LinDA) for ChIP-seq and reChIP-seq with picogram DNA amounts

  19. Investigation of Viral and Host Chromatin by ChIP-PCR or ChIP-Seq Analysis. (United States)

    Günther, Thomas; Theiss, Juliane M; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam


    Complex regulation of viral transcription patterns and DNA replication levels is a feature of many DNA viruses. This is especially true for those viruses which establish latent or persistent infections (e.g., herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, or adenovirus), as long-term persistence often requires adaptation of gene expression programs and/or replication levels to the cellular milieu. A key factor in the control of such processes is the establishment of a specific chromatin state on promoters or replication origins, which in turn will determine whether or not the underlying DNA is accessible for other factors that mediate downstream processes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful technique to investigate viral chromatin, in particular to study binding patterns of modified histones, transcription factors or other DNA-/chromatin-binding proteins that regulate the viral lifecycle. Here, we provide protocols that are suitable for performing ChIP-PCR and ChIP-Seq studies on chromatin of large and small viral genomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. bFGF and Activin A function to promote survival and proliferation of single iPS cells in conditioned half-exchange mTeSR1 medium. (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoling; Lian, Ruiling; Guo, Yonglong; Liu, Qing; Ji, Qingshan; Chen, Jiansu


    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be well maintained by clonal growth. The pluripotent growth of single iPS cells is limited by low survival. To facilitate robust single iPS cells cultured in vitro, half-exchange mTeSR1 medium (HM), whole-exchange medium (WM) and iPS cell-derived conditioned medium (iPS-CM) culture were used. The effects of bFGF and Activin A on the growth of single iPS cells were explored. The dissociation and propagation of single iPS cells also included Accutase enzymatic isolation, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 protection and high-density single-cell seeding (1 × 10(6) cells/well). CCK-8 assays demonstrated that the viability of clonal iPS cells in mTeSR1 medium and single iPS cells in HM, iPS-CM or WM supplemented with 100 ng/ml bFGF and 10 ng/ml Activin A was significantly higher than that in WM. Annexin v and propidium iodide (PI) assay, Calcein AM and EthD-III double staining also confirmed the similar results. ELISA assays showed that the levels of bFGF and Activin A of single iPS cells in HM and iPS-CM were higher than single iPS cells in WM. Meanwhile, Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), Western Blotting (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF) and karyotype analysis revealed that HM culture was able to maintain undifferentiated markers of Nanog, Klf4, Sox2, Oct4, and did not affect the karyotype of iPS cells. Undifferentiated single iPS cells in HM displayed homogenized growth. These findings demonstrate that bFGF and Activin A are important for the survival and growth of single iPS cells. HM culture system combined Accutase, Y27632 and high-density single-cell seeding can facilitate short-term growth of single iPS cells in vitro.

  1. Exploring the impact of co-varying water availability and energy price on productivity and profitability of Alpine hydropower (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Botter, Martina; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo


    Alpine hydropower systems are experiencing dramatic changes both from the point of view of hydrological conditions, e.g., water availability and frequency of extremes events, and of energy market conditions, e.g., partial or total liberalization of the market and increasing share of renewable power sources. Scientific literature has, so far, mostly focused on the analysis of climate change impacts and associated uncertainty on hydropower operation, underlooking the consequences that socio-economic changes, e.g., energy demand and/or price changes, can have on hydropower productivity and profitability. In this work, we analyse how hydropower reservoir operation is affected by changes in both water availability and energy price. We consider stochastically downscaled climate change scenarios of precipitation and temperature to simulate reservoir inflows using a physically explicit hydrological model. We consider different scenarios of energy demand and generation mix to simulate energy prices using an electricity market model, which includes different generation sources, demand sinks, and features of the transmission lines. We then use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design the operation of hydropower reservoirs for different purposes, e.g. maximization of revenue and/or energy production. The objective of the work is to assess how the tradeoffs between the multiple operating objectives evolve under different co-varying climate change and socio-economic scenarios and to assess the adaptive capacity of the system. The modeling framework is tested on the real-world case study of the Mattmark reservoir in Switzerland.

  2. Comparative exploration of hydrogen sulfide and water transmembrane free energy surfaces via orthogonal space tempering free energy sampling. (United States)

    Lv, Chao; Aitchison, Erick W; Wu, Dongsheng; Zheng, Lianqing; Cheng, Xiaolin; Yang, Wei


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), a commonly known toxic gas compound, possesses unique chemical features that allow this small solute molecule to quickly diffuse through cell membranes. Taking advantage of the recent orthogonal space tempering (OST) method, we comparatively mapped the transmembrane free energy landscapes of H2 S and its structural analogue, water (H2 O), seeking to decipher the molecular determinants that govern their drastically different permeabilities. As revealed by our OST sampling results, in contrast to the highly polar water solute, hydrogen sulfide is evidently amphipathic, and thus inside membrane is favorably localized at the interfacial region, that is, the interface between the polar head-group and nonpolar acyl chain regions. Because the membrane binding affinity of H2 S is mainly governed by its small hydrophobic moiety and the barrier height inbetween the interfacial region and the membrane center is largely determined by its moderate polarity, the transmembrane free energy barriers to encounter by this toxic molecule are very small. Moreover when H2 S diffuses from the bulk solution to the membrane center, the above two effects nearly cancel each other, so as to lead to a negligible free energy difference. This study not only explains why H2 S can quickly pass through cell membranes but also provides a practical illustration on how to use the OST free energy sampling method to conveniently analyze complex molecular processes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Identifying Potential Conflict Associated with Oil and Gas Exploration in Texas State Coastal Waters: A Multicriteria Spatial Analysis (United States)

    Brody, Samuel D.; Grover, Himanshu; Bernhardt, Sarah; Tang, Zhenghong; Whitaker, Bianca; Spence, Colin


    Recent interest in expanding offshore oil production within waters of the United States has been met with opposition by groups concerned with recreational, environmental, and aesthetic values associated with the coastal zone. Although the proposition of new oil platforms off the coast has generated conflict over how coastal resources should be utilized, little research has been conducted on where these user conflicts might be most intense and which sites might be most suitable for locating oil production facilities in light of the multiple, and often times, competing interests. In this article, we develop a multiple-criteria spatial decision support tool that identifies the potential degree of conflict associated with oil and gas production activities for existing lease tracts in the coastal margin of Texas. We use geographic information systems to measure and map a range of potentially competing representative values impacted by establishing energy extraction infrastructure and then spatially identify which leased tracts are the least contentious sites for oil and gas production in Texas state waters. Visual and statistical results indicate that oil and gas lease blocks within the study area vary in their potential to generate conflict among multiple stakeholders.

  4. High-quality ChIP-seq analysis of MBD3 in human breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Shimbo, Takashi; Takaku, Motoki; Wade, Paul A


    Chromatin accessibility is tightly regulated by multiple factors/mechanisms to establish different cell type-specific gene expression programs from a single genome. Dysregulation of this process can lead to diseases including cancer. The Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex is thought to orchestrate chromatin structure using its intrinsic nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase activities. However, the detailed mechanisms by which the NuRD complex regulates chromatin structure in vivo are not yet known. To explore the regulatory mechanisms of the NuRD complex, we mapped genome-wide localization of MBD3, a structural component of NuRD, in a human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) using a modified ChIP-seq protocol. Our data showed high quality localization information (i.e., high mapping efficiency and low PCR duplication rate) and excellent consistency between biological replicates. The data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE76116).

  5. Quantitative Visualization of ChIP-chip Data by Using Linked Views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min-Yu; Weber, Gunther; Li, Xiao-Yong; Biggin, Mark; Hamann, Bernd


    Most analyses of ChIP-chip in vivo DNA binding have focused on qualitative descriptions of whether genomic regions are bound or not. There is increasing evidence, however, that factors bind in a highly overlapping manner to the same genomic regions and that it is quantitative differences in occupancy on these commonly bound regions that are the critical determinants of the different biological specificity of factors. As a result, it is critical to have a tool to facilitate the quantitative visualization of differences between transcription factors and the genomic regions they bind to understand each factor's unique roles in the network. We have developed a framework which combines several visualizations via brushing-and-linking to allow the user to interactively analyze and explore in vivo DNA binding data of multiple transcription factors. We describe these visualization types and also provide a discussion of biological examples in this paper.

  6. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength, between IPS-Empress2 ceramics and three dual-cured resin cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajimiragha H


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cementation is one of the most critical steps of the porcelain restoration technique. However, limited information is available concerning the bond strength of current ceramic bonding systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of three dual-cure resin cements to IPS-Empress2 ceramics. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 pairs of IPS-Empress 2 ceramic discs were fabricated with 10 and 8 mm diameters and 2.5 mm thickness. After sandblasting and ultrasonic cleaning, the surfaces of all specimens were etched with 9% hydrofluoric acid for 60 seconds. Then, the three groups of 10 bonded specimens were prepared ceramic bonding resin systems including Panavia F2, Variolink II and Rely X ARC. After storage in 37±1c water for 24 hours and thermocycling in 5c and 55c water for 500 cycles with 1-minute dwell time, the shear bond strengths were determined using Instron machine at speed of 0.5mm/min. Data were analyzed by One Way ANOVA test. For multiple paired comparisons, the Tukey HSD method was used. The mode of failure was evaluated by scanning electro microscope (SEM. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Result: Significant differences were found between different cement types (P<0.05. Variolink II provided the highest bonding values with IPS-Empress2. A combination of different modes of failure was observed. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, according to the highest mode of cohesive failure, Variolink II seems to have the strongest bond with IPS-Empress2 ceramics.

  7. Water (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.


    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  8. ChIP-PIT: Enhancing the Analysis of ChIP-Seq Data Using Convex-Relaxed Pair-Wise Interaction Tensor Decomposition. (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Guo, Wei-Li; Deng, Su-Ping; Huang, De-Shuang


    In recent years, thanks to the efforts of individual scientists and research consortiums, a huge amount of chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) experimental data have been accumulated. Instead of investigating them independently, several recent studies have convincingly demonstrated that a wealth of scientific insights can be gained by integrative analysis of these ChIP-seq data. However, when used for the purpose of integrative analysis, a serious drawback of current ChIP-seq technique is that it is still expensive and time-consuming to generate ChIP-seq datasets of high standard. Most researchers are therefore unable to obtain complete ChIP-seq data for several TFs in a wide variety of cell lines, which considerably limits the understanding of transcriptional regulation pattern. In this paper, we propose a novel method called ChIP-PIT to overcome the aforementioned limitation. In ChIP-PIT, ChIP-seq data corresponding to a diverse collection of cell types, TFs and genes are fused together using the three-mode pair-wise interaction tensor (PIT) model, and the prediction of unperformed ChIP-seq experimental results is formulated as a tensor completion problem. Computationally, we propose efficient first-order method based on extensions of coordinate descent method to learn the optimal solution of ChIP-PIT, which makes it particularly suitable for the analysis of massive scale ChIP-seq data. Experimental evaluation the ENCODE data illustrate the usefulness of the proposed model.

  9. VoIP attacks detection engine based on neural network (United States)

    Safarik, Jakub; Slachta, Jiri


    The security is crucial for any system nowadays, especially communications. One of the most successful protocols in the field of communication over IP networks is Session Initiation Protocol. It is an open-source project used by different kinds of applications, both open-source and proprietary. High penetration and text-based principle made SIP number one target in IP telephony infrastructure, so security of SIP server is essential. To keep up with hackers and to detect potential malicious attacks, security administrator needs to monitor and evaluate SIP traffic in the network. But monitoring and following evaluation could easily overwhelm the security administrator in networks, typically in networks with a number of SIP servers, users and logically or geographically separated networks. The proposed solution lies in automatic attack detection systems. The article covers detection of VoIP attacks through a distributed network of nodes. Then the gathered data analyze aggregation server with artificial neural network. Artificial neural network means multilayer perceptron network trained with a set of collected attacks. Attack data could also be preprocessed and verified with a self-organizing map. The source data is detected by distributed network of detection nodes. Each node contains a honeypot application and traffic monitoring mechanism. Aggregation of data from each node creates an input for neural networks. The automatic classification on a centralized server with low false positive detection reduce the cost of attack detection resources. The detection system uses modular design for easy deployment in final infrastructure. The centralized server collects and process detected traffic. It also maintains all detection nodes.

  10. Multilayer recovery mechanism for IP over WDM networks (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zeng, Qingji; Wang, Yun


    In this article, we mainly focus on the integrated dynamic survivability in IP/MPLS/WDM networks under the peer-modeled architecture. We systematically investigated various integrated dynamic protection and restoration schemes combining knowledge of resource and topology information in both the IP/MPLS and WDM layers. To allocate the restorable bandwidth-guaranteed paths, we propose an integrated routing algorithm: Load-Balanced Physical Resource Minimum Hop (LBPRMH) integrated routing algorithm. In this algorithm, we present a new link cost function used in Dijkstra"s algorithm considering both physical resource and load balancing factors and employ a parameter (relevant to traffic intensity) to control the influence of two kind of information. When network load is low (traffic intensity is small), the main factor in the proposed link cost function is physical resource, which leads to high resource utilization. When network load is high, the idea of load balance becomes more important in routing, which avoids connection requests conflict and increases the efficiency of resource usage. Then extensive simulations are done to analyze and compare the dynamic survival performance of various integrated survival strategies. Resource utilization, protection efficiency, restoration efficiency are employed as metrics to evaluate the survivable performance. We demonstrate that the proposed integrated routing algorithm performs better than some existing approaches in terms of the above three metrics. The simulation results show the high resource utilization in optical layer recovery with wavelength granularity and the high restoration flexibility in IP/MPLS layer recovery with finer granularity. If the recovery action is implemented first in lower layer and then higher layer if the first action failed, the integrated protection and restoration schemes can combine the advantages of both layers and perform better than recovery schemes in either single layer.

  11. TRPV-1-mediated elimination of residual iPS cells in bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues (United States)

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Seta, Hiroyoshi; Haraguchi, Yuji; Alsayegh, Khaled; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Yamazaki, Kenji; Okano, Teruo


    The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42 °C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42 °C, almost all cells disappeared by 48 hours through apoptosis. However, iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts maintained transcriptional and protein expression levels, and cardiac cell sheets were fabricated after reducing the temperature. TRPV-1 expression in iPS cells was upregulated at 42 °C, and iPS cell death at 42 °C was TRPV-1-dependent. Furthermore, TRPV-1 activation through thermal or agonist treatment eliminated iPS cells in cardiac tissues for a final concentration of 0.4% iPS cell contamination. These findings suggest that the difference in tolerance to TRPV-1 activation between iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cardiac cells could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues, which will further reduce the risk of tumour formation. PMID:26888607

  12. TRPV-1-mediated elimination of residual iPS cells in bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. (United States)

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Seta, Hiroyoshi; Haraguchi, Yuji; Alsayegh, Khaled; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Yamazaki, Kenji; Okano, Teruo


    The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42 °C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42 °C, almost all cells disappeared by 48 hours through apoptosis. However, iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts maintained transcriptional and protein expression levels, and cardiac cell sheets were fabricated after reducing the temperature. TRPV-1 expression in iPS cells was upregulated at 42 °C, and iPS cell death at 42 °C was TRPV-1-dependent. Furthermore, TRPV-1 activation through thermal or agonist treatment eliminated iPS cells in cardiac tissues for a final concentration of 0.4% iPS cell contamination. These findings suggest that the difference in tolerance to TRPV-1 activation between iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cardiac cells could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues, which will further reduce the risk of tumour formation.

  13. IP, ethernet and MPLS networks resource and fault management

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André


    This book summarizes the key Quality of Service technologies deployed in telecommunications networks: Ethernet, IP, and MPLS. The QoS of the network is made up of two parts: fault and resource management. Network operation quality is among the functions to be fulfilled in order to offer QoS to the end user. It is characterized by four parameters: packet loss, delay, jitter or the variation of delay over time, and availability. Resource management employs mechanisms that enable the first three parameters to be guaranteed or optimized. Fault management aims to ensure continuity of service.

  14. IPS – An Information Production System for Precision Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Friedrich


    Full Text Available To optimize the process of base fertilisation in the context of Precision Farming, IT support for the corresponding service processes was developed as part of a research project. Applying the methods of service engineering, a software system that supports an efficient and transparent service provision was developed in the IPS project (Information Production System for Precision Farming. The paper shows the methodological approach of the project, the potential for innovation of the developed software system and discusses the results. Thereby, the findings presented in this paper can be regarded as an exemplary application of service engineering which may also be advantageous for similar service-orientated agricultural sectors.

  15. IP lookup with low memory requirement and fast update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert


    The paper presents an IP address lookup algorithm with low memory requirement and fast updates. The scheme, which is denoted prefix-tree, uses a combination of a trie and a tree search, which is efficient in memory usage because the tree contains exactly one node for each prefix in the routing...... table. The time complexity for update operations is low for the prefix-tree. The lookup operation for the basic binary prefix-tree may require that a high number of nodes be traversed. The paper presents improvements to decrease lookup time, including shortcut tables and multi-bit trees. The prefix-tree...

  16. GMI-IPS: Python Processing Software for Aircraft Campaigns (United States)

    Damon, M. R.; Strode, S. A.; Steenrod, S. D.; Prather, M. J.


    NASA's Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom) seeks to understand the impact of anthropogenic air pollution on gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Four flight campaigns are being deployed on a seasonal basis to establish a continuous global-scale data set intended to improve the representation of chemically reactive gases in global atmospheric chemistry models. The Global Modeling Initiative (GMI), is creating chemical transport simulations on a global scale for each of the ATom flight campaigns. To meet the computational demands required to translate the GMI simulation data to grids associated with the flights from the ATom campaigns, the GMI ICARTT Processing Software (GMI-IPS) has been developed and is providing key functionality for data processing and analysis in this ongoing effort. The GMI-IPS is written in Python and provides computational kernels for data interpolation and visualization tasks on GMI simulation data. A key feature of the GMI-IPS, is its ability to read ICARTT files, a text-based file format for airborne instrument data, and extract the required flight information that defines regional and temporal grid parameters associated with an ATom flight. Perhaps most importantly, the GMI-IPS creates ICARTT files containing GMI simulated data, which are used in collaboration with ATom instrument teams and other modeling groups. The initial main task of the GMI-IPS is to interpolate GMI model data to the finer temporal resolution (1-10 seconds) of a given flight. The model data includes basic fields such as temperature and pressure, but the main focus of this effort is to provide species concentrations of chemical gases for ATom flights. The software, which uses parallel computation techniques for data intensive tasks, linearly interpolates each of the model fields to the time resolution of the flight. The temporally interpolated data is then saved to disk, and is used to create additional derived quantities. In order to translate the GMI model data to the

  17. Methods for iPS cell generation for basic research and clinical applications. (United States)

    Mochiduki, Yuji; Okita, Keisuke


    The induction of pluripotency can be achieved by forced expression of defined factors in somatic cells. The established cells, termed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, have pluripotency and an infinite capacity for self-renewal in common with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Patient-specific iPS cells could be a useful source for drug discovery and cell transplantation therapies; however, the original method for iPS cell generation had several issues that were obstacles to their clinical application. Recent studies have brought about various improvements for iPS cell generation and uncovered several characteristics of iPS cells. Here we summarize the current status of iPS cell studies, with a focus on the improved methods that can be used to generate iPS cells, and also refer to the future challenges. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Water (United States)

    ... the tap as described). 3. In all situations, drink or cook only with water that comes out of the tap cold. Water that comes out of the tap warm or hot can contain much higher levels of lead. Boiling ...

  19. Spectroscopy of growing and evaporating water droplets: exploring the variation in equilibrium droplet size with relative humidity. (United States)

    Mitchem, Laura; Buajarern, Jariya; Hopkins, Rebecca J; Ward, Andrew D; Gilham, Richard J J; Johnston, Roy L; Reid, Jonathan P


    We demonstrate that the thermodynamic properties of a single liquid aerosol droplet can be explored through the combination of a single-beam gradient force optical trap with Raman spectroscopy. A single aqueous droplet, 2-6 microm in radius, can be trapped in air indefinitely and the response of the particle to variations in relative humidity investigated. The Raman spectrum provides a unique fingerprint of droplet composition, temperature, and size. Spontaneous Raman scattering is shown to be consistent with that from a bulk phase sample, with the shape of the OH stretching band dependent on the concentration of sodium chloride in the aqueous phase and on the polarization of the scattered light. Stimulated Raman scattering at wavelengths commensurate with whispering gallery modes is demonstrated to provide a method for determining the size of the trapped droplet with nanometer precision and with a time resolution of 1 s. The polarization dependence of the stimulated scatter is consistent with the dependence observed for the spontaneous scatter from the droplet. By characterizing the spontaneous and stimulated Raman scattering from the droplet, we demonstrate that it is possible to measure the equilibrium size and composition of an aqueous droplet with variation in relative humidity. For this benchmark study we investigate the variation in equilibrium size with relative humidity for a simple binary sodium chloride/aqueous aerosol, a typical representative inorganic/aqueous aerosol that has been studied extensively in the literature. The measured equilibrium sizes are shown to be in excellent agreement with the predictions of Köhler theory. We suggest that this approach could provide an important new strategy for characterizing the thermodynamic properties and kinetics of transformation of aerosol particles.

  20. Fungi associated with the beetles of Ips typographus on Norway spruce in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jankowiak


    Full Text Available The mycobiota of the beetles of the phloem-feeding spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus was studied. The most important group of fungi were the ophiostomatoid fungi. Among them O. penicillatum was very frequent ophiostomatoid species. Other common fungi were O. ainoae, O. bicolor, O. piceaperdum and O. piceae. The ophiostomatoid fungi were often more frequent in beetles collected in galleries than in the beetles caught With a trap. Generally the ophiostomatoid fungi were more ofien isolated from the beetle.s bathed in sterile water for 30 seconds. However C. polonica, O. ainoae, and O. minutum occurred most abundantly in the beetles disinfected in 96% ethyl alcohol for 15 and 30 seconds.

  1. Exploring the genetic diversity of shallow-water Agariciidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia Isotta


    Scleractinian corals ascribed to the family Agariciidae represent an important component of Red Sea coral reef fauna, though little genetic data are currently available for this group, and existing information shows polyphyly in the examined mesophotic taxa from the Pacific Ocean. In this work, we provide a first genetic survey of Agariciidae from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on a collection of shallow-water material (<30 m) from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Farasan Islands. Two molecular markers were sequenced to infer morphospecies monophyly and relationships, the intergenic region between COI and 16S rRNA from mitochondrial DNA and the ribosomal ITS1 region from nuclear DNA. A total of 20 morphospecies were identified based on classical macromorphological characters. Six, namely Gardineroseris planulata, Pavona maldivensis, Pavona clavus, Pavona decussata, Leptoseris fragilis, and Leptoseris yabei, were resolved with both DNA loci. The molecular boundaries among the remaining 14 species remain unclear. Our results further confirm that the morphology-based taxonomy of most agariciid species is in disagreement with genetics. In order to disentangle the systematics of these taxa, the inclusion of more sampling locations, additional variable loci, and a micromophological approach are likely needed. Our genetic data represent a first step towards the comparison of biodiversity and connectivity between the Red Sea and the rest of the Indo-Pacific.

  2. Exploring the biodegradation and toxicity of naphthenic acids present in Athabasca oil sands process affected waters using simulated wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toor, N.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada); MacKinnon, M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fedorak, P. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a persistent group of dissolved organic acids found in oil sands process affected water (OSPW) from the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) in northern Alberta. This study investigated the feasibility of reducing the toxicity of OSPW in wetland environments, and proposed a strategy for reclamation at the AOS. Laboratory microcosms were used to mimic natural wetlands. The purpose was to determine if the toxicities of OSPWs generated by Syncrude Canada Ltd. (Syncrude) and Suncor Energy Inc. (Suncor) change with time as a result of aging and biodegradation. Experiments involved 2 types of OSPW obtained from Syncrude and Suncor. Nutrient availability (nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment) was increased for both short and long hydraulic retention times (40 and 400 days). The NAs found in the OSPW were tracked over the course of one year using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Microtox bioassays. The objective was to determine the relationships between total NA concentrations, the degree to which different sub-groups of NAs are biodegraded and any potential reduction in OSPW toxicity.

  3. Exploring embryonic germ line development in the water flea, Daphnia magna, by zinc-finger-containing VASA as a marker. (United States)

    Sagawa, Kazunori; Yamagata, Hideo; Shiga, Yasuhiro


    VASA is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase belonging to the DEAD-box family that, in many organisms, is specifically expressed in germ line cells throughout the life cycle, making it a powerful molecular marker to study germ line development. To obtain further information on germ line development in crustaceans, we cloned VASA cDNAs from three branchiopod species: water fleas Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa, and brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. RNA helicase domains in branchiopod VASA were highly conserved among arthropod classes. However, N-terminal RNA-binding domains in branchiopod VASA were highly diverged and, unlike other arthropod VASA reported so far, possessed repeats of retroviral-type zinc finger (CCHC) motifs. Raising specific antibodies against Daphnia VASA revealed that the primordial germ cells (PGCs) in this organism segregate at a very early cleavage stage of embryogenesis in parthenogenetic and sexual eggs. Clusters of PGCs then start to migrate inside the embryo and finally settle at both sides of the intestine, the site of future gonad development. RNA analyses suggested that maternally supplied vasa mRNA was responsible for early VASA expression, while zygotic expression started during blastodermal stage of development.

  4. Exploring the Impacts of Anthropogenic Disturbance on Seawater and Sediment Microbial Communities in Korean Coastal Waters Using Metagenomics Analysis. (United States)

    Won, Nam-Il; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Park, Sang Rul; Lee, Hyuk Je


    The coastal ecosystems are considered as one of the most dynamic and vulnerable environments under various anthropogenic developments and the effects of climate change. Variations in the composition and diversity of microbial communities may be a good indicator for determining whether the marine ecosystems are affected by complex forcing stressors. DNA sequence-based metagenomics has recently emerged as a promising tool for analyzing the structure and diversity of microbial communities based on environmental DNA (eDNA). However, few studies have so far been performed using this approach to assess the impacts of human activities on the microbial communities in marine systems. In this study, using metagenomic DNA sequencing (16S ribosomal RNA gene), we analyzed and compared seawater and sediment communities between sand mining and control (natural) sites in southern coastal waters of Korea to assess whether anthropogenic activities have significantly affected the microbial communities. The sand mining sites harbored considerably lower levels of microbial diversities in the surface seawater community during spring compared with control sites. Moreover, the sand mining areas had distinct microbial taxonomic group compositions, particularly during spring season. The microbial groups detected solely in the sediment load/dredging areas (e.g., Marinobacter, Alcanivorax, Novosphingobium) are known to be involved in degradation of toxic chemicals such as hydrocarbon, oil, and aromatic compounds, and they also contain potential pathogens. This study highlights the versatility of metagenomics in monitoring and diagnosing the impacts of human disturbance on the environmental health of marine ecosystems from eDNA.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Monakhova


    Full Text Available Aim. Estimation of pollutants balance at the license area “Severniy” using the operational hydrodynamic model of the Caspian Sea and the data of industrial environmental monitoring.Methods. A new method was used to estimate pollutants balance at the license area based on the data of the hydrodynamic model and environmental monitoring. The indicated method was developed by Caspian Marine Scientific Research Center jointly with Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia in 2015.Results. The pollutants balance was estimated for oil products, heavy metals (copper, lead, cadmium, mercury, cobalt, iron, manganese, zinc and nickel and the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It was discovered that from 17 to 20 October 2014 the balance of most pollutants was negative and amounted to less than 1% of the total transport. Pollutants outflow was registered 0-5 and 5-10 m layers, and the inflow was discovered in the layers of 10-15 and 15-20 m.Conclusion. The new approach based on the modified calculation technology of water exchange and pollutants transport has performed well and will make it possible to estimate the balance and flows of pollutants passing through different areas of the Caspian Sea.

  6. IP3 constricts cerebral arteries via IP3 receptor-mediated TRPC3 channel activation and independently of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xi, Q.; Adebiyi, A.; Zhao, G.; Chapman, K.E.; Waters, C.M.; Hassid, A.; Jaggar, J.H.


    Vasoconstrictors that bind to phospholipase C-coupled receptors elevate inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)). IP(3) is generally considered to elevate intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in arterial myocytes and induce vasoconstriction via a single mechanism: by activating sarcoplasmic

  7. Fish the ChIPs: a pipeline for automated genomic annotation of ChIP-Seq data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minucci Saverio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput sequencing is generating massive amounts of data at a pace that largely exceeds the throughput of data analysis routines. Here we introduce Fish the ChIPs (FC, a computational pipeline aimed at a broad public of users and designed to perform complete ChIP-Seq data analysis of an unlimited number of samples, thus increasing throughput, reproducibility and saving time. Results Starting from short read sequences, FC performs the following steps: 1 quality controls, 2 alignment to a reference genome, 3 peak calling, 4 genomic annotation, 5 generation of raw signal tracks for visualization on the UCSC and IGV genome browsers. FC exploits some of the fastest and most effective tools today available. Installation on a Mac platform requires very basic computational skills while configuration and usage are supported by a user-friendly graphic user interface. Alternatively, FC can be compiled from the source code on any Unix machine and then run with the possibility of customizing each single parameter through a simple configuration text file that can be generated using a dedicated user-friendly web-form. Considering the execution time, FC can be run on a desktop machine, even though the use of a computer cluster is recommended for analyses of large batches of data. FC is perfectly suited to work with data coming from Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzers or ABI SOLiD and its usage can potentially be extended to any sequencing platform. Conclusions Compared to existing tools, FC has two main advantages that make it suitable for a broad range of users. First of all, it can be installed and run by wet biologists on a Mac machine. Besides it can handle an unlimited number of samples, being convenient for large analyses. In this context, computational biologists can increase reproducibility of their ChIP-Seq data analyses while saving time for downstream analyses. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Gavin Huttley, George

  8. Exploring C-water-temperature interactions and non-linearities in soils through developments in process-based models (United States)

    Esteban Moyano, Fernando; Vasilyeva, Nadezda; Menichetti, Lorenzo


    Soil carbon models developed over the last couple of decades are limited in their capacity to accurately predict the magnitudes and temporal variations in observed carbon fluxes and stocks. New process-based models are now emerging that attempt to address the shortcomings of their more simple, empirical counterparts. While a spectrum of ideas and hypothetical mechanisms are finding their way into new models, the addition of only a few processes known to significantly affect soil carbon (e.g. enzymatic decomposition, adsorption, Michaelis-Menten kinetics) has shown the potential to resolve a number of previous model-data discrepancies (e.g. priming, Birch effects). Through model-data validation, such models are a means of testing hypothetical mechanisms. In addition, they can lead to new insights into what soil carbon pools are and how they respond to external drivers. In this study we develop a model of soil carbon dynamics based on enzymatic decomposition and other key features of process based models, i.e. simulation of carbon in particulate, soluble and adsorbed states, as well as enzyme and microbial components. Here we focus on understanding how moisture affects C decomposition at different levels, both directly (e.g. by limiting diffusion) or through interactions with other components. As the medium where most reactions and transport take place, water is central en every aspect of soil C dynamics. We compare results from a number of alternative models with experimental data in order to test different processes and parameterizations. Among other observations, we try to understand: 1. typical moisture response curves and associated temporal changes, 2. moisture-temperature interactions, and 3. diffusion effects under changing C concentrations. While the model aims at being a process based approach and at simulating fluxes at short time scales, it remains a simplified representation using the same inputs as classical soil C models, and is thus potentially

  9. Exploring the complexity of oil sands process-affected water by high efficiency supercritical fluid chromatography/orbitrap mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Pereira, A S; Martin, J W


    Approximately 1 billion m(3) of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is currently stored in tailings ponds in Northern Alberta, Canada. The dissolved organic compounds in OSPW have been termed a supercomplex mixture of bitumen-derived substances and continuing efforts to understand its underlying chemical composition are important for evaluating its environmental hazards. Packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was applied to OSPW analysis for the first time. By combining four columns in series (each 25 cm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5.0 µm bare silica) approximately 80,000 plates were achieved on a 1 m column. Using a simple fixed restrictor, the SFC eluent was coupled directly to ultrahigh-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry (SFC/Orbitrap-MS). SFC/Orbitrap-MS, with positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI +/-), revealed the partial or full chromatographic separation of isomers for a wide array of chemical species, including naphthenic acids (Cn H2n + Z O2 ) and unknown sulfur- and nitrogen-containing molecules. For smaller compounds (e.g. naphthenic acids where n ≤10), or for larger structurally constrained compounds (e.g. C16 naphthenic acid with 9 double-bond equivalents), apparent baseline resolution of many isomers was possible. Isomer-specific MS/MS experiments furthermore allowed characterization of functional groups in novel species. For example, in APCI+ mode, up to 16 isomers of C6 H11 ON were revealed to have amide and amino functionalities. This combination of high efficiency chromatography and ultra-high mass resolution detection resulted in a powerful method with capabilities for characterizing or 'fingerprinting' unknown species with little interference. The method has great promise for environmental monitoring and forensics in the oil sands region, as well as for further studies on the composition of dissolved organic compounds in OSPW. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Classifier fusion for VoIP attacks classification (United States)

    Safarik, Jakub; Rezac, Filip


    SIP is one of the most successful protocols in the field of IP telephony communication. It establishes and manages VoIP calls. As the number of SIP implementation rises, we can expect a higher number of attacks on the communication system in the near future. This work aims at malicious SIP traffic classification. A number of various machine learning algorithms have been developed for attack classification. The paper presents a comparison of current research and the use of classifier fusion method leading to a potential decrease in classification error rate. Use of classifier combination makes a more robust solution without difficulties that may affect single algorithms. Different voting schemes, combination rules, and classifiers are discussed to improve the overall performance. All classifiers have been trained on real malicious traffic. The concept of traffic monitoring depends on the network of honeypot nodes. These honeypots run in several networks spread in different locations. Separation of honeypots allows us to gain an independent and trustworthy attack information.

  11. An Early Fire Detection Algorithm Using IP Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Perez-Meana


    Full Text Available The presence of smoke is the first symptom of fire; therefore to achieve early fire detection, accurate and quick estimation of the presence of smoke is very important. In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect the presence of smoke using video sequences captured by Internet Protocol (IP cameras, in which important features of smoke, such as color, motion and growth properties are employed. For an efficient smoke detection in the IP camera platform, a detection algorithm must operate directly in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT domain to reduce computational cost, avoiding a complete decoding process required for algorithms that operate in spatial domain. In the proposed algorithm the DCT Inter-transformation technique is used to increase the detection accuracy without inverse DCT operation. In the proposed scheme, firstly the candidate smoke regions are estimated using motion and color smoke properties; next using morphological operations the noise is reduced. Finally the growth properties of the candidate smoke regions are furthermore analyzed through time using the connected component labeling technique. Evaluation results show that a feasible smoke detection method with false negative and false positive error rates approximately equal to 4% and 2%, respectively, is obtained.

  12. Dbp5, Gle1-IP6 and Nup159 (United States)

    Folkmann, Andrew W.; Noble, Kristen N.; Cole, Charles N.


    Gene expression is a stepwise process involving distinct cellular processes including transcription, mRNA (mRNA) processing, mRNA export, and translation. As mRNAs are being synthesized, proteins associate with the RNA to form messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs). Previous studies have demonstrated that the RNA-binding protein composition of these mRNPs is dynamic, changing as the mRNP moves through the different steps of gene expression, and playing a critical role in these events. An important step during this maturation process occurs at the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) where the export protein Gle1 bound to inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) spatially activates the ATP-hydrolysis and mRNP-remodeling activity of the DEAD-box protein Dbp5. Recent work from our laboratory and others has provided important insights into the function and regulation of Dbp5. These include a more detailed explanation of the mechanism of Dbp5 RNP remodeling, the role of Gle1-IP6 in stimulating Dbp5 ATPase activity, and the identification of a novel paradigm for regulation of Dbp5 by Nup159. Based on in vitro biochemical assays, X-ray crystallography, and corresponding in vivo phenotypes, we propose here an updated model of the Dbp5 cycle during mRNP export through the NPC. This takes into account all available data and provides a platform for future studies. PMID:22064466

  13. Low latency IP mobility management: protocol and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiaobing


    Full Text Available Abstract Mobile IP is one of the dominating protocols that enable a mobile node to remain reachable while moving around in the Internet. However, it suffers from long handoff latency and route inefficiency. In this article, we present a novel distributed mobility management architecture, ADA (Asymmetric Double-Agents, which introduces double mobility agents to serve one end-to-end communication. One mobility agent is located close to the MN and the other close to the CN. ADA can achieve both low handoff latency and low transmission latency, which is crucial for improvement of user perceived QoS. It also provides an easy-to-use mechanism for MNs to manage and control each traffic session with a different policy and provide specific QoS support. We apply ADA to MIPv6 communications and present a detailed protocol design. Subsequently, we propose an analytical framework for systematic and thorough performance evaluation of mobile IP-based mobility management protocols. Equipped with this model, we analyze the handoff latency, single interaction delay and total time cost under the bidirectional tunneling mode and the route optimization mode for MIPv6, HMIPv6, CNLP, and ADA. Through both quantitative analysis and NS2-based simulations, we show that ADA significantly outperforms the existing mobility management protocols.

  14. Iconographic Professional Interests Inventory (3IP): A New Validation Study (United States)

    Boerchi, Diego; Magnano, Paola


    Interests have been a central focus of counselling psychology (and vocational psychology in particular) for over 100 years. The awareness of professional interests increases self-knowledge and provides occupational information. In career counselling, vocational interests are assessed more frequently than any other vocational construct, though early evaluations (before 13 years old) of professional interests are very rare. The aim of this research is to examine the 3IP construct (Iconographic Professional Interests Inventory; an inventory composed of 65 stylised pictures that represent people in the act of performing a job) in depth, testing more models in addition to the 19 vocational areas proposed in the 3IP manual. Results show that most of the vocational areas can be grouped into 4 second-level areas (“things”, “people”, “leisure”, and “culture”). Moreover, Holland’s RIASEC model is tested; an accurate selection of items reveals that this model works well using 24 specific jobs. The research concludes that the inventory has good psychometric qualities which can grow further by mean of the increasing, in a targeted way, of the number of jobs. PMID:27247679

  15. Mel-cepstrum-based steganalysis for VoIP steganography (United States)

    Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana


    Steganography and steganalysis in VoIP applications are important research topics as speech data is an appropriate cover to hide messages or comprehensive documents. In our paper we introduce a Mel-cepstrum based analysis known from speaker and speech recognition to perform a detection of embedded hidden messages. In particular we combine known and established audio steganalysis features with the features derived from Melcepstrum based analysis for an investigation on the improvement of the detection performance. Our main focus considers the application environment of VoIP-steganography scenarios. The evaluation of the enhanced feature space is performed for classical steganographic as well as for watermarking algorithms. With this strategy we show how general forensic approaches can detect information hiding techniques in the field of hidden communication as well as for DRM applications. For the later the detection of the presence of a potential watermark in a specific feature space can lead to new attacks or to a better design of the watermarking pattern. Following that the usefulness of Mel-cepstrum domain based features for detection is discussed in detail.

  16. Roles of calcium and IP3 in impaired colon contractility of rats following multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zheyu


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to explore changes in rat colon motility, and determine the roles of calcium and inositol (1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3 in colon dysmotility induced by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS caused by bacteria peritonitis. The number of stools, the contractility of the muscle strips and the length of smooth muscle cells (SMC in the colon, the concentration of calcium and IP3 in SMC, and serum nitric oxide were measured. Number of stools, fecal weight, IP3 concentration in SMC and serum nitric oxide concentration were 0.77 ± 0.52 pellets, 2.51 ± 0.39 g, 4.14 ± 2.07 pmol/tube, and 113.95 ± 37.89 µmol/L, respectively, for the MODS group (N = 11 vs 1.54 ± 0.64 pellets, 4.32 ± 0.57 g, 8.19 ± 3.11 pmol/tube, and 37.42 ± 19.56 µmol/L for the control group (N = 20; P < 0.05. After treatment with 0.1 mM acetylcholine and 0.1 M potassium chloride, the maximum contraction stress of smooth muscle strips, the length of SMC and the changes of calcium concentration were 593 ± 81 and 458 ± 69 g/cm³, 48.1 ± 11.8 and 69.2 ± 15.7 µM, 250 ± 70 and 167 ± 48%, respectively, for the control group vs 321 ± 53 and 284 ± 56 g/cm³, 65.1 ± 18.5 and 87.2 ± 23.7 µM, 127 ± 35 and 112 ± 35% for the MODS group (P < 0.05. Thus, colon contractility was decreased in MODS, a result possibly related to reduced calcium concentration and IP3 in SMC.

  17. Exploring Nested Reaction Fronts to Understand How Oxygen Cracks Rocks, Carbonic and Sulfuric Acids Dissolve Rocks, and Water Transports Rocks during Weathering (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Gu, X.; Sullivan, P. L.; Kim, H.; Stinchcomb, G. E.; Lebedeva, M.; Balashov, V. N.


    To first order, weathering is the reaction of rocks with oxidants (oxygen, nitrate, etc.), acids (carbonic, sulfuric, and organic acids), and water. To explore weathering we have been studying the depth intervals in soils, saprolite, and weathering rock where mineral reactions are localized - "reaction fronts". We limit the study to ridges or catchments in climates where precipitation is greater than potential evapotranspiration. For example, in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, we observe reaction fronts that generally define very rough surfaces in 3D that mimic the land surface topography, although with lower relief. Overall, the fronts form nested curved surfaces. In Shale Hills, the deepest reaction fronts are oxidation of pyrite, and dissolution of carbonate. The carbonate is inferred to dissolve at least partly due to the sulfuric acid produced by the pyrite. In addition to pyrite, chlorite also starts to oxidize at the water table. We hypothesize that these dissolution and oxidation reactions open pores and cause microfracturing that open the rock to infiltration of advecting meteoric waters. At much shallower depths, illite is observed to dissolve. In Shale Hills, these reaction fronts - pyrite, carbonate, illite - separate over meters beneath the ridges. Such separated reaction fronts have also been observed in other fractured lithologies where oxidation is the deepest reaction and is associated with weathering-induced fractures. In contrast, in some massive mafic rocks, reaction fronts are almost co-located. By studying the geometry of reaction fronts, it may be possible to elucidate the relative importance of how oxygen cracks rocks; carbonic, organic, and sulfuric acids dissolve rocks; and water mobilizes rock materials during weathering.

  18. Design of IP Camera Access Control Protocol by Utilizing Hierarchical Group Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang


    Full Text Available Unlike CCTV, security video surveillance devices, which we have generally known about, IP cameras which are connected to a network either with or without wire, provide monitoring services through a built-in web-server. Due to the fact that IP cameras can use a network such as the Internet, multiple IP cameras can be installed at a long distance and each IP camera can utilize the function of a web server individually. Even though IP cameras have this kind of advantage, it has difficulties in access control management and weakness in user certification, too. Particularly, because the market of IP cameras did not begin to be realized a long while ago, systems which are systematized from the perspective of security have not been built up yet. Additionally, it contains severe weaknesses in terms of access authority to the IP camera web server, certification of users, and certification of IP cameras which are newly installed within a network, etc. This research grouped IP cameras hierarchically to manage them systematically, and provided access control and data confidentiality between groups by utilizing group keys. In addition, IP cameras and users are certified by using PKI-based certification, and weak points of security such as confidentiality and integrity, etc., are improved by encrypting passwords. Thus, this research presents specific protocols of the entire process and proved through experiments that this method can be actually applied.

  19. Analyzing of MOS and Codec Selection for Voice over IP Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nazri Ismail


    Full Text Available In this research, we propose an architectural solution to implement the voice over IP (VoIP service in campus environment network. Voice over IP (VoIP technology has become a discussion issue for this time being. Today, the deployment of this technology on an organization truly can give a great financial benefit over traditional telephony. Therefore, this study is to analyze the VoIP Codec selection and investigate the Mean Opinion Score (MOS performance areas evolved with the quality of service delivered by soft phone and IP phone. This study focuses on quality of voice prediction such as i accuracy of MOS between automated system and human perception and ii different types of codec performance measurement via human perception using MOS technique. In this study, network management system (NMS is used to monitor and capture the performance of VoIP in campus environment. In addition, the most apparent of implementing soft phone and IP phone in campus environment is to define the best codec selection that can be used in operational environment. Based on the finding result, the MOS measurement through automated and manual system is able to predict and evaluate VoIP performance. In addition, based on manual MOS measurement, VoIP conversations over LAN contribute more reliability and availability performance compare to WAN.

  20. Exploring functional relationships between post-fire soil water repellency, soil structure and physico-chemical properties (United States)

    Quarfeld, Jamie; Brook, Anna; Keestra, Saskia; Wittenberg, Lea


    Soil water repellency (WR) and aggregate stability (AS) are two soil properties that are typically modified after burning and impose significant influence on subsequent hydrological and geomorphological dynamics. The response of AS and soil WR to fire depends upon how fire has influenced other key soil properties (e.g. soil OM, mineralogy). Meanwhile, routine thinning of trees and woody vegetation may alter soil properties (e.g. structure and porosity, wettability) by use of heavy machinery and species selection. The study area is situated along a north-facing slope of Mount Carmel national park (Israel). The selected sites are presented as a continuum of management intensity and fire histories. To date, the natural baseline of soil WR has yet to be thoroughly assessed and must be investigated alongside associated soil aggregating parameters in order to understand its overall impact. This study examines (i) the natural baseline of soil WR and physical properties compared to those of disturbed sites in the immediate (controlled burn) and long-term (10-years), and (ii) the interactions of soil properties with different control factors (management, surface cover, seasonal-temporal, burn temperature, soil organic carbon (OC) and mineralogy) in Mediterranean calcareous soils. Analysis of surface soil samples before and after destruction of WR by heating (200-600°C) was implemented using a combination of traditional methods and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Management and surface cover type conditioned the wettability, soil structure and porosity of soils in the field, although this largely did not affect the heat-induced changes observed in the lab. A positive correlation was observed along an increasing temperature gradient, with relative maxima of MWD and BD reached by most soils at the threshold of 400-500°C. Preliminary analyses of soil OC (MIR) and mineralogical composition (VIS-NIR) support existing research regarding: (i) the importance of soil OC quality and

  1. Linear Collider Test Facility: Twiss Parameter Analysis at the IP/Post-IP Location of the ATF2 Beam Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzon, Benoit; /Annecy, LAPP; Jeremie, Andrea; /Annecy, LAPP; Bai, Sha; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Bambade, Philip; /KEK, Tsukuba; White, Glen; /SLAC


    At the first stage of the ATF2 beam tuning, vertical beam size is usually bigger than 3 {micro}m at the IP. Beam waist measurements using wire scanners and a laser wire are usually performed to check the initial matching of the beam through to the IP. These measurements are described in this paper for the optics currently used ({beta}{sub x} = 4cm and {beta}{sub y} = 1mm). Software implemented in the control room to automate these measurements with integrated analysis is also described. Measurements showed that {beta} functions and emittances were within errors of measurements when no rematching and coupling corrections were done. However, it was observed that the waist in the horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) plane was abnormally shifted and simulations were performed to try to understand these shifts. They also showed that multiknobs are needed in the current optics to correct simultaneously {alpha}{sub x}, {alpha}{sub y} and the horizontal dispersion (D{sub x}). Such multiknobs were found and their linearity and orthogonality were successfully checked using MAD optics code. The software for these multiknobs was implemented in the control room and waist scan measurements using the {alpha}{sub y} knob were successfully performed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugraheni Rachmawati


    Full Text Available AbstrakPelaksanaan kegiatan pembelajaran tematik di SD kota Semarang belum optimal. Sebagian besar guru belum menyusun dan menggunakan perangkat pembelaja- ran IPS Terpadu berbasis outdoor learning. Tujuan penelitian ini mengembangkan, mengkaji keefektifan dan kepraktisan perangkat pembelajaran. Penelitian ini meru- pakan penelitian pengembangan yang dimodifikasi dari penelitian Borg and Gall. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa kelas 3 SD N Jatingaleh 01-02 Kota Semarang ta- hun pelajaran 2012/2013. Spesifikasi produk yang dikembangkan adalah perangkat pembelajaran IPS terpadu berbasis outdoor learning berupa silabus, RPP, media CD Interaktif, LKS dan alat evaluasi meliputi test kognitif, lembar observasi aktivi- tas serta angket respons siswa dan guru. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif dan Pretest- Posttest Control Group Design. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran tergolong valid. Keefektifan perangkat dilihat dari aktivitas dan hasil belajar siswa. Aktivitas siswa tergolong sangat tinggi. Hasil belajar kog- nitif siswa setelah mengikuti pembelajaran IPS Terpadu berbasis Outdoor Learning mengalami peningkatan yang signifikan serta mencapai ketuntasan belajar. Rata- rata hasil belajar kognitif siswa secara signifikan lebih besar daripada kelompok siswa yang mengikuti pembelajaran in door. Saran, hendaknya dapat dikembangkan lagi keefektifanya sehingga dapat lebih menggali kemampuan siswa, tidak hanya dalam segi kognitif dan afektif tetapi juga psikomotor. AbstractImplementation of thematic learning activities in elementary school of Semarang is not opti- mal. Most of the teachers do not prepare and use integrated social science learning tools based on outdoor learning. This research is aimed to develop the tools and to review the effectiveness and practicality of integrated social science learning based on outdoor learning. This is a research and development study modified from the research developed by Borg and

  3. BMP4 promotes mouse iPS cell differentiation to male germ cells via Smad1/5, Gata4, Id1 and Id2. (United States)

    Yang, Shi; Yuan, Qingqing; Niu, Minghui; Hou, Jingmei; Zhu, Zijue; Sun, Min; Li, Zheng; He, Zuping


    Generation of male germ cells from pluripotent cells could provide male gametes for treating male infertility and offer an ideal model for unveiling molecular mechanisms of spermatogenesis. However, the influence and exact molecular mechanisms, especially downstream effectors of BMP4 signaling pathways, in male germ cell differentiation of the induce pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, remain unknown. This study was designed to explore the role and mechanism of BMP4 signaling in the differentiation of mouse iPS cells to male germ cells. Embryoid body (EB) formation and recombinant BMP4 or Noggin were utilized to evaluate the effect of BMP4 on male germ cell generation from mouse iPS cells. Germ cell-specific genes and proteins as well as the downstream effectors of BMP4 signaling pathway were assessed using real-time PCR and Western blots. We found that BMP4 ligand and its multiple receptors, including BMPR1a, BMPR1b and BMPR2, were expressed in mouse iPS cells. Real-time PCR and Western blots revealed that BMP4 could upregulate the levels of genes and proteins for germ cell markers in iPS cells-derived EBs, whereas Noggin decreased their expression in these cells. Moreover, Smad1/5 phosphorylation, Gata4 transcription and the transcripts of Id1 and Id2 were enhanced by BMP4 but decreased when exposed to Noggin. Collectively, these results suggest that BMP4 promotes the generation of male germ cells from iPS cells via Smad1/5 pathway and the activation of Gata4, Id1 and Id2 This study thus offers novel insights into molecular mechanisms underlying male germ cell development. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  4. Fully automated high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation for ChIP-seq: identifying ChIP-quality p300 monoclonal antibodies. (United States)

    Gasper, William C; Marinov, Georgi K; Pauli-Behn, Florencia; Scott, Max T; Newberry, Kimberly; DeSalvo, Gilberto; Ou, Susan; Myers, Richard M; Vielmetter, Jost; Wold, Barbara J


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the major contemporary method for mapping in vivo protein-DNA interactions in the genome. It identifies sites of transcription factor, cofactor and RNA polymerase occupancy, as well as the distribution of histone marks. Consortia such as the ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) have produced large datasets using manual protocols. However, future measurements of hundreds of additional factors in many cell types and physiological states call for higher throughput and consistency afforded by automation. Such automation advances, when provided by multiuser facilities, could also improve the quality and efficiency of individual small-scale projects. The immunoprecipitation process has become rate-limiting, and is a source of substantial variability when performed manually. Here we report a fully automated robotic ChIP (R-ChIP) pipeline that allows up to 96 reactions. A second bottleneck is the dearth of renewable ChIP-validated immune reagents, which do not yet exist for most mammalian transcription factors. We used R-ChIP to screen new mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against p300, a histone acetylase, well-known as a marker of active enhancers, for which ChIP-competent monoclonal reagents have been lacking. We identified, validated for ChIP-seq, and made publicly available a monoclonal reagent called ENCITp300-1.

  5. ChIP-BIT: Bayesian inference of target genes using a novel joint probabilistic model of ChIP-seq profiles. (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Jung, Jin-Gyoung; Shajahan-Haq, Ayesha N; Clarke, Robert; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Yue; Magnani, Luca; Wang, Tian-Li; Xuan, Jianhua


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) has greatly improved the reliability with which transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) can be identified from genome-wide profiling studies. Many computational tools are developed to detect binding events or peaks, however the robust detection of weak binding events remains a challenge for current peak calling tools. We have developed a novel Bayesian approach (ChIP-BIT) to reliably detect TFBSs and their target genes by jointly modeling binding signal intensities and binding locations of TFBSs. Specifically, a Gaussian mixture model is used to capture both binding and background signals in sample data. As a unique feature of ChIP-BIT, background signals are modeled by a local Gaussian distribution that is accurately estimated from the input data. Extensive simulation studies showed a significantly improved performance of ChIP-BIT in target gene prediction, particularly for detecting weak binding signals at gene promoter regions. We applied ChIP-BIT to find target genes from NOTCH3 and PBX1 ChIP-seq data acquired from MCF-7 breast cancer cells. TF knockdown experiments have initially validated about 30% of co-regulated target genes identified by ChIP-BIT as being differentially expressed in MCF-7 cells. Functional analysis on these genes further revealed the existence of crosstalk between Notch and Wnt signaling pathways. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Exploring the biological stability situation of a full scale water distribution system in south China by three biological stability evaluation methods. (United States)

    Zhang, Junpeng; Li, Wei-Ying; Wang, Feng; Qian, Lin; Xu, Chen; Liu, Yao; Qi, Wanqi


    Bacterial regrowth especially opportunistic pathogens regrowth and contamination in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) have become an emerging threat to public health in the whole world. To explore bacterial regrowth and biological stability, assimilable organic carbon (AOC), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and bacterial regrowth potential (BRP) were evaluated in a full scale DWDS and bench tests in South China. A significant correlation between BRP and AOC in both water treatment processes (WTP) and DWDS was obtained. For BRP and BDOC, the correlation was more significant in WTP than in DWDS. Both AOC and BRP were significantly correlated with UV254, total organic carbon (TOC), and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) (p biological stability data obtained from DWDS. Through another bench test, the HPC level was positively correlated to AOC concentration and when AOC was below 135 μg/L, the growth rate of HPC was low, which was verified by the analysis of biological stability data from DWDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The wavy Mutation Maps to the Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate 3-Kinase 2 (IP3K2 Gene of Drosophila and Interacts with IP3R to Affect Wing Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek M. Dean


    Full Text Available Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 regulates a host of biological processes from egg activation to cell death. When IP3-specific receptors (IP3Rs bind to IP3, they release calcium from the ER into the cytoplasm, triggering a variety of cell type- and developmental stage-specific responses. Alternatively, inositol polyphosphate kinases can phosphorylate IP3; this limits IP3R activation by reducing IP3 levels, and also generates new signaling molecules altogether. These divergent pathways draw from the same IP3 pool yet cause very different cellular responses. Therefore, controlling the relative rates of IP3R activation vs. phosphorylation of IP3 is essential for proper cell functioning. Establishing a model system that sensitively reports the net output of IP3 signaling is crucial for identifying the controlling genes. Here we report that mutant alleles of wavy (wy, a classic locus of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, map to IP3 3-kinase 2 (IP3K2, a member of the inositol polyphosphate kinase gene family. Mutations in wy disrupt wing structure in a highly specific pattern. RNAi experiments using GAL4 and GAL80ts indicated that IP3K2 function is required in the wing discs of early pupae for normal wing development. Gradations in the severity of the wy phenotype provide high-resolution readouts of IP3K2 function and of overall IP3 signaling, giving this system strong potential as a model for further study of the IP3 signaling network. In proof of concept, a dominant modifier screen revealed that mutations in IP3R strongly suppress the wy phenotype, suggesting that the wy phenotype results from reduced IP4 levels, and/or excessive IP3R signaling.

  8. IP-10 can be measured in dried plasma spots in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ruhwald

    Full Text Available The chemokine IP-10 (CXCL10 is a candidate marker for hepatitis C virus (HCV fibrosis monitoring. The aim of this proof-of-concept study is to assess if IP-10 measurements from dried plasma spots (DPS are accurate in HCV-infected patients with either minimal or significant fibrosis. We measured IP-10 levels in plasma and DPS of 21 HCV-infected patients with cirrhosis and 19 patients with no/little fibrosis (determined with FibroScan. Cirrhotic patients had significantly higher levels of IP-10 compared to patients with minimal fibrosis. DPS and plasma measurements of IP-10 are comparable and the correlation was excellent (r(2 = 0.97, p<0.0001. The DPS based method for IP-10 detection performs well in HCV-infected patients with either minimal or significant fibrosis.

  9. A frequently missed entity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IpsO). (United States)

    Shirley, L; Thundyil, R J


    Intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IpsO) is defined as presence of clinical features of intestinal obstruction without identifiable mechanical obstructive lesion. IpsO is an uncommon gastrointestinal manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and is largely under-recognised. There are only over 30 published cases in English literature on SLE-related IpsO. Herein, we report two cases of SLE-related IpsO to illustrate the importance of early recognition to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention, as SLE-related IpsO responds well to systemic high dose corticosteroids. These two cases also demonstrate the apparent association of IpsO with uretero-hydronephrosis, suggesting that the possible mechanism could be smooth muscle dysmotility.

  10. ChIP-Seq: A Powerful Tool for Studying Protein-DNA Interactions in Plants. (United States)

    Chen, Xifeng; Bhadauria, Vijai; Ma, Bojun


    DNA-binding proteins, including transcription factors, epigenetic and chromatin modifiers, control gene expressions in plants. To pinpoint the binding sits of DNA-binding proteins in genome is crucial for decoding gene regulatory networks. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is a widely used approach to identify the DNA regions bound by a specific protein in vivo. The information generated from ChIP-Seq has tremendously advanced our understanding on the mechanism of transcription factors, cofactors and histone modifications in regulating gene expression. In this review, we reviewed the recent research advance of ChIP-Seq in plants, including description of the ChIP-Seq workflow and its various applications in plants, and in addition, provided perspective of the potential advances of ChIP-Seq.

  11. Optimal design of an IP/MPLS over DWDM network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Canale


    Full Text Available Different approaches for deploying resilient optical networks of low cost constitute a traditional group of NP-Hard problems that have been widely studied. Most of them are based on the construction of low cost networks that fulfill connectivity constraints. However, recent trends to virtualize optical networks over the legacy fiber infrastructure, modified the nature of network design problems and turned inappropriate many of these models and algorithms. In this paper we study a design problem arising from the deployment of an IP/MPLS network over an existing DWDM infrastructure. Besides cost and resiliency, this problem integrates traffic and capacity constraints. We present: an integer programming formulation for the problem, theoretical results, and describe how several metaheuristics were applied in order to find good quality solutions, for a real application case of a telecommunications company.

  12. ChIP-seq Identification of Weakly Conserved Heart Enhancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blow, Matthew J.; McCulley, David J.; Li, Zirong; Zhang, Tao; Akiyama, Jennifer A.; Holt, Amy; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Shoukry, Malak; Wright, Crystal; Chen, Feng; Afzal, Veena; Bristow, James; Ren, Bing; Black, Brian L.; Rubin, Edward M.; Visel, Axel; Pennacchio, Len A.


    Accurate control of tissue-specific gene expression plays a pivotal role in heart development, but few cardiac transcriptional enhancers have thus far been identified. Extreme non-coding sequence conservation successfully predicts enhancers active in many tissues, but fails to identify substantial numbers of heart enhancers. Here we used ChIP-seq with the enhancer-associated protein p300 from mouse embryonic day 11.5 heart tissue to identify over three thousand candidate heart enhancers genome-wide. Compared to other tissues studied at this time-point, most candidate heart enhancers are less deeply conserved in vertebrate evolution. Nevertheless, the testing of 130 candidate regions in a transgenic mouse assay revealed that most of them reproducibly function as enhancers active in the heart, irrespective of their degree of evolutionary constraint. These results provide evidence for a large population of poorly conserved heart enhancers and suggest that the evolutionary constraint of embryonic enhancers can vary depending on tissue type.

  13. Linking international trademark databases to inform IP research and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, P.


    Researchers and policy makers are concerned with many international issues regarding trademarks, such as trademark squatting, cluttering, and dilution. Trademark application data can provide an evidence base to inform government policy regarding these issues, and can also produce quantitative insights into economic trends and brand dynamics. Currently, national trademark databases can provide insight into economic and brand dynamics at the national level, but gaining such insight at an international level is more difficult due to a lack of internationally linked trademark data. We are in the process of building a harmonised international trademark database (the “Patstat of trademarks”), in which equivalent trademarks have been identified across national offices. We have developed a pilot database that incorporates 6.4 million U.S., 1.3 million Australian, and 0.5 million New Zealand trademark applications, spanning over 100 years. The database will be extended to incorporate trademark data from other participating intellectual property (IP) offices as they join the project. Confirmed partners include the United Kingdom, WIPO, and OHIM. We will continue to expand the scope of the project, and intend to include many more IP offices from around the world. In addition to building the pilot database, we have developed a linking algorithm that identifies equivalent trademarks (TMs) across the three jurisdictions. The algorithm can currently be applied to all applications that contain TM text; i.e. around 96% of all applications. In its current state, the algorithm successfully identifies ~ 97% of equivalent TMs that are known to be linked a priori, as they have shared international registration number through the Madrid protocol. When complete, the internationally linked trademark database will be a valuable resource for researchers and policy-makers in fields such as econometrics, intellectual property rights, and brand policy. (Author)

  14. Identifying differential transcription factor binding in ChIP-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-Ying eWu


    Full Text Available ChIP seq is a widely used assay to measure genome-wide protein binding. The decrease in costs associated with sequencing has led to a rise in the number of studies that investigate protein binding across treatment conditions or cell lines. In addition to the identification of binding sites, new studies evaluate the variation in protein binding between conditions. A number of approaches to study differential transcription factor binding have recently been developed. Several of these methods build upon established methods from RNA-seq to quantify differences in read counts. We compare how these new approaches perform on different data sets from the ENCODE project to illustrate the impact of data processing pipelines under different study designs. The performance of normalization methods for differential ChIP-seq depends strongly on the variation in total amount of protein bound between conditions, with total read count outperforming effective library size, or variants thereof, when a large variation in binding was studied. Use of input subtraction to correct for non-specific binding showed a relatively modest impact on the number of differential peaks found and the fold change accuracy to biological validation, however a larger impact might be expected for samples with more extreme copy number variations between them. Still, it did identify a small subset of novel differential regions while excluding some differential peaks in regions with high background signal.These results highlight proper scaling for between-sample data normalization as critical for differential transcription factor binding analysis and suggest bioinformaticians need to know about the variation in level of total protein binding between conditions to select the best analysis method. At the same time, validation using fold-change estimates from qRT-PCR suggests there is still room for further method improvement.

  15. Identifying differential transcription factor binding in ChIP-seq. (United States)

    Wu, Dai-Ying; Bittencourt, Danielle; Stallcup, Michael R; Siegmund, Kimberly D


    ChIP seq is a widely used assay to measure genome-wide protein binding. The decrease in costs associated with sequencing has led to a rise in the number of studies that investigate protein binding across treatment conditions or cell lines. In addition to the identification of binding sites, new studies evaluate the variation in protein binding between conditions. A number of approaches to study differential transcription factor binding have recently been developed. Several of these methods build upon established methods from RNA-seq to quantify differences in read counts. We compare how these new approaches perform on different data sets from the ENCODE project to illustrate the impact of data processing pipelines under different study designs. The performance of normalization methods for differential ChIP-seq depends strongly on the variation in total amount of protein bound between conditions, with total read count outperforming effective library size, or variants thereof, when a large variation in binding was studied. Use of input subtraction to correct for non-specific binding showed a relatively modest impact on the number of differential peaks found and the fold change accuracy to biological validation, however a larger impact might be expected for samples with more extreme copy number variations between them. Still, it did identify a small subset of novel differential regions while excluding some differential peaks in regions with high background signal. These results highlight proper scaling for between-sample data normalization as critical for differential transcription factor binding analysis and suggest bioinformaticians need to know about the variation in level of total protein binding between conditions to select the best analysis method. At the same time, validation using fold-change estimates from qRT-PCR suggests there is still room for further method improvement.

  16. Loss of K+ currents in heart failure is accentuated in KChIP2 deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Søren Jahn; Speerschneider, Tobias; Occhipinti, Dona


    KV 4 together with KV Channel-Interacting Protein 2 (KChIP2) mediate the fast recovering transient outward potassium current (Ito,f ) in the heart. KChIP2 is downregulated in human heart failure (HF), potentially underlying the loss of Ito,f . We investigated remodeling associated with HF...... hypothesizing that KChIP2 plays a central role in the modulation of outward K(+) currents in HF....

  17. KSR-based medium improves the generation of high-quality mouse iPS cells. (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Ye, Xiaoying; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Jiao; Zhang, Jingzhuo; Liu, Lin


    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells have great potential for regenerative medicine. The efficiency in generation of iPS cells has been significantly improved in recent years. However, the generation of high-quality iPS cells remains of high interest. Consistently, we demonstrate that knockout serum replacement (KSR)-based medium accelerates iPS cell induction and improves the quality of iPS cells, as confirmed by generation of chimeras and all iPS cell-derived offspring with germline transmission competency. Both alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity assay and expression of Nanog have been used to evaluate the efficiency of iPS cell induction and formation of ES/iPS cell colonies; however, appropriate expression of Nanog frequently indicates the quality of ES/iPS cells. Interestingly, whereas foetal bovine serum (FBS)-based media increase iPS cell colony formation, as revealed by AP activity, KSR-based media increase the frequency of iPS cell colony formation with Nanog expression. Furthermore, inhibition of MAPK/ERK by a specific inhibitor, PD0325901, in KSR- but not in FBS-based media significantly increases Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. In contrast, addition of bFGF in KSR-based media decreases proportion of Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. Remarkably, PD can rescue Nanog-GFP+ deficiency caused by bFGF. These data suggest that MAPK/ERK pathway influences high quality mouse iPS cells and that KSR- and PD-based media could enrich homogeneous authentic pluripotent stem cells.

  18. Functional characterization of domains of IPS-1 using an inducible oligomerization system. (United States)

    Takamatsu, Shiori; Onoguchi, Kazuhide; Onomoto, Koji; Narita, Ryo; Takahasi, Kiyohiro; Ishidate, Fumiyoshi; Fujiwara, Takahiro K; Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi; Kato, Hiroki; Fujita, Takashi


    The innate immune system recognizes viral nucleic acids and stimulates cellular antiviral responses. Intracellular detection of viral RNA is mediated by the Retinoic acid inducible gene (RIG)-I Like Receptor (RLR), leading to production of type I interferon (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Once cells are infected with a virus, RIG-I and MDA5 bind to viral RNA and undergo conformational change to transmit a signal through direct interaction with downstream CARD-containing adaptor protein, IFN-β promoter stimulator-1 (IPS-1, also referred as MAVS/VISA/Cardif). IPS-1 is composed of N-terminal Caspase Activation and Recruitment Domain (CARD), proline-rich domain, intermediate domain, and C-terminal transmembrane (TM) domain. The TM domain of IPS-1 anchors it to the mitochondrial outer membrane. It has been hypothesized that activated RLR triggers the accumulation of IPS-1, which forms oligomer as a scaffold for downstream signal proteins. However, the exact mechanisms of IPS-1-mediated signaling remain controversial. In this study, to reveal the details of IPS-1 signaling, we used an artificial oligomerization system to induce oligomerization of IPS-1 in cells. Artificial oligomerization of IPS-1 activated antiviral signaling without a viral infection. Using this system, we investigated the domain-requirement of IPS-1 for its signaling. We discovered that artificial oligomerization of IPS-1 could overcome the requirement of CARD and the TM domain. Moreover, from deletion- and point-mutant analyses, the C-terminal Tumor necrosis factor Receptor-Associated Factor (TRAF) binding motif of IPS-1 (aa. 453-460) present in the intermediate domain is critical for downstream signal transduction. Our results suggest that IPS-1 oligomerization is essential for the formation of a multiprotein signaling complex and enables downstream activation of transcription factors, Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) and Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB), leading to type I IFN and pro

  19. Factors Influencing Difficulty Learn Economic Subject Of Student Class Of XII IPS Sman 2 Sijunjung


    Rahmah, Aulia -


    This research aim to to know Factors influencing difficulty learn economic subject of Class student of XII IPS SMAN 2 Sijunjung. Population is class student of XII IPS SMAN 2 Sijunjung School year 2014 / 2015 a number of 139 student. Sampel the taken a number of 103 student. Intake of sampel use technique of purposive sample. In this research of researcher study factors influencing difficulty learn economic subject of Class student of XII IPS SMAN 2 Sijunjung. Appliance data collecting which ...

  20. Cancer Preventive and Therapeutic Properties of IP6: Efficacy and Mechanisms




    Recently, IP6 has received much attention for its role in cancer prevention, and control of experimental tumor growth and progression. A striking, consistent and reproducible anticancer action of IP6 has been demonstrated in various experimental models. IP6 reduces cell proliferation, induces apoptosis and differentiation of malignant cells via PI3K, MAPK, PKC, AP-1 and NFkB. Enhanced natural killer (NK) cell activity, suppressed tumor angiogenesis and antioxidant properties also contribute t...

  1. Microleakage of IPS empress 2 inlay restorations luted with self-adhesive resin cements. (United States)

    Cal, E; Celik, E U; Turkun, M


    To assess the microleakage of three self-adhesive and one etch-and-rinse resin cements when luting IPS Empress 2 (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) all-ceramic inlay restorations to the prepared cavities in extracted human molars. The cylindrical Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 40 extracted human third molars using diamond burs. The IPS Empress 2 ceramic inlays were placed with Multilink Sprint (Ivoclar Vivadent), RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE, USA), G-Cem (GC, Japan), or Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent) as the control group. After storage in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours, samples were subjected to 1000 thermal cycles between baths of 5°C and 55°C, with a dwell time of 30 seconds. The microleakage scores were examined on the occlusal and gingival margins at 30× magnification after each sample was stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin and sectioned into three parts using a thin diamond blade (Isomet, Buehler, USA) (n=40). The extent of microleakage on both occlusal and gingival margins of the restorations was scored and recorded. The microleakage data were analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Statistically significant differences were observed between the groups in both margins according to the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (pVariolink II Variolink II = RelyX Unicem adhesive resin cements displayed higher microleakage scores on the occlusal margins, whereas on the gingival margins RelyX Unicem showed comparable microleakage results with the control samples.

  2. Mesoscale modeling of the water vapor cycle at Mawrth Vallis: a Mars2020 and ExoMars exploration rovers high-priority landing site (United States)

    Pla-García, Jorge


    . During this transition, there is surface convergence into the rising branch (similar to the inter-tropical convergence zone on Earth), and dual Hadley cells with one circulation in each hemisphere. At this time, the mean surface winds flow from the high latitudes to equator in both hemispheres, providing the possibility for a direct vapor connection [5, 6]. It is likely that transient waves (e.g., storm systems) as well as boundary currents associated with planetary-scale stationary waves could advect and mix water equatorward, along the surface, in opposition to the Hadley Cell. Conclusion: We are studying whether moist air in northern spring/summer makes it to the surface of Mawrth at Ls 90, Ls 140 and Ls 180, three periods with high column abundance of water vapor at mid/high latitudes. The objective is to determine if the circulation (mean or regional) is favorable for the transport of water vapor from the north polar cap to MV where it might activate hygroscopic salts and/or chlorides [7]. Relative humidity at those different seasons is estimated to test for consistency with column abundances derived from orbit observations. If moist air makes it to MV during Ls90, 140 and/or 180, it should be a go-to site due to enhanced habitability implications. References: [1] Pla-García, J., & Rafkin, S. C., 2015: Meteorological predictions for Mars 2020 Exploration Rov-er high-priority landing sites throug MRAMS Mesoscale Modeling. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 17, p. 12605). [2] Rafkin, S. C. R., Haberle, R. M., and T. I. Michaels, 2001: The Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS): Model description and selected simulations. Icarus, 151, 228-256. [3] Rafkin, S. C. R., M. R. V. Sta. Maria, and T. I. Michaels, 2002: Simulation of the atmospheric thermal circulation of a martian volcano using a mesoscale numerical model. Nature, 419, 697-699. [4] Jakosky, B.M., and C.B. Farmer, 1982: The seasonal and global behavior of water vapor in the Mars

  3. Database Description - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us ChIP-Atlas Database Description General information of database Database name ChIP-Atlas Alt...ucleotide Sequence Databases - Transcriptional regulator sites and transcription ...axonomy ID: 6239 Taxonomy Name: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Taxonomy ID: 4932 Database description ChIP-Atlas i...ble URL of Web services - Need for user registration Not available About This Database Database Description ...Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive ...

  4. Split degenerate states and stable p+ip phases from holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Zhang-Yu; Zeng, Hui [Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Pan, Qiyuan [Hunan Normal Univ., Key Lab. of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Dept. of Physics, Changsha (China); Zeng, Hua-Bi [Yangzhou University, College of Physics Science and Technology, Yangzhou, Jiangsu (China); National Central University, Department of Physics, Chungli (China)


    In this paper, we investigate the p+ip superfluid phases in the complex vector field holographic p-wave model. We find that in the probe limit, the p+ip phase and the p-wave phase are equally stable, hence the p and ip orders can be mixed with an arbitrary ratio to form more general p+λip phases, which are also equally stable with the p-wave and p+ip phases. As a result, the system possesses a degenerate thermal state in the superfluid region. We further study the case on considering the back-reaction on the metric, and we find that the degenerate ground states will be separated into p-wave and p+ip phases, and the p-wave phase is more stable. Finally, due to the different critical temperature of the zeroth order phase transitions from p-wave and p+ip phases to the normal phase, there is a temperature region where the p+ip phase exists but the p-wave phase does not. In this region we find the stable holographic p+ip phase for the first time. (orig.)

  5. Impact of time-domain IP pulse length on measured data and inverted models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, P. I.; Fiandaca, G.; Dahlin, T.


    The duration of time domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) current injections has significant impact on the acquired IP data as well as on the inversion models, if the standard evaluation procedure is followed. However, it is still possible to retrieve similar inversion models if the waveform...... of the injected current and the IP response waveform are included in the inversion. The on-time also generally affects the signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) where an increased on-time gives higher SNR for the IP data....

  6. ELISA-based assay for IP-10 detection from filter paper samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabe, Camilla Heldbjerg; Blauenfeldt, Thomas; Ruhwald, Morten


    IP-10 is a small pro-inflammatory chemokine secreted primarily from monocytes and fibroblasts. Alterations in IP-10 levels have been associated with inflammatory conditions including viral and bacterial infections, immune dysfunction, and tumor development. IP-10 is increasingly recognized as a b...... as a biomarker that predicts severity of various diseases and can be used in the immunodiagnostics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and cytomegalovirus infection. Here, we describe an ELISA-based method to detect IP-10 from dried blood and plasma spot samples....

  7. Cancer inhibition by inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and inositol: from laboratory to clinic. (United States)

    Vucenik, Ivana; Shamsuddin, AbulKalam M


    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that is present in substantial amounts in almost all plant and mammalian cells. It was recently recognized to possess multiple biological functions. A striking anticancer effect of IP6 was demonstrated in different experimental models. Inositol is also a natural constituent possessing moderate anticancer activity. The most consistent and best anticancer results were obtained from the combination of IP6 plus inositol. In addition to reducing cell proliferation, IP6 increases differentiation of malignant cells, often resulting in a reversion to normal phenotype. Exogenously administered IP6 is rapidly taken into the cells and dephosphorylated to lower-phosphate inositol phosphates, which further interfere with signal transduction pathways and cell cycle arrest. Enhanced immunity and antioxidant properties can also contribute to tumor cell destruction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this anticancer action are not fully understood. Because it is abundantly present in regular diet, efficiently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and safe, IP6 holds great promise in our strategies for the prevention and treatment of cancer. IP6 plus inositol enhances the anticancer effect of conventional chemotherapy, controls cancer metastases, and improves the quality of life, as shown in a pilot clinical trial. The data strongly argue for the use of IP6 plus inositol in our strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. However, the effectiveness and safety of IP6 plus inositol at therapeutic doses needs to be determined in phase I and phase II clinical trials in humans.

  8. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V


    Full Text Available , and of the remaining 2,5 percent, some 70 percent is frozen in the polar caps and around 30 percent is present as soil moisture or in underground aquifers. Less than 1 percent is thus accessible for direct use by humans, animals and plants. Consequently... be serviced with harvested water and/or grey water. Conserve and reuse cooling tower water by using efficient systems and strategies. Avoid ?once-through systems? commonly used for evaporation coolers, ice makers, hydraulic equipment, and air compressors...

  9. Individual placement and support (IPS) for patients with offending histories: the IPSOH feasibility cluster randomised trial protocol. (United States)

    Khalifa, N; Talbot, E; Schneider, J; Walker, D M; Bates, P; Bird, Y; Davies, D; Brookes, C; Hall, J; Völlm, B


    People with involvement in forensic psychiatric services face many obstacles to employment, arising from their offending, as well as their mental health problems. This study aims to assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS), in improving employment rates and associated psychosocial outcomes in forensic psychiatric populations. IPS has been found consistently to achieve employment rates above 50% in psychiatric patients without a history of involvement in criminal justice services. This is a single-centre feasibility cluster RCT. Clusters will be defined according to clinical services in the community forensic services of Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust (NHCT). IPS will be implemented into 2 of the randomly assigned intervention clusters in the community forensic services of NHCT. A feasibility cluster RCT will estimate the parameters required to design a full RCT. The primary outcome is the proportion of people in open employment at 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures will include employment, educational activities, psychosocial and economic outcomes, as well as reoffending rates. Outcome measures will be recorded at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. In accordance with the UK Medical Research Council guidelines on the evaluation of complex interventions, a process evaluation will be carried out; qualitative interviews with patients and staff will explore general views of IPS as well as barriers and facilitators to implementation. Fidelity reviews will assess the extent to which the services follow the principles of IPS prior, during and at the end of the trial. Ethical approval was obtained from the East Midlands Research Ethics Committee-Nottingham 1 (REC reference number 15/EM/0253). Final and interim reports will be prepared for project funders, the study sponsor and clinical research network. Findings will be disseminated through

  10. Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh


    A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

  11. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya


    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  12. Exploring the short-term impact of community water fluoridation cessation on children's dental caries: a natural experiment in Alberta, Canada. (United States)

    McLaren, L; Patterson, S; Thawer, S; Faris, P; McNeil, D; Potestio, M L; Shwart, L


    Dental caries (tooth decay) is common and can be serious. Dental caries is preventable, and community water fluoridation is one means of prevention. There is limited current research on the implications of fluoridation cessation for children's dental caries. Our objective was to explore the short-term impact of community water fluoridation cessation on children's dental caries, by examining change in caries experience in population-based samples of schoolchildren in two Canadian cities, one that discontinued community water fluoridation and one that retained it. We used a pre-post cross-sectional design. We examined dental caries indices (deft [number of decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth] and DMFT [number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth]) among grade 2 schoolchildren in 2004/05 and 2013/14 in two similar cities in the province of Alberta, Canada: Calgary (cessation of community water fluoridation in 2011) and Edmonton (still fluoridated). We compared change over time in the two cities. For Calgary only, we had a third data point from 2009/10, and we considered trends across the three points. We observed a worsening in primary tooth caries (deft) in Calgary and Edmonton, but changes in Edmonton were less consistent and smaller. This effect was robust to adjustment for covariates available in 2013/14 and was consistent with estimates of total fluoride intake from biomarkers from a subsample. This finding occurred despite indication that treatment activities appeared better in Calgary. The worsening was not observed for permanent teeth. For prevalence estimates only (% with >0 deft or DMFT), the three data points in Calgary suggest a trend that, though small, appears consistent with an adverse effect of fluoridation cessation. Our results suggest an increase in dental caries in primary teeth during a time period when community fluoridation was ceased. That we did not observe a worsening for permanent teeth in the comparative analysis could

  13. MicroRNA expression profiles of human iPS cells, retinal pigment epithelium derived from iPS, and fetal retinal pigment epithelium. (United States)

    Greene, Whitney A; Muñiz, Alberto; Plamper, Mark L; Kaini, Ramesh R; Wang, Heuy-Ching


    The objective of this report is to describe the protocols for comparing the microRNA (miRNA) profiles of human induced-pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from human iPS cells (iPS-RPE), and fetal RPE. The protocols include collection of RNA for analysis by microarray, and the analysis of microarray data to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed among three cell types. The methods for culture of iPS cells and fetal RPE are explained. The protocol used for differentiation of RPE from human iPS is also described. The RNA extraction technique we describe was selected to allow maximal recovery of very small RNA for use in a miRNA microarray. Finally, cellular pathway and network analysis of microarray data is explained. These techniques will facilitate the comparison of the miRNA profiles of three different cell types.

  14. Extraction Of Electronic Evidence From VoIP: Identification & Analysis Of Digital Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Irwin


    Full Text Available The Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP is increasing in popularity as a cost effective and efficient means of making telephone calls via the Internet. However, VoIP may also be an attractive method of communication to criminals as their true identity may be hidden and voice and video communications are encrypted as they are deployed across the Internet. This produces in a new set of challenges for forensic analysts compared with traditional wire-tapping of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN infrastructure, which is not applicable to VoIP. Therefore, other methods of recovering electronic evidence from VoIP are required.  This research investigates the analysis and recovery of digitised human, which persists in computer memory after a VoIP call.This paper proposes a proof of concept how remnants of digitised human speech from a VoIP call may be identified within a forensic memory capture based on how the human voice is detected via a microphone and encoded to a digital format using the sound card of your personal computer. This digital format is unencrypted whist processed in Random Access Memory (RAM before it is passed to the VoIP application for encryption and  transmission over the Internet. Similarly, an incoming encrypted VoIP call is decrypted by the VoIP application and passes through RAM unencrypted in order to be played via the speaker output.A series of controlled tests were undertaken whereby RAM captures were analysed for remnants of digital speech after a VoIP audio call with known conversation. The identification and analysis of digital speech from RAM attempts to construct an automatic process for the identification and subsequent reconstruction of the audio content of a VoIP call.

  15. Depth profiles of resistivity and spectral IP for active modern submarine hydrothermal deposits: a case study from the Iheya North Knoll and the Iheya Minor Ridge in Okinawa Trough, Japan (United States)

    Komori, Shogo; Masaki, Yuka; Tanikawa, Wataru; Torimoto, Junji; Ohta, Yusuke; Makio, Masato; Maeda, Lena; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Tadai, Osamu; Kumagai, Hidenori


    Submarine hydrothermal deposits are one of the promising seafloor mineral resources, because they can store a large amount of metallic minerals as sulfides. The present study focuses on the electrical properties of active modern submarine hydrothermal deposits, in order to provide constraints on the interpretation of electrical structures obtained from marine electromagnetic surveys. Measurements of resistivity and spectral induced polarization (IP) were made using drillcore samples taken from the Iheya North Knoll and the Iheya Minor Ridge in Okinawa Trough, Japan. These hydrothermal sediments are dominantly composed of disseminated sulfides, with minor amounts of massive sulfide rocks. The depth profiles of resistivity and spectral IP properties were successfully revealed to correspond well to layer-by-layer lithological features. Comparison with other physical properties and occurrence of constituent minerals showed that resistivity is essentially sensitive to the connectivity of interstitial fluids, rather than by sulfide and clay content. This suggests that, in active modern submarine hydrothermal systems, not only typical massive sulfide rocks but also high-temperature hydrothermal fluids could be imaged as low-resistivity anomalies in seabed surveys. The spectral IP signature was shown to be sensitive to the presence or absence of sulfide minerals, and total chargeability is positively correlated with sulfide mineral abundance. In addition, the massive sulfide rock exhibits the distinctive IP feature that the phase steadily increases with a decrease of frequency. These results show the effective usage of IP for developing and improving marine IP exploration techniques.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. ChIP-nexus: a novel ChIP-exo protocol for improved detection of in vivo transcription factor binding footprints (United States)

    He, Qiye; Johnston, Jeff; Zeitlinger, Julia


    Understanding how eukaryotic enhancers are bound and regulated by specific combinations of transcription factors is still a major challenge. To better map transcription factor binding genome-wide at nucleotide resolution in vivo, we have developed a robust ChIP-exo protocol called ChIP experiments with nucleotide resolution through exonuclease, unique barcode and single ligation (ChIP-nexus), which utilizes an efficient DNA self-circularization step during library preparation. Application of ChIP-nexus to four proteins—human TBP and Drosophila NFkB, Twist and Max— demonstrates that it outperforms existing ChIP protocols in resolution and specificity, pinpoints relevant binding sites within enhancers containing multiple binding motifs and allows the analysis of in vivo binding specificities. Notably, we show that Max frequently interacts with DNA sequences next to its motif, and that this binding pattern correlates with local DNA sequence features such as DNA shape. ChIP-nexus will be broadly applicable to studying in vivo transcription factor binding specificity and its relationship to cis-regulatory changes in humans and model organisms. PMID:25751057

  17. The ChIP-Seq tools and web server: a resource for analyzing ChIP-seq and other types of genomic data. (United States)

    Ambrosini, Giovanna; Dreos, René; Kumar, Sunil; Bucher, Philipp


    ChIP-seq and related high-throughput chromatin profilig assays generate ever increasing volumes of highly valuable biological data. To make sense out of it, biologists need versatile, efficient and user-friendly tools for access, visualization and itegrative analysis of such data. Here we present the ChIP-Seq command line tools and web server, implementing basic algorithms for ChIP-seq data analysis starting with a read alignment file. The tools are optimized for memory-efficiency and speed thus allowing for processing of large data volumes on inexpensive hardware. The web interface provides access to a large database of public data. The ChIP-Seq tools have a modular and interoperable design in that the output from one application can serve as input to another one. Complex and innovative tasks can thus be achieved by running several tools in a cascade. The various ChIP-Seq command line tools and web services either complement or compare favorably to related bioinformatics resources in terms of computational efficiency, ease of access to public data and interoperability with other web-based tools. The ChIP-Seq server is accessible at .

  18. EMSODEV and EPOS-IP: key findings for effective management of EU research infrastructure projects (United States)

    Materia, Paola; Bozzoli, Sabrina; Beranzoli, Laura; Cocco, Massimo; Favali, Paolo; Freda, Carmela; Sangianantoni, Agata


    EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory, and EPOS (European Plate Observing System, are pan-European Research Infrastructures (RIs) in the ESFRI 2016 Roadmap. EMSO has recently become an ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium), whilst EPOS application is in progress. Both ERICs will be hosted in Italy and the "Representing Entity" is INGV. EMSO consists of oceanic environment observation systems spanning from the Arctic through the Atlantic and Mediterranean, to the Black Sea for long-term, high-resolution, real-time monitoring of natural and man-induced processes such as hazards, climate, and marine ecosystems changes to study their evolution and interconnections. EPOS aims at creating a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of Earth's physical and chemical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability, tsunami, and all those processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. Following the conclusion of their Preparatory Phases the two RIs are now in their Implementation Phase still supported by the EC through the EMSODEV and EPOS-IP projects, both run by dedicated Project Management Offices at INGV with sound experience in EU projects. EMSODEV (H2020 project, 2015-2018) involves 11 partners and 9 associate partners and aims at improving the harmonization among the EMSO ERIC observation systems through the realization of EMSO Generic Instrument Modules (EGIMs), and a Data Management Platform (DMP) to implement interoperability and standardization. The DMP will provide access to data from all EMSO nodes, providing a unified, homogeneous, infrastructure-scale and user-oriented platform integrated with the increased measurement capabilities and functions provided by the EGIMs. EPOS IP (H2020 project, 2015


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Tristão de Alencar Magalhães


    Full Text Available The tourist complex Pousada do Rio Quente located at Mountain range of Caldas atRio Quente city at 17º 46’30’’ south latitude e 48º 44’52’’ west Greenwich, is composed ofhydrothermal park called Hot Park and a net of hotels with hot water swimming pools knownas: Tourist Hotel (1, Pousada Hotel (2, Pousada do Rio Quente Chalés (4, Recanto dasÁguas quentes (6, Rio Quente Suite & Flats(5and Hot Park (3.The thermal water sources that appear in the neighborhoods of the region of RioQuente had been discovered in 1722 by Bartolomeu Bueno da Silva who initially explored theregion searching for gold precious rocks. In 1916 Dr. Ciro Palmerston Guimarães resident inthen the city of Caldas Novas acquires 49 alqueires of land where was the riverbed or RioQuente in Caldas Velha located at 27 kilometers of Caldas Novas. In 1994 the Pousada doRio Quente Resorts acquires eighteen habitations units and a room of the CondominiumPousada do Rio Quente, organized under the form of Apart-Hotel. In 1996 due to demand oftourists the airport of Caldas Novas is created. In 1997 an aquatic park with 8.500m2 wasinaugurated being 4000 m2 composed of swimming pools with natural hot water and the LazyRiver. In 1999 the Largo da Ponte is inaugurated which offers new attractions for the touristsas old-time photos, cafeteria, ecological diving, kiosk for credits selling, consisting yet adivision for the Parque das Fontes, whose access is allowed only for them houses of thetourist complex, and the Hot Park that is opened the public in general. In January of 2000 theprocedures for implantation of the System of Ambient Management based on NBR ISO14001 are determined, in this same time the dependences of the Hot Park are extended and inJuly of the same year the First Week of the Environment in the Pousada do Rio quente withthe participation of about 3000 people was promoted. In July is inaugurated the Rio QuenteSuíte and Flat, organized in the format of Apart

  20. Validation of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) with Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents (United States)

    Swenson, Lance P.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Hollander, Beth L. G.; Dyl, Jennifer; Rizzo, Christie J.; Steinley, Douglas L.; Spirito, Anthony


    A study was conducted to examine the concurrent validity of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) for adolescent inpatients aged 12 to 18. The results reveal moderate agreement between ChIPS diagnoses and Schedule for Affective Disorder sand Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version diagnoses.

  1. Reducing handover latency in future IP-based wireless networks: Fast Proxy Mobile IPv6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert; Bargh, Mortaza S.; Laganier, Julien; Prasad, Anand R.


    Current IP-level mobility protocols have difficulties meeting the stringent handover delay requirements of future wireless networks. At the same time they do not give sufficient control to the network to control the handover process. This paper presents an extension to Proxy Mobile IP, which is the

  2. IP Services Design and Implementation in a Prototype Device for Transient Tactical Access to Sensitive Information (United States)


    Internet Protocol LPSK Least Privilege Separation Kernel LWIP Lightweight Internet Protocol OS Operating System OSPF Open Shortest Path First POP3 Post...Telnet, Echo Transport Layer TCP, UDP Network Layer IP, ICMP, IGMP Network Interface Layer ARP, RARP, OSPF Figure 1. TCP/IP Protocol Suite

  3. Optimal use of tandem biotin and V5 tags in ChIP assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Kolodziej (Katarzyna); F. Pourfarzad, F. (Farzin); E. de Boer (Ernie); S. Krpic (Sanja); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); J. Strouboulis (John)


    textabstractBackground: Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays coupled to genome arrays (Chip-on-chip) or massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) lead to the genome wide identification of binding sites of chromatin associated proteins. However, the highly variable quality of antibodies and the

  4. Life History and Biology of Ips latidens (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)\\t (United States)

    D.R. Miller; J.H. Borden


    The life history and biology of Ips latidens (LeConte) were investigated using bark-sandwich and whole-log rearing methods. In contrast with other Ips spp., some females initiated galleries under conditions of female-biased sex ratios, and sometimes 2 or more males were present in a gallery. In general, however, I....

  5. Highly expressed loci are vulnerable to misleading ChIP localization of multiple unrelated proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teytelman, L.; Thurtle, D.M.; Rine, J.; van Oudenaarden, A.


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is the gold-standard technique for localizing nuclear proteins in the genome. We used ChIP, in combination with deep sequencing (Seq), to study the genome-wide distribution of the Silent information regulator (Sir) complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We analyzed

  6. A Design of SDN Based IP Mobility Management Considering Inter-Domain Handovers and Its Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misumi Hata


    Full Text Available To use IP services continually while users are moving with their mobile devices, IP mobility management that enables them to keep IP communication is necessary. Although Mobile IP is a popular method to manage IP mobility, Mobile IP has a problem that there is a possibility of a mobile node (MN communicating over a redundant route. Then, Software Defined Network (SDN based IP mobility management has emerged to solve this problem. Most of these solutions focus on intra-domain handovers and routing. However, since wireless network environment has spread, mobile devices move across domains during communication. To deal with this, we need to look upon inter-domain handovers and routing. In this paper, we propose a SDN based IP mobility management scheme considering situation of mobile devices moving across domains. This proposed scheme focuses on inter-domain handovers and introduces efficient functions of management information sharing and inter-domain routing. Experimental results show the desired effects of the proposed scheme: optimizing communication route and keeping the management information exchange traffic low.

  7. A comparison of interferon-γ and IP-10 for the diagnosis of tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Line Lindebo; Rose, Michala Vaaben; Kimaro, Godfather


    OBJECTIVE: Interferon-γ and IP-10 release assays are diagnostic tests for tuberculosis infection. We have compared the accuracy of IP-10 and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube [QFT-IT] in Tanzanian children suspected of having active tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: Hospitalized Tanzanian children with sympt...

  8. VoIP interconnection ; between Internet, Cable, Mobile and Fixed Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, M.O. van; Keesmaat, I.


    Four worlds on their own that hardly interconnect; All use SIP, but differently - Internet world - Mobile world - Cable world - Fixed world - At most, only basic voice service will interoperate between those worlds In recent years, VoIP/multimedia services (VoIP: Voice over Internet Protocol) have

  9. Increasing supported VoIP flows in WMNs through link-based aggregation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, T


    Full Text Available As Voice over IP (VoIP) becomes a reality, service providers will be able to offer the service to remote and over populated areas that currently are not or are only partially reached by available Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN...

  10. Dispersal of the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis, and the engraver beetle, Ips perturbatus, in Alaska. (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Edward H. Holsten


    Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus...

  11. Transportation of phytopathogenic fungi by the bark beetle Ips sexdentatus boerner and associated mites (United States)

    J. Levieux; F. Lieutier; John C. Moser; Thelma J. Perry


    The bark beetle Ips sexdentatrds carries several types of conidiospores and ascopores in the pronotal punctures located around the setae on the sides of the pronotum. For swarming beetles, some of the spores seem to be germinating. Nine species of mites were phoretic on swarming Ips sexdentutus in France. Hypophoretic...

  12. Internetiside VoIP sobib ka ettevõtteile / Valdur Laid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laid, Valdur, 1969-


    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 8. juuni lk. 19. Kommunikatsiooni liikumisest internetti ehk IP-võrku ning selle võimalustest ettevõtjaile. Vt. samas: Väikefirmade IP-lahendus jõuab aasta lõpus massturule

  13. Phoretic mites associated with spruce bark beetle Ips typographus L. (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) from Bulgaria (United States)

    Danail Takov; Daniela Pilarska; John Moser


    A total of 818 specimens of Ips typographus L. were investigated for the presence of phoretic mites. They were collected from 4 localities in Vitosha Mountain, near Sofia. Five phoretic mites were found: Dendrolaelaps quadrisetus, Trichouropoda polytricha, Histiostoma piceae, Uroobovella ipidis and Proctolaelaps jiseri. 11.1 % from all investigated specimens of Ips...

  14. Effects of hypoxia on pluripotency in murine iPS cells. (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kouji; Yoshizawa, Yuu; Yamada, Shizuka; Igawa, Kazunari; Hayashi, Yoshihiko; Ishizaki, Hidetaka


    Retroviral transduction of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) or three factors, excluding c-Myc, has been shown to initiate a reprogramming process that results in the transformation of murine fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, and there has been a rapid increase in the number of iPS cell-based preclinical trials. In this study, the effects of these transcription factors were evaluated regarding the growth and differentiation of murine iPS cells under hypoxia. Based on the results of RT-PCR and alizarin red S staining, there were no statistical differences in the growth and differentiation of iPS cells or the induction of iPS cells to osteoblasts under hypoxia between the transcription factor groups. Furthermore, the function of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) in murine iPS cells under hypoxia was investigated in relation to the morphology and expression of transcription factors using RT-PCR and Western blotting. The HIF-2α knockdown group exhibited a decrease in the colony size of the iPS cells. The HIF-2α or -3α knockdown group demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in the transcription factor expression compared to that observed in the control group. These results demonstrate that HIF-2α among HIFs is the most influential candidate for the maintenance of the pluripotency of murine iPS cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Individual Placement and Support (IPS) for Methadone Maintenance Therapy Patients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Lones, Carrie E; Bond, Gary R; McGovern, Mark P; Carr, Kathryn; Leckron-Myers, Teresa; Hartnett, Tim; Becker, Deborah R


    Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is an evidence-based employment model for people with severe mental illness, but it has not been evaluated for clients enrolled in substance abuse treatment programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of IPS for people with opioid use disorders enrolled in an opioid treatment program. Within a randomized controlled experiment, 45 patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy were assigned to either IPS or a 6-month waitlist. The waitlist group received IPS after 6 months. The primary outcome assessed over 1 year compared the attainment of a job for the IPS condition to the waitlist comparison group. During the first 6 months after enrollment, 11 (50%) active IPS participants gained competitive employment compared to 1 (5%) waitlist participant (Χ (2) = 12.0, p IPS participants gained competitive employment compared to 5 (22%) waitlist participants (Χ (2) = 3.92, p = 0.07). We conclude that IPS holds promise as an employment intervention for people with opioid use disorders in methadone maintenance treatment, but larger trials with longer follow-up are needed.

  16. Principles for enhancing the role of state vocational rehabilitation in IPS-supported employment. (United States)

    Oulvey, Eugene; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth A; Swanson, Sarah J


    Research has established the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment as an effective approach for persons with severe mental illnesses. This article examines strategies for Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) to enhance employment outcomes through better collaboration with IPS programs. Twenty-one focus groups were conducted in rural and urban locations in Illinois with mental health consumers, VR counselors, IPS specialists, and mental health professionals. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify features of strong collaborations between VR and IPS programs. Features of strong collaborations between VR and IPS programs included the following: (a) expertise, (b) consistency, (c) accessibility, and (d) integration. Five recommendations were developed from themes expressed in focus groups: (a) enhance mutual knowledge and understanding between VR and IPS practitioners, (b) examine and modify VR regulations and guidelines that conflict with IPS principles, (c) create clear guidelines for VR participation on IPS teams, (d) create guidelines for good relationships between VR and community mental health centers, and (e) develop tools to promote accountability in VR staff and systems to improve employment outcomes for people with mental illness. Modest changes in the federal/state VR program could enhance that system's capability to foster employment outcomes for persons with severe mental illness. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Host-tree monoterpenes and biosynthesis of aggregation pheromones in the bark beetle ips paraconfusus (United States)

    In the 1970-80s, vapors of the common conifer tree monoterpenes, myrcene and a-pinene, were shown to serve as precursors of ipsenol, ipsdienol and cis-verbenol, aggregation pheromone components of Ips paraconfusus. A paradigm developed that Ips bark beetles utilize pre-formed monoterpene precursors ...

  18. 78 FR 8032 - Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications... encourage subscription to or use of, Internet Protocol Captioned Telephone Service (IP CTS); requiring each...-3160, fax: (202) 488-5563, or Internet: . Document FCC 13-13 can also be downloaded in...

  19. Myricetin stimulates the absorption of the pro-carcinogen PhIP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, M.E.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Alink, G.M.; Groten, J.P.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.


    The effect of the flavonoid myricetin on the transport of the pro-carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through differentiated Caco-2 monolayers, a model for the intestinal epithelium, is described. Myricetin causes an increase of the transport of PhIP from the apical to

  20. Efficient IP Traffic over Optical Network Based on Wavelength Translation Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jha, Vikas; Kalia, Kartik; Chowdhary, Bhawani Shankar


    With the advent of TCP/IP protocol suite the overall era of communication technologies had been redefined. Now, we can’t ignore the presence of huge amount of IP traffic; data, voice or video increasing day by day creating more pressure on existing communicating media and supporting back bone...

  1. Structural Basis and IP6 Requirement for Pds5-Dependent Cohesin Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ouyang, Zhuqing; Zheng, Ge; Tomchick, Diana R; Luo, Xuelian; Yu, Hongtao


    .... The structure further reveals that Pds5 can bind inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). The IP6-binding segment of Pds5B is shaped like the jaw of a plier lever and inhibits the binding of Scc1 to Smc3. We propose that Pds5 stabilizes a transient, open state of cohesin to promote its release from chromosomes.

  2. A survey of Attacks on VoIP networks and Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    . 2011 2nd International Conference on, 2011, pp. 3591-3594. [16] R. Farley and Xinyuan Wang, "VoIP shield: A transparent protection of deployed VoIP systems from SIP-based exploits," in Network Operations and ...

  3. A simple method to quantitate IP-10 in dried blood and plasma spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabye, Martine G; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Werlinrud, Anne Marie


    Antigen specific release of IP-10 is an established marker for infection with M.tuberculosis. Compared to IFN-γ, IP-10 is released in 100-fold higher concentrations enabling the development of novel assays for detection. Dried blood spots are a convenient sample for high throughput newborn screen...

  4. ERP44 inhibits human lung cancer cell migration mainly via IP3R2. (United States)

    Huang, Xue; Jin, Meng; Chen, Ying-Xiao; Wang, Jun; Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yuan, Qi; Yao, Kai-Tai; Ji, Guangju


    Cancer cell migration is involved in tumour metastasis. However, the relationship between calcium signalling and cancer migration is not well elucidated. In this study, we used the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERP44), which has been reported to regulate calcium release inside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in cell migration. We found that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs/ITPRs) inhibitor 2-APB significantly inhibited A549 cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and pseudopodium protrusion, which suggests that Ca2+ is necessary for A549 cell migration. Similarly, the overexpression of ERP44 reduced intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs, altered cell morphology and significantly inhibited the migration of A549 cells. These phenomena were primarily dependent on IP3R2 because wound healing in A549 cells with IP3R2 rather than IP3R1 or IP3R3 siRNA was markedly inhibited. Moreover, the overexpression of ERP44 did not affect the migration of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which mainly expresses IP3R1. Based on the above observations, we conclude that ERP44 regulates A549 cell migration mainly via an IP3R2-dependent pathway.

  5. NVThermIP vs TOD: matching the target acquisition range criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.; Hogervorst, M.A.


    Currently, three major approaches exist to predict Target Acquisition (TA) performance with thermal imagers: i) the TOD laboratory method and model, ii) the NVThermIP model and iii) the MTDP lab method and TRM3 model. In this study, TOD measurements, TOD predictions and NVThermIP predictions are

  6. Joint modeling of ChIP-seq data via a Markov random field model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Yanchun; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst; 't Hoen, Peter A C

    Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments have now become routine in biology for the detection of protein-binding sites. In this paper, we present a Markov random field model for the joint analysis of multiple ChIP-seq experiments. The proposed model naturally accounts for

  7. CHANCE: comprehensive software for quality control and validation of ChIP-seq data.


    Song, Jun; Diaz, A; Nellore, A; Song, JS


    ChIP-seq is a powerful method for obtaining genome-wide maps of protein-DNA interactions and epigenetic modifications. CHANCE (CHip-seq ANalytics and Confidence Estimation) is a standalone package for ChIP-seq quality control and protocol optimization. Our

  8. Accounting for immunoprecipitation efficiencies in the statistical analysis of ChIP-seq data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Yanchun; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst; 't Hoen, Peter A C


    Background: ImmunoPrecipitation (IP) efficiencies may vary largely between different antibodies and between repeated experiments with the same antibody. These differences have a large impact on the quality of ChIP-seq data: a more efficient experiment will necessarily lead to a higher signal to

  9. iTAR: a web server for identifying target genes of transcription factors using ChIP-seq or ChIP-chip data. (United States)

    Yang, Chia-Chun; Andrews, Erik H; Chen, Min-Hsuan; Wang, Wan-Yu; Chen, Jeremy J W; Gerstein, Mark; Liu, Chun-Chi; Cheng, Chao


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) or microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) has been widely used to determine the genomic occupation of transcription factors (TFs). We have previously developed a probabilistic method, called TIP (Target Identification from Profiles), to identify TF target genes using ChIP-seq/ChIP-chip data. To achieve high specificity, TIP applies a conservative method to estimate significance of target genes, with the trade-off being a relatively low sensitivity of target gene identification compared to other methods. Additionally, TIP's output does not render binding-peak locations or intensity, information highly useful for visualization and general experimental biological use, while the variability of ChIP-seq/ChIP-chip file formats has made input into TIP more difficult than desired. To improve upon these facets, here we present are fined TIP with key extensions. First, it implements a Gaussian mixture model for p-value estimation, increasing target gene identification sensitivity and more accurately capturing the shape of TF binding profile distributions. Second, it enables the incorporation of TF binding-peak data by identifying their locations in significant target gene promoter regions and quantifies their strengths. Finally, for full ease of implementation we have incorporated it into a web server ( ) that enables flexibility of input file format, can be used across multiple species and genome assembly versions, and is freely available for public use. The web server additionally performs GO enrichment analysis for the identified target genes to reveal the potential function of the corresponding TF. The iTAR web server provides a user-friendly interface and supports target gene identification in seven species, ranging from yeast to human. To facilitate investigating the quality of ChIP-seq/ChIP-chip data, the web server generates the chart of the

  10. Removing Ambiguities of IP Telephony Traffic Using Protocol Scrubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazara I. A. Barry


    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs face the serious challenge of attacks such as insertion and evasion attacks that are caused by ambiguous network traffic. Such ambiguity comes as a result of the nature of network traffic which includes protocol implementation variations and errors alongside legitimate network traffic. Moreover, attackers can intentionally introduce further ambiguities in the traffic. Consequently, NIDSs need to be aware of these ambiguities when detection is performed and make sure to differentiate between true attacks and protocol implementation variations or errors; otherwise, detection accuracy can be affected negatively. In this paper we present the design and implementation of tools that are called protocol scrubbers whose main functionality is to remove ambiguities from network traffic before it is presented to the NIDS. The proposed protocol scrubbers are designed for session initiation and data transfer protocols in IP telephony systems. They guarantee that the traffic presented to NIDSs is unambiguous by eliminating ambiguous behaviors of protocols using well-designed protocol state machines, and walking through packet headers of protocols to make sure packets will be interpreted in the desired way by the NIDS. The experimental results shown in this paper demonstrate the good quality and applicability of the introduced scrubbers.

  11. MD#1182: Calibration of diamond particle detectors in IP6

    CERN Document Server

    Valette, Matthieu; Lindstrom, Bjorn Hans Filip; Wiesner, Christoph


    In case of an asynchronous beam dump with a fully filled LHC machine it is expected that all standard ionisation chamber Beam Loss Monitors (IC BLM) around the LHC dumping region in IP6 will be saturated. Diamond Beam Loss Monitors (dBLM) were therefore installed next to the movable dump protection absorber (TCDQ) downstream of the extraction kickers. These detectors allow resolving losses at a nanosecond timescale and with an dynamic range of several orders of magnitude; thus, allowing to know the number of nominal bunches impacting the TCDQ. After a first series of calibrations using asynchronous beam dump tests, an experiment was conducted during MD#1182 to demonstrate the possibility of resolving a nominal bunch hitting the TCDQ. The impact parameter of the bunches on the TCDQ was first scanned using probe bunches with lower intensity then tests were done with nominal bunches (1.1e11 p/bunch) at injection energy. High energy calibration of the losses was also attempted unsuccessfully. Due to different beh...

  12. Synoptic IPS and Yohkoh soft X-ray observations (United States)

    Hick, P.; Jackson, B. V.; Rappoport, S.; Woan, G.; Slater, G.; Strong, K.; Uchida, Y.


    Interplanetary scintillation measurements of the disturbance factor, g, from October 1991 to October 1992 are used to construct synoptic Carrington maps. These maps, which show the structure of the quiet solar wind, are compared with X-ray Carrington maps from the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) instrument. For the period studied the global structure outlined by (weakly) enhanced g-values apparent in the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) maps tend to match the active regions (as shown in the X-ray maps) significantly better than the heliospheric current sheet. Contrary to traditional opinion, which views active regions as magnetically closed structures that do not have any significant impact on the solar wind flow, our results suggest that density fluctuations in the solar wind are significantly enhanced over active regions. These results support the suggestion by Uchida et al. (1992), based on Yohkoh observations of expanding active regions, that active regions play a role in feeding mass into the quiet solar wind.

  13. DNA end resection by CtIP and exonuclease 1 prevents genomic instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eid, Wassim; Steger, Martin; El-Shemerly, Mahmoud


    ). In this study, we show that the localization of EXO1 to DSBs depends on both CtIP and MRN. We also establish that CtIP interacts with EXO1 and restrains its exonucleolytic activity in vitro. Finally, we show that on exposure to camptothecin, depletion of EXO1 in CtIP-deficient cells increases the frequency......End resection of DNA-which is essential for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination-relies first on the partnership between MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) and CtIP, followed by a processive step involving helicases and exonucleases such as exonuclease 1 (EXO1...... of DNA-PK-dependent radial chromosome formation. Thus, our study identifies new functions of CtIP and EXO1 in DNA end resection and provides new information on the regulation of DSB repair pathways, which is a key factor in the maintenance of genome integrity....

  14. iPS cell technologies: significance and applications to CNS regeneration and disease (United States)


    In 2006, we demonstrated that mature somatic cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state by gene transfer, generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Since that time, there has been an enormous increase in interest regarding the application of iPS cell technologies to medical science, in particular for regenerative medicine and human disease modeling. In this review article, we outline the current status of applications of iPS technology to cell therapies (particularly for spinal cord injury), as well as neurological disease-specific iPS cell research (particularly for Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease). Finally, future directions of iPS cell research are discussed including a) development of an accurate assay system for disease-associated phenotypes, b) demonstration of causative relationships between genotypes and phenotypes by genome editing, c) application to sporadic and common diseases, and d) application to preemptive medicine. PMID:24685317

  15. Benthic Food Web Structure across the Canadian Arctic Ocean: Insights from stable isotopes and the IP25 biomarker (United States)

    Friscourt, N.; Archambault, P.; Masse, G.; Nozais, C.


    In recent decades, the Arctic Ocean has undergone unprecedented changes, such as an increase in the surface temperature and a reduction of sea ice cover. These changes may cause variations in the intensity and spatial distribution of primary production and the nature of pelagic-benthic coupling. This could affect the amount and quality of organic matter that settles onto the seafloor, and the benthic communities that feed upon it. The objectives of this study were i) to describe the trophic structure and resilience of regional benthic food webs using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses and ii) to evaluate the significance of ice algae in the diet of benthic communities using the sea ice proxy IP25. The study area extends from the North Water Polynya to the Chukchi Sea across five geographic regions (North Water Polynya, Canadian Archipelago, Amundsen Gulf, Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea) based on environmental factors. To reach these objectives, we collected particulate organic matter (POM), sediments and zoobenthic samples from July to October 2014 aboard the CCGS Amundsen. Stable isotope and IP25 data, the trophic structure within regions and comparison between regions will be presented. Potential impacts of climate change and human activities on benthic ecosystems in the Arctic are still difficult to assess because of the lack of baseline data. The baseline data once provided will enable us to make further predictions on how these changes may affect benthic food web structure.

  16. What is the role of retroperitoneal exploration in optimally debulked stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer? An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group ancillary data study. (United States)

    Rungruang, Bunja J; Miller, Austin; Krivak, Thomas C; Horowitz, Neil S; Rodriguez, Noah; Hamilton, Chad A; Backes, Floor J; Carson, Linda F; Friedlander, Michael; Mutch, David G; Goodheart, Michael J; Tewari, Krishnansu S; Wenham, Robert M; Bookman, Michael A; Maxwell, G Larry; Richard, Scott D


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of retroperitoneal (RP) exploration on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with stage IIIC disease who underwent optimal debulking surgery. Data were collected from records of the Gynecologic Oncology Group 182 (GOG-182) study of stage IIIC EOC patients cytoreduced to no gross residual disease (R0) or minimal gross residual ( 2 cm IP tumor without lymph node involvement (IP/RP-), 2) > 2 cm IP tumor with lymph node involvement (IP/RP+), and 3) > 2 cm IP tumor with no RP exploration (IP/RP?). The effects of disease distribution and RP exploration on PFS and OS were assessed using Kaplan-Meier and proportional hazards methods. There were 1871 stage IIIC patients in GOG-182 who underwent optimal primary debulking surgery. Of these, 689 (36.8%) underwent RP exploration with removal of lymph nodes from at least 1 para-aortic site, and 1182 (63.2%) did not. There were 269 patients in the IP/RP- group, 420 patients in the IP/RP + group, and 1182 patients in the IP/RP? group. Improved PFS (18.5 vs 16.0 months; P Cancer 2017;123:985-93. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. The role of calsenilin/DREAM/KChIP3 in contextual fear conditioning. (United States)

    Alexander, Jon C; McDermott, Carmel M; Tunur, Tumay; Rands, Vicky; Stelly, Claire; Karhson, Debra; Bowlby, Mark R; An, W Frank; Sweatt, J David; Schrader, Laura A


    Potassium channel interacting proteins (KChIPs) are members of a family of calcium binding proteins that interact with Kv4 potassium (K(+)) channel primary subunits and also act as transcription factors. The Kv4 subunit is a primary K(+) channel pore-forming subunit, which contributes to the somatic and dendritic A-type currents throughout the nervous system. These A-type currents play a key role in the regulation of neuronal excitability and dendritic processing of incoming synaptic information. KChIP3 is also known as calsenilin and as the transcription factor, downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), which regulates a number of genes including prodynorphin. KChIP3 and Kv4 primary channel subunits are highly expressed in hippocampus, an area of the brain important for learning and memory. Through its various functions, KChIP3 may play a role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. We evaluated the role of KChIP3 in a hippocampus-dependent memory task, contextual fear conditioning. Male KChIP3 knockout (KO) mice showed significantly enhanced memory 24 hours after training as measured by percent freezing. In addition, we found that membrane association and interaction with Kv4.2 of KChIP3 protein was significantly decreased and nuclear KChIP3 expression was increased six hours after the fear conditioning training paradigm with no significant change in KChIP3 mRNA. In addition, prodynorphin mRNA expression was significantly decreased six hours after fear conditioning training in wild-type (WT) but not in KO animals. These data suggest a role for regulation of gene expression by KChIP3/DREAM/calsenilin in consolidation of contextual fear conditioning memories.

  18. Inhibition by salmeterol and cilomilast of fluticasone-enhanced IP-10 release in airway epithelial cells. (United States)

    Reddy, P J; Aksoy, Mark O; Yang, Yi; Li, Xiu Xia; Ji, Rong; Kelsen, Steven G


    The CXC chemokines, IP-10/CXCL10 and IL-8/CXCL8, play a role in obstructive lung disease by attracting Th1/Tc1 lymphocytes and neutrophils, respectively. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long acting beta 2-agonists (LABA) are widely used. However, their effect(s) on the release of IP-10 and IL-8 by airway epithelial cells are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of fluticasone, salmeterol, and agents which raise intracellular cAMP (cilomilast and db-cAMP) on the expression of IP-10 and IL-8 protein and mRNA. Studies were performed in cultured human airway epithelial cells during cytokine-stimulated IP-10 and IL-8 release. Cytokine treatment (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IFN-gamma) increased IP-10 and IL-8 protein and mRNA levels. Fluticasone (0.1 nM to 1 microM) increased IP-10 but reduced IL-8 protein release without changing IP-10 mRNA levels assessed by real time RT-PCR. The combination of salmeterol (1 micro M) and cilomilast (1-10 mu M) reduced IP-10 but had no effect on IL-8 protein. Salmeterol alone (1 micro M) and db-cAMP alone (1 mM) antagonised the effects of fluticasone on IP-10 but not IL-8 protein. In human airway epithelial cells, inhibition by salmeterol of fluticasone-enhanced IP-10 release may be an important therapeutic effect of the LABA/ICS combination not present when the two drugs are used separately.

  19. A MAD-Bayes Algorithm for State-Space Inference and Clustering with Application to Querying Large Collections of ChIP-Seq Data Sets. (United States)

    Zuo, Chandler; Chen, Kailei; Keleş, Sündüz


    Current analytic approaches for querying large collections of chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) data from multiple cell types rely on individual analysis of each data set (i.e., peak calling) independently. This approach discards the fact that functional elements are frequently shared among related cell types and leads to overestimation of the extent of divergence between different ChIP-seq samples. Methods geared toward multisample investigations have limited applicability in settings that aim to integrate 100s to 1000s of ChIP-seq data sets for query loci (e.g., thousands of genomic loci with a specific binding site). Recently, Zuo et al. developed a hierarchical framework for state-space matrix inference and clustering, named MBASIC, to enable joint analysis of user-specified loci across multiple ChIP-seq data sets. Although this versatile framework estimates both the underlying state-space (e.g., bound vs. unbound) and also groups loci with similar patterns together, its Expectation-Maximization-based estimation structure hinders its applicability with large number of loci and samples. We address this limitation by developing MAP-based asymptotic derivations from Bayes (MAD-Bayes) framework for MBASIC. This results in a K-means-like optimization algorithm that converges rapidly and hence enables exploring multiple initialization schemes and flexibility in tuning. Comparison with MBASIC indicates that this speed comes at a relatively insignificant loss in estimation accuracy. Although MAD-Bayes MBASIC is specifically designed for the analysis of user-specified loci, it is able to capture overall patterns of histone marks from multiple ChIP-seq data sets similar to those identified by genome-wide segmentation methods such as ChromHMM and Spectacle.

  20. M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina. (United States)

    Prigge, Cameron L; Yeh, Po-Ting; Liou, Nan-Fu; Lee, Chi-Chan; You, Shih-Feng; Liu, Lei-Lei; McNeill, David S; Chew, Kylie S; Hattar, Samer; Chen, Shih-Kuo; Zhang, Dao-Qi


    Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs, with five subtypes named M1-M5) are a unique subclass of RGCs with axons that project directly to many brain nuclei involved in non-image-forming functions such as circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex. Recent evidence suggests that melanopsin-based signals also influence image-forming visual function, including light adaptation, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. Intriguingly, a small population of M1 ipRGCs have intraretinal axon collaterals that project toward the outer retina. Using genetic mouse models, we provide three lines of evidence showing that these axon collaterals make connections with upstream dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs): (1) ipRGC signaling to DACs is blocked by tetrodotoxin both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that ipRGC-to-DAC transmission requires voltage-gated Na(+) channels; (2) this transmission is partly dependent on N-type Ca(2+) channels, which are possibly expressed in the axon collateral terminals of ipRGCs; and (3) fluorescence microscopy reveals that ipRGC axon collaterals make putative presynaptic contact with DACs. We further demonstrate that elimination of M1 ipRGCs attenuates light adaptation, as evidenced by an impaired electroretinogram b-wave from cones, whereas a dopamine receptor agonist can potentiate the cone-driven b-wave of retinas lacking M1 ipRGCs. Together, the results strongly suggest that ipRGCs transmit luminance signals retrogradely to the outer retina through the dopaminergic system and in turn influence retinal light adaptation. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) comprise a third class of retinal photoreceptors that are known to mediate physiological responses such as circadian photoentrainment. However, investigation into whether and how ipRGCs contribute to vision has just begun. Here, we provide convergent anatomical and physiological evidence that