Sample records for water displacement problem

  1. Rising waters, displaced lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Brickle


    Full Text Available Although Pakistan and Colombia have relatively advanced disaster management frameworks, they were unprepared and ill-equipped to assist and protect people displaced by recent floods.

  2. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerini, Francesco Fuso; Valentini, Francesco; Modi, Anish


    hybrid generation from solar, wind and biomass, with the possibility of using fossil sources too thanks to a dual fuel gas engine. The module can work both in grid connected and stand-alone mode. In addition the module includes a water purification unit to meet the water needs of displaced population......The world has faced many natural and man-made disasters in the past few years, resulting in millions of people living in temporary camps across the globe. The energy and clean water needs of the relief operators in such emergency situations are primarily satisfied by diesel engine based generators...... and importing clean water to the site, in certain cases even for several years after the emergency. This approach results in problems such as low security of supply and high costs. Especially targeting the prolonged displacement situations, this paper presents an alternative solution – the Energy and Water...

  3. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton


    The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099

  4. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of supercritical CO2-water drainage displacement in porous media: CO2 saturation and displacement mechanism. (United States)

    Yamabe, Hirotatsu; Tsuji, Takeshi; Liang, Yunfeng; Matsuoka, Toshifumi


    CO2 geosequestration in deep aquifers requires the displacement of water (wetting phase) from the porous media by supercritical CO2 (nonwetting phase). However, the interfacial instabilities, such as viscous and capillary fingerings, develop during the drainage displacement. Moreover, the burstlike Haines jump often occurs under conditions of low capillary number. To study these interfacial instabilities, we performed lattice Boltzmann simulations of CO2-water drainage displacement in a 3D synthetic granular rock model at a fixed viscosity ratio and at various capillary numbers. The capillary numbers are varied by changing injection pressure, which induces changes in flow velocity. It was observed that the viscous fingering was dominant at high injection pressures, whereas the crossover of viscous and capillary fingerings was observed, accompanied by Haines jumps, at low injection pressures. The Haines jumps flowing forward caused a significant drop of CO2 saturation, whereas Haines jumps flowing backward caused an increase of CO2 saturation (per injection depth). We demonstrated that the pore-scale Haines jumps remarkably influenced the flow path and therefore equilibrium CO2 saturation in crossover domain, which is in turn related to the storage efficiency in the field-scale geosequestration. The results can improve our understandings of the storage efficiency by the effects of pore-scale displacement phenomena.

  5. A hierarchical method for discrete structural topology design problems with local stress and displacement constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Stidsen, Thomas K.


    of minimizing the weight of a structure subject to displacement and local design-dependent stress constraints. The method iteratively treats a sequence of problems of increasing size of the same type as the original problem. The problems are defined on a design mesh which is initially coarse......In this paper, we present a hierarchical optimization method for finding feasible true 0-1 solutions to finite-element-based topology design problems. The topology design problems are initially modelled as non-convex mixed 0-1 programs. The hierarchical optimization method is applied to the problem...... and then successively refined as needed. At each level of design mesh refinement, a neighbourhood optimization method is used to treat the problem considered. The non-convex topology design problems are equivalently reformulated as convex all-quadratic mixed 0-1 programs. This reformulation enables the use of methods...

  6. A hierarchical method for structural topology design problems with local stress and displacement constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Stidsen, Thomas K.


    of minimizing the weight of a structure subject to displacement and local design-dependent stress constraints. The method iteratively solves a sequence of problems of increasing size of the same type as the original problem. The problems are defined on a design mesh which is initially coarse......In this paper we present a hierarchical optimization method for finding feasible true 0-1 solutions to finite element based topology design problems. The topology design problems are initially modeled as non-convex mixed 0-1 programs. The hierarchical optimization method is applied to the problem...... and then successively refined as needed. At each level of design mesh refinement, a neighborhood optimization method is used to solve the problem considered. The non-convex topology design problems are equivalently reformulated as convex all-quadratic mixed 0-1 programs. This reformulation enables the use of methods...

  7. Variational data assimilation problem for the thermodynamics model with displaced pole (United States)

    Parmuzin, Eugene; Agosgkov, Valery; Zakharova, Natalia


    The most versatile and promising technology for solving problems of monitoring and analysis of the natural environment is a four-dimensional variational data assimilation of observation data. The development of computational algorithms for the solution of data assimilation problems in geophysical hydrodynamics is important in the contemporary computation and informational science to improve the quality of long-term prediction by using the hydrodynamics sea model. These problems are applied to close and solve in practice the appropriate inverse problems of the geophysical hydrodynamics. In this work the variational data assimilation problems in the Baltic Sea water area with displaced pole were formulated and studied [1]. We assume, that the unique function which is obtained by observation data processing is the function and we permit that the function is known only on a part of considering area (for example, on a part of the Baltic Sea). Numerical experiments on restoring the ocean heat flux and obtaining solution of the system (temperature, salinity, velocity, and sea surface height) in the Baltic Sea primitive equation hydrodynamics model [2] with assimilation procedure were carried out. In the calculations we used daily sea surface temperature observation from Danish meteorological Institute, prepared on the basis of measurements of the radiometer (AVHRR, AATSR and AMSRE) and spectroradiometer (SEVIRI and MODIS). The spatial resolution of the model grid with respect to the horizontal variables is uniform on latitude (0.2 degree) and varies on longitude from 0.04 to 0.0004 degree . The results of the numerical experiments are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project №16-01-00548) and project №14-11-00609 by the Russian Science Foundation. References: [1] Agoshkov V.I., Parmuzin E.I., Zakharova N.B., Zalesny V.B., Shutyaev V.P., Gusev A.V. Variational assimilation of observation data in the mathematical model of

  8. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict. (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton


    The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  9. Problems of systems dataware using optoelectronic measuring means of linear displacement (United States)

    Bazykin, S. N.; Bazykina, N. A.; Samohina, K. S.


    Problems of the dataware of the systems with the use of optoelectronic means of the linear displacement are considered in the article. The classification of the known physical effects, realized by the means of information-measuring systems, is given. The organized analysis of information flows in technical systems from the standpoint of determination of inaccuracies of measurement and management was conducted. In spite of achieved successes in automation of machine-building and instruments-building equipment in the field of dataware of the technical systems, there are unresolved problems, concerning the qualitative aspect of the production process. It was shown that the given problem can be solved using optoelectronic lazer information-measuring systems. Such information-measuring systems are capable of not only executing the measuring functions, but also solving the problems of management and control during processing, thereby guaranteeing the quality of final products.

  10. Cardiorespiratory responses during deep water running with and without horizontal displacement at different cadences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Kanitz


    Conclusions: The results indicate that the increase in both cadence and displacement results in significant cardiorespiratory responses as a result of deep water running. This finding is important for adapting exercise prescription to the goals of participants.

  11. Accuracy of water displacement hand volumetry using an ethanol and water mixture. (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R; Kim, Jong-Moon; Cao, Peihong


    The traditional water displacement method for measuring limb volume is improved by adding ethanol to water. Four solutions were tested (pure water, 0.5% ethanol, 3% ethanol, and 6% ethanol) to determine the most accurate method when measuring the volume of a known object. The 3% and 6% ethanol solutions significantly reduced (P alcohol solution and to 0.6 using 6% ethanol solution (the mean coefficients of variation were reduced from 0.59% for water to 0.22% for 3% ethanol and 0.16% for 6% ethanol). The spheres' volume measured with pure water, 0.5% ethanol solution, 3% ethanol solution, and 6% ethanol solution was 383.2 +/- 2.27 ml, 384.4 +/- 1.9 ml, 389.4 +/- 0.9 ml, and 390.2 +/- 0.6 ml, respectively. Using the 3% and 6% ethanol solutions to measure hand volume blindly in 10 volunteers significantly reduced the mean coefficient of variation for hand volumetry from 0.91% for water to 0.52% for the 3% ethanol solution (P < 0.05) and to 0.46% for the 6% ethanol solution (P < 0.05). The mean standard deviation from all 10 subjects decreased from 4.2 ml for water to 2.3 ml for 3% ethanol solution and 2.1 ml for the 6% solution. These findings document that the accuracy and reproducibility of hand volume measurements are improved by small additions of ethanol, most likely by reducing surface tension of water.

  12. Estimate of the limit displacement wave amplitude in the dynamic problem on an out-of-plane crack (United States)

    Petrov, Yu. V.; Smirnov, V. I.


    The paper presents several results of structural fracture macromechanics used to study the integrity of continuum under impulse loading conditions. The dynamic problem on a semi-infinite steady-state crack of longitudinal shear is considered. Exact analytical expressions for the stress tensor and displacement vector components on the crack line are obtained. The values of the threshold displacement amplitude on the wave front are determined for several structural materials.

  13. Numerical Simulation of High Viscosity Oil Displacement by Water Following Non-Linear Filtration Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Slabnov


    Full Text Available The non-linear filtration law with a limiting gradient of two immiscible fluids (oil and water into a flat warp-free layer exploited by horizontal and vertical wells is investigated. The method for numerical determination of pressure and oil saturation and the corresponding difference analogues are considered. The analysis of high viscosity oil displacement by water in the five-point waterflooding element for three types of heterogeneity (zonal, with spline-interpolation application, and laminated is carried out. The influence of the displacement limiting gradient on the basic technological characteristics of non-Newtonian oil production is studied. The results of the mathematical simulation show that the front movement at the initial stage of displacement is close to circular. The movement of non-Newtonian oil after the displacing fluid breakthrough into the producing well occurs mainly in a narrow area close to the straight current line connecting the producing and pressure wells. The dynamics of the current oil recovery coefficient depends on the properties of the displaced fluid, absolute permeability distribution in the filtration area, and set of limitations to exploitation of the operating producing and pressure wells.

  14. Mining-induced displacement and resettlement: social problem and human rights issue


    Terminski, Bogumil


    Mining is currently not a statistically significant category of development-induced displacement. Nevertheless, the social costs of exploitation are great, and that is why the topic is worthy of a wider and more profound scientific analysis. The first displacement caused by mining dates back to the late nineteenth century. As pointed out by Walter Fernandes, in the Indian region of Jarkhand alone, mining has led to the displacement of 2.55 million people. Contrary to the opinions ...

  15. Stochastic aggregation model (SAM) for DNAPL water displacement in porous media (United States)

    Trantham, H.; Durnford, D.


    Source zone characterization of DNAPL in the subsurface is a necessary part of managing environmental risks. Modeling DNAPL-water displacement processes at the pore-scale can lead to greater insight and understanding of lateral spreading, the extent of vertical migration, and the final fluid distributions of dense non-aqueous phase liquids. A two-dimensional stochastic aggregation model is developed to study DNAPL-water displacement in porous media. The model is a modified diffusion limited aggregation model, and uses essential properties governing front stability as model input: DNAPL-water viscosity differences, DNAPL-water density differences, intrinsic permeability of the porous media, flow rate, and the inclination angle of the porous media from the horizontal. Due to the simplicity of the algorithm, this modeling technique can produce realistic DNAPL-water configurations much faster than conventional continuum approaches and allows for a Monte Carlo approach to be utilized. The model is validated through comparison to laboratory experiments involving 1,2-Dichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, and mobile pyrogard 53. These experiments were performed at varying flow rates and angles of inclination from the horizontal.

  16. Using the Aesop's fable paradigm to investigate causal understanding of water displacement by New Caledonian crows. (United States)

    Jelbert, Sarah A; Taylor, Alex H; Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S; Gray, Russell D


    Understanding causal regularities in the world is a key feature of human cognition. However, the extent to which non-human animals are capable of causal understanding is not well understood. Here, we used the Aesop's fable paradigm--in which subjects drop stones into water to raise the water level and obtain an out of reach reward--to assess New Caledonian crows' causal understanding of water displacement. We found that crows preferentially dropped stones into a water-filled tube instead of a sand-filled tube; they dropped sinking objects rather than floating objects; solid objects rather than hollow objects, and they dropped objects into a tube with a high water level rather than a low one. However, they failed two more challenging tasks which required them to attend to the width of the tube, and to counter-intuitive causal cues in a U-shaped apparatus. Our results indicate that New Caledonian crows possess a sophisticated, but incomplete, understanding of the causal properties of displacement, rivalling that of 5-7 year old children.

  17. Deep water velocities and particle displacements induced by acoustic-gravity waves from submarine earthquakes (United States)

    Oliveira, T. C. A.; Kadri, U.


    An uplift of the ocean bottom caused by a submarine earthquake can generate Acoustic-Gravity Waves (AGW), progressive compression-type waves that travel at near the speed of sound in water. The role of AGW for oceans hydrodynamics has recently became a topic of increasing scientific interest. Kadri [Deep ocean water transport by acoustic-gravity waves, J.Geo. Res. Oceans, 119, (2014)] showed theoretically that AGW can contribute to deep ocean currents and circulation. We analyze and simulate the fundamental AGW modes generated by a submarine earthquake. We consider the first five AGW modes and show that they may all induce comparable temporal variations in water particle velocities at different depths in regions far from the epicenter. Results of temporal variations of horizontal and vertical fluid parcel velocities induced by AGW confirm chaotic flow trajectories at different water depths. A realistic example based on the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake shows that vertical water particle displacements of O(10-2 ) m can be generated at 1 Km depth in a 4 km water depth ocean. We show that the velocity field depends on the presence of the leading AGW modes. Each AGW mode becomes evanescent at a critical time, at which energy is transferred to the next higher modes. Consequently, the main pattern of the velocity field changes as the leading mode change. As an example, for a reference point located at 1000 Km from the epicenter, the first five AGW become evanescent after 1.6, 4.6, 7.7, 10.8 and 13.8 hours, respectively. Our analysis and simulations shed light on the spatio-temporal evolution of the deep water velocities and particle displacements induced by AGW that radiate during submarine earthquakes. Thus, this work is a contribution to understand the role of high moment magnitude submarine earthquakes in deep water mixing mechanism.

  18. Water--Problems and Solutions. A Report Concerning the Problems and Solutions of Negative Water Balance. (United States)

    Ewert, Alan

    Outdoor leaders constantly face problems created by water shortage and, to act effectively, must thoroughly understand the body's use of water and the ways to delay dehydration when water shortage occurs. Dehydration begins when there is a negative water balance, or more water lost than ingested, and progresses from the stage of dryness, to the…

  19. Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann


    The movement of connate water spiked with gamma emitting 22Na was studied during laboratory water flooding of oil saturated chalk from a North Sea oil reservoir. Using a one dimensional gamma monitoring technique is was observed that connate water is piled-up at the front of the injection water...... and forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined...

  20. Water Intrusion Problems in Transit Tunnels (United States)


    This report presents the findings of five case studies in which an in-depth analysis was made of tunnel water intrusion problems in transit tunnels. Water intrusion parameters of transit systems in Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, New York and Washington, D...

  1. Heaving displacement amplification characteristics of a power buoy in shoaling water with insufficient draft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck-Min Kweon


    Full Text Available The resonance power buoy is a convincing tool that can increase the extraction efficiency of wave energy. The buoy needs a corresponding draft, to move in resonance with waves within the peak frequency band where wave energy is concentrated. However, it must still be clarified if the buoy acts as an effective displacement amplifier, when there is insufficient water depth. In this study, the vertical displacement of a circular cylinder-type buoy was calculated, with the spectrum data observed in a real shallow sea as the external wave force, and with the corresponding draft, according to the mode frequency of normal waves. Such numerical investigation result, without considering Power Take-Off (PTO damping, confirmed that the area of the heave responses spectrum can be amplified by up to about tenfold, compared with the wave energy spectrum, if the draft corresponds to the peak frequency, even with insufficient water depth. Moreover, the amplification factor of the buoy varied, according to the seasonal changes in the wave spectra.

  2. Micronized-coal-water slurry sprays from a diesel engine positive displacement fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.; Seshadri, A.K.; Zicterman, G. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Experiments have been conducted to characterize the sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system for a diesel engine. Diesel fuel water and three concentrations of micronized-coal-water slurry were used in these experiments. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and still photographs of the sprays were obtained. In addition, instaneous fuel line pressures and needle lifts were obtained. Data were acquired as a function of fluid, nozzle orifice diameter, rack setting and chamber conditions. The high speed movies were used to determine spray penetration and spray growth.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Prinz


    Full Text Available Today, about half of the world population lives in urban areas and in the coming 20 years, urbanization is expected to increase steadily, especially in the Developing World. Based on UN data and projections, about 4 out of the 5 billion world urban population will live in developing countries by 2030. Large cities in the Developing World face the problem of unplanned growth, coupled with the financial and operational inability to offer the public services needed to sustain a decent life in urban environments. Water is one of those essential commodities which is often short in supply and/or of low quality. Additionally, flood poses a threat to urban dwellers during rainy season. The water management challenges in tropical urban areas today and in the decades to come can be characterized by (1 fighting physical shortcomings in water resources, (2 coping with contamination of groundwater, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs by domestic, agricultural or industrial waste and waste water, (3 mitigating environmental impacts of water extraction (such as loss of wetlands, subsidence and seawater intrusion , (4 preventing / mastering flood situations and (5 overcoming administrative and financial strains and operational incapacities. Solutions to the problems of urban water in 20 years time are to be found in supply side and demand side measures. The first group includes (1 optimal use of surface water and groundwater resources, (2 pollution protection, (3 watershed management and (4 more water storage. The second group includes (1 educational training, (2 technological innovation, (3 water conservation and (4 water pricing.

  4. Evaluation of water displacement energetics in protein binding sites with grid cell theory. (United States)

    Gerogiokas, G; Southey, M W Y; Mazanetz, M P; Heifetz, A; Hefeitz, A; Bodkin, M; Law, R J; Michel, J


    Excess free energies, enthalpies and entropies of water in protein binding sites were computed via classical simulations and Grid Cell Theory (GCT) analyses for three pairs of congeneric ligands in complex with the proteins scytalone dehydratase, p38α MAP kinase and EGFR kinase respectively. Comparative analysis is of interest since the binding modes for each ligand pair differ in the displacement of one binding site water molecule, but significant variations in relative binding affinities are observed. Protocols that vary in their use of restraints on protein and ligand atoms were compared to determine the influence of protein-ligand flexibility on computed water structure and energetics, and to assess protocols for routine analyses of protein-ligand complexes. The GCT-derived binding affinities correctly reproduce experimental trends, but the magnitude of the predicted changes in binding affinities is exaggerated with respect to results from a previous Monte Carlo Free Energy Perturbation study. Breakdown of the GCT water free energies into enthalpic and entropic components indicates that enthalpy changes dominate the observed variations in energetics. In EGFR kinase GCT analyses revealed that replacement of a pyrimidine by a cyanopyridine perturbs water energetics up three hydration shells away from the ligand.

  5. Neuronal activity significantly reduces water displacement: DWI of a vital rat spinal cord with no hemodynamic effect. (United States)

    Tirosh, Nitzan; Nevo, Uri


    Changes in the diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) signal were observed to be correlated with neuronal activity during chemically induced brain activity, epileptic seizures, or visual stimulation. These changes suggest a possible reduction in water displacement that accompanies neuronal activity, but were possibly affected by other physiological mechanisms such as blood oxygenation level and blood flow. We developed an imaging experiment of an excised and vital newborn rat spinal cord to examine the effect of neuronal function on the displacement of water molecules as measured by DWI signal. This approach provides a DWI experiment of a vital mammalian CNS tissue in the absence of some of the systemic sources of noise. We detected a significant and reproducible drop with an average value of 19.5 ± 1.6% (mean ± SE) upon activation. The drop repeated itself in three orthogonal directions. ADC values corresponded to an oblate anisotropy. This result was validated by high resolution DWI of a fixed tissue, imaged with an ultra-high field MRI. The results support our working hypothesis that water displacement is affected by neuronal activation. These results further imply that water displacement might serve as a potential marker for brain function, and that, although commonly viewed as wholly electrochemical, neuronal activity includes a significant mechanical dimension that affects water displacement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A review on water pricing problem for sustainable water resource (United States)

    Hek, Tan Kim; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Iryanto


    A report that presented at the World Forum II at The Hague in March 2000, said that it would be water crisis around the world and some countries will be lack of water in 2025, as a result of global studies. Inefficient using of water and considering water as free goods which means it can be used as much as we want without any lost. Thus, it causes wasteful consumption and low public awareness in using water without effort to preserve and conserve the water resources. In addition, the excessive exploitation of ground water for industrial facilities also leads to declining of available freshwater. Therefore, this paper reviews some problems arise all over the world regarding to improper and improving management, policies and methods to determine the optimum model of freshwater price in order to avoid its wasteful thus ensuring its sustainability. In this paper, we also proposed a preliminary model of water pricing represents a case of Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia.

  7. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems. (United States)

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  8. Multigrid for the Galerkin least squares method in linear elasticity: The pure displacement problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jaechil [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    Franca and Stenberg developed several Galerkin least squares methods for the solution of the problem of linear elasticity. That work concerned itself only with the error estimates of the method. It did not address the related problem of finding effective methods for the solution of the associated linear systems. In this work, we prove the convergence of a multigrid (W-cycle) method. This multigrid is robust in that the convergence is uniform as the parameter, v, goes to 1/2 Computational experiments are included.

  9. New method to determine initial surface water displacement at tsunami source (United States)

    Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey; Tatarintsev, Pavel


    Friday, March 11, 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC, Japan was struck by an 8.9-magnitude earthquake near its Northeastern coast. This is one of the largest earthquakes that Japan has ever experienced. Tsunami waves swept away houses and cars and caused massive human losses. To predict tsunami wave parameters better and faster, we propose to improve data inversion scheme and achieve the performance gain of data processing. One of the reasons of inaccurate predictions of tsunami parameters is that very little information is available about the initial disturbance of the sea bed at tsunami source. In this paper, we suggest a new way of improving the quality of tsunami source parameters prediction. Modern computational technologies can accurately calculate tsunami wave propagation over the deep ocean provided that the initial displacement (perturbation of the sea bed at tsunami source) is known [4]. Direct geophysical measurements provide the location of an earthquake hypocenter and its magnitude (the released energy evaluation). Among the methods of determination of initial displacement the following ones should be considered. Calculation through the known fault structure and available seismic information. This method is widely used and provides useful information. However, even if the exact knowledge about rock blocks shifts is given, recalculation in terms of sea bed displacement is needed. This results in a certain number of errors. GPS data analysis. This method was developed after the December 2004 event in the Indian Ocean. A good correlation between dry land based GPS sensors and tsunami wave parameters was observed in the particular case of the West coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. This approach is very unique and can hardly been used in other geo locations. Satellite image analysis. The resolution of modern satellite images has dramatically improved. In the future, correct data of sea surface displacement will probably be available in real time, right after a tsunamigenic

  10. Use of airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect ground displacement hazards to water systems (United States)

    Stewart, J.P.; Hu, Jiawen; Kayen, R.E.; Lembo, A.J.; Collins, B.D.; Davis, C.A.; O'Rourke, T. D.


    We investigate the use of multiepoch airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect and measure ground displacements of sufficient magnitude to damage buried pipelines and other water system facilities that might result, for example, from earthquake or rainfall-induced landslides. Lidar scans are performed at three sites with coincident measurements by total station surveying. Relative horizontal accuracy is evaluated by measurements of lateral dimensions of well defined objects such as buildings and tanks; we find misfits ranging from approximately 5 to 12 cm, which is consistent with previous work. The bias and dispersion of lidar elevation measurements, relative to total station surveying, is assessed at two sites: (1) a power plant site (PP2) with vegetated steeply sloping terrain; and (2) a relatively flat and unvegetated site before and after trenching operations were performed. At PP2, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and a standard deviation of approximately 70 cm, whereas terrestrial lidar did not produce useful results due to beam divergence issues and inadequate sampling of the study region. At the trench site, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and reduced standard deviation relative to PP2 (6-20 cm), whereas terrestrial lidar was nearly unbiased with very low dispersion (4-6 cm). Pre- and posttrench bias-adjusted normalized residuals showed minimal to negligible correlation, but elevation change was affected by relative bias between epochs. The mean of elevation change bias essentially matches the difference in means of pre- and posttrench elevation bias, whereas elevation change standard deviation is sensitive to the dispersion of individual epoch elevations and their correlation coefficient. The observed lidar bias and standard deviations enable reliable detection of damaging ground displacements for some pipelines types (e.g., welded steel) but not all (e.g., concrete with unwelded, mortared joints). ?? ASCE 2009.

  11. Experimental investigation of the effect of injection water salinity on the displacement efficiency of miscible carbon dioxide WAG flooding in a selected carbonate reservoir

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zekri, Abdulrazag; Al-Attar, Hazim; Al-Farisi, Omar; Almehaideb, Reyadh; Lwisa, Essa Georges


      The effect of injection brine salinity on the displacement efficiency of low water salinity flooding was investigated using sea water at 35,000 ppm, and two field injection waters, namely, Um-Eradhuma (UER...

  12. Water displacement leg volumetry in clinical studies - A discussion of error sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stücker Markus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water displacement leg volumetry is a highly reproducible method, allowing the confirmation of efficacy of vasoactive substances. Nevertheless errors of its execution and the selection of unsuitable patients are likely to negatively affect the outcome of clinical studies in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI. Discussion Placebo controlled double-blind drug studies in CVI were searched (Cochrane Review 2005, MedLine Search until December 2007 and assessed with regard to efficacy (volume reduction of the leg, patient characteristics, and potential methodological error sources. Almost every second study reported only small drug effects (≤ 30 mL volume reduction. As the most relevant error source the conduct of volumetry was identified. Because the practical use of available equipment varies, volume differences of more than 300 mL - which is a multifold of a potential treatment effect - have been reported between consecutive measurements. Other potential error sources were insufficient patient guidance or difficulties with the transition from the Widmer CVI classification to the CEAP (Clinical Etiological Anatomical Pathophysiological grading. Summary Patients should be properly diagnosed with CVI and selected for stable oedema and further clinical symptoms relevant for the specific study. Centres require a thorough training on the use of the volumeter and on patient guidance. Volumetry should be performed under constant conditions. The reproducibility of short term repeat measurements has to be ensured.

  13. Study of the influence of temperature and water level of the reservoir about the displacement of a concrete dam (United States)

    Oro, S. R.; Mafioleti, T. R.; Chaves Neto, A.; Garcia, S. R. P.; Neumann Júnior, C.


    Multivariate techniques are used in this study to analyze the monitoring data displacements of a concrete dam, measured by means of pendulums, extensometer bases and multiple rod extensometers, taking into account the action of environmental conditions, bounded by the surface temperature of the concrete at ambient temperature and the tank water level. The canonical correlation analysis is used to evaluate the influence of environmental variables in the displacement of structures and dam foundations. The factor analysis is used to identify data sources of variability and order the sensors according to the action of factors. The dates of the measurements are grouped according to similarities in the present observations, by applying the cluster analysis. Then the discriminant analysis is used to assess the groups as to their homogeneity. The results demonstrate that the techniques used for distinguishing the dam responses and identify the effects of changes in environmental conditions on the displacements of the structures and dam foundations.

  14. Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade. (United States)

    Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, A Ertug; Hertwich, Edgar G


    A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater).

  15. Evaluation of Serum for Pathophysiological Effects of Prolonged Low Salinity Water Exposure in Displaced Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Y. Ewing


    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective study of serum biochemistry and hematologic findings from displaced, out-of-habitat bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus exposed to various low salinity environments in waters along the southern United States including southeastern Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico. Serum sodium, chloride, and calculated osmolality were significantly lower and below reference ranges in displaced animals compared to free-ranging case control animals. This suggests clinical hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypo-osmolality due to an uptake of low saline water from the environment. In addition, significant differences were found in other serum chemistry variables, although none were outside of normal reference ranges for non-controlled free-ranging animals. Multiple linear regressions demonstrated the degree of salinity had a greater pathophysiologic response than the duration of fresh water exposure. The Na/Cl ratio and bicarbonate were the only variables that were significantly modulated by exposure duration. These findings suggest that the degree of salinity is a critical factor when assessing and managing care for dolphins chronically exposed to low salinity water. Results from this study indicate that changes in various biochemical parameters can be used to determine fresh water exposure and aid in determining the treatment for animals recovered from low salinity waters.

  16. Evaluation of Serum for Pathophysiological Effects of Prolonged Low Salinity Water Exposure in Displaced Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). (United States)

    Ewing, Ruth Y; Mase-Guthrie, Blair; McFee, Wayne; Townsend, Forrest; Manire, Charles A; Walsh, Michael; Borkowski, Rose; Bossart, Gregory D; Schaefer, Adam M


    We conducted a retrospective study of serum biochemistry and hematologic findings from displaced, out-of-habitat bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) exposed to various low salinity environments in waters along the southern United States including southeastern Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico. Serum sodium, chloride, and calculated osmolality were significantly lower and below reference ranges in displaced animals compared to free-ranging case control animals. This suggests clinical hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypo-osmolality due to an uptake of low saline water from the environment. In addition, significant differences were found in other serum chemistry variables, although none were outside of normal reference ranges for non-controlled free-ranging animals. Multiple linear regressions demonstrated the degree of salinity had a greater pathophysiologic response than the duration of fresh water exposure. The Na/Cl ratio and bicarbonate were the only variables that were significantly modulated by exposure duration. These findings suggest that the degree of salinity is a critical factor when assessing and managing care for dolphins chronically exposed to low salinity water. Results from this study indicate that changes in various biochemical parameters can be used to determine fresh water exposure and aid in determining the treatment for animals recovered from low salinity waters.

  17. Inkjet-printed disposable metal complexing indicator-displacement assay for sulphide determination in water. (United States)

    Ariza-Avidad, M; Agudo-Acemel, M; Salinas-Castillo, A; Capitán-Vallvey, L F


    A sulphide selective colorimetric metal complexing indicator-displacement assay has been developed using an immobilized copper(II) complex of the azo dye 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol printed by inkjetting on a nylon support. The change in colour measured from the image of the disposable membrane acquired by a digital camera using the H coordinate of the HSV colour space as the analytical parameter is able to sense sulphide in aqueous solution at pH 7.4 with a dynamic range up to 145 μM, a detection limit of 0.10 μM and a precision between 2 and 11%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Mental Problems, Mood and Anxiety Disorders in The Population Displaced by Violence in Colombia; Results of The National Mental Health Survey 2015]. (United States)

    Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Rincón Rodríguez, Carlos Javier; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Bautista Bautista, Nubia; Collazos, Jaime; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos


    Colombia has a large population exposed to violence. Our data suggest a significant number displaced by the conflict. As there is an increased risk of vulnerability, their problems and mental disorders need to be assessed in order to determine specific treatments. To determine the prevalence of problems and mental disorders in those internally displaced by the conflict. Data was obtained from the National Mental Health Survey 2015. The diagnostic tools used were the composite international diagnosis interview (CIDI-CAPI), Self-reporting questionnaire (SQR). Alcohol consumption was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification test (AUDIT). A survey based on the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was developed. The modified Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C) was used to determine possible post-traumatic stress Disorder. Multidimensional poverty index (MPI) and Family-Apgar questionnaire were applied to general individual and household data. A total of 943 persons displaced by the conflict were reported, with self-report of symptoms in 16.4% (95% CI, 13.2-20.1). The prevalence of any of the measured mental disorders (CIDI-CAPI) ever in life was 15.9% (95% CI, 11.9-21.1), with a suicidal ideation of 12.5% (95%CI, 9.0-17.1), and excessive alcohol consumption in 10.1% (95% CI, 7.2-13.9). More than one-third (35.6%, (95% CI, 30.7-40.8) of people report having experienced, witnessed, or been told that someone close had had a traumatic event related to the armed conflict. An increased risk of PTSD is reported by 3.6% (95% CI, 2.2-5.9) displaced people that had reported at least one traumatic event. Family dysfunction in the displaced population is absent (74.8% (95%.CI, 70.4-78.8). The displaced population has a high prevalence of problems and mental disorders, which confirms their disadvantaged situation. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier Espa

  19. Displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mundt, Elisabeth

    The aim of this Guidebook is to give the state-of-the art knowledge of the displacement ventilation technology, and to simplify and improve the practical design procedure. The Guidebook discusses methods of total volume ventilation by mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation and it gives...... insights of the performance of the displacement ventilation. It also shows practical case studies in some typical applications and the latest research findings to create good local micro-climatic conditions....

  20. Surfactant-induced flow compromises determination of air-water interfacial areas by surfactant miscible-displacement. (United States)

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S; Henry, Eric J


    Surfactant miscible-displacement (SMD) column experiments are used to measure air-water interfacial area (AI) in unsaturated porous media, a property that influences solute transport and phase-partitioning. The conventional SMD experiment results in surface tension gradients that can cause water redistribution and/or net drainage of water from the system ("surfactant-induced flow"), violating theoretical foundations of the method. Nevertheless, the SMD technique is still used, and some suggest that experimental observations of surfactant-induced flow represent an artifact of improper control of boundary conditions. In this work, we used numerical modeling, for which boundary conditions can be perfectly controlled, to evaluate this suggestion. We also examined the magnitude of surfactant-induced flow and its impact on AI measurement during multiple SMD flow scenarios. Simulations of the conventional SMD experiment showed substantial surfactant-induced flow and consequent drainage of water from the column (e.g., from 75% to 55% SW) and increases in actual AI of up to 43%. Neither horizontal column orientation nor alternative boundary conditions resolved surfactant-induced flow issues. Even for simulated flow scenarios that avoided surfactant-induced drainage of the column, substantial surfactant-induced internal water redistribution occurred and was sufficient to alter surfactant transport, resulting in up to 23% overestimation of AI. Depending on the specific simulated flow scenario and data analysis assumptions used, estimated AI varied by nearly 40% and deviated up to 36% from the system's initial AI. We recommend methods for AI determination that avoid generation of surface-tension gradients and urge caution when relying on absolute AI values measured via SMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Industrial Water Waste, Problems and the Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Noor Anna


    Full Text Available Recently, the long term development in Indonesia has changed agricultural sector to the industrial sector. This development can apparently harm our own people. This is due to the waste that is produced from factories. The waste from various factories seems to have different characteristics. This defference encourages us to be able to find out different of methods of managing waste so that cost can be reduced, especially in water treatment. In order that industrial development and environmental preservation can run together in balance, many institutions involved should be consider, especially in the industrial chain, the environment, and human resource, these three elements can be examined in terms of their tolerance to waste.

  2. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...

  3. Tests of Dielectric Model Descriptions of Chemical Charge Displacements in Water

    CERN Document Server

    Tawa, G J; Tawa, Gregory J.; Pratt, Lawrence R.


    A dielectric model of electrostatic solvation is applied to describe potentials of mean force in water along reaction paths for: a) formation of a sodium chloride ion pair; b) the symmetric SN2 exchange of chloride in methylchloride; and c) nucleophilic attack of formaldehyde by hydroxide anion. For these cases simulation and XRISM results are available for comparison. The accuracy of model predictions varies from spectacular to mediocre. It is argued that: a) dielectric models are physical models, even though simplistic and empirical; b) their successes suggest that second-order perturbation theory is a physically sound description of free energies of electrostatic solvation; and c) the most serious deficiency of the dielectric models lies in the definition of cavity volumes. Second-order perturbation theory should therefore be used to refine the dielectric models. These dielectric models make no attempt to assess the role of packing effects but for solvation of classical electrostatic interactions the diele...

  4. Forced Displacement and Refugee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutinwa: Forced Displacement and Refugee Rights in the Great Lakes 1 3 with the new problems associated with refugees, such as those outlined above. An effective system for refugee protection must be holistic and address the refugee problem at the levels of pre- vention, response and solution. At the level of prevention, ...

  5. [Microorganisms surviving in drinking water systems and related problems]. (United States)

    Aulicino, F A; Pastoni, F


    Drinking water in distribution systems may show abnormal values of some parameters, such as turbidity, and may support particular phenomena, such as bacterial regrowth or presence of Viable Not Culturable (VNC) bacteria. Turbidity can provide shelter for opportunistic microorganisms and pathogens. The Milwaukee outbreak (400,000 people) is one example of waterborne disease caused by the presence of pathogens (Cryptosporidium) in drinking water characterized by high and intermittent levels of turbidity. Bacterial regrowth in drinking water distribution systems may cause high increments of microorganisms such as heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and pathogens. Microorganisms isolated from biofilm including Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Legionella may have a significant health hazard especially in hospital areas. The presence of VNC bacteria in drinking water may represent a problem for their discussed role in infectious diseases, but also for the possibility of a considerable underestimation of true microbial concentrations in drinking waters. To study this kind of problems is necessary to apply suitable methods for drinking water analyses.

  6. Dental adhesives and strategies for displacement of water/solvents from collagen fibrils. (United States)

    Matuda, Larissa Sgarbosa de Araújo; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Aguiar, Thaiane Rodrigues; Leme, Ariene Arcas; Ambrosano, Gláucia M B; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina


    To evaluate the influence of temperature of evaporation in adhesive systems with different solvents on the apparent modulus of elasticity and mass change of macro-hybrid layers modified by proanthocyanidins (PACs). Adhesive resin beams (A) from Single Bond Plus (SB), Excite (EX) and One Step Plus (OS) were prepared after solvent evaporation at 23°C or 40°C (n=12). Macro-hybrid layers (M) (n=12) were prepared using demineralized dentin beams sectioned from extracted human third molars. The demineralized dentin specimens were infiltrated with each one of the three adhesive systems at 23°C or 40°C; with or without prior dentin treatment with PACs for 10min. The apparent modulus of elasticity (E) and mass change (Wmc, %) of adhesives beams and resin-infiltrated specimens were assessed in dry and wet conditions after immersion in water (24h, 1, 3 and 6 months). The E was statistically analyzed by Tukey-Kramer test and the Wmc, % by Kruskal Wallis, and Dunn (α=0.05). Solvent evaporation at 40°C resulted in higher E values for adhesive resin beams at all storage conditions, regardless of the adhesive system (padhesives evaluated over time (p0.05). Improved solvent evaporation at higher temperature, and increased collagen cross-linking induced by PACs, enhanced the mechanical properties resulting in highly stable macro-hybrid layers over 6 months storage. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of Volume Measurement of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema by Three Methods: Circumference Measurement, Water Displacement, and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Caroline; Zerahn, B.; Hendel, H.W.


    Background: Following treatment for breast cancer 12%-60% develop breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). There are several ways of assessing BCRL. Circumference measurement (CM) and water displacement (WD) for volume measurements (VM) are frequently used methods in practice and research...

  8. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Colorado Agriculture Using an Equilibrium Displacement Mathematical Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eihab Fathelrahman


    Full Text Available This research models selected impacts of climate change on Colorado agriculture several decades in the future, using an Economic Displacement Mathematical Programming model. The agricultural economy in Colorado is dominated by livestock, which accounts for 67% of total receipts. Crops, including feed grains and forages, account for the remainder. Most agriculture is based on irrigated production, which depends on both groundwater, especially from the Ogallala aquifer, and surface water that comes from runoff derived from snowpack in the Rocky Mountains. The analysis is composed of a Base simulation, designed to represent selected features of the agricultural economy several decades in the future, and then three alternative climatic scenarios are run. The Base starts with a reduction in agricultural water by 10.3% from increased municipal and industrial water demand, and assumes a 75% increase in corn extracted-ethanol production. From this, the first simulation (S1 reduces agricultural water availability by a further 14.0%, for a combined decrease of 24.3%, due to climatic factors and related groundwater depletion. The second simulation (S2-WET describes wet year conditions, which negatively affect yields of irrigated corn and milking cows, but improves yields for important crops such as non-irrigated wheat and forages. In contrast, the third simulation (S3-DRY describes a drought year, which leads to reduced dairy output and reduced corn and wheat. Consumer and producer surplus losses are approximately $10 million in this simulation. The simulation results also demonstrate the importance of the modeling trade when studying climate change in a small open economy, and of linking crop and livestock activities to quantify overall sector effects. This model has not taken into account farmers’ adaptation strategies, which would reduce the climate impact on yields, nor has it reflected climate-induced shifts in planting decisions and production

  9. Functional localization of the human color center by decreased water displacement using diffusion-weighted fMRI. (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca J; Reutens, David C; Hocking, Julia


    Decreased water displacement following increased neural activity has been observed using diffusion-weighted functional MRI (DfMRI) at high b-values. The physiological mechanisms underlying the diffusion signal change may be unique from the standard blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast and closer to the source of neural activity. Whether DfMRI reflects neural activity more directly than BOLD outside the primary cerebral regions remains unclear. Colored and achromatic Mondrian visual stimuli were statistically contrasted to functionally localize the human color center Area V4 in neurologically intact adults. Spatial and temporal properties of DfMRI and BOLD activation were examined across regions of the visual cortex. At the individual level, DfMRI activation patterns showed greater spatial specificity to V4 than BOLD. The BOLD activation patterns were more prominent in the primary visual cortex than DfMRI, where activation was localized to the ventral temporal lobe. Temporally, the diffusion signal change in V4 and V1 both preceded the corresponding hemodynamic response, however the early diffusion signal change was more evident in V1. DfMRI may be of use in imaging applications implementing cognitive subtraction paradigms, and where highly precise individual functional localization is required.

  10. Water quality problems associated with intermittent water supply. (United States)

    Tokajian, S; Hashwa, F


    A controlled study was conducted in Lebanon over a period of 12 months to determine bacterial regrowth in a small network supplying the Beirut suburb of Naccache that had a population of about 3,000. The residential area, which is fed by gravity, is supplied twice a week with chlorinated water from two artesian wells of a confined aquifer. A significant correlation was detected between the turbidity and the levels of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) in the samples from the distribution network as well as from the artesian wells. However, a negative significant correlation was found between the temperature and the HPC count in the samples collected from the source. A statistically significant increase in counts, possibly due to regrowth, was repeatedly established between two sampling points lying on a straight distribution line but 1 km apart. Faecal coliforms were detected in the source water but none in the network except during a pipe breakage incident with confirmed Escherichia coli reaching 40 CFU/100 mL. However, coliforms such as Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae and E. skazakii were repeatedly isolated from the network, mainly due to inadequate chlorination. A second controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of storage on the microbial quality of household storage tanks (500 L), which were of two main types - galvanized cast iron and black polyethylene. The mean bacterial count increased significantly after 7 d storage in both tank types. A significant difference was found in the mean HPC/mL between the winter and the summer. Highest counts were found April-June although the maximum temperature was reported later in the summer. A positive correlation was established between the HPC/mL and pH, temperature and storage time.

  11. Displacing use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben


    This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a human...... medical conditions. Displacing use can be a valuable strategy for design, revealing some of the contextual conditions that influence an artefact's use, and broadening the space of alternatives explored in design. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Immiscible displacement of oil by water in a microchannel: asymmetric flow behavior and nonlinear stability analysis of core-annular flow. (United States)

    Foroughi, Hooman; Abbasi, Alireza; Das, Kausik S; Kawaji, Masahiro


    The immiscible displacement of oil by water in a circular microchannel was investigated. A fused silica microchannel with an inner diameter of 250 μm and a length of 7 cm was initially filled with a viscous silicone oil. Only water then was injected into the channel. We describe our flow observations based on the two-dimensional images captured in the middle of the channel. The water finger displaced the oil and left an oil film on the channel wall. While the oil was being displaced at the core, the flow resistance decreased, which resulted in increases in water flow rate and inertia. Eventually, the water finger reached the channel exit and formed a core-annular flow pattern. The wavelength of the waves formed at the oil-water interface also increased with the increase in inertia. The initially symmetric interfacial waves became asymmetric with time. Also, the water core shifted from the center of the channel and left a thinner oil film on one side of the microchannel. Under all flow rates tested in this study, as long as the water was continuously injected, the water core was stable and no breakup into droplets was observed. We also discuss the flow stability based on nonlinear and linear stability analyses performed on the core-annular flow. Compared to the linear analysis, which ignores the inertia effects, the nonlinear analysis, which includes the inertia effects, predicts longer interfacial wavelengths by a factor of 1/sqrt[1-a(o)/2(We(w) + We(o)a(o)(2)/1-a(o)(2))] where We(w) and We(o) are the Weber numbers of the water and the oil phases, respectively, and a(o) is the unperturbed water core radius made dimensionless by the channel radius.

  13. Immiscible displacement of oil by water in a microchannel: Asymmetric flow behavior and nonlinear stability analysis of core-annular flow (United States)

    Foroughi, Hooman; Abbasi, Alireza; Das, Kausik S.; Kawaji, Masahiro


    The immiscible displacement of oil by water in a circular microchannel was investigated. A fused silica microchannel with an inner diameter of 250 μm and a length of 7 cm was initially filled with a viscous silicone oil. Only water then was injected into the channel. We describe our flow observations based on the two-dimensional images captured in the middle of the channel. The water finger displaced the oil and left an oil film on the channel wall. While the oil was being displaced at the core, the flow resistance decreased, which resulted in increases in water flow rate and inertia. Eventually, the water finger reached the channel exit and formed a core-annular flow pattern. The wavelength of the waves formed at the oil-water interface also increased with the increase in inertia. The initially symmetric interfacial waves became asymmetric with time. Also, the water core shifted from the center of the channel and left a thinner oil film on one side of the microchannel. Under all flow rates tested in this study, as long as the water was continuously injected, the water core was stable and no breakup into droplets was observed. We also discuss the flow stability based on nonlinear and linear stability analyses performed on the core-annular flow. Compared to the linear analysis, which ignores the inertia effects, the nonlinear analysis, which includes the inertia effects, predicts longer interfacial wavelengths by a factor of (1)/(1-(ao)/(2)(Wew+Weo(ao2)/(1-ao2))) where Wew and Weo are the Weber numbers of the water and the oil phases, respectively, and ao is the unperturbed water core radius made dimensionless by the channel radius.

  14. Water Related Health Problems in Central Asia—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Bekturganov


    Full Text Available The present paper provides an extensive literature review on water related health issues in Central Asia. Even though the per capita amount of available freshwater is substantial in all Central Asian states the uneven distribution in time and space creates problems for water availability. Due to this, the Central Asian economies are developing under increasing water deficiency. The degradation of water supply systems and sewage treatment plants is often severe leading to potentially high water loss rates and inadequate accessibility to safe water supply. In this context, rural areas are the most affected. Low tariffs in combination with absent metering and low collection rates for water fees mean that operation and maintenance costs for basic services of water supply and sanitation are not covered. Unsafe water supply contains both microbiological and non-microbiological contaminants. Helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa infections are of considerable public health importance in Central Asia. Agricultural and industrial pollution is especially affecting downstream areas of Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. In large areas copper, zinc, and chromium concentrations in water exceed maximum permissible concentration. Thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen the environmental monitoring system. Small-scale water supply and sanitation systems need to be developed in line with more efficient public spending on these.

  15. Hard water problems and soft water paths: The "supply versus demand" conundrum (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.


    Water problems are complex, interdisciplinary, and have profound effects on human and ecosystem health and well-being. And they are classic "hard" problems. Good science is necessary to solve these problems, but it is rarely sufficient. One of these hard problems is that of "perception" and "frame" - traditional water planners and managers frame freshwater as a "supply" problem, i.e., how can we access and deliver sufficient quantities of water of suitable quality, to satisfy perceived demand. In recent years, however, as water scarcity in different regions has increased due to growing populations and expanding economies, "peak water" limits (including peak renewable, non-renewable, and ecological limits) have started to constrain development of traditional "supply" options (Figure 1). That has led to new thinking about the other side of the equation: what is meant by water "demand" and can demand management tools and approaches offer a way to solve water problems. The "soft path for water" addresses this issue of water demand directly, but implementing demand-side solutions faces serious barriers. This talk will expound on the soft path approach and its potential to overcome some of the gridlock and stagnation in current water policy debates, with examples from both developed and developing countries, and different economic sectors.umulative global reservoir storage (major reservoirs) from 1900 to 2010, showing leveling off of traditional supply expansion. Data from the GRanD database.

  16. Two-Dimensional Crystallography Introduced by the Sprinkler Watering Problem (United States)

    De Toro, Jose A.; Calvo, Gabriel F.; Muniz, Pablo


    The problem of optimizing the number of circular sprinklers watering large fields is used to introduce, from a purely elementary geometrical perspective, some basic concepts in crystallography and comment on a few size effects in condensed matter physics. We examine square and hexagonal lattices to build a function describing the, so-called, dry…

  17. Organic coal-water fuel: Problems and advances (Review) (United States)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Strizhak, P. A.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.


    The study results of ignition of organic coal-water fuel (OCWF) compositions were considered. The main problems associated with investigation of these processes were identified. Historical perspectives of the development of coal-water composite fuel technologies in Russia and worldwide are presented. The advantages of the OCWF use as a power-plant fuel in comparison with the common coal-water fuels (CWF) were emphasized. The factors (component ratio, grinding degree of solid (coal) component, limiting temperature of oxidizer, properties of liquid and solid components, procedure and time of suspension preparation, etc.) affecting inertia and stability of the ignition processes of suspensions based on the products of coaland oil processing (coals of various types and metamorphism degree, filter cakes, waste motor, transformer, and turbine oils, water-oil emulsions, fuel-oil, etc.) were analyzed. The promising directions for the development of modern notions on the OCWF ignition processes were determined. The main reasons limiting active application of the OCWF in power generation were identified. Characteristics of ignition and combustion of coal-water and organic coal-water slurry fuels were compared. The effect of water in the composite coal fuels on the energy characteristics of their ignition and combustion, as well as ecological features of these processes, were elucidated. The current problems associated with pulverization of composite coal fuels in power plants, as well as the effect of characteristics of the pulverization process on the combustion parameters of fuel, were considered. The problems hindering the development of models of ignition and combustion of OCWF were analyzed. It was established that the main one was the lack of reliable experimental data on the processes of heating, evaporation, ignition, and combustion of OCWF droplets. It was concluded that the use of high-speed video recording systems and low-inertia sensors of temperature and gas

  18. Does problem complexity matter for environmental policy delivery? How public authorities address problems of water governance. (United States)

    Kirschke, Sabrina; Newig, Jens; Völker, Jeanette; Borchardt, Dietrich


    Problem complexity is often assumed to hamper effective environmental policy delivery. However, this claim is hardly substantiated, given the dominance of qualitative small-n designs in environmental governance research. We studied 37 types of contemporary problems defined by German water governance to assess the impact of problem complexity on policy delivery through public authorities. The analysis is based on a unique data set related to these problems, encompassing both in-depth interview-based data on complexities and independent official data on policy delivery. Our findings show that complexity in fact tends to delay implementation at the stage of planning. However, different dimensions of complexity (goals, variables, dynamics, interconnections, and uncertainty) impact on the different stages of policy delivery (goal formulation, stages and degrees of implementation) in various ways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment...... in the room and in the inhalation of both manikins. Tracer gas was added in the heat plume above a sitting manikin, or in the exhalation through either the nose or the mouth. The other manikin moved back and forth at different speeds on a low trolley. The mentioned experimental conditions have a significant...

  20. Displacement determinations of synergistic motion platform jacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Кабанячий


    Full Text Available Urgency, statement and precise solution of displacement determinations problem of synergistic motion platform jacks depending on construction parameters and desired displacements along degrees of freedom are represented

  1. Problems of the mine water quality at selected Slovak localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Šlesárová


    Full Text Available At the present time, acid mine drainage (AMD is considered to be one of the most frequent environmental problems associated with the mining activity. The attenuation of mining activity in Slovakia ended by an extensive flooding of deposits, whereby the suitable conditions for AMD generation mainly at the localities after the mining of sulphide ores and raw materials containing sulphides were formed. The article presents monitoring results of the mine water quality at the selected Slovak localities.

  2. Digital displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard


    digital interface. However, the transformation of citizen services from traditional face-to-face interaction to digital self-service gives rise to new practices; some citizens need support to be able to manage self-service through digital tools. A mixture of support and teaching, named co...... digital reforms in Denmark and shows how citizen service is transformed from service to support. The frontline employee’s classical tasks such as casework are being displaced into educational and support-oriented tasks with less professional content. Thus an unintended effect of digitisation is blurred......In recent years digital reforms are being introduced in the municipal landscape of Denmark. The reforms address the interaction between citizen and local authority. The aim is, that by 2015 at least 80 per cent of all correspondence between citizens and public authority will be transmitted through...

  3. Will the Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels Increase Water Clarity in Shallow Lakes during Summer? Results from a Mesocosm Experiment. (United States)

    Mei, Xueying; Zhang, Xiufeng; Kassam, Sinan-Saleh; Rudstam, Lars G


    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are known to increase water clarity and affect ecosystem processes in invaded lakes. During the last decade, the conspecific quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have displaced zebra mussels in many ecosystems including shallow lakes such as Oneida Lake, New York. In this study, an eight-week mesocosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels leads to further decreases in phytoplankton and increases in water clarity resulting in increases in benthic algae. We found that the presence of zebra mussels alone (ZM), quagga mussels alone (QM), or an equal number of both species (ZQ) reduced total phosphorus (TP) and phytoplankton Chl a. Total suspended solids (TSS) was reduced in ZM and ZQ treatments. Light intensity at the sediment surface was higher in all three mussel treatments than in the no-mussel controls but there was no difference among the mussel treatments. There was no increase in benthic algae biomass in the mussel treatments compared with the no-mussel controls. Importantly, there was no significant difference in nutrient (TP, soluble reactive phosphorus and NO3-) levels, TSS, phytoplankton Chl a, benthic algal Chl a, or light intensity on the sediment surface between ZM, QM and ZQ treatments. These results confirm the strong effect of both mussel species on water clarity and indicate that the displacement of zebra mussel by an equivalent biomass of quagga mussel is not likely to lead to further increases in water clarity, at least for the limnological conditions, including summer temperature, tested in this experiment.

  4. Water flow algorithm decision support tool for travelling salesman problem (United States)

    Kamarudin, Anis Aklima; Othman, Zulaiha Ali; Sarim, Hafiz Mohd


    This paper discuss about the role of Decision Support Tool in Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) for helping the researchers who doing research in same area will get the better result from the proposed algorithm. A study has been conducted and Rapid Application Development (RAD) model has been use as a methodology which includes requirement planning, user design, construction and cutover. Water Flow Algorithm (WFA) with initialization technique improvement is used as the proposed algorithm in this study for evaluating effectiveness against TSP cases. For DST evaluation will go through usability testing conducted on system use, quality of information, quality of interface and overall satisfaction. Evaluation is needed for determine whether this tool can assists user in making a decision to solve TSP problems with the proposed algorithm or not. Some statistical result shown the ability of this tool in term of helping researchers to conduct the experiments on the WFA with improvements TSP initialization.

  5. Study of the fluid dynamic and the efficiency of displacement in oil-water systems; Estudo da fluidodinamica e da eficiencia de deslocamento em sistemas agua-oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorese, Eliana K.; Quadri, Marintho B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Nogueira, Andre L.; Lopes, Toni J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica e de Alimentos; Baptista, Renan M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    Several operations and procedures in the oil industry are related to immiscible displacement of a fluid by another one. Some examples can be listed: the natural and artificial oil elevation from wells, the pumping of high viscosity oils through pipelines using water injection and secondary oil recovery. The performance of the last one is a direct consequence of the interfacial phenomena inherent to oil/water systems. As occur in oil leakages from submarine pipelines, the phase inversion phenomenon can also be considered in this context. Therefore, it is of major importance to realize experimental analysis of the oil/water interface stability and the facts that leads to the fingering phenomenon appearance. This phenomenon is represented into the other one like one or more fingers. The mathematical model used to describe the immiscible displacement of another one is initially developed to Hele-Shaw cells. Experimental observations with a Hele-Shaw cell enable the evaluation of the proposed model and its capability to adequately describe the viscous fingering phenomenon related to physical (density, viscosity and interfacial tension) and geometric properties of the system. (author)

  6. Pilot study to evaluate a water displacement technique to compare effects of diuretics and ACE inhibitors to alleviate lower extremity edema due to dihydropyridine calcium antagonists. (United States)

    Weir, M R; Rosenberger, C; Fink, J C


    Combination therapy is required in many patients to achieve goal blood pressure (BP). Calcium antagonists are highly effective antihypertensive drugs in a broad range of demographic groups. Yet, higher doses are associated with an increased frequency of lower extremity edema. The purpose of our open label, single-center clinical trial was to evaluate the use of concomitant pharmacologic therapies to attenuate the lower extremity edema associated with dihydropyridine calcium antagonists therapy using a water displacement technique. Forty-seven patients received 5 mg/day of oral amlodipine for a period of 6 weeks after a 4-week wash-out off of all antihypertensive medications to establish baseline BP. They were then randomized to receive either an additional 5 mg of amlodipine, 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), or 20 mg of benazepril for an additional 6 weeks. Blood pressure determinations and water displacement measurements were obtained at the end of the 4-week placebo wash-out period, after 6 weeks of 5 mg/day of oral amlodipine therapy, and after an additional 6 weeks of 5 mg of amlodipine and randomized drug therapy. Adjusted BP reductions (based on pretreatment BP) were -6.8/-3.8 mm Hg for the 10-mg amlodipine group, -9.9/-8.2 mm Hg for the amlodipine (5 mg)/HCTZ (25 mg) group, and -26.2/-16.4 mm Hg for the amlodipine (5 mg)/benazepril (20 mg) group (P increase in lower extremity edema water displacement in response to 5 mg/day of oral amlodipine therapy (36.2%). Adding 5 mg of amlodipine to a baseline of 5 mg of amlodipine resulted in no net change in lower extremity edema (+58.0 mL,+ 0.6% change, n=5). Adding 25 mg of HCTZ reduced lower extremity edema by a mean of 136.3 mL (-11.1% change, n=4). Benazepril reduced water displacement by 204.4 mL (-14.3% change, n=8). Our pilot study indicates that adding an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor to a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker is the most effective way to not only reduce systolic and diastolic

  7. Displacement Data Assimilation (United States)

    Restrepo, J. M.; Rosenthal, S.; Venkataramani, S.


    Geometric corrections are blended with nonlinear/non-Gaussian estimation methods to produced improved data assimilation outcomes on problems where features are critical. Problems of this sort are the estimation of hurricane tracks, tracking jet meandering, front propagation, among many others. The geometric correction is made possible by a data preserving map. It makes corrections on phase, primarily, as well as in the amplitude. The displacement assimilation is embedded in the analysis stage of a nonlinear/non-Gaussian Bayesian data assimilation scheme, such as the path integral method. In addition to showing how the method improves upon the results, as compared to more standard methodologies.

  8. Respiratory Problems Associated with Surfing in Coastal Waters. (United States)

    O'Halloran, Chris; Silver, Mary W; Lahiff, Maureen; Colford, John


    A pilot project was conducted to examine the health status and possible adverse health effects associated with seawater exposure (microbial water-quality indicators and phytoplankton abundance and their toxins) of surfers in Monterey Bay, Central California coastal waters. Forty-eight surfers enrolled in the study and completed an initial health background survey and weekly health surveys online using Survey Monkey. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equation, a regression technique, were used to identify longitudinal and correlated results. The surfers were predominately Caucasian, male, and physically active. They surfed approximately 4 h a week. Their average age was 34 years. The data indicated that the surfers were generally "healthy," with a low prevalence of diabetes, high cholesterol, and hypertension. Their most common health problems were allergies and asthma. During the study, 10% of the surfers reported gastrointestinal symptoms and 29% reported upper respiratory symptoms. This study suggests surfers were significantly more likely to report upper respiratory symptoms when they had a history of allergies, housemates with upper respiratory symptoms, and/or a history of previous adverse health symptoms while surfing during a "red tide" (an event often associated with the presence of phytoplankton toxins). Additionally, female surfers reported upper respiratory symptoms more than males.

  9. Dithizone-functionalized solid phase extraction-displacement elution-high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for mercury speciation in water samples. (United States)

    Yin, Yong-guang; Chen, Ming; Peng, Jin-feng; Liu, Jing-fu; Jiang, Gui-bin


    A novel and simple solid phase extraction (SPE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method was developed for determination of inorganic mercury (IHg), methylmercury MeHg and ethylmercury (EtHg) in water samples in the present work. The procedure involves pre-functionalization of the commercially available C18 SPE column with dithizone, loading water sample, displacement elution of mercury species by Na(2)S(2)O(3) solution, followed by HPLC-ICP-MS determination. Characterization and optimization of operation parameters of this new SPE procedure were discussed, including eluting reagent selection, concentration of eluting reagent, volume of eluting reagent, effect of NaCl and humic acid in sample matrix. At optimized conditions, the detection limits of mercury species for 100mL water sample were about 3ngL(-1) and the average recoveries were 93.7, 83.4, and 71.7% for MeHg, IHg and EtHg, respectively, by spiking 0.2microgL(-1) mercury species into de-ion water. Stability experiment reveals that both the dithizone-functionalized SPE cartridge and the mercury species incorporated were stable in the storage procedure. These results obtained demonstrate that SPE-HPLC-ICP-MS is a simple and sensitive technique for the determination of mercury species at trace level in water samples with high reproducibility and accuracy.

  10. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    no significantly increasing trend prior to displacement; and the crime rate of workers who will be displaced is not significantly higher than the crime rate of workers who will not be displaced. In contrast, displaced workers’ probability to commit any crime increases by 0.52 percentage points in the year of job...

  11. Water Scarcity, Food Insecurity and Drought Induced Displacement in an Arid Ecosystem: A Case Study in Indian Desert (United States)

    Rehman Siddiqui, Azizur


    Indian Arid Ecosystem is characterised by scare as well as seasonal precipitation that have led to long term stress in a fragile ecosystem. In addition to this, over the years, Indian desert has experienced varying magnitude of drought, which have considerably influenced food and fodder production and led to the depletion of surface and ground water table. All these factors mean that the production potential of land is hardly sufficient to feed human as well as livestock population of the desert and this has led to extensive rural to urban migration in Indian Desert. In the present study, satellite data from Landsat TM, AWiFS, NOAA AVHRR have been used to detect the intensity and severity of drought condition, and data collected through primary survey has been used to measure the impact of water scarcity on food insecurity and drought induced migration. Rainfall trend analysis of the study area has been done with the help of Man Kendall Method to assess the meteorological vulnerability. In addition to these, NDVI, VCI, TCI, and VHI have also been used to find out the long term vegetation health in the study area. With the help of these scientific techniques, the paper focuses on the moisture deficiency during growing period and its effect on human population and livestock population. Keywords: Arid Ecosystem, Indian Desert, Drought, Migration

  12. Pollutant dispersion studies - An update on the problems in Indian coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.

    Pollutant dispersion problems along the Indian coastal waters are characterisEd. by site-specificity, as a result of seasonal and physiographic variabilities. Presence of large rivers, estuaries and backwaters add to the problems of waste disposal...

  13. Melting and evaporation analysis of the first wall in a water-cooled breeding blanket module under vertical displacement event by using the MARS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Woo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Material phase change of first wall was simulated for vertical displacement event. • An in-house first wall module was developed to simulate melting and evaporation. • Effective heat capacity method and evaporation model were proposed. • MARS code was proposed to predict two-phase phenomena in coolant channel. • Phase change simulation was performed by coupling MARS and in-house module. - Abstract: Plasma facing components of tokamak reactors such as ITER or the Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) can be subjected to damage by plasma instabilities. Plasma disruptions like vertical displacement event (VDE) with high heat flux, can cause melting and vaporization of plasma facing materials and burnout of coolant channels. In this study, to simulate melting and vaporization of the first wall in a water-cooled breeding blanket under VDE, one-dimensional heat equations were solved numerically by using an in-house first wall module, including phase change models, effective heat capacity method, and evaporation model. For thermal-hydraulics, the in-house first wall analysis module was coupled with the nuclear reactor safety analysis code, MARS, to take advantage of its prediction capability for two-phase flow and critical heat flux (CHF) occurrence. The first wall was proposed for simulation according to the conceptual design of the K-DEMO, and the heat flux of plasma disruption with a value of 600 MW/m{sup 2} for 0.1 s was applied. The phase change simulation results were analyzed in terms of the melting and evaporation thicknesses and the occurrence of CHF. The thermal integrity of the blanket first wall is discussed to confirm whether the structural material melts for the given conditions.

  14. [Spring water quality assessment regarding the problem of endemic fluorosis]. (United States)

    Leshchenko, D V; Mialo, O A; Beliakova, M B; Beliaeva, E A; Samoukina, A M; Chervinets, Iu V; Ivanova, O V


    A possible variant for reducing the consumption of fluoride by population of Tver region is the use of water with low fluoride content, such as spring water. Assessment of drinking suitability of spring water (the content of physiologically important mineral elements and microbial purity) is relevant to our region. Water samples from 6 spring-water source of Tver region were studied during the year. The content of fluoride and calcium were measured by using an ion-selective electrodes. Microbiological purity tested by the presence of total coliform bacteria, thermotolerant coliform bacteria, coliphages and total microbial numbers. The analysis of some mineral components in spring water of Tver region showed that calcium content was in range 33-88 mg/l, that satisfied the recommended value; fluoride concentration is less then 0.5 mg/l. In all spring water samples total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms and coliphages were absent. The total microbial number was in standard range, except of two spring-water source in the autumn and summer. The data suppose that spring water of Tver region can be used as a component of diet normalizing the fluoride consumption at risk of dental fluorosis in children.

  15. Water poverty indicators: conceptual problems and policy issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molle, F.; Mollinga, P.P.


    In the wake of a growing concern about both the unchecked rise of poverty and the local and global consequences of water scarcity, the relationships between water and poverty are the object of a sprawling literature. Indicators are presented as indispensable tools for informing and orienting

  16. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  17. Sino-US cooperation in water saving technologies: essential international problems (United States)

    The United States and China share many agricultural problems, but one of great importance is the need to produce more crop yield in the face of water scarcity. Common recognition of this problem led to the development of a joint Sino-US Water Saving Technologies Flagship project within the larger US...

  18. A Framework for Analysis of Energy-Water Interdependency Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jeffers; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kristyn Scott


    The overall objective of this work is to improve the holistic value of energy development strategies by integrating management criteria for water availability, water quality, and ecosystem health into the energy system planning process. The Snake River Basin (SRB) in southern Idaho is used as a case study to show options for improving full economic utilization of aquatic resources given multiple scenarios such as changing climate, additional regulations, and increasing population. Through the incorporation of multiple management criteria, potential crosscutting solutions to energy and water issues in the SRB can be developed. The final result of this work will be a multi-criteria decision support tool - usable by policy makers and researchers alike - that will give insight into the behavior of the management criteria over time and will allow the user to experiment with a range of potential solutions. Because several basins in the arid west are dealing with similar water, energy, and ecosystem issues, the tool and conclusions will be transferrable to a wide range of locations and applications. This is a very large project to be completed in phases. This paper deals with interactions between the hydrologic system and water use at a basin level. Future work will include the interdependency between energy use and water use in these systems.

  19. Modeling Displacement Measurement using Vibration Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGOSTON Katalin


    Full Text Available This paper presents some aspects regarding to small displacement measurement using vibration transducers. Mechanical faults, usages, slackness’s, cause different noises and vibrations with different amplitude and frequency against the normal sound and movement of the equipment. The vibration transducers, accelerometers and microphone are used for noise and/or sound and vibration detection with fault detection purpose. The output signal of the vibration transducers or accelerometers is an acceleration signal and can be converted to either velocity or displacement, depending on the preferred measurement parameter. Displacement characteristics are used to indicate when the machine condition has changed. There are many problems using accelerometers to measure position or displacement. It is important to determine displacement over time. To determinate the movement from acceleration a double integration is needed. A transfer function and Simulink model was determinate for accelerometers with capacitive sensing element. Using these models the displacement was reproduced by low frequency input.

  20. Solving multi-objective water management problems using evolutionary computation. (United States)

    Lewis, A; Randall, M


    Water as a resource is becoming increasingly more valuable given the changes in global climate. In an agricultural sense, the role of water is vital to ensuring food security. Therefore the management of it has become a subject of increasing attention and the development of effective tools to support participative decision-making in water management will be a valuable contribution. In this paper, evolutionary computation techniques and Pareto optimisation are incorporated in a model-based system for water management. An illustrative test case modelling optimal crop selection across dry, average and wet years based on data from the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area in Australia is presented. It is shown that sets of trade-off solutions that provide large net revenues, or minimise environmental flow deficits can be produced rapidly, easily and automatically. The system is capable of providing detailed information on optimal solutions to achieve desired outcomes, responding to a variety of factors including climate conditions and economics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An Investigation of Potable Water Supply Problems in Akinima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research design for the study is basically survey design and experimental design. The instruments used for investigation are questionnaire survey, face to face interview and observation. Experimentation was done in the laboratory to investigate physical, chemical and microbiological samples of drinking water from the ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Benfetta


    Sep 1, 2017 ... This dam is located in an arid zone where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce. It is situated 5 km from the ... /year), while dead storage accounts for 4.6 million m. 3 .... These data highlight a clear evaporation gradient: in the coastal zone (up to 50 km from the sea) annual evaporation is <0.5 ...

  3. Problems of Nitrogen at Central Municipal Water Works in Ostrava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praus Petr


    Full Text Available Nitrogen is very important nutrient and must be removed during wastewater treatment process. The presented article describes the situation of nitrogen removal at the Central Municipal Water Works in Ostrava. At present, this biological sewage plant operates with only 45% nitrogen removal efficiency. The current three corridor denitrification-nitrification (D-N system is planed to be reconstructed. One of several solution is modification of the activation tank into four step D-N system that could be completed by postdenitrification in the redundant clarifiers.In this paper the analytical methods, used for determination of nitrogen compounds in waste waters, are described as well. Only sufficiently precise and accurate methods must be selected and that is why the standardized or fully validated procedures are preferred. Laboratory results are used for monitoring of treatment process and for making of important technological decisions. For this purpose, introduction of the quality control and quality assurance system into laboratory practise is desired.

  4. Problems of reliability and economy work of thermal power plants water treatment based on baromembrane technologies (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Saitov, S. R.


    The introduction of baromembrane water treatment technologies for water desalination at Russian thermal power plants was beganed more than 25 years ago. These technologies have demonstrated their definite advantage over the traditional technologies of additional water treatment for steam boilers. However, there are problems associated with the reliability and economy of their work. The first problem is a large volume of waste water (up to 60% of the initial water). The second problem a expensive and unique chemical reagents complex (biocides, antiscalants, washing compositions) is required for units stable and troublefree operation. Each manufacturer develops his own chemical composition for a certain membrane type. This leads to a significant increase in reagents cost, as well as creates dependence of the technology consumer on the certain supplier. The third problem is that the reliability of the baromembrane units depends directly on the water preliminary treatment. The popular pre-cleaning technology with coagulation of aluminum oxychloride proves to be unacceptable during seasonal changes in the quality of the source water at a number of stations. As a result, pollution, poisoning and lesion of the membrane structure or deterioration of their mechanical properties are observed. The report presents ways to solve these problems.

  5. Displacement data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W. Steven [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Venkataramani, Shankar [Department of Mathematics and Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mariano, Arthur J. [Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Restrepo, Juan M., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)


    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  6. XY displacement device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerens, W.C.; Laham, C.D.; Holman, A.E.


    An XY-displacement device (1) with a four-fold symmetry comprises a reference frame (10); an object mount (20) for holding an object (22) to be displaced; an X-manipulator (100) coupled between the reference frame (10) and the object mount (20), which provides a rigid coupling between the object

  7. Math Problems for Water Quality Control Personnel, Student Workbook. Second Edition. (United States)

    Delvecchio, Fred; Brutsch, Gloria

    This document is the student workbook for a course in mathematics for water quality control personnel. This version contains complete problems, answers and references. Problems are arranged alphabetically by treatment process. Charts, graphs, and drawings represent data forms an operator might see in a plant containing information necessary for…

  8. New Development in Greenhouse Technology can Mitigate the Water Shortage Problem of the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van O.; Heuvelink, E.; Stanghellini, C.


    The world's fresh accessible water situation is deteriorating at a dismal pace. Though the situation is already quite dramatic in Africa, the near future will bring us great problems in Asia as well, considering the pace at which the population is growing and the rise in water use per capita as the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna


    big cities of Russia. At the same time, the quality of the waste water treated by local water treatment stations fails to meet the present-day standard requirements. Moreover, potable water shall not be used for the purpose of washing transport vehicles. Within the recent 10 years, MGSU has developed a number of research projects aimed at the resolution of this problem. The concept developed by the MGSU specialists is to attain the highest quality of treated waste water generated by car washes and transport enterprises using the most advanced technologies of water treatment rather than to design new water treatment plants. Various methods may be applied for this purpose: restructuring of water treatment facilities, advanced feed, updated regulations governing the operation of water treatment plants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Shebzukhova


    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to give a current and retrospective assessment of the state of water resources in the South of Russia and identify key problems in their use.Methods. Based on the analysis of dynamic and territorial series of data presented in government reports and the Central Statistical Database of the Federal State Statistics Service, we conducted diagnostic studies of the current and dynamic state of water resources use in the sub-federal units of the Russian Federation.Findings. The key problems in the functioning of the water sector in the southern regions are: natural water scarcity, large-scale transfers and artificial regulation of the river flows, significant loss of water during transport, large-scale discharge of contaminated sewage and poor quality of water. A significant interregional asymmetry in the water sector of the South of Russia is being tested.Conclusions. The key water-related contradiction in the South of the Russian Federation lies in the high water intensity of the meta-regional economy due to agricultural specialization, limited opportunities for the use of circulating systems, as well as significant losses of water during transportation in conditions of naturally caused scarcity and poor quality of potable waters

  11. The problem of salt waters and its influence on the rivers in the Odra river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdziorz, A.; Lach, R.; Korczak, K.; Pluta, I.; Niedziocha, Z.; Dziewulski, M.; Lach, H.; Filipek, K. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Water Protection


    Coal mining in the Odra and Wisla river basins in Poland gives rise to salination of the rivers Olza, Klodnica, Ruda and Nacyna, and Bierawka. This causes problems in use of river water for drinking water, for irrigation and for industrial applications and causes corrosion of water facilities. The paper discusses the water pollution due to mine drainage in the Odra basin and then reviews methods to reduce this (by desalination, hydrotechnological methods, hydrogeological methods (recirculation and deep roll injection), and mining methods). 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Problems of Water Supply and Sanitation in Kpakungu Area of Minna (Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamiji Adeleye


    Full Text Available Access to clean water and adequate sanitation has been a challenging issue in Kpakungu. Due to the unavailability of clean water sources and poor sanitation most of the inhabitants of Kpakungu are threaten with the spread of diseases such as diarrhoea and cholera and this has led to the degenerating situation of Kpakungu. Assessing the problems of water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu area of Minna, Niger State using GIS (Geographic Information System is aimed at providing access to adequate portable water supply and a better sanitation through the use of research and advocacy. This is achieved by identifying the pattern of access to public water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu and the creation of a database of the existing water source and their yield was determined to enhance planning. This research involved the use of both primary and secondary data to achieve a thorough assessment of the problems of poor water supply and sanitation in the study area. It was discovered that the problems of poor water supply and sanitation often leave most women and children on queues for several hours and those that cannot endure are forced to travel long miles in search for alternative source of water, which may not be fit for drinking. In the light of this, mothers are prevented from domestic work and most children are kept away from school. At the end of the research water and sanitation blue print for the study area was designed and a proposal was sent to relevant government agencies and ministries for the provision of more sources of potable water in the community. In this regard, Public Private Dialogue (PPD was initiated and adequate follow up process was made until the aim of the research was achieved.

  13. Hydrological problems of water resources in irrigated agriculture: A management perspective (United States)

    Singh, Ajay


    The development of irrigated agriculture is necessary for fulfilling the rising food requirements of the burgeoning global population. However, the intensification of irrigated agriculture causes the twin menace of waterlogging and soil salinization in arid and semiarid regions where more than 75% of the world's population lives. These problems can be managed by either adopting preventive measures which decrease the inflow of water and salt or by employing remedial measures which increase the outflow. This paper presents an overview of various measures used for the management of waterlogging and salinity problems. The background, processes involved, and severity of waterlogging and salinity problems are provided. The role of drainage systems, conjunctive use of different water sources, use of computer-based mathematical models, and the use of remote sensing and GIS techniques in managing the problems are discussed. Conclusions are provided which could be useful for all the stakeholders.

  14. Uncertainty in Fuzzy Membership Functions for a River Water Quality Management Problem


    Karmakar, Subhankar; Mujumdar, PP


    Uncertainty associated with fuzzy membership functions for a water quality management problem is addressed through interval grey numbers. The lower and upper bounds of the membership functions are expressed as interval grey numbers, and the membership functions are modeled as imprecise membership functions. A grey fuzzy optimization model for water quality management of a river system is developed. Application of the optimization model with imprecise membership functions is illustrated with a...

  15. Water Hyacinth in Africa and the Middle East : A Survey of Problems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Water Hyacinth in Africa and the Middle East : A Survey of Problems and Solutions. Couverture du livre Water Hyacinth in ... M. Navarro a des diplômes en agriculture et en économie agricole de l'Universidad Austral du Chili, et des universités du Dakota du Nord et de l'Oregon, aux États-Unis. Avant de se joindre au CRDI, ...

  16. Optimal Water-Power Flow Problem: Formulation and Distributed Optimal Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zamzam, Admed S. [University of Minnesota; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D. [University of Minnesota; Taylor, Josh A. [University of Toronto


    This paper formalizes an optimal water-power flow (OWPF) problem to optimize the use of controllable assets across power and water systems while accounting for the couplings between the two infrastructures. Tanks and pumps are optimally managed to satisfy water demand while improving power grid operations; {for the power network, an AC optimal power flow formulation is augmented to accommodate the controllability of water pumps.} Unfortunately, the physics governing the operation of the two infrastructures and coupling constraints lead to a nonconvex (and, in fact, NP-hard) problem; however, after reformulating OWPF as a nonconvex, quadratically-constrained quadratic problem, a feasible point pursuit-successive convex approximation approach is used to identify feasible and optimal solutions. In addition, a distributed solver based on the alternating direction method of multipliers enables water and power operators to pursue individual objectives while respecting the couplings between the two networks. The merits of the proposed approach are demonstrated for the case of a distribution feeder coupled with a municipal water distribution network.

  17. Math Problems for Water Quality Control Personnel, Instructor's Manual. Second Edition. (United States)

    Delvecchio, Fred; Brutsch, Gloria

    This document is the instructor's manual for a course in mathematics for water quality control personnel. It is designed so a program may be designed for a specific facility. The problem structures are arranged alphabetically by treatment process. Charts, graphs and/or drawings representing familiar data forms contain the necessary information to…

  18. An Instructors Guide to Water Pollution. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems, No. 5. (United States)

    Kidd, David E.

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on water pollution includes the following units: (1) Overview of World Pollution; (2) History, Definition, Criteria; (3) Ecosystem Theory; (4) Biological…

  19. Land management, erosion problems and soil and water conservation in Fincha'a watershed, western Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuayehu, T.; Sterk, G.


    The knowledge of soil erosion processes, attitude towards rational use of resources and institutional support affect the capability of farmers to implement soil and water conservation (SWC) measures. This research was conducted to determine soil erosion problems and the factors that affect the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal AZIZ


    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid areas, the availability and the management of irrigation water have become priorities of great importance. The successive years of drought, induced by climate change and population growth, increasingly reduced the amount of water reserved for agriculture. Consequently, many countries have included wastewater reuse as an important dimension of water resources planning. In the more arid areas wastewater is used in agriculture, releasing high resource of water supplies. In this context, the present work is a review focusing the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture as an important strategy for solving water deficit problems in arid areas. Much information concerning the wastewater reuse in different regions of the world and in Morocco, the different wastewater treatment technologies existing in Morocco were discussed. The review focused also the fertilizing potential of wastewater in agriculture, the role of nutrients and their concentrations in wastewater and their advantages effects on plant growth and yield.

  1. Supersymmetric Displaced Number States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy R. Zypman


    Full Text Available We introduce, generate and study a family of supersymmetric displaced number states (SDNS that can be considered generalized coherent states of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. The family is created from the seminal supersymmetric boson-fermion entangling annihilation operator introduced by Aragone and Zypman and later expanded by Kornbluth and Zypman. Using the momentum representation, the states are obtained analytically in compact form as displaced supersymmetric number states. We study their position-momentum uncertainties, and their bunchiness by classifying them according to their Mandel Q-parameter in phase space. We were also able to find closed form analytical representations in the space and number basis.

  2. Solvability of the Initial Value Problem to the Isobe-Kakinuma Model for Water Waves (United States)

    Nemoto, Ryo; Iguchi, Tatsuo


    We consider the initial value problem to the Isobe-Kakinuma model for water waves and the structure of the model. The Isobe-Kakinuma model is the Euler-Lagrange equations for an approximate Lagrangian which is derived from Luke's Lagrangian for water waves by approximating the velocity potential in the Lagrangian. The Isobe-Kakinuma model is a system of second order partial differential equations and is classified into a system of nonlinear dispersive equations. Since the hypersurface t=0 is characteristic for the Isobe-Kakinuma model, the initial data have to be restricted in an infinite dimensional manifold for the existence of the solution. Under this necessary condition and a sign condition, which corresponds to a generalized Rayleigh-Taylor sign condition for water waves, on the initial data, we show that the initial value problem is solvable locally in time in Sobolev spaces. We also discuss the linear dispersion relation to the model.

  3. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva


    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  4. Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis (United States)


    CONTRACT NUMBER Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis PDMC 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ms... infographic /iraq_cccm_idp_settlement_status_map_ 16_July_2015 xxii DTM ROUND XXII JUNE 2015 xxiii REACH, Vulnerability, Needs and Intentions of

  5. Permeability of displaced fractures (United States)

    Kluge, Christian; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido


    Flow along fractures or in fissured systems becomes increasingly important in the context of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), shale gas recovery or nuclear waste deposit. Commonly, the permeability of fractures is approximated using the Hagen-Poiseuille solution of Navier Stokes equation. Furthermore, the flow in fractures is assumed to be laminar flow between two parallel plates and the cubic law for calculating the velocity field is applied. It is a well-known fact, that fracture flow is strongly influenced by the fracture surface roughness and the shear displacement along the fracture plane. Therefore, a numerical approach was developed which calculates the flow pattern within a fracture-matrix system. The flow in the fracture is described by a free fluid flow and the flow in the matrix is assumed to be laminar and therefore validates Darcy's law. The presented approach can be applied for artificially generated fractures or real fractures measured by surface scanning. Artificial fracture surfaces are generated using the power spectral density of the surface height random process with a spectral exponent to define roughness. For calculating the permeability of such fracture-matrix systems the mean fracture aperture, the shear displacement and the surface roughness are considered by use of a 3D numerical simulator. By use of this approach correlation between shear displacement and mean aperture, shear displacement and permeability, as well as surface roughness and permeability can be obtained. Furthermore, the intrinsic measured permeability presents a combination of matrix and fracture permeability. The presented approach allows the separation and quantification of the absolute magnitudes of the matrix and the fracture permeability and the permeability of displaced fractures can be calculated. The numerical approach which is a 3D numerical simulation of the fracture-matrix system can be applied for artificial as well as real systems.

  6. [The problem in the reactivation of microorganisms on evaluating the efficacy of water disinfectants]. (United States)

    Artemova, T Z; Nedachin, A E; Zholdakova, Z I; Sinitsyna, O O; Gipp, E K; Butorina, N N; Mamonov, R A; Tul'skaia, E A


    The investigation deals with the topical problem of whether bacterial viability and properties may be restored after the achieved bacteriostatic effect of water disinfection, which reduces the reliability of the control and adequate assessment of its epidemic safety. The objective of the investigation was to study whether bacteria might be reactivated in the estimation of water disinfection with guanidine-containing agents as an alternative to chlorine. Experiments were carried out on the waters from model water reservoirs, by simulating water contamination with residential waste waters and on the natural water from the Moscow River, by reproducing the purification conditions: coagulation, filtration, disinfection with a binary mixture of polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride and quaternary ammonium compound. The experimental studies of the efficacy of the binary agent against indicator, opportunistic, and pathogenic bacteria indicated that the viability of bacterial cells might be reactivated and restored after water disinfection and cell multiplication upon further exposure. Microorganisms that had the greatest capacity for reactivation after use of the binary agent, as evidenced by the group values of the total number of saprophytes (microbial number) at 37 degrees C, coliform bacteria, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were identified. The findings show it necessary to consider reactivation processes in the evaluation of novel disinfectants, which requires a supplemented procedure for obligatorily estimating their exposure 24 hours after use of a reagent.

  7. Neighbourhood effects and household responses to water supply problems in Nigerian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charisma Acey


    Full Text Available Between 1990 and 2004, Nigeria’s urban population jumped to nearly half the national population, while access to improved sources of water in urban areas dropped by nearly 15 per cent during the same period. This paper presents preliminary results on the relationship between water supply, neighbourhood characteristics, and household strategies in response to dissatisfaction with water provision as reported by 389 respondents in 10 neighbourhoods in Lagos and Benin City, Nigeria between October 2007 and February 2008. In this paper, a conceptual model of consumer demand for water is used, based upon Hirschman’s exit, voice and loyalty (EVL framework. The model explicitly factors in the quality of water provision and variables at the household and neighbourhood levels that could affect perceptions about quality and the strategies that households use to cope with inadequate public services. Preliminary results show that reported household strategies to secure water are affected by community-level factors such as the range, cost, and quality of water supply alternatives, as well as neighbourhood composition. Furthermore, the percentage of urban migrants and households that live in rented flats in a neighbourhood seems to be associated with the use of exit strategies (as opposed to voice in response to problems with their primary water supply.

  8. Role of numerical simulation in analysis of ground-water quality problems (United States)

    Konikow, L.F.


    The increasing public awareness and concern about the hazards of toxic chemicals contaminating aquifers has created an increased need for predictive capabilities to analyze ground-water contamination problems. Several digital models to simulate the movement and concentration of ground-water contaminants have been documented recently. Most simulate the transport and dispersion of a nonreactive solute, but some include mathematically simple reaction terms to represent decay and sorption processes. For applications to field problems, these solute-transport models impose data requirements that, in general, exceed our practical capabilities to accurately describe the field properties and stresses of the hydraulic and chemical systems. Thus, interpretations based on model analyses must recognize the significance of uncertainties in input data. Models of ground-water systems should be regarded as just one tool among many that can be used in the analysis of a ground-water quality problem. Numerical simulation can help the analyst integrate available data, evaluate conceptual models, test hypotheses pertaining to flow and quality changes, and predict system responses to alternative stresses. The models do not replace field data, but they do offer a feedback mechanism that can help to guide the design of a more effective and more efficient data-collection program.

  9. Intubation of newborns and infants: a solution to the problem of water condensation. (United States)

    Pedersen, B


    Treatment with humidified air in intubated newborns and infants its often complicated by the embarrassing problem of water condensation. This problem is solved by the humidification system described below, in which the tube delivering humidified air is surrounded by an Armaflex-insulated spiral-wire tube. Through the space between the two tubes, an adjustable air warmer delivers dry air at a temperature and flow rate such that the temperature of the humidified air in the delivery tube is maintained above its dew-point temperature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thay Ngok Shon


    Full Text Available Ambient temperature in the central part of Vietnam in summer can reach 32–35°C; in some places it can be more than 42°C. Hot climate strongly affects the animal organism alongside with the animal weight reduction and reduction the quantity of egg-laying in poultry. Therefore, air conditioning in livestock buildings is necessary. There are several ways to cool the temperature in such buildings, and each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. We propose to use underground water at the temperature of 24–25°C for this purpose. One of the methods of cooling sheds for livestock is sprinkler irrigation of water on the roof. For calculating the amount of heat, removed from the indoor air in the shed to the cooling water, in the first approximation specialists believe in some cases that an appropriate amount of heat being removed is determined mainly by heat transfer from the air inside the shed to the cooling water through the surface of the roof, represented by the lower part of the wave that form the surface of a metal tile, neglecting the influence of heat conduction on top of the wave of the tile surface. Consequentially, such a simplification leads to possible errors. Therefore, the authors solved the problem of cooling shed by irrigation of water on the roof by an analytical method. Specifically, we solved the problem of heat conductivity of the fin of the finite length of constant cross section, wherein different sides of the fin are conjugate with different environments. Additionally, the calculation considered the effect of solar radiation. For this purpose, the authors have created a heat balance equation at steady state for any infinitesimal element of the fin, and solved the differential equation afterwards. The authors applied the results for calculating practical problem of ground water irrigation of a roof of a livestock shed made of metal areas tiles. 

  11. Health status among internally displaced persons in Louisiana and Mississippi travel trailer parks. (United States)

    Larrance, Ryan; Anastario, Michael; Lawry, Lynn


    We used a global humanitarian aid perspective to assess basic needs, women's health, mental health, and opinions about the status of internally displaced persons living in travel trailer parks to inform recovery efforts for this population. This was a systematic randomized survey of 366 internally displaced persons, conducted with structured questionnaires. The study setting was commercial and group travel trailer parks in Louisiana and Mississippi. Information was gathered about respondent demographics, food security, basic needs, domestic and sexual violence, security concerns, reproductive health, mental health, morbidity, mortality, health care assessment, substance use, and opinions about internally displaced persons and social status. Respondents were 45.9 (standard deviation 0.8) years of age on average and were mostly white (62%) in Mississippi and mostly black (65%) in Louisiana. Shelter, transportation, security, and lack of financial means were listed as the worst problems since displacement. Sixteen percent of respondents reported not having enough drinking water, and only 13% of those living in counties and parishes under boil orders were doing so. More than half of households reported an ill adult or child in the previous 2 months. The number of parents reporting problems getting children to school more than tripled after displacement. Intimate partner violence rates postdisplacement were 3 times higher than US baseline rates. Fifty percent of respondents met criteria for major depression. Suicide completion rates after displacement were more than 14 times the baseline rates, and attempt rates were more than 78 times baseline. The health burdens identified present a formidable challenge for the health infrastructures in Louisiana and Mississippi without outside assistance. Those planning and leading recovery efforts must understand internally displaced persons in a more global context and tailor programming that follows well-developed international

  12. Validation of ANUGA hydraulic model using exact solutions to shallow water wave problems (United States)

    Mungkasi, S.; Roberts, S. G.


    ANUGA is an open source and free software developed by the Australian National University (ANU) and Geoscience Australia (GA). This software is a hydraulic numerical model used to solve the two-dimensional shallow water equations. The numerical method underlying it is a finite volume method. This paper presents some validation results of ANUGA with respect to exact solutions to shallow water flow problems. We identify the strengths of ANUGA and comment on future work that may be taken into account for ANUGA development.

  13. Hydrodynamic analysis of the displacement conditions of formation fluids using an axisymmetric model (United States)

    Chernoshchuk, I. B.


    The axisymmetric problem of the displacement of formation fluids by a drilling mud filtrate with filter cake formation is considered. An analysis is made of the distribution and variation of the main parameters of the process: filtrate volume, filter cake thickness, oil saturation, and pressure. The positions of the water-saturation and salt-concentration fronts are determined. The results are compared with the geophysical logging data for straight-hole drilling.

  14. Tests for character displacement. (United States)

    Sinclair, D F; Mosimann, J E; Meeter, D A


    Character displacement is an important concept in ecology which has been surrounded by controversy due largely to a lack of clearly stated hypotheses and statistical tests. Existing tests implicity assume random species sizes estimated without error--a random-effects model. We introduce the log-uniform distribution for species sizes and show that it has properties of direct relevance to character displacement. We present tests which assume uniform and log-normal species sizes and have the log-uniform distribution as an alternative. The tests have low power for sample sizes typically encountered in ecology. The effect of estimating species sizes is small. The results exemplify the shortcomings of the traditional random-effects model for species sizes.

  15. Displacing the Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke...... and market as mutually exclusive (Mol 2008), care and market appear to be intertwined in political patient figures through which the organization is trying to manage and transform itself from the inside...

  16. Miniaturised optical displacement sensor (United States)

    Gindele, Frank; Gaul, Frank; Kraus, Silvio; Sigloch, Susanne; Teubner, Ulrich


    The primary object presented in this contribution is the miniaturization of a displacement sensor system with the potential for high accuracy measurements and for cost-effective production in polymers. The measurement of linear displacements can be performed by different methods e.g. magnetoresistive, potentiometric, electromagnetic or inductive encoder systems. For movements in the millimeter range and above the most precise systems are based on optical methods. The displacement measurement of our sensor system uses the intensity modulation of two amplitude gratings, moving relative to each other and illuminated by a LED. To increase the system resolution and the signal quality the grating/detector combination is divided into four areas which are phase shifted to each other. The grating period is 25 μm with a geometrical accuracy below 1 μm. The amplitude gratings have been processed on a glass substrate lithographically. Applying electro-discharge machining a miniaturised optical bench for the passive alignment of the optical and the opto-electronic components has been realised. The sensor has an overall size of 6x4x3 mm3 and is designed for the future replication in one single polymer part. In combination with an electronic interpolation the sensor will be capable for a sub-micrometer accuracy.

  17. Problem area 1 effective water management in agriculture-Product area accomplishments-FY 11 - FY14 (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service National Program 211 is composed of four components or problem areas. Problem Area 1, Effective Water Management in Agriculture, focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) I...

  18. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science


    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One

  19. Investigation of one inverse problem in case of modeling water areas with "liquid" boundaries (United States)

    Sheloput, Tatiana; Agoshkov, Valery


    In hydrodynamics often appears the problem of modeling water areas (oceans, seas, rivers, etc.) with "liquid" boundaries. "Liquid" boundary means set of those parts of boundary where impermeability condition is broken (for example, straits, bays borders, estuaries, interfaces of oceans). Frequently such effects are ignored: for "liquid" boundaries the same conditions are used as for "solid" ones, "material boundary" approximation is applied [1]. Sometimes it is possible to interpolate the results received from models of bigger areas. Moreover, approximate estimates for boundary conditions are often used. However, those approximations are not always valid. Sometimes errors in boundary condition determination could lead to a significant decrease in the accuracy of the simulation results. In this work one way of considering the problem mentioned above is described. According to this way one inverse problem on reconstruction of boundary function in convection-reaction-diffusion equations which describe transfer of heat and salinity is solved. The work is based on theory of adjoint equations [2] and optimal control, as well as on common methodology of investigation inverse problems [3]. The work contains theoretical investigation and the results of computer simulation applied for the Baltic Sea. Moreover, conditions and restrictions that should be satisfied for solvability of the problem are entered and justified in the work. Submitted work could be applied for the solution of more complicated inverse problems and data assimilation problems in the areas with "liquid" boundaries; also it is a step for developing algorithms on computing level, speed, temperature and salinity that could be applied for real objects. References 1. A. E. Gill. Atmosphere-ocean dynamics. // London: Academic Press, 1982. 2. G. I. Marchuk. Adjoint equations. // Moscow: INM RAS, 2000, 175 p. (in Russian). 3. V.I. Agoshkov. The methods of optimal control and adjoint equations in problems of

  20. Dam construction as an engineering solution for water supply problem : environmental thrusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.H. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering


    Water supply management and the potential impacts associated with engineering practices in water supply systems were examined. Global aspects of increasing water demand were presented and compared with populations, urbanization and water demand. Engineering practices in waterworks developments such as dam construction, river intakes, infiltration galleries, wells, boreholes and adits were also discussed. Construction of large dams and the problems associated with damming the rivers were studied as large dams generally have substantial impacts on rivers, watersheds and aquatic ecosystems, leading to the irreversible loss of species populations and ecosystems. These problems include negative impacts on the terrestrial ecosystem, greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs due to decaying vegetation and carbon inflows from the catchment, changes in flow regimes, trapping of sediments and nutrients behind a dam, blocking migration of aquatic organisms, as well as negative impacts on flood plain ecosystems and fisheries. In addition, a case study, on the environmental impacts associated with damming in Three Gorges Valley in China was presented. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Water supply, sanitation and health education programmes in developing countries: problems of evaluation. (United States)

    Lindskog, U; Lindskog, P; Wall, S


    There are several methodological problems related to evaluating the impact that improved water supply, sanitation and health education projects have on public health. Fifteen studies of intervention programmes, one by the present authors, are discussed. Since non-intervention studies of water supply are difficult to assess, a valid study design must include an intervention programme, even though such studies are more costly and time-consuming. Detailed descriptions of programmes, study plans, and analytical methods are often lacking, and different studies reach greatly diverging conclusions. It may be proposed that studies based on "weak" methodology give a more positive impression of improved public health after improvement of water supply than do before-after studies using comparison groups.

  2. Water supply of the population as a problem of energy efficiency on the example of the Tyumen region of Russia (United States)

    Lezier, Victoria; Gusarova, Miroslava; Kopytova, Anna


    The purpose of this article is to draw public attention to the problems of water supply in the city of Tyumen, the capital of the oil region and one of the most important objects in Russia from the point of view of strategic water supply, located in the region with vast freshwater resources. The article outlines main water supply problems related to the quality of drinking water, its chemical composition, and risks of water contamination by industrial effluents, problems of water transport to the consumers, problems of energy efficiency. The issues raised are part of the energy efficiency not only of the Tyumen region, but also of the Sverdlovsk region, from which the waters of the drinking basin are transited, being a sewage channel for many industrial enterprises. The article touches the issues of water protection, conservation and quality of water coming from the Velizhansky water intake, as well as the possibilities of using alternative sources of drinking water. The article analyzes legal measures, and proposals for improving work with increasing the quality of drinking water, combating melt water and pollution with oil.

  3. Proposing of an aerated water treatment plant for reducing water pollution problem in Losari Beach after reclamation (United States)

    Suryani, Sri; Maharani, Hamzah, Muhammad Alimuddin


    Losari Beach is the most important site in Makassar. It lies at the west side of Makassar city. This place is known as the place where people are relaxed and gathering with friends or family after working, and now it becomes the icon of Makassar city. As the biggest city in eastern Indonesia, Makassar grows very fast. We can find constructions for building hospitals, shopping malls, bussines activities, and residences everywhere. The most important construction activities that will effect Losari Beach is the reclamation to build the Center Point of Indonesia that takes an area of 157 hectares and it is located at the west side of Losari Beach. In the last research presented in 9th International Conference on Marine Technology (October 2014) using surface-water modeling system (SMS) software showed that reclamation will significantly increase concentrations of BOD and COD (± 7 mg/L for BOD and 6.2 mg/L for COD). This condition will cause Losari Beach becomes very polluted. A probable solution to overcome this problem is to clean the wastewater before introducing to the sea. This paper will describe the type of the wastewater treatment plant that can be used to solve the water pollution problem in Losari Beach.

  4. A new method to assess long term small sea-bottom vertical displacement in shallow water from bottom pressure sensor: the case of Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy (United States)

    Malservisi, R.; Chierici, F.; Iannaccone, G.; Guardato, S.; Pignagnoli, L.; Locritani, M.; Embriaco, D.; Donnarumma, G. P.; Rodgers, M.; Beranzoli, L.


    We present a new methodology aimed at assessing long term small vertical seafloor deformation in shallow water environments by using Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) measurements jointly with ancillary sea level, water column and barometric data. These measurements are presently acquired only in areas where the amount of vertical deformation is large and in deep water environment, where the noise induced by the sea state and other near surface disturbances is low. We applied the method to the data acquired in 2011 by a BPR deployed at about 96 m depth in the marine sector of the Campi Flegrei Caldera, during a quasi-symmetric seafloor uplift episode of a few centimeters amplitude. The method provides an estimation of the vertical uplift of the caldera of 2.5 +/- 1.3 cm achieving an unprecedented level of precision in the measurement of the seafloor vertical deformation in shallow water. We reached this result by taking into account the contribution of the BPR instrumental drift and the contribution of the sea water density variations, which can affect the measurement on the order of tens of centimeters. The estimation of the vertical deformation obtained in this way compares favorably with data acquired by a land based GPS station, which is located at the same distance from the area of maximum deformation as the BPR

  5. Geochemistry's vital contribution to solving water resource problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmunds, W.M., E-mail: [Oxford University Centre for Water Research, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom)


    As part of the events celebrating 40 a of IAGC, it is fitting to trace the modern evolution and development of hydrogeochemistry. However, fascination with water quality can be traced back more than 2 ka. In the post-war years, hydrogeochemistry was influenced heavily by the advances in other disciplines including physical chemistry, metallurgy and oceanography. Hydrological applications of isotope science also developed rapidly at this time, and important advances in analytical chemistry allowed multi-element and trace element applications to be made. Experimental studies on equilibrium processes and reaction kinetics allowed bench-scale insight into water-rock interaction. Consolidation of knowledge on processes in groundwaters and the current awareness of hydrogeochemistry by water professionals owe much to the work of Robert Garrels, John Hem, and co-workers in the early 1960s. Studies of down-gradient evolution enabled a field-scale understanding of groundwater quality and geochemical processes as a function of residence time (dissolution and precipitation processes in carbonate and non-carbonate aquifers; redox processes; cation exchange and salinity origins). Emerging water resource and water quality issues in the 1960s and 70s permitted the application of hydrogeochemistry to contaminant and related problems and this trend continues. The impacts of diffuse pollution from intensive agriculture, waste disposal and point source pollution from urban and industrial sources relied on geochemistry to solve questions of origin and attenuation. In semi-arid regions facing water scarcity, geochemical approaches have been vital in the assessment of renewability and characterising palaeowaters. The protection and new incoming regulation of water resources will rely increasingly on a sound geochemical basis for management.

  6. Displaced patella fractures. (United States)

    Della Rocca, Gregory J


    Displaced patella fractures often result in disruption of the extensor mechanism of the knee. An intact extensor mechanism is a requirement for unassisted gait. Therefore, operative treatment of the displaced patella fracture is generally recommended. The evaluation of the patella fracture patient includes examination of extensor mechanism integrity. Operative management of patella fractures normally includes open reduction with internal fixation, although partial patellectomy is occasionally performed, with advancement of quadriceps tendon or patellar ligament to the fracture bed. Open reduction with internal fixation has historically been performed utilizing anterior tension band wiring, although comminution of the fracture occasionally makes this fixation construct inadequate. Supplementation or replacement of the tension band wire construct with interfragmentary screws, cerclage wire or suture, and/or plate-and-screw constructs may add to the stability of the fixation construct. Arthrosis of the patellofemoral joint is very common after healing of patella fractures, and substantial functional deficits may persist long after fracture healing has occurred. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Compositional Simulation of Subsurface Remediation via Density Modified Displacement (United States)

    Phelan, T. J.; Ramsburg, C. A.; Abriola, L. M.


    Reduced interfacial tension displacement of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface can be an efficient means of remediating contaminant source zones. Application of technologies based upon this principle, however, is problematic for NAPLs that are denser than water (DNAPLs) due to their tendency to sink further into the subsurface when mobilized. Pre-mobilization density conversion via alcohol partitioning has been suggested as a means of overcoming this problem. This presentation details efforts in the mathematical modeling of this proposed technology. A comprehensive, empirically-based, multiphase flow and transport model which incorporates the ternary phase partitioning behavior of the DNAPL-alcohol-water system and compositionally dependent phase (e.g., density and viscosity) and interfacial properties (i.e., interfacial tension, capillary pressure-saturation and relative permeability relationships, NAPL entrapment behavior) is described. Model simulations of bench-scale laboratory experiments examining the density conversion and mobilization of entrapped trichloroethene with n-butanol are presented. These results demonstrate the compositional model's ability to accurately describe the density modified displacement process. Sensitivity of model predictions to different physicochemical processes is highlighted.

  8. What Is Robustness?: Problem Framing Challenges for Water Systems Planning Under Change (United States)

    Herman, J. D.; Reed, P. M.; Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.


    Water systems planners have long recognized the need for robust solutions capable of withstanding deviations from the conditions for which they were designed. Faced with a set of alternatives to choose from—for example, resulting from a multi-objective optimization—existing analysis frameworks offer competing definitions of robustness under change. Robustness analyses have moved from expected utility to exploratory "bottom-up" approaches in which vulnerable scenarios are identified prior to assigning likelihoods; examples include Robust Decision Making (RDM), Decision Scaling, Info-Gap, and Many-Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM). We propose a taxonomy of robustness frameworks to compare and contrast these approaches, based on their methods of (1) alternative selection, (2) sampling of states of the world, (3) quantification of robustness measures, and (4) identification of key uncertainties using sensitivity analysis. Using model simulations from recent work in multi-objective urban water supply portfolio planning, we illustrate the decision-relevant consequences that emerge from each of these choices. Results indicate that the methodological choices in the taxonomy lead to substantially different planning alternatives, underscoring the importance of an informed definition of robustness. We conclude with a set of recommendations for problem framing: that alternatives should be searched rather than prespecified; dominant uncertainties should be discovered rather than assumed; and that a multivariate satisficing measure of robustness allows stakeholders to achieve their problem-specific performance requirements. This work highlights the importance of careful problem formulation, and provides a common vocabulary to link the robustness frameworks widely used in the field of water systems planning.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet BAYLAR


    Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm methodology is a genetic process treated on computer which is considering evolution process in the nature. The genetic operations takes place within the chromosomes stored in computer memory. By means of various operators, the genetic knowledge in chromosomes change continuously and success of the community progressively increases as a result of these operations. The primary purpose of this study is calculation of nonlinear programming problems in water resources systems by Genetic Algorithm. For this purpose a Genetic Algoritm based optimization program were developed. It can be concluded that the results obtained from the genetic search based method give the precise results.

  10. Water data: bad TPC pads, 3.6 µs and 100 ns problems

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, F; Nefedov, Y; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A


    Out of the 3972 pads of the HARP TPC, about 9% are 'bad' and not useful for the correct reconstruction of clusters. Bad pads comprise dead pads, noisy pads, and pads with low or undefined amplification. Pads may be bad at one time, but not at another. This memo discusses the sources of information which were used to declare a pad 'bad', and gives the list of bad pads for the water data (runs 19146 to 19301). Also, the 3.6 µs and 100 ns problems of the TPC readout are discussed, including the corrective measures which have been taken.

  11. To built a solar hot water heater to work the sustainability problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carretero Gómez, María Begoña


    Full Text Available We are commemorating the Education Decade for Sustainable Development. If we want to create positive towards our environment and its sustainable development we have to begin working at school. It is necessary to show our students what problems of the environment are and which solutions can be adopted. That is the reason we have planned this activity in our secondary school. We do think that by doing daily activities we have a good opportunity to fulfil this goal. An example of such experiences is the fabrication of a solar hot water heater to make them and their families more environment conscience.

  12. Using density functional theory to solve complex problems: from liquid water to dark matter (United States)

    Fernandez Serra, Marivi

    In this talk I will review our current efforts on on understanding the physics of liquid water and the interaction of water with functional semiconductor surfaces using ab initio molecular dynamics methods. I will present the state of the art of current simulations and the challenges we face, focusing on two specific problems: the description of electron-electron interactions using semilocal density functionals and the role of nuclear quantum effects. I will finish the talk introducing our work in the field of dark matter detection, showing how electronic structure theory is a tool that can easily be used by high energy theorists to evaluate their predictions about the interactions of dark matter particles with electrons in solids, opening a bridge between two otherwise very distant communities.

  13. Damping of Torsional Beam Vibrations by Control of Warping Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Hoffmeyer, David; Ejlersen, Christian


    Supplemental damping of torsional beam vibrations is considered by viscous bimoments acting on the axial warping displacement at the beam supports. The concept is illustrated by solving the governing eigenvalue problem for various support configurations with the applied bimoments represented...

  14. Prague’s Water Supply Station in Podolí — a Solution for the Problems of Clean Water in the 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Drnek


    Full Text Available In the 1920s Prague was seeking a solution to the problem of supplying its inhabitants with drinkable water. The water plant in Káraný was not able to provide enough water, and the bold plan to bring water from a reservoir and to provide a dual system of potable and non-potable water faced an uncertain future. In order to stave off the crisis and make time to complete its plans, the city council decided to construct a new water supply plant inside the city next to the Vltava river in the city district of Podolí.

  15. Strategies for displacing oil (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir


    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  16. Feature displacement interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt


    Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....

  17. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu


    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  18. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann


    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  19. Water as Focus of Problem-Based Learning: an experience in Italian Secondary School (United States)

    Pirrami, Franco


    In this work I explore if problem-based learning (PBL) can be an effective method to integrate socio-environmental issues with curricular topics in secondary school. During earth sciences lessons students of six classes in different Italian schools experienced the problem-based learning (PBL) approach to deal with scientific and socio-environmental issues related to aspects of water in natural and human systems. A PBL approach was never used before by teachers in these classes, nor was a hydrosphere module taught previously. In the first group of three classes students were given a text with a scenario based on a socio-environmental water issue, followed by a dialogue containing experts' perspectives on how to deal with this issue. In a second group of three different classes, students were given the text with only the scenario but no dialogue. Teachers' interviews and students' questionnaires show that this approach increases students interest and engagement, especially within the second group. Learning outcomes in terms of knowledge remain, in the average, almost the same as other modules developed with more traditional methods, but this approach is likely to develop more scientific abilities and awareness on environmental issues.

  20. Management of an extremely displaced maxillary canine. (United States)

    Grande, Torsten; Stolze, Annemarie; Goldbecher, Heiko


    Aligning a displaced maxillary canine into the dental arch is one of the most complicated problems in orthodontics. In cases of extremely high displacement, the tooth is frequently removed surgically. Because of the upper canines' significance to dental esthetics and functional occlusion, such a decision is a very serious one. This case report illustrates the treatment of an extremely high displaced maxillary canine. The main diagnosis was the displacement and the retention of tooth 13 (in nearly horizontal position, apical to the neighboring teeth); further diagnoses were: transversal maxillary deficiency with frontal crowding and a distal bite of one premolar in width, a deep bite of 6 mm with contact in the palatal mucosa, mandibular midline deviation of 2.5 mm to the right, lingual eruption of teeth 32 and 42, retroinclination of the maxillary incisors, and retarded eruption of the permanent teeth. Initial treatment with active and functional appliances to correct the distal bite, midline deviation and deep bite. Surgical exposure of the high displaced canine at the age of 14. Onset of cuspid elongation with removable appliances and elastics, further movement with a transpalatinal bar and welded arm, and full alignment of the upper and lower arches with fixed appliances in both jaws. Stabilization of the orthodontic treatment results with retention devices. Duration of treatment: 5 years and 8 months. For the alignment of tooth 13, 2 years and 10 months were required; 1 year and 4 months were necessary with complete fixed appliance. The aim of this case report was to demonstrate the potential of aligning an extremely displaced canine. Because of the esthetic and functional importance of the upper canines, therapeutic alignment should be initiated, provided there are no indications to the contrary.

  1. Problems connected with pipelines transporting salty mine water on the example of the Olza collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boba, J.


    Describes problems related to the Olza collector which protects surface water in the Rybnik coal basin from salty down-pit water pumped from 16 mines. The water is now dumped into the Lesznica river. After construction of an additional 9 km of the collector in 1990 the water will be dumped directly into the Odra river. Five rivers and 10 smaller streams will be protected. The main collector begins at the Borynia mine and is 27.650 km long. It is built from 620x12 and 813x12.5 mm St35 steel pipes. Piplines connected to the main collector are 42 km long. After completion, the whole system will be 92 km long. Mine water is very hard and highly mineralized (6-43 g/dm/sup 3/). Its pH value is 7.6-8.2 with chloride ion content of 3-24 g/dm/sup 3/. Any damage to the system caused by corrosion or ground movement endangers the adjacent agricultural area. Pipe corrosion is monitored using corrosion measuring probes and the KR3 meter made in Poland. Buildup (mainly BaS) on pipe walls slows down the corrosion rate which is 0.026 mm/year. A reduction in pipe wall thickness of 1 mm is expected to take place after 10 years. Reduction of the pipe active cross-section area by 50% can occur after 50 years. There is a danger that the load of buildup can cause pipe sections suspended above the ground surface to break. In the time period 1983-1986 there were 30-40 failures of the system per year, caused mainly (90%) by ground movement. 5 refs.

  2. [Water and health-related problems, local perception and quality of water sources in a Toba (qom) community in the Impenetrable (Chaco, Argentina)]. (United States)

    Martínez, Gustavo J; Beccaglia, Ana M; Llinares, Analía


    We present a transdisciplinary study centering on aspects of environmental health of the Toba (qom) communities that relate to water and health problems of the Impenetrable Chaco region. Information was obtained through the methods and tools of participatory research, household participant observation, and ethnobotanical documentation of species related to water management and use. Vernacular terms referring to the suitability and taste of the water, as well as representations, attitudes and practices related to water collection and purification were recorded. In addition, a microbiological and physicochemical analysis of the water was performed and compared with the perceptual categories. It was observed that perceptual aspects were in tension with the hygienic quality of water. We documented phreatophyte plants, indicative of the presence of water, as well as plants that store water, act as flocculants, refresh the water or improve taste. The results of this research are discussed from an ecosystem approach and its relationship to the development of proposals for intervention.

  3. Formulation and study some inverse problems in modeling of hydrophysical fields in water areas with "liquid" boundaries (United States)

    Agoshkov, Valery


    There are different approaches for modeling boundary conditions describing hydrophysical fields in water areas with "liquid" boundaries. Variational data assimilation may also be considered as one of such approaches. Development of computer equipment, together with an increase in the quantity and quality of data from the satellites and other monitoring tools proves that the development of this particular approach is perspective. The range of connected the problems is wide - different recording forms of boundary conditions, observational data assimilation procedures and used models of hydrodynamics are possible. In this work some inverse problems and corresponding variational data assimilation ones, connected with mathematical modeling of hydrophysical fields in water areas (seas and oceans) with "liquid" ("open") boundaries, are formulated and studied. Note that the surface of water area (which can also be considered as a "liquid" boundary) is not included in the set of "liquid" boundaries, in this case "liquid" boundaries are borders between the areas "water-water". In the work, mathematical model of hydrothermodynamics in the water areas with "liquid" ("open") part of the boundary, a generalized statement of the problem and the splitting method for time approximation are formulated. Also the problem of variational data assimilation and iterative algorithm for solving inverse problems mentioned above are formulated. The work is based on [1]. The work was partly supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project 14-11-00609, the general formulation of the inverse problems) and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 16-01-00548, the formulation of the problem and its study). [1] V.I. Agoshkov, Methods for solving inverse problems and variational data assimilation problems of observations in the problems of the large-scale dynamics of the oceans and seas, Institute of Numerical Mathematics, RAS, Moscow, 2016 (in Russian).

  4. Point Coupled Displacement Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the...

  5. A modified firefly algorithm applied to the nuclear reload problem of a pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Iona Maghali Santos de; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: ioliveira@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear


    The Nuclear Reactor Reload Problem (NRRP) is an issue of great importance and concern in nuclear engineering. It is the problem related with the periodic operation of replacing part of the fuel of a nuclear reactor. Traditionally, this procedure occurs after a period of operation called a cycle, or whenever the nuclear power plant is unable to continue operating at its nominal power. Studied for more than 40 years, the NRRP still remains a challenge for many optimization techniques due to its multiple objectives concerning economics, safety and reactor physics calculations. Characteristics such as non-linearity, multimodality and high dimensionality also make the NRRP a very complex optimization problem. In broad terms, it aims at getting the best arrangement of fuel in the nuclear reactor core that leads to a maximization of the operating time. The primary goal is to design fuel loading patterns (LPs) so that the core produces the required energy output in an economical way, without violating safety limits. Since multiple feasible solutions can be obtained to this problem, judicious optimization is required in order to identify the most economical among them. In this sense, this paper presents a new contribution in this area and introduces a modified firefly algorithm (FA) to perform LPs optimization for a pressurized water reactor. Based on the original FA introduced by Xin-She Yang in 2008, the proposed methodology seems to be very promising as an optimizer to the NRRP. The experiments performed and the comparisons with some well known best performing algorithms from the literature, confirm this statement. (author)

  6. Static loading and vertical displacement at southern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton V. Timofeev


    Full Text Available Seismic method is usually used for elastic parametric estimation. This is why this method presents dynamic parameters of Earth. Frequency seismic range changes greatly from geodynamic modelling time. Now we have opportunity to use geodesy result for some years for elastic parameters estimation. Static solution from elastic theory may be used for the interpretation of long term results. It presents static elastic parameter. The inverse problem for different types of vertical surface loading on one year period is calculated. Two cases of loading with maximal and minimal area are presented. Results are determined by space geodesy and leveling methods. Current relation between atmospheric pressure and vertical displacements was estimated at the center of Siberian Anti Cyclone with size varied from 2000 km to 3000 km. Pressure-displacement coefficients (PDC can be achieved by three years observation (0.997 mm/mbar for NVSK GPS station. It is used for elastic module study of geology medium with maximum thickness up to 600 km. In the context of elastic model, the modulus of rigidity is estimated to be 113 GPa. Vast expanse of anti-cyclone may relate with rheology of crust and upper mantle. Smaller size of surface loading – local loading is seasonal variation of water reservoir. Annual vertical changes were obtained by leveling near the dam of the reservoir. PDC ratio was 1.15 mm/bar for these places. In elastic theory, the Young modulus E = 80 GPa (Poisson ratio = 0.25, the modulus of rigidity = 32 GPa was calculated by sixteen years of leveling measurements. This result can effectively be represented for upper crust. Our results were checked by solution for coseismic displacement of Chyia-Altai earthquake (Sep. 27, 2003, M = 7.3. Coseismic results calculated by static modules agree with experimental coseismic GPS data at 10% level.

  7. Hybrid water flow-like algorithm with Tabu search for traveling salesman problem (United States)

    Bostamam, Jasmin M.; Othman, Zulaiha


    This paper presents a hybrid Water Flow-like Algorithm with Tabu Search for solving travelling salesman problem (WFA-TS-TSP).WFA has been proven its outstanding performances in solving TSP meanwhile TS is a conventional algorithm which has been used since decades to solve various combinatorial optimization problem including TSP. Hybridization between WFA with TS provides a better balance of exploration and exploitation criteria which are the key elements in determining the performance of one metaheuristic. TS use two different local search namely, 2opt and 3opt separately. The proposed WFA-TS-TSP is tested on 23 sets on the well-known benchmarked symmetric TSP instances. The result shows that the proposed WFA-TS-TSP has significant better quality solutions compared to WFA. The result also shows that the WFA-TS-TSP with 3-opt obtained the best quality solution. With the result obtained, it could be concluded that WFA has potential to be further improved by using hybrid technique or using better local search technique.

  8. Data mining for water resource management part 2 - methods and approaches to solving contemporary problems (United States)

    Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul


    This is the second of two papers that describe how data mining can aid natural-resource managers with the difficult problem of controlling the interactions between hydrologic and man-made systems. Data mining is a new science that assists scientists in converting large databases into knowledge, and is uniquely able to leverage the large amounts of real-time, multivariate data now being collected for hydrologic systems. Part 1 gives a high-level overview of data mining, and describes several applications that have addressed major water resource issues in South Carolina. This Part 2 paper describes how various data mining methods are integrated to produce predictive models for controlling surface- and groundwater hydraulics and quality. The methods include: - signal processing to remove noise and decompose complex signals into simpler components; - time series clustering that optimally groups hundreds of signals into "classes" that behave similarly for data reduction and (or) divide-and-conquer problem solving; - classification which optimally matches new data to behavioral classes; - artificial neural networks which optimally fit multivariate data to create predictive models; - model response surface visualization that greatly aids in understanding data and physical processes; and, - decision support systems that integrate data, models, and graphics into a single package that is easy to use.

  9. Using problem-based learning to improve students' creative thinking skills on water purification (United States)

    Wahyu, Wawan; Kurnia, Eli, Rohaeni Nur


    The aim of this study is to obtain information about the using Problem-based Learning (PBL) to improve students' creative thinking skills on water purification. The research adopted quasi-experimental method with one group pre-test-post-test design, involving 31students of class XI in one SMK in Cimahi as the subjects of study. The students were divided into three groups categories: high, medium, and low based on the average grades of daily tests. The used instruments in this study were essay, observation sheet, questionnaire (Likert scale), and interview sheet Aspects of creative thinking skills are developed including: fluency, flexibility, originality, detailing (elaborative), and judging (evaluative). To identify the improvement of students' creative thinking skills on water purification, "normalized gain" or of the pre-test and post-test scores was calculated. The results showed that PBL can enhance students' creative thinking skills by means high category (percentage of = 70.12%). This nformation can be used as an input to teachers in the school and teacher education programs.

  10. Social, political, and institutional setting: Water management problems of the Rio Grande (United States)

    Douglas, A.J.


    This paper discusses various water management issues facing federal, state, and local agencies charged with managing the water resources of the Rio Grande River Basin and its major tributaries. The Rio Grande - 3,058 km (=1,900 mi) long - is the fourth longest river in the United States. The river's basin is 870,236 km2 (=336,000 mi2) and for roughly two-thirds of its length it forms the United States-Mexican border. It is a major recreational resource providing world class trout fishing near its headwaters in Colorado's San Juan Mountains and shoreline, angling, and boating opportunities near the Colorado-New Mexico border. The Rio Grande is the principal tourist attraction of Big Bend National Park and flows through downtown Albuquerque and El Paso. Many reaches are wide and broad, but almost all are relatively shallow and not navigable by commercial ships. Nevertheless, it is one of the most important renewable water resources of the southwestern United States and North America. The issue of the "manageability" of the river in the face of social forces and disparate administrative jurisdictions that adversely impact Rio Grande flows is a thread linking various sections of the paper together. The length of the river; the fact that major reaches lie in Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas; and its unique role as an international boundary pose complex management problems. The allocation status quo formed by the complex nexus of existing river laws make it difficult to reshape Rio Grande management. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  11. Different approaches for centralized and decentralized water system management in multiple decision makers' problems (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.


    There is a general agreement that one of the most challenging issues related to water system management is the presence of many and often conflicting interests as well as the presence of several and independent decision makers. The traditional approach to multi-objective water systems management is a centralized management, in which an ideal central regulator coordinates the operation of the whole system, exploiting all the available information and balancing all the operating objectives. Although this approach allows to obtain Pareto-optimal solutions representing the maximum achievable benefit, it is based on assumptions which strongly limits its application in real world contexts: 1) top-down management, 2) existence of a central regulation institution, 3) complete information exchange within the system, 4) perfect economic efficiency. A bottom-up decentralized approach seems therefore to be more suitable for real case applications since different reservoir operators may maintain their independence. In this work we tested the consequences of a change in the water management approach moving from a centralized toward a decentralized one. In particular we compared three different cases: the centralized management approach, the independent management approach where each reservoir operator takes the daily release decision maximizing (or minimizing) his operating objective independently from each other, and an intermediate approach, leading to the Nash equilibrium of the associated game, where different reservoir operators try to model the behaviours of the other operators. The three approaches are demonstrated using a test case-study composed of two reservoirs regulated for the minimization of flooding in different locations. The operating policies are computed by solving one single multi-objective optimal control problem, in the centralized management approach; multiple single-objective optimization problems, i.e. one for each operator, in the independent case

  12. The Systems Analysis of Problems of An Evaluation,prognosis and Optimization of Graund Water Management In Reclamated Areas (United States)

    Vakhonin, N.

    The problems connected to ground water dynamics take place in various areas of the people economic activity. For want of it in some branches the greatest interest rep- resents creation of quantitative parameters of a water mode, in one cases - of a level mode H(t) (land reclamation, agricultural and forest economy, ecology), in other - cre- ation of water discharge Q (t) (water-intakes for a water-supply or on the contrary - protective system from mines and quarry submerge). In a number of branches the ex- treme interest is represented by ground water quality dynamics (potable water-supply, inflow to rivers and lakes used for fish-breeding etc.). Each from these cases requires the account of features for want of creation of ground water dynamics models, re- alization of monitoring for their identification. With allowance for aid above in the report, the problems connected to ground water dynamics are bro-ken on three types: 1) evaluations of the system state and matching with normative parameters or match- ing of various objects among themselves; 2) prognosises of dynamics of ground water amount and quality; 3) problems of decision making support (optimization of ground water management), formalized as: The analysis is conducted for each of them and the conditions of choice of a generality level of a variable state describing ground stream dynamics (soil humidity, ground wa- ter level, water volume in the camera) and alternate variants, appropriate to them, of models describing water dynamics are shown: physical with the distributed parameters (equation of joint filtering of the bicomponent environment water-air, water-transfer equation, Boussinesk equation; with lumped parameters (chamber model with cam- eras of a various degree aggregating down to "a black box"), and also non-physical (statistical, regressive and neural networks) model. The possibility of using by each from these models for three selected types of problems is shown. On an example of reclamated

  13. Effects of Buoyancy Forces on Immiscible Water/Oil Displacements in a Vertically Oriented Porous Medium Effets des facteurs de flottabilité sur les déplacements non-miscibles eau/huile dans un milieu poreux vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunavu S. R.


    Full Text Available The effects of buoyancy forces on liquid-liquid displacement processes occurring in porous media are important in a variety of practical situations, in particular during the displacement of oil from partially-depleted underground reservoirs by means of aqueous solutions. Most previous studies involving the visualization of water/oil displacements in porous media have been undertaken in horizontal two-dimensional porous medium cells. The objective of the present work was to determine the effects of buoyancy forces; on the fingering pattern and oil recovery by conducting immiscible displacement experiments in two-dimensional consolidated porous medium cells aligned in the vertical plane. In order to obtain a clear understanding of the favourable and unfavourable effects of buoyancy forces, experiments were carried out in three different flow modes, namely horizontal, vertical upward, and vertical downward. As the effects of buoyancy forces are negligible for two-dimensional porous media in the horizontal flow mode, the recoveries obtained in this mode were used as a reference for comparison with those obtained in the two vertical modes. Displacements using five different density ratios were studied. The breakthrough time and percentage oil recovery were measured in each case. The effects of buoyancy forces, viscous forces, and capillary forces, as well as the injection flow rate, were also recorded. The results obtained indicate that the effects of buoyancy forces are very pronounced at low flow rates and low oil/water density ratios, and that even a slight increase in the flow rate causes the buoyancy forces to rapidly become less significant. Les facteurs de flottabilité exercent un effet important sur les déplacements liquide/liquide en milieu poreux dans toute une gamme de situations pratiques, en particulier lorsqu'on veut déplacer l'huile de roches réservoirs partiellement épuisées à l'aide de solutions aqueuses. La plupart des


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dobrego


    Full Text Available The method of thermogas impact on the oil bearing layer is a perspective one to improve oil recovery. It is now under experimental implementation in Belarus. Stability of the thermal front and that of the oil displacement is a point of principle for the given technology. The article offers solution based on the method of small perturbations for the problem of the oil-displacement front stability under thermogas impact on the oil layer. The perturbation growth increment is shown to be quite different from that of the gas filtration combustion. Being determined by the perturbation wave number (or wave length, by difference in speed of the blowing filtration and that of the heat development front, by the ratios of densities, filtration coefficients, compressibility of the displacement agent and the displaced oil mass, and by other parameters. The author analyses the main parameters influencing the stability of the front. Recommendations are given on possible methods and procedures improving stability of the displacement front (neutralizing perturbation growth. The mechanisms of suppression or compensation of the front perturbation growth are as follows: the crude oil viscosity reduction and increase of that of the displacement agent, the displacement agent compressibility increase, increase of the thermogas impact heat-front width in the first instance at the expense of the temperature growth and alteration in the chemism (low temperature catalysts utilization, etc., reduction in speed of the front propagation and/or correspondingly of the displacement agent feed. Utilization of the gas or water-gas displacement agent as well as the agent impregnation with hydrophobic gases provides a relatively better stability of the front as compared to that employing water based compounds. Analytical data and derived recommendations are offered for utilization within the framework of general techniques and procedures of the thermogas impact process management

  15. Internal displacement in eastern Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Rae


    Full Text Available The history of post-independent Burma is characterisedby numerous conflicts in this extraordinarily heterogeneous country. Since military rule began in 196 2 Burmahas witnessed gross human rights abuses andmassive displacement.

  16. Human-provided waters for desert wildlife: What is the problem? (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Chambers, N.


    Conflict persists in southwestern deserts of the United States over management of human-constructed devices to provide wildlife with water. We appraised decision processes in this case relative to the goal of human dignity and by the standards of civility and common interest outcomes. Our analysis suggested that conflict was scientized, rooted in worldviews, and aggravated by use of inflammatory symbols such as "wilderness" and "bighorn sheep." Contested problem definitions, framed as matters of science, advanced factional interests largely by allocating the burden of proof and failing to disclose private concerns about well-being, affection, respect, skill and power. Decision processes were shaped by precepts of scientific management, and thus largely failed to foster civility, common ground, and a focus on common interests, and instead tended to exacerbate deprivations of dignity and respect. If the status quo continues, we foresee further erosion of human dignity because there are likely to be increases in system stressors, such as climate change and human population growth. The prognosis would be more hopeful if alternatives were adopted that entailed authoritative, equitable, and collaborative public decision-making processes that took into consideration national-level common interests such as the U.S. Endangered Species Act. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008.

  17. Improved understanding of the searching behavior of ant colony optimization algorithms applied to the water distribution design problem (United States)

    Zecchin, A. C.; Simpson, A. R.; Maier, H. R.; Marchi, A.; Nixon, J. B.


    Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have been applied successfully to many water resource problems, such as system design, management decision formulation, and model calibration. The performance of an EA with respect to a particular problem type is dependent on how effectively its internal operators balance the exploitation/exploration trade-off to iteratively find solutions of an increasing quality. For a given problem, different algorithms are observed to produce a variety of different final performances, but there have been surprisingly few investigations into characterizing how the different internal mechanisms alter the algorithm's searching behavior, in both the objective and decision space, to arrive at this final performance. This paper presents metrics for analyzing the searching behavior of ant colony optimization algorithms, a particular type of EA, for the optimal water distribution system design problem, which is a classical NP-hard problem in civil engineering. Using the proposed metrics, behavior is characterized in terms of three different attributes: (1) the effectiveness of the search in improving its solution quality and entering into optimal or near-optimal regions of the search space, (2) the extent to which the algorithm explores as it converges to solutions, and (3) the searching behavior with respect to the feasible and infeasible regions. A range of case studies is considered, where a number of ant colony optimization variants are applied to a selection of water distribution system optimization problems. The results demonstrate the utility of the proposed metrics to give greater insight into how the internal operators affect each algorithm's searching behavior.

  18. Investigating the Wicked Problems of (Un)sustainability Through Three Case Studies Around the Water-Energy-Food Nexus (United States)

    Metzger, E. P.; Curren, R. R.


    Effective engagement with the problems of sustainability begins with an understanding of the nature of the challenges. The entanglement of interacting human and Earth systems produces solution-resistant dilemmas that are often portrayed as wicked problems. As introduced by urban planners Rittel and Webber (1973), wicked problems are "dynamically complex, ill-structured, public problems" arising from complexity in both biophysical and socio-economic systems. The wicked problem construct is still in wide use across diverse contexts, disciplines, and sectors. Discourse about wicked problems as related to sustainability is often connected to discussion of complexity or complex systems. In preparation for life and work in an uncertain, dynamic and hyperconnected world, students need opportunities to investigate real problems that cross social, political and disciplinary divides. They need to grapple with diverse perspectives and values, and collaborate with others to devise potential solutions. Such problems are typically multi-casual and so intertangled with other problems that they cannot be resolved using the expertise and analytical tools of any single discipline, individual, or organization. We have developed a trio of illustrative case studies that focus on energy, water and food, because these resources are foundational, interacting, and causally connected in a variety of ways with climate destabilization. The three interrelated case studies progress in scale from the local and regional, to the national and international and include: 1) the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill with examination of the multiple immediate and root causes of the disaster, its ecological, social, and economic impacts, and the increasing risk and declining energy return on investment associated with the relentless quest for fossil fuels; 2) development of Australia's innovative National Water Management System; and 3) changing patterns of food production and the intertwined challenge of

  19. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung


    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  20. Three-dimensional oblique water-entry problems at small deadrise angles

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, M. R.


    This paper extends Wagner theory for the ideal, incompressible normal impact of rigid bodies that are nearly parallel to the surface of a liquid half-space. The impactors considered are three-dimensional and have an oblique impact velocity. A formulation in terms of the displacement potential is used to reveal the relationship between the oblique and corresponding normal impact solutions. In the case of axisymmetric impactors, several geometries are considered in which singularities develop in the boundary of the effective wetted region. We present the corresponding pressure profiles and models for the splash sheets. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  1. Recovering vector displacement estimates in quasistatic elastography using sparse relaxation of the momentum equation

    CERN Document Server

    Babaniyi, Olalekan A; Barbone, Paul E


    We consider the problem of estimating the $2D$ vector displacement field in a heterogeneous elastic solid deforming under plane stress conditions. The problem is motivated by applications in quasistatic elastography. From precise and accurate measurements of one component of the $2D$ vector displacement field and very limited information of the second component, the method reconstructs the second component quite accurately. No a priori knowledge of the heterogeneous distribution of material properties is required. This method relies on using a special form of the momentum equations to filter ultrasound displacement measurements to produce more precise estimates. We verify the method with applications to simulated displacement data. We validate the method with applications to displacement data measured from a tissue mimicking phantom, and in-vivo data; significant improvements are noticed in the filtered displacements recovered from all the tests. In verification studies, error in lateral displacement estimate...

  2. Displacement Processes in Stable Drainage Fronts (United States)

    Breen, S. J.; Pride, S. R.; Manga, M.


    Drainage fronts are stabilized at large bond number, when a low density nonwetting fluid displaces a high density wetting fluid from above. This is an ideal flow scenario for studying the correspondence between pore scale processes and continuum models because the front is a persistent macroscale feature that is propagated by discrete, multiplepore scale displacements. We present new observations of stable air/water drainage in thin, threedimensional, poured bead packs at varying capillary number. With backlighting and a high speed camera, we observe short range front velocities that are an order of magnitude larger than bulk pore velocity, consistent with previous studies in ordered 2D structures. We also quantify displacement lengths and front width. For comparison to continuum simulations, we measure saturation by light transmission continuously over a series of 1 cm length voxels. We focus on the critical nonwetting saturation (CNS, or "emergence point") at which voxels are percolated by air and continuum air permeability becomes nonzero. We find that mean CNS is capillary number dependent even at large bond number, with larger CNS at lower capillary number. Continuum simulations with an equivalent discretization demonstrate that CNS is a significant source of uncertainty for predictions of the time and saturation profile at chamber-length air breakthrough.

  3. Automating Recession Curve Displacement Recharge Estimation. (United States)

    Smith, Brennan; Schwartz, Stuart


    Recharge estimation is an important and challenging element of groundwater management and resource sustainability. Many recharge estimation methods have been developed with varying data requirements, applicable to different spatial and temporal scales. The variability and inherent uncertainty in recharge estimation motivates the recommended use of multiple methods to estimate and bound regional recharge estimates. Despite the inherent limitations of using daily gauged streamflow, recession curve displacement methods provide a convenient first-order estimate as part of a multimethod hierarchical approach to estimate watershed-scale annual recharge. The implementation of recession curve displacement recharge estimation in the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) RORA program relies on the subjective, operator-specific selection of baseflow recession events to estimate a gauge-specific recession index. This paper presents a parametric algorithm that objectively automates this tedious, subjective process, parameterizing and automating the implementation of recession curve displacement. Results using the algorithm reproduce regional estimates of groundwater recharge from the USGS Appalachian Valley and Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis, with an average absolute error of less than 2%. The algorithm facilitates consistent, completely automated estimation of annual recharge that complements more rigorous data-intensive techniques for recharge estimation. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  4. The problem of slurries of industrial wastes water treatments; Problematica de los lodos procedentes del tratamiento de las aguas residuales de la actividad industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Frutos, J.L. [Tecnologias del Medio Ambiente, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)


    The water treatment is not a problem today. The major problem are the slurries and fungi produced by the industrial waste water treatment. This article explains the different utilizations and the main applications of the water in the industrial process. The different treatments (thermal inertization sanitary landfills, etc) are presented.

  5. An Ethnomethodological Perspective on How Middle School Students Addressed a Water Quality Problem (United States)

    Belland, Brian R.; Gu, Jiangyue; Kim, Nam Ju; Turner, David J.


    Science educators increasingly call for students to address authentic scientific problems in science class. One form of authentic science problem--socioscientific issue--requires that students engage in complex reasoning by considering both scientific and social implications of problems. Computer-based scaffolding can support this process by…

  6. Debates—Perspectives on socio-hydrology: Changing water systems and the "tyranny of small problems"—Socio-hydrology (United States)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu


    We are well and truly in the Anthropocene. Humans can no longer be considered as mere external drivers or boundary conditions in the hydrologic systems we study. The interactions and feedbacks between human actions and water cycle dynamics on the planet, combined with the evolution of human norms/values in relation to water, are throwing up a range of emergent "big problems." Understanding and offering sustainable solutions to these "big problems" require a broadening of hydrologic science to embrace the perspectives of both social and natural scientists. The new science of socio-hydrology was introduced with this in mind, yet faces major challenges due to the wide gulf that separates the knowledge foundations and methodologies of natural and social sciences. Yet, the benefits of working together are enormous, including through adoption of natural science methods for social science problems, and vice versa. Bringing together the perspectives of both social and natural scientists dealing with water is good for hydrologic science, having the salutary effect of revitalizing it as use-inspired basic science. It is good for management too, in that the broader, holistic perspectives provided by socio-hydrology can help recognize potential "big" problems that may otherwise be unforeseen and, equally, identify potential "alternative" solutions to otherwise intractable problems.

  7. Correction of Line Interleaving Displacement in Frame Captured Aerial Video Imagery (United States)

    B. Cooke; A. Saucier


    Scientists with the USDA Forest Service are currently assessing the usefulness of aerial video imagery for various purposes including midcycle inventory updates. The potential of video image data for these purposes may be compromised by scan line interleaving displacement problems. Interleaving displacement problems cause features in video raster datasets to have...

  8. Job Displacement Among Single Mothers: (United States)

    Brand, Jennie E.; Thomas, Juli Simon


    Given the recent era of economic upheaval, studying the effects of job displacement has seldom been so timely and consequential. Despite a large literature associating displacement with worker well-being, relatively few studies focus on the effects of parental displacement on child well-being, and fewer still focus on implications for children of single parent households. Moreover, notwithstanding a large literature on the relationship between single motherhood and children’s outcomes, research on intergenerational effects of involuntary employment separations among single mothers is limited. Using 30 years of nationally representative panel data and propensity score matching methods, we find significant negative effects of job displacement among single mothers on children’s educational attainment and social-psychological well-being in young adulthood. Effects are concentrated among older children and children whose mothers had a low likelihood of displacement, suggesting an important role for social stigma and relative deprivation in the effects of socioeconomic shocks on child well-being. PMID:25032267

  9. Using ecotechnology to address water quality and wetland habitat loss problems in the Mississippi basin: a hierarchical approach. (United States)

    Day, John W; Yañéz Arancibia, Alejandro; Mitsch, William J; Lara-Dominguez, Ana Laura; Day, Jason N; Ko, Jae-Young; Lane, Robert; Lindsey, Joel; Lomeli, David Zarate


    Human activities are affecting the environment at continental and global scales. An example of this is the Mississippi basin where there has been a large scale loss of wetlands and water quality deterioration over the past century. Wetland and riparian ecosystems have been isolated from rivers and streams. Wetland loss is due both to drainage and reclamation, mainly for agriculture, and to isolation from the river by levees, as in the Mississippi delta. There has been a decline in water quality due to increasing use of fertilizers, enhanced drainage and the loss of wetlands for cleaning water. Water quality has deteriorated throughout the basin and high nitrogen in the Mississippi river is causing a large area of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi delta. Since the causes of these problems are distributed over the basin, the solution also needs to be distributed over the basin. Ecotechnology and ecological engineering offer the only ecologically sound and cost-effective method of solving these problems. Wetlands to promote nitrogen removal, mainly through denitrification but also through burial and plant uptake, offer a sound ecotechnological solution. At the level of the Mississippi basin, changes in farming practices and use of wetlands for nitrogen assimilation can reduce nitrogen levels in the River. There are additional benefits of restoration of wetland and riverine ecosystems, flood control, reduction in public health threats, and enhanced wildlife and fisheries. At the local drainage basin level, the use of river diversions in the Mississippi delta can address both problems of coastal land loss and water quality deterioration. Nitrate levels in diverted river water are rapidly reduced as water flows through coastal watersheds. At the local level, wetlands are being used to treat municipal wastewater. This is a cost-effective method, which results in improved water quality, enhanced wetland productivity and increased accretion. The

  10. Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Insights for an Age-Old Problem (United States)

    Lee, G. Fred; And Others


    Reviews the current state of information on the significance of phosphate as a water pollutant and the relationship between phosphorus loads and water quality. Areas that need additional research are discussed. (Author/BB)

  11. *Environmental mycobacteriosis and drinking water: an emerging problem for developed countries (United States)

    Background and Objective: Rates ofpulmonary environmental mycobacteriosis (EM) appear to be increasing among developed countries during the past 20 years. EM is caused by multiple species of pathogenic mycobacteria that have been recovered from soil, water, water aerosols, biofil...

  12. Summary of water problems at Pyramid Lake and Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses water needs and availability in western Nevada. There is not enough usable water from the Truckee and Carson Rivers to satisfy the demands of...

  13. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix A. Background Information & Problem Identification. (United States)


    area: the Patuxent, Patapsco, Magothy, and the Aquia Greensand Formations. All of these important water- bearing formations outcrop in the MWA and have...of a Potomac River intake and water filtration plant, Leesburg now has the capability of not only providing water f or its own use but also f or the...or approve subdivision plans unless they are in accordance with the county plans. The WSSC operates two large water filtration plants to supply its

  14. Water supply of Zaporizhzhya Priazovye: nascent, stages of development, problems of nowadays and hygienic substantiation of ways of their solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagorodniuk K.Yu.


    Full Text Available At the modern stage of development humanity is on the verge of the pandemic of non-communicable diseases. It is not an exception for the population of the Ukraine, among which more than 2/3 of the total morbidity incidences is non-communicable diseases: desieses of cardiovascular system, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes. To the mind of experts in the field of public health and environment protection, the first place among factors affecting the level of population’s health in Ukraine is given to the water that is ahead of air and food products in this aspect. Taking into consideration the fact that after annexation of the Crimea by the Russian Federation in March of 2014 and uncertainty in the military-political situation on the East of the Ukraine, Zaporizhzhya Priazovye is becoming a recreational zone, and with each year it will be used by more and more Ukrainian citizens. The objective of our research was to investigate nascent, stages of development and nowadays problems of region’s water supply as well as hygienic substantiation of complex ways of nowadays problem of Zaporizhzhya Priazovye water supply. As a result of conducted researches it was found that single economically feasible way of providing population of Zaporizhzhya Priazovye with water with normative total hardness and general mineralization is supply of the Dnipro water carried out by operation of Western group water conduit. To reduce the formation of chlorination by-products in the process of water purification it is necessary to use iron-containing chlorine-sulfate coagulant "Aula" of brand A according to the technical requirements TR U 24.1-33075701-002: 2011. For utilization of flush water of contact clarifiers, it is necessary to retool water purification facilities by clarifiers-recirculators with sediment recirculation in “inner contour”. It was proved that corrosive aggressiveness is an indicator of water quality which will determine further

  15. Potentials and problems of sustainable irrigation with water high in salts (United States)

    Ben-Gal, Alon


    Water scarcity and need to expand agricultural productivity have led to ever growing utilization of poor quality water for irrigation of crops. Almost in all cases, marginal or alternative water sources for irrigation contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved salts. When salts are present, irrigation water management, especially in the dry regions where water requirements are highest, must consider leaching in addition to crop evapotranspiration requirements. Leaching requirements for agronomic success are calculable and functions of climate, soil, and very critically, of crop sensitivity and the actual salinity of the irrigation water. The more sensitive the crop and more saline the water, the higher the agronomic cost and the greater the quantitative need for leaching. Israel is a forerunner in large-scale utilization of poor quality water for irrigation and can be used as a case study looking at long term repercussions of policy alternatively encouraging irrigation with recycled water or brackish groundwater. In cases studied in desert conditions of Israel, as much of half of the water applied to crops including bell peppers in greenhouses and date palms is actually used to leach salts from the root zone. The excess water used to leach salts and maintain agronomic and economic success when irrigating with water containing salts can become an environmental hazard, especially in dry areas where natural drainage is non-existent. The leachate often contains not only salts but also agrochemicals including nutrients, and natural contaminants can be picked up and transported as well. This leachate passes beyond the root zone and eventually reaches ground or surface water resources. This, together with evidence of ongoing increases in sodium content of fresh produce and increased SAR levels of soils, suggest that the current policy and practice in Israel of utilization of high amounts of low quality irrigation water is inherently non- sustainable. Current

  16. Perceived Displacement explains Wolfpack Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš eŠimkovic


    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent’s body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit judgment is dissociated from the displacement obtained by the implicit measures. By manipulating the location of the pivot point, we show that it is not necessary to postulate orientation as an additional cue utilized by perception, as has been suggested by earlier studies. These studies showed that the agent’s orientation influences the detection of chasing motion and the detection-related performance in interactive tasks. This influence has been labeled wolfpack effect. In one of the demonstrations of the wolfpack effect participants control a green circle on a display with a computer mouse. It has been shown that participants avoid display areas withagents pointing towards the green circle. Participants do so in favor of areas where the agents point in the direction perpendicular to the circle. We show that this avoidance behavior arises because the agent’s pivot point selected by the earlier studies is different from where people locate the center of agent’s body. As a consequence, the nominal rotation confounds rotation and translation. We show that the avoidance behavior disappears once the pivot point is set to the center of agent’s body.

  17. Pollution and sanitation problems as setbacks to sustainable water resources management in Freetown. (United States)

    Kallon, Senesie B


    The civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991-2001) caused a dramatic increase in the population of Freetown. This population increase overstretched housing facilities, leading to the creation of camps and many squatter settlements with poor sanitation practices. Overcrowding has become a serious concern in light of the acute water shortage that struck Freetown in May and June 2006. Some of the numerous small water bodies that could have been used to augment the public water supply were contaminated by the disposal of solid and industrial waste and poor sewage management. Improper disposal practices have a direct impact on public health. This paper recommends addressing the policy gap, establishing clear threshold criteria for all water bodies and wastewater discharge, and integrating the above issues in the ongoing review process of draft water sanitation policy. Public education of the negative consequences of poor waste management practices on water quality and public health can also positively affect general sanitation practices

  18. Solitons of shallow-water models from energy-dependent spectral problems (United States)

    Haberlin, Jack; Lyons, Tony


    The current work investigates the soliton solutions of the Kaup-Boussinesq equation using the inverse scattering transform method. We outline the construction of the Riemann-Hilbert problem for a pair of energy-dependent spectral problems for the system, which we then use to construct the solution of this hydrodynamic system.

  19. Special Programming for Displaced Homemakers. (United States)

    Swift, John S.; And Others


    Displaced homemakers returning to college need special services. These programs were developed by one university's center for women: Project Succeed, Back to School Workshops, and Special Programs to Build Self-Confidence. These programs were developed to provide on-the-job training while in college, help adults returning to college earn a degree,…

  20. Retraining Displaced Workers. Policy Brief (United States)

    LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel


    Robert LaLonde of the University of Chicago and Daniel Sullivan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago suggest that retraining through our nation's community colleges is a way to reduce the skills gaps of at least some of these displaced workers and increase their reemployment earnings. Although workers may still experience significant earnings…

  1. Using MODFLOW 2000 to model ET and recharge for shallow ground water problems. (United States)

    Doble, Rebecca C; Simmons, Craig T; Walker, Glen R


    In environments with shallow ground water elevation, small changes in the water table can cause significant variations in recharge and evapotranspiration fluxes. Particularly, where ground water is close to the soil surface, both recharge and evapotranspiration are regulated by a thin unsaturated zone and, for accuracy, must be represented using nonconstant and often nonlinear relationships. The most commonly used ground water flow model today, MODFLOW, was originally designed with a modular structure with independent packages representing recharge and evaporation processes. Systems with shallow ground water, however, may be better represented using either a recharge function that varies with ground water depth or a continuous recharge and evapotranspiration function that is dependent on depth to water table. In situations where the boundaries between recharging and nonrecharging cells change with time, such as near a seepage zone, a continuous ground water flux relationship allows recharge rates to change with depth rather than having to calculate them at each stress period. This research article describes the modification of the MODFLOW 2000 recharge and segmented evapotranspiration packages into a continuous recharge-discharge function that allows ground water flux to be represented as a continuous process, dependent on head. The modifications were then used to model long-term recharge and evapotranspiration processes on a saline, semiarid floodplain in order to understand spatial patterns of salinization, and an overview of this process is given.

  2. Understanding enabling capacities for managing the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework. (United States)

    Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer


    Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in catchments is a 'wicked' problem that threatens water quality, water security, ecosystem health and biodiversity, and thus the provision of ecosystem services that support human livelihoods and wellbeing from local to global scales. However, it is a difficult problem to manage because water catchments are linked human and natural systems that are complex, dynamic, multi-actor, and multi-scalar in nature. This in turn raises questions about understanding and influencing change across multiple levels of planning, decision-making and action. A key challenge in practice is enabling implementation of local management action, which can be influenced by a range of factors across multiple levels. This paper reviews and synthesises important 'enabling' capacities that can influence implementation of local management action, and develops a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing these in practice. Important enabling capacities identified include: history and contingency; institutional arrangements; collaboration; engagement; vision and strategy; knowledge building and brokerage; resourcing; entrepreneurship and leadership; and reflection and adaptation. Furthermore, local action is embedded within multi-scalar contexts and therefore, is highly contextual. The findings highlight the need for: (1) a systemic and integrative perspective for understanding and influencing change for managing the wicked problem of NPS water pollution; and (2) 'enabling' social and institutional arenas that support emergent and adaptive management structures, processes and innovations for addressing NPS water pollution in practice. These findings also have wider relevance to other 'wicked' natural resource management issues facing similar implementation challenges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Technique for Determining Bridge Displacement Response Using MEMS Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko Sekiya


    Full Text Available In bridge maintenance, particularly with regard to fatigue damage in steel bridges, it is important to determine the displacement response of the entire bridge under a live load as well as that of each member. Knowing the displacement response enables the identification of dynamic deformations that can cause stresses and ultimately lead to damage and thus also allows the undertaking of appropriate countermeasures. In theory, the displacement response can be calculated from the double integration of the measured acceleration. However, data measured by an accelerometer include measurement errors caused by the limitations of the analog-to-digital conversion process and sensor noise. These errors distort the double integration results. Furthermore, as bridges in service are constantly vibrating because of passing vehicles, estimating the boundary conditions for the numerical integration is difficult. To address these problems, this paper proposes a method for determining the displacement of a bridge in service from its acceleration based on its free vibration. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field measurements were conducted using nine different accelerometers. Based on the results of these measurements, the proposed method was found to be highly accurate in comparison with the reference displacement obtained using a contact displacement gauge.

  4. Some Considerations on Horizontal Displacement and Horizontal Displacement Coefficient B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajduś Krzysztof


    Full Text Available Mining-induced deformations of the ground surface and within the rock mass may pose danger not only for surface constructions but also for underground objects (e.g., tunnels, underground storages, garages, diverse types of pipelines, electric cables, etc. For a proper evaluation of hazard for surface and underground objects, such parameters as horizontal displacement and horizontal deformations, especially their maximum values, are of crucial importance. The paper is an attempt at a critical review of hitherto accomplished studies and state of the art of predicting horizontal displacement u, in particular the coefficient B, whose value allows determination of the value of maximum displacement if the value of maximum slope is known, or the value of maximum deformation if the value of maximum trough slope is recognized. Since the geodesic observations of fully developed subsidence troughs suggest that the value of the coefficient depends on the depth H, radius of main influences range r and properties of overburden rock, in particular the occurrence of sub-eras Paleogene and Neogene layers (old name: Quaternary and Tertiary with low strength parameters, therefore a formula is provided in the present paper allowing for the estimation of the influence of those factors on the value of coefficient B.

  5. Assessing the well water pollution problem by nitrates in the small scale farming systems of the Niayes region, Senegal (United States)

    Mamadou, S.; Vanclooster, M.


    Human activities exert many pressures on the quality of groundwater, and advanced assessment programmes are needed to design sustainable water management strategies. To contribute to this challenge, we assessed the nitrate pollution problem of groundwater wells in the small scale farming systems of the Niayes region in Senegal and explained this water pollution problem in terms of well characteristics and land use properties. A fast rural appraisal was performed in 2007 to collect basic back ground data of the small scale farming systems and well water was analysed in 131 wells for nitrate content, pH and electrical conductivity. For a subset of wells, soil analyses were made of the well environment for assessing the attenuation properties of the protecting soil. Cluster analysis was used to define a well typology, while principal component and multiple correspondence analysis was used to explain the nitrate pollution in terms of well characteristics and other physico-chemical properties of the wells, and land use. The study confirms that the wells are seriously affected by the nitrate pollution problem. Wells can be classified in three well classes, which are characterized by a geographical gradient. Nitrate pollution increases from north to south, while the salinity affects particularly the wells in the northern area of the region. The nitrate levels exceeding 50 ppm are more common in residential areas than in the horticultural fields. The results further show that, even if direct pollution problem of wells cannot be excluded, pollution from leaching out of the root zone of vegetable crops to the groundwater is likely. This is confirmed by the assessment of the farming activities in this area and this is consistent with the low attenuation properties of the soils characterizing this region. Considering the nitrate pollution threshold, we further distinguish very few non-polluting crops in this region, which calls for an urgent adoption of agriculture management

  6. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Industry Application External Hazard Analyses Problem Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kammerer, Annie [Annie Kammerer Consulting, Rye, NH (United States); Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)


    Risk-Informed Margin Management Industry Application on External Events. More specifically, combined events, seismically induced external flooding analyses for a generic nuclear power plant with a generic site soil, and generic power plant system and structure. The focus of this report is to define the problem above, set up the analysis, describe the methods to be used, tools to be applied to each problem, and data analysis and validation associated with the above.

  7. Estimating Hydrologic Processes from Subsurface Soil Displacements (United States)

    Freeman, C. E.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L.; MIller, S.


    Soil moisture and the processes that control it are important components of the hydrologic cycle, but measuring these processes remains challenging. We have developed a new measurement method that offers flexibility compared to existing technology. The approach is to measure small vertical displacements in the soil which responds proportionally to distributed surface load changes such as variation in the near-surface water content. The instrument may be installed at a depth of several meters to hundreds of meters below the surface. Because the measurement averaging region scales with the depth of the displacement measurements, this approach provides the means for estimating the soil moisture time series over tens of square meters to tens of thousands of square meters. The instrument developed for this application is called a Sand-X, which is short for Sand Extensometer. It is designed for applications in unconsolidated material, ranging from clay to sand. The instrument is simple and relatively inexpensive, and it can be installed in a boring made with a hand auger or with a small drill rig. Studies at the field scale are ongoing at a field site near Clemson, SC. The site is underlain by saprolite weathered primarily from biotite gneiss. Several Sand-X devices are installed at a field site that is instrumented for validating soil moisture, precipitation, and evapotranspiration estimates. These instruments are emplaced at a depth of 6 m and respond to the weight of a vehicle out to 18 m from the well. Calibration is performed by comparing precipitation measurements to the soil displacement response. For example, the coefficient for one installation is roughly 185 nm soil displacement/mm water content change. The resolution of the instrument is approximately 10 nm, so the Sand-X is capable of detecting changes of soil moisture on the order of tenths of one mm in compliant soils like saprolite. A typical soil displacement time series shows alternating periods of

  8. Ground-water and drainage problems in the Whitney terrace area, Boise, Idaho (United States)

    West, S.W.


    Ground-water levels in the Whitney terrace area, after many years of rise owing to downward percolation of water from irrigated land, became nearly stabilized by 1935.  Strong seasonal water-level fluctuations of 8 to 10 feet, however, are common in the Boise Valley.  In recent years, the Whitney terrace has been changing rapidly from a farming to an urban community.  The 3,200-acre area now has about 15,000 inhabitants and the land area is about 35-percent occupied by urban developments.  Population trends indicate that urban expansion will continue.  

  9. Problems of treatment process selection for relief agency water supplies in an emergency. (United States)

    Steele, Andre; Clarke, Brian


    There is currently limited public information available concerning methods for the selection of appropriate water treatment technologies for application in acute phase emergency water and sanitation responses. Considering the number of available emergency water treatment and supply options, it is speculated that a framework methodology offering guidance in the form of a selection process would offer advantages. This process would relate a defined set of emergency factors to a selection of available water treatment and supply options, described by a basic, but complete, set of technical and operational characteristics. It is suggested that, whilst not a complete process, the proposed framework methodology is sufficient to lead to the identification and selection of appropriate options for deployment. Furthermore the support of critical decision making by a logical framework, could help shape and justify the actions of agencies and workers in the field. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  10. Evolution, opportunity and challenges of transboundary water and energy problems in Central Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo, Lidan; Zhou, Haiwei; Xia, Ziqiang; Huang, Feng


    .... It is now facing imbalanced supply—demand relations of water and energy resources. These issues in Northwest China and Central Asia pose severe challenges in the implementation of the Silk Road Economic Belt strategy...

  11. Fate and Enumeration Problems of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Runoff Waters from Terrestrial Ecosystems. (United States)


    hr, 5 days/week, with a Figure 5. Greenhouse overland flow Model 2 showing the overhead sodium vapor light bank ionized (reverse osmosis ) 34 ,1 water... Sucrose -- + Rhamnose- - Melibiose + - + Arabinose + - + Mannitol - -- Sorbitol - - Inositol - - + Amygdalin - -- Identification Acceptable Very Good Very

  12. On multidisciplinary research on the application of remote sensing to water resources problems. [Wisconsin (United States)

    Clapp, J. L.


    Research objectives during 1972-73 were to: (1) Ascertain the extent to which special aerial photography can be operationally used in monitoring water pollution parameters. (2) Ascertain the effectiveness of remote sensing in the investigation of nearshore mixing and coastal entrapment in large water bodies. (3) Develop an explicit relationship of the extent of the mixing zone in terms of the outfall, effluent and water body characteristics. (4) Develop and demonstrate the use of the remote sensing method as an effective legal implement through which administrative agencies and courts can not only investigate possible pollution sources but also legally prove the source of water pollution. (5) Evaluate the field potential of remote sensing techniques in monitoring algal blooms and aquatic macrophytes, and the use of these as indicators of lake eutrophication level. (6) Develop a remote sensing technique for the determination of the location and extent of hydrologically active source areas in a watershed.

  13. New displacement-based methods for optimal truss topology design (United States)

    Bendsoe, Martin P.; Ben-Tal, Aharon; Haftka, Raphael T.


    Two alternate methods for maximum stiffness truss topology design are presented. The ground structure approach is used, and the problem is formulated in terms of displacements and bar areas. This large, nonconvex optimization problem can be solved by a simultaneous analysis and design approach. Alternatively, an equivalent, unconstrained, and convex problem in the displacements only can be formulated, and this problem can be solved by a nonsmooth, steepest descent algorithm. In both methods, the explicit solving of the equilibrium equations and the assembly of the global stiffness matrix are circumvented. A large number of examples have been studied, showing the attractive features of topology design as well as exposing interesting features of optimal topologies.

  14. Identifying and Remediating High Water Production Problems in Basin-Centered Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Billingsley


    Through geochemical analyses of produced waters, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation we developed concepts and approaches for mitigating unwanted water production in tight gas reservoirs and for increasing recovery of gas resources presently considered noncommercial. Only new completion research (outside the scope of this study) will validate our hypothesis. The first task was assembling and interpreting a robust regional database of historical produced-water analyses to address the production of excessive water in basin-centered tight gas fields in the Greater Green (GGRB ) and Wind River basins (WRB), Wyoming. The database is supplemented with a sampling program in currently active areas. Interpretation of the regional water chemistry data indicates most produced waters reflect their original depositional environments and helps identify local anomalies related to basement faulting. After the assembly and evaluation phases of this project, we generated a working model of tight formation reservoir development, based on the regional nature and occurrence of the formation waters. Through an integrative approach to numerous existing reservoir concepts, we synthesized a generalized development scheme organized around reservoir confining stress cycles. This single overarching scheme accommodates a spectrum of outcomes from the GGRB and Wind River basins. Burial and tectonic processes destroy much of the depositional intergranular fabric of the reservoir, generate gas, and create a rock volume marked by extremely low permeabilities to gas and fluids. Stress release associated with uplift regenerates reservoir permeability through the development of a penetrative grain bounding natural fracture fabric. Reservoir mineral composition, magnitude of the stress cycle and local tectonics govern the degree, scale and exact mechanism of permeability development. We applied the reservoir working model to an area of perceived anomalous water production. Detailed water analyses

  15. Estimation of permanent displacements of the Tehri dam in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    water content, compaction effort, etc., which often can not be properly quantified. Also often the exact direction of the ... In order to meet the huge demand for power by the industries and ever increasing population, .... permanent displacements take place whenever the rigid body acceleration,Kmax, of a potential sliding mass ...

  16. Calibrating optical bubble size by the displaced-mass method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.; Cohen, L.H.


    Bubble sizing by optical means is very common, but requires calibration by non-optical means. This is particularly important since apparent bubble size increases with decreasing threshold intensity. A calibration experiment was conducted comparing the displaced water mass from captured bubbles with

  17. Uncertainty analysis for complex watershed water quality models: the parameter identifiability problem (United States)

    Han, F.; Zheng, Y.


    Watershed-scale water quality simulation using distributed models like the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) usually involves significant uncertainty. The uncertainty needs to be appropriately quantified if the simulation is used to support management practices. Many uncertainty analysis (UA) approaches have been developed for watershed hydrologic models, but their applicability to watershed water quality models, which are more complex, has not been well investigated. This study applied a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach, DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis algorithm (DREAM), to the SWAT model. The sediment and total nitrogen pollution in the Newport Bay watershed (Southern California) was used as a case study. Different error assumptions were tested. The major findings include: 1) in the water quality simulation, many parameters are non-identifiable due to different causes; 2) the existence of identifiability seriously reduces the efficiency of the MCMC algorithm, and distorts the posterior distributions of the non-identifiable parameters, although the uncertainty band produced by the algorithm does not change much if enough samples are obtained. It was concluded that a sensitivity analysis (SA) followed by an identifiability analysis is necessary to reduce the non-identifiability, and enhances the applicability of a Bayesian UA approach to complex watershed water quality models. In addition, the analysis on the different causes of non-identifiablity provides insights into model tradeoffs between complexity and performance.

  18. Biofilm problems in dental unit water systems and its practical control.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, D C


    Dental chair units (DCUs) contain integrated systems that provide the instruments and services for a wide range of dental procedures. DCUs use water to cool and irrigate DCU-supplied instruments and tooth surfaces during dental treatment. Water is supplied to these instruments by a network of interconnected narrow-bore (2-3 mm) plastic tubes called dental unit waterlines (DUWLs). Many studies over the last 40 years demonstrated that DUWL output water is often contaminated with high densities of micro-organisms, predominantly Gram-negative aerobic heterotropic environmental bacteria, including Legionella and Pseudomonas species. Untreated DUWLs host biofilms that permit micro-organisms to multiply and disperse through the water network and which are aerosolized by DCU instrument use, thus exposing patients and staff to these micro-organisms, to fragments of biofilm and bacterial endotoxins. This review concentrates on how practical developments and innovations in specific areas can contribute to effective DUWL biofilm control. These include the use of effective DUWL treatment agents, improvements to DCU supply water quality, DCU design changes, development of automated DUWL treatment procedures that are effective at controlling biofilm in the long-term and require minimal human intervention, are safe for patients and staff, and which do not cause deterioration of DCU components following prolonged use.

  19. Bacteriological Monitoring and Sustainable Management of Beach Water Quality in Malaysia: Problems and Prospects (United States)

    Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Asmat, Ahmad; Gires, Usup; Heng, Lee Yook; Deborah, Bandele Oluwaseun


    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia. PMID:22980239

  20. New approaches to problem framing in environmental health: application to water. (United States)

    Morris, G


    The relationship between human health and water in its many forms illustrates rather well, the greatest contemporary challenge for decision makers in environmental health - how to develop coherent and effective policy in a climate of significant and increasing complexity. In the study of water and health we recognise the types of complexity that emerge for scientists and epidemiologists in assessing and communicating environmental health risk but also the difficulty for policy makers in interpreting such advice and integrating it with a wider environmental/public health intelligence to shape an effective and proportionate response. Taking water as a point of reference, this paper discusses the sources of complexity for decision makers in environmental health and describes an approach in Scotland which is seeking to build a more sophisticated approach to environmental health policy for a new and uniquely challenging public health era. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacteriological monitoring and sustainable management of beach water quality in Malaysia: problems and prospects. (United States)

    Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Asmat, Ahmad; Gires, Usup; Heng, Lee Yook; Deborah, Bandele Oluwaseun


    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia.

  2. New Class of Solutions for Water Infiltration Problems in Unsaturated Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Omidvar, M; Momeni, M


    This paper presents the results of approximate analytical solutions to Richards’ equation, which governs the problem of unsaturated flow in porous media. The existing methods generally fall within the category of numerical and analytical methods, often having many restrictions for practical situa...

  3. Papaya pulp gelling: is it premature ripening or problems of water accumulation in the apoplast?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Gelled aspect in papaya fruit is typically confused with premature ripening. This research reports the characterization of this physiological disorder in the pulp of papaya fruit by measuring electrolyte leakage, Pi content, lipid peroxidation, pulp firmness, mineral contents (Ca, Mg and K - in pulp and seed tissues, and histological analysis of pulp tissue. The results showed that the gelled aspect of the papaya fruit pulp is not associated with tissue premature ripening. Data indicate a reduction of the vacuole water intake as the principal cause of the loss of cellular turgor; while the waterlogged aspect of the tissue may be due to water accumulation in the apoplast.

  4. Comparison of Standard Light Water Reactor Cross-Section Libraries using the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Boiling Water Reactor Benchmark Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesza Joel A.


    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a boiling water reactor calculational benchmark problem. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The benchmark problem was originally evaluated by Brookhaven National Laboratory using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library. In this paper, the Westinghouse RAPTOR-M3G three-dimensional discrete ordinates code was used. A variety of cross-section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ALPAN-VII.0 developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculated fast reaction rates using the four aforementioned cross-section libraries in the pressure vessel capsule, for six dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 8% was observed. As such, it is concluded that the results calculated by RAPTOR-M3G are consistent with the benchmark and further that the different vintage BUGLE cross-section libraries investigated are largely self-consistent.

  5. Risk- and robustness-based solutions to a multi-objective water distribution system rehabilitation problem under uncertainty . (United States)

    Kapelan, Z; Savic, D A; Walters, G A; Babayan, A V


    The water distribution system (WDS) rehabilitation problem is defined here as a multi-objective optimisation problem under uncertainty. Two alternative problem formulations are considered. The first objective in both approaches is to minimise the total rehabilitation cost. The second objective is to either maximise the overall WDS robustness or to minimise the total WDS risk. The WDS robustness is defined as the probability of simultaneously satisfying minimum pressure head constraints at all nodes in the network. Total risk is defined as the sum of nodal risks, where nodal risk is defined as the product of the probability of pressure failure at that node and consequence of such failure. Decision variables are the alternative rehabilitation options for each pipe in the network. The only source of uncertainty is the future water consumption. Uncertain demands are modelled using any probability density functions (PDFs) assigned in the problem formulation phase. The corresponding PDFs of the analysed nodal heads are calculated using the Latin Hypercube sampling technique. The optimal rehabilitation problem is solved using the newly developed rNSGAII method which is a modification of the well-known NSGAII optimisation algorithm. In rNSGAII a small number of demand samples are used for each fitness evaluation leading to significant computational savings when compared to the full sampling approach. The two alternative approaches are tested, verified and their performance compared on the New York tunnels case study. The results obtained demonstrate that both new methodologies are capable of identifying the robust (near) Pareto optimal fronts while making significant computational savings.

  6. Water Hyacinth in Africa and the Middle East: A Survey of Problems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jan 1, 2001 ... Freshwater infestation by the water hyacinth weed has reached crisis proportions in many areas of Africa and the Middle East. Accumulated environmental, economic, and social damages to date are estimated in the billions of dollars. Most severely affected are riparian communities and those people who ...

  7. The surface water storage problem in arid regions: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This dam is located in an arid zone where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce. ... Our work has estimated total average losses of 25 million m3 /year for the period 1988–2015, made up of leakage (0.3 million m3 /year) and evaporation (18 million m3 /year), while dead storage accounts for 4.6 million m3 /year.

  8. Universal approximators for multi-objective direct policy search in water reservoir management problems: a comparative analysis (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mason, Emanuele; Castelletti, Andrea; Pianosi, Francesca


    The optimal operation of water resources systems is a wide and challenging problem due to non-linearities in the model and the objectives, high dimensional state-control space, and strong uncertainties in the hydroclimatic regimes. The application of classical optimization techniques (e.g., SDP, Q-learning, gradient descent-based algorithms) is strongly limited by the dimensionality of the system and by the presence of multiple, conflicting objectives. This study presents a novel approach which combines Direct Policy Search (DPS) and Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) to solve high-dimensional state and control space problems involving multiple objectives. DPS, also known as parameterization-simulation-optimization in the water resources literature, is a simulation-based approach where the reservoir operating policy is first parameterized within a given family of functions and, then, the parameters optimized with respect to the objectives of the management problem. The selection of a suitable class of functions to which the operating policy belong to is a key step, as it might restrict the search for the optimal policy to a subspace of the decision space that does not include the optimal solution. In the water reservoir literature, a number of classes have been proposed. However, many of these rules are based largely on empirical or experimental successes and they were designed mostly via simulation and for single-purpose reservoirs. In a multi-objective context similar rules can not easily inferred from the experience and the use of universal function approximators is generally preferred. In this work, we comparatively analyze two among the most common universal approximators: artificial neural networks (ANN) and radial basis functions (RBF) under different problem settings to estimate their scalability and flexibility in dealing with more and more complex problems. The multi-purpose HoaBinh water reservoir in Vietnam, accounting for hydropower

  9. Problems of pricing fresh water obtained from a sea water desalination plant; Problemes de tarification de l'eau douce obtenue a partir d'une installation de dessalement d'eau de mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Integrating a double-purpose desalination and electricity generating plant into a water supply system alters the conditions in which the other water and electricity sources are used, as the peak and the base load water and electricity demands have to be met at the least cost. This paper attempts to show how the problem of determining optimal water supply structures can be approached, in definite cases, but against a global economic back-ground. It becomes necessary to define the competition between classical resources and desalination plants, as these plants introduce into optimum studies new factors due to the peculiar shape of their production functions. These new factors (fixed and proportional costs structures, flow availabilities) are studied in relation to the production functions in various management cases (private monopoly, public monopoly). (author) [French] L'intervention d'une installation egalement productrice d'energie electrique dans l'alimentation en eau d'une zone modifie les conditions d'utilisation des autres ressources en eau et en electricite, compte tenu de la necessite d'assurer les pointes et la base des diagrammes de demande d'eau et d'electricite au moindre cout. Cet expose se propose de montrer comment on peut approcher le probleme de la determination des structures optimales d'approvisionnement en eau pour des cas precis, mais dans un cadre economique global, II devient en effet necessaire de situer la competition: ressources classiques/installation de dessalement; ces dernieres introduisent, dans les etudes d'optimum, des elements nouveaux dus a la forme particuliere de leurs fonctions de production. On etudie ces elements nouveaux (structures des couts fixes et des couts proportionnels, disponibilite des debits) en liaison avec les fonctions de production dans divers cas de gestion (monopole prive, monopole public). (auteur)

  10. Ecological versus Economic Objectives: A Public Decision Making Problem in Agricultural Water Management


    Zekri, Slim; Romero, Carlos


    The planning of a new in·igated area is a complex problem where a multiplicity of very different criteria (economic, ecological, social, etc.) have to be taken into account. A lexicographic goal programming model capable of handling this multiplicity is formulated. The methodology is applied to the planning of the irrigated lands of the village of Tauste in Arag6n (Spain). An important result generated by the model is the conflict between economic criteria and environmental effects such as "s...

  11. Shale problems and water-based drilling fluid optimisation in the Hassi Messaoud Algerian oil field


    Khodja, Mohamed; Canselier, Jean-Paul; Bergaya, Faiza; Fourar, Karim; Khodja, Malika; Cohaut, Nathalie; Benmounah, Abdelbaki,


    Drilling fluid formulation and properties play a fundamental role in drilling operations. Clay minerals behave initially as a beneficial rheological adjuvant in drilling muds. Nevertheless, the contamination of oil reservoirs by clay minerals present in the drilled geological formation (shales) may generate major problems during drilling as plug formation. In this context, our study deals with the optimisation of drilling conditions in the Hassi Messaoud Algerian field. The mineralogical hete...

  12. Testing the water - problem-based learning and the cultural dimension. (United States)

    Darvill, Angela


    This study reports the findings of a small case study using problem-based learning (PBL) as a teaching and learning strategy in a cultural awareness module, which forms part of a pre-registration diploma in nursing course. The study was carried out using a qualitative research methodology. It aimed to describe and explore 20 diplomat student nurses and their lecturers' experience of undertaking PBL. The categories that emerged from the analysis were: knowledge development and PBL process. A selection of these categories and their sub-categories are described and discussed in relation to the literature on problem-based learning. The study concluded that undergoing PBL as a teaching and learning strategy had positive outcomes for the students. Prior knowledge was utilised in knowledge development in relation to the problem and was seen as beneficial. Students reported that they felt more confident and used the knowledge gained to care for patients' cultural needs in practice. Students also identified lack of knowledge amongst staff in the clinical area in relation to cultural awareness. There were however some challenges in the transition to a PBL strategy from the perspective of the students and lecturers. Issues that were found to be difficult include the change to a different teaching and learning strategy, the implications of self-direction for the student and the role of the facilitator as a non-directive guide. The study recommends that the findings may be of use for other nurse educators implementing PBL as a teaching and learning strategy.

  13. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic centimeter...

  14. Sloshing displacements in a tank containing two liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Y.


    A study on the sloshing displacements in a tank containing two different liquids under a seismic excitation is presented. The gravitational effect at the interface of two liquids is considered. The problem is solved analytically. The response quantities examined include the sloshing wave height, the natural frequencies of the sloshing motion, and the vertical displacement at the interface of two liquids. It is found that there are two sloshing frequencies associated with each surface sloshing mode; the higher value of the two frequencies that associate with the fundamental sloshing mode is the dominant frequency of the surface sloshing motion, and the lower one is the dominant frequency of the interface vertical displacement. It is further shown that the maximum sloshing wave height increases significantly, and the fundamental frequency of the sloshing motion is smaller than that in an identical tank containing one liquid. The data presented are compared with those obtained by neglecting the gravitational effect at the interface to elucidate this effect.

  15. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems (United States)

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.


    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  16. Integrating water and agricultural management: collaborative governance for a complex policy problem. (United States)

    Fish, Rob D; Ioris, Antonio A R; Watson, Nigel M


    This paper examines governance requirements for integrating water and agricultural management (IWAM). The institutional arrangements for the agriculture and water sectors are complex and multi-dimensional, and integration cannot therefore be achieved through a simplistic 'additive' policy process. Effective integration requires the development of a new collaborative approach to governance that is designed to cope with scale dependencies and interactions, uncertainty and contested knowledge, and interdependency among diverse and unequal interests. When combined with interdisciplinary research, collaborative governance provides a viable normative model because of its emphasis on reciprocity, relationships, learning and creativity. Ultimately, such an approach could lead to the sorts of system adaptations and transformations that are required for IWAM. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmaceuticals in domestic and agricultural waste watersproblem and its solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, Petr; Soudek, Petr; Hudcová, T.; Syrovátka, J.; Vaněk, Tomáš


    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2015), s. 564-572 ISSN 1751-231X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22593S; GA TA ČR TA01020573 Grant - others:European Regional Development Fund(XE) CZ.2.16/ 3.1.00/24014 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : constructed wetland * pharmaceutical * Phragmites Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality

  18. Some problems connected with the centralized production of domestic hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.; Piccininni, F.; Caliari, R. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica ed Impianti Termotecnici)


    In the course of an experimental study carried out on a centralized plant (4 boilers x 27 kW with two 2.6 cubic meters/h return pumps) supplying domestic hot water to 13 condominiums, the energy costs of recirculation were analyzed. Since the losses due to recirculation were of the same order as the useful energy, the influence of the various parameters on the losses was studied and some methods to lower them were proposed.

  19. Studies of diarrhoea in Quindio (Colombia): problems related to water treatment. (United States)

    Bersh, D; Osorio, M M


    This paper studies the association between fluctuations in rates of diarrhoea among children less than 5 years old in Armenia (Quindio) and variations in the application of chlorine in the aqueduct of the city. The study shows that to a great extent diarrhoea morbidity can be explained by the application of chlorine which does not reach useful levels of concentration during the required time. The article concluded by recommending the improvement of existing treatment plants and investing the necessary resources in new plants to insure the quality of water.

  20. Assessment of internal contamination problems associated with bioregenerative air/water purification systems (United States)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Bounds, B. Keith; Gardner, Warren


    The emphasis is to characterize the mechanisms of bioregenerative revitalization of air and water as well as to assess the possible risks associated with such a system in a closed environment. Marsh and aquatic plants are utilized for purposes of wastewater treatment as well as possible desalinization and demineralization. Foliage plants are also being screened for their ability to remove toxic organics from ambient air. Preliminary test results indicate that treated wastewater is typically of potable quality with numbers of pathogens such as Salmonella and Shigella significantly reduced by the artificial marsh system. Microbiological analyses of ambient air indicate the presence of bacilli as well as thermophilic actinomycetes.

  1. Armed conflict, homonegativity and forced internal displacement: implications for HIV among Colombian gay, bisexual and transgender individuals. (United States)

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Reisen, Carol A; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J


    Colombia has endured six decades of civil unrest, population displacement and violence. We examined the relationships between contextual conditions, displacement and HIV among gay, bisexual and transgender individuals in Bogotá, Colombia. A total of 19 key informants provided information about internal displacement of sexual minorities. Life-history interviews were conducted with 42 participants aged 18 to 48 years and included questions about displacement experiences, sexual behaviour, life prior to displacement and participants' economic and social situation in Bogotá. The interplay of a variety of factors - including internal conflict and violence, homonegativity and 'social cleansing', gender and sexual identity and poverty - strongly shaped the varied experiences of displacement. Migration, sexual violence, exchange sex and low rates of HIV testing were risk factors that increased vulnerability for HIV in this displaced sample. Although displacement and HIV in Colombia are major problems, both are understudied.

  2. Displacement of squeezed propagating microwave states (United States)

    Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, Ling; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Friedrich; Xie, Edwar; Menzel, Edwin; Deppe, Frank; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf

    Displacement of propagating squeezed states is a fundamental operation for quantum communications. It can be applied to fundamental studies of macroscopic quantum coherence and has an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with propagating microwaves. We generate propagating squeezed states using a Josephson parametric amplifier and implement displacement using a cryogenic directional coupler. We study single- and two-mode displacement regimes. For the single-mode displacement we find that the squeezing level of the displaced squeezed state does not depend on the displacement amplitude. Also, we observe that quantum entanglement between two spatially separated channels stays constant across 4 orders of displacement power. We acknowledge support by the German Research Foundation through SFB 631 and FE 1564/1-1, the EU project PROMISCE, and Elite Network of Bavaria through the program ExQM.

  3. Instability in Immiscible Fluids Displacement from Cracks and Porous Samples (United States)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Ivashnyov, O. E.


    problems of terrestrial engineering and technology. Surface tension affected flows in porous media could be much better understood in microgravity studies eliminating the masking effects of gravity. Saffman-Taylor instability of the interface could bring to formation and growth of "fingers" of gas penetrating the bulk fluid. The growth of fingers and their further coalescence could not be described by the linear analysis. Growth of fingers causes irregularity of the mixing zone. The tangential velocity difference on the interface separating fluids of different densities and viscousities could bring to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability resulting in "diffusion of fingers" partial regularization of the displacement mixing zone. Thus combination of the two effects would govern the flow in the displacement process. fracture under a pressure differential displacing the high viscosity residual fracturing fluid. There are inherent instability and scalability problems associated with viscous fingering that play a key role in the cleanup procedure. Entrapment of residual fracturing fluid by the gas flow lowers down the quality of a fracture treatment leaving most of fluid in the hydraulic fracture thus decreasing the production rate. The gravity effects could play essential role in vertical hydraulic fractures as the problem is scale dependent. displacement of viscous fluid by a less viscous one in a two-dimensional channel with vertical breaks, and to determine characteristic size of entrapment zones. Extensive direct numerical simulations allow to investigate the sensitivity of the displacement process to variation of values of the main governing parameters. were found for the two limiting cases: infinitely wide cell, and narrow cell with an infinitely small gap between the finger and the side walls. governing parameters. The obtained solutions allowed to explain the physical meaning of the exiting empirical criteria for the beginning of viscous fingering and the growth of a

  4. Land cover and water yield: inference problems when comparing catchments with mixed land cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. J. M. van Dijk


    Full Text Available Controlled experiments provide strong evidence that changing land cover (e.g. deforestation or afforestation can affect mean catchment streamflow (Q. By contrast, a similarly strong influence has not been found in studies that interpret Q from multiple catchments with mixed land cover. One possible reason is that there are methodological issues with the way in which the Budyko framework was used in the latter type studies. We examined this using Q data observed in 278 Australian catchments and by making inferences from synthetic Q data simulated by a hydrological process model (the Australian Water Resources Assessment system Landscape model. The previous contrasting findings could be reproduced. In the synthetic experiment, the land cover influence was still present but not accurately detected with the Budyko- framework. Likely sources of interpretation bias demonstrated include: (i noise in land cover, precipitation and Q data; (ii additional catchment climate characteristics more important than land cover; and (iii covariance between Q and catchment attributes. These methodological issues caution against the use of a Budyko framework to quantify a land cover influence in Q data from mixed land-cover catchments. Importantly, however, our findings do not rule out that there may also be physical processes that modify the influence of land cover in mixed land-cover catchments. Process model simulations suggested that lateral water redistribution between vegetation types and recirculation of intercepted rainfall may be important.

  5. Characteristics of children with hip displacement in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Philippe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP is a common and severe problem. The dislocation can be avoided, by screening and preventive treatment of children with hips at risk. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of children with CP who develop hip displacement, in order to optimise a hip surveillance programme. Methods In a total population of children with CP a standardised clinical and radiological follow-up of the hips was carried out as a part of a hip prevention programme. The present study is based on 212 children followed until 9–16 years of age. Results Of the 212 children, 38 (18% developed displacement with Migration Percentage (MP >40% and further 19 (9% MP between 33 and 39%. Mean age at first registration of hip displacement was 4 years, but some hips showed MP > 40% already at two years of age. The passive range of hip motion at the time of first registration of hip displacement did not differ significantly from the findings in hips without displacement. The risk of hip displacement varied according to CP-subtype, from 0% in children with pure ataxia to 79% in children with spastic tetraplegia. The risk of displacement (MP > 40% was directly related to the level of gross motor function, classified according to the gross motor function classification system, GMFCS, from 0% in children in GMFCS level I to 64% in GMFCS level V. Conclusion Hip displacement in CP often occurs already at 2–3 years of age. Range of motion is a poor indicator of hips at risk. Thus early identification and early radiographic examination of children at risk is of great importance. The risk of hip displacement varies according to both CP-subtype and GMFCS. It is sometimes not possible to determine subtype before 4 years of age, and at present several definitions and classification systems are used. GMFCS is valid and reliable from 2 years of age, and it is internationally accepted. We recommend a hip

  6. An ion displacement membrame model. (United States)

    Hladky, S B; Harris, J D


    The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented.

  7. Ground-water hydrology of the Punjab region of West Pakistan, with emphasis on problems caused by canal irrigation (United States)

    Greenman, D.W.; Swarzenski, W.V.; Bennett, G.D.


    Rising water tables and the salinization of land as the result of canal irrigation threaten the agricultural economy of the Punjab. Since 1954 the Water and Soils Investigation Division of the West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority has inventoried the water and soils resources of the Punjab and investigated the relations between irrigation activities, the natural hydrologic factors, and the incidence of waterlogging and subsurface-drainage problems. This report summarizes the findings of the investigation, which was carried out under a cooperative agreement between the Government of Pakistan and the U.S. Agency for International Development, and its predecessor, the U.S. International Cooperation Administration. Leakage from the canal systems, some of which have been in operation for more than 100 years, is the principal cause of rising water levels and constitutes the major component of ground-water recharge in the Punjab. Geologic studies have shown that virtually the entire Punjab is underlain to depths of 1,000 feet or more by unconsolidated alluvium, which is saturated to within a few feet of land surface. The alluvium varies in texture from medium sand to silty clay, but sandy sediments predominate. Large capacity wells, yielding 4 cfs or more, can be developed almost everywhere. Ground water occurring within a depth of 500 feet below the surface averages less than 1,000 ppm of dissolved solids throughout approximately two-thirds of the Punjab. It is estimated that the volume of usable ground water in storage in this part of the alluvial aquifer is on the order of 2 billion acre-feet. In the other one-third of the Punjab, total dissolved solids range from 1,000 to about 20,000 ppm. In about one-half of this area (one-sixth of the area of the Punjab) some ground water can be utilized by diluting with surface water from canals. The ground-water reservoir underlying the Punjab is an unexploited resource of enormous economic value. It is recognized

  8. Internal Displacement, the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, the Principles Normative Status, and the Need for their Effective Domestic Implementation in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Goldman


    Full Text Available The paper briefly examines the phenomenon of internal displacement world-wide and the genesis of the United Nation’s mandate to deal with this problem. It examines key conclusions of a UN sponsored study which found that existing international law contained signifi cant gaps and grey areas in terms of meeting the needs of internally displaced persons. It also examines the origins and the content of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement and the normative status of these Principles. It suggests that, while not binding as such on states, the Guiding Principles have nonetheless become the most authoritative expression of minimum international standards applicable to the internally displaced and that based on state practice many, if not all, of these principles may eventually become part of customary international law. The paper also discusses the need for effective domestic implementation of the Guiding Principles, and examines how governmental authorities, the Constitutional Court and civil society organizations in Colombia, as well as inter-governmental bodies, have responded to the crisis of internal displacement in the country. While noting the adequacy of Colombia’s legislative framework on internal displacement, the paper concludes that the State has not taken the measures required to prevent future displacement or to effectively meet the protection and assistance needs of its displaced citizens.

  9. Gass-Assisted Displacement of Non-Newtonian Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard


    on diluted solutions of linear polymers, normally referred to as Booger fluids. These fluids have almost constant shear viscosities and elongational viscosities several order of magnitudes larger than the shear viscosities, at high Deborah numbers. The simplest possible model to describe the constitutive......During the resent years several publications (for instance Hyzyak and Koelling, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 71,73-88 (1997) and Gauri and Koelling, Rheol. Acta, 38, 458-470 (1999)) have concerned gas assisted displacement of viscoelastic fluids (polymer melts and polymeric solutions) contained...... in a circular cylinder. This is a simple model system used to investigate the gas-fluid displacement, as the problem is reduced to an axis-symmetric flow problem. The understanding of this process is relevant for the geometrically much more complex polymer processing operation Gas-assisted injection moulding...

  10. Preventing re-displacement through genuine reintegration in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Hovil


    Full Text Available Displacement is often part of a cyclical process of conflict anddisplacement. Preventing displacement, therefore, is not only aboutpreventing new displacement but about ensuring that people do notget re-displaced.

  11. Articular disc displacement in mandibular asymmetry patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boonsiva Buranastidporn; Hisano, Masataka; Soma, Kunimichi


    ...) inmandibular asymmetry have not been clearlydefined. This study examines the degree anddirection of disc displacement and their relationshipwith vertical asymmetry in terms of both clinicaland biomechanical aspects...

  12. Percutaneous Fixation of Displaced Calcaneal Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Yip-Kan


    Conclusion: Percutaneous fixation of displaced tongue-type calcaneal fractures is an effective treatment with acceptable clinical outcome, short hospital stay, minimal skin complications, and quick recovery.

  13. Polybenzoxazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement (United States)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)


    Polybenzoxazoles (PBO) are heterocyclic macromolecules which were first synthesized in a two-step process by the initial formation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s through solution condensation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s followed by thermal cyclodehydration. Since then several methods were utilized in their synthesis. The most common synthetic method for PBO involves a polycondensation of bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid diphenyl esters. Another preparative route involves the solution polycondensation of the hydrochloride salts of bis(o-amino phenol)s with aromatic diacids in polyphosphoric acid. Another synthetic method involves the initial formation of poly(o-hydroxy amide)s from silylated bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid chlorides followed by thermal cyclodehydration to PBO. A recent preparative route involves the reaction of aromatic bisphenols with bis(fluorophenyl) benzoxazoles by the displacement reaction to form PBO. The novelty of the present invention is that high molecular weight PBO of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  14. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 1. Baseline Studies. Volume II. The Fish, Mammals, and Waterfowl of Lake Conway, Florida. (United States)


    reduced. b. White amur recycle nutrients bound in aquatic macrophytes , possibly increasing the nutrient level in the water so that problems of... eutrophication , plankton blooms, and filamentous algae are aggravated. c. Sport fish population production may decline due to sim- ple displacement, direct...level fluctuations, seasonal succession of aquatic macrophytes , water quality, physical alterations, and other factors. Of course in some instances

  15. Seismic displacement of gravity retaining walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Seismic displacement of gravity walls had been studied using conventional static methods for controlled displacement design. In this study plain strain numerical analysis is performed using Plaxis dynamic program where prescribed displacement is applied at the bottom boundary of the soil to simulate the applied seismic load. Constrained absorbent side boundaries are introduced to prevent any wave reflection. The studied soil is chosen dense granular sand and modeled as elasto-plastic material according to Mohr–Column criteria while the gravity wall is assumed elastic. By comparing the resulted seismic wall displacements calculated by numerical analysis for six historical ground motions with that calculated by the pseudo-static method, it is found that numerical seismic displacements are either equal to or greater than corresponding pseudo-static values. Permissible seismic wall displacement calculated by AASHTO can be used for empirical estimation of seismic displacement. It is also found that seismic wall displacement is directly proportional with the positive angle of inclination of the back surface of the wall, soil flexibility and with the earthquake maximum ground acceleration. Seismic wall sliding is dominant and rotation is negligible for rigid walls when the ratio between the wall height and the foundation width is less than 1.4, while for greater ratios the wall becomes more flexible and rotation (rocking increases till the ratio reaches 1.8 where overturning is susceptible to take place. Cumulative seismic wall rotation increases with dynamic time and tends to be constant at the end of earthquake.

  16. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea


    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  17. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  18. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 68; Issue 4. Atomic displacements in bcc ... metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method.

  19. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect (United States)

    Fisher, Carla Christine


    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  20. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has been...

  1. Asymmetric SOL Current in Vertically Displaced Plasma (United States)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.


    Experiments at the DIII-D tokamak demonstrate a non-monotonic relationship between measured scrape-off layer (SOL) currents and vertical displacement event (VDE) rates with SOL currents becoming largely n=1 dominant as plasma is displaced by the plasma control system (PCS) at faster rates. The DIII-D PCS is used to displace the magnetic axis 10x slower than the intrinsic growth time of similar instabilities in lower single-null plasmas. Low order (n control is disabled. Previous inquiry shows VDE asymmetry characterized by SOL current fraction and geometric parameters of tokamak plasmas. We note that, of plasmas displaced by the PCS, short displacement time scales near the limit of the PCS temporal control appear to result in larger n=1/n=2 asymmetries. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  2. Simulations of threshold displacement in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Matthew L. [Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Fossati, Paul C. M.; Grimes, Robin W. [Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    Atomic scale molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage have been performed on beryllium. Direct threshold displacement simulations along a geodesic projection of directions were used to investigate the directional dependence with a high spatial resolution. It was found that the directionally averaged probability of displacement increases from 0 at 35 eV, with the energy at which there is a 50% chance of a displacement occurring is 70 eV and asymptotically approaching 1 for higher energies. This is, however, strongly directionally dependent with a 50% probability of displacement varying from 35 to 120 eV, with low energy directions corresponding to the nearest neighbour directions. A new kinetic energy dependent expression for the average maximum displacement of an atom as a function of energy is derived which closely matches the simulated data.

  3. A Pedagogical Dimension to the Technocratic Problem of Water Management: Preschool Teacher Beliefs and Attitudes Towards Teaching Water Science and Sustainable Management of Water in the Context of Environmental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bourotzoglou


    Full Text Available Future generations are necessary to become conscious of water environmental problems, since preschool age, as they will be forced to manage them in the future. Experiential Environmental Education is a tool for sustainable management of water resources, but the key to this process is teachers and the factors that shape their readiness to fulfill their role. In this research their beliefs and attitudes are being investigated, as they influence the quality of teaching and environmental awareness of children. Specifically, 128 preschool teachers from North Greece were interviewed on how they perceive a their Willingness to improve their skills and knowledge on the scientific subject of water and its sustainable management, b their Comfort in teaching these subjects and c their Familiarity with the content knowledge, pedagogical teaching methods of preschool and environmental education and developmentally appropriate activities for teaching these subjects according to Psychology. In addition, it explores preschool teacher’s beliefs and attitudes d about whether water science and sustainable management of water could keep Child’s Interest and e if it contributes to Child Benefit, raising children’s awareness of environmental issues and developing his/her language, art, math, technological and social skills. Correlation Analysis showed that preschool teacher’s beliefs and attitudes towards teaching the subject of water were positive but under certain preconditions (they do not have the Willingness to spend time creating materials, they do not need more scientific knowledge, they do not consider children’s experimentation as the best way of learning, the ‘creative clutter’ caused by experimentation annoys them, they are not willing to engage in children’s experimentation with water, watching what children do, what they say or ask and they do not consider more activities with water necessary. However, these items of the Scale may

  4. Water (United States)

    ... Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  5. Kosi Floods 2008: Devastation, Displacement and Migration Experience (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Ahlawat, Monica


    The massive Kosi River floods of August 2008 caused unprecedented loss to lives, livelihoods, infrastructure and property in north-eastern Bihar. The five flood-affected districts (Araria, Madhepura, Purnia, Saharsa and Supaul) are among the poorest districts in India. In 2011, during the last national Census, the total population of the five districts was about 11 million. About 1,000 villages in these five districts were affected and nearly three million people were displaced. Displaced people had to face various kinds of problems like lack of livelihood, loss of house and property, lack of health and hygiene etc. Posts flooding, because of constrained livelihood opportunities, depressed economy, and probability of future flooding event, many families have migrated to other parts of the country. This study was done to find out how displacement as well as migration has affected their lives, how they have coped with it, and what the government response to this disaster was. Both primary as well as secondary data have been used for this study. Secondary data was collected from government offices and websites, news articles and satellite images. Satellite images were used to detect the change in course of river and how much this change in course affected the displacement pattern. For this purpose the satellite images of affected area from an earlier time period and during the floods were taken and their impact was studied. Primary data has been collected through questionnaire and field survey and has been used to understand migration experience of affected population. With the help of these data, the paper analyses the 2008 Kosi flood as a socio-ecological regime shift and explains migration as a societal response to such a shift. Keywords: Floods, Displacement, Satellite Images, Socio-Ecological Regime Shift, Migration


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polozhaenko S. A.


    Full Text Available Mathematical model of the front displacement in porous media multicomponent systems, presents filterable immiscible (including abnormal fluids. In real application tasks it is given a qualitative description of the process of displacement in a multicomponent system with an intermediate agent «piston». Mathematical model of a class of problems of the frontal displacement for multicomponent systems is formulated as a variation inequality and provides a simple numerical implementation.

  7. Fiber Optic Displacement Sensor System for Structural Health Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kun Ho; Ahn, Byung Jun; Kim, Dae Hyun [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    It has been doing to research on novel techniques for structural health monitoring by applying various sensor techniques to measure the deflection in mechanical and civil structures. Several electric-based displacement sensors have many difficulties for using them because of EMI (Electro-Magnetic Interference) noise of many lead-wires when they are installed to many points in the structures. In this paper, it is proposed an affordable intensity-based fiber optic sensor to measure small displacement solving the problems of conventional sensors. In detail, the sensor head was designed on the basis of the principle of bending loss and a basic experiment was performed to obtain the sensitivity, the linearity and the stroke of the sensor. Moreover, a prototype was designed and manufactured to be easily installed to a structure and a real-time control software was also successfully developed to drive the fiber optic sensor system.

  8. Displaced mothers: birth and resettlement, gratitude and complaint. (United States)

    Niner, Sara; Kokanovic, Renata; Cuthbert, Denise


    In narratives of displaced Karen women from Burma, both before and after resettlement in Australia, women framed their birthing experiences with those of persecution and displacement. Although grateful for the security of resettlement in Australia, social inclusion was negligible and women's birthing experiences occurred in that context. Women described the impact of the lack of interpreting services in Australian hospitals and an absence of personal and communal care that they expected. Frequently, this made straightforward births confusing or difficult, and exacerbated the distress of more complicated births. Differences in individual responses related to women's histories, with younger women displaying more preparedness to complain and identify discrimination. The problems identified with health care, coupled with the inability of many of the women to complain requires attention, not just within the health care system, but more widely as part of social attitudes concerning Australia's obligations to those who seek asylum.

  9. Gas miscible displacement enhanced oil recovery: Technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.J.; Komar, C.A. (eds.)


    Research on gas flooding and miscible displacement, with an emphasis on improvement of CO/sub 2/ flood performance is described. Low reservoir volumetric sweep efficiency is the major problem associated with gas flooding and all miscible displacements. CO/sub 2/ flooding would be considerably more efficient if a larger area of the reservoir could be contacted by the gas. Current research has focused on mobility control, computer simulation, and reservoir heterogeneity studies. Three mobility control methods have been investigated: the use of polymers for direct thickening of high-density carbon dioxide, mobile ''foam-like dispersions'' of carbon dioxide and aqueous surfactant, and in situ deposition of chemical precipitates. 17 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Earthquake-induced soil displacements and their impact on rehabilitations. (United States)

    Konagai, Kazuo


    A large earthquake can trigger long lasting geotechnical problems, which pose serious issues on both rehabilitations and land conservations. Therefore one of what required of us is to deduce as much hidden signs as possible from observable changes of landforms. Though serious, damage caused by the October 23rd 2004, Mid-Niigata Prefecture Earthquake has given us a rare opportunity to study the landform changes in mountainous terrain hit by this earthquake. An attempt was made to convert changes in elevation in Eulerian description for images obtained from remote-sensing technologies to Lagrangian displacements, because Lagrangian displacements can directly describe behaviors of soils, which are typically history-dependent. This paper documents some big pictures of earthquake-inflicted landform changes obtained through this attempt.

  11. A problem and its solutions. Treatment of mineral-oil-polluted waste water; Ein Problem und seine Loesungen. Behandlung mineraloelbelasteter Abwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemenz, M.


    Even minimum quantities of mineral oils and light mineral fluids like carburettor and diesel fuel impair the quality of water. The legislator has taken this fact into account by laying down the procedures and conditions for the discharge of mineral-oil-polluted waste water into sewers or receiving bodies of water in the water management act. Relative provisions are made in the appendices to the water management act (for instance, appendix 49 on cleaning, maintenance and underseal removal of motor vehicles), which are practically executed by the federal states in the form of administrative regulations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mineraloel und mineralische Leichtfluessigkeiten wie Vergaser- und Dieselkraftstoff beeintraechtigen die Wasserqualitaet schon bei Zugabe in geringsten Mengen. Der Gesetzgeber trug diesem Umstand dadurch Rechnung, dass im Wasserhaushaltsgesetz Vorgehensweisen und Bedingungen fuer die Einleitung von mineraloelbelasteten Abwaessern in Kanalisation oder Vorflut festgelegt wurden. Massgebend sind hier Anhaenge zum Wasserhaushaltsgesetz (zum Beispiel Anhang 49 `Fahrzeugreinigung, -Instandhaltung und-Entkonservierung`), die durch die Bundeslaender im Rahmen von Verwaltungsvorschriften in die praktische Anwendung umgesetzt werden. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of the problem of forced landing of aircraft on water surface and methods of simulation of aircraft crews at aircraft accidents of this type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Nedilko


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an actual problem of emergency incidents of forced landing of aircraft on the water surface. The main content of the research is the analysis of statistical data and classification splashdown. The article reveals the main reasons that lead to the forced landing of aircraft. Analysis of accidents is interesting for us, as it can reveal the shortcomings and problems in the Rescue and disadvantages of rescue equipment. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of simulators for flight and cabin crew. Based on the analysis of the problem the need for regular training and exercises is established. To conduct a full-fledged study on the problem of forced landing of airborne vessels on the water surface, the following methods were used: comparison method, generalization method, data analysis method.

  13. Event-driven control of a speed varying digital displacement machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.


    be treated as a Discrete Linear Time Invariant control problem with synchronous sampling rate. To make synchronous linear control theory applicable for a variable speed digital displacement machine, a method based on event-driven control is presented. Using this method, the time domain differential equations......The design and analysis of feedback controllers for digital displacement machines requires a control oriented model. The displacement throughput of a full stroke operated machine is altered on a stroke-by-stroke basis at fixed rotation angles. In the case of a fixed speed operation, it may...

  14. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine (United States)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.


    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  15. Bacillus Probiotic Enzymes: External Auxiliary Apparatus to Avoid Digestive Deficiencies, Water Pollution, Diseases, and Economic Problems in Marine Cultivated Animals. (United States)

    Olmos Soto, Jorge

    Exploitation of marine fishes is the main source of several life-supporting feed compounds such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that maintain the production of most trading marine organisms by aquaculture. However, at this rate the marine inventory will go to the end soon, since fishery resources are finite. In this sense, the availability of the principal ingredients obtained from marine fishes is going to decrease considerably, increasing the diet prices and affecting the economy of this activity. Therefore, aquaculture industry needs to find nonexpensive land unconventional resources of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids and use bacterial probiotics to improve digestion-assimilation of these unfamiliar compounds. Bacillus subtilis is a cosmopolitan probiotic bacterium with a great enzymatic profile that could improve nutrient digestion-assimilation, induce healthy growth, and avoid water pollution, decreasing economic problems and increasing yields in the aquaculture industry. In this chapter, we present how Bacillus enzymes can help marine animals to assimilate nutrients from unconventional and economic plant resources. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Wernet, M. P.


    Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative velocity measurement technique for measuring instantaneous planar cross sections of a flow field. The technique offers very high precision (1%) directionally resolved velocity vector estimates, but its use has been limited by high equipment costs and complexity of operation. Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) is an all-electronic PIV data acquisition and reduction procedure which is simple, fast, and easily implemented. The procedure uses a low power, continuous wave laser and a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera to electronically record the particle images. A frame grabber board in a PC is used for data acquisition and reduction processing. PDT eliminates the need for photographic processing, system costs are moderately low, and reduced data are available within seconds of acquisition. The technique results in velocity estimate accuracies on the order of 5%. The software is fully menu-driven from the acquisition to the reduction and analysis of the data. Options are available to acquire a single image or 5- or 25-field series of images separated in time by multiples of 1/60 second. The user may process each image, specifying its boundaries to remove unwanted glare from the periphery and adjusting its background level to clearly resolve the particle images. Data reduction routines determine the particle image centroids and create time history files. PDT then identifies the velocity vectors which describe the particle movement in the flow field. Graphical data analysis routines are included which allow the user to graph the time history files and display the velocity vector maps, interpolated velocity vector grids, iso-velocity vector contours, and flow streamlines. The PDT data processing software is written in FORTRAN 77 and the data acquisition routine is written in C-Language for 80386-based IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS v3.0 or higher. Machine requirements include 4 MB RAM (3 MB Extended), a single or

  17. Assisting the return of displaced Dinka Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Murphy


    Full Text Available The issues involved in supporting the return of internally displaced Dinka Bor communities highlight the complex, and often ignored, challenges of addressing the consequencesof South-South conflict.

  18. Colombia’s displaced indigenous women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Escobar Cuero


    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples are one of the most vulnerable groups within Colombia’s internally displaced population, and a lack of understanding of their culture and needs constitutes a major challenge to their protection and assistance.

  19. Miscible, Porous Media Displacements with Density Stratification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    A bstract : High accuracy, three‐dimensional numerical simulations of miscible displacements with gravity override, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, are discussed for the quarter five‐spot configuration...

  20. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko


    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  1. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.


    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  2. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda (United States)

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.


    Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to

  3. Phenomenon of displacement in Arabic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Displacement is one of the characteristics of language and common phenomena in the Arabic language. Not only is this phenomenon limited to Arabic poetry and prose, but it is also broadened, so we can see examples of this in the Qur'an. Because of this phenomenon extensively in Arabic literature and also because of its essence that leads to the transmission of the elements for the first visibility to the other visibility in the sentence and sometimes had to change the grammatical role of the words, its identify helps us in a better understanding of text and the correct translation of it and protects the reader from mistakes. This paper in the descriptive analytical approach tries studying of the phenomenon of the displacement in the Arabic language and bringing its instances in Arabic poetry and prose as well as verses contained in the Holy Quran, to show that through the types and characteristics in the Arabic language and to response to several questions, including: how important is the displacement and what is its types in rhetoric, and the reasons of the displacement, and etc... Of the most important results of this study may refer to the undeniable role of the displacement as a rhetorical method to better understanding of the texts including: one of the most important reasons of the displacement in the use of language is to improve speech verbally and morally, and violation of the standard language and create a poetic atmosphere, and the recognition of the occurrence of the phenomenon of displacement in the Arabic language that uphold different interpretations remote and estimates when faced with the displacement in the text and help us to understand it and etc...

  4. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary


    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  5. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.


    chromatin. The condensed nature of chromatin inhibits many DNA metabolizing activities, including NER. In order to promote efficient repair, detection of a lesion not only has to activate the NER pathway but also chromatin remodeling. In general, such remodeling is thought on the one hand to precede NER...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER....

  6. Suppression of displacement in severely slowed saccades


    MacAskill, Michael R; Tim J. Anderson; Jones, Richard D


    Severely slowed saccades in spinocerebellar ataxia have previously been shown to be at least partially closed-loop in nature: their long duration means that they can be modified in-flight in response to intrasaccadic target movements. In this study, a woman with these pathologically slowed saccades could modify them in-flight in response to target movements, even when saccadic suppression of displacement prevented conscious awareness of those movements. Thus saccadic suppression of displace...

  7. Parameterization of light scattering for solving the inverse problem of determining the concentrations of the principal light scattering and absorbing admixtures in shelf waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim N. Pelevin


    Full Text Available A method for estimating the water backscattering coefficient was put forward on the basis of experimental data of diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance and irradiance reflectance. Calculations were carried out for open sea waters of different types and the spectral dependencies were found ("anomalous" spectra and explained. On this basis, a new model of light backscattering on particles in the sea is proposed. This model may be useful for modelling remote sensing reflectance spectra in order to solve the inverse problems of estimating the concentration of natural admixtures in shelf waters.

  8. Transport infrastructure monitoring: Testing of the NIODIM optical displacement monitoring system at the Sihlhochstrasse bridge in Zürich, Switzerland. (United States)

    Hagene, J. K.


    level in the river was about one metre higher than expected not to mention the strong current. To be on the safe side I had brought my waders with me, but it was hardly possibly to walk in the river. Problems are to be solved and a trip to the nearest shopping centre buying climbing ropes in the sports department and a children's paddling pool in the toys department expanded our toolbox significantly. The paddling pool was used as a barge for transporting the equipment out in the river to the pillar. We were able to install the equipment as planned, but somewhat delayed due to all the water in the river. A climbing rope was attached to the pillar with one end and the other end attached to the riverbank. Power and network cables were attached to this rope. Tests started the second day saving raw data from the camera to allow for later re-processing. Raw data storage was in the form of small images, one image for each frame i.e., one raw image file for each frame and at a rate of 64 Hz. The tests went on as expected for a while until the system performance dropped unexpectedly from 64 Hz to around 1 Hz. After some help from our main office we found out that our problem was due to the file creation performance of the file system NTFS when many files were present in one catalogue. By automatically sending commands to the processing unit to save files to new catalogues approximately every 10000 frames the system performance was back at the expected 64 Hz. After these initial problems with performance related to the NTFS file system the optical displacement monitoring system behaved as wanted for the remainder of tests. Based on the look of the bridge i.e., it looks robust and stable, we would not expect large oscillations due to the traffic on top of it. The mount point for the reference LED was also not ideal for observing potential oscillations. Due to the use of standalone generators for power generation measurements were only performed during the day and not during the

  9. Monsoonal loading in Ethiopia and Eritrea from vertical GPS displacement time series (United States)

    Birhanu, Yelebe; Bendick, Rebecca


    Vertical GPS displacement time series from 16 continuous sites over a period from 2007 to 2014 are compared to time series of monthly averages of liquid water equivalent thickness from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and precipitation from the Climate Research Unit to investigate hydrologic loading in Ethiopia and Eritrea. The GPS vertical time series record the presence of one or two rainy seasons, the amplitude surface displacements in response to monsoon water load, and phases consistent with a purely elastic response to a water load that accumulates throughout the rainy period. Comparison of observed amplitudes to those calculated for an average Earth model shows no systematic weakness related to the rift.

  10. Searching for the right problem. A case study in water management about the relation between information and decision making in regional EIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, Rien; Kok, Matthijs; van der Veen, A.; Douben, N.; van Os, A.G.


    The solution of complex, unstructured problems in integrated water management is faced with policy controversy and dispute, unused and misused knowledge, project delay and failure, and decline of public trust in governmental decisions. Concept mapping is a technique to analyse these difficulties on

  11. Project Hue: Report and field study on the water related problems and solutions in and around the Cau Hai lagoon and the Tu Hien inlet, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, T.; Jongerius, Y.R.; Franken, J.T.; Ponsioen, L.A.; Tieleman, O.C.


    The Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon system, lying in the Thua Thien-Hue province in central Vietnam, is affected by a tropical monsoon climate. This among others is the reason the Cau Hai Lagoon area has a long history of floods and other water related problems. Inhabitants are very dependent on the

  12. Early anchor displacement after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. (United States)

    Skaliczki, Gábor; Paladini, Paolo; Merolla, Giovanni; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe


    Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is a success and became the mainstream method of reconstruction in recent years. Due to the technical development in shoulder surgery, novel suture anchors and high-strength sutures are widely used providing convincing fixation, however anchor pullout still remains a problem. The aim of our study was to observe early anchor movement on a large patient cohort, and identify clinical, biological and technical variables that can lead to this complication. A total of 5,327 patients who had arthroscopic rotator cuff reconstruction for full thickness tear were included in the study. Radiographs taken immediately after surgery were observed and occurrent anchor displacement was recorded. Patient-specific, tendon-specific, bone-specific and implant-specific variables were studied. Any possible relationship between these factors and anchor displacement was investigated. Early anchor movement occurred in six cases (0.1%). The involvement of two or more tendons, retraction of the tendon by more than 2 cm and the use of four anchors was associated with higher incidence of anchor displacement, however the difference was not significant. Based on our study, anchor pullout occurring immediately after surgery is a relatively rare complication. Instead of timing the radiologic examination directly after the procedure, assessment of the anchors' position four to six weeks after surgery should be considered.

  13. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs): Underlying Mechanisms and Displacement Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin


    Micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) is a newly developed profile control and oil displacement agent for enhanced oil recovery in heterogeneous reservoirs. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of MPEMs in brine water. A transparent sandpack micromodel was used to observe the microscopic flow and displacement mechanisms, and parallel-sandpack models were used to investigate the profile control and oil displacement performance using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs. The results indicate that MPEMs almost do not increase the viscosity of injection water and can be conveniently injected using the original water injection pipelines. The microscopic profile control and oil displacement mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media mainly behave as selective-plugging in large pores, fluid diversion after MPEMs plugging, oil drainage caused by MPEMs breakthrough, and the mechanism of oil droplets converging into oil flow. MPEMs have a high plugging strength, which can tolerate a long-term water flushing. MPEMs can selectively enter and plug the large pores and pore-throats in high permeability sandpack, but almost do not damage the low permeability sandpack. MPEMs can effectively divert the water flow from the high permeability sandpack to the low permeability sandpack and improve the sweep efficiency of low permeability sandpack and low permeability area in the high permeability sandpack. The results also confirm the dynamic process of profile control and oil displacement using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs.

  14. Allosteric indicator displacement enzyme assay for a cyanogenic glycoside. (United States)

    Jose, D Amilan; Elstner, Martin; Schiller, Alexander


    Indicator displacement assays (IDAs) represent an elegant approach in supramolecular analytical chemistry. Herein, we report a chemical biosensor for the selective detection of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin in aqueous solution. The hybrid sensor consists of the enzyme β-glucosidase and a boronic acid appended viologen together with a fluorescent reporter dye. β-Glucosidase degrades the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin into hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde. Only the released cyanide binds at the allosteric site of the receptor (boronic acid) thereby inducing changes in the affinity of a formerly bound fluorescent indicator dye at the other side of the receptor. Thus, the sensing probe performs as allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) for cyanide in water. Interference studies with inorganic anions and glucose revealed that cyanide is solely responsible for the change in the fluorescent signal. DFT calculations on a model compound revealed a 1:1 binding ratio of the boronic acid and cyanide ion. The fluorescent enzyme assay for β-glucosidase uses amygdalin as natural substrate and allows measuring Michaelis-Menten kinetics in microtiter plates. The allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) probe can also be used to detect cyanide traces in commercial amygdalin samples. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Cryogenic Displacement and Accumulation of Biogenic Methane in Frozen Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb Kraev


    Full Text Available Evidences of highly localized methane fluxes are reported from the Arctic shelf, hot spots of methane emissions in thermokarst lakes, and are believed to evolve to features like Yamal crater on land. The origin of large methane outbursts is problematic. Here we show, that the biogenic methane (13C ≤ −71‰ which formed before and during soil freezing is presently held in the permafrost. Field and experimental observations show that methane tends to accumulate at the permafrost table or in the coarse-grained lithological pockets surrounded by the sediments less-permeable for gas. Our field observations, radiocarbon dating, laboratory tests and theory all suggest that depending on the soil structure and freezing dynamics, this methane may have been displaced downwards tens of meters during freezing and has accumulated in the lithological pockets. The initial flux of methane from the one pocket disclosed by drilling was at a rate of more than 2.5 kg C(CH4 m−2 h−1. The age of the methane was 8–18 thousand years younger than the age of the sediments, suggesting that it was displaced tens of meters during freezing. The theoretical background provided the insight on the cryogenic displacement of methane in support of the field and experimental data. Upon freezing of sediments, methane follows water migration and either dissipates in the freezing soils or concentrates at certain places controlled by the freezing rate, initial methane distribution and soil structure.

  16. Problems of mine waters discharge in the Samara River and its influence on biota of the ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kochet


    Full Text Available On the basis of long-term studies of aquatic organisms’ reactions to mine waters the approximate estimation of the waters influence on theSamaraRiver’s ecosystems was performed. Modern variants of the waters discharge were analyzed. The most acceptable environmental and economic choice of mine pumping at the modern stage of coal mining is presented.

  17. Immiscible displacement in a rough fracture: beyond Darcy's law (United States)

    Pahlavan, A. A.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; McKinley, G. H.; Juanes, R.


    The interplay between wetting and disorder, as well as the inherent complexity of porous media renders the description of immiscible displacement a daunting task. Nano-scale physics dictates the macroscopic behavior of the moving contact lines, which in turn determines the flow pattern. To shed light on this problem, we conduct experiments on rough radial Hele-Shaw cells and use the results to guide our modeling efforts. We saturate the cell with a highly viscous glycerol, and then inject a less viscous silicone oil at the center of the cell and visualize the displacement patterns. The surfaces are treated to alter their wettability, allowing us to study both drainage (less wetting liquid displacing a more wetting one) and imbibition (opposite of drainage) regimes. Viscous forces tend to destabilize the interfaces, whereas capillary forces play a stabilizing role; however, the disorder in the medium complicates this balance substantially: 1) it leads to heterogeneities in the permeability field and capillary pressure distribution, and 2) it changes the effective wettability of the medium and leads to contact line-pinning and hysteresis. We observe that at high capillary numbers (ratio of viscous forces to capillary forces), the disorder only weakly modulates the patterns, whereas at low capillary numbers, the disorder affects the flow pattern significantly; it leads to preferential flow paths in the drainage regime, and pinning and intermittent avalanche-like behavior in the imbibition regime. Based on these observations, we propose a phase diagram by incorporating the wettability, capillary number, and effective roughness of the medium as the controlling parameters. Inspired by these observations, we construct a thermodynamically-consistent phase-field model, taking the non-hydrodynamic interactions between the liquids and the solid surface into account. Our model goes beyond Darcy's law, which cannot describe the observed unstable displacements, by taking

  18. Sleep quality among internally displaced Georgian adolescents and population-based controls. (United States)

    Sakhelashvili, Irine; Eliozishvili, Marine; Lortkipanidze, Nani; Oniani, Nikoloz; Cervena, Katerina; Darchia, Nato


    Sleep problems in children and adolescents are a significant public health concern and may be linked to a variety of psychoemotional difficulties. This study aimed to evaluate sleep quality and associated factors in conflict-affected Georgian adolescents after 9 months of forced displacement. Thirty-three internally displaced adolescents (mean age 11.4 years) and 33 adolescents (mean age 10.8 years) from the general population completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Parents completed the Children's Sleep-Wake Scale and provided information on their socioeconomic status (SES) and the adolescents' sleep behavior, academic performance, and peer social relationships. The groups differed significantly in sleep quality, peer relationships, SES, and CDI scores. In the internally displaced group, the only significant predictor of sleep quality was SES, which increased the predictive capacity of the model (demographic and psychosocial variables) by 20% in the hierarchical analyses. The most significant predictor in the non-internally displaced group was CDI. This research indicates that displacement may affect sleep quality and psychosocial functioning. The importance of family SES as a contributing factor to displaced adolescents' poor sleep quality is highlighted. An integrated approach designed to improve the psychosocial environment of internally displaced adolescents is needed for their protection. © The Author(s) 2015.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Nikitenko


    Full Text Available The Republic of Belarus has significant reserves of ground fresh and mineral water. Consumption of bottled water in the world has a tendency of steady growth. In this regard, Belarus can increase production and sale of bottled water on the external  and domestic markets as well. The paper  describes main tendencies prevailing on the world market;  it contains an analysis of the normative and legal foundation on regulation of production and sale of bottled water in the Republic and abroad; the paper also estimates the possibilities to increase volume of export water

  20. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.


    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  1. Numerical procedure for fluid-structure interaction with structure displacements limited by a rigid obstacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakhlef O.


    Full Text Available A fixed point algorithmis proposed to solve a fluid-structure interaction problem with the supplementary constraint that the structure displacements are limited by a rigid obstacle. Fictitious domain approach with penalization is used for the fluid equations. The surface forces from the fluid acting on the structure are computed using the fluid solution in the structure domain. The continuity of the fluid and structure velocities is imposed through the penalization parameter. The constraint of non-penetration of the elastic structure into the rigid obstacle is treated weakly. A convex constrained optimization problem is solved in order to get the structure displacements. Numerical results are presented.

  2. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar


    This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught...... as the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves blocked...... the diffusers by rearranging the furniture. Half of the surveyed occupants were not satisfied with the indoor air quality. The main conclusion is that displacement ventilation needs careful design and room furnishing in order to ensure a comfortable environment. Occupants must understand the underlying...

  3. Overtreatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Nowak, Jan; Virtanen, Kaisa


    Background and purpose - The best treatment for displaced clavicle fractures has been debated for decades. Operative treatment has become more common. However, several randomized trials comparing non-operative and operative treatment have not shown any compelling evidence in favor of surgery. We...... identified the preferred treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures at public hospitals in 3 countries in Scandinavia. Patients and methods - A purpose-made multiple-choice questionnaire in English was sent to all public hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. This was addressed to the orthopedic...... surgeon responsible for treatment of clavicle fractures, and completed questionnaires were obtained from 85 of 118 hospitals. Results - In the 3 countries, 69 of the 85 hospitals that responded would treat displaced clavicle fractures operatively. Clear criteria for treatment allocation were used at 58...

  4. Investigation of severe water problem in urban areas of a developing country: the case of Dhaka, Bangladesh. (United States)

    Nahar, Mst Shamsun; Zhang, Jing; Ueda, Akira; Yoshihisa, Fujishiro


    The present study evaluated water supply geochemistry in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, to provide detailed trace level (subppb) water quality data that include major ions, low dissolved oxygen (DO) and toxic trace metals for sustainable development. Dhaka Groundwater, which almost uniformly meets the World Health Organization guideline, has become the preferred source. Due to groundwater depletion and an ever-increasing need to meet water demands by city residents, Dhaka water supply and sewerage authority has initiated the treatment of river water, despite the fact that very little is known about the geochemical structure, and trace metal content in the Dhaka water supply. Major ion composition of water samples was determined, and the results used to generate Stiff diagrams. The diagrams served to visually compare water from different sources based on units of mass/volume. Hydrochemical facies analysis showed supply ground and surface waters are comprised predominately of Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3-Cl types. Spatial distribution of ions, and Na/Cl and Na/SiO2 molar ratio indicated that silicate weathering is the dominant geochemical process. Chemical data revealed that toxic Cr metal mobilization is associated with chemical hazards from the leather industry. The vulnerability of deep wells to contamination by As is governed by the geometry of induced groundwater flow paths and the geochemical conditions encountered between the shallow and deep regions of the aquifer. Quantifying total arsenic (As) and As from interlocking geochemical cycles (Fe, Mn) may assist in interpreting As dynamics in Dhaka well water. The surface source water was hypoxic to anoxic low DO associated with very high concentrations of biological oxygen demands, and electrical conductivity compared to industrial and non-industrial urban processes and standard activity guidelines. The results of this study should be applied to future research focused on the potential to improve water quality in

  5. Tsunami Energy, Ocean-Bottom Pressure, and Hydrodynamic Force from Stochastic Bottom Displacement (United States)

    Ramadan, Khaled T.; Omar, M. A.; Allam, Allam A.


    Tsunami generation and propagation due to a randomly fluctuating of submarine earthquake modeled by vertical time-dependent of a stochastic bottom displacement are investigated. The increase in oscillations and amplitude in the free surface elevation are controlled by the noise intensity parameter of the stochastic bottom displacement. Evolution of kinetic and potential energy of the resulting waves by the stochastic bottom displacement is examined. Exchange between potential and kinetic energy was achieved in the propagation process. The dynamic ocean-bottom pressure during tsunami generation is investigated. As the vertical displacement of the stochastic bottom increases, the peak amplitude of the ocean-bottom pressure increases through the dynamic effect. Time series of the maximum tsunami wave amplitude, kinetic and potential energy, wave and ocean-bottom pressure gauges and the hydrodynamic force caused by the stochastic source model under the effect of the water depth of the ocean are investigated.

  6. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...... in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should...

  7. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  8. Ancient Approaches to the Age-old Problem of Water - How Archaeology Can Contribute to the Water Management Discourse of Socio-Hydrology (United States)

    Egerer, Kyle


    As "the study of old things", archaeology is concerned with material remnants of the human past. At first glance, archaeology may not appear to align well with the purpose of socio-hydrology. Archaeologists attempt to understand past society by analyzing the materials and architecture that provide them with evidence of how people lived and organized their lives. One aspiration of doing so is to gain a contextualized perspective of how contemporary society became the way it is. Human interaction with water is recorded - among other forms of material evidence - in forms of infrastructure and architecture that people construct to control water's flow and preserve this life-supporting resource in times of human need. Building structures, such as water canals or reservoirs, represent society's endeavor to reconcile nature's incalculable influence on society while subtly revealing humanity's penetration into the natural hydrological cycle. Thus, a bi-directional - or reciprocal - relationship between society and nature exists. Socio-hydrological approaches to water management also attempt to understand this relationship. This contribution introduces an archaeological example of how to conceptualize the human-nature dynamic that can be used to understand the socio-political aspects that envelope water management. To evaluate how the Hittite civilization of Late Bronze Age Anatolia (ca. 1600-1200 B.C.) controlled water resources, the author adopts a socio-ecological approach informed by theories of socio-cultural memory and geomorphological analysis. Critical assessment of Hittite written and cultural evidence are compared with hydraulic infrastructure installations to determine how the Hittites used knowledge of their physical landscape to their advantage. In doing so, a framework for interpreting water management practices is formulated that indicates that solutions to water collection and storage were case-based and highly contextualized. Furthermore, legitimate

  9. 40 CFR 86.419-2006 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle... displacement, motorcycle classes. (a)(1) Engine displacement shall be calculated using nominal engine values... reference in § 86.1). (2) For rotary engines, displacement means the maximum volume of a combustion chamber...

  10. Loading effects in GPS vertical displacement time series (United States)

    Memin, A.; Boy, J. P.; Santamaría-Gómez, A.; Watson, C.; Gravelle, M.; Tregoning, P.


    Surface deformations due to loading, with yet no comprehensive representation, account for a significant part of the variability in geodetic time series. We assess effects of loading in GPS vertical displacement time series at several frequency bands. We compare displacement derived from up-to-date loading models to two global sets of positioning time series, and investigate how they are reduced looking at interannual periods (> 2 months), intermediate periods (> 7 days) and the whole spectrum (> 1day). We assess the impact of interannual loading on estimating velocities. We compute atmospheric loading effects using surface pressure fields from the ECMWF. We use the inverted barometer (IB) hypothesis valid for periods exceeding a week to describe the ocean response to the pressure forcing. We used general circulation ocean model (ECCO and GLORYS) to account for wind, heat and fresh water flux. We separately use the Toulouse Unstructured Grid Ocean model (TUGO-m), forced by air pressure and winds, to represent the dynamics of the ocean response at high frequencies. The continental water storage is described using GLDAS/Noah and MERRA-land models. Non-hydrology loading reduces the variability of the observed vertical displacement differently according to the frequency band. The hydrology loading leads to a further reduction mostly at annual periods. ECMWF+TUGO-m better agrees with vertical surface motion than the ECMWF+IB model at all frequencies. The interannual deformation is time-correlated at most of the locations. It is adequately described by a power-law process of spectral index varying from -1.5 to -0.2. Depending on the power-law parameters, the predicted non-linear deformation due to mass loading variations leads to vertical velocity biases up to 0.7 mm/yr when estimated from 5 years of continuous observations. The maximum velocity bias can reach up to 1 mm/yr in regions around the southern Tropical band.

  11. Navigating Bioethical Waters: Two Pilot Projects in Problem-Based Learning for Future Bioscience and Biotechnology Professionals. (United States)

    Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D; Kirkman, Robert; Blake, Laura Palucki; Drake, Matthew


    We believe that the professional responsibility of bioscience and biotechnology professionals includes a social responsibility to contribute to the resolution of ethically fraught policy problems generated by their work. It follows that educators have a professional responsibility to prepare future professionals to discharge this responsibility. This essay discusses two pilot projects in ethics pedagogy focused on particularly challenging policy problems, which we call "fractious problems". The projects aimed to advance future professionals' acquisition of "fractious problem navigational" skills, a set of skills designed to enable broad and deep understanding of fractious problems and the design of good policy resolutions for them. A secondary objective was to enhance future professionals' motivation to apply these skills to help their communities resolve these problems. The projects employed "problem based learning" courses to advance these learning objectives. A new assessment instrument, "Skills for Science/Engineering Ethics Test" (SkillSET), was designed and administered to measure the success of the courses in doing so. This essay first discusses the rationale for the pilot projects, and then describes the design of the pilot courses and presents the results of our assessment using SkillSET in the first pilot project and the revised SkillSET 2.0 in the second pilot project. The essay concludes with discussion of observations and results.

  12. The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasinski Adam


    Full Text Available The application of screw displacement piles (SDP is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

  13. Miscible displacement of a non-Newtonian fluid in a capillary tube (United States)

    Soori, Tejaswi; Ward, Thomas


    This talk focuses on experiments conducted to further our understanding of how to displace an aqueous polymer within a capillary tube (diameter range of shear rates and fit the data obtained to the Carreau fluid parameters. Separately we measure the average bulk diffusion coefficient of the aqueous polymer and water in water and aqueous polymer phases respectively. Previous studies on the immiscible displacement of polymers have shown residual film thickness to be dependent on the tube diameter. We will investigate if this is true when the two fluids are miscible in nature. American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund.

  14. Water (United States)

    ... environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Health effects of water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  15. On the impact index of synchronous generator displaced by DFIG on power system small-signal stability (United States)

    Bi, J. T.; Du, W. J.; Wang, H. F.; Song, Y. T.; Wang, Q.; Ding, J.; Chen, D. Z.; Wei, W.


    As the maturity of wind power technology and the ageing and retirement of conventional synchronous generators, the displacement of synchronous generators by wind power generators would be a trend in the next few decades. The power system small-signal angular stability caused by the displacement is an urgent problem to be studied. The displacement of the SG by the DFIG includes withdrawing the dynamic interactions of the displaced SG and adding the dynamic interactions of the displacing DFIG. Based on this fact, a new index is proposed to predict the impact of the SG to be displaced by the DFIG on power system oscillation modes. The sensitivity index of the oscillation modes to the constant inertia of the displaced SGs, proposed in early literatures to estimate the dynamic impact of the SG being displaced by the DFIG, is also compared with the proposed index. The modified New England power system is adopted to show various results and conclusions. The proposed index can correctly identify the most dangerous and beneficial displacement to power system small-signal angular stability, and is very useful in practical applications.

  16. A heterodyne straightness and displacement measuring interferometer with laser beam drift compensation for long-travel linear stage metrology. (United States)

    Chen, Benyong; Cheng, Liang; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Enzheng; Lou, Yingtian


    The laser beam drift seriously influences the accuracy of straightness or displacement measurement in laser interferometers, especially for the long travel measurement. To solve this problem, a heterodyne straightness and displacement measuring interferometer with laser beam drift compensation is proposed. In this interferometer, the simultaneous measurement of straightness error and displacement is realized by using heterodyne interferometry, and the laser beam drift is determined to compensate the measurement results of straightness error and displacement in real time. The optical configuration of the interferometer is designed. The principle of the simultaneous measurement of straightness, displacement, and laser beam drift is depicted and analyzed in detail. And the compensation of the laser beam drift for the straightness error and displacement is presented. Several experiments were performed to verify the feasibility of the interferometer and the effectiveness of the laser beam drift compensation. The experiments of laser beam stability show that the position stability of the laser beam spot can be improved by more than 50% after compensation. The measurement and compensation experiments of straightness error and displacement by testing a linear stage at different distances show that the straightness and displacement obtained from the interferometer are in agreement with those obtained from a compared interferometer and the measured stage. These demonstrate that the merits of this interferometer are not only eliminating the influence of laser beam drift on the measurement accuracy but also having the abilities of simultaneous measurement of straightness error and displacement as well as being suitable for long-travel linear stage metrology.

  17. Displacements in organisations’ responses to the inspections of their psychosocial working environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starheim, Liv


    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how organisational activities correspond with the Working Environment Authority’s description of psychosocial working environment problems at the workplaces. Through the case study of twelve workplaces the activities are analysed focusing on the relationship...... between the Working Environment Authority’s problem descriptions after an inspection visit, and the solutions implemented by the workplace to solve the pinpointed problems. The Garbage Can mode l of decision making frames the understanding of how the workplaces decides, which activities they initiate...... as a result of the Working Environment Authority inspection. Displacement of the problem solving is suggested as a category of decision-making. The analysis shows, how the organisations choose relevant or displaced activities depended upon their agreement in the problem description, their acceptance...

  18. Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pais


    Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

  19. Education: protecting the rights of displaced children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suba Mahalingam


    Full Text Available UNICEF and its partners work with displaced communitiesto provide material assistance and protection, using as their basis the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child1 and other internationallegal instruments. Education has proven a valuable tool in this effort, not only making children aware of their rights but also providing a way to participate in the realisation of these rights.

  20. Displacement Damage in Bipolar Linear Integrated Circuits (United States)

    Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.


    Although many different processes can be used to manufacture linear integrated circuits, the process that is used for most circuits is optimized for high voltage -- a total power supply voltage of about 40 V -- and low cost. This process, which has changed little during the last twenty years, uses lateral and substrate p-n-p transistors. These p-n-p transistors have very wide base regions, increasing their sensitivity to displacement damage from electrons and protons. Although displacement damage effects can be easily treated for individual transistors, the net effect on linear circuits can be far more complex because circuit operation often depends on the interaction of several internal transistors. Note also that some circuits are made with more advanced processes with much narrower base widths. Devices fabricated with these newer processes are not expected to be significantly affected by displacement damage for proton fluences below 1 x 10(exp 12) p/sq cm. This paper discusses displacement damage in linear integrated circuits with more complex failure modes than those exhibited by simpler devices, such as the LM111 comparator, where the dominant response mode is gain degradation of the input transistor. Some circuits fail catastrophically at much lower equivalent total dose levels compared to tests with gamma rays. The device works satisfactorily up to nearly 1 Mrad(Si) when it is irradiated with gamma rays, but fails catastrophically between 50 and 70 krad(Si) when it is irradiated with protons.

  1. Public policy to address displacement in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Cossío Díaz


    Full Text Available At hearings of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in November 2013 on the human rights situation in Mexico, the issue of the internally displaced in particular caught my attention, both due to its current serious level and for its potential impact in the not too distant future.

  2. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Atomic displacements; crystal defects; crystalline solids. PACS Nos 63.43.j; 63.43.Dq; 61.66.Dk; 61.72.Ji. 1. Introduction. The transition metal dilute alloys are studied for their unique properties such as high strength ...... Even the recent techniques like EXAFS are inadequate for bcc alloys because in the EXAFS ...

  3. Comb-drive actuators for large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, Rob; Legtenberg, R.; Groeneveld, A.W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    The design, fabrication and experimental results of lateral-comb-drive actuators for large displacements at low driving voltages is presented. A comparison of several suspension designs is given, and the lateral large deflection behaviour of clamped-clamped beams and a folded flexure design is

  4. Isolated Displaced Fracture of the Lesser Tuberosity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injury Extra. 2006;37:31-3. 4. Collier SG, Wynn-Jones CH. Displacement of the biceps with subscapularis avulsion. J Bone Joint. Surg Br. 1990;72:145. 5. Ogawa K, Takahashi M. Long-term outcome of isolated lesser tuberosity fractures of the humerus. J Trauma. 1997;42:955-9. 6. Robinson CM, Teoh KH, Baker A, et al.

  5. Displacement Ventilation by Different Types of Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Hoff, Lars; Pedersen, Lars Germann

    The paper describes measuring results of the air movement from three different types of diffusers for displacement ventilation. Two of the diffusers are lowlevel wall mounted diffusers, one with a low and one with a high initial entrainment. The third diffuser is of the floor mounted type....

  6. Simulating People Moving in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, M.; Bjørn, Erik; Sandberg, M.

    A displacement ventilation system works better the more uni-directional the air flow through the ventilated room is: from floor to ceiling. Thus, from an air quality point of view, there should be as little vertical mixing of the room air as possible. It is therefore comprehensible that physical...

  7. Olympic scale of sport-induced displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean du Plessis


    Full Text Available The Olympic Games have displaced more than two million people in the last 20 years, disproportionately affecting particular groups such as the homeless, the poor, Roma and African-Americans. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games often leave a negative housing legacy for local populations.

  8. Olympic scale of sport-induced displacement


    Jean du Plessis


    The Olympic Games have displaced more than two million people in the last 20 years, disproportionately affecting particular groups such as the homeless, the poor, Roma and African-Americans. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games often leave a negative housing legacy for local populations.

  9. A Personal Appearance Program for Displaced Homemakers. (United States)

    Fiore, Ann Marie; De Long, Marilyn Revell


    A career counseling program evaluated the self-esteem of 28 displaced homemakers, then presented 3 sessions on the importance of personal appearance in hiring practices, wardrobe management, nonverbal communication, professional image, and self-concept. Analysis of participant evaluations indicated improved levels of control and confidence and…

  10. Internal displacement in Nigeria: an urgent challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia McGoldrick


    Full Text Available In the past five years an estimated 800,000 people have been displaced in Africa’s most populous state. AddressingNigeria’s neglected IDP crisis must be a key priority in the run-up to the country’s 2007 presidential elections.

  11. Geometric interpretation of density displacements and charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ``geometric” interpretation of the electronic density displacements in the Hilbert space is given and the associated projection-operator partitioning of the hardness and softness operators (kernels) is developed. The eigenvectors |á 〉 = \\{| 〉 \\} of the hardness operator define the complete (identity) projector P ^ = |  ...

  12. Heterodyne displacement interferometer, insensitive for input polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.


    Periodic nonlinearity (PNL) in displacement interferometers is a systematic error source that limits measurement accuracy. The PNL of coaxial heterodyne interferometers is highly influenced by the polarization state and orientation of the source frequencies. In this Letter, we investigate this error

  13. The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks. (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig


    Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals' understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and, thus, reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so because of their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply because of the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object's location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species' performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past.

  14. Surface displacement due to groundwater exploitation using spatial and terrestrial techniques. (United States)

    Abajo Muñoz, T.; Fernandez, J.; Tiampo, K. F.; Luzon, F.


    Subsidence is a natural hazard that affects wide areas in the world causing important economic costs annually. It is estimated that there are over 150 cities in the world with serious problems of subsidence due to excessive groundwater withdrawal like the Po Valley (Italy), Mexico DC, San Joaquin Valley (USA) and Bangkok (Thailand). Globally, groundwater depletion rates have risen in recent decades and significant lowering of groundwater tables has been reported. Aquifer overdraft has been a concern for the management of water resources, due to the potential irreversible loss of aquifer storage caused by aquifer system compaction and associated land subsidence. From a mechanical point of view, groundwater extraction from a confined aquifer reduces groundwater pore pressure. Because the overburden remains unchanged, the effective stress on the grain matrix of the aquifer increases, and the volume of the confined aquifer decreases, resulting in compaction and triggering surface subsidence. The control of land subsidence could serve as a proxy for the management of pore pressure change and groundwater flows in underlying aquifers (Galloway & Hoffmann, 2007). Our main interest is to study the ground surface displacement and Coulomb stress transfer produced by an extended source located in a homogeneus, elastic and isotropic half-space, based on Geerstma's model (1973). This study implies the improvement, development and implementation of the tools necessary for modelling and interpretation of the observations, as well as to evaluate possible interactions with other phenomena, such as the potential to influence on nearby faults. REFERENCES Galloway, D.L., Hoffmann, J., 2007. The application of satellite differential SAR interferometry-derived ground displacements in hydrogeology. Hydrogeology J., 15, 133-154. Geertsma J., 1973. A basic theory of subsidence due to reservoir compaction: the homogeneus case. Verhandelingen Kon. Ned. Geol. Mijnbouwk. Gen., 28, 43-62.

  15. Scientific Symposium “Small Solution for Big Water-Related Problems: Innovative Microarrays and Small Sensors to Cope with Water Quality and Food Security” (United States)

    Marcheggiani, Stefania; Spurio, Roberto; Cimarelli, Lucia; Tito, Duarte; Mancini, Laura


    This issue presents the conclusive results of two European Commission funded Projects, namely Universal Microarrays for the Evaluation of Fresh-water Quality Based on Detection of Pathogens and their Toxins (MicroAQUA) and Rationally Designed Aquatic Receptors (RADAR). These projects focused their activities on the quality of drinking water as an extremely important factor for public health of humans and animals. The MicroAQUA Project aimed at developing a universal microarray chip for the detection of various pathogens (cyanobacteria, bacteria, viruses and parasitic protozoa) and their toxins in waters. In addition, the project included the detection of select species of diatoms, which represent reliable bio-indicators to assess overall water quality. Large numbers of compounds are released into the environment; some of these are toxins such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and can affect the endocrine, immune and nervous systems of a wide range of animals causing alterations such as reproductive disorders and cancer. Detection of these contaminants in water systems is important to protect sensitive environmental sites and reduce the risk of toxins entering the food chain. A modular platform for monitoring toxins in water and food production facilities, using biosensors derived from aquatic organisms, was the main goal of RADAR Project.

  16. Tracking control of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator using a fiber bragg grating displacement sensor system. (United States)

    Chuang, Kuo-Chih; Ma, Chien-Ching


    This paper provides a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system which can measure the point-wise, out-of-plane displacement to examine the position-tracking control problem of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator (MPA). An FBG filter-based wavelength-optical intensity modulation technique is used in this study. A nominal system model is identified experimentally from the responses excited by random signals measured by an FBG displacement sensor that are simultaneously compared with those obtained from a laser Doppler vibrometer. To further investigate the sensing ability of the proposed system in a feedback control problem, control strategies including robust H(infinity) control, proportional-integralderivative control, and pseudoderivative feedback control are implemented. The characteristics of the step responses for each controller are examined. The experimental results show that the proposed sensor system is capable of performing the system identification and can serve as a feedback control sensor which has a displacement sensitivity of 5 mV/nm.

  17. Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Identifying the Ingredients of an Oil-Water Mixture Based on a Characteristic Fluid Inverse Problem (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Yuan, Han; Zhao, Jian; Mei, Ning


    To identify the ingredients of an oil-water mixture in petroleum production or petrochemicals process, a method based on a characteristic liquid inverse problem was developed by clarifying its real viscosity and thermal conductivity. A heat transfer and fluid flow model for an oil-water mixture was established for tube flow in this paper. By means of the measured temperature distribution in the tube, the thermal physical properties of the oil-water mixture can be obtained by the governing equations in the model according to their characteristics as a Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid. The fluid characteristic can be deduced by the rheological properties of the oil-water mixture. Both the Newtonian fluid and non-Newtonian fluid governing equations were established to determine the mixture components. Experiments were also conducted to verify the numerical solutions for the ingredients of the oil-water mixture. The comparison between theoretical solutions and experimental results shows that the maximum error based on the suitable fluid model is 3.11 %, which demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method for estimating the ingredients of an oil-water mixture.

  18. Utilization of an ultrasound beam steering angle for measurements of tissue displacement vector and lateral displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikayoshi Sumi


    Full Text Available Chikayoshi SumiDepartment of Information and Communication Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: A number of ultrasonic displacement/velocity measurement methods have been extensively developed for measurements of blood flow, tissue motion, and strain. Lateral modulation (LM methods have also been reported using steered, crossed beams, and these methods permit measurements of displacement vectors. In this report, a new beam steering method for the transmission and reception of ultrasound is proposed, which can enable measurements of lateral displacements and of arbitrary displacement vectors with a very high degree of accuracy. Because this beam steering method uses only a steering angle, this method is referred to as ASTA. With ASTA, the number of available methods to obtain a displacement vector measurement is limited to previously developed block-matching methods, such as the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method, and the multidimensional autocorrelation method (MAM and the multidimensional Doppler method (MDM using a block-matching method (the methods using block matching are referred to as MAMb and MDMb, respectively. Being dependent on the measurement method, only a lateral displacement measurement can be made even if the methods are multidimensional, ie, previously developed MAM and MDM using a moving average and a mirror setting of the obtained steered beams, and one-dimensional (1D, such as an autocorrelation method. Considerations of beamforming schemes using LM and ASTA show that the simple ASTA beamforming method increases capabilities for real-time measurements and requires a small physical aperture when compared with LM. For lateral displacement measurements (eg, blood flow in a carotid artery, a lateral coordinate must correspond to the direction of the target’s lateral motion, and the steering angle used is as large as possible to increase the measurement accuracy

  19. Head-shaft angle is a risk factor for hip displacement in children with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Hermanson, Maria; Hägglund, Gunnar; Riad, Jacques; Wagner, Philippe


    Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a common and severe problem. The Swedish follow-up program for CP (CPUP) includes standardized monitoring of the hips. Migration percentage (MP) is a widely accepted measure of hip displacement. Coxa valga and valgus of the femoral head in relation to the femoral neck can be measured as the head-shaft angle (HSA). We assessed HSA as a risk factor for hip displacement in CP. We analyzed radiographs of children within CPUP from selected regions of Sweden. Inclusion criteria were children with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III-V, MP of 40% of either hip within 5 years. Risk ratio between children who differed in HSA by 1 degree was calculated and corrected for age, MP, and GMFCS level using multiple Poisson regression. 145 children (73 boys) with a mean age of 3.5 (0.6-9.7) years at the initial radiograph were included. 51 children developed hip displacement whereas 94 children maintained a MP of < 40%. The risk ratio for hip displacement was 1.05 (p < 0.001; 95% CI 1.02-1.08). When comparing 2 children of the same age, GMFCS level, and MP, a 10-degree difference in HSA results in a 1.6-times higher risk of hip displacement in the child with the higher HSA. A high HSA appears to be a risk factor for hip displacement in children with CP.

  20. Dependence of hydraulic conductivity estimates from slug tests on displacement depth (United States)

    Sauter, M.; Brauchler, R.


    Slug tests are generally accepted as an efficient tool for the hydraulic characterisation of aquifers. They can readily be employed without major logistical efforts and allow in particular the characterisation of contaminated aquifers since there is no contaminated water that needs to be disposed of. They are especially suited for assessing low conductive rock formations, where pumping quickly has to be stopped because the wells dry up. In cases where a dense well network is available slug tests can provide detailed information about the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity. Limitations are: a) the small volume of integration, b) problems of obtaining representative storage parameters, and c) a large number of effects, the data need to be corrected for, especially in highly conductive aquifers, e.g. inertia, skin effects etc.. During a characterisation study, performed in karstified rocks, it was observed that the hydraulic conductivities obtained from the slug test data depended on the depth of displacement, i.e. an increase in displacement from 2.5 m to 11 m resulted in a change of hydraulic conductivity by a factor of 10. This feature, which is attributed to the heterogeneous characteristics of the fracture / matrix system, has also been described by Streltsova (1988), who observed that whenever "the formation volume, influenced by the test is smaller than the representative formation volume required for fracture pattern replication". The following conceptual model explains this hydraulic behaviour. If the well is drilled within a compact matrix block, the hydraulic response of an aquifer section is mainly determined by the low matrix conductivity near the well. If however the well is connected to the fracture network, short tests will only excite the highly conductive fractures and the longer the duration of the test, the more the less conductive matrix will contribute to the test result. Therefore a systematic decrease in the hydraulic conductivity

  1. Study on distribution of reservoir endogenous microbe and oil displacement mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yue


    Full Text Available In order to research oil displacement mechanism by indigenous microbial communities under reservoir conditions, indigenous microbial flooding experiments using the endogenous mixed bacterium from Shengli Oilfield were carried out. Through microscopic simulation visual model, observation and analysis of distribution and flow of the remaining oil in the process of water flooding and microbial oil displacement were conducted under high temperature and high pressure conditions. Research has shown that compared with atmospheric conditions, the growth of the microorganism metabolism and attenuation is slowly under high pressure conditions, and the existence of the porous medium for microbial provides good adhesion, also makes its growth cycle extension. The microbial activities can effectively launch all kinds of residual oil, and can together with metabolites, enter the blind holes off which water flooding, polymer flooding and gas flooding can’t sweep, then swap out remaining oil, increase liquidity of the crude oil and remarkably improve oil displacement effect.

  2. Global surface displacement data for assessing variability of displacement at a point on a fault (United States)

    Hecker, Suzanne; Sickler, Robert; Feigelson, Leah; Abrahamson, Norman; Hassett, Will; Rosa, Carla; Sanquini, Ann


    This report presents a global dataset of site-specific surface-displacement data on faults. We have compiled estimates of successive displacements attributed to individual earthquakes, mainly paleoearthquakes, at sites where two or more events have been documented, as a basis for analyzing inter-event variability in surface displacement on continental faults. An earlier version of this composite dataset was used in a recent study relating the variability of surface displacement at a point to the magnitude-frequency distribution of earthquakes on faults, and to hazard from fault rupture (Hecker and others, 2013). The purpose of this follow-on report is to provide potential data users with an updated comprehensive dataset, largely complete through 2010 for studies in English-language publications, as well as in some unpublished reports and abstract volumes.

  3. Small drains, big problems: the impact of dry weather runoff on shoreline water quality at enclosed beaches. (United States)

    Rippy, Megan A; Stein, Robert; Sanders, Brett F; Davis, Kristen; McLaughlin, Karen; Skinner, John F; Kappeler, John; Grant, Stanley B


    Enclosed beaches along urban coastlines are frequent hot spots of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) pollution. In this paper we present field measurements and modeling studies aimed at evaluating the impact of small storm drains on FIB pollution at enclosed beaches in Newport Bay, the second largest tidal embayment in Southern California. Our results suggest that small drains have a disproportionate impact on enclosed beach water quality for five reasons: (1) dry weather surface flows (primarily from overirrigation of lawns and ornamental plants) harbor FIB at concentrations exceeding recreational water quality criteria; (2) small drains can trap dry weather runoff during high tide, and then release it in a bolus during the falling tide when drainpipe outlets are exposed; (3) nearshore turbulence is low (turbulent diffusivities approximately 10(-3) m(2) s(-1)), limiting dilution of FIB and other runoff-associated pollutants once they enter the bay; (4) once in the bay, runoff can form buoyant plumes that further limit vertical mixing and dilution; and (5) local winds can force buoyant runoff plumes back against the shoreline, where water depth is minimal and human contact likely. Outdoor water conservation and urban retrofits that minimize the volume of dry and wet weather runoff entering the local storm drain system may be the best option for improving beach water quality in Newport Bay and other urban-impacted enclosed beaches.

  4. Displacement fields from point cloud data: Application of particle imaging velocimetry to landslide geodesy (United States)

    Aryal, Arjun; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Reid, Mark E.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Pawlak, Geno


    Acquiring spatially continuous ground-surface displacement fields from Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) will allow better understanding of the physical processes governing landslide motion at detailed spatial and temporal scales. Problems arise, however, when estimating continuous displacement fields from TLS point-clouds because reflecting points from sequential scans of moving ground are not defined uniquely, thus repeat TLS surveys typically do not track individual reflectors. Here, we implemented the cross-correlation-based Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method to derive a surface deformation field using TLS point-cloud data. We estimated associated errors using the shape of the cross-correlation function and tested the method's performance with synthetic displacements applied to a TLS point cloud. We applied the method to the toe of the episodically active Cleveland Corral Landslide in northern California using TLS data acquired in June 2005–January 2007 and January–May 2010. Estimated displacements ranged from decimeters to several meters and they agreed well with independent measurements at better than 9% root mean squared (RMS) error. For each of the time periods, the method provided a smooth, nearly continuous displacement field that coincides with independently mapped boundaries of the slide and permits further kinematic and mechanical inference. For the 2010 data set, for instance, the PIV-derived displacement field identified a diffuse zone of displacement that preceded by over a month the development of a new lateral shear zone. Additionally, the upslope and downslope displacement gradients delineated by the dense PIV field elucidated the non-rigid behavior of the slide.

  5. Fall with Linear Drag and Wien's Displacement Law: Approximate Solution and Lambert Function (United States)

    Vial, Alexandre


    We present an approximate solution for the downward time of travel in the case of a mass falling with a linear drag force. We show how a quasi-analytical solution implying the Lambert function can be found. We also show that solving the previous problem is equivalent to the search for Wien's displacement law. These results can be of interest for…

  6. A control volume based finite difference method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper; Hansen, Preben


    This paper presents a novel control volume based FD method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements, i.e. the generalized Navier equations. The method is based on the widely used cv-FDM solution of heat conduction and fluid flow problems involving a staggered grid formulation...

  7. Strain and displacement controls by fibre bragg grating and digital image correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Høgh, Jacob Herold; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup


    Test control is traditionally performed by a feedback signal from a displacement transducer or force gauge positioned inside the actuator of a test machine. For highly compliant test rigs, this is a problem since the response of the rig influences the results. It is therefore beneficial to control...

  8. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East. (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani


    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

  9. Water (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.


    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  10. Computational modeling as a tool for water resources management: an alternative approach to problems of multiple uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydda Manolla Chaves da Hora


    Full Text Available Today in Brazil there are many cases of incompatibility regarding use of water and its availability. Due to the increase in required variety and volume, the concept of multiple uses was created, as stated by Pinheiro et al. (2007. The use of the same resource to satisfy different needs with several restrictions (qualitative and quantitative creates conflicts. Aiming to minimize these conflicts, this work was applied to the particular cases of Hydrographic Regions VI and VIII of Rio de Janeiro State, using computational modeling techniques (based on MOHID software – Water Modeling System as a tool for water resources management.

  11. Basin-wide groundwater vulnerability assessment: a GIS based DRASTIC approach to the problem of coal seam gas extracted water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Navi


    Full Text Available Coal seam gas (CSG production requires the extraction of large volumes of water. Discharges of the extracted water into the environment occur via authorised temporary permits or through accidental releases. The purpose of this study is to assess the risk to shallow groundwater aquifers from potential CSG water releases in Queensland, Australia. A GIS based methodology was used to identify vulnerable shallow aquifers by overlaying a series of risk factors, which increase the likelihood of flow from the ground surface into aquifers below. We identified where the vulnerable aquifers are located and estimate that about 10,000 people live in these areas. The GIS based exposure mapping approach applied here provides a useful ‘first-pass’ assessment of areas with CSG activity. Areas identified as potentially high risk should be prioritised for further detailed investigation.

  12. Stability Analysis of Discontinuous Galerkin Approximations to the Elastodynamics Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Antonietti, Paola F.


    We consider semi-discrete discontinuous Galerkin approximations of both displacement and displacement-stress formulations of the elastodynamics problem. We prove the stability analysis in the natural energy norm and derive optimal a-priori error estimates. For the displacement-stress formulation, schemes preserving the total energy of the system are introduced and discussed. We verify our theoretical estimates on two and three dimensions test problems.

  13. Déplacements polyphasiques en milieu poreux. Injection de vapeur en conditions adiabatiques Multiphase Displacements in Porous Media. Steam Flooding under Adiabatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koci X.


    Full Text Available Dans un article antérieur [1], un dispositif expérimental permettant l'étude en milieu poreux des déplacements par fluides chauds, en conditions isothermes, a été présenté, ainsi que les résultats obtenus. Ce mode d'écoulement, qui ne fait pas intervenir A previous paper [1] described an experimental device designed for the study of multiphase displacements by hot fluids in porous media under isothermal conditions together with the results obtained. This type of flow, which does not take into account the progress of temperature fronts, is not representative of what actually happens in the field when a thermal enhanced oil recovery method is applied. In fact in this case, flows may be considered as quasiadiabatic. To gain a better understanding of the phenomena induced by such adiabatic displacements, new equipment was designed to reproduce conditions close to those in the field. Various experiments were modeled with a simulator developed at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, using results obtained under isothermal conditions (for instance, relative permeability curves. There is good agreement between experiments and computation. These experimental results were then compared to those obtained under isothermal conditions. Some hypotheses are put forward to explain the differences observed between the two types of flows. Experiments were carried out in unconsolidated cores made of packed sand. This sand mainly consisted of silica (over 99 weight %. Grain size was between 60 and 100 microns; the corresponding permeability was about 4. 10 to the power of (-12 m². The fluids consisted of distilled water and Albelf C-68 oil. New equipment was designed because of problems related to heat losses. For slow displacement rates at high temperatures, a small heat loss results in a decrease in temperature and therefore in steam condensation. Use of nonmetallic parts for the core-holder strongly reduces heat losses radially and longitudinally so

  14. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronca, Enrico, E-mail:; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail:; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)


    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  15. Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm


    in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation......Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification...... height is examined by means of full-scale measurements. A breathing thermal manikin is used to simulate a person. It is found that the flow in the boundary layer around a person is able to a great extent to entrain and transport air from below the breathing zone. In the case of non-passive, heated...

  16. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner


    If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ →ℓ‧ γ but rather ℓ →ℓ‧ X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z‧ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ →ℓ‧ + inv , but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ → eX , X → γγ , ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  17. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck


    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  18. Displacement and stress fields around rock fractures opened by irregular overpressure variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigekazu eKusumoto


    Full Text Available Many rock fractures are entirely driven open by fluids such as ground water, geothermal water, gas, oil, and magma. These are a subset of extension fractures (mode I cracks; e.g., dikes, mineral veins and joints referred to as hydrofractures. Field measurements show that many hydrofractures have great variations in aperture. However, most analytical solutions for fracture displacement and stress fields assume the loading to be either constant or with a linear variation. While these solutions have been widely used, it is clear that a fracture hosted by heterogeneous and anisotropic rock is normally subject to loading that is neither constant nor with a linear variation. Here we present new general solutions for the displacement and stress fields around hydrofractures, modelled as two-dimensional elastic cracks, opened by irregular overpressure variations given by the Fourier cosine series. Each solution has two terms. The first term gives the displacement and stress fields due to the average overpressure acting inside the crack; it is given by the initial term of the Fourier coefficients expressing the overpressure variation. The second term gives the displacement and stress fields caused by the overpressure variation; it is given by general terms of the Fourier coefficients and solved through numerical integration. Our numerical examples show that the crack aperture variation closely reflects the overpressure variation. Also, that the general displacement and stress fields close to the crack follow the overpressure variation but tend to be more uniform far from the crack. The present solutions can be used to estimate the displacement and stress fields around any fluid-driven crack, that is, any hydrofracture, as well as its aperture, provided the variation in overpressure can be described by Fourier series. The solutions add to our understanding of local stresses, displacements, and fluid transport associated with hydrofractures in the crust.

  19. Domestic transmission routes of pathogens: the problem of in-house contamination of drinking water during storage in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjaer; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jayasinghe, Gayathri


    Even if drinking water of poor rural communities is obtained from a 'safe' source, it can become contaminated during storage in the house. To investigate the relative importance of this domestic domain contamination, a 5-week intervention study was conducted. Sixty-seven households in Punjab, Pak...

  20. Stress Intensity Factor calculation from displacement fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beretta


    Full Text Available In the last two decades, visual image techniques such as Digital Image Correlation (DIC enabled to experimentally determine the crack tip displacement and strain fields at small scales. The displacements are tracked during loading, and parameters as the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF, opening and closing loads, T-stress can be readily measured. In particular, the SIFs and the T-stress can be obtained by fitting the analytical equation of the Williamstype expansion with the experimentally-determined displacement fields. The results in terms of fracture mechanics parameters strictly depend on the dimension of the area considered around the crack tip in conjunction with the crack length, the maximum SIF (and thus the plastic tip radius, and the number of terms to be considered in the Williams-type expansion. This work focuses in understanding the accuracy of the SIF calculation based on these factors. The study is based on Finite Element Analysis simulations where purely elastic material behavior is considered. The accuracy of the estimation of the SIF is investigated and a guide-line is provided to properly set the DIC measurements. The analysis is then experimentally validated for crack closure measurements adopting the SENT specimen geometry.

  1. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício


    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  2. Character displacement promotes cooperation in bacterial biofilms. (United States)

    Brockhurst, Michael A; Hochberg, Michael E; Bell, Thomas; Buckling, Angus


    Resource competition within a group of cooperators is expected to decrease selection for cooperative behavior but can also result in diversifying selection for the use of different resources, which in turn could retard the breakdown of cooperation. Diverse groups are likely to be less susceptible to invasion by noncooperating social cheats: First, competition repression resulting from character displacement may provide less of a selective advantage to cheating; second, cheats may trade off the ability to exploit cooperators that specialize in one type of resource against cooperators that specialize in another ; third, diverse communities of any kind may have higher invasion resistance because there are fewer resources available for an invader to use . Furthermore, diverse groups are likely to be more productive than clonal groups if a wider range of total resources are being used . We addressed these issues by using the cooperative trait of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Character displacement through resource competition evolved within biofilms; productivity increased with increasing character displacement, and diverse biofilms were less susceptible to invasion by cheats. These results demonstrate that diversification into different ecological niches can minimize selection against cooperation in the face of local resource competition.

  3. Water (United States)

    ... the tap as described). 3. In all situations, drink or cook only with water that comes out of the tap cold. Water that comes out of the tap warm or hot can contain much higher levels of lead. Boiling ...

  4. Recursos hídricos no futuro: problemas e soluções Water resources in the future: problems and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Galizia Tundisi


    Full Text Available A crise atual da água tem muitos componentes de origem social, econômica e ambiental: usos excessivos da água, aumento de demanda, gerenciamento setorial e muito focado em quantidade. Contaminação da água, eutrofização e alterações no ciclo hidrológico em razão das mudanças globais são outros componentes. Para resolver esse conjunto de problemas e avançar estratégias de planejamento e gestão em longo prazo, os seguintes programas e abordagens são alguns mecanismos relevantes: a Uma abordagem da bacia hidrográfica integrando gestão, planejamento e pesquisa científica; b Um sistema avançado de governança dessas bacias hidrográficas com a participação de usuários, setor público e setor privado; c Estudos estratégicos sobre água e economia, água em áreas metropolitanas, água e energia; d Uma estrutura para cooperação internacional em bacias internacionais compartilhadas; e Uma avaliação econômica dos serviços dos recursos hídricos (águas superficiais e subterrâneas, rios, lagos e represas; f Programas de capacitação de gerentes com uma abordagem integrada, preditiva, técnica e tecnológica.The present water crisis has many components of an environmental, economical and social origin: overuses of water, pollution, changes in availability, water mismanagement are some of the current problems. To cope with these problems and advance strategies for long term management, the following programs and approaches are presented: a A watershed approach, integrating research, monitoring, data bank and management; b An improved water governance system based on participation of stakeholders, public and private sector; c Strategic studies considering water and economy, water and metropolitan areas, water and energy; d A framework for international cooperation on shared watersheds; e An economic evaluation of services of water resources (surface and underground, lakes, rivers and reservoirs. f A capacity building program

  5. Reproductive Health Education and Services Needs of Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees following Disaster (United States)

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Lopez, Guillermo E.; Zapata, Lauren B.; Wilke Corvin, Jaime A.; Allen, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.


    Background: Following the occurrence of natural or man-made disaster, relief worker priorities include providing water, food, shelter, and immunizations for displaced persons. Like these essential initiatives, reproductive health education and services must also be incorporated into recovery efforts. Purpose: This study examined reproductive…

  6. Calibrating the Shan-Chen lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible displacement in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt Stenhøj Baun; Schaap, M.G.; Wildenschild, D.


    physical system; in this case observed oil-water displacement experiments. For this purpose, we use simple, well-characterized, two-fluid-phase systems that furthermore function as a test of the code. The calibrated model is shown to produce realistic capillary pressures, within the pressure range...

  7. Complex organic pollutant mixtures originating from industrial and municipal emissions in surface waters of the megacity Jakarta-an example of a water pollution problem in emerging economies. (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Hagemann, Lukas; Dwiyitno; Ariyani, Farida; Irianto, Hari Eko; Schwarzbauer, Jan


    During the last decades, the global industrial production partly shifted from industrialized nations to emerging and developing countries. In these upcoming economies, the newly developed industrial centers are generally located in densely populated areas, resulting in the discharge of often only partially treated industrial and municipal wastewaters into the surface waters. There is a huge gap of knowledge about the composition of the complex organic pollutant mixtures occurring in such heavily impacted areas. Therefore, we applied a non-target screening to comprehensively assess river pollution in a large industrial area located in the megacity Jakarta. More than 100 structurally diverse organic contaminants were identified, some of which were reported here for the first time as environmental contaminants. The concentrations of paper manufacturing chemicals in river water-for example, of the endocrine-disrupting compound bisphenol A (50-8000 ng L-1)-were as high as in pure untreated paper industry wastewaters. The non-target screening approach is the adequate tool for the identification of water contaminants in the new global centers of industrial manufacturing-as the first crucial step towards the evaluation of as yet unrecognized environmental risks.

  8. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades (United States)

    Jumel, Stéphanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean


    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricité de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  9. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumel, Stephanie E-mail:; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean E-mail:


    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  10. Application of ERTS-1 Data to Aid in Solving Water Resources Management Problems in the State of California (United States)

    Burgy, R. H.


    Investigations within the State of California have emphasized the direct utilization of the supplemental data source afforded by the Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 (ERTS-1) imagery. A user-oriented study has been underway for several years to identify and develop application methodology for remotely sensed information available from several platform levels, including low and high flights by NASA's U2 aircraft, and other manned and unmanned devices. The University of California has pursued both basic and applied research in remote sensing, through ongoing studies supported by NASA, and in cooperation with state agencies responsible for water resources and related fields. This report reviews the applications of ERTS-1 and supplementary imagery sources applicable to water resources planning, operations, and management.

  11. Prolongation of two phases in the model of fluid displacement through a capillary (United States)

    Lucas, Yann; Panfilov, Mikhail; Buès, Michel


    The problem of a piston-like displacement of a fluid by another in a capillary is examined. It is suggested that each fluid is prolonged into the domain occupied by the other fluid. This enables the replacement of the two-phase flow problem by a transient single-phase flow problem, with discontinuity in velocity and pressure on a film interface. The problems related to the triple point are solved by introducing a limit fluid near the pore wall. The demonstration of the Washburn equation contributes to the physical justification of our model. To cite this article: Y. Lucas et al., C. R. Mecanique 334 (2006).

  12. Solving probability reasoning based on DNA strand displacement and probability modules. (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Xiaobiao; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changjun


    In computation biology, DNA strand displacement technology is used to simulate the computation process and has shown strong computing ability. Most researchers use it to solve logic problems, but it is only rarely used in probabilistic reasoning. To process probabilistic reasoning, a conditional probability derivation model and total probability model based on DNA strand displacement were established in this paper. The models were assessed through the game "read your mind." It has been shown to enable the application of probabilistic reasoning in genetic diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Numerical simulation of the water entry of a structure in free fall motion (United States)

    Chen, Qingtong; Ni, Baoyu; Chen, Shuping; Tang, Jiangguang


    To solve the problems concerning water entry of a structure, the RANS equations and volume of fluid (VOF) method are used. Combining the user-defined function (UDF) procedure with dynamic grids, the water impact on a structure in free fall is simulated, and the velocity, displacement and the pressure distribution on the structure are investigated. The results of the numerical simulation were compared with the experimental data, and solidly consistent results have been achieved, which validates the numerical model. Therefore, this method can be used to study the water impact problems of a structure.

  14. Miscible displacement by high-pressure gas at Block 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J.H.; Robertson, N.


    The world's first large-scale miscible displacement project by high-pressure gas injection has produced 130,000,000 bbl, almost double the original estimated primary recovery of 69,000,000 bbl, at the University Block 31 field in Crane County, Texas. The field-wide project began in 1952, and will keep the unit on stream well into the future, with ultimate recovery efficiency estimated at 60%. Infill drilling has helped boost daily production to 16,000 bbl, highest producing rate since gas injection began in 1949. The subject discussed include reservoir characteristics, high pressure gas miscibility, flue gas generation, production problems, and new lift for an old field by infill drilling.

  15. Large displacement of a static bending nanowire with surface effects (United States)

    Liu, J. L.; Mei, Y.; Xia, R.; Zhu, W. L.


    Nanowires are widely used as building blocks of micro/nano devices, such as micro-sensors, probes, transistors and actuators in micro/nano-electro-mechanical systems (M/NEMS) and biotechnology. In this study, we investigated the large deformation behavior of a nanowire in consideration of its surface effects (surface elasticity and residual surface stress). For nanowires of large displacements with different boundary conditions, we established the governing equation set in combination with the residual surface stress and surface elasticity. Then a computer program of shooting method by using the commercial software MathCAD was developed to solve the boundary value problem numerically. Furthermore, the influences of surface effects on the large and infinitesimal deformation of the nanowires were quantitatively compared. These findings are beneficial to understanding the mechanism of the surface effects, and can also provide some inspirations to characterize the mechanical properties of nano-materials, and engineer new micro/nano-scaled devices.

  16. Land Restitution and Prevention of Forced Displacement in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felipe Gómez-Isa


    The armed conflict in Colombia, which has generated over three million internally displaced persons, has dramatic humanitarian consequences and raises serious issues regarding the protection of displaced peoples’ rights...

  17. Displaced, Homeless and Abused: The Dynamics of Gender-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based abuse (SPGBV) experienced by displaced Zimbabwean refugees, perpetrators of such abuses and the gender of perpetrators in South Africa. Refugee and Internally displaced persons are interchangeably used in this study. Through in-depth ...

  18. Predicting target displacements using ultrasound elastography and finite element modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, J.O. den; Hansen, H.H.G.; Lopata, R.G.P.; Korte, C.L. de; Misra, S.


    Soft tissue displacements during minimally invasive surgical procedures may cause target motion and subsequent misplacement of the surgical tool. A technique is presented to predict target displacements using a combination of ultrasound elastography and finite element (FE) modeling. A cubic

  19. Predicting target displacements using ultrasound elastography and finite element modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Buijs, J.; Hansen, Hendrik H.G.; Lopata, Richard G.P.; de Korte, Chris L.; Misra, Sarthak

    Soft tissue displacements during minimally invasive surgical procedures may cause target motion and subsequent misplacement of the surgical tool. A technique is presented to predict target displacements using a combination of ultrasound elastography and finite element (FE) modeling. A cubic

  20. Producing a problem? Effects of produced water contaminants (PAHs, radium-226, barium and scale inhibitor) on the copepod Calanus finmarchicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel Jensen, Louise [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Halvorsen, Elisabeth; Gammelsaeter Hallanger, Ingeborg [UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, P.O. box 6050 Langnes, 9037 Tromsoe (Norway); Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Brooks, Steven [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway); Hansen, Bjoern Henrik [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Marine Environmental Technology, Brattoerkaia 17B, 7010 Trondheim (Norway)


    In the Barents Sea region new petroleum fields are discovered yearly and the extraction of petroleum products are expected to increase in the upcoming years. Despite enhanced technology and stricter governmental legislation, establishing the petroleum industry in the Barents Sea will introduce a new source of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) to the area as some discharges of produced water will be allowed. Whether the presence of produced water poses a risk to the Arctic marine life remains to be examined. We examined effects on the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus after exposure to several compounds found in produced water. A mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkyl phenols commonly found in produced water was used as a proxy of the organic fraction of the produced water (hereafter termed APW (Artificial Produced Water)). In addition, exposures were done using radium-226 (proxy for NORM), barium (proxy for metals) and a scale inhibitor (SI -4470, M-I SWACO, Schlumberger Norge AS). Short-term screening tests on a range of concentrations of all compounds were run to assess the hatchability of the eggs and early survival of the nauplii. Long-term experiments were carried out with exposure concentrations at realistic levels found in the vicinity of known discharge points. The copepod C. finmarchicus is considered a keystone species in the Barents Sea ecosystem as it represents the major pathway of energy transfer from lower to higher trophic levels. We have examined sub-lethal effects on early life stages and on adult females. The hatchability of the eggs was not affected by concentrations well above realistic environmental levels. However, the instant mortality of the hatched larvae increased with higher concentrations of barium, scale inhibitor and APW, though not with higher radium-226 concentration. When examining the long-term growth of the nauplii, we found that the survival was poor in the APW treatment, and in the barium

  1. Experimental Problems of New Constructions of Portable Submersible Pumps for Mining with Electric Motor Cooled by Water Jacket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej KORCZAK


    Full Text Available The article presents a new construction of a submersible pumping engine where new original solutions in flowing system and control system where introduced It let obtain high efficiency and fulfill user’s expectations. The article also contains experiments of the new pumping engine and their results. The results of numerical analysis of the movement of liquid in flowing channel is described and the analytical characteristics are compared with ones measured in laboratory. The work also presents the problems with constructing, research and certification of new submersible pumping engine which construction fulfils ATEX requirements for machines working in explosive conditions areas

  2. Comparação entre as medidas inferenciais de edema de membros inferiores utilizando o Leg-O-Meter e o deslocador de água Comparison between inferential measurements of lower limb edema utilizing the Leg-O-Meter and water displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABC Oliveira


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A quantificação precisa da severidade e extensão de edema periférico é necessária antes e após a intervenção fisioterapêutica para avaliar a eficiência do tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar as medidas de volume em membros inferiores (MMII obtidas com dois instrumentos o Leg-O-Meter (LM e o deslocador de água (DA em um período de 2 semanas. Materiais e métodos: Trinta e uma mulheres portadoras de edema de MMII com idade entre 20 e 70 anos participaram deste estudo. O edema foi inicialmente avaliado pela perimetria (LM dos MMII ao nível do tornozelo e pelo volume de água deslocada após imersão do membro (DA. Após 2 semanas as medidas foram repetidas sem que houvesse alteração na medicação ou na rotina diária. Resultado: O percentual de alteração de edema no membro inferior direito (MID com o LM e com o DA foi 0,3±4,18% e 0,9±3,31% (p=0,21, respectivamente. Para o membro inferior esquerdo o percentual de alteração foi de 0,7±3,44% e 0,5±3,84% (p=0,29, com o LM e o DA, respectivamente. A magnitude da correlação entre as medidas obtidas com o LM e o DL foi alta e significativa, variando de r=0,73 a r=0,83 (pBackground: Precise quantification of the severity and extent of edema is necessary before and after physiotherapeutic intervention, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment. The objective of this study was to compare lower limb (LL volume measurements from two methods: Leg-O-Meter (LM and water displacement (WD, over a two-week interval. Method: Thirty-one women with LL edema, aged between 20 and 70 years, participated in this study. Edema was initially evaluated by circumference measurement (LM at the ankle level, and by means of the volume of water displaced upon immersion of the limb (WD. After 2 weeks, these measurements were repeated without there having been any change in daily routines or medication intake. Results: the percent changes in edema in the right lower

  3. Displacement Ventilation in a Room with Low-Level Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices.......Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices....

  4. Experimental system to displace radioisotopes from upper to deeper soil layers: chemical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghignone Stefano


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radioisotopes are introduced into the environment following nuclear power plant accidents or nuclear weapons tests. The immobility of these radioactive elements in uppermost soil layers represents a problem for human health, since they can easily be incorporated in the food chain. Preventing their assimilation by plants may be a first step towards the total recovery of contaminated areas. Methods The possibility of displacing radionuclides from the most superficial soil layers and their subsequent stabilisation at lower levels were investigated in laboratory trials. An experimental system reproducing the environmental conditions of contaminated areas was designed in plastic columns. A radiopolluted soil sample was treated with solutions containing ions normally used in fertilisation (NO3-, NH4+, PO4--- and K+. Results Contaminated soils treated with an acid solution of ions NO3-, PO4--- and K+, undergo a reduction of radioactivity up to 35%, after a series of washes which simulate one year's rainfall. The capacity of the deepest soil layers to immobilize the radionuclides percolated from the superficial layers was also confirmed. Conclusion The migration of radionuclides towards deeper soil layers, following chemical treatments, and their subsequent stabilization reduces bioavailability in the uppermost soil horizon, preventing at the same time their transfer into the water-bearing stratum.

  5. Environmentally-displaced peoples and the cascade effect: lessons from Tanzania. (United States)

    Charnley, S


    This article presents a case study of the environmentally displaced population of Nyakyusa and Sukuma of the Usangu Plains in southwestern Tanzania. The study illustrates the "cascade effect" whereby environmental problems are transferred to other rural areas and become increasingly more complex. This analysis examined the processes of ecological change and migration and the ecological consequences of settlement by migrants in new locations. The ecological changes in the Usangu Plains were due to social patterns and the spread of cash crop production. Most migrants benefited from resettlement. The Nyakyusa were pushed out due to land shortages, increasing land values, and an ineffective means of gaining access to land for young men. Young men moved and began rice production via irrigation. The consequence was loss of woodlands to agriculture, dry riverbeds, and greater marshy lands due to lack of drainage canals. These changes were due to the settlement pattern of migrants, weak social institutions for managing water, a lack of knowledge and technical skills for irrigation, and land tenure arrangements. Cash crop production also pushed migration among the Sukuma. Mobility was a part of a resource management strategy for livestock raising. Lack of land rights made sustainable resource practices less likely. Ecological changes included loss of grasslands, increases in bush/scrub, and greater tick-borne livestock disease. The multiethnic character of migration made it more difficult to cooperate in resource use and management. This case study reveals that migration was not a "safety valve" for dispersing marginalized people to other locations.

  6. Endothermic decompositions of inorganic monocrystalline thin plates. II. Displacement rate modulation of the reaction front (United States)

    Bertrand, G.; Comperat, M.; Lallemant, M.


    Copper sulfate pentahydrate dehydration into trihydrate was investigated using monocrystalline platelets with (110) crystallographic orientation. Temperature and pressure conditions were selected so as to obtain elliptical trihydrate domains. The study deals with the evolution, vs time, of elliptical domain dimensions and the evolution, vs water vapor pressure, of the {D}/{d} ratio of ellipse axes and on the other hand of the interface displacement rate along a given direction. The phenomena observed are not basically different from those yielded by the overall kinetic study of the solid sample. Their magnitude, however, is modulated depending on displacement direction. The results are analyzed within the scope of our study of endothermic decomposition of solids.

  7. Displaced Older Workers. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session. Comm. Pub. No. 99-528. (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document reports on a congressional hearing on problems experienced by displaced older workers who face sudden and unwanted joblessness or retirement. Testimony includes statements from 11 members of the Select Committee on Aging, House of Representatives; a displaced steelworker; Deputy Associate Commissioner for Employment and Unemployment…


    Grollman, Arthur


    Data for the depression of vapour pressure are presented for the following aqueous solutions: NaCl (0.03 to 0.1 molar), KCl (0.03 to 0.1 molar), urea (0.05 to 0.5 molar), sucrose (0.05 to 0.10 molar), lactic and succinic acids, creatine, CaCl2 (0.05 molar), and mixtures of these substances with one another and with certain other solutions (gelatin, gum acacia, sea water, LiCl, etc.). The relation of the depression of vapour pressure of a mixed solution to that of solutions of the individual constituents was investigated in order to ascertain to what extent such studies may be used for the determination of the degree of hydration, or of the state of water, in solutions. Organic substances (urea, sucrose, etc.) showed anomalous results which were markedly affected and unpredictable in mixed solutions. They are, therefore, unsuited for the study of water binding. In the case of solutions of inorganic substances—LiCl and CaCl2—the principle of the additive nature of colligative properties is also only approximately true—except perhaps in very dilute solutions. The limitations of the colligative method for determining the degree of hydration have been defined in accord with the above findings. Studies of the vapour pressures of mixtures of gelatin or gum acacia with NaCl or KCl demonstrated that hydration in gelatin is relatively small at pH = 7 and undetectable in gum acacia solutions. The view, therefore, that hydrophilic colloids are strongly hydrated has not been substantiated. The passage from the sol to the gel state also was not accompanied in gelatin or in blood by any appreciable change in the degree of hydration of the hydrophilic colloids present in these substances. PMID:19872614

  9. Microaspersores entupidos devido a problemas de ferro na água Microsprinkler clogged due to iron problems in the water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Assunção Pires Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Um dos aspectos relevantes a ser considerado no manejo da irrigação é a uniformidade de distribuição de água pelo sistema. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da cloração com a utilização de hipoclorito de sódio na desobstrução de microaspersores devido à utilização de águas com elevado teor de ferro. Um sistema com dez meses de uso apresentava setores com vazões de 5% a 57% menores que a vazão de projeto. Foi feito o tratamento químico da água de irrigação, utilizando-se hipoclorito de sódio com 12% de cloro livre na dosagem de 100 mg L-1 e ácido sulfúrico, na concentração de 98%, para manter o pH da água de irrigação em torno de 4,5. O resultado indicou que houve aumento significativo nas vazões médias dos microaspersores em todos os setores avaliados e diminuição na variação da vazão dos mesmos com relação à estimada no projeto.An important aspect to be considered in irrigation managment is the uniformity distribution of water through the irrigation system. This research had the objective to evaluate the efficiency of chlorination in the use of sodium hypochlorite in clearing of microsprinkler due to the presence of high iron concentration in water. The equipment with less than a year of use presenting sectors with 5% and 57% lower flow than the original project flow. The chemical treatment of water irrigation utilized sodium hypochlorite with 12% free chlorine on 100mg L-1 concentration, and sulphuric acid 98% to maintain the pH of water irrigation about 4.5. The result demonstrated a significant increase in the average flow of the microsprinkler's variation in all evaluted setors, and decrease in their flow variation related to the estimated in the project.

  10. 40 CFR 86.419-78 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle... Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.419-78 Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. (a)(1) Engine displacement shall be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to...

  11. Year of displaced people’s rights in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alberto Romero


    Full Text Available A Campaign for the Rights of Displaced People in Colombia, launched in 2007 by UNHCR, Colombian NGO CODHES and the Catholic Church, has tried to raise awareness in Colombia and the international community about the severity of the country’s displacement crisis and its failure to guarantee the rights of displaced people.

  12. Experimental evaluation of plasticity-induced crack shielding from crack tip displacements fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Vasco-Olmo


    Full Text Available In this work it is proposed a methodology for the evaluation of plasticity-induced crack shielding from the analysis of the crack tip displacements fields measured by digital image correlation. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the stress intensity factors determined from the displacements fields measured at the vicinity of the tip of a growing fatigue crack. For the characterisation of the crack tip displacements field, CJP model has been implemented. This model considers the shielding effects due to plasticity generated during fatigue crack growth. For the purpose of the current work, several fatigue experiments at different R-ratios have been conducted on Al2024-T3 compact tension specimens. In addition, compliance based methods have been adopted to perform a comparison of the results with those obtained by DIC. Results show a good level of agreement, illustrating the enormous potential of DIC technique for the study of fracture mechanics problems.

  13. Measuring fast stochastic displacements of bio-membranes with dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy (United States)

    Monzel, C.; Schmidt, D.; Kleusch, C.; Kirchenbüchler, D.; Seifert, U.; Smith, A.-S.; Sengupta, K.; Merkel, R.


    Stochastic displacements or fluctuations of biological membranes are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of many physiological processes, but hitherto their precise quantification in living cells was limited due to a lack of tools to accurately record them. Here we introduce a novel technique--dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy (DODS), to measure stochastic displacements of membranes with unprecedented combined spatiotemporal resolution of 20 nm and 10 μs. The technique was validated by measuring bending fluctuations of model membranes. DODS was then used to explore the fluctuations in human red blood cells, which showed an ATP-induced enhancement of non-Gaussian behaviour. Plasma membrane fluctuations of human macrophages were quantified to this accuracy for the first time. Stimulation with a cytokine enhanced non-Gaussian contributions to these fluctuations. Simplicity of implementation, and high accuracy make DODS a promising tool for comprehensive understanding of stochastic membrane processes.

  14. New Electromagnetic Force-Displacement Sensor


    Benabdellah, Amine; Abbassi, Zakarya; Nakheli, Abdelrhani


    A new electromagnetic force-displacement sensor is presented. Its operating principle is based on the fundamental laws of electromagnetism (Faraday-Lenz law) and the mechanical properties of a spring. The active elements are two coils made by a wire of 60 µm in diameter. Using different wire diameters or different number of wire turns in the coil modify the intensity of the magnetic field and the sensor response. The average accuracy of the sensor is about ∆d=1µm, and as a force sensor is abo...

  15. Two-Domain DNA Strand Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cardelli


    Full Text Available We investigate the computing power of a restricted class of DNA strand displacement structures: those that are made of double strands with nicks (interruptions in the top strand. To preserve this structural invariant, we impose restrictions on the single strands they interact with: we consider only two-domain single strands consisting of one toehold domain and one recognition domain. We study fork and join signal-processing gates based on these structures, and we show that these systems are amenable to formalization and to mechanical verification.

  16. Variable Displacement Control of the Concrete Pumping System Based on Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Min


    Full Text Available To solve the problems of cylinder piston striking cylinder and the hydraulic shocking of the main pump, and causing energy waste problem, the method of variable displacement control of piston stroke was proposed. In order to achieve effective control of the piston stroke, variable displacement control model was established under the physical constraint condition of non-collision between piston and cylinder. And the control process was realized by Dynamic Programming(DP, the simulation and test results show that piston of concrete pumping system don’t strike cylinder and reduce the hydraulic shock of the main pump outlet, meanwhile improve the response speed of the cylinder and achieve energy-saving purposes under varying loads. This control model built in the integration design space of structure variable and control variable is of guiding significance for solving open-loop system’s engineering problems.

  17. Severe hip displacement reduces health-related quality of life in children with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Ramstad, Kjersti; Jahnsen, Reidun B; Terjesen, Terje


    Background and purpose - Hip displacement is common in children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) and can cause problems such as pain, contractures, and nursing difficulties. Caregiver priorities and child health index of life with disabilities (CPCHILD) is a recently developed measure of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in children with severe CP. The associations between CPCHILD scores and hip displacement have not been investigated. We explored the effect of hip displacement on HRQL. Patients and methods - 67 children were recruited from the population-based Norwegian CP register. Mean age was 9 (7-12) years. There were 40 boys. Gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) distribution was 12 level III, 17 level IV, and 38 level V. Hip displacement was assessed by radiographic migration percentage (MP). The criterion for hip displacement was MP of the worst hip of ≥40%. Primary caregivers responded to 5 of the 6 domains of the CPCHILD questionnaire. Results - Hip displacement was found in 18 children and it was significantly associated with lower scores on the CPCHILD domains 3 (Comfort and Emotions) and 5 (Health), but not with domains 1 (Activities of Daily Living/Personal Care), 2 (Positioning, Transfer, and Mobility), and 6 (Overall Quality of Life). GMFCS level V was a significant predictor of low scores in all the domains. Interpretation - For the assessment of HRQL in children with severe CP and hip problems, we propose a modified and simplified version of the CPCHILD consisting of 14 of 37 questions. This would reduce the responders' burden and probably increase the response rate in clinical studies without losing important information.

  18. Pore-scale simulation of miscible displacement in porous media using the lattice Boltzmann method (United States)

    Xia, Ming


    A numerical model based on the lattice Boltzmann method is presented to investigate the viscous fingering phenomena of miscible displacement processes in porous media, which involves the fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transport. Especially, temperature- and concentration-dependent pore-fluid viscosity is considered. A complete list is derived and given for the conversion of relevant physical variables to lattice units to facilitate the understanding and implementation of the coupled problems involving fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transport using the LBM. To demonstrate the proposed model capacity, two different complex geometry microstructures using high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) images of core sample have been obtained and incorporated as computation geometries for modeling miscible displacement processes in porous media. The viscous fingering phenomena of miscible displacement processes are simulated in two different cases, namely in a channel and a porous medium respectively. Some influencing factors on the miscible displacement process, such as the pore-scale microstructure, Le number and Re number, are studied in great detail. The related simulation results have demonstrated that: (1) the existence of the pore-scale microstructure can have a significant effect on the front morphologies and front propagation speed in the miscible displacement process; (2) as the Le number increases, the fluid front and thermal front evolve differently, with the thermal front being less unstable due to more diffusion; (3) a larger Re number can lead to an increase in the propagation speed of the front.

  19. Displaced Mid-Shaft Clavicle Fractures: A Subset For Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Choudhari


    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown a high prevalence of symptomatic malunion and nonunion after nonoperative treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures. We sought to study the result of surgical treatment of displaced mid-shaft fracture of clavicle. Forty mid shaft clavicle fractures in adults, displaced with initial shortening of more than 15 mm, were treated with primary internal fixation with plates. The inclusion criteria were displacement, shortening of clavicle of more than 15 mm and/or impending skin penetration. The follow-up period varied from 6 months to 24 months. Fracture union occurred in all patients (average union time 8.5 weeks. Superficial infection developed in one patient and implant was a problem in one patient. The outcome was assessed by complications, constant score and patient satisfaction questionnaire. Constant scores were excellent in the study group and 96% of the patients were satisfied with the operation. Surgical treatment in displaced fractures of the clavicle in our study produces satisfactory results.

  20. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia (United States)


    Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Methods Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Results Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Conclusions Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on

  1. Further Application of Surface Capturing Method and Cartesian Cut Cell Mesh on Hydroelastic Water-Entry Problems of Free-Falling Elastic Wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hua Wang


    Full Text Available In order to study the interactions between fluid and elastic structure (such as marine lifeboat falling down and ship, this paper presents a new CFD method on hydroelastic water-entry problem of free-falling elastic wedge, which can more conveniently handle moving solid boundaries. In the CFD solver, a surface capturing method and the Cartesian cut cell mesh are employed to deal with the moving free surface and solid boundaries, respectively. On the other hand, in structural analysis, the finite element method and lath-beam structural model are introduced to calculate the elastic response. Furthermore, based on the current CFD and structural solver, a particular data transfer method and coupling strategy are presented for the fluid-structure interaction. Finally, by comparing numerical results with experimental data, the present method is validated to be available and feasible for hydroelastic water-entry problem and further successfully adopted to analyze the motion characteristics of free-falling elastic wedge.

  2. Eco-environmental problems and effective utilization of water resources in the Kashi Plain, western Terim Basin, China (United States)

    Lin, Nian-Feng; Tang, Jie; Han, Feng-Xiang


    Since ancient times, water resources, mainly from melting snow in the high mountains, have nourished a large area of an oasis in the Kashi Plain in the western Terim Basin, China. In the last half-century, however, the rapid growth of population and the overexploitation of water, soil, and biological resources have led to drought, salinization, and desertification in the area, and consequently have hindered the development of sustainable agriculture. In this study, groundwater reservoirs with sustainable water supplies equivalent to 44.65×108 m3/year were identified, which has made it possible to implement several projects in the area to improve the ecological and agricultural environment. Three strategies are proposed for the integrated development and management of both surface-water and groundwater resources in the area. Résumé. Depuis des temps anciens, les ressources en eaux, provenant surtout de la fonte des neiges en montagne, ont alimenté une large part d'une oasis de la plaine de Kashi, dans le bassin occidental de Terim (Chine). Au cours des derniers cinquante ans, toutefois, l'accroissement rapide de la population et la surexploitation de l'eau, des sols et des ressources biologiques ont provoqué la sécheresse, la salinisation et la désertification de la région cela a eu pour conséquence d'entraver le développement d'une agriculture durable. Cette étude identifie les réserves en eau souterraine, susceptibles de fournir durablement 44,65×108 m3/an, ce qui a permis de réaliser plusieurs projets dans cette région pour améliorer l'environnement écologique et agricole. Trois stratégies sont proposées pour le développement intégré et la gestion simultanée des ressources en eau de surface et en eau souterraine de cette région. Resumen. Los recursos hídricos, procedentes fundamentalmente del deshielo en alta montaña, han nutrido desde tiempo inmemorial una gran área de un oasis situado en las llanuras de Kashi, en la cuenca occidental

  3. Ear Problems (United States)

    ... Women Hair Loss Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems Headaches Hearing Problems Hip Problems Knee Problems Leg Problems Lower Back ... have ear pain or redness but is having problems hearing?YesNo Back to Questions Step 3 Possible Causes ...

  4. Meridional displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (United States)

    Gille, Sarah T


    Observed long-term warming trends in the Southern Ocean have been interpreted as a sign of increased poleward eddy heat transport or of a poleward displacement of the entire Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) frontal system. The two-decade-long record from satellite altimetry is an important source of information for evaluating the mechanisms governing these trends. While several recent studies have used sea surface height contours to index ACC frontal displacements, here altimeter data are instead used to track the latitude of mean ACC transport. Altimetric height contours indicate a poleward trend, regardless of whether they are associated with ACC fronts. The zonally averaged transport latitude index shows no long-term trend, implying that ACC meridional shifts determined from sea surface height might be associated with large-scale changes in sea surface height more than with localized shifts in frontal positions. The transport latitude index is weakly sensitive to the Southern Annular Mode, but is uncorrelated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Displacing lateral meniscus masquerading as patella dislocation. (United States)

    Arendt, Elizabeth A; Fontboté, Cristián A; Rohr, Sara R


    To alert the treating clinician to an uncommon knee meniscal condition that often masquerades as a more common patella condition. Retrospective chart review of a series of cases was undertaken. A series of 12 knees in 11 patients were referred to an orthopaedic surgeon with a diagnosis of recurrent lateral patella dislocation. Three knees had undergone patella realignment surgery with continuance of symptoms. Eight patients had prior magnetic resonance images read as no meniscal pathology and no acute patella/patella retinacular injury. All patients presented for a consult with a similar history. Under anaesthesia, all knees had a stable patella as judged by physical examination. At the time of surgery, six patients had a frank tear in the lateral meniscus, all of which were readily displaceable. Six knees showed a displaceable lateral meniscus with attenuation but not a visible frank tear. Ten menisci were treated with repair, and two knees underwent partial lateral meniscectomies. Patient follow-up of minimally 18 months revealed no further episodes of "knee-cap dislocation" or symptoms of catching and locking. The clinician treating a patient with a history of a knee locking in flexion should have a high index of suspicion for a lateral meniscus tear or an unstable hypermobile lateral meniscus, despite patient report of perceived patella movement. History of symptoms occurring in knee flexion and attention to patella physical examination should be key factors in this diagnostic conundrum. Retrospective chart review, Level IV.

  6. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.


    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board.

  7. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the performance of Stirling engine with pendulum type displacer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isshiki, Seita; Isshiki, Naotsugu [Isshiki R and D Lab., Tokyo (Japan); Takanose, Eiichiro; Igawa, Yoshiharu [Shiroki Corp., Toyokawashi (Japan)


    This paper describes the detailed experimental and theoretical performance of new type Stirling engine with pendulum type displacer (PDSE) which was proposed last year. This kind of engine has a pendulum type displacer suspended by the hinge shaft, and swings right and left in displacer space. The present paper mainly discusses the PDSE-3B which is an atmospheric 30[W] engine heated by fuel and cooled by water. It is clear that power required to provide a pendulum type displacer motion is expressed as a simple equation consisting of viscous flow loss term proportional to the square of rotational speed and dynamic pressure loss term proportional to the cube of rotational speed. It is also clear that theoretical engine power defined as the difference between experimental indicated power and power required to provide pendulum type displacer motion agrees well with the experimental engine power. It is also clear that measured Nusselt number of regenerator`s wire meshes agreed with the equation of previous study. In conclusion, PDSE is considered effective for measuring many aspects of performance of the Stirling engine.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmina Ludmila Ivanovna


    Full Text Available Subject: a groundwater filtration affects the strength and stability of underground and hydro-technical constructions. Research objectives: the study of one-dimensional problem of displacement of suspension by the flow of pure water in a porous medium. Materials and methods: when filtering a suspension some particles pass through the porous medium, and some of them are stuck in the pores. It is assumed that size distributions of the solid particles and the pores overlap. In this case, the main mechanism of particle retention is a size-exclusion: the particles pass freely through the large pores and get stuck at the inlet of the tiny pores that are smaller than the particle diameter. The concentrations of suspended and retained particles satisfy two quasi-linear differential equations of the first order. To solve the filtration problem, methods of nonlinear asymptotic analysis are used. Results: in a mathematical model of filtration of suspensions, which takes into account the dependence of the porosity and permeability of the porous medium on concentration of retained particles, the boundary between two phases is moving with variable velocity. The asymptotic solution to the problem is constructed for a small filtration coefficient. The theorem of existence of the asymptotics is proved. Analytical expressions for the principal asymptotic terms are presented for the case of linear coefficients and initial conditions. The asymptotics of the boundary of two phases is given in explicit form. Conclusions: the filtration problem under study can be solved analytically.

  9. Numerical simulation research on cementing displacement in the expanding hole (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Xin, Jingmin; Zou, Qiang


    Due to the influence of geofactor, drilling fluid and construction work, irregular boreholes appear during the drilling, which will lead to poor cementing quality. Taking the well as an example, according to the phenomenon of lower displacement efficiency and serious mixing slurry during cementing in the out of round oversized hole, simulation and experimental research are carried out, how the displacement capacity affects the displacement efficiency is analyzed and the mixing cement strength test is carried out. Finally it is proposed that combined displacement can be used during cementing in the out of round oversized hole. Before the out of round oversized hole, displace in normal pump capacity. When the displacement interface flow to the out of round oversized whole, small displacement capacity is used.

  10. The effect of base pair mismatch on DNA strand displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Broadwater, Bo


    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration, and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term, the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage t...

  11. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V


    Full Text Available , and of the remaining 2,5 percent, some 70 percent is frozen in the polar caps and around 30 percent is present as soil moisture or in underground aquifers. Less than 1 percent is thus accessible for direct use by humans, animals and plants. Consequently... be serviced with harvested water and/or grey water. Conserve and reuse cooling tower water by using efficient systems and strategies. Avoid ?once-through systems? commonly used for evaporation coolers, ice makers, hydraulic equipment, and air compressors...

  12. Low-cost solution to the grid reliability problem with 100% penetration of intermittent wind, water, and solar for all purposes. (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z; Delucchi, Mark A; Cameron, Mary A; Frew, Bethany A


    This study addresses the greatest concern facing the large-scale integration of wind, water, and solar (WWS) into a power grid: the high cost of avoiding load loss caused by WWS variability and uncertainty. It uses a new grid integration model and finds low-cost, no-load-loss, nonunique solutions to this problem on electrification of all US energy sectors (electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, and industry) while accounting for wind and solar time series data from a 3D global weather model that simulates extreme events and competition among wind turbines for available kinetic energy. Solutions are obtained by prioritizing storage for heat (in soil and water); cold (in ice and water); and electricity (in phase-change materials, pumped hydro, hydropower, and hydrogen), and using demand response. No natural gas, biofuels, nuclear power, or stationary batteries are needed. The resulting 2050-2055 US electricity social cost for a full system is much less than for fossil fuels. These results hold for many conditions, suggesting that low-cost, reliable 100% WWS systems should work many places worldwide.

  13. Environmental conditions in displaced communities of Khartoum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (N = 662). Housing characteristics. Frequency. Percent. Water supply source. Water supply network. 327. 49.4. Protected dug well. 332. 50.2. Others. 3. 0.5. Total. 662. 100.0. Method of water transfer. Piped network. 108. 16.3. From the pump. 22. 3.3. Cart. 523. 79.0. Others. 9. 1.5. Total. 662. 100.0. Water purification. Yes. 5.

  14. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya


    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  15. Anisotropic permeability in deterministic lateral displacement arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Vernekar, Rohan; Loutherback, Kevin; Morton, Keith; Inglis, David


    We investigate anisotropic permeability of microfluidic deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays. A DLD array can achieve high-resolution bimodal size-based separation of micro-particles, including bioparticles such as cells. Correct operation requires that the fluid flow remains at a fixed angle with respect to the periodic obstacle array. We show via experiments and lattice-Boltzmann simulations that subtle array design features cause anisotropic permeability. The anisotropy, which indicates the array's intrinsic tendency to induce an undesired lateral pressure gradient, can lead to off-axis flows and therefore local changes in the critical separation size. Thus, particle trajectories can become unpredictable and the device useless for the desired separation duty. We show that for circular posts the rotated-square layout, unlike the parallelogram layout, does not suffer from anisotropy and is the preferred geometry. Furthermore, anisotropy becomes severe for arrays with unequal axial and lateral gaps...

  16. Artificial Neural Network for Displacement Vectors Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bohmann


    Full Text Available An artificial neural network (NN for displacement vectors (DV determination is presented in this paper. DV are computed in areas which are essential for image analysis and computer vision, in areas where are edges, lines, corners etc. These special features are found by edges operators with the following filtration. The filtration is performed by a threshold function. The next step is DV computation by 2D Hamming artificial neural network. A method of DV computation is based on the full search block matching algorithms. The pre-processing (edges finding is the reason why the correlation function is very simple, the process of DV determination needs less computation and the structure of the NN is simpler.

  17. Displaced photon-number entanglement tests (United States)

    Kühn, B.; Vogel, W.; Sperling, J.


    Based on correlations of coherently displaced photon numbers, we derive entanglement criteria for the purpose of verifying non-Gaussian entanglement. Our construction method enables us to verify bipartite and multipartite entanglement of complex states of light. An important advantage of our technique is that the certified entanglement persists even in the presence of arbitrarily high, constant losses. We exploit experimental correlation schemes for the two-mode and multimode scenarios, which allow us to directly measure the desired observables. To detect entanglement of a given state, a genetic algorithm is applied to optimize over the infinite set of our constructed witnesses. In particular, we provide suitable witnesses for several distinct two-mode states. Moreover, a mixed non-Gaussian four-mode state is shown to be entangled in all possible nontrivial partitions.

  18. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)


    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  19. "Here nobody holds your heart": metaphoric and embodied emotions of birth and displacement among Karen women in Australia. (United States)

    Niner, Sara; Kokanovic, Renata; Cuthbert, Denise; Cho, Violet


    Our objective was to explore the ways in which displaced Karen mothers expressed emotions in narrative accounts of motherhood and displacement. We contextualized and analyzed interview data from an ethnographic study of birth and emotions among 15 displaced Karen mothers in Australia. We found that women shared a common symbolic language to describe emotions centered on the heart, which was also associated with heart "problems." This, along with hypertension, collapsing, or a feeling of surrender were associated responses to extremely adverse events experienced as displaced peoples. A metaphoric schema of emotional terms centered on the heart was connected to embodied expressions of emotion related to illness of the heart. This and other embodied responses were reactions to overwhelming difficulties and fear women endured due to their exposure to political conflict and global inequity. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  20. Robustness of localized DNA strand displacement cascades. (United States)

    Teichmann, Mario; Kopperger, Enzo; Simmel, Friedrich C


    Colocalization can strongly alter the kinetics and efficiency of chemical processes. For instance, in DNA-templated synthesis unfavorable reactions are sped up by placing reactants into close proximity onto a DNA scaffold. In biochemistry, clustering of enzymes has been demonstrated to enhance the reaction flux through some enzymatic cascades. Here we investigate the effect of colocalization on the performance of DNA strand displacement (DSD) reactions, an important class of reactions utilized in dynamic DNA nanotechnology. We study colocalization by immobilizing a two-stage DSD reaction cascade comprised of a “sender” and a “receiver” gate onto a DNA origami platform. The addition of a DNA (or RNA) input strand displaces a signal strand from the sender gate, which can then transfer to the receiver gate. The performance of the cascade is found to vary strongly with the distance between the gates. A cascade with an intermediate gate distance of ≈20 nm exhibits faster kinetics than those with larger distances, whereas a cascade with smaller distance is corrupted by excessive intraorigami leak reactions. The 20 nm cascade is found to be considerably more robust with respect to a competing reaction, and implementation of multiple receiver gates further increases this robustness. Our results indicate that for the 20 nm distance a fraction of signal strands is transferred locally to a receiver gate on the same platform, probably involving direct physical contact between the gates. The performance of the cascade is consistent with a simple model that takes “local” and “global” transfer processes into account.

  1. The REFANI-S study protocol: a non-randomised cluster controlled trial to assess the role of an unconditional cash transfer, a non-food item kit, and free piped water in reducing the risk of acute malnutrition among children aged 6–59 months living in camps for internally displaced persons in the Afgooye corridor, Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Jelle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of acute malnutrition is often high in emergency-affected populations and is associated with elevated mortality risk and long-term health consequences. Increasingly, cash transfer programmes (CTP are used instead of direct food aid as a nutritional intervention, but there is sparse evidence on their nutritional impact. We aim to understand whether CTP reduces acute malnutrition and its known risk factors. Methods/design A non-randomised, cluster-controlled trial will assess the impact of an unconditional cash transfer of US$84 per month for 5 months, a single non-food items kit, and free piped water on the risk of acute malnutrition in children, aged 6–59 months. The study will take place in camps for internally displaced persons (IDP in peri-urban Mogadishu, Somalia. A cluster will consist of one IDP camp and 10 camps will be allocated to receive the intervention based on vulnerability targeting criteria. The control camps will then be selected from the same geographical area. Needs assessment data indicates small differences in vulnerability between camps. In each trial arm, 120 households will be randomly sampled and two detailed household surveys will be implemented at baseline and 3 months after the initiation of the cash transfer. The survey questionnaire will cover risk factors for malnutrition including household expenditure, assets, food security, diet diversity, coping strategies, morbidity, WASH, and access to health care. A community surveillance system will collect monthly mid-upper arm circumference measurements from all children aged 6–59 months in the study clusters to assess the incidence of acute malnutrition over the duration of the intervention. Process evaluation data will be compiled from routine quantitative programme data and primary qualitative data collected using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The UK Department for International Development will provide

  2. The REFANI-S study protocol: a non-randomised cluster controlled trial to assess the role of an unconditional cash transfer, a non-food item kit, and free piped water in reducing the risk of acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months living in camps for internally displaced persons in the Afgooye corridor, Somalia. (United States)

    Jelle, Mohamed; Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; King, Sarah; Cox, Cassy L; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Morrison, Joanna; Colbourn, Timothy; Fottrell, Edward; Seal, Andrew J


    The prevalence of acute malnutrition is often high in emergency-affected populations and is associated with elevated mortality risk and long-term health consequences. Increasingly, cash transfer programmes (CTP) are used instead of direct food aid as a nutritional intervention, but there is sparse evidence on their nutritional impact. We aim to understand whether CTP reduces acute malnutrition and its known risk factors. A non-randomised, cluster-controlled trial will assess the impact of an unconditional cash transfer of US$84 per month for 5 months, a single non-food items kit, and free piped water on the risk of acute malnutrition in children, aged 6-59 months. The study will take place in camps for internally displaced persons (IDP) in peri-urban Mogadishu, Somalia. A cluster will consist of one IDP camp and 10 camps will be allocated to receive the intervention based on vulnerability targeting criteria. The control camps will then be selected from the same geographical area. Needs assessment data indicates small differences in vulnerability between camps. In each trial arm, 120 households will be randomly sampled and two detailed household surveys will be implemented at baseline and 3 months after the initiation of the cash transfer. The survey questionnaire will cover risk factors for malnutrition including household expenditure, assets, food security, diet diversity, coping strategies, morbidity, WASH, and access to health care. A community surveillance system will collect monthly mid-upper arm circumference measurements from all children aged 6-59 months in the study clusters to assess the incidence of acute malnutrition over the duration of the intervention. Process evaluation data will be compiled from routine quantitative programme data and primary qualitative data collected using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The UK Department for International Development will provide funding for this study. The European Civil Protection and

  3. A Variational Reduction and the Existence of a Fully Localised Solitary Wave for the Three-Dimensional Water-Wave Problem with Weak Surface Tension (United States)

    Buffoni, Boris; Groves, Mark D.; Wahlén, Erik


    Fully localised solitary waves are travelling-wave solutions of the three- dimensional gravity-capillary water wave problem which decay to zero in every horizontal spatial direction. Their existence has been predicted on the basis of numerical simulations and model equations (in which context they are usually referred to as `lumps'), and a mathematically rigorous existence theory for strong surface tension (Bond number {β} greater than {1/3} ) has recently been given. In this article we present an existence theory for the physically more realistic case {0 < β < 1/3} . A classical variational principle for fully localised solitary waves is reduced to a locally equivalent variational principle featuring a perturbation of the functional associated with the Davey-Stewartson equation. A nontrivial critical point of the reduced functional is found by minimising it over its natural constraint set.

  4. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi


    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  5. Application of differential fiber Bragg grating displacement cell in bridge crack monitoring (United States)

    Yue, Li-na; Huang, Jun; Jiang, De-sheng; Wang, Jun-jie


    During the construction and service period of concrete bridges, the cracks often influence the quality of the project even the safety of the structure. An effective and long-term crack monitoring of concrete bridges with the appropriate choice of displacement sensors is imperative under the situation. The differential fiber bragg grating displacement cell is based on the composite structure which consisted of pulling spring and cantilever. It has realized differential measure of normal FBG displacement sensor and has solved the serious problem of temperature disturbance. The differential fiber bragg grating displacement cell has the advantages of high accuracy, anti-interference, long distance transmitting and good durability etc. In this paper, the differential fiber bragg grating displacement cells were applied to monitor the cracks of web slabs during the tension process of external prestressed tendons when the continuous prestressed concrete box girder bridges and continuous concrete rigid frame bridges were maintained and reinforced. A group of typical cracks of web slabs was selected respectively in the continuous prestressed concrete box girder bridge and the continuous concrete rigid frame bridge. And a group of three sensors were installed across the three cracks. The external prestressed tendons had been tensioned by four grades. Then the widths of these cracks were recorded in accordance with the four tension grades of the external prestressed tendons: before tension, 10% tension, 80% tension, 100% tension. The results of the differential FBG displacement cells used during the process of tension of external prestressed tendons show that the cracks monitoring data are accurate and in accordance with the cracks changing rule.

  6. A Sea Floor Methane Hydrate Displacement Experiment Using N2 Gas (United States)

    Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Zhang, X.; Hester, K.


    The production of free methane gas from solid methane hydrate accumulations presents a considerable challenge. The presently preferred procedure is pressure reduction whereby the relief of pressure to a condition outside the hydrate phase boundary creates a gas phase. The reaction is endothermic and thus a problematic water ice phase can form if the extraction of gas is too rapid, limiting the applicability of this procedure. Additionally, the removal of the formation water in contact with the hydrate phase is required before meaningful pressure reduction can be attained -- and this can take time. An alternate approach that has been suggested is the injection of liquid CO2 into the formation, thereby displacing the formation water. Formation of a solid CO2 hydrate is thermodynamically favored under these conditions. Competition between CH4 and CO2 for the hydrate host water molecules can occur displacing CH4 from the solid to the gas phase with formation of a solid CO2 hydrate. We have investigated another alternate approach with displacement of the surrounding bulk water phase by N2 gas, resulting in rapid release of CH4 gas and complete loss of the solid hydrate phase. Our experiment was carried out at the Southern Summit of Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon, at 780m depth. There we harvested hydrate fragments from surficial sediments using the robotic arm of the ROV Doc Ricketts. Specimens of the hydrate were collected about 1m above the sediment surface in an inverted funnel with a mesh covered neck as they floated upwards. The accumulated hydrate was transferred to an inverted glass cylinder, and N2 gas was carefully injected into this container. Displacement of the water phase occurred and when the floating hydrate material approached the lower rim the gas injection was stopped and the cylinder placed upon a flat metal plate effectively sealing the system. We returned to this site after 7 days to measure progress, and observed complete loss of the hydrate phase

  7. Review and problem definition of water/rock reactions associated with injection of spent geothermal fluids from a geothermal plant into aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elders, W.A.


    Among the technical problems faced by the burgeoning geothermal industry is the disposal of spent fluids from power plants. Except in unusual circumstances the normal practice, especially in the USA, is to pump these spent fluids into injection wells to prevent contamination of surface waters, and possibly in some cases, to reduce pressure drawdown in the producing aquifers. This report is a survey of experience in geothermal injection, emphasizing geochemical problems, and a discussion of approaches to their possible mitigation. The extraction of enthalpy from geothermal fluid in power plants may cause solutions to be strongly supersaturated in various dissolved components such as silica, carbonates, sulfates, and sulfides. Injection of such supersaturated solutions into disposal wells has the potential to cause scaling in the well bores and plugging of the aquifers, leading to loss of injectivity. Various aspects of the geochemistry of geothermal brines and their potential for mineral formation are discussed, drawing upon a literature survey. Experience of brine treatment and handling, and the economics of mineral extraction are also addressed in this report. Finally suggestions are made on future needs for possible experimental, field and theoretical studies to avoid or control mineral scaling.

  8. Comet whole-core solution to a stylized 3-dimensional pressurized water reactor benchmark problem with UO{sub 2}and MOX fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D.; Rahnema, F. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States)


    A stylized pressurized water reactor (PWR) benchmark problem with UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel was used to test the accuracy and efficiency of the coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) code. The benchmark problem contains 125 fuel assemblies and 44,000 fuel pins. The COMET code was used to compute the core eigenvalue and assembly and pin power distributions for three core configurations. In these calculations, a set of tensor products of orthogonal polynomials were used to expand the neutron angular phase space distribution on the interfaces between coarse meshes. The COMET calculations were compared with the Monte Carlo code MCNP reference solutions using a recently published an 8-group material cross section library. The comparison showed both the core eigenvalues and assembly and pin power distributions predicated by COMET agree very well with the MCNP reference solution if the orders of the angular flux expansion in the two spatial variables and the polar and azimuth angles on the mesh boundaries are 4, 4, 2 and 2. The mean and maximum differences in the pin fission density distribution ranged from 0.28%-0.44% and 3.0%-5.5%, all within 3-sigma uncertainty of the MCNP solution. These comparisons indicate that COMET can achieve accuracy comparable to Monte Carlo. It was also found that COMET's computational speed is 450 times faster than MCNP. (authors)

  9. Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.K.


    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility.

  10. Experimental Aspects of In-Plane Displacement Measurement Using a Moire Fringe Technique. (United States)


    AD-A174 048 EXPERIMENTAL ASPECTS OF IN-PLANE DISPLACEMENT 1 / 1’ MEASUREMENT USING A NOIRE F.. (U) AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH I LABS MELBOURNE (AUSTRALIA...solution poured rapidly over their central area. However, this technique resulted in streaking of the film coating. This problem was minimized by varying...defined when flash lighting was employed. The magnification of the image and rotational misalignment of the film mount, were adjusted with the aid of a

  11. Displaced intracapsular fracture complicating transient osteopoenia of the hip in pregnancy: timing of surgery. (United States)

    Guryel, Enis; Shaikh, Naveed; Clark, David W


    A patient who presented with a displaced subcapital fracture of the proximal femur in her third trimester of pregnancy is reported. Following delivery of the baby with an emergency caesarean section, the fracture was immediately reduced and fixed using cannulated screws. The outcome of her fracture management for this rare condition is discussed. Only seven cases have been reported in the literature and we review the possibility that this condition may be a systemic rather than a purely localised problem as previously believed.

  12. Altered mandibular growth under functional posterior displacement in rats


    Farias-Neto, A; Martins, APVB; Figueroba, SR; Groppo, FC; Almeida, SM; Rizzatti-Barbosa, CM


    Objective: To test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in mandibular growth between growing rats with posterior functional mandibular displacement and growing rats without functional mandibular displacement. Materials and Methods: Twenty female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were randomized into two groups: (1) control and (2) mandible posterior displacement in the occluded condition induced by an occlusal guiding appliance. After 8 weeks all animals were sacrificed, cone beam computed...

  13. Job displacement and labor market outcomes by skill level


    David Seim


    This paper investigates the effects of displacement on outcomes such as annual earnings, unemployment, wages and hours worked. It relies on previously unexplored administrative data on all displaced workers in Sweden in 2002, 2003 and 2004 which are linked to employer-employee matched data at the individual level. By linking the data to military enlistment records, the paper assesses the selection into displacement and finds that workers with low cognitive and noncognitive skills are signific...

  14. Land Restitution and Prevention of Forced Displacement in Colombia


    Felipe Gómez-Isa


    The armed conflict in Colombia, which has generated over three million internally displaced persons, has dramatic humanitarian consequences and raises serious issues regarding the protection of displaced peoples’ rights. The underlying reasons for the displacement often lie in the dynamics associated with territorial control and land seizures undertaken for strategic, military or purely economic purposes. Domestic and international legal provisions have established the victims’ right to the r...

  15. Interferometric measurement of displacements and displacement velocities for nondestructive quality control (United States)

    Shpeĭzman, V. V.; Peschanskaya, N. N.


    It is shown that the interferometric measurement of small displacements and small-displacement velocities can be used to determine internal stresses or the stresses induced by an applied load in solids and to control structural changes in them. The interferometric method based on the measurement of the reaction of a solid to a small perturbation in its state of stress is applied to determine stresses from the deviation of the reaction to perturbations from that in the standard stress-free case. For structural control, this method is employed to study the specific features of the characteristics of microplastic deformation that appear after material treatment or operation and manifest themselves in the temperature and force dependences of the rate of a small inelastic strain.

  16. Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems (United States)

    Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.


    Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…

  17. Quantitative Measurement of Out-of-plane Displacement Using Shearography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Gu; Kim, Kyung Suk; Beack, Sang Kyu; Jang, Ho Sub [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jung Suk [Mokpo Science College, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)


    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry is a common method for measuring out-of-plane displacement and in-plane displacement and applied for vibration analysis and strain/stress analysis. However, ESPI is sensitive to environmental disturbance, which provide the limitation of industrial application. On the other hand, Shearography based on shearing interferometer can directly measure the first derivative of out-of-plane displacement, which is insensitive to vibration disturbance. This paper proposes the out-of-plane displacement extraction technique from results of Shearography by numerical processing and measurement results of ESPI and Shearoraphy are compared quantitatively.

  18. Employment protection and the consequences for displaced workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; van Audenrode, Marc; Browning, Martin

    We compare the wage and employment consequences of a job displacement in Belgium and Denmark. These two countries both have generous unemployment insurance schemes but job protection laws vary dramatically between the two. Using comparable data we find that the incidence of displacement and the c......We compare the wage and employment consequences of a job displacement in Belgium and Denmark. These two countries both have generous unemployment insurance schemes but job protection laws vary dramatically between the two. Using comparable data we find that the incidence of displacement...

  19. Isothermal Gas assisted displacement of a polystyrene melt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.


    Isothermal gas displacements of a polystyrene melt (shaped as circular cylinder with a radius of 2.5mm) placed inside a circular steel annulus were performed. A flow valve ensures a constant flow rate and rotational symmetric flow during the displacement. The experiments show an increase in the s......Isothermal gas displacements of a polystyrene melt (shaped as circular cylinder with a radius of 2.5mm) placed inside a circular steel annulus were performed. A flow valve ensures a constant flow rate and rotational symmetric flow during the displacement. The experiments show an increase...

  20. Studying Landslide Displacements in Megamendung (Indonesia Using GPS Survey Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanuddin Z. Abidin


    Full Text Available Landslide is one of prominent geohazards that frequently affects Indonesia, especially in the rainy season. It destroys not only environment and property, but usually also causes deaths. Landslide monitoring is therefore very crucial and should be continuously done. One of the methods that can have a contribution in studying landslide phenomena is repeated GPS survey method. This paper presents and discusses the operational performances, constraints and results of GPS surveys conducted in a well known landslide prone area in West Java (Indonesia, namely Megamendung, the hilly region close to Bogor. Three GPS surveys involving 8 GPS points have been conducted, namely on April 2002, May 2003 and May 2004, respectively. The estimated landslide displacements in the area are relatively quite large in the level of a few dm to a few m. Displacements up to about 2-3 m were detected in the April 2002 to May 2003 period, and up to about 3-4 dm in the May 2003 to May 2004 period. In both periods, landslides in general show the northwest direction of displacements. Displacements vary both spatially and temporally. This study also suggested that in order to conclude the existence of real and significant displacements of GPS points, the GPS estimated displacements should be subjected to three types of testing namely: the congruency test on spatial displacements, testing on the agreement between the horizontal distance changes with the predicted direction of landslide displacement, and testing on the consistency of displacement directions on two consecutive periods.

  1. Job displacement and stress-related health outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Danø, Anne Møller; Heinesen, Eskil


    We investigate whether job loss as the result of displacement causes hospitalization for stress-related diseases which are widely thought to be associated with unemployment. In doing this, we use much better data than any previous investigators. Our data are a random 10% sample of the male...... group of displaced workers if they had not in fact been displaced. Our results indicate unequivocally that being displaced in Denmark does not cause hospitalization for stress-related disease. An analysis of the power of our test suggests that even though we are looking for a relatively rare outcome...

  2. Global and regional aspects for genesis of catastrophic floods - the problems of forecasting and estimates for mass and water balance (surface and groundwater contribution) (United States)

    Trifonova, Tatiana; Arakelian, Sergei; Trifonov, Dmitriy; Abrakhin, Sergei


    1. The principal goal of present talk is, to discuss the existing uncertainty and discrepancy between water balance estimation for the area under heavy rain flood, on the one hand from the theoretical approach and reasonable data base due to rainfall going from atmosphere and, on the other hand the real practicle surface water flow parameters measured by some methods and/or fixed by some eye-witness (cf. [1]). The vital item for our discussion is that the last characteristics sometimes may be noticeably grater than the first ones. Our estimations show the grater water mass discharge observation during the events than it could be expected from the rainfall process estimation only [2]. The fact gives us the founding to take into account the groundwater possible contribution to the event. 2. We carried out such analysis, at least, for two catastrophic water events in 2015, i.e. (1) torrential rain and catastrophic floods in Lousiana (USA), June 16-20; (2) Assam flood (India), Aug. 22 - Sept. 8. 3. Groundwater flood of a river terrace discussed e.g. in [3] but in respect when rise of the water table above the land surface occurs coincided with intense rainfall and being as a relatively rare phenomenon. In our hypothesis the principal part of possible groundwater exit to surface is connected with a crack-net system state in earth-crust (including deep layers) as a water transportation system, first, being in variated pressure field for groundwater basin and, second, modified by different reasons ( both suddenly (the Krimsk-city flash flood event, July 2012, Russia) and/or smoothly (the Amur river flood event, Aug.-Sept. 2013, Russia) ). Such reconstruction of 3D crack-net under external reasons (resulting even in local variation of pressures in any crack-section) is a principal item for presented approach. 4. We believe that in some cases the interconnection of floods and preceding earthquakes may occur. The problem discuss by us for certain events ( e.g. in addition to

  3. The Three Gorges: the unexamined toll of development-induced displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stein


    Full Text Available In China, the context of forced displacement in its broadest sense centres on four issues: (1 coercive displacement for development; (2 political persecution resulting in controlled displacement; (3 massive labour dislocations; and (4 disaster-induced displacement. This article looks at the role of the state in displacement, focusing on the first of these issues: development-induced displacement.

  4. Study of deep profile control and oil displacement technologies with nanoscale polymer microspheres. (United States)

    Hua, Zhao; Lin, Meiqin; Dong, Zhaoxia; Li, Mingyuan; Zhang, Guiqing; Yang, Jie


    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic lighting scattering (DLS) and HAAKE rheometer experiments were adopted to investigate the shape, size and rheological properties of nanoscale polymer microspheres. Moreover, nuclear-pore film filtration, sand packed tube displacement, core displacement, micro-visual model and capillary flow experiments were used to study the mechanisms of deep profile control and oil displacement of nanoscale polymer microspheres. The results demonstrated that the original shape of the nanoscale polymer microspheres were typically spherical, ranging in size from 30 to 60 nm. When the microspheres were dispersed in water, their size increased by 3-6 times due to swelling and a poly-dispersed system appeared; however, the spherical conformation remained. Within a certain range of shear rates, a 100-900 mg/L microsphere dispersed system exhibited shear thickening behaviour, making it favourable for increasing the flow resistance of a displacement fluid. These polymer microspheres dispersed systems exhibited effective plugging on a nuclear pore film with 0.4-μm pores with deep plugging in the core; these systems also tended to plug the high permeability layer and drive crude oil from the low permeability layer in parallel sand packed tubes. Cross-linked polymer microspheres could reduce water permeability because the microspheres adsorbed, accumulated and bridged in the pore-throat, and the adsorbed layers would be collapsed under the pressure, entering deep into the reservoir due to the good deformation properties of the microspheres. Meanwhile these microspheres would drive crude oil on and in the pores/throats while they are transported in porous media, achieving deep profile control and oil displacement with the ultimate purpose of improving oil recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre-failure behaviour of an unstable limestone cliff from displacement and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Got


    Full Text Available We monitored the displacement and seismic activity of an unstable vertical rock slice in a natural limestone cliff of the southeast Vercors massif, southeast France, during the months preceding its collapse. Displacement measurements showed an average acceleration of the movement of its top, with clear increases in the displacement velocity and in the discrete seismic event production rate during periods where temperature falls, with more activity when rainfall or frost occurs. Crises of discrete seismic events produce high amplitudes in periodograms, but do not change the high frequency base noise level rate. We infer that these crises express the critical crack growth induced by water weakening (from water vapor condensation or rain of the rock strength rather than to a rapid change in applied stresses. Seismic noise analysis showed a steady increase in the high frequency base noise level and the emergence of spectral modes in the signal recorded by the sensor installed on the unstable rock slice during the weeks preceding the collapse. High frequency seismic noise base level seems to represent subcritical crack growth. It is a smooth and robust parameter whose variations are related to generalized changes in the rupture process. Drop of the seismic noise amplitude was concomitant with the emergence of spectral modes – that are compatible with high-order eigenmodes of the unstable rock slice – during the later stages of its instability. Seismic noise analysis, especially high frequency base noise level analysis may complement that of inverse displacement velocity in early-warning approaches when strong displacement fluctuations occur.

  6. Hybrid staging of a Lysholm positive displacement engine with two Westinghouse two stage impulse Curtis turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.A.


    The University of California at Berkeley has tested and modeled satisfactorly a hybrid staged Lysholm engine (positive displacement) with a two stage Curtis wheel turbine. The system operates in a stable manner over its operating range (0/1-3/1 water ratio, 120 psia input). Proposals are made for controlling interstage pressure with a partial admission turbine and volume expansion to control mass flow and pressure ratio for the Lysholm engine.

  7. Avulsions and intrusions: the controversial displacement injuries. (United States)

    Kenny, David J; Barrett, Edward J; Casas, Michael J


    Avulsions and intrusions are the most complicated and controversial displacement injuries of permanent teeth. Clinical guidelines published by authorities such as the American Association of Endodontists, the Royal College of Surgeons of England and the International Association of Dental Traumatology are inconsistent. While a certain amount of inconsistency might be expected, some of these guidelines recommend treatments that are experimental or have not incorporated research information from the past 5 years, and in one case the guidelines incorrectly describe the nature of Hank's balanced salt solution. Recent laboratory studies support previous clinical outcome studies in emphasizing that only for teeth replanted within 5 minutes of avulsion is there a chance of regeneration of the periodontal ligament and normal function. Teeth replanted beyond 5 minutes will take another path, that of repair followed by root resorption, ankylosis and eventual extraction. Dentists should explain these outcomes at the time of the replantation decision. Severe intrusions also have predictable outcomes. Teeth intruded beyond 6 mm cannot regenerate a functional periodontal ligament and so are prone to root resorption and eventual extraction as well. In this situation the decision is one of immediate extraction or repositioning, with the understanding that it is inevitable that the tooth will eventually be extracted. Authoritative clinical guidelines available on the Internet provide the clinician with useful outlines for treatment. However, individual inconsistencies stimulate academic controversies and, in some cases, clinical misdirection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Vindišar


    Full Text Available Background. The exact knowledge of the anatomic relations of the juvenile skeleton is of great importance for the determination of the injury and proper treatment. The treatment should be uniform and carried out in one act. Considering this facts the functional results are usually very good and no late sequel are recorded.Methods. In 5-years period 25 children with age 7 to 17 were treated with displaced fracture of ankle. The Salter-Harris classification (SHC was used. Children were classified in two groups. In first group (G-I 11 children were treated with closed reduction. Whole group was classified as type II fractures of SHC. In second group (G-II 14 children were treated operatively. 10 cases were type III, 2 cases were type IV of SHC and 2 were juvenil Tillaux fracture. In follow-up we registered the duration of immobilisation, non-weight bearing period, mobility and residual pain at the end of the treatment.Results. In G-I average non-weight bearing period was 10.4 weeks, in G-II only 7.8 weeks. At the end of the treatment in both groups very good functional results were achieved. There were no complications in operative group (G-II.Conclusions. Children relatively often suffer ankle injuries. With proper diagnosis and early adequate treatment the prognosis is good and no functional sequel were recorded.

  9. Mythic displacement in Nigerian narratives: An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Chukwumah


    Full Text Available Five decades of resorting to humanistic critical procedureshave bequeathed to the Nigerian critical practice the legacy ofexamining and discovering in Nigerian and African narrativesthe historical and social concepts of the time and times theyare presumed to posit. These concepts include colonialism,corruption, war, political instability, and culture conflict. Theseprocedures are undertaken without due regard to seeing the wholeof the literary tradition as a stream out of which narratives emerge.This article, therefore, by way of introduction, seeks to retrieveNigerian narratives from “every author” and humanistic criticalapproach by placing them in a realm where a holistic method suchas Frye’s could be applied. Here, the traverses of the structure ofmythical imagery such as the mythos of crime and punishmentas embodied in these narratives and how this structure wasdisplaced/shrouded from Frye’s first mimetic mode to the last, viathe concept of mythic displacement, will be analysed.

  10. Airbag roll marks & displaced rocks and soil (United States)


    Looking southwest from the lander, soil disturbances indicating the spacecraft rolled through the landing site are visible. Arriving from the east, the lander, still encased in its protective airbags, rolled up a slight rise and then rolled back down to its final position. The inset at left shows displaced rocks near the rock 'Flat Top.' Dark patches of disturbed soil indicate where the rocks had originally rested Both insets show rocks that were pushed into the soil from the weight of the lander, visible from the areas of raised rims of dark, disturbed soil around several rocks. The south summit of Twin Peaks is in the background, while a lander petal, deflated airbag, and rear rover deployment ramp are in the foreground.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  11. Problems in problem analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik


    The majority of literature on engineering design methods is focused on the processes of fulfilling the design goals as efficiently as possible. This paper will focus on - and discuss - the processes of determining the design goals: the specifications. The purpose is to draw attention to the inher...... to the inherent problems, dilemmas and possibilities in these processes bearing in mind that that the most important decisions in a design project are taken in the beginning of the project....

  12. Multiplanar CT assessment of femoral head displacement in slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monazzam, Shafagh [Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, Department of Orthopedics, San Diego, CA (United States); Dwek, Jerry R. [Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Hosalkar, Harish S. [Center for Hip Preservation, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, TriCity Medical Center, Oceanside, CA (United States)


    With recent changing approaches to the management of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), the accurate radiographic assessment of maximum extent of displacement is crucial for planning surgical treatment. To determine what plane best represents the maximum SCFE displacement as quantified by the head-neck angle difference (HNAD), whether HNAD can quantitatively differentiate the SCFE cohort from the normal cohort, based on CT, and how Southwick slip angle (SSA) compares to HNAD. We reviewed 19 children with SCFE (23 affected hips) with preoperative CT scans and 27 age- and sex-matched children undergoing abdominal CT for non-orthopedic problems. Head-neck angle (HNA), the angle between the femoral epiphysis and the neck axis, was measured in three planes on each hip and the HNAD (affected - unaffected hip) was determined. SSA was measured on radiographs. The coronal HNAD (mean 8.7 ) was less than both the axial-oblique (mean 30.7 ) and sagittal (mean 37.4 ) HNADs, which were also greater than the HNADs of the normal cohort. Grouping HNAD measurements by SSA severity classification did not consistently distinguish between SCFE severity levels. Axial-oblique and sagittal planes best represent the maximum SCFE displacement while biplanar radiograph may underestimate the extent of the displacement, thereby potentially altering the management between in situ pinning and capital realignment. (orig.)

  13. Balance Problems (United States)

    ... it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may also ... injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. ...

  14. Enhanced oil displacement by nanofluid's structural disjoining pressure in model fractured porous media. (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Ramakrishnan, T S; Nikolov, Alex; Wasan, Darsh


    Nanofluids for improved oil recovery has been demonstrated through laboratory corefloods. Despite numerous experimental studies, little is known about the efficacy of nanofluids in fractured systems. Here, we present studies of nanofluid injection in fractured porous media (both water-wet and oil-wet) formed by sintering borosilicate glass-beads around a dissolvable substrate. The fracture inside the porous medium is characterized and visualized using a high resolution X-ray microtomography. Based on a simple displacement theory, the nanofluid injection is conducted at a rate where structural disjoining pressure driven oil recovery is operational. An additional 23.8% oil was displaced using nanofluid after brine injection with an overall recovery efficiency of 90.4% provided the matrix was in its native wettability state. But only 6% additional oil was displaced by nanofluid following brine injection when the bead-pack was rendered oil-wet. Nanofluids appear to be a good candidate for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in fractured water-wet to weakly water-wet media but not necessarily for strongly oil-wet systems. Our laboratory studies enable us to understand limitations of nanofluids for improving oil recovery in fractured media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The displaced and dispossessed of Darfur: explaining the sources of a continuing state-led genocide. (United States)

    Hagan, John; Kaiser, Joshua


    The millions of survivors who fled from attacks to Sudanese-controlled displacement camps and the refugee camps in Chad are the living ghosts of the Darfur genocide. The 1948 Genocide Convention incorporates extermination by mass killing and elimination through forced migration as two distinct elements of genocide. Genocide scholars and public discourse emphasize extermination by killing, but they give far less explanatory attention to the elimination processes that the Genocide Convention describes as 'deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction'. (Article II United Nations 1948.) In Darfur, understanding the latter processes requires theoretical attention to the history of food, water, and famine and detailed methodological attention to temporal processes of displacement. We demonstrate how intentional state-led attacks on food and water massively dislodged Black Africans in Darfur from February 2003 to August 2004. The political leadership of the Sudanese state dehumanized and forcibly displaced Black Africans from their homes in Darfur to camps where they largely remain, not only through mass killings and rapes, but also by destroying life-sustaining access to food and water, leading to the genocidal elimination of group life in this region. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  16. Experimental Study on the Properties and Displacement Effects of Polymer Surfactant Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Liang Wang


    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of oil reservoirs and the requirements of further enhancing oil recovery at high water cut stage of Pubei Oilfield, the displacement performance of polymer surfactant is evaluated. Reasonable injection parameters and oil displacement effects after water flooding are also researched. Compared with conventional polymer with intermediate molecular weight, polymer surfactant has the properties of higher viscosity at low concentration condition and lower interfacial tension. Laboratory experiments indicate that the displacement effect of polymer surfactant is much better than that of conventional polymer at a slug size of 0.57 PV. The oil recovery of polymer surfactant increases by more than 10% after water flooding. Considering the actual situation of low-permeability of Pubei Oilfield reservoirs, the system viscosity of 30 mPa·s is chosen. The corresponding concentration of Type III polymer surfactant is 600 mg/L and the injected slug is 0.57 PV and the oil recovery can be increased by 11.69%.

  17. Displaced rocks, strong motion, and the mechanics of shallow faulting associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake (United States)

    Michael, Andrew J.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Stenner, Heidi D.


    The paucity of strong-motion stations near the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake makes it impossible to make instrumental studies of key questions about near-fault strong-motion patterns associated with this event. However, observations of displaced rocks allow a qualitative investigation of these problems. By observing the slope of the desert surface and the frictional coefficient between these rocks and the desert surface, we estimate the minimum horizontal acceleration needed to displace the rocks. Combining this information with observations of how many rocks were displaced in different areas near the fault, we infer the level of shaking. Given current empirical shaking attenuation relationships, the number of rocks that moved is slightly lower than expected; this implies that slightly lower than expected shaking occurred during the Hector Mine earthquake. Perhaps more importantly, stretches of the fault with 4 m of total displacement at the surface displaced few nearby rocks on 15?? slopes, suggesting that the horizontal accelerations were below 0.2g within meters of the fault scarp. This low level of shaking suggests that the shallow parts of this rupture did not produce strong accelerations. Finally, we did not observe an increased incidence of displaced rocks along the fault zone itself. This suggests that, despite observations of fault-zone-trapped waves generated by aftershocks of the Hector Mine earthquake, such waves were not an important factor in controlling peak ground acceleration during the mainshock.

  18. The use of crosshead displacement in determining fracture parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, C.L.; Voormeeren, L.O.; Janssen, M.


    In determining the fracture toughness of a test specimen, standards currently require either locally-measured load-line displacements or clip gage displacements. In order to measure these parameters, secondary sensors generally need to be installed and calibrated, which often comes at a higher cost.

  19. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra


    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately 2 million Iraqis who have been displaced within Iraq itself...

  20. Traumatisk diafragmaruptur med displacering af leveren til thorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, L.; Burcharth, F.


    We report a case of a traumatic diaphragmatic rupture with the liver displaced to the right hemithorax. MR diagnosed the rupture and the displacement of the liver. The patient was operated on and the total right diaphragmatic rupture was reconstructed by suturing. Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture ...

  1. A novel method for sensing rotational speed, linear displacement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    We further demonstrate that such HTSC based magnetic sensors are capable of sensing the rotational speed, small displacement and direct current with good resolution. The experimental methods and results obtained are discussed. Keywords. Magnetic sensor; superconductor; rotational speed sensor; displacement ...

  2. Assessing Interventions Available to Internally Displaced Persons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these ...

  3. Displacement, Outplacement, or Inplacement? Options for Business and Industry. (United States)

    Wiltzius, Thomas J.

    This report considers the differences among displacement, outplacement, and inplacement and looks at the risks, benefits, and costs of each. Displacement is defined as the termination of employment with little attention given to corporate or individual needs. Outplacement is defined as the pre-planned management of employee termination, addressing…

  4. Retention of Displaced Students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (United States)

    Coco, Joshua Christian


    The purpose of the study was to investigate the strategies that university leaders implemented to improve retention of displaced students in the aftermaths of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The universities that participated in this study admitted displaced students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. This study utilized a qualitative…

  5. Sideways displacement and curved path of recti eye muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); F. Harting (Friedrich); B.J. de Waal (Bob); B.W.J.M. Verbeeten (Ben)


    textabstractWe investigated the sideways displacement of recti muscles with the eye in various gaze-positions by making computed tomographic (CT) scans in a plane perpendicular to the muscle cone, posterior to the globe. We found no consistent sideways displacement of the horizontal recti in the up

  6. Displaced intra-uterine contraceptive device causing severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a common method of contraception in developing countries. Expulsion/displacement is a common complication of its use, occurring in 2-8 % of users per 100 women years. Two cases of menorrhagia resulting from displacement of Copper-T-380 IUCD to the cervical canal ...

  7. Learned Helplessness: A Factor in Counseling for Displaced Homemakers. (United States)

    Wood, Carolyn J.


    Describes learned helplessness and its effect on ability of displaced homemakers to enter or reenter the work force successfully. Suggests that success in making transition from homemaker to worker may depend on attributions women provide for their failed or ended marriages. Discusses ways in which counselors may assist displaced homemakers in…

  8. Effect of displaced versus non-displaced pelvic fractures on long-term racing performance in 31 Thoroughbred racehorses. (United States)

    Hennessy, S E; Muurlink, M A; Anderson, G A; Puksmann, T N; Whitton, R C


    To evaluate the long-term racing prognosis for Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced versus non-displaced fractures of the pelvis identified by scintigraphy. Retrospective case analysis. Medical records of 31 Thoroughbred racehorses presenting to the University of Melbourne Equine Centre with fractures of the pelvis that were identified by scintigraphy were reviewed. Pelvic fracture site was determined and defined as displaced or non-displaced based on ultrasound and/or radiographic findings. Race records were analysed for each horse, with a minimum of 24 months' follow-up, and correlated with fracture type to determine long-term prognosis for racing. Results are expressed as median and range. Fractures at a single site were more common (n = 22) than fractures involving two sites (n = 9) and the ilial wing was the most commonly affected (n = 12). Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced pelvic fractures at any site (n = 12) raced fewer times within 24 months of diagnosis than horses with non-displaced fractures (n = 19) (median 0.5, range 0-13 vs 7, 0-24; P = 0.037), but there was no clear statistical difference in race earnings between the two groups (median A$0, range A$0-$123,250 vs A$14,440, A$0-$325,500, respectively; P = 0.080). Four horses with displaced fractures (33%) were euthanased on humane grounds because of persistent severe pain. When these horses were excluded from the analysis, there were no differences in performance variables between horses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture. Thoroughbred racehorses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture that survive the initial post-injury period have a good prognosis for racing. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. Diagnosing displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Bagger, Jens; Sylvest, Annette


    Displaced four-part fractures comprise 2-10 % of all proximal humeral fractures. The optimal treatment is unclear and randomised trials are needed. The conduct and interpretation of such trials is facilitated by a reproducible fracture classification. We aimed at quantifying observer agreement...... on the classification of displaced four-part fractures according to the Neer system. Published and unpublished data from five observer studies were reviewed. Observers agreed less on displaced four-part fractures than on the overall Neer classification. Mean kappa values for interobserver agreement ranged from 0.......16 to 0.48. Specialists agreed slightly more than fellows and residents. Advanced imaging modalities (CT and 3D CT) seemed to contribute more to classification of displaced four-part patterns than in less complex fracture patterns. Low observer agreement may challenge the clinical approach to displaced...

  10. Land Restitution and Prevention of Forced Displacement in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gómez-Isa


    Full Text Available The armed conflict in Colombia, which has generated over three million internally displaced persons, has dramatic humanitarian consequences and raises serious issues regarding the protection of displaced peoples’ rights. The underlying reasons for the displacement often lie in the dynamics associated with territorial control and land seizures undertaken for strategic, military or purely economic purposes. Domestic and international legal provisions have established the victims’ right to the restitution of their homes and property as the “preferred remedy” in cases of displacement. However, policies dealing with displacement, both those of the Colombian government and of several international institutions, fail to take this sufficiently into account. A comprehensive reparation policy for victims must necessarily entail the reversion of lands, territories and goods seized in Colombia under the pretext of the internal armed conflict.

  11. Performance of ductless personalized ventilation in conjunction with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Vesely, Michal


    The performance of ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation was studied and compared with displacement ventilation alone and mixing ventilation. Thirty subjects were exposed in a climate chamber to environmental conditions representing three levels...... perception of the environment. The subjects could control the position of the DPV supply diffuser and the personalized air flow (air velocity). The use of DPV improved perceived air quality and thermal comfort compared to displacement ventilation alone. At 26 °C and 29 °C the percentage dissatisfied with air...... movement decreased with DPV compared to corresponding conditions with displacement ventilation alone and reached the same level as mixing or displacement ventilation at 23 °C. Subjects were able to control the volume and speed of the personalized air flow in order to avoid eye irritation. However...

  12. Human response to ductless personalized ventilation coupled with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Veselý, Michal; Melikov, Arsen K.


    A human subject experiment was carried out to investigate the extent to which ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation can improve perceived air quality (PAQ) and thermal comfort at elevated room air temperature in comparison with displacement ventilation...... alone. The experimental conditions comprised displacement ventilation alone (room air temperature of 23 °C, 26 °C, 29 °C) and DPV with displacement ventilation (26 °C, 29 °C), both operating at supply air temperatures 3, 5 or 6K lower than room air temperature, as well as mixing ventilation (23 °C, 3 K......). During one hour exposure participants answered questionnaires regarding PAQ and thermal comfort. PAQ was significantly better with DPV than without DPV at the same background conditions. Thermal comfort improved when DPV was used. Combining DPV with displacement ventilation showed the potential...

  13. Perceived Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In a displacement ventilated room the non-uniform contaminant distribution causes an improved indoor air quality in the occupied zone compared with conventional mixing ventilation. This has been demonstrated in numerous studies by chemical measurements. In this study the air quality in a displace......In a displacement ventilated room the non-uniform contaminant distribution causes an improved indoor air quality in the occupied zone compared with conventional mixing ventilation. This has been demonstrated in numerous studies by chemical measurements. In this study the air quality...... in a displacement ventilated room was determined directly by asking humans about how they perceived the air quality. A trained sensory panel comprising 12 subjects assessed the perceived air quality immediately after entering a climate chamber. The experiments showed that the perceived air quality...... in the displacement ventilated chamber was substantially better than in the case of mixing ventilation....

  14. Large scale intender test program to measure sub gouge displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, Ken; Lopez, Juan [Golder Associates Inc, Houston, TX (United States); Sancio, Rodolfo [MMI Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)


    The production of submarine pipelines in an offshore environment covered with ice is very challenging. Several precautions must be taken such as burying the pipelines to protect them from ice movement caused by gouging. The estimation of the subgouge displacements is a key factor in pipeline design for ice gouged environments. This paper investigated a method to measure subgouge displacements. An experimental program was implemented in an open field to produce large scale idealized gouges on engineered soil beds (sand and clay). The horizontal force required to produce the gouge, the subgouge displacements in the soil and the strain imposed by these displacements were monitored on a buried model pipeline. The results showed that for a given keel, the gouge depth was inversely proportional to undrained shear strength in clay. The subgouge displacements measured did not show a relationship with the gouge depth, width or soil density in sand and clay tests.

  15. Displacement operators: the classical face of their quantum phase (United States)

    Vutha, Amar C.; Bohr, Eliot A.; Ransford, Anthony; Campbell, Wesley C.; Hamilton, Paul


    In quantum mechanics, the operator representing the displacement of a system in position or momentum is always accompanied by a path-dependent phase factor. In particular, two non-parallel displacements in phase space do not compose together in a simple way, and the order of these displacements leads to different displacement composition phase factors. These phase factors are often attributed to the nonzero commutator between quantum position and momentum operators, but such a mathematical explanation might be unsatisfactory to students who are after more physical insight. We present a couple of simple demonstrations, using classical wave mechanics and classical particle mechanics, that provide some physical intuition for the phase associated with displacement operators.

  16. Displacement ventilation and passive cooling strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, P.; Bekker, B. [PJCarew Consulting, Cape Town (South Africa)


    Displacement ventilation (DV) is widely used a passive cooling strategy because it requires less air supply for cooling compared to conventional mixing ventilation (MV). DV introduces air at low level and low velocity, and at high supply air temperature, usually around 18 degrees C. The slightly cooler air runs along the floor of a room until it reaches a heat load. The heat load induces a plume of warmer air that rises due to lower density. This induces stratification in room temperature with the occupied area of the room. The air near the ceiling is continually exhausted to prevent a build up of warm air into the occupied zone. This paper demonstrated the impacts of using DV in comparison to MV on the peak capacity, size and humidity levels associated with various passive cooling strategies, informed by the ASHRAE DV guidelines. A generic office building in Johannesburg, South Africa, was used as a model. The paper illustrated the extent to which DV can be used as a passive cooling strategy in spaces that were previously considered as having too high a heat load when calculated using MV system guidelines. A comparison of DV and MV also highlighted the risk of over-design when conventional MV guidelines are used to design cooling sources for DV applications. The DV was shown to significantly lower the amount of supply air needed to serve a room's heat load when compared to MV at the same temperatures. This reduction in air supply impacts the feasibility of using passive cooling strategies in evaporative cooling, 2-stage evaporative cooling, thermal storage and air to ground heat exchangers. However, passive cooling strategies are unlikely to be widely implemented until design guidelines are created by organizations such as ASHRAE. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  17. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh


    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  18. Surgical treatment of displaced acetabular fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Saša


    Full Text Available Introduction. Acetabular fractures are severe injuries, generally caused by high-energy trauma, most frequently from traffic accidents or falls from heights. Fractures of the extremities, head injuries, chest, abdomen and pelvic ring injuries are most commonly associated injuries. Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures. The open anatomical reduction of the articular surface combined with a rigid internal fixation and early mobilisation have become the standard treatment of these injuries. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 22 patients of average age 43.13 years. The patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation at the Orthopaedic Clinic of Niš from 2005-2009. The follow-up was 12 to 60 months, with the average of 21.18 months after surgery. Results. All injured patients were operated on between 4 and 11 days (5.7 days on the average. According to the classification by Judet and Letournel, 15 (68.18% patients had an elementary acetabular fracture, whereas 7 (31.82% patients had associated fracture. A satisfactory postoperative reduction implying less than 2 mm of displacement was achieved in 19 (86.36% patients. The radiological status of the hip joint, determined according to Matta score, was excellent in 15 (68.18% patients, good in 4 (18.18% patients and moderate in 3 (13.63% patients. According to Merle d’Aubigné Scale, the final functional results of the treatment of all operated patients were excellent in 12 (54.54% patients, good in 7 (31.81% patients and moderate in 3 (13.63% patients. Conclusion. Surgical treatment of dislocated acetabular fractures requires an open reduction and a stable internal fixation. Excellent and good results can be expected only if anatomical reduction and stable internal fixation are achieved.

  19. Relationship between Class III malocclusion and hyoid bone displacement during swallowing: a cine-magnetic resonance imaging study. (United States)

    Gokce, Sila Mermut; Gokce, Hasan Suat; Gorgulu, Serkan; Karacay, Seniz; Akca, Eralp; Olmez, Huseyin


    The displacement of the hyoid bone (HB) is a critical biomechanical component of the swallowing function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the swallowing-induced vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB in subjects with 2 different magnitudes of skeletal Class III malocclusion, by means of real-time, balanced turbo-field-echo (B-TFE) cine-magnetic resonance imaging. The study population comprised 19 patients with mild skeletal Class III malocclusion, 16 with severe skeletal Class III malocclusion, and 20 with a skeletal Class I relationship. Before the commencement of the study, all subjects underwent cephalometric analysis to identify the nature of skeletal malformations. B-TFE images were obtained for the 4 consecutive stages of deglutition as each patient swallowed 10 mL of water, and the vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB were measured at each stage. At all stages of swallowing, the vertical position of the HB in the severe Class III malocclusion group was significantly lower than those in the mild Class III and Class I malocclusion groups. Similarly, the horizontal displacement of the HB was found to be significantly associated with the severity of malocclusion, i.e., the degree of Class III malocclusion, while the amount of anterior displacement of the HB decreased with an increase in the severity of the Class III deformity. Our findings indicate the existence of a relationship between the magnitude of Class III malocclusion and HB displacement during swallowing.

  20. Comparison of low cost materials to remove fluoride from drinking water in Sri Lanka; Response to health problems associated with contiguous hydrogeochemistry (United States)

    Vithanage, M. S.; Randiligama, S.


    Considering medical geology, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), dental and skeletal fluorosis is emerging as major health problems in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. In the year of 2008, over 5,000 patients were under treatment for renal failure in the North Central Province. Large number of cases has been found with the dental fluorosis while few skeletal fluorosis is also reported. Recent research carried out in the CKD prevalent areas also demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between fluoride-rich areas and the high incidence of CKD. In some areas fluoride in drinking water reported as high as 9-10 ppm where the WHO maximum permissible limit is 1.5 ppm. Therefore, it is essential to remove excessive fluoride from water before drinking. This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of low cost and locally available filter materials to be used easily in household filters. Batch experiments were carried out for different fluoride loadings (10, 20 and 50 ppm) and time for diverse adsorbents such as laterite, bricks, charcoal, serpentine, tile, quartz, marble and white clay balls (impure kaolinite) based on the adsorption technique. It was found that untreated charcoal and quartz have no effect on defluoridation and local bricks as well as marble demonstrated less defluoridation ability i.e. 28.83% and 12.7% respectively. White clay and laterite showed higher adsorption efficiency than tile chips and serpentinite. When consider adsorption amounts white clay, laterite and serpentinite exhibited 96.0%, 94.25% and 93.54% % respectively for 10 ppm initial concentration of fluoride. For the rest adsorbate loadings it showed similar behavior with more than 90 % adsorption. Most of the materials attend to equilibrium after 60 minutes. The presence of aluminium and iron oxides would place these materials on top of the better adsorbent list. Column experiments, effect of temperature on the adsorbents and modeling are under investigation for white clay

  1. [Unanticipated endotracheal tube displacement in a short-neck patient with a history of chronic rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison of three kinds of endotracheal tubes]. (United States)

    Takara, Itaru; Fukuda, Akiko; Koja, Hiroki; Tomiyama, Hiroshi; Tokumine, Joho; Sugahara, Kazuhiro


    Endotracheal tubes are known to have a risk of being displaced at neck extension or flexion or rotation. However, the displacement seldom causes clinical problems. An 74-year-old patient suffering from chronic rheumatoid arthritis underwent debridement in the infected knee under general anesthesia. Mechanical ventilation had to be continued because of poor oxygenation after the operation. She had been intubated with Hi Lo Evac endotracheal tube (HLE) for 3 days, then extubated. However, she again needed mechanical ventilation because of aggravated oxygenation. At that time, Profile cuff siliconised endotracheal tube (PCS) was placed for 3 days. We encountered dangerous displacement of HLE during the first mechanical ventilation, but did not have any clinically dangerous displacement of PCS during the second mechanical ventilation. Therefore, we compared the hardness of the three popular endotracheal tubes. We found the hardness of HLE was higher than the others. This might be one of the reasons for dangerous displacement of the endotracheal tube in our case.

  2. Long-Time Mean Square Displacements in Proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Vural, Derya; Smith, Jeremy C; Glyde, Henry R


    We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic, long time mean square displacement (MSD) of atoms and molecules in proteins from finite time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Typical data from simulations are limited to times of 1 to 10 ns and over this time period the calculated MSD continues to increase without a clear limiting value. The proposed method consists of fitting a model to MD simulation-derived values of the incoherent intermediate neutron scattering function, $I_{inc}(Q,t)$, for finite times. The infinite time MSD, $$, appears as a parameter in the model and is determined by fits of the model to the finite time $I_{inc}(Q,t)$. Specifically, the $$ is defined in the usual way in terms of the Debye-Waller factor as $I(Q,t = \\infty) = \\exp(- Q^2 /3)$. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD $$ of hydrated lysozyme powder (h = 0.4 g water/g protein) over a wide temperature range. The intrinsic $$ obtained from data out to 1 ns and to 10 ns is found to be the same. The intrinsi...

  3. New multifunctional polymeric additives for water based fluids to be used in drilling of wells with extensive horizontal displacement in ultra deep water; Novos aditivos polimericos multifuncionais para fluidos de base aquosa a serem utilizados na perfuracao de pocos de grande afastamento horizontal em aguas ultraprofundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Junior, Jorge de Almeida; Lachter, Elizabeth Roditi; Nascimento, Regina Sandra Veiga [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica], e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:


    This work presents the development of a new class of polymeric additives for water based muds (WBM), that show simultaneously several properties for good performance, being ecologically correct and of low cost. The additives were obtained through the chemical modification of hydrophilic polymers by coupling different hydrophobic segments to the polymeric chains. The rheological analysis of aqueous systems of the products showed a pseudoplastic behavior, and it is suggested a model to explain the obtained results. A series of drilling fluids was formulated with the best systems. The developed additives successfully played the functions of rheology modifiers, shale inhibitors, filtrate reducers and lubricants, leading to excellent results at low pressure and low temperature (LPLT) conditions. (author)

  4. Evaluator Concerns Arising from Ideal Displacement. (United States)

    Beach, Robert H.

    The making of a decision implies a choice between competing alternative solutions. In a decision-making context including multiple criteria, the criteria (or their related variables) are placed in relation to each other. This provides a comparison to some fixed point or origin, reducing the problem to one which can be solved by optimization as in…

  5. The impact of internal displacement on child mortality in post-earthquake Haiti: a difference-in-differences analysis. (United States)

    Chen, Bradley; Halliday, Timothy J; Fan, Victoria Y


    The Haiti earthquake in 2010 resulted in 1.5 million internally displaced people (IDP), yet little is known about the impact of displacement on health. In this study, we estimate the impact of displacement on infant and child mortality and key health-behavior mechanisms. We employ a difference-in-differences (DID) design with coarsened exact matching (CEM) to ensure comparability among groups with different displacement status using the 2012 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The participants are 21,417 births reported by a nationally representative sample of 14,287 women aged 15-49. The main independent variables are household displacement status which includes households living in camps, IDP households (not in camps), and households not displaced. The main outcomes are infant and child mortality; health status (height-for-age, anemia); uptake of public health interventions (bed net use, spraying against mosquitoes, and vaccinations); and other conditions (hunger; cholera). Births from the camp households have higher infant mortality (OR = 2.34, 95 % CI 1.15 to 4.75) and child mortality (OR = 2.34, 95 % CI 1.10 to 5.00) than those in non-camp IDP households following the earthquake. These odds are higher despite better access to food, water, bed net use, mosquito spraying, and vaccines among camp households. IDP populations are heterogeneous and households that are displaced outside of camps may be self-selected or self-insured. Meanwhile, even households not displaced by a disaster may face challenges in access to basic necessities and health services. Efforts are needed to identify vulnerable populations to provide targeted assistance in post-disaster relief.

  6. Displacement of Morphological Characters of Barbodes gonionotus at Serpeng Cave Lake, Gunungkidul




    Serpeng cave lake is located inside a cave that is isolated from any waters outside the cave, and the lake is located about 96 meters down under the ground surface. The isolated waters in the lake have also resulted in the isolation of the fishes from any other fish populations outside the cave. The objective of the study was to know how the displacement of morphological character occurred on a group of fish suspected belong to Barbodes gonionotus lived in Serpeng lake based on the observatio...

  7. Displacement of thiamine pyrophosphate from swollen mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dianzani, M.U.; Dianzani Mor, M.A.


    The distribution of TPP in cytoplasm fractions of rat liver is studied. When the homogenate was prepared with 0.25M sucrose, about 300% of TPP was present in mitochondria. When the homogenization medium was distilled water, the amount of TPP present in this fraction was markedly decreased, while

  8. Ankle Problems (United States)

    ... Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Neck Pain Neck Swelling Shortness of Breath Shortness of Breath in Infants and Children Shoulder Problems Skin Rashes & Other Skin Problems Throat Problems Tooth Problems Urination Problems Back to Symptoms Step 2 Answering Questions Did you begin to ...

  9. Urination Problems (United States)

    ... Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Neck Pain Neck Swelling Shortness of Breath Shortness of Breath in Infants and Children Shoulder Problems Skin Rashes & Other Skin Problems Throat Problems Tooth Problems Urination Problems Back to Symptoms Step 2 Answering Questions Do you have pain ...

  10. Knee Problems (United States)

    ... Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Neck Pain Neck Swelling Shortness of Breath Shortness of Breath in Infants and Children Shoulder Problems Skin Rashes & Other Skin Problems Throat Problems Tooth Problems Urination Problems Back to Symptoms Step 2 Answering Questions Did your knee pain ...

  11. Surgical Management of Accidentally Displaced Mandibular Third Molar into the Pterygomandibular Space: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Yueh Huang


    Full Text Available Surgical removal of the mandibular third molar is a regular surgical procedure in dental clinics, and like all operations, it may have some complications, such as infection, bleeding, nerve injuries, trismus and so on. An accidentally displaced lower third molar is a relatively rare complication, but may cause severe tissue injury and medicolegal problems. As few papers and cases have been published on this topic, we report this case to remind dentists on ways to prevent and manage this complication. The patient, a 28-year-old male, had his right lower mandibular third molar extraction in January 2006. The dentist resected the crown and attempted to remove the root but found that it had suddenly disappeared from the socket. Assuming that the root had been suctioned out he closed the wound. The patient was not followed up regularly because he studied abroad. About 3 months later, the patient felt a foreign body sensation over his right throat, and visited a local hospital in Australia. He was told after a computed tomography (CT scan that there was a root-like radio-opaque image in the pterygomandibular space. The patient came to our hospital for further examination and management in June 2006. We rechecked with both Panorex and CT and confirmed the location of the displaced root. Surgery for retrieving the displaced root was performed under general anesthesia by conventional method without difficulty, and the wound healed uneventfully except for a temporary numbness of the right tongue. This case reminds us that the best way to prevent a displaced mandibular third molar is to evaluate the condition of the tooth carefully preoperatively, select adequate instruments and technique, and take good care during extraction. If an accident does occur, dentists should decide whether to retrieve it immediately by themselves or refer the case to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, and should not try to remove the displaced root without proper assurance

  12. Contribution to the Problem of Forecasting the Mineral Content and Chemical Composition of Reservoir Water (K Voprosy o Prognozirovanii Mineralizatsii i Khimicheskogo Sostava), (United States)


    Vcir +~ V&i • I’ • ~+ v, where B=~I _ _ (~,,_) , and a is the ratio of the water mineral con- tent in the ice to the minera l content of the water from...possible to determine the minera l content of reservoir water not only near its dam but at any point of the reservoir if the water volumes at the

  13. Assessment of strain effect of strong-motion (focus zones of earthquakes on earth's surface displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh.L. Khamidov


    Full Text Available Strain effect of focal zones on fore-seismic displacements of earth's surface is studied in the paper for real conditions of focus zones of the earthquakes. The width of the interval of maximum displacements is determined by the conditions of potential focus of tectonic earthquake. The solution of elastic problem for half-space with soft inclusion is used. Calculations are conducted also by empirical formulas, obtained for similar stress states. Possible radius of the zone of maximum revelation of strain anomaly is determined on the basis of the growth of rupture scale and change in heterogeneity volume. It is shown that obtained expression covers a wider range of magnitude variations with consideration of the interval of scale change in upcoming rupture-forming zone. In the example of Tashkent (1966 and Gazli (1984 strong ground motions, an analysis of possible strains occurrence on the Earth's surface was conducted.

  14. Simulation of coupled flow and mechanical deformation using IMplicit Pressure-Displacement Explicit Saturation (IMPDES) scheme

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed


    The problem of coupled structural deformation with two-phase flow in porous media is solved numerically using cellcentered finite difference (CCFD) method. In order to solve the system of governed partial differential equations, the implicit pressure explicit saturation (IMPES) scheme that governs flow equations is combined with the the implicit displacement scheme. The combined scheme may be called IMplicit Pressure-Displacement Explicit Saturation (IMPDES). The pressure distribution for each cell along the entire domain is given by the implicit difference equation. Also, the deformation equations are discretized implicitly. Using the obtained pressure, velocity is evaluated explicitly, while, using the upwind scheme, the saturation is obtained explicitly. Moreover, the stability analysis of the present scheme has been introduced and the stability condition is determined.

  15. Study on measuring vibration displacement by shear interference based on sinusoidal phase modulation (United States)

    He, Guotian; Tang, Feng; Song, Li; Jiang, Helun


    The semiconductor laser (LD) Taimangelin interferometer based on sinusoidal phase modulation is vulnerable to external vibration, temperature changes, vibration, and other air interference which causes great measurement error. This paper presents a new semiconductor laser sinusoidal phase modulation shear interference technology and anti-jamming wavelet transform algorithm which is not sensitive to environment interference. It changes the original optical technology in the plane mirror to three pyramid-shear, causing a certain amount of displacement of reference light and object light. and partial use of high resolution wavelet transform algorithm solves the problem in measuring the vibration displacement of measured object..Vibration shear interferometry expression is launched, and theoretically discusses the measurement principle. Using MATLAB before and after the improvement of the methods to simulate contrast obtains the impact of shear volume size on measurement accuracy with experimental test. Experimental results show that it effectively reduces the impact of outside interference on measurement accuracy.

  16. A Vision-Based Sensor for Noncontact Structural Displacement Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Feng


    Full Text Available Conventional displacement sensors have limitations in practical applications. This paper develops a vision sensor system for remote measurement of structural displacements. An advanced template matching algorithm, referred to as the upsampled cross correlation, is adopted and further developed into a software package for real-time displacement extraction from video images. By simply adjusting the upsampling factor, better subpixel resolution can be easily achieved to improve the measurement accuracy. The performance of the vision sensor is first evaluated through a laboratory shaking table test of a frame structure, in which the displacements at all the floors are measured by using one camera to track either high-contrast artificial targets or low-contrast natural targets on the structural surface such as bolts and nuts. Satisfactory agreements are observed between the displacements measured by the single camera and those measured by high-performance laser displacement sensors. Then field tests are carried out on a railway bridge and a pedestrian bridge, through which the accuracy of the vision sensor in both time and frequency domains is further confirmed in realistic field environments. Significant advantages of the noncontact vision sensor include its low cost, ease of operation, and flexibility to extract structural displacement at any point from a single measurement.

  17. Development of a wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration responses. (United States)

    Park, Jong-Woong; Sim, Sung-Han; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Spencer, Billie F


    Displacement measurements are useful information for various engineering applications such as structural health monitoring (SHM), earthquake engineering and system identification. Most existing displacement measurement methods are costly, labor-intensive, and have difficulties particularly when applying to full-scale civil structures because the methods require stationary reference points. Indirect estimation methods converting acceleration to displacement can be a good alternative as acceleration transducers are generally cost-effective, easy to install, and have low noise. However, the application of acceleration-based methods to full-scale civil structures such as long span bridges is challenging due to the need to install cables to connect the sensors to a base station. This article proposes a low-cost wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration. Developed with smart sensors that are low-cost, wireless, and capable of on-board computation, the wireless displacement measurement system has significant potential to impact many applications that need displacement information at multiple locations of a structure. The system implements an FIR-filter type displacement estimation algorithm that can remove low frequency drifts typically caused by numerical integration of discrete acceleration signals. To verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed system, laboratory tests are carried out using a shaking table and on a three storey shear building model, experimentally confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  18. Out-of-plane displacement field measurement by shearography (United States)

    Bai, Pengxiang; Zhu, Feipeng; He, Xiaoyuan


    Existing shearography systems measuring out-of-plane displacements suffer from boundary-constraint or reference surface requirements. Therefore, we propose an accurate non-uniform out-of-plane displacement field measurement method based on a modified shearography system and two-step integration method. The proposed method combines high-resolution interferometry with the advantage of relaxing the environmental stability requirements. The modified shearography system adopts three beam splitters and two switches when compared with conventional optical configurations. The three beam splitters are used to construct a modified Michelson interferometer that shears the image along two orthogonal directions, and the shearing direction can be switched by the two hardware switches between the orthogonal directions. With phase shifting performed on the recorded images, the out-of-plane displacement gradients along the orthogonal directions are extracted sequentially. In general, without boundary restrictions on the object surface, it is difficult to directly extract out-of-plane displacement from a single displacement gradient field. Accordingly, the two-step integration method is proposed and applied to the orthogonal displacement gradients to extract the relative out-of-plane displacement field without any boundary conditions of the object surface provided. Experiments are performed on a clamped circular plate with uniform loading, and the results are compared with electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) results to validate the proposed method.

  19. Downward finger displacement distinguishes Parkinson disease dementia from Alzheimer disease. (United States)

    Lieberman, Abraham; Deep, Aman; Shi, Jiong; Dhall, Rohit; Shafer, Saulena; Moguel-Cobos, Guillermo; Dhillon, Ravneet; Frames, Christopher W; McCauley, Margaret


    Purpose/Aim of the study: To study finger displacement in patients with Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). We examined 56 patients with PDD and 35 with AD. Patients were examined during their regular outpatient clinic visit. Finger displacement was measured by observers not actively involved in the study using a creative grid ruler for all PDD and AD patients. Finger displacement was examined by asking patients to point their index fingers toward the grid ruler with the nails facing upward. Patients were asked to maintain the pointing position for 15 s. After 15 s, patients were asked to close their eyes for another 15 s while maintaining the same position. A positive result was downward index finger displacement of ≥5 cm within the 15-second time window with eyes closed. Of the 56 PDD patients, 53 had bilateral finger displacement of >5 cm. In comparison, of the 35 AD patients, only 1 patient had minimal displacement. Results of the non-invasive finger displacement test may provide insight, on an outpatient basis, of the integrity of subcortical-cortical circuits. Downward finger displacement, especially bilateral downward displacement, may signal the extensive disruption of subcortical-cortical circuits that occurs in PDD patients. AChE: acetylcholinesterase; AD: Alzheimer disease; DLB: dementia with Lewy bodies; ET: essential tremor; MDS-UPDRS: Movement Disorder Society-sponsored Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination; PD: Parkinson disease; PDD: Parkinson disease dementia.

  20. Speech Problems (United States)

    ... Plan Hot Topics Flu Facts Arrhythmias Abuse Speech Problems KidsHealth > For Teens > Speech Problems Print A A ... form speech sounds into words. What Causes Speech Problems? Normal speech might seem effortless, but it's actually ...

  1. Analytical mechanics solutions to problems in classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Merches, Ioan


    Fundamentals of Analytical Mechanics Constraints Classification Criteria for Constraints The Fundamental Dynamical Problem for a Constrained Particle System of Particles Subject to Constraints Lagrange Equations of the First KindElementary Displacements Generalities Real, Possible and Virtual Displacements Virtual Work and Connected Principles Principle of Virtual WorkPrinciple of Virtual Velocities Torricelli's Principle Principles of Analytical Mechanics D'alembert's Principle Configuration Space Generalized Forces Hamilton's Principle The Simple Pendulum Problem Classical (Newtonian) Formal

  2. Fast, Approximate Solutions for 1D Multicomponent Gas Injection Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kristian; Wang, Yun; Ermakov, Pavel


    This paper presents a new approach for constructing approximate analytical solutions for ID, multicomponent gas displacement problems. The solution to mass conservation equations governing ID dispersion-free flow in which components partition between two equilibrium phases is controlled by the ge......This paper presents a new approach for constructing approximate analytical solutions for ID, multicomponent gas displacement problems. The solution to mass conservation equations governing ID dispersion-free flow in which components partition between two equilibrium phases is controlled...

  3. ROV overcomes deepwater problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisbie, F.R.; Hughes, E.W.


    The use of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in supportive drill ships operating in more than 200 meters of water poses severe technical and operational problems. Defining these problems beforehand and addressing them during design, manufacture, testing and installation ensures a functional and effective support capability. Such problems as the availability of desk space, and the subsequent installation, maintenance, and the launch/recovery of the system are described.

  4. Acoustic displacement triangle based on the individual element test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Correa

    Full Text Available A three node -displacement based- acoustic element is developed. In order to avoid spurious rotational modes, a higher order stiffness is introduced. This higher order stiffness is developed from an incompatible strain field which computes element volume changes under nodal rotational displacements fields. The higher order strain resulting from the incompatible strain field satisfies the Individual Element Test (IET requirements without affecting convergence. The higher order stiffness is modulated, element by element, with a factor. As a result, the displacement based formulation presented on this paper is capable of placing the spurious rotational modes above the range of the physical compressional modes that can be accurately calculated by the mesh.

  5. Livelihood patterns of displaced households in greater khartoum. (United States)

    Hamid, G M


    Members of impoverished households in Greater Khartoum, who have been displaced from their homelands by famine and civil war, gain a livelihood by utilising a wide variety of subsistence activities and sources. These include moonlighting, income diversification and pooling, exchange relations, scavenging, relief supplies from aid agencies and remittances from relatives working in other areas. This finding challenges the widely held view of the displaced as dependent and parasitic on the wider urban community. Several public policies are identified which have a detrimental effect on the livelihood of the displaced.

  6. Helium vs. Proton Induced Displacement Damage in Electronic Materials (United States)

    Ringo, Sawnese; Barghouty, A. F.


    In this project, the specific effects of displacement damage due to the passage of protons and helium nuclei on some typical electronic materials will be evaluated and contrasted. As the electronic material absorbs the energetic proton and helium momentum, degradation of performance occurs, eventually leading to overall failure. Helium nuclei traveling at the same speed as protons are expected to impart more to the material displacement damage; due to the larger mass, and thus momentum, of helium nuclei compared to protons. Damage due to displacement of atoms in their crystalline structure can change the physical properties and hence performance of the electronic materials.

  7. Displaced vertices from pseudo-Dirac dark matter (United States)

    Davoli, Alessandro; De Simone, Andrea; Jacques, Thomas; Sanz, Verónica


    Displaced vertices are relatively unusual signatures for dark matter searches at the LHC. We revisit the model of pseudo-Dirac dark matter (pDDM), which can accommodate the correct relic density, evade direct detection constraints, and generically provide observable collider signatures in the form of displaced vertices. We use this model as a benchmark to illustrate the general techniques involved in the analysis, the complementarity between monojet and displaced vertex searches, and provide a comprehensive study of the current bounds and prospective reach.

  8. The first derivative of the carotid displacement pulse. (United States)

    Khan, A. H.; Spodick, D. H.


    The amplitude and time relationships of the carotid derivative in normal individuals and unselected cardiac patients is investigated together with the effects of different contraction strengths in patients with pulsus alternans and subjects challenged with isoproterenol and propranolol. Data regarding the relationship between the preejection period (PEP) and the ratio of peak to total amplitude of the carotid displacement pulse derivative are presented. It is found that cardiac abnormality tends to reduce the rate of rise of the carotid displacement pulse. The results obtained show that the PEP is a somewhat more sensitive index of the changes studied than the carotid displacement derivative.

  9. A capacitive displacement sensing technique for early detection of unbalanced loads in a washing machine. (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, Melur K; Tiruthani, Karthik


    Horizontal axis washing machines are water and energy efficient and becoming popular in the USA. Unlike a vertical axis washer, these do not have an agitator and depend solely on tumbling for the agitation of laundry during the wash cycle. However, due to the constant shifting of laundry during washing, the load distribution is often unbalanced during the high speed spin cycle. We present a displacement-based sensing method to detect unbalance early while the spin rate (rpm) is well below the resonance frequency so that corrective actions may be taken prior to the high speed spin cycle. Experimental and analytical characterizations of the sensor configuration are presented. Results show that the displacement sensor is more appropriate than an accelerometer for this application and offer the potential for a simple, reliable, low cost detection of unbalance.

  10. A Capacitive Displacement Sensing Technique for Early Detection of Unbalanced Loads in a Washing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Tiruthani


    Full Text Available Horizontal axis washing machines are water and energy efficient and becoming popular in the USA. Unlike a vertical axis washer, these do not have an agitator and depend solely on tumbling for the agitation of laundry during the wash cycle. However, due to the constant shifting of laundry during washing, the load distribution is often unbalanced during the high speed spin cycle. We present a displacement-based sensing method to detect unbalance early while the spin rate (rpm is well below the resonance frequency so that corrective actions may be taken prior to the high speed spin cycle. Experimental and analytical characterizations of the sensor configuration are presented. Results show that the displacement sensor is more appropriate than an accelerometer for this application and offer the potential for a simple, reliable, low cost detection of unbalance.

  11. Experimental study of displacement of one liquid by another in a cylindrical capillary (United States)

    Velizhanin, A. A.; Simonov, O. A.


    The single-phase flow of liquids (water and oil) in microchannels is experimentally researched, as well as the process of displacement of one liquid by another. Automatic measurements of a pressure drop, and mass of liquid which passed through a microchannel were made. Photo and video recording of the movement of the fronts of displacement was carried out. Qualitative and numerical data allowing to describe character of single-phase and two-phase flow are obtained. Comparison with the theoretical description of correspondence flows was carried out. It is established that the main characteristics of a flow through a capillary constantly change in the course of the experiment that testifies to his non-stationary character.

  12. Topology optimization of acoustic-structure interaction problems using a mixed finite element formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Sigmund, Ole


    The paper presents a gradient-based topology optimization formulation that allows to solve acoustic-structure (vibro-acoustic) interaction problems without explicit boundary interface representation. In acoustic-structure interaction problems, the pressure and displacement fields are governed...

  13. Therapeutic outcome assessment in permanent temporomandibular joint disc displacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropmans, TJB; Dijkstra, PU; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    In permanent temporomandibular disc displacement (TMJ-DD) outcome studies many authors claim positive effects of arthroscopic surgery, arthrocentesis and physical therapy. This literature review was undertaken to analyse whether the claimed effects are based on acceptable methodology. The recorded

  14. General mechanism for helium blistering involving displaced atom transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.


    A mechanism developed to account for formation of vertically elongated blisters in high displacement environments produced by /sup 252/Cf alpha particles and fission fragments has been extended to formation of done-shaped blisters in the low displacement environments produced by simple helium ion beams. In this mechanism, transport of displaced atoms to relieve compressive stresses in the helium-implanted layer allows interconnections of small, subsurface bubbles to form the blister cavity. The same transport may cause thickening of the blister caps at low implantation energies. The transition from dome-shaped to vertically elongated blistering occurs between the 300 and 3000 displacements per helium atom produced by simple helium ions and /sup 252/Cf radiations respectively.

  15. Optical Displacement Sensor for Sub-Hertz Applications (United States)

    Abramovici, Alexander; Chiao, Meng P.; Dekens, Frank G.


    A document discusses a sensor made from off-the-shelf electro-optical photodiodes and electronics that achieves 20 nm/(Hz)(exp 1/2) displacement sensitivity at 1 mHz. This innovation was created using a fiber-coupled laser diode (or Nd:YAG) through a collimator and an aperture as the illumination source. Together with a germanium quad photodiode, the above-mentioned displacement sensor sensitivities have been achieved. This system was designed to aid the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) with microthruster tests and to be a backup sensor for monitoring the relative position between a proof mass and a spacecraft for drag-free navigation. The optical displacement sensor can be used to monitor any small displacement from a remote location with minimal invasion on the system.

  16. [Forced displacement, childhood and adolescence: scenarios regarding socioeconomic stability]. (United States)

    Patiño, Gonzalo A; Herrán, Oscar F


    Describing and analysing socio-economic stabilisation scenarios for populations which have been forcibly displaced paying special attention to the situation of children and adolescents. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) multi-criteria decision-making method developed by Professor Thomas Saaty was used through expert workshops, involving researchers, leaders of NGOs and displaced communities living in the city of Bucaramanga. The partial result of this research showed that some elderly adults from forcibly displaced communities preferred to adapt themselves to urban centres, rather than return to their places of origin, particularly when it came to protecting younger children and dealing with their welfare. The method's consistency index and consistency ratio came within the expected parameters. Government-promoted social and economic stabilisation programmes must be rethought regarding forcibly displaced populations, particularly when situations are envisaged involving the welfare of children and adolescents.

  17. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra


    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...

  18. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra


    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...

  19. Measurement of local relative displacements in large structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesauro, Angelo; Eder, Martin Alexander; Nielsen, Magda


    This paper presents a novel measurement technique to measure local relative displacements between parts of large-scale structures. The measured deformations can be of significant importance for fracture analyses in many different types of structures in general, and for adhesive connections...... in particular. The measurement of small local relative displacements in structures subjected to large global deformations is complex and hardly feasible with conventional measurement methods. Therefore, a Small Displacement Measurement System (SDMS) has been devised. The SDMS is based on stereo photogrammetry...... and capable of measuring 3D local displacements with a high degree of accuracy. In this article, the technique is used to measure local deformations in the vicinity of the adhesive trailing edge joint of a wind turbine rotor blade. The SDMS results correspond well with another independent measurement method....

  20. Displaced Electric Sail Orbits Design and Transition Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiming Qi


    Full Text Available Displaced orbits for spacecraft propelled by electric sails are investigated as an alternative to the use of solar sails. The orbital dynamics of electric sails based spacecraft are studied within a spherical coordinate system, which permits finding the solutions of displaced electric sail orbits and optimize transfer trajectory. Transfer trajectories from Earth's orbit to displaced orbit are also studied in an optimal framework, by using genetic algorithm and Gauss pseudospectral method. The initial guesses for the state and control histories used in the Gauss pseudospectral method are interpolated from the best solution of a genetic algorithm. Numerical simulations show that the electric sail is able to perform the transfer from Earth’s orbit to displaced orbit in acceptable time, and the hybrid optimization method has the capability to search the feasible and optimal solution without any initial value guess.