Sample records for water displacement functions

  1. Rising waters, displaced lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Brickle


    Full Text Available Although Pakistan and Colombia have relatively advanced disaster management frameworks, they were unprepared and ill-equipped to assist and protect people displaced by recent floods.

  2. Functional localization of the human color center by decreased water displacement using diffusion-weighted fMRI. (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca J; Reutens, David C; Hocking, Julia


    Decreased water displacement following increased neural activity has been observed using diffusion-weighted functional MRI (DfMRI) at high b-values. The physiological mechanisms underlying the diffusion signal change may be unique from the standard blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast and closer to the source of neural activity. Whether DfMRI reflects neural activity more directly than BOLD outside the primary cerebral regions remains unclear. Colored and achromatic Mondrian visual stimuli were statistically contrasted to functionally localize the human color center Area V4 in neurologically intact adults. Spatial and temporal properties of DfMRI and BOLD activation were examined across regions of the visual cortex. At the individual level, DfMRI activation patterns showed greater spatial specificity to V4 than BOLD. The BOLD activation patterns were more prominent in the primary visual cortex than DfMRI, where activation was localized to the ventral temporal lobe. Temporally, the diffusion signal change in V4 and V1 both preceded the corresponding hemodynamic response, however the early diffusion signal change was more evident in V1. DfMRI may be of use in imaging applications implementing cognitive subtraction paradigms, and where highly precise individual functional localization is required.

  3. Dithizone-functionalized solid phase extraction-displacement elution-high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for mercury speciation in water samples. (United States)

    Yin, Yong-guang; Chen, Ming; Peng, Jin-feng; Liu, Jing-fu; Jiang, Gui-bin


    A novel and simple solid phase extraction (SPE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method was developed for determination of inorganic mercury (IHg), methylmercury MeHg and ethylmercury (EtHg) in water samples in the present work. The procedure involves pre-functionalization of the commercially available C18 SPE column with dithizone, loading water sample, displacement elution of mercury species by Na(2)S(2)O(3) solution, followed by HPLC-ICP-MS determination. Characterization and optimization of operation parameters of this new SPE procedure were discussed, including eluting reagent selection, concentration of eluting reagent, volume of eluting reagent, effect of NaCl and humic acid in sample matrix. At optimized conditions, the detection limits of mercury species for 100mL water sample were about 3ngL(-1) and the average recoveries were 93.7, 83.4, and 71.7% for MeHg, IHg and EtHg, respectively, by spiking 0.2microgL(-1) mercury species into de-ion water. Stability experiment reveals that both the dithizone-functionalized SPE cartridge and the mercury species incorporated were stable in the storage procedure. These results obtained demonstrate that SPE-HPLC-ICP-MS is a simple and sensitive technique for the determination of mercury species at trace level in water samples with high reproducibility and accuracy.

  4. Altered mandibular growth under functional posterior displacement in rats


    Farias-Neto, A; Martins, APVB; Figueroba, SR; Groppo, FC; Almeida, SM; Rizzatti-Barbosa, CM


    Objective: To test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in mandibular growth between growing rats with posterior functional mandibular displacement and growing rats without functional mandibular displacement. Materials and Methods: Twenty female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were randomized into two groups: (1) control and (2) mandible posterior displacement in the occluded condition induced by an occlusal guiding appliance. After 8 weeks all animals were sacrificed, cone beam computed...

  5. Morphologic, functional, and occlusal characterization of mandibular lateral displacement malocclusion. (United States)

    Ishizaki, Kyoko; Suzuki, Koichi; Mito, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Eliana Midori; Sato, Sadao


    Mandibular lateral displacement (MLD) is clinically characterized by deviation of the chin, facial asymmetry, dental midline discrepancy, crossbite in the posterior region, and high prevalence of internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint. Morphologic and functional characteristics of MLD should be clarified to correct and prevent this malocclusion. We examined the morphologic features, occlusal scheme, and functional behavior of MLD in 116 patients. Facial morphology was examined with posteroanterior cephalograms, occlusion guidance on the articulator after face-bow transfer, and condylar movement with the condylograph. The superiorly inclined occlusal plane was associated with mandibular deviation in the same direction. The posterior occlusal plane on the shifted side was significantly steeper than that on the nonshifted side. Functional analysis of condylar movement showed a close relationship between the direction of MLD and the direction of condylar lateral shift during opening and closing, and protrusion and retrusion. The occlusal guidance inclination in the buccal segment of the nonshifted side was steeper than that in the shifted side. The results suggested that reduced vertical height of the dentition on 1 side induced mandibular lateral adaptation with contralateral condylar shift (asymmetry); this leads to condylar lateral shift during functional movement. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A displaced-solvent functional analysis of model hydrophobic enclosures. (United States)

    Abel, Robert; Wang, Lingle; Friesner, Richard A; Berne, B J


    Calculation of protein-ligand binding affinities continues to be a hotbed of research. Although many techniques for computing protein-ligand binding affinities have been introduced--ranging from computationally very expensive approaches, such as free energy perturbation (FEP) theory; to more approximate techniques, such as empirically derived scoring functions, which, although computationally efficient, lack a clear theoretical basis--there remains pressing need for more robust approaches. A recently introduced technique, the displaced-solvent functional (DSF) method, was developed to bridge the gap between the high accuracy of FEP and the computational efficiency of empirically derived scoring functions. In order to develop a set of reference data to test the DSF theory for calculating absolute protein-ligand binding affinities, we have pursued FEP theory calculations of the binding free energies of a methane ligand with 13 different model hydrophobic enclosures of varying hydrophobicity. The binding free energies of the methane ligand with the various hydrophobic enclosures were then recomputed by DSF theory and compared with the FEP reference data. We find that the DSF theory, which relies on no empirically tuned parameters, shows excellent quantitative agreement with the FEP. We also explored the ability of buried solvent accessible surface area and buried molecular surface area models to describe the relevant physics, and find the buried molecular surface area model to offer superior performance over this dataset.

  7. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of supercritical CO2-water drainage displacement in porous media: CO2 saturation and displacement mechanism. (United States)

    Yamabe, Hirotatsu; Tsuji, Takeshi; Liang, Yunfeng; Matsuoka, Toshifumi


    CO2 geosequestration in deep aquifers requires the displacement of water (wetting phase) from the porous media by supercritical CO2 (nonwetting phase). However, the interfacial instabilities, such as viscous and capillary fingerings, develop during the drainage displacement. Moreover, the burstlike Haines jump often occurs under conditions of low capillary number. To study these interfacial instabilities, we performed lattice Boltzmann simulations of CO2-water drainage displacement in a 3D synthetic granular rock model at a fixed viscosity ratio and at various capillary numbers. The capillary numbers are varied by changing injection pressure, which induces changes in flow velocity. It was observed that the viscous fingering was dominant at high injection pressures, whereas the crossover of viscous and capillary fingerings was observed, accompanied by Haines jumps, at low injection pressures. The Haines jumps flowing forward caused a significant drop of CO2 saturation, whereas Haines jumps flowing backward caused an increase of CO2 saturation (per injection depth). We demonstrated that the pore-scale Haines jumps remarkably influenced the flow path and therefore equilibrium CO2 saturation in crossover domain, which is in turn related to the storage efficiency in the field-scale geosequestration. The results can improve our understandings of the storage efficiency by the effects of pore-scale displacement phenomena.

  8. Neuronal activity significantly reduces water displacement: DWI of a vital rat spinal cord with no hemodynamic effect. (United States)

    Tirosh, Nitzan; Nevo, Uri


    Changes in the diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) signal were observed to be correlated with neuronal activity during chemically induced brain activity, epileptic seizures, or visual stimulation. These changes suggest a possible reduction in water displacement that accompanies neuronal activity, but were possibly affected by other physiological mechanisms such as blood oxygenation level and blood flow. We developed an imaging experiment of an excised and vital newborn rat spinal cord to examine the effect of neuronal function on the displacement of water molecules as measured by DWI signal. This approach provides a DWI experiment of a vital mammalian CNS tissue in the absence of some of the systemic sources of noise. We detected a significant and reproducible drop with an average value of 19.5 ± 1.6% (mean ± SE) upon activation. The drop repeated itself in three orthogonal directions. ADC values corresponded to an oblate anisotropy. This result was validated by high resolution DWI of a fixed tissue, imaged with an ultra-high field MRI. The results support our working hypothesis that water displacement is affected by neuronal activation. These results further imply that water displacement might serve as a potential marker for brain function, and that, although commonly viewed as wholly electrochemical, neuronal activity includes a significant mechanical dimension that affects water displacement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiorespiratory responses during deep water running with and without horizontal displacement at different cadences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Kanitz


    Conclusions: The results indicate that the increase in both cadence and displacement results in significant cardiorespiratory responses as a result of deep water running. This finding is important for adapting exercise prescription to the goals of participants.

  10. Micronized-coal-water slurry sprays from a diesel engine positive displacement fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.; Seshadri, A.K.; Zicterman, G. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Experiments have been conducted to characterize the sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system for a diesel engine. Diesel fuel water and three concentrations of micronized-coal-water slurry were used in these experiments. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and still photographs of the sprays were obtained. In addition, instaneous fuel line pressures and needle lifts were obtained. Data were acquired as a function of fluid, nozzle orifice diameter, rack setting and chamber conditions. The high speed movies were used to determine spray penetration and spray growth.

  11. Force-free magnetic fields - Generating functions and footpoint displacements (United States)

    Wolfson, Richard; Verma, Ritu


    This paper presents analytic and numerical calculations that explore equilibrium sequences of bipolar force-free magnetic fields in relation to displacments of their magnetic footpoints. It is shown that the appearance of magnetic islands - sometimes interpreted as marking the loss of equilibrium in models of the solar atmosphere - is likely associated only with physically unrealistic footpoint displacements such as infinite separation or 'tearing' of the model photosphere. The work suggests that the loss of equilibrium in bipolar configurations, sometimes proposed as a mechanism for eruptive solar events, probably requires either fully three-dimensional field configurations or nonzero plasma pressure. The results apply only to fields that are strictly bipolar, and do not rule out equilibrium loss in more complex structures such as quadrupolar fields.

  12. Customizing Structure-Function Displacements in the Macula for Individual Differences. (United States)

    Turpin, Andrew; Chen, Siyuan; Sepulveda, Juan A; McKendrick, Allison M


    In the macula, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are displaced from their receptive fields. We used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to customize displacements for individual eyes by taking into account macular shape parameters, and determined the likely effect of individual anatomical differences on structure-function mapping in the central visual field. Using the population average model of Drasdo et al. as a starting point, we altered the RGC count in that model based on the ratio of an individual's RGC layer plus inner plexiform layer thickness to the population average on a pointwise basis as a function of eccentricity from the fovea. For 20 adults (age, 24-33; median age, 28) with normal vision, we computed displacements with the original model and our customized approach. We report the variance in displacements among individuals and compare the effects of such displacements on structure-function mapping of the commonly used the 10-2 visual field pattern. As expected, customizing the displacement using individual OCT data made only a small difference on average from the population-based values predicted by the Drasdo et al. model. However, the range between individuals was over 1° at many locations, and closer to 2° at some locations in the superior visual field. Individualizing macular displacement measurements based on OCT data for an individual can result in large spatial shifts in the retinal area corresponding to 10-2 locations, which may be important for clinical structure-function analysis when performed on a local, spatial scale.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saket Jati; Dev Padia


    BACKGROUND There are always difference of opinion in the importance of Bohler’s angle in evaluating the severity of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures and predicting the functional outcome following surgical fixation...

  14. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures


    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys


    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  15. Accuracy of water displacement hand volumetry using an ethanol and water mixture. (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R; Kim, Jong-Moon; Cao, Peihong


    The traditional water displacement method for measuring limb volume is improved by adding ethanol to water. Four solutions were tested (pure water, 0.5% ethanol, 3% ethanol, and 6% ethanol) to determine the most accurate method when measuring the volume of a known object. The 3% and 6% ethanol solutions significantly reduced (P alcohol solution and to 0.6 using 6% ethanol solution (the mean coefficients of variation were reduced from 0.59% for water to 0.22% for 3% ethanol and 0.16% for 6% ethanol). The spheres' volume measured with pure water, 0.5% ethanol solution, 3% ethanol solution, and 6% ethanol solution was 383.2 +/- 2.27 ml, 384.4 +/- 1.9 ml, 389.4 +/- 0.9 ml, and 390.2 +/- 0.6 ml, respectively. Using the 3% and 6% ethanol solutions to measure hand volume blindly in 10 volunteers significantly reduced the mean coefficient of variation for hand volumetry from 0.91% for water to 0.52% for the 3% ethanol solution (P < 0.05) and to 0.46% for the 6% ethanol solution (P < 0.05). The mean standard deviation from all 10 subjects decreased from 4.2 ml for water to 2.3 ml for 3% ethanol solution and 2.1 ml for the 6% solution. These findings document that the accuracy and reproducibility of hand volume measurements are improved by small additions of ethanol, most likely by reducing surface tension of water.

  16. [The influences of anterior disc displacement on oral mandibular function and morphology and their biological mechanisms]. (United States)

    Xia, Wendi; Fu, Kiayuan


    Anterior disc displacement is a common subtype seen in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. It may cause mandibular movement disorders, such as clicking of joint, intermittent closed lock, limitation of mouth opening, etc. These disorders may affect the life qualities of patients. Anterior disc displacement may also cause mandibular malformations, especially among adolescents, which may affect the growth of condyle, therefore may have a correlation with mandibular retrusion or mandibular deviation when grown up. This paper going to review the influences of anterior disc displacement on oral mandibular function and morphology and their biological mechanisms.

  17. Applications of Displacement Transfer Functions to Deformed Shape Predictions of the GIII Swept-Wing Structure (United States)

    Lung, Shun-Fat; Ko, William L.


    The displacement transfer functions (DTFs) were applied to the GIII swept wing for the deformed shape prediction. The calculated deformed shapes are very close to the correlated finite element results as well as the measured data. The convergence study showed that using 17 strain stations, the wing-tip displacement prediction error was 1.6 percent, and that there is no need to use a large number of strain stations for G-III wing shape predictions.

  18. Numerical Simulation of High Viscosity Oil Displacement by Water Following Non-Linear Filtration Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Slabnov


    Full Text Available The non-linear filtration law with a limiting gradient of two immiscible fluids (oil and water into a flat warp-free layer exploited by horizontal and vertical wells is investigated. The method for numerical determination of pressure and oil saturation and the corresponding difference analogues are considered. The analysis of high viscosity oil displacement by water in the five-point waterflooding element for three types of heterogeneity (zonal, with spline-interpolation application, and laminated is carried out. The influence of the displacement limiting gradient on the basic technological characteristics of non-Newtonian oil production is studied. The results of the mathematical simulation show that the front movement at the initial stage of displacement is close to circular. The movement of non-Newtonian oil after the displacing fluid breakthrough into the producing well occurs mainly in a narrow area close to the straight current line connecting the producing and pressure wells. The dynamics of the current oil recovery coefficient depends on the properties of the displaced fluid, absolute permeability distribution in the filtration area, and set of limitations to exploitation of the operating producing and pressure wells.

  19. Curved Displacement Transfer Functions for Geometric Nonlinear Large Deformation Structure Shape Predictions (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran; Lung, Shun-Fat


    For shape predictions of structures under large geometrically nonlinear deformations, Curved Displacement Transfer Functions were formulated based on a curved displacement, traced by a material point from the undeformed position to deformed position. The embedded beam (depth-wise cross section of a structure along a surface strain-sensing line) was discretized into multiple small domains, with domain junctures matching the strain-sensing stations. Thus, the surface strain distribution could be described with a piecewise linear or a piecewise nonlinear function. The discretization approach enabled piecewise integrations of the embedded-beam curvature equations to yield the Curved Displacement Transfer Functions, expressed in terms of embedded beam geometrical parameters and surface strains. By entering the surface strain data into the Displacement Transfer Functions, deflections along each embedded beam can be calculated at multiple points for mapping the overall structural deformed shapes. Finite-element linear and nonlinear analyses of a tapered cantilever tubular beam were performed to generate linear and nonlinear surface strains and the associated deflections to be used for validation. The shape prediction accuracies were then determined by comparing the theoretical deflections with the finiteelement- generated deflections. The results show that the newly developed Curved Displacement Transfer Functions are very accurate for shape predictions of structures under large geometrically nonlinear deformations.

  20. New method to determine initial surface water displacement at tsunami source (United States)

    Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey; Tatarintsev, Pavel


    earthquake. However, today it is not yet possible. Ground-based sea radars. This is an effective tool for direct measurement of tsunami wave. At the same time, the wave is measured at a rather narrow area in front of the radar and does not include information about neighboring parts of the wave. Direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water [2]. Today, this technology is certainly among the most useful and promising. The DART II® system consists of a seafloor bottom pressure recording (BPR) system, capable of detecting tsunamis as small as 1 cm, and a moored surface buoy for real-time communications. We focus our research on improving the later method, direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water. We suggest the new way to analyze DART data, modifying the methodology originally proposed by V. Titov. Smaller system of unit sources [3] should be considered to approximate all typical shapes of initial disturbance by several suitable basis functions. To successfully implement it, performance of data analysis should be dramatically improved. This could be done by using a signal orthogonalization procedure for considered system of unit sources and calculation of Fourier coefficients of the measured time series with respect to orthogonal basis. The approach suggested was used as a part of computerized workstation for tsunami hazard monitoring [5-6]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: National Data Buoy Center. URL: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: Alexey Romanenko, Mikhail Lavrentiev-jr, Vasily Titov, "Modern Architecture for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation" // Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS-2012), ISBN 978-981-07-2049-0 Mikhail

  1. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerini, Francesco Fuso; Valentini, Francesco; Modi, Anish


    hybrid generation from solar, wind and biomass, with the possibility of using fossil sources too thanks to a dual fuel gas engine. The module can work both in grid connected and stand-alone mode. In addition the module includes a water purification unit to meet the water needs of displaced population......The world has faced many natural and man-made disasters in the past few years, resulting in millions of people living in temporary camps across the globe. The energy and clean water needs of the relief operators in such emergency situations are primarily satisfied by diesel engine based generators...... and importing clean water to the site, in certain cases even for several years after the emergency. This approach results in problems such as low security of supply and high costs. Especially targeting the prolonged displacement situations, this paper presents an alternative solution – the Energy and Water...

  2. Displacement as a predictor of functional impairment in tsunami-exposed children. (United States)

    Lee, Christopher; Du, Ye Beverly; Christina, Desy; Palfrey, Judith; O'Rourke, Edward; Belfer, Myron


    Thirty months after the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, thousands of families in Aceh Province, Indonesia, remained in temporary barracks while sanitation conditions and non-governmental organisation support deteriorated. This study sought to determine the factors associated with functional impairment in a sample of 138 displaced and non-displaced Acehnese children. Using multivariate linear regression models, it was found that displacement distance was a consistent predictor of impairment using the Brief Impairment Scale. Exposure to tsunami-related trauma markers was not significantly linked with impairment in the model. Paternal employment was a consistent protective factor for child functioning. These findings suggest that post-disaster displacement and the subsequent familial economic disruption are significant predictors of impaired functioning in children's daily activities. Post-disaster interventions should consider the disruption of familiar environments for families and children when relocating vulnerable populations to avoid deleterious impacts on children's functioning. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  3. Fall with Linear Drag and Wien's Displacement Law: Approximate Solution and Lambert Function (United States)

    Vial, Alexandre


    We present an approximate solution for the downward time of travel in the case of a mass falling with a linear drag force. We show how a quasi-analytical solution implying the Lambert function can be found. We also show that solving the previous problem is equivalent to the search for Wien's displacement law. These results can be of interest for…

  4. Subdiffusive behavior in a trapping potential: mean square displacement and velocity autocorrelation function. (United States)

    Despósito, M A; Viñales, A D


    A theoretical framework for analyzing stochastic data from single-particle tracking in viscoelastic materials and under the influence of a trapping potential is presented. Starting from a generalized Langevin equation, we found analytical expressions for the two-time dynamics of a particle subjected to a harmonic potential. The mean-square displacement and the velocity autocorrelation function of the diffusing particle are given in terms of the time lag. In particular, we investigate the subdiffusive case. Using a power-law memory kernel, exact expressions for the mean-square displacement and the velocity autocorrelation function are obtained in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions and their derivatives. The behaviors for short-, intermediate-, and long-time lags are investigated in terms of the involved parameters. Finally, the validity of usual approximations is examined.

  5. Stochastic aggregation model (SAM) for DNAPL water displacement in porous media (United States)

    Trantham, H.; Durnford, D.


    Source zone characterization of DNAPL in the subsurface is a necessary part of managing environmental risks. Modeling DNAPL-water displacement processes at the pore-scale can lead to greater insight and understanding of lateral spreading, the extent of vertical migration, and the final fluid distributions of dense non-aqueous phase liquids. A two-dimensional stochastic aggregation model is developed to study DNAPL-water displacement in porous media. The model is a modified diffusion limited aggregation model, and uses essential properties governing front stability as model input: DNAPL-water viscosity differences, DNAPL-water density differences, intrinsic permeability of the porous media, flow rate, and the inclination angle of the porous media from the horizontal. Due to the simplicity of the algorithm, this modeling technique can produce realistic DNAPL-water configurations much faster than conventional continuum approaches and allows for a Monte Carlo approach to be utilized. The model is validated through comparison to laboratory experiments involving 1,2-Dichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, and mobile pyrogard 53. These experiments were performed at varying flow rates and angles of inclination from the horizontal.

  6. Using the Aesop's fable paradigm to investigate causal understanding of water displacement by New Caledonian crows. (United States)

    Jelbert, Sarah A; Taylor, Alex H; Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S; Gray, Russell D


    Understanding causal regularities in the world is a key feature of human cognition. However, the extent to which non-human animals are capable of causal understanding is not well understood. Here, we used the Aesop's fable paradigm--in which subjects drop stones into water to raise the water level and obtain an out of reach reward--to assess New Caledonian crows' causal understanding of water displacement. We found that crows preferentially dropped stones into a water-filled tube instead of a sand-filled tube; they dropped sinking objects rather than floating objects; solid objects rather than hollow objects, and they dropped objects into a tube with a high water level rather than a low one. However, they failed two more challenging tasks which required them to attend to the width of the tube, and to counter-intuitive causal cues in a U-shaped apparatus. Our results indicate that New Caledonian crows possess a sophisticated, but incomplete, understanding of the causal properties of displacement, rivalling that of 5-7 year old children.

  7. Deep water velocities and particle displacements induced by acoustic-gravity waves from submarine earthquakes (United States)

    Oliveira, T. C. A.; Kadri, U.


    An uplift of the ocean bottom caused by a submarine earthquake can generate Acoustic-Gravity Waves (AGW), progressive compression-type waves that travel at near the speed of sound in water. The role of AGW for oceans hydrodynamics has recently became a topic of increasing scientific interest. Kadri [Deep ocean water transport by acoustic-gravity waves, J.Geo. Res. Oceans, 119, (2014)] showed theoretically that AGW can contribute to deep ocean currents and circulation. We analyze and simulate the fundamental AGW modes generated by a submarine earthquake. We consider the first five AGW modes and show that they may all induce comparable temporal variations in water particle velocities at different depths in regions far from the epicenter. Results of temporal variations of horizontal and vertical fluid parcel velocities induced by AGW confirm chaotic flow trajectories at different water depths. A realistic example based on the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake shows that vertical water particle displacements of O(10-2 ) m can be generated at 1 Km depth in a 4 km water depth ocean. We show that the velocity field depends on the presence of the leading AGW modes. Each AGW mode becomes evanescent at a critical time, at which energy is transferred to the next higher modes. Consequently, the main pattern of the velocity field changes as the leading mode change. As an example, for a reference point located at 1000 Km from the epicenter, the first five AGW become evanescent after 1.6, 4.6, 7.7, 10.8 and 13.8 hours, respectively. Our analysis and simulations shed light on the spatio-temporal evolution of the deep water velocities and particle displacements induced by AGW that radiate during submarine earthquakes. Thus, this work is a contribution to understand the role of high moment magnitude submarine earthquakes in deep water mixing mechanism.

  8. Analysis of occupational and displacive disorder using the atomic pair distribution function: a systematic investigation


    Proffen, Th.


    Many disordered crystalline materials show chemical short range order and relaxation of neighboring atoms. Local structural information can be obtained by analyzing the atomic pair distribution function (PDF). The viability of reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations to extract quantitative information about chemical ordering as well as displacements is investigated. The method has been applied to simulated PDFs of disordered structures showing chemical disorder alone as well as in combination w...

  9. Comparison of functional bracing and locked intramedullary nailing in the treatment of displaced tibial shaft fractures. (United States)

    Alho, A; Benterud, J G; Høgevold, H E; Ekeland, A; Strømsøe, K


    Thirty-five displaced tibial shaft fractures, treated with functional bracing were compared with 43 similar fractures, treated with locked intramedullary nailing. There were 22 excellent/good results in the brace group and 38 in the nail group. There was one infection in the brace group and three in the nailed group. There were five delayed unions and two nonunions in the brace group and one delayed union in the nail group. The functional results in the nailed group were better than the braced group but locked intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures require special resources and training. Locked intramedullary nailing fullfils all the functional criteria for acceptable fracture care.

  10. Large-Deformation Displacement Transfer Functions for Shape Predictions of Highly Flexible Slender Aerospace Structures (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran


    Large deformation displacement transfer functions were formulated for deformed shape predictions of highly flexible slender structures like aircraft wings. In the formulation, the embedded beam (depth wise cross section of structure along the surface strain sensing line) was first evenly discretized into multiple small domains, with surface strain sensing stations located at the domain junctures. Thus, the surface strain (bending strains) variation within each domain could be expressed with linear of nonlinear function. Such piecewise approach enabled piecewise integrations of the embedded beam curvature equations [classical (Eulerian), physical (Lagrangian), and shifted curvature equations] to yield closed form slope and deflection equations in recursive forms.

  11. Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann


    The movement of connate water spiked with gamma emitting 22Na was studied during laboratory water flooding of oil saturated chalk from a North Sea oil reservoir. Using a one dimensional gamma monitoring technique is was observed that connate water is piled-up at the front of the injection water...... and forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined...

  12. Heaving displacement amplification characteristics of a power buoy in shoaling water with insufficient draft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck-Min Kweon


    Full Text Available The resonance power buoy is a convincing tool that can increase the extraction efficiency of wave energy. The buoy needs a corresponding draft, to move in resonance with waves within the peak frequency band where wave energy is concentrated. However, it must still be clarified if the buoy acts as an effective displacement amplifier, when there is insufficient water depth. In this study, the vertical displacement of a circular cylinder-type buoy was calculated, with the spectrum data observed in a real shallow sea as the external wave force, and with the corresponding draft, according to the mode frequency of normal waves. Such numerical investigation result, without considering Power Take-Off (PTO damping, confirmed that the area of the heave responses spectrum can be amplified by up to about tenfold, compared with the wave energy spectrum, if the draft corresponds to the peak frequency, even with insufficient water depth. Moreover, the amplification factor of the buoy varied, according to the seasonal changes in the wave spectra.

  13. Evaluation of water displacement energetics in protein binding sites with grid cell theory. (United States)

    Gerogiokas, G; Southey, M W Y; Mazanetz, M P; Heifetz, A; Hefeitz, A; Bodkin, M; Law, R J; Michel, J


    Excess free energies, enthalpies and entropies of water in protein binding sites were computed via classical simulations and Grid Cell Theory (GCT) analyses for three pairs of congeneric ligands in complex with the proteins scytalone dehydratase, p38α MAP kinase and EGFR kinase respectively. Comparative analysis is of interest since the binding modes for each ligand pair differ in the displacement of one binding site water molecule, but significant variations in relative binding affinities are observed. Protocols that vary in their use of restraints on protein and ligand atoms were compared to determine the influence of protein-ligand flexibility on computed water structure and energetics, and to assess protocols for routine analyses of protein-ligand complexes. The GCT-derived binding affinities correctly reproduce experimental trends, but the magnitude of the predicted changes in binding affinities is exaggerated with respect to results from a previous Monte Carlo Free Energy Perturbation study. Breakdown of the GCT water free energies into enthalpic and entropic components indicates that enthalpy changes dominate the observed variations in energetics. In EGFR kinase GCT analyses revealed that replacement of a pyrimidine by a cyanopyridine perturbs water energetics up three hydration shells away from the ligand.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saket Jati


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There are always difference of opinion in the importance of Bohler’s angle in evaluating the severity of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures and predicting the functional outcome following surgical fixation. The purpose of this research, the relationship exists between Bohler’s angle and the injury severity of displaced calcaneal fractures and between surgical improvement of Bohler’s angle and its practical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients were treated surgically for unilateral closed displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures from May 2014 to October 2016 were identified. The Bohler’s angles of bilateral calcaneus were measured and was compared to the dimension of the uninjured foot was used as its normal control. The difference in the value of Bohler’s angle measured preoperatively or after surgery between the angle of the damaged foot and that of the contralateral calcaneus was calculated, respectively. The change in Bohler’s angle by ratio was calculated by dividing the variation in the value of Bohler’s angle between bilateral calcaneus by its typical control. The injury severity was assessed according to Sanders classification. The functional outcomes were assessed using American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot scores. RESULTS 30 patients were included into the study with a mean follow-up duration of 30 months. According to Sanders classification, the fracture pattern included 12 type II, 10 type III and 8 type IV fractures. According to American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot scoring system, the excellent, good, fair and poor results were achieved in 10, 8, 4 and 2 patients, respectively. The preoperative Bohler’s angle, difference value of Bohler’s angle between bilateral calcaneus and change in Bohler’s angle by ratio each has a significant relationship with Sanders classification (P=0.003; P=0.004; P=0.005, respectively, however, is not correlated with

  15. Energy displacement function as a signature for octupole deformation in excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Raduta, A A; Ursu, I I


    Energies for three positive and three negative parity bands predicted by the extended coherent states model (ECSM) in sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra are calculated and used to point out new signatures for octupole deformation in ground as well as in beta and gamma bands. A beat pattern is found by using a new displacement energy function which is more appropriate for a spectrum which exhibits large deviation from a linear J(J+1) dependence. The stability against octupole deformation is revisited from a new point of view. (authors)

  16. Non-surgical functional treatment for displaced olecranon fractures in the elderly. (United States)

    Gallucci, G L; Piuzzi, N S; Slullitel, P A I; Boretto, J G; Alfie, V A; Donndorff, A; De Carli, P


    We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and radiological outcomes of a consecutive cohort of patients aged > 70 years with a displaced fracture of the olecranon, which was treated non-operatively with early mobilisation. We identified 28 such patients (27 women) with a mean age of 82 years (71 to 91). The elbow was initially immobilised in an above elbow cast in 90° of flexion of the elbow for a mean of five days. The cast was then replaced by a sling. Active mobilisation was encouraged as tolerated. No formal rehabilitation was undertaken. At a mean follow-up of 16 months (12 to 26), the mean ranges of flexion and extension were 140° and 15° respectively. On a visual analogue scale of 1 (no pain) to 10, the mean pain score was 1 (0 to 8). Of the original 28 patients 22 developed nonunion, but no patients required surgical treatment. We conclude that non-operative functional treatment of displaced olecranon fractures in the elderly gives good results and a high rate of satisfaction.

  17. Effects of anterior tibial displacement on the proprioceptive functions of soccer players` knee joints. (United States)

    Cetin, Cem; Guner, Rustu; Kunduracioglu, Burak; Ulkar, Bulent


    To investigate the effects of joint laxity on proprioceptive functions of the knee joints of soccer players. In this study, we measured anterior tibial displacements and thresholds to detect the knee joint passive motion of 20 healthy soccer players (18.1+/-1.6 years of age). We performed all the measurements in Autumn 2000 in Ankara, Turkey. We applied the Mann-Whitney U test to analyze the relationship between the anterior tibial displacement and threshold to detect the passive motion (TDPM). There were no statistically significant differences between the TDPM values of the knee joints with insignificant laxity differences at different angles, and direction of motion (p>0.05). At 45 degrees of knee flexion and externally directed motion, we found the TDPM of looser knees to be significantly greater (p<0.05). Increased knee laxities without any clinical pathologic findings, have negative effects on knee joint proprioception. This is possibly due to the overuse degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligaments, which are the main stabilizers of knee joints.

  18. Use of airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect ground displacement hazards to water systems (United States)

    Stewart, J.P.; Hu, Jiawen; Kayen, R.E.; Lembo, A.J.; Collins, B.D.; Davis, C.A.; O'Rourke, T. D.


    We investigate the use of multiepoch airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect and measure ground displacements of sufficient magnitude to damage buried pipelines and other water system facilities that might result, for example, from earthquake or rainfall-induced landslides. Lidar scans are performed at three sites with coincident measurements by total station surveying. Relative horizontal accuracy is evaluated by measurements of lateral dimensions of well defined objects such as buildings and tanks; we find misfits ranging from approximately 5 to 12 cm, which is consistent with previous work. The bias and dispersion of lidar elevation measurements, relative to total station surveying, is assessed at two sites: (1) a power plant site (PP2) with vegetated steeply sloping terrain; and (2) a relatively flat and unvegetated site before and after trenching operations were performed. At PP2, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and a standard deviation of approximately 70 cm, whereas terrestrial lidar did not produce useful results due to beam divergence issues and inadequate sampling of the study region. At the trench site, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and reduced standard deviation relative to PP2 (6-20 cm), whereas terrestrial lidar was nearly unbiased with very low dispersion (4-6 cm). Pre- and posttrench bias-adjusted normalized residuals showed minimal to negligible correlation, but elevation change was affected by relative bias between epochs. The mean of elevation change bias essentially matches the difference in means of pre- and posttrench elevation bias, whereas elevation change standard deviation is sensitive to the dispersion of individual epoch elevations and their correlation coefficient. The observed lidar bias and standard deviations enable reliable detection of damaging ground displacements for some pipelines types (e.g., welded steel) but not all (e.g., concrete with unwelded, mortared joints). ?? ASCE 2009.

  19. Experimental investigation of the effect of injection water salinity on the displacement efficiency of miscible carbon dioxide WAG flooding in a selected carbonate reservoir

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zekri, Abdulrazag; Al-Attar, Hazim; Al-Farisi, Omar; Almehaideb, Reyadh; Lwisa, Essa Georges


      The effect of injection brine salinity on the displacement efficiency of low water salinity flooding was investigated using sea water at 35,000 ppm, and two field injection waters, namely, Um-Eradhuma (UER...

  20. Variable-Domain Displacement Transfer Functions for Converting Surface Strains into Deflections for Structural Deformed Shape Predictions (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran


    Variable-Domain Displacement Transfer Functions were formulated for shape predictions of complex wing structures, for which surface strain-sensing stations must be properly distributed to avoid jointed junctures, and must be increased in the high strain gradient region. Each embedded beam (depth-wise cross section of structure along a surface strain-sensing line) was discretized into small variable domains. Thus, the surface strain distribution can be described with a piecewise linear or a piecewise nonlinear function. Through discretization, the embedded beam curvature equation can be piece-wisely integrated to obtain the Variable-Domain Displacement Transfer Functions (for each embedded beam), which are expressed in terms of geometrical parameters of the embedded beam and the surface strains along the strain-sensing line. By inputting the surface strain data into the Displacement Transfer Functions, slopes and deflections along each embedded beam can be calculated for mapping out overall structural deformed shapes. A long tapered cantilever tubular beam was chosen for shape prediction analysis. The input surface strains were analytically generated from finite-element analysis. The shape prediction accuracies of the Variable- Domain Displacement Transfer Functions were then determined in light of the finite-element generated slopes and deflections, and were fofound to be comparable to the accuracies of the constant-domain Displacement Transfer Functions

  1. The impact of displacement on the expression of depressive disorder and social functioning among the war refugees. (United States)

    Radanović-Grgurić, Ljiljana; Barkić, Jelena; Filaković, Pavo; Koić, Oliver; Laufer, Davor; Petek, Anamarija; Mandić, Nikola


    Our research objective was to estimate the characteristics of major depressive disorder and social adaptation of women displaced during the war in Croatia in the early 1990s. We aimed to establish the relationship between major depressive disorder and displacement and study its impact on the outcome of depression in order to improve treatment and avoid possible complications. A group of 20 women, 35 to 55 years of age, displaced some time during the 199l.-1995. war in Croatia were compared to 27 women of the same age but with no experience of exile. All the patients suffered from major depressive disorder based upon DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Zung Self Rating Depression Scale and the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale were used. The objective intensity of depression of the displaced significantly decreased over time but not their personal experience of depression. All depressed patients manifested poor social adaptation. Many aspects of social functioning remained poor even after the improvement of depressive disorder. Displacement characteristics were: the length of time spent in exile, the place, and the circumstances of displacement regarding the members of the family accompanying the displaced women. These characteristics significantly influenced the expression of their major depressive disorder as well as social functioning. Displaced persons/refugees are at high risk of developing depressive disorder. Recognition of all risk factors and early diagnosis of depressive disorder followed by appropriate treatment could decrease the risk of chronic and complicated depression as well as the risk of poor social adaptation.

  2. Water displacement leg volumetry in clinical studies - A discussion of error sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stücker Markus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water displacement leg volumetry is a highly reproducible method, allowing the confirmation of efficacy of vasoactive substances. Nevertheless errors of its execution and the selection of unsuitable patients are likely to negatively affect the outcome of clinical studies in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI. Discussion Placebo controlled double-blind drug studies in CVI were searched (Cochrane Review 2005, MedLine Search until December 2007 and assessed with regard to efficacy (volume reduction of the leg, patient characteristics, and potential methodological error sources. Almost every second study reported only small drug effects (≤ 30 mL volume reduction. As the most relevant error source the conduct of volumetry was identified. Because the practical use of available equipment varies, volume differences of more than 300 mL - which is a multifold of a potential treatment effect - have been reported between consecutive measurements. Other potential error sources were insufficient patient guidance or difficulties with the transition from the Widmer CVI classification to the CEAP (Clinical Etiological Anatomical Pathophysiological grading. Summary Patients should be properly diagnosed with CVI and selected for stable oedema and further clinical symptoms relevant for the specific study. Centres require a thorough training on the use of the volumeter and on patient guidance. Volumetry should be performed under constant conditions. The reproducibility of short term repeat measurements has to be ensured.

  3. Functional and quality-of-life results of displaced and nondisplaced proximal humeral fractures treated conservatively. (United States)

    Torrens, Carlos; Corrales, Monica; Vilà, Gemma; Santana, Fernando; Cáceres, Enrique


    Functional and quality-of-life outcomes of conservatively treated proximal humeral fractures. Prospective study. University orthopedic department at a hospital. Seventy consecutive patients between the ages of 60 and 85 years. Conservative treatment. Functional outcome measured according to the Constant score, quality of life assessed using EuroQol-5D, and fracture pattern analyzed with x-ray and computed tomography scan. : All fractures consolidated uneventfully with no loss of reduction in either group. Four-part fractures obtained the worst functional results (33.66) followed by three-part fractures (54.64) and finally two-part fractures (65.88 and 71). Mild pain was expected in three- and four-part fractures, whereas two-part fractures achieved near complete pain relief. Nondisplaced fractures obtained a final Constant score of 73.58 and displaced fractures a score of 59.41 with significant differences in all Constant score items with the exception of external rotation. Although patients older than 75 years scored lower (54.63) than those younger than 75 years (70.83), there was no difference in the quality-of-life perception. Conservative treatment of proximal humeral fractures in those patients older than age 75 years provides good pain relief with limited functional outcome. Despite limited functional outcome, this appears to have no effect on the quality-of-life perception in the population studied. Four-part fractures present the worst results and treatment options may need to be discussed with the patient to adjust treatment to patient expectations.

  4. Study of the influence of temperature and water level of the reservoir about the displacement of a concrete dam (United States)

    Oro, S. R.; Mafioleti, T. R.; Chaves Neto, A.; Garcia, S. R. P.; Neumann Júnior, C.


    Multivariate techniques are used in this study to analyze the monitoring data displacements of a concrete dam, measured by means of pendulums, extensometer bases and multiple rod extensometers, taking into account the action of environmental conditions, bounded by the surface temperature of the concrete at ambient temperature and the tank water level. The canonical correlation analysis is used to evaluate the influence of environmental variables in the displacement of structures and dam foundations. The factor analysis is used to identify data sources of variability and order the sensors according to the action of factors. The dates of the measurements are grouped according to similarities in the present observations, by applying the cluster analysis. Then the discriminant analysis is used to assess the groups as to their homogeneity. The results demonstrate that the techniques used for distinguishing the dam responses and identify the effects of changes in environmental conditions on the displacements of the structures and dam foundations.

  5. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, D.K., E-mail: [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kant, Tarun [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Srinivas, K. [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)


    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature.

  6. Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade. (United States)

    Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, A Ertug; Hertwich, Edgar G


    A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater).

  7. A dual-function ESPI system for the measurement of out-of-plane displacement and slope (United States)

    Bhaduri, B.; Mohan, N. K.; Kothiyal, M. P.


    A dual-function ESPI system is developed for the measurement of out-of-plane displacement and its slope change. The proposed system is convenient and also efficient to switch over from an out-of-plane sensitive configuration to shearography. A difference-of-phase method with a five-step algorithm is used for speckle fringe analysis.

  8. Evaluation of Serum for Pathophysiological Effects of Prolonged Low Salinity Water Exposure in Displaced Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Y. Ewing


    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective study of serum biochemistry and hematologic findings from displaced, out-of-habitat bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus exposed to various low salinity environments in waters along the southern United States including southeastern Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico. Serum sodium, chloride, and calculated osmolality were significantly lower and below reference ranges in displaced animals compared to free-ranging case control animals. This suggests clinical hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypo-osmolality due to an uptake of low saline water from the environment. In addition, significant differences were found in other serum chemistry variables, although none were outside of normal reference ranges for non-controlled free-ranging animals. Multiple linear regressions demonstrated the degree of salinity had a greater pathophysiologic response than the duration of fresh water exposure. The Na/Cl ratio and bicarbonate were the only variables that were significantly modulated by exposure duration. These findings suggest that the degree of salinity is a critical factor when assessing and managing care for dolphins chronically exposed to low salinity water. Results from this study indicate that changes in various biochemical parameters can be used to determine fresh water exposure and aid in determining the treatment for animals recovered from low salinity waters.

  9. Evaluation of Serum for Pathophysiological Effects of Prolonged Low Salinity Water Exposure in Displaced Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). (United States)

    Ewing, Ruth Y; Mase-Guthrie, Blair; McFee, Wayne; Townsend, Forrest; Manire, Charles A; Walsh, Michael; Borkowski, Rose; Bossart, Gregory D; Schaefer, Adam M


    We conducted a retrospective study of serum biochemistry and hematologic findings from displaced, out-of-habitat bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) exposed to various low salinity environments in waters along the southern United States including southeastern Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico. Serum sodium, chloride, and calculated osmolality were significantly lower and below reference ranges in displaced animals compared to free-ranging case control animals. This suggests clinical hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypo-osmolality due to an uptake of low saline water from the environment. In addition, significant differences were found in other serum chemistry variables, although none were outside of normal reference ranges for non-controlled free-ranging animals. Multiple linear regressions demonstrated the degree of salinity had a greater pathophysiologic response than the duration of fresh water exposure. The Na/Cl ratio and bicarbonate were the only variables that were significantly modulated by exposure duration. These findings suggest that the degree of salinity is a critical factor when assessing and managing care for dolphins chronically exposed to low salinity water. Results from this study indicate that changes in various biochemical parameters can be used to determine fresh water exposure and aid in determining the treatment for animals recovered from low salinity waters.

  10. Applications of Displacement Transfer Functions to Deformed Shape Predictions of the G-III Swept-Wing Structure (United States)

    Lung, Shun-Fat; Ko, William L.


    In support of the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge [ACTE] project at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, displacement transfer functions were applied to the swept wing of a Gulfstream G-III airplane (Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, Georgia) to obtain deformed shape predictions. Four strainsensing lines (two on the lower surface, two on the upper surface) were used to calculate the deformed shape of the G III wing under bending and torsion. There being an insufficient number of surface strain sensors, the existing G III wing box finite element model was used to generate simulated surface strains for input to the displacement transfer functions. The resulting predicted deflections have good correlation with the finite-element generated deflections as well as the measured deflections from the ground load calibration test. The convergence study showed that the displacement prediction error at the G III wing tip can be reduced by increasing the number of strain stations (for each strain-sensing line) down to a minimum error of l.6 percent at 17 strain stations; using more than 17 strain stations yielded no benefit because the error slightly increased to 1.9% when 32 strain stations were used.

  11. Inkjet-printed disposable metal complexing indicator-displacement assay for sulphide determination in water. (United States)

    Ariza-Avidad, M; Agudo-Acemel, M; Salinas-Castillo, A; Capitán-Vallvey, L F


    A sulphide selective colorimetric metal complexing indicator-displacement assay has been developed using an immobilized copper(II) complex of the azo dye 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol printed by inkjetting on a nylon support. The change in colour measured from the image of the disposable membrane acquired by a digital camera using the H coordinate of the HSV colour space as the analytical parameter is able to sense sulphide in aqueous solution at pH 7.4 with a dynamic range up to 145 μM, a detection limit of 0.10 μM and a precision between 2 and 11%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) and functionalized polyaniline (F-PANI) nanoparticles with controlled size by solvent displacement method. Application in fluorescence detection and bacteria killing by photothermal effect. (United States)

    Abel, Silvestre Bongiovanni; Yslas, Edith I; Rivarola, Claudia R; Barbero, Cesar A


    Polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI-NPs) were easily obtained applying the solvent displacement method by using N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) as good solvent and water as poor solvent. Different polymers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), chondroitin sulfate (ChS), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were used as stabilizers. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy corroborated the size and morphology of the formed NPs. It was demonstrated that the size of nanoparticles could be controlled by setting the concentration of PANI in NMP, the NMP to water ratio, and the stabilizer's nature. The functionalization and fluorescence of NPs were checked by spectroscopic techniques. Since polyaniline show only weak intrinsic luminescence, fluorescent groups were linked to the polyaniline chains prior to the nanoparticle formation using a linker. Polyaniline chains were functionalized by nucleophilic addition of cysteamine trough the thiol group thereby incorporating pendant primary aliphatic amine groups to the polyaniline backbone. Then, dansyl chloride (DNS-Cl), which could act as an extrinsic chromophore, was conjugated to the amine pendant groups. Later, the functionalized polyaniline was used to produce nanoparticles by solvent displacement. The optical and functional properties of fluorescent nanoparticles (F-PANI-NPs) were determined. F-PANI-NPs in the conductive state (pH < 4) are able to absorb near infrared radiation (NIR) creating a photothermal effect in an aqueous medium. Thus, multifunctional nanoparticles are obtained. The application of NIR on a F-PANI-NPs dispersion in contact with Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes bacterial death. Therefore, the F-PANI-NPs could be tracked and applied to inhibit different diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms and resistant to antibiotics as well as a new disinfection method to surgical materials.

  13. Displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mundt, Elisabeth

    The aim of this Guidebook is to give the state-of-the art knowledge of the displacement ventilation technology, and to simplify and improve the practical design procedure. The Guidebook discusses methods of total volume ventilation by mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation and it gives...... insights of the performance of the displacement ventilation. It also shows practical case studies in some typical applications and the latest research findings to create good local micro-climatic conditions....

  14. Surfactant-induced flow compromises determination of air-water interfacial areas by surfactant miscible-displacement. (United States)

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S; Henry, Eric J


    Surfactant miscible-displacement (SMD) column experiments are used to measure air-water interfacial area (AI) in unsaturated porous media, a property that influences solute transport and phase-partitioning. The conventional SMD experiment results in surface tension gradients that can cause water redistribution and/or net drainage of water from the system ("surfactant-induced flow"), violating theoretical foundations of the method. Nevertheless, the SMD technique is still used, and some suggest that experimental observations of surfactant-induced flow represent an artifact of improper control of boundary conditions. In this work, we used numerical modeling, for which boundary conditions can be perfectly controlled, to evaluate this suggestion. We also examined the magnitude of surfactant-induced flow and its impact on AI measurement during multiple SMD flow scenarios. Simulations of the conventional SMD experiment showed substantial surfactant-induced flow and consequent drainage of water from the column (e.g., from 75% to 55% SW) and increases in actual AI of up to 43%. Neither horizontal column orientation nor alternative boundary conditions resolved surfactant-induced flow issues. Even for simulated flow scenarios that avoided surfactant-induced drainage of the column, substantial surfactant-induced internal water redistribution occurred and was sufficient to alter surfactant transport, resulting in up to 23% overestimation of AI. Depending on the specific simulated flow scenario and data analysis assumptions used, estimated AI varied by nearly 40% and deviated up to 36% from the system's initial AI. We recommend methods for AI determination that avoid generation of surface-tension gradients and urge caution when relying on absolute AI values measured via SMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of a Selected Physical Exercise on the Development of Displacement Movement Skills in Highly Functional Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Keyhani


    Full Text Available Background: The study is about to examine the effect of the selective physical exercises on the development of displacement skills in High Function Autistic (HFA children. Materials and Methods: In this research, 10 children (7.9±1.4 years among of 33 children with HFA in Sahr-e-Kord city (in Iran based on their pre-test scores randomly were selected. The measuring tool was Test of Gross Motor Development-2000 (TGMD-2. Selected motor program (SPARK motor program in this research includes motor strengthening activities, games and sports for children that were performed for 12 sessions by our subjects. Normal distribution of data checked by K-S test and appropriate statistical Levine's and ANOVA tests (dependent and independent types were used for compare mean values (α=0.05. Results: Twelfth sessions of selected physical exercises training in experiment group made significant differences in some research variables but it was not the case for the control group. There were significant differences in running (p=0.002, trotting (p=0.08, jumping (p=0.002 and gliding (p=0.004 and there were non-significant differences in hop (p=0.035 and leaping (p=0.02. Conclusion: According to the results of this research we suggest that the selected physical exercise programs that derived from SPARK motor program can improve displacement motor skills in children with HFA.

  16. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...

  17. Tests of Dielectric Model Descriptions of Chemical Charge Displacements in Water

    CERN Document Server

    Tawa, G J; Tawa, Gregory J.; Pratt, Lawrence R.


    A dielectric model of electrostatic solvation is applied to describe potentials of mean force in water along reaction paths for: a) formation of a sodium chloride ion pair; b) the symmetric SN2 exchange of chloride in methylchloride; and c) nucleophilic attack of formaldehyde by hydroxide anion. For these cases simulation and XRISM results are available for comparison. The accuracy of model predictions varies from spectacular to mediocre. It is argued that: a) dielectric models are physical models, even though simplistic and empirical; b) their successes suggest that second-order perturbation theory is a physically sound description of free energies of electrostatic solvation; and c) the most serious deficiency of the dielectric models lies in the definition of cavity volumes. Second-order perturbation theory should therefore be used to refine the dielectric models. These dielectric models make no attempt to assess the role of packing effects but for solvation of classical electrostatic interactions the diele...

  18. Quantitative measures of damage to subchondral bone are associated with functional outcome following treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. (United States)

    Lubovsky, Omri; Kreder, Michael; Wright, David A; Kiss, Alex; Gallant, Aimee; Kreder, Hans J; Whyne, Cari M


    Current analysis of displaced acetabular fractures is limited in its ability to predict functional outcome. This study aimed to (1) quantify initial acetabular damage following acetabular fracture through measurement of subchondral bone density and fracture lines, and (2) evaluate associations between acetabular damage and functional outcomes following fracture. Subchondral bone intensity maps were created for 24 patients with unilateral acetabular fractures. Measures of crack length and density differences between corresponding regions in the fractured acetabuli, normalized by the unfractured side, were generated from preoperative CT images. Damage measures were compared to quality of life survey data collected for each patient at least 2 years post-injury (Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment [MFA] and Short Form-36 [SF-36], with specific focus on parameters that best describe patients' physical health). CT image quantification of initial damage to acetabular subchondral bone was associated with functional outcome post-injury. In general, damage as quantified through differences in density in the superior dome region (zones 8 and 12) and the central anterior region of the acetabulum (zone 3) were found to be the strongest significant predictors of functional outcome (adjusted R(2) = 0.3-0.45, p fractures toward improving clinical prognoses. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  19. Dental adhesives and strategies for displacement of water/solvents from collagen fibrils. (United States)

    Matuda, Larissa Sgarbosa de Araújo; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Aguiar, Thaiane Rodrigues; Leme, Ariene Arcas; Ambrosano, Gláucia M B; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina


    To evaluate the influence of temperature of evaporation in adhesive systems with different solvents on the apparent modulus of elasticity and mass change of macro-hybrid layers modified by proanthocyanidins (PACs). Adhesive resin beams (A) from Single Bond Plus (SB), Excite (EX) and One Step Plus (OS) were prepared after solvent evaporation at 23°C or 40°C (n=12). Macro-hybrid layers (M) (n=12) were prepared using demineralized dentin beams sectioned from extracted human third molars. The demineralized dentin specimens were infiltrated with each one of the three adhesive systems at 23°C or 40°C; with or without prior dentin treatment with PACs for 10min. The apparent modulus of elasticity (E) and mass change (Wmc, %) of adhesives beams and resin-infiltrated specimens were assessed in dry and wet conditions after immersion in water (24h, 1, 3 and 6 months). The E was statistically analyzed by Tukey-Kramer test and the Wmc, % by Kruskal Wallis, and Dunn (α=0.05). Solvent evaporation at 40°C resulted in higher E values for adhesive resin beams at all storage conditions, regardless of the adhesive system (padhesives evaluated over time (p0.05). Improved solvent evaporation at higher temperature, and increased collagen cross-linking induced by PACs, enhanced the mechanical properties resulting in highly stable macro-hybrid layers over 6 months storage. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Volume Measurement of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema by Three Methods: Circumference Measurement, Water Displacement, and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Caroline; Zerahn, B.; Hendel, H.W.


    Background: Following treatment for breast cancer 12%-60% develop breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). There are several ways of assessing BCRL. Circumference measurement (CM) and water displacement (WD) for volume measurements (VM) are frequently used methods in practice and research...

  1. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Colorado Agriculture Using an Equilibrium Displacement Mathematical Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eihab Fathelrahman


    Full Text Available This research models selected impacts of climate change on Colorado agriculture several decades in the future, using an Economic Displacement Mathematical Programming model. The agricultural economy in Colorado is dominated by livestock, which accounts for 67% of total receipts. Crops, including feed grains and forages, account for the remainder. Most agriculture is based on irrigated production, which depends on both groundwater, especially from the Ogallala aquifer, and surface water that comes from runoff derived from snowpack in the Rocky Mountains. The analysis is composed of a Base simulation, designed to represent selected features of the agricultural economy several decades in the future, and then three alternative climatic scenarios are run. The Base starts with a reduction in agricultural water by 10.3% from increased municipal and industrial water demand, and assumes a 75% increase in corn extracted-ethanol production. From this, the first simulation (S1 reduces agricultural water availability by a further 14.0%, for a combined decrease of 24.3%, due to climatic factors and related groundwater depletion. The second simulation (S2-WET describes wet year conditions, which negatively affect yields of irrigated corn and milking cows, but improves yields for important crops such as non-irrigated wheat and forages. In contrast, the third simulation (S3-DRY describes a drought year, which leads to reduced dairy output and reduced corn and wheat. Consumer and producer surplus losses are approximately $10 million in this simulation. The simulation results also demonstrate the importance of the modeling trade when studying climate change in a small open economy, and of linking crop and livestock activities to quantify overall sector effects. This model has not taken into account farmers’ adaptation strategies, which would reduce the climate impact on yields, nor has it reflected climate-induced shifts in planting decisions and production

  2. Immediate effect of orthopedic shoe and functional foot orthosis on center of pressure displacement and gait parameters in juvenile flexible flat foot. (United States)

    Aboutorabi, Atefeh; Saeedi, Hassan; Kamali, Mohammad; Farahmand, Behshid; Eshraghi, Arezoo; Dolagh, Roghaye S


    Flat foot in children is a common deformity in which the medial longitudinal arch is reduced or eliminated. The objective of this article was to compare flat foot and healthy children on the displacement of the center of pressure and walking parameters in children with two common orthoses (functional foot orthosis and medical shoe). Comparative study. This study included 30 children with flat foot and 20 healthy children as a control group. The step length and width, walking velocity, symmetry, and center of pressure (CoP) displacements were recorded and compared for three conditions: functional foot orthosis and regular shoe, a medical shoe and barefoot. The results from the CoP displacements showed that the regular shoe with functional foot orthosis caused a significant decrease in the level of displacement of the CoP in flat foot children. The findings indicated a significant improvement in symmetry of steps and walking speed with the functional foot orthosis in comparison to the medical shoe in flat foot children. The CoP displacement was decreased and the percentage of gait symmetry and walking speed were increased by the use of regular shoes with a functional foot orthosis in comparison to the medical shoes. An orthopaedic shoe can be expensive, and in particular heavy with most children reluctant to wear it. This study focussed on the CoP displacement and selected gait parameters with an orthopaedic shoe and functional foot orthosis, and showed that a combined prescription of a functional foot orthosis and with regular shoes may be a useful alternative for children with moderate flat foot. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  3. Displacing use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben


    This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a human...... medical conditions. Displacing use can be a valuable strategy for design, revealing some of the contextual conditions that influence an artefact's use, and broadening the space of alternatives explored in design. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Immiscible displacement of oil by water in a microchannel: asymmetric flow behavior and nonlinear stability analysis of core-annular flow. (United States)

    Foroughi, Hooman; Abbasi, Alireza; Das, Kausik S; Kawaji, Masahiro


    The immiscible displacement of oil by water in a circular microchannel was investigated. A fused silica microchannel with an inner diameter of 250 μm and a length of 7 cm was initially filled with a viscous silicone oil. Only water then was injected into the channel. We describe our flow observations based on the two-dimensional images captured in the middle of the channel. The water finger displaced the oil and left an oil film on the channel wall. While the oil was being displaced at the core, the flow resistance decreased, which resulted in increases in water flow rate and inertia. Eventually, the water finger reached the channel exit and formed a core-annular flow pattern. The wavelength of the waves formed at the oil-water interface also increased with the increase in inertia. The initially symmetric interfacial waves became asymmetric with time. Also, the water core shifted from the center of the channel and left a thinner oil film on one side of the microchannel. Under all flow rates tested in this study, as long as the water was continuously injected, the water core was stable and no breakup into droplets was observed. We also discuss the flow stability based on nonlinear and linear stability analyses performed on the core-annular flow. Compared to the linear analysis, which ignores the inertia effects, the nonlinear analysis, which includes the inertia effects, predicts longer interfacial wavelengths by a factor of 1/sqrt[1-a(o)/2(We(w) + We(o)a(o)(2)/1-a(o)(2))] where We(w) and We(o) are the Weber numbers of the water and the oil phases, respectively, and a(o) is the unperturbed water core radius made dimensionless by the channel radius.

  5. Immiscible displacement of oil by water in a microchannel: Asymmetric flow behavior and nonlinear stability analysis of core-annular flow (United States)

    Foroughi, Hooman; Abbasi, Alireza; Das, Kausik S.; Kawaji, Masahiro


    The immiscible displacement of oil by water in a circular microchannel was investigated. A fused silica microchannel with an inner diameter of 250 μm and a length of 7 cm was initially filled with a viscous silicone oil. Only water then was injected into the channel. We describe our flow observations based on the two-dimensional images captured in the middle of the channel. The water finger displaced the oil and left an oil film on the channel wall. While the oil was being displaced at the core, the flow resistance decreased, which resulted in increases in water flow rate and inertia. Eventually, the water finger reached the channel exit and formed a core-annular flow pattern. The wavelength of the waves formed at the oil-water interface also increased with the increase in inertia. The initially symmetric interfacial waves became asymmetric with time. Also, the water core shifted from the center of the channel and left a thinner oil film on one side of the microchannel. Under all flow rates tested in this study, as long as the water was continuously injected, the water core was stable and no breakup into droplets was observed. We also discuss the flow stability based on nonlinear and linear stability analyses performed on the core-annular flow. Compared to the linear analysis, which ignores the inertia effects, the nonlinear analysis, which includes the inertia effects, predicts longer interfacial wavelengths by a factor of (1)/(1-(ao)/(2)(Wew+Weo(ao2)/(1-ao2))) where Wew and Weo are the Weber numbers of the water and the oil phases, respectively, and ao is the unperturbed water core radius made dimensionless by the channel radius.

  6. In vivo relationship between pelvis motion and deep fascia displacement of the medial gastrocnemius: anatomical and functional implications. (United States)

    Cruz-Montecinos, Carlos; González Blanche, Alberto; López Sánchez, David; Cerda, Mauricio; Sanzana-Cuche, Rodolfo; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio


    Different authors have modelled myofascial tissue connectivity over a distance using cadaveric models, but in vivo models are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pelvic motion and deep fascia displacement in the medial gastrocnemius (MG). Deep fascia displacement of the MG was evaluated through automatic tracking with an ultrasound. Angular variation of the pelvis was determined by 2D kinematic analysis. The average maximum fascia displacement and pelvic motion were 1.501 ± 0.78 mm and 6.55 ± 2.47 °, respectively. The result of a simple linear regression between fascia displacement and pelvic motion for three task executions by 17 individuals was r = 0.791 (P fascia displacement of the MG (r = 0.449, P fasciae in restricting movement in remote zones. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  7. Beam displacement as a function of temperature and turbulence length scale at two different laser radiation wavelengths. (United States)

    Isterling, William M; Dally, Bassam B; Alwahabi, Zeyad T; Dubovinsky, Miro; Wright, Daniel


    Narrow laser beams directed from aircraft may at times pass through the exhaust plume of the engines and potentially degrade some of the laser beam characteristics. This paper reports on controlled studies of laser beam deviation arising from propagation through turbulent hot gases, in a well-characterized laboratory burner, with conditions of relevance to aircraft engine exhaust plumes. The impact of the temperature, laser wavelength, and turbulence length scale on the beam deviation has been investigated. It was found that the laser beam displacement increases with the turbulent integral length scale. The effect of temperature on the laser beam angular deviation, σ, using two different laser wavelengths, namely 4.67 μm and 632.8 nm, was recorded. It was found that the beam deviation for both wavelengths may be semiempirically modeled using a single function of the form, σ=a(b+(1/T)(2))(-1), with two parameters only, a and b, where σ is in microradians and T is the temperature in °C. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  8. Lithium in Drinking Water and Thyroid Function


    Broberg Palmgren, Karin; Concha, Gabriela; Engström, Karin; Lindvall, Magnus; Grander, Margareta; Vahter, Marie


    BACKGROUND: High concentrations of lithium in drinking water were previously discovered in the Argentinean Andes Mountains. Lithium is used worldwide for treatment of bipolar disorder and treatment-resistant depression. One known side effect is altered thyroid function. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between exposure to lithium from drinking water and other environmental sources and thyroid function. METHODS: Women (n = 202) were recruited in four Andean villages in northern Argentina. ...

  9. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment...... in the room and in the inhalation of both manikins. Tracer gas was added in the heat plume above a sitting manikin, or in the exhalation through either the nose or the mouth. The other manikin moved back and forth at different speeds on a low trolley. The mentioned experimental conditions have a significant...

  10. Design and Realization of a Three Degrees of Freedom Displacement Measurement System Composed of Hall Sensors Based on Magnetic Field Fitting by an Elliptic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhao


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and realization of a three degrees of freedom (DOFs displacement measurement system composed of Hall sensors, which is built for the XYθz displacement measurement of the short stroke stage of the reticle stage of lithography. The measurement system consists of three pairs of permanent magnets mounted on the same plane on the short stroke stage along the Y, Y, X directions, and three single axis Hall sensors correspondingly mounted on the frame of the reticle stage. The emphasis is placed on the decoupling and magnetic field fitting of the three DOFs measurement system. The model of the measurement system is illustrated, and the XY positions and θZ rotation of the short stroke stage can be obtained by decoupling the sensor outputs. A magnetic field fitting by an elliptic function-based compensation method is proposed. The practical field intensity of a permanent magnet at a certain plane height can be substituted for the output voltage of a Hall sensors, which can be expressed by the elliptic function through experimental data as the crucial issue to calculate the three DOFs displacement. Experimental results of the Hall sensor displacement measurement system are presented to validate the proposed three DOFs measurement system.

  11. Digital displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard


    digital interface. However, the transformation of citizen services from traditional face-to-face interaction to digital self-service gives rise to new practices; some citizens need support to be able to manage self-service through digital tools. A mixture of support and teaching, named co...... digital reforms in Denmark and shows how citizen service is transformed from service to support. The frontline employee’s classical tasks such as casework are being displaced into educational and support-oriented tasks with less professional content. Thus an unintended effect of digitisation is blurred......In recent years digital reforms are being introduced in the municipal landscape of Denmark. The reforms address the interaction between citizen and local authority. The aim is, that by 2015 at least 80 per cent of all correspondence between citizens and public authority will be transmitted through...

  12. Functional Outcome and Patient Satisfaction after Displaced Intra-articular Calcaneal Fractures: A Comparison Among Open, Percutaneous, and Nonoperative Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. de Boer (Annette ); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); D. den Hartog (Dennis); B. Weerts (Bas); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); T. Schepers (Tim)


    textabstractThe aim of the present study was to compare the outcomes of patients with a displaced calcaneal fracture treated by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), percutaneous treatment, or nonoperative methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a level I trauma center of

  13. Will the Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels Increase Water Clarity in Shallow Lakes during Summer? Results from a Mesocosm Experiment. (United States)

    Mei, Xueying; Zhang, Xiufeng; Kassam, Sinan-Saleh; Rudstam, Lars G


    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are known to increase water clarity and affect ecosystem processes in invaded lakes. During the last decade, the conspecific quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have displaced zebra mussels in many ecosystems including shallow lakes such as Oneida Lake, New York. In this study, an eight-week mesocosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels leads to further decreases in phytoplankton and increases in water clarity resulting in increases in benthic algae. We found that the presence of zebra mussels alone (ZM), quagga mussels alone (QM), or an equal number of both species (ZQ) reduced total phosphorus (TP) and phytoplankton Chl a. Total suspended solids (TSS) was reduced in ZM and ZQ treatments. Light intensity at the sediment surface was higher in all three mussel treatments than in the no-mussel controls but there was no difference among the mussel treatments. There was no increase in benthic algae biomass in the mussel treatments compared with the no-mussel controls. Importantly, there was no significant difference in nutrient (TP, soluble reactive phosphorus and NO3-) levels, TSS, phytoplankton Chl a, benthic algal Chl a, or light intensity on the sediment surface between ZM, QM and ZQ treatments. These results confirm the strong effect of both mussel species on water clarity and indicate that the displacement of zebra mussel by an equivalent biomass of quagga mussel is not likely to lead to further increases in water clarity, at least for the limnological conditions, including summer temperature, tested in this experiment.

  14. Relationship between the functional outcomes and radiological results of conservatively treated displaced proximal humerus fractures in the elderly: A prospective study


    Mehmet Kerem Canbora; Ozkan Kose; Atilla Polat; Levent Konukoglu; Mucahit Gorgec


    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the relationship between the functional outcome and the radiographic results of conservatively treated two-, three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures in patients aged over 65 years. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 29 prospectively followed cases aged over 65 years who presented with displaced proximal humerus fracture between 2009 and 2011. The fractures were classified according to the Neer classification ...

  15. Study of the fluid dynamic and the efficiency of displacement in oil-water systems; Estudo da fluidodinamica e da eficiencia de deslocamento em sistemas agua-oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorese, Eliana K.; Quadri, Marintho B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Nogueira, Andre L.; Lopes, Toni J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica e de Alimentos; Baptista, Renan M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    Several operations and procedures in the oil industry are related to immiscible displacement of a fluid by another one. Some examples can be listed: the natural and artificial oil elevation from wells, the pumping of high viscosity oils through pipelines using water injection and secondary oil recovery. The performance of the last one is a direct consequence of the interfacial phenomena inherent to oil/water systems. As occur in oil leakages from submarine pipelines, the phase inversion phenomenon can also be considered in this context. Therefore, it is of major importance to realize experimental analysis of the oil/water interface stability and the facts that leads to the fingering phenomenon appearance. This phenomenon is represented into the other one like one or more fingers. The mathematical model used to describe the immiscible displacement of another one is initially developed to Hele-Shaw cells. Experimental observations with a Hele-Shaw cell enable the evaluation of the proposed model and its capability to adequately describe the viscous fingering phenomenon related to physical (density, viscosity and interfacial tension) and geometric properties of the system. (author)

  16. Pilot study to evaluate a water displacement technique to compare effects of diuretics and ACE inhibitors to alleviate lower extremity edema due to dihydropyridine calcium antagonists. (United States)

    Weir, M R; Rosenberger, C; Fink, J C


    Combination therapy is required in many patients to achieve goal blood pressure (BP). Calcium antagonists are highly effective antihypertensive drugs in a broad range of demographic groups. Yet, higher doses are associated with an increased frequency of lower extremity edema. The purpose of our open label, single-center clinical trial was to evaluate the use of concomitant pharmacologic therapies to attenuate the lower extremity edema associated with dihydropyridine calcium antagonists therapy using a water displacement technique. Forty-seven patients received 5 mg/day of oral amlodipine for a period of 6 weeks after a 4-week wash-out off of all antihypertensive medications to establish baseline BP. They were then randomized to receive either an additional 5 mg of amlodipine, 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), or 20 mg of benazepril for an additional 6 weeks. Blood pressure determinations and water displacement measurements were obtained at the end of the 4-week placebo wash-out period, after 6 weeks of 5 mg/day of oral amlodipine therapy, and after an additional 6 weeks of 5 mg of amlodipine and randomized drug therapy. Adjusted BP reductions (based on pretreatment BP) were -6.8/-3.8 mm Hg for the 10-mg amlodipine group, -9.9/-8.2 mm Hg for the amlodipine (5 mg)/HCTZ (25 mg) group, and -26.2/-16.4 mm Hg for the amlodipine (5 mg)/benazepril (20 mg) group (P increase in lower extremity edema water displacement in response to 5 mg/day of oral amlodipine therapy (36.2%). Adding 5 mg of amlodipine to a baseline of 5 mg of amlodipine resulted in no net change in lower extremity edema (+58.0 mL,+ 0.6% change, n=5). Adding 25 mg of HCTZ reduced lower extremity edema by a mean of 136.3 mL (-11.1% change, n=4). Benazepril reduced water displacement by 204.4 mL (-14.3% change, n=8). Our pilot study indicates that adding an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor to a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker is the most effective way to not only reduce systolic and diastolic

  17. [Research progress in water eco-functional regionalization]. (United States)

    Li, Yan-mei; Zeng, Wen-lu; Zhou, Qi-xing


    Water eco-functional regionalization is a new zoning approach based on the study of regional differences in water ecosystem, aimed to reveal the spatial differentiation characteristics and distribution patterns of water environment at different regional and zonal scales. This paper discussed the methodologies, objectives, and limitations of water function zoning, water environmental function zoning, geoecology zoning, ecoregion classification, and water eco-functional regionalization, summarized the research progress in the water eco-functional regionalization, and compared the regionalization system at home and abroad. The disadvantages of our water eco-functional regionalization system were pointed out, and its development trend was prospected.

  18. Functionalized fullerenes in water: a closer look. (United States)

    Snow, Samuel D; Kim, Ki Chul; Moor, Kyle J; Jang, Seung Soon; Kim, Jae-Hong


    The excellent photophysical properties of C60 fullerenes have spurred much research on their application to aqueous systems for biological and environmental applications. Spontaneous aggregation of C60 in water and the consequent diminution of photoactivity present a significant challenge to aqueous applications. The mechanisms driving the reduction of photoactivity in fullerene aggregates and the effects of functionalization on these processes, however, are not well understood. Here, we take a closer look at the molecular phenomena of functionalized fullerene interactions in water utilizing simulation and experimental tools. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed to investigate time-evolved molecular interactions in systems containing fullerenes with water, oxygen, and/or neighboring fullerene molecules, complimented by physical and chemical characterizations of the fullerenes pre- and postaggregation. Aggregates with widely different photoactivities exhibit similar fullerene-water interactions as well as surface and aggregation characteristics. Photoactive fullerene aggregates had weaker fullerene-fullerene and fullerene-O2 interactions, suggesting the importance of molecular interactions in the sensitization route.

  19. Biomechanics of the mandible part I: measurement of mandibular functional deformation using custom-fabricated displacement transducers. (United States)

    Al-Sukhun, Jehad; Helenius, Miia; Lindqvist, Christian; Kelleway, John


    The purpose of this study was to measure corporal approximation, dorsoventral shear, and corporal rotation in edentulous subjects treated with dental implants, during normal mandibular movements. Three patterns of jaw deformation (corporal approximation [CA], corporal rotation [CR], and dorsoventral [DV] shear) were measured using custom-fabricated displacement transducers in 12 edentulous subjects who had been treated with dental implants. Measurements were made in real time using a multichannel analogue/digital converter and a personal computer for data storage and analysis. Corporal approximation was measured as the linear change in the orientation of the 2 implants in the horizontal plane. Corporal rotation was recorded as a relative rotation of the right and left mandibular bodies projected into the frontal plane, and dorsoventral shear as the relative rotation of the 2 implants projected onto the median sagittal plane. All 3 patterns of mandibular deformation occurred concurrently and immediately on commencement of jaw movement. Different jaw movements produced different patterns of mandibular deformation. The highest values of jaw deformation were recorded during protrusion. CA ranged between 11.0 microm and 57.8 microm. Corporal rotation and DV shear ranged between 0.4 degrees and 2.8 degrees . This clinical study shows and measures 3 different and concurrent patterns of jaw deformation, during normal mandibular movements, using custom fabricated displacement transducers. The transducers may have a potential for routine clinical applications.

  20. Dynamic and functional gait analysis of severely displaced intra-articular calcaneus fractures treated with a hinged external fixator or internal stabilization. (United States)

    Besch, Lutz; Radke, Birgit; Mueller, Michael; Daniels-Wredenhagen, Mark; Varoga, Deike; Hilgert, Ralf-Erik; Mathiak, Guenther; Oehlert, Katharina; Seekamp, Andreas


    The purpose of this article was to assess functional gait outcome. Fifty-five patients with severely displaced intra-articular calcaneus fractures and soft tissue damage were evaluated prospectively with computerized dynamic pedography and a clinical scoring scale. The treatment protocol assigned 30 patients to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and 25 to closed reduction and stabilization with a biomechanically tested hinged external fixator. Gait parameter was evaluated by measuring plantar pressure distribution, length of a double-step, double-step duration, standing duration, effective foot length, and width of gait. Pedographic measurements were performed with a custom-made gait analysis system (medilogic Gangas, Berlin, Germany). Results were graded by an extended protocol of questionnaires and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle and hindfoot scales. Radiographs were reviewed according to the Sanders classification at the time of follow-up (7.3 years). All measurements were statistically analyzed (t test; Mann-Whitney U test). Aberrations were associated with all calcaneal fractures in both groups. Dynamic gait analysis showed gait asymmetry in all patients. The type of treatment (ORIF or a hinged fixator) of severely displaced calcaneus fractures did not affect gait analysis nor result in significantly different (P > .05) patient outcome scores. The gait analysis system allows a valid dynamic pedographic measurement. The hinged external fixator can be recommended in displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures with severe soft tissue damage to reduce complications associated with ORIF. ACFAS Level of Clinical Evidence: 2c.

  1. Lithium in drinking water and thyroid function. (United States)

    Broberg, Karin; Concha, Gabriela; Engström, Karin; Lindvall, Magnus; Grandér, Margareta; Vahter, Marie


    High concentrations of lithium in drinking water were previously discovered in the Argentinean Andes Mountains. Lithium is used worldwide for treatment of bipolar disorder and treatment-resistant depression. One known side effect is altered thyroid function. We assessed associations between exposure to lithium from drinking water and other environmental sources and thyroid function. Women (n=202) were recruited in four Andean villages in northern Argentina. Lithium exposure was assessed based on concentrations in spot urine samples, measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Thyroid function was evaluated by plasma free thyroxine (T4) and pituitary gland thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), analyzed by routine immunometric methods. The median urinary lithium concentration was 3,910 μg/L (5th, 95th percentiles, 270 μg/L, 10,400 μg/L). Median plasma concentrations (5th, 95th percentiles) of T4 and TSH were 17 pmol/L (13 pmol/L, 21 pmol/L) and 1.9 mIU/L, (0.68 mIU/L, 4.9 mIU/L), respectively. Urine lithium was inversely associated with T4 [β for a 1,000-μg/L increase=-0.19; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.31 to -0.068; p=0.002] and positively associated with TSH (β=0.096; 95% CI, 0.033 to 0.16; p=0.003). Both associations persisted after adjustment (for T4, β=-0.17; 95% CI, -0.32 to -0.015; p=0.032; for TSH: β=0.089; 95% CI, 0.024 to 0.15; p=0.007). Urine selenium was positively associated with T4 (adjusted T4 for a 1 μg/L increase: β=0.041; 95% CI, 0.012 to 0.071; p=0.006). Exposure to lithium via drinking water and other environmental sources may affect thyroid function, consistent with known side effects of medical treatment with lithium. This stresses the need to screen for lithium in all drinking water sources.

  2. Combined effects of Mass and Velocity on forward displacement and phenomenological ratings: a functional measurement approach to the Momentum metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel-Ange Amorim


    Full Text Available Representational Momentum (RepMo refers to the phenomenon that the vanishing position of a moving target is perceived as displaced ahead in the direction of movement. Originally taken to reflect a strict internalization of physical momentum, the finding that the target implied mass did not have an effect led to its subsequent reinterpretation as a second-order isomorphism between mental representations and principles of the physical world. However, very few studies have addressed the effects of mass on RepMo, and consistent replications of the null effect are lacking. The extent of motor engagement of the observers in RepMo tasks has, on the other hand, been suggested to determine the occurrence of the phenomenon; however, no systematic investigations were made of the degree to which it might modulate the effect of target mass. In the present work, we use Information Integration Theory to study the joint effects of different motor responses, target velocity and target mass on RepMo, and also of velocity and target mass on rating responses. Outcomes point not only to an effect of mass on RepMo, as to a differential effect of response modality on kinematic (e.g., velocity and dynamic (e.g., mass variables. Comparisons of patterns of mislocalisation with phenomenological ratings suggest that simplification of physical principles, rather than strict internalization or isomorphism per se, might underlie RepMo.

  3. Water soluble azido polyisocyanides as functional beta-sheet mimics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Erik; Schwartz, E.; Koepf, Matthieu; Kitto, Heather J.; Espelt, Mónica; Nebot-Carda, Vicent J.; de Gelder, Rene; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Rowan, Alan E.


    The design and synthesis of functional biomimetic water soluble polymers with a defined secondary structure has been developed using β-sheet polyisocyanopeptide scaffolds. Water soluble isocyanopolymers were prepared by random copolymerisation of the azido functionalized isocyanopeptides with

  4. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    no significantly increasing trend prior to displacement; and the crime rate of workers who will be displaced is not significantly higher than the crime rate of workers who will not be displaced. In contrast, displaced workers’ probability to commit any crime increases by 0.52 percentage points in the year of job...

  5. Applying local Green’s functions to study the influence of the crustal structure on hydrological loading displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dill, Robert; Klemann, Volker; Martinec, Zdeněk; Tesauro, M.

    The influence of the elastic Earth properties on seasonal or shorter periodic surface deformations due to atmospheric surface pressure and terrestrial water storage variations is usually modeled by applying a local half-space model or an one dimensional spherical Earth model like PREM from which a

  6. Water Scarcity, Food Insecurity and Drought Induced Displacement in an Arid Ecosystem: A Case Study in Indian Desert (United States)

    Rehman Siddiqui, Azizur


    Indian Arid Ecosystem is characterised by scare as well as seasonal precipitation that have led to long term stress in a fragile ecosystem. In addition to this, over the years, Indian desert has experienced varying magnitude of drought, which have considerably influenced food and fodder production and led to the depletion of surface and ground water table. All these factors mean that the production potential of land is hardly sufficient to feed human as well as livestock population of the desert and this has led to extensive rural to urban migration in Indian Desert. In the present study, satellite data from Landsat TM, AWiFS, NOAA AVHRR have been used to detect the intensity and severity of drought condition, and data collected through primary survey has been used to measure the impact of water scarcity on food insecurity and drought induced migration. Rainfall trend analysis of the study area has been done with the help of Man Kendall Method to assess the meteorological vulnerability. In addition to these, NDVI, VCI, TCI, and VHI have also been used to find out the long term vegetation health in the study area. With the help of these scientific techniques, the paper focuses on the moisture deficiency during growing period and its effect on human population and livestock population. Keywords: Arid Ecosystem, Indian Desert, Drought, Migration

  7. Melting and evaporation analysis of the first wall in a water-cooled breeding blanket module under vertical displacement event by using the MARS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Woo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Material phase change of first wall was simulated for vertical displacement event. • An in-house first wall module was developed to simulate melting and evaporation. • Effective heat capacity method and evaporation model were proposed. • MARS code was proposed to predict two-phase phenomena in coolant channel. • Phase change simulation was performed by coupling MARS and in-house module. - Abstract: Plasma facing components of tokamak reactors such as ITER or the Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) can be subjected to damage by plasma instabilities. Plasma disruptions like vertical displacement event (VDE) with high heat flux, can cause melting and vaporization of plasma facing materials and burnout of coolant channels. In this study, to simulate melting and vaporization of the first wall in a water-cooled breeding blanket under VDE, one-dimensional heat equations were solved numerically by using an in-house first wall module, including phase change models, effective heat capacity method, and evaporation model. For thermal-hydraulics, the in-house first wall analysis module was coupled with the nuclear reactor safety analysis code, MARS, to take advantage of its prediction capability for two-phase flow and critical heat flux (CHF) occurrence. The first wall was proposed for simulation according to the conceptual design of the K-DEMO, and the heat flux of plasma disruption with a value of 600 MW/m{sup 2} for 0.1 s was applied. The phase change simulation results were analyzed in terms of the melting and evaporation thicknesses and the occurrence of CHF. The thermal integrity of the blanket first wall is discussed to confirm whether the structural material melts for the given conditions.

  8. Clavicle hook plate fixation for displaced lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II): a functional outcome study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W


    Controversy exists with the use of the acromioclavicular hook plate for the treatment of lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II). This is thought to stem from problems associated with the hook plate causing impingement symptoms, which can cause long-term limitation of movement and pain. Our aim was to evaluate the functional outcomes of patients with lateral-third clavicle fractures treated with the hook plate.

  9. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  10. Open reduction and internal fixation of displaced intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus - influence of type of fracture and congruency of the subtalar joint upon functional result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Andoljšek


    Full Text Available Background: More and more, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF followed by early motion are advocated for displaced intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus. In prospective study the author asked, what are the results of ORIF with the calcaneal plate in intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus, and whether type of fracture and/or congruity in the subtalar joint influence these results.Methods: Forty-three intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus (30 Type II, 10 Type III and 3 Type IV according to Sanders classification were operated through extensile lateral approach. After reduction of the subtalar joint and restoration of the calcaneus shape, the fracture was fixed with the calcaneal plate. Mostly, surgery was delayed for a few days until soft tissues recuperate. Motion of the ankle and the subtalar joint was encouraged immediately, partial weight bearing after 6–8 weeks and full weight bearing after 3–4 month. After surgery, subtalar joint was found congruent in 33 (77% and non-congruent (within 2 mm in ten fractures.Results: Functional results of 36 fractures with a representative type distribution were evaluated 12 to 61 months postinjury. Functional results were satisfactory in 31 fractures (86% and not satisfactory in five (14%. All fractures with unsatisfactory results were comminutive (Type III or IV. Four fractures with congruent joint had unsatisfactory, and eight of nine fractures with uncongruent joint had satisfactory result. Statistically, functional results of the comminuted fractures were significantly worse. However, functional results of fractures with non-congruent joint were comparable to the results of fractures with congruent joint and analysis of variance showed that interaction of these two factors was not important.Conclusions: This prospective study confirms that ORIF enables satisfactory results in majority of displaced intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus. It also confirms that comminution in the

  11. The long-term outcome of displaced mid-third clavicle fractures on scapular and shoulder function: variations between immediate surgery, delayed surgery, and nonsurgical management. (United States)

    George, Daniel M; McKay, Bartholomew P; Jaarsma, Ruurd L


    Conservative management for uncomplicated displaced clavicle fractures is common practice. Delay of surgical fixation may result in less favorable outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 60 patients with a closed mid-third clavicle fracture that did not meet current operative or nonoperative guidelines; 20 primary (plate fixation plate fixation >6 weeks), and 20 matched conservative patients were included. Each patient completed 2 questionnaires, the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, as well as visual analog scales for pain, cosmetic satisfaction, and overall satisfaction. In addition, 10 patients from each group underwent clinical review of scapular rotation by the lateral scapular slide test, clinical impingement, range of motion assessment, and radiologic review of clavicle union and length. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons patient self-reported questionnaire demonstrated a median score of 5.5 for the delayed group, 2 for the primary group, and 1 for the conservative group (P = .032). The median Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 7.92 for the delayed group, 3.32 for the primary group, and 1.67 for the conservative group (P = .212). Six patients in the delayed group had scapular malrotation compared with 2 in the primary group and none in the conservative group (P = .008). Flexion and external rotation in 90° abduction were decreased in the conservative group (P = .049 and .041, respectively). We support the conservative management of uncomplicated displaced clavicle fractures but recognize that a lower threshold for early surgery should be considered where optimal shoulder function is required. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Displaced patella fractures. (United States)

    Della Rocca, Gregory J


    Displaced patella fractures often result in disruption of the extensor mechanism of the knee. An intact extensor mechanism is a requirement for unassisted gait. Therefore, operative treatment of the displaced patella fracture is generally recommended. The evaluation of the patella fracture patient includes examination of extensor mechanism integrity. Operative management of patella fractures normally includes open reduction with internal fixation, although partial patellectomy is occasionally performed, with advancement of quadriceps tendon or patellar ligament to the fracture bed. Open reduction with internal fixation has historically been performed utilizing anterior tension band wiring, although comminution of the fracture occasionally makes this fixation construct inadequate. Supplementation or replacement of the tension band wire construct with interfragmentary screws, cerclage wire or suture, and/or plate-and-screw constructs may add to the stability of the fixation construct. Arthrosis of the patellofemoral joint is very common after healing of patella fractures, and substantial functional deficits may persist long after fracture healing has occurred. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Development of functional geopolymers for water purification, and construction purposes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alshaaer, M; El-Eswed, B; Yousef, R.I; Khalili, F; Rahier, H


    This paper deals with the development of functional geopolymers based on local resources such as kaolinitic soil and zeolitic tuff for the construction of water storage containers and water transfer channels...

  14. Virtual/Real Transfer in a Large-Scale Environment: Impact of Active Navigation as a Function of the Viewpoint Displacement Effect and Recall Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Wallet


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of navigation mode (passive versus active on the virtual/real transfer of spatial learning, according to viewpoint displacement (ground: 1 m 75 versus aerial: 4 m and as a function of the recall tasks used. We hypothesize that active navigation during learning can enhance performances when route strategy is favored by egocentric match between learning (ground-level viewpoint and recall (egocentric frame-based tasks. Sixty-four subjects (32 men and 32 women participated in the experiment. Spatial learning consisted of route learning in a virtual district (four conditions: passive/ground, passive/aerial, active/ground, or active/aerial, evaluated by three tasks: wayfinding, sketch-mapping, and picture-sorting. In the wayfinding task, subjects who were assigned the ground-level viewpoint in the virtual environment (VE performed better than those with the aerial-level viewpoint, especially in combination with active navigation. In the sketch-mapping task, aerial-level learning in the VE resulted in better performance than the ground-level condition, while active navigation was only beneficial in the ground-level condition. The best performance in the picture-sorting task was obtained with the ground-level viewpoint, especially with active navigation. This study confirmed the expected results that the benefit of active navigation was linked with egocentric frame-based situations.

  15. Modeling Displacement Measurement using Vibration Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGOSTON Katalin


    Full Text Available This paper presents some aspects regarding to small displacement measurement using vibration transducers. Mechanical faults, usages, slackness’s, cause different noises and vibrations with different amplitude and frequency against the normal sound and movement of the equipment. The vibration transducers, accelerometers and microphone are used for noise and/or sound and vibration detection with fault detection purpose. The output signal of the vibration transducers or accelerometers is an acceleration signal and can be converted to either velocity or displacement, depending on the preferred measurement parameter. Displacement characteristics are used to indicate when the machine condition has changed. There are many problems using accelerometers to measure position or displacement. It is important to determine displacement over time. To determinate the movement from acceleration a double integration is needed. A transfer function and Simulink model was determinate for accelerometers with capacitive sensing element. Using these models the displacement was reproduced by low frequency input.

  16. Development of functional geopolymers for water purification, and construction purposes


    M. Alshaaer; El-Eswed, B.; Yousef, R.I.; Khalili, F.; Rahier, H


    This paper deals with the development of functional geopolymers based on local resources such as kaolinitic soil and zeolitic tuff for the construction of water storage containers and water transfer channels. The effect of water content on the mechanical performance and physical properties of synthesized geopolymers was evaluated. The results confirmed that the optimum ratio of water is 28% of clay fraction, which revealed observable improvements of physical, mechanical, and adsorption proper...

  17. A molecular density functional theory to study solvation in water

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume


    A classical density functional theory is applied to study solvation of solutes in water. An approx- imate form of the excess functional is proposed for water. This functional requires the knowledge of pure solvent direct correlation functions. Those functions can be computed by using molecular simulations such as molecular dynamic or Monte Carlo. It is also possible to use functions that have been determined experimentally. The functional minimization gives access to the solvation free energy and to the equilibrium solvent density. Some correction to the functional are also proposed to get the proper tetrahedral order of solvent molecules around a charged solute and to reproduce the correct long range hydrophobic behavior of big apolar solutes. To proceed the numerical minimization of the functional, the theory has been discretized on two tridimensional grids, one for the space coordinates, the other for the angular coordinates, in a functional minimization code written in modern Fortran, mdft. This program i...

  18. Displacement data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W. Steven [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Venkataramani, Shankar [Department of Mathematics and Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mariano, Arthur J. [Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Restrepo, Juan M., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)


    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  19. XY displacement device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerens, W.C.; Laham, C.D.; Holman, A.E.


    An XY-displacement device (1) with a four-fold symmetry comprises a reference frame (10); an object mount (20) for holding an object (22) to be displaced; an X-manipulator (100) coupled between the reference frame (10) and the object mount (20), which provides a rigid coupling between the object

  20. Highly water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes amine-functionalized by supercritical water oxidation. (United States)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Moon, In-Kyu; Han, Joo-Hee; Do, Seung-Hoe; Lee, Jin-Seo; Jeon, Seong-Yun


    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been amine-functionalized by eco-friendly supercritical water oxidation. The facilely functionalized MWNTs have high solubility (~84 mg L(-1)) in water and 78% transmittance at 30-fold dilution. The Tyndall effect is also shown for several liquids.

  1. Water Quality Models with Different Functions of Exotech Radiometer Bands


    Rao, K. R.; Krishnan, R.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Deekshatulu, B. L.


    Surveillance of water quality by remote sensing technique can be pursued with advantage. An attempt has been made in this paper to obtain regional models of water quality of inland tanks and lakes. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis between water quality parameters and several functions of Exotech radiometer band reflectance values, namely, bands alone, bands and their ratios, and, bands and their products are evaluated with respect to performance of the regression parameters. It is...

  2. Governance and functionality of community water schemes in rural Ethiopia. (United States)

    Alexander, Kelly T; Tesfaye, Yihenew; Dreibelbis, Robert; Abaire, Bekele; Freeman, Matthew C


    A key challenge for achieving universal water access in Sub-Saharan Africa is poor sustainability of water schemes. Previous studies have posited factors that may lead to failed schemes; however, empirical data are lacking. We conducted direct observations of water sources and interviewed water committee members about governance in two regions of Ethiopia. Based on direct observation at each water point, and harmonizing previous research in the sector, we developed an ordinal measure of functionality. Among functional systems, linear regression models were used to assess changes in score or level of functionality against governance characteristics. Of 89 water schemes over 5 years old, 82 had sufficient data to receive a score. Higher functionality scores were associated with having good records, meeting regularly, financial audits, higher monthly fees, a paid caretaker and water committees with capacity to perform minor repairs. Our continuous measure of functionality was simple to derive, objective and may be widely applicable for further studies assessing key indicators of sustainability.

  3. Structural and functional significance of water permeation through cotransporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; Gorraitz, Edurne; Her, Ka


    through the intestinal sodium/glucose cotransporter SGLT1. Molecular dynamics simulations using the atomic structure of the bacterial transporter vSGLT suggest that water permeates the same path as Na+ and sugar. On a structural model of SGLT1, based on the homology structure of vSGLT, we identified...... to be due to alterations in steric hindrance to water and urea, and/or changes in protein folding caused by mismatching of side chains in the water pathway. Water permeation through SGLT1 and other transporters bears directly on the structural mechanism for the transport of polar solutes through......Membrane transporters, in addition to their major role as specific carriers for ions and small molecules, can also behave as water channels. However, neither the location of the water pathway in the protein nor their functional importance is known. Here, we map the pathway for water and urea...

  4. Simulations of threshold displacement in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Matthew L. [Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Fossati, Paul C. M.; Grimes, Robin W. [Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    Atomic scale molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage have been performed on beryllium. Direct threshold displacement simulations along a geodesic projection of directions were used to investigate the directional dependence with a high spatial resolution. It was found that the directionally averaged probability of displacement increases from 0 at 35 eV, with the energy at which there is a 50% chance of a displacement occurring is 70 eV and asymptotically approaching 1 for higher energies. This is, however, strongly directionally dependent with a 50% probability of displacement varying from 35 to 120 eV, with low energy directions corresponding to the nearest neighbour directions. A new kinetic energy dependent expression for the average maximum displacement of an atom as a function of energy is derived which closely matches the simulated data.

  5. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea


    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  6. Local structure of a pure Bi A site polar perovskite revealed by pair distribution function analysis and reverse Monte Carlo modeling: correlated off-axis displacements in a rhombohedral material. (United States)

    Chong, Samantha Y; Szczecinski, Robert J; Bridges, Craig A; Tucker, Matthew G; Claridge, John B; Rosseinsky, Matthew J


    Perovskite oxides with Bi(3+) on the A site are of interest as candidate replacements for lead-based piezoelectric ceramics. Current understanding of the chemical factors permitting the synthesis of ambient-pressure-stable perovskite oxides with Bi(3+) on the A site is limited to information derived from average structures. The local structure of the lead-free ferroelectric perovskite Bi(Ti(3/8)Fe(2/8)Mg(3/8))O(3) is studied by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of neutron scattering data. The resultant model is consistent with the structure derived from diffraction but reveals key extra structural features due to correlated local displacements that are inaccessible from the average unit cell. The resulting structural picture emphasizes the need to combine symmetry-averaged long-range and local analysis of the structures of compositionally complex, substitutionally disordered functional materials. Local correlation of the off-axis displacements of the A site cation produces monoclinic domains consistent with the existence of displacement directions other than R ((p)) or T ((p)). The Bi displacements are correlated ferroelectrically both in the polar direction and orthogonal to it, providing evidence of the presence of monoclinic domains. The octahedral cation environments reveal distinct differences in the coordination geometry of the different B site metal ions. The local nature of these deviations and correlations makes them inaccessible to long-range averaged techniques. The resulting local structure information provides a new understanding of the stability of pure Bi(3+) A site perovskite oxides.

  7. Calibrating the Shan-Chen lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible displacement in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt Stenhøj Baun; Schaap, M.G.; Wildenschild, D.


    physical system; in this case observed oil-water displacement experiments. For this purpose, we use simple, well-characterized, two-fluid-phase systems that furthermore function as a test of the code. The calibrated model is shown to produce realistic capillary pressures, within the pressure range...

  8. Supersymmetric Displaced Number States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy R. Zypman


    Full Text Available We introduce, generate and study a family of supersymmetric displaced number states (SDNS that can be considered generalized coherent states of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. The family is created from the seminal supersymmetric boson-fermion entangling annihilation operator introduced by Aragone and Zypman and later expanded by Kornbluth and Zypman. Using the momentum representation, the states are obtained analytically in compact form as displaced supersymmetric number states. We study their position-momentum uncertainties, and their bunchiness by classifying them according to their Mandel Q-parameter in phase space. We were also able to find closed form analytical representations in the space and number basis.

  9. Beyond water homeostasis: Diverse functional roles of mammalian aquaporins. (United States)

    Kitchen, Philip; Day, Rebecca E; Salman, Mootaz M; Conner, Matthew T; Bill, Roslyn M; Conner, Alex C


    Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are best known as passive transporters of water that are vital for water homeostasis. AQP knockout studies in whole animals and cultured cells, along with naturally occurring human mutations suggest that the transport of neutral solutes through AQPs has important physiological roles. Emerging biophysical evidence suggests that AQPs may also facilitate gas (CO2) and cation transport. AQPs may be involved in cell signalling for volume regulation and controlling the subcellular localization of other proteins by forming macromolecular complexes. This review examines the evidence for these diverse functions of AQPs as well their physiological relevance. As well as being crucial for water homeostasis, AQPs are involved in physiologically important transport of molecules other than water, regulation of surface expression of other membrane proteins, cell adhesion, and signalling in cell volume regulation. Elucidating the full range of functional roles of AQPs beyond the passive conduction of water will improve our understanding of mammalian physiology in health and disease. The functional variety of AQPs makes them an exciting drug target and could provide routes to a range of novel therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of functional geopolymers for water purification, and construction purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alshaaer


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of functional geopolymers based on local resources such as kaolinitic soil and zeolitic tuff for the construction of water storage containers and water transfer channels. The effect of water content on the mechanical performance and physical properties of synthesized geopolymers was evaluated. The results confirmed that the optimum ratio of water is 28% of clay fraction, which revealed observable improvements of physical, mechanical, and adsorption properties of the geopolymeric products. Such geopolymers showed the highest compressive strength, density, and maximum adsorption capacity toward cadmium among the products and precursors tested. The residual soluble salts in produced geopolymers were markedly reduced by using this optimum water content.

  11. A Simple Beta-Function Model for Soil-Water Repellency as a Function of Water and Organic Carbon Contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Kawamoto, Ken; Møldrup, Per


    (θ) is based on measurement of WR on air-dry soil and three additional model parameters: the water contents at which the maximum WR (highest α) occurs and where WR ceases (α = 90 degrees), and the maximum α value. The MED data for three data sets from literature comprising WR measurements across moisture......Soil-water content (θ) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are key factors controlling the occurrence and magnitude of soil-water repellency (WR). Although expressions have recently been proposed to describe the nonlinear variation of WR with θ, the inclusion of easily measurable parameters in predictive...... WR(θ) models is still lacking. In this study, a simple empirical beta function was suggested to describe the effect of changing soil-water content on the change of WR given as apparent contact angle (α) measured by the molarity of ethanol droplet (MED) method. The beta function for predicting α...

  12. Towards a kinetic energy density functional for the water molecule (United States)

    Akin-Ojo, Omololu; Shittu, Doyin

    Development of an accurate kinetic energy kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) is a holy grail. In this work, local KEDFS are parameterized for the water molecule in order to reproduce Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) results. Energies, forces and dipole moments from these KEDFs are presented. Problems with the convergence of the self-consistent-field (SCF) calculations are discussed together with possible solutions. and: Theoretical and Applied Physics Dept. African Univ. of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Nigeria.

  13. Forced Displacement and Refugee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutinwa: Forced Displacement and Refugee Rights in the Great Lakes 1 3 with the new problems associated with refugees, such as those outlined above. An effective system for refugee protection must be holistic and address the refugee problem at the levels of pre- vention, response and solution. At the level of prevention, ...

  14. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva


    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  15. Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis (United States)


    CONTRACT NUMBER Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis PDMC 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ms... infographic /iraq_cccm_idp_settlement_status_map_ 16_July_2015 xxii DTM ROUND XXII JUNE 2015 xxiii REACH, Vulnerability, Needs and Intentions of

  16. Permeability of displaced fractures (United States)

    Kluge, Christian; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido


    Flow along fractures or in fissured systems becomes increasingly important in the context of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), shale gas recovery or nuclear waste deposit. Commonly, the permeability of fractures is approximated using the Hagen-Poiseuille solution of Navier Stokes equation. Furthermore, the flow in fractures is assumed to be laminar flow between two parallel plates and the cubic law for calculating the velocity field is applied. It is a well-known fact, that fracture flow is strongly influenced by the fracture surface roughness and the shear displacement along the fracture plane. Therefore, a numerical approach was developed which calculates the flow pattern within a fracture-matrix system. The flow in the fracture is described by a free fluid flow and the flow in the matrix is assumed to be laminar and therefore validates Darcy's law. The presented approach can be applied for artificially generated fractures or real fractures measured by surface scanning. Artificial fracture surfaces are generated using the power spectral density of the surface height random process with a spectral exponent to define roughness. For calculating the permeability of such fracture-matrix systems the mean fracture aperture, the shear displacement and the surface roughness are considered by use of a 3D numerical simulator. By use of this approach correlation between shear displacement and mean aperture, shear displacement and permeability, as well as surface roughness and permeability can be obtained. Furthermore, the intrinsic measured permeability presents a combination of matrix and fracture permeability. The presented approach allows the separation and quantification of the absolute magnitudes of the matrix and the fracture permeability and the permeability of displaced fractures can be calculated. The numerical approach which is a 3D numerical simulation of the fracture-matrix system can be applied for artificial as well as real systems.

  17. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point in hot Arid Western India. 1*Priyabrata Santra, 1Mahesh Kumar, 1R N Kumawat, 1D K Painuli, 2K M Hati,. 3G B M Heuvelink and 3N H Batjes. 1ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI), Jopdhpur, Rajasthan, India ...

  18. Sulfanilic acid functionalized mesoporous SBA-15: A water-tolerant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 8. Sulfanilic acid functionalized mesoporous SBA-15: A water-tolerant solid acid catalyst for the synthesis of uracil fused spirooxindoles as antioxidant agents. Robabeh Baharfar Razieh Azimi. Regular Articles Volume 127 Issue 8 August 2015 pp 1389- ...

  19. Performance of an agricultural tractor in no tillage as a function of displacement speed and the seeders' tire inflation pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli; Cortez, Jorge Wilson; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Grotta, Danilo Cesar Checchio; Toledo, Anderson de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:


    The performance of an agricultural tractor under field conditions results from the tire wheel interaction together with its displacement speed. This work was developed to assess the performance of an agricultural tractor under the (75, 70, and 60 psi) tire inflation pressure conditions of a seeder and in two different gears providing speeds of 3.0 and 6.0 km h{sup -1}. The experiment took place at Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), at the Jaboticabal Campus, and was conducted by Laboratory of Machines and Agricultural Mechanization (LAMMA) at the Department of Rural Engineering. The delineation used was entirely randomized in a 2-factor factorial scheme (3 x 2) with 4 repetitions. We also observed that fuel consumption was influenced only by the tractor gear. Energy consumption was greater as speed increased, caused by gear shifting. The displacement speed was greater for the 75-psi pressure due to a lesser slippage in the seeder when under this pressure. Tractor slippage and initial stand did not change with the tested factors. (author)

  20. Functionalized sio2 microspheres for extracting oil from produced water

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Himanshu


    Functionalized material, methods of producing the functionalized material, and use thereof for separation processes such as but not limited to use for separating and extracting a dissolved organic foulant, charged contaminant or oily matter or any combination thereof from water, such as produced water, are provided. In an embodiment, the functionalized material is a mineral material, such as mica, silica (e.g. an SiO2 microsphere) or a metal oxide, and the outer surface of the material is functionalized with an alkyl chain or a perfluorinated species. In an embodiment, the method of making the functionalized material, includes: a) providing a mineral material; b) providing an alkyl chain and/or a perfluorinated species, the alkyl chain or perfluorinated species selected to dissolve organic foulants, charged contaminants or oily matter from water or any combination thereof; c) hydroxylating the material via a concentrated acid solution or a basic solution; and d) grafting the alkyl chain and/or the perfluorinated species onto the material via a silanation reaction.

  1. Periodic Density Functional Theory Study of Water Adsorption on the a-Quartz (101) Surface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Andrei V. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Kubicki, James D. [Pennsylvania State University; Sofo, Jorge O. [Pennsylvania State University


    Plane wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the atomic structure, preferred H2O adsorption sites, adsorption energies, and vibrational frequencies for water adsorption on the R-quartz (101) surface. Surface energies and atomic displacements on the vacuum-reconstructed, hydrolyzed, and solvated surfaces have been calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. By considering different initial positions of H2O molecules, the most stable structures of water adsorption at different coverages have been determined. Calculated H2O adsorption energies are in the range -55 to -65 kJ/mol, consistent with experimental data. The lowest and the highest O-H stretching vibrational bands may be attributed to different states of silanol groups on the watercovered surface. The dissociation energy of the silanol group on the surface covered by the adsorption monolayer is estimated to be 80 kJ/mol. The metastable states for the protonated surface bridging O atoms (Obr), which may lead to hydrolysis of siloxane bonds, have been investigated. The calculated formation energy of a Q2 center from a Q3 center on the (101) surface with 2/3 dense monolayer coverage is equal to 70 kJ/mol which is in the range of experimental activation energies for quartz dissolution.

  2. Tests for character displacement. (United States)

    Sinclair, D F; Mosimann, J E; Meeter, D A


    Character displacement is an important concept in ecology which has been surrounded by controversy due largely to a lack of clearly stated hypotheses and statistical tests. Existing tests implicity assume random species sizes estimated without error--a random-effects model. We introduce the log-uniform distribution for species sizes and show that it has properties of direct relevance to character displacement. We present tests which assume uniform and log-normal species sizes and have the log-uniform distribution as an alternative. The tests have low power for sample sizes typically encountered in ecology. The effect of estimating species sizes is small. The results exemplify the shortcomings of the traditional random-effects model for species sizes.

  3. Displacing the Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke...... and market as mutually exclusive (Mol 2008), care and market appear to be intertwined in political patient figures through which the organization is trying to manage and transform itself from the inside...

  4. Miniaturised optical displacement sensor (United States)

    Gindele, Frank; Gaul, Frank; Kraus, Silvio; Sigloch, Susanne; Teubner, Ulrich


    The primary object presented in this contribution is the miniaturization of a displacement sensor system with the potential for high accuracy measurements and for cost-effective production in polymers. The measurement of linear displacements can be performed by different methods e.g. magnetoresistive, potentiometric, electromagnetic or inductive encoder systems. For movements in the millimeter range and above the most precise systems are based on optical methods. The displacement measurement of our sensor system uses the intensity modulation of two amplitude gratings, moving relative to each other and illuminated by a LED. To increase the system resolution and the signal quality the grating/detector combination is divided into four areas which are phase shifted to each other. The grating period is 25 μm with a geometrical accuracy below 1 μm. The amplitude gratings have been processed on a glass substrate lithographically. Applying electro-discharge machining a miniaturised optical bench for the passive alignment of the optical and the opto-electronic components has been realised. The sensor has an overall size of 6x4x3 mm3 and is designed for the future replication in one single polymer part. In combination with an electronic interpolation the sensor will be capable for a sub-micrometer accuracy.

  5. Experimental determinations of correction factors as a function of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the radionuclide calibrators of the CRCN-NE, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceiao de Farias; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, MG (Brazil)


    In nuclear medicine, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radio-pharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The activity measurements are performed in reentrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. These equipment are sensitive to changes in radioactive sample geometry and its position within the chamber well. The purpose this work was to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators by means of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the well and to determine experimentally the correction factors for each radionuclide, recognizing the specific positions in which the measurements must be made to ensure the highest sensitivity. The highest activity was obtained between 6 and 8 cm from the bottom of the well for both radionuclide calibrators utilized at this work. (author)

  6. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science


    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One

  7. Displacement Data Assimilation (United States)

    Restrepo, J. M.; Rosenthal, S.; Venkataramani, S.


    Geometric corrections are blended with nonlinear/non-Gaussian estimation methods to produced improved data assimilation outcomes on problems where features are critical. Problems of this sort are the estimation of hurricane tracks, tracking jet meandering, front propagation, among many others. The geometric correction is made possible by a data preserving map. It makes corrections on phase, primarily, as well as in the amplitude. The displacement assimilation is embedded in the analysis stage of a nonlinear/non-Gaussian Bayesian data assimilation scheme, such as the path integral method. In addition to showing how the method improves upon the results, as compared to more standard methodologies.

  8. A new method to assess long term small sea-bottom vertical displacement in shallow water from bottom pressure sensor: the case of Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy (United States)

    Malservisi, R.; Chierici, F.; Iannaccone, G.; Guardato, S.; Pignagnoli, L.; Locritani, M.; Embriaco, D.; Donnarumma, G. P.; Rodgers, M.; Beranzoli, L.


    We present a new methodology aimed at assessing long term small vertical seafloor deformation in shallow water environments by using Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) measurements jointly with ancillary sea level, water column and barometric data. These measurements are presently acquired only in areas where the amount of vertical deformation is large and in deep water environment, where the noise induced by the sea state and other near surface disturbances is low. We applied the method to the data acquired in 2011 by a BPR deployed at about 96 m depth in the marine sector of the Campi Flegrei Caldera, during a quasi-symmetric seafloor uplift episode of a few centimeters amplitude. The method provides an estimation of the vertical uplift of the caldera of 2.5 +/- 1.3 cm achieving an unprecedented level of precision in the measurement of the seafloor vertical deformation in shallow water. We reached this result by taking into account the contribution of the BPR instrumental drift and the contribution of the sea water density variations, which can affect the measurement on the order of tens of centimeters. The estimation of the vertical deformation obtained in this way compares favorably with data acquired by a land based GPS station, which is located at the same distance from the area of maximum deformation as the BPR

  9. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda (United States)

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.


    provide a guideline for a sustainable exploration of groundwater resources within the investigated regions, relating to population movements and potential of aquifers. To achieve these objectives a) groundwater samples are collected and analyzed (microbiologically, chemically and physically) from all types of water points, boreholes and "protected" springs, during rainy, dry and intermediate seasons, b) a network of piezometers is being installed for monitoring groundwater level, and comparison with available rainfall data will define groundwater balance. During these steps results are compared with the population's displacement and density in order to quantify the consequences towards the groundwater resources. Preliminary results after microbiological analysis show the inadequacy of traditional "protected" springs in providing safe water. Feacal pollution is observed in "protected" springs even though it was not being observed before and during rehabilitation. It is mainly due to recent population concentration around the available water resources and the lack of comprehensive hydrogeological study of the functioning of the near surface aquifers. Accordingly all operations concerning spring rehabilitation are on hold. No evidence regarding microbiological contamination was found from borehole water samples. However, high concentration in ferrous iron and total iron was found in several boreholes. Concentrations in the water of weathered bedrock are expected and specific treatment is necessary.

  10. Management of an extremely displaced maxillary canine. (United States)

    Grande, Torsten; Stolze, Annemarie; Goldbecher, Heiko


    Aligning a displaced maxillary canine into the dental arch is one of the most complicated problems in orthodontics. In cases of extremely high displacement, the tooth is frequently removed surgically. Because of the upper canines' significance to dental esthetics and functional occlusion, such a decision is a very serious one. This case report illustrates the treatment of an extremely high displaced maxillary canine. The main diagnosis was the displacement and the retention of tooth 13 (in nearly horizontal position, apical to the neighboring teeth); further diagnoses were: transversal maxillary deficiency with frontal crowding and a distal bite of one premolar in width, a deep bite of 6 mm with contact in the palatal mucosa, mandibular midline deviation of 2.5 mm to the right, lingual eruption of teeth 32 and 42, retroinclination of the maxillary incisors, and retarded eruption of the permanent teeth. Initial treatment with active and functional appliances to correct the distal bite, midline deviation and deep bite. Surgical exposure of the high displaced canine at the age of 14. Onset of cuspid elongation with removable appliances and elastics, further movement with a transpalatinal bar and welded arm, and full alignment of the upper and lower arches with fixed appliances in both jaws. Stabilization of the orthodontic treatment results with retention devices. Duration of treatment: 5 years and 8 months. For the alignment of tooth 13, 2 years and 10 months were required; 1 year and 4 months were necessary with complete fixed appliance. The aim of this case report was to demonstrate the potential of aligning an extremely displaced canine. Because of the esthetic and functional importance of the upper canines, therapeutic alignment should be initiated, provided there are no indications to the contrary.

  11. An ion displacement membrame model. (United States)

    Hladky, S B; Harris, J D


    The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented.

  12. Strategies for displacing oil (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir


    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  13. Feature displacement interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt


    Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....

  14. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu


    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  15. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann


    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  16. Flexural behavior of visible light-cured composites as a function of temperature under water immersion test conditions. (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, T V; Hsiao, J


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature of the flexural behavior for four visible light-cured hybrid composite materials. Light-cured samples were post-cured for 24 h at 37 degrees C in 100% relative humidity prior to testing. Flexural tests were performed at the following water immersion temperatures: 5, 15, 25, 37, 45 and 55 degrees C, as well as in the dry condition which served as control. The following flexural property parameters were obtained as a function of test temperature: flexural strength, sigma fs, flexural modulus, Efs, flexural stress at 0.06% total offset strain, 0.06% (yield stress), and the total displacement at fracture, delta fs. Statistically significant differences (p creep behavior.

  17. The reliability of a functional agility test for water polo. (United States)

    Tucher, Guilherme; de Souza Castro, Flávio Antônio; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; Martins da Silva, António José Rocha


    Few functional agility tests for water polo take into consideration its specific characteristics. The preliminary objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an agility test for water polo players. Fifteen players (16.3 ± 1.8 years old) with a minimum of two years of competitive experience were evaluated. A Functional Test for Agility Performance (FTAP) was designed to represent the context of this sport. Several trials were performed to familiarize the athlete with the movement. Two experienced coaches measured three repetitions of the FTAP. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), 95% limit of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurements (SEM) were used for data analysis. It was considered that certain criteria of reliability measures were met. There was no significant difference between the repetitions, which may be explained by an effect of the evaluator, the ability of the players or fatigue (p > 0.05). The ICC average from evaluators was high (0.88). The SEM varied between 0.13 s and 0.49 s. The CV average considering each individual was near 6-7%. These values depended on the condition of measurement. As the FTAP contains some characteristics that create a degree of unpredictability, the same athlete may reach different performance results, increasing variability. An adjustment in the sample, familiarization and careful selection of subjects help to improve this situation and enhance the reliability of the indicators.

  18. The Reliability of a Functional Agility Test for Water Polo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucher Guilherme


    Full Text Available Few functional agility tests for water polo take into consideration its specific characteristics. The preliminary objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an agility test for water polo players. Fifteen players (16.3 ± 1.8 years old with a minimum of two years of competitive experience were evaluated. A Functional Test for Agility Performance (FTAP was designed to represent the context of this sport. Several trials were performed to familiarize the athlete with the movement. Two experienced coaches measured three repetitions of the FTAP. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, 95% limit of agreement (LOA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurements (SEM were used for data analysis. It was considered that certain criteria of reliability measures were met. There was no significant difference between the repetitions, which may be explained by an effect of the evaluator, the ability of the players or fatigue (p > 0.05. The ICC average from evaluators was high (0.88. The SEM varied between 0.13 s and 0.49 s. The CV average considering each individual was near 6-7%. These values depended on the condition of measurement. As the FTAP contains some characteristics that create a degree of unpredictability, the same athlete may reach different performance results, increasing variability. An adjustment in the sample, familiarization and careful selection of subjects help to improve this situation and enhance the reliability of the indicators.

  19. Point Coupled Displacement Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the...

  20. Production Functions for Water Delivery Systems: Analysis and Estimation Using Dual Cost Function and Implicit Price Specifications (United States)

    Teeples, Ronald; Glyer, David


    Both policy and technical analysis of water delivery systems have been based on cost functions that are inconsistent with or are incomplete representations of the neoclassical production functions of economics. We present a full-featured production function model of water delivery which can be estimated from a multiproduct, dual cost function. The model features implicit prices for own-water inputs and is implemented as a jointly estimated system of input share equations and a translog cost function. Likelihood ratio tests are performed showing that a minimally constrained, full-featured production function is a necessary specification of the water delivery operations in our sample. This, plus the model's highly efficient and economically correct parameter estimates, confirms the usefulness of a production function approach to modeling the economic activities of water delivery systems.

  1. Functional limits of agreement applied as a novel method comparison tool for accuracy and precision of inertial measurement unit derived displacement of the distal limb in horses. (United States)

    Olsen, Emil; Pfau, Thilo; Ritz, Christian


    Over ground motion analysis in horses is limited by a small number of strides and restraints of the indoor gait laboratory. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are transforming the knowledge of human motion and objective clinical assessment through the opportunity to obtain clinically relevant data under various conditions. When using IMUs on the limbs of horses to determine local position estimates, conditions with high dynamic range of both accelerations and rotational velocities prove particularly challenging. Here we apply traditional method agreement and suggest a novel method of functional data analysis to compare motion capture with IMUs placed over the fetlock joint in seven horses. We demonstrate acceptable accuracy and precision at less than or equal to 5% of the range of motion for detection of distal limb mounted cranio-caudal and vertical position. We do not recommend the use of the latero-medial position estimate of the distal metacarpus/metatarsus during walk where the average error is 10% and the maximum error 111% of the range. We also show that functional data analysis and functional limits of agreement are sensitive methods for comparison of cyclical data and could be applied to differentiate changes in gait for individuals across time and conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Does oxidation affect the water functionality of myofibrillar proteins? (United States)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Kristensen, Mette; Østdal, Henrik; Baron, Caroline P; Young, Jette F; Andersen, Henrik Jørgen


    Water-binding properties of myofibrils extracted from porcine muscle, and added hemoglobin with and without exposure to H2O2, were characterized using low-field proton NMR T2 relaxometry. The effects of pH and ionic strength in the samples were investigated as pH was adjusted to 5.4, 6.2, and 7.0 and ionic strength was adjusted to 0.29, 0.46, and 0.71 M, respectively. The formation of dityrosine as a measure of oxidative protein cross-linking revealed a significant increase in dityrosine concentrations upon H2O2 activation. The formation of dityrosine was strongly pH-dependent and increased with decreasing pH. In addition, increased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were observed upon addition of H2O2, implying that lipid oxidation was enhanced, however, with a different oxidation pattern as compared to the myofibrillar proteins. Low-field NMR relaxation measurements revealed reduced T2 relaxation times upon H2O2 activation, which corresponds to reduced water-holding capacity upon oxidation. However, a direct relationship between degree of oxidation and T2 relaxation time was not observed with various pH values and ionic strengths, and further studies are needed for a complete understanding of the effect of oxidation on myofibrillar functionality.

  3. Relationship between Class III malocclusion and hyoid bone displacement during swallowing: a cine-magnetic resonance imaging study. (United States)

    Gokce, Sila Mermut; Gokce, Hasan Suat; Gorgulu, Serkan; Karacay, Seniz; Akca, Eralp; Olmez, Huseyin


    The displacement of the hyoid bone (HB) is a critical biomechanical component of the swallowing function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the swallowing-induced vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB in subjects with 2 different magnitudes of skeletal Class III malocclusion, by means of real-time, balanced turbo-field-echo (B-TFE) cine-magnetic resonance imaging. The study population comprised 19 patients with mild skeletal Class III malocclusion, 16 with severe skeletal Class III malocclusion, and 20 with a skeletal Class I relationship. Before the commencement of the study, all subjects underwent cephalometric analysis to identify the nature of skeletal malformations. B-TFE images were obtained for the 4 consecutive stages of deglutition as each patient swallowed 10 mL of water, and the vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB were measured at each stage. At all stages of swallowing, the vertical position of the HB in the severe Class III malocclusion group was significantly lower than those in the mild Class III and Class I malocclusion groups. Similarly, the horizontal displacement of the HB was found to be significantly associated with the severity of malocclusion, i.e., the degree of Class III malocclusion, while the amount of anterior displacement of the HB decreased with an increase in the severity of the Class III deformity. Our findings indicate the existence of a relationship between the magnitude of Class III malocclusion and HB displacement during swallowing.

  4. Effects of Buoyancy Forces on Immiscible Water/Oil Displacements in a Vertically Oriented Porous Medium Effets des facteurs de flottabilité sur les déplacements non-miscibles eau/huile dans un milieu poreux vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunavu S. R.


    Full Text Available The effects of buoyancy forces on liquid-liquid displacement processes occurring in porous media are important in a variety of practical situations, in particular during the displacement of oil from partially-depleted underground reservoirs by means of aqueous solutions. Most previous studies involving the visualization of water/oil displacements in porous media have been undertaken in horizontal two-dimensional porous medium cells. The objective of the present work was to determine the effects of buoyancy forces; on the fingering pattern and oil recovery by conducting immiscible displacement experiments in two-dimensional consolidated porous medium cells aligned in the vertical plane. In order to obtain a clear understanding of the favourable and unfavourable effects of buoyancy forces, experiments were carried out in three different flow modes, namely horizontal, vertical upward, and vertical downward. As the effects of buoyancy forces are negligible for two-dimensional porous media in the horizontal flow mode, the recoveries obtained in this mode were used as a reference for comparison with those obtained in the two vertical modes. Displacements using five different density ratios were studied. The breakthrough time and percentage oil recovery were measured in each case. The effects of buoyancy forces, viscous forces, and capillary forces, as well as the injection flow rate, were also recorded. The results obtained indicate that the effects of buoyancy forces are very pronounced at low flow rates and low oil/water density ratios, and that even a slight increase in the flow rate causes the buoyancy forces to rapidly become less significant. Les facteurs de flottabilité exercent un effet important sur les déplacements liquide/liquide en milieu poreux dans toute une gamme de situations pratiques, en particulier lorsqu'on veut déplacer l'huile de roches réservoirs partiellement épuisées à l'aide de solutions aqueuses. La plupart des

  5. Internal displacement in eastern Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Rae


    Full Text Available The history of post-independent Burma is characterisedby numerous conflicts in this extraordinarily heterogeneous country. Since military rule began in 196 2 Burmahas witnessed gross human rights abuses andmassive displacement.

  6. Structure-function relationships in sapwood water transport and storage. (United States)

    Barbara L. Gartner; Frederick C. Meinzer


    Primary production by plants requires the loss of substantial quantities of water when the stomata are open for carbon assimilation. The delivery of that water to the leaves occurs through the xylem. The structure, condition, and quantity of the xylem control not only the transport efficiency but also the release of water from storage. For example, if there is high...

  7. Modified Feddes type stress reduction function for modeling root water uptake: Accounting for limited aeration and low water potential (United States)

    Peters, Andre; Durner, Wolfgang; Iden, Sascha C.


    Modeling water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum with the Richards equation requires a model for the sink term describing water uptake by plant roots. Despite recent progress in developing process-based models of water uptake by plant roots and water flow in aboveground parts of vegetation, effective models of root water uptake are widely applied and necessary for large-scale applications. Modeling root water uptake consists of three steps, (i) specification of the spatial distribution of potential uptake, (ii) reduction of uptake due to various stress sources, and (iii) enhancement of uptake in part of the simulation domain to describe compensation. We discuss the conceptual shortcomings of the frequently used root water uptake model of Feddes and suggest a simple but effective improvement of the model. The improved model parametrizes water stress in wet soil by a reduction scheme which is formulated as function of air content where water stress due to low soil water potential is described by the original approach of Feddes. The improved model is physically more consistent than Feddes' model because water uptake in wet soil is limited by aeration which is a function of water content. The suggested modification is particularly relevant for simulations in heterogeneous soils, because stress parameters are uniquely defined for the entire simulation domain, irrespective of soil texture. Numerical simulations of water flow and root water uptake in homogeneous and stochastic heterogeneous soils illustrate the effect of the new model on root water uptake and actual transpiration. For homogeneous fine-textured soils, root water uptake never achieves its potential rate. In stochastic heterogeneous soil, water uptake is more pronounced at the interfaces between fine and coarse regions which has potential implications for plant growth, nutrient uptake and depletion.

  8. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Chapagain, Ashok


    The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of

  9. Functional digital soil mapping for the prediction of available water capacity in Nigeria using legacy data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ugbaje, S.U.; Reuter, H.I.


    Soil information, particularly water storage capacity, is of utmost importance for assessing and managing land resources for sustainable land management. We investigated using digital soil mapping (DSM) and digital soil functional mapping (DSFM) procedures to predict available water capacity (AWC)

  10. Uncertainty in Fuzzy Membership Functions for a River Water Quality Management Problem


    Karmakar, Subhankar; Mujumdar, PP


    Uncertainty associated with fuzzy membership functions for a water quality management problem is addressed through interval grey numbers. The lower and upper bounds of the membership functions are expressed as interval grey numbers, and the membership functions are modeled as imprecise membership functions. A grey fuzzy optimization model for water quality management of a river system is developed. Application of the optimization model with imprecise membership functions is illustrated with a...

  11. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung


    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  12. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronca, Enrico, E-mail:; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail:; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)


    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  13. Displacement Processes in Stable Drainage Fronts (United States)

    Breen, S. J.; Pride, S. R.; Manga, M.


    Drainage fronts are stabilized at large bond number, when a low density nonwetting fluid displaces a high density wetting fluid from above. This is an ideal flow scenario for studying the correspondence between pore scale processes and continuum models because the front is a persistent macroscale feature that is propagated by discrete, multiplepore scale displacements. We present new observations of stable air/water drainage in thin, threedimensional, poured bead packs at varying capillary number. With backlighting and a high speed camera, we observe short range front velocities that are an order of magnitude larger than bulk pore velocity, consistent with previous studies in ordered 2D structures. We also quantify displacement lengths and front width. For comparison to continuum simulations, we measure saturation by light transmission continuously over a series of 1 cm length voxels. We focus on the critical nonwetting saturation (CNS, or "emergence point") at which voxels are percolated by air and continuum air permeability becomes nonzero. We find that mean CNS is capillary number dependent even at large bond number, with larger CNS at lower capillary number. Continuum simulations with an equivalent discretization demonstrate that CNS is a significant source of uncertainty for predictions of the time and saturation profile at chamber-length air breakthrough.

  14. Automating Recession Curve Displacement Recharge Estimation. (United States)

    Smith, Brennan; Schwartz, Stuart


    Recharge estimation is an important and challenging element of groundwater management and resource sustainability. Many recharge estimation methods have been developed with varying data requirements, applicable to different spatial and temporal scales. The variability and inherent uncertainty in recharge estimation motivates the recommended use of multiple methods to estimate and bound regional recharge estimates. Despite the inherent limitations of using daily gauged streamflow, recession curve displacement methods provide a convenient first-order estimate as part of a multimethod hierarchical approach to estimate watershed-scale annual recharge. The implementation of recession curve displacement recharge estimation in the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) RORA program relies on the subjective, operator-specific selection of baseflow recession events to estimate a gauge-specific recession index. This paper presents a parametric algorithm that objectively automates this tedious, subjective process, parameterizing and automating the implementation of recession curve displacement. Results using the algorithm reproduce regional estimates of groundwater recharge from the USGS Appalachian Valley and Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis, with an average absolute error of less than 2%. The algorithm facilitates consistent, completely automated estimation of annual recharge that complements more rigorous data-intensive techniques for recharge estimation. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  15. Job Displacement Among Single Mothers: (United States)

    Brand, Jennie E.; Thomas, Juli Simon


    Given the recent era of economic upheaval, studying the effects of job displacement has seldom been so timely and consequential. Despite a large literature associating displacement with worker well-being, relatively few studies focus on the effects of parental displacement on child well-being, and fewer still focus on implications for children of single parent households. Moreover, notwithstanding a large literature on the relationship between single motherhood and children’s outcomes, research on intergenerational effects of involuntary employment separations among single mothers is limited. Using 30 years of nationally representative panel data and propensity score matching methods, we find significant negative effects of job displacement among single mothers on children’s educational attainment and social-psychological well-being in young adulthood. Effects are concentrated among older children and children whose mothers had a low likelihood of displacement, suggesting an important role for social stigma and relative deprivation in the effects of socioeconomic shocks on child well-being. PMID:25032267

  16. Using Ecosystem Function in the Clean Water Act (United States)

    Clean, fresh water is one of our most precious natural resources. The Clean Water Act was enacted to control pollution. It has been highly successful in controlling pollution at the point of contamination. Yet, there are still areas where vast improvements need to be made. Enviro...

  17. Renal function, sodium and water homeostasis in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At baseline there were no differences in inulin clearance, PAH clearance, fractional excretion of sodium and free water excretion. During and after the saline infusion both groups showed a significant increase in sodium excretion with a reduction in water excretion, while the PAH and inulin clearances remained unchanged.

  18. Perceived Displacement explains Wolfpack Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš eŠimkovic


    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent’s body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit judgment is dissociated from the displacement obtained by the implicit measures. By manipulating the location of the pivot point, we show that it is not necessary to postulate orientation as an additional cue utilized by perception, as has been suggested by earlier studies. These studies showed that the agent’s orientation influences the detection of chasing motion and the detection-related performance in interactive tasks. This influence has been labeled wolfpack effect. In one of the demonstrations of the wolfpack effect participants control a green circle on a display with a computer mouse. It has been shown that participants avoid display areas withagents pointing towards the green circle. Participants do so in favor of areas where the agents point in the direction perpendicular to the circle. We show that this avoidance behavior arises because the agent’s pivot point selected by the earlier studies is different from where people locate the center of agent’s body. As a consequence, the nominal rotation confounds rotation and translation. We show that the avoidance behavior disappears once the pivot point is set to the center of agent’s body.

  19. Gaas Displacement Damage Dosimeter Based on Diode Dark Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warner Jeffrey H.


    Full Text Available GaAs diode dark currents are correlated over a very large proton energy range as a function of displacement damage dose (DDD. The linearity of the dark current increase with DDD over a wide range of applied voltage bias deems this device an excellent candidate for a displacement damage dosimeter. Additional proton testing performed in situ enabled error estimate determination to within 10% for simulated space use.

  20. A relative permeability model to derive fractional-flow functions of water-alternating-gas and surfactant-alternating-gas foam core-floods (United States)

    Idrees Al-Mossawy, Mohammed; Demiral, Birol; Raja, D. M. Anwar


    Foam is used in enhanced oil recovery to improve the sweep efficiency by controlling the gas mobility. The surfactant-alternating-gas (SAG) foam process is used as an alternative to the water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection. In the WAG technique, the high mobility and the low density of the gas lead the gas to flow in channels through the high permeability zones of the reservoir and to rise to the top of the reservoir by gravity segregation. As a result, the sweep efficiency decreases and there will be more residual oil in the reservoir. The foam can trap the gas in liquid films and reduces the gas mobility. The fractional-flow method describes the physics of immiscible displacements in porous media. Finding the water fractional flow theoretically or experimentally as a function of the water saturation represents the heart of this method. The relative permeability function is the conventional way to derive the fractional-flow function. This study presents an improved relative permeability model to derive the fractional-flow functions for WAG and SAG foam core-floods. The SAG flow regimes are characterized into weak foam, strong foam without a shock front and strong foam with a shock front.

  1. Special Programming for Displaced Homemakers. (United States)

    Swift, John S.; And Others


    Displaced homemakers returning to college need special services. These programs were developed by one university's center for women: Project Succeed, Back to School Workshops, and Special Programs to Build Self-Confidence. These programs were developed to provide on-the-job training while in college, help adults returning to college earn a degree,…

  2. Retraining Displaced Workers. Policy Brief (United States)

    LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel


    Robert LaLonde of the University of Chicago and Daniel Sullivan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago suggest that retraining through our nation's community colleges is a way to reduce the skills gaps of at least some of these displaced workers and increase their reemployment earnings. Although workers may still experience significant earnings…

  3. Polymer functionalized nanostructured porous silicon for selective water vapor sensing at room temperature (United States)

    Dwivedi, Priyanka; Das, Samaresh; Dhanekar, Saakshi


    This paper highlights the surface treatment of porous silicon (PSi) for enhancing the sensitivity of water vapors at room temperature. A simple and low cost technique was used for fabrication and functionalization of PSi. Spin coated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used for functionalizing PSi surface. Morphological and structural studies were conducted to analyze samples using SEM and XRD/Raman spectroscopy respectively. Contact angle measurements were performed for assessing the wettability of the surfaces. PSi and functionalized PSi samples were tested as sensors in presence of different analytes like ethanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and water vapors in the range of 50-500 ppm. Electrical measurements were taken from parallel aluminium electrodes fabricated on the functionalized surface, using metal mask and thermal evaporation. Functionalized PSi sensors in comparison to non-functionalized sensors depicted selective and enhanced response to water vapor at room temperature. The results portray an efficient and selective water vapor detection at room temperature.

  4. Effect of water - based exercise on motor function, balance function and walking ability in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-zhao WANG


    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of water-based exercise on motor function, balance function and walking ability in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD.  Methods Forty patients with primary PD were randomly divided into conventional land-based rehabilitation therapy group (land-based group, N = 20 and water-based exercise group (water-based group, N = 20. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Ⅲ (UPDRS Ⅲ was used to evaluate the patients' motor function. Berg Balance Scale (BBS and Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT were used to evaluate balance function. The 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT and 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT were used to evaluate walking ability. All the tests were carried out before and after 8-week training in 2 groups.  Results Patients in both groups had a significant decrease on UPDRS Ⅲ score (P = 0.000, TUGT (P = 0.000 after training, while they had a significant increase on BBS score (P = 0.000, 6MWT (P = 0.000 and 10MWT (P = 0.000. The water-based group had significantly lower UPDRSⅢ score (P = 0.037, shorter TUGT (P = 0.013 and higher BBS score (P = 0.018 than those in land-based group after training.  Conclusions Both conventional land-based training and water-based training had positive effect on motor function, balance function and walking ability in PD patients. The water-based training had more positive effect than land-based therapy on motor function and balance function. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.05.006

  5. The function of advanced treatment process in a drinking water treatment plant with organic matter-polluted source water. (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhang, Shuting; Zhang, Shenghua; Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Xin


    To understand the relationship between chemical and microbial treatment at each treatment step, as well as the relationship between microbial community structure in biofilms in biofilters and their ecological functions, a drinking water plant with severe organic matter-polluted source water was investigated. The bacterial community dynamics of two drinking water supply systems (traditional and advanced treatment processes) in this plant were studied from the source to the product water. Analysis by 454 pyrosequencing was conducted to characterize the bacterial diversity in each step of the treatment processes. The bacterial communities in these two treatment processes were highly diverse. Proteobacteria, which mainly consisted of beta-proteobacteria, was the dominant phylum. The two treatment processes used in the plant could effectively remove organic pollutants and microbial polution, especially the advanced treatment process. Significant differences in the detection of the major groups were observed in the product water samples in the treatment processes. The treatment processes, particularly the biological pretreatment and O 3 -biological activated carbon in the advanced treatment process, highly influenced the microbial community composition and the water quality. Some opportunistic pathogens were found in the water. Nitrogen-relative microorganisms found in the biofilm of filters may perform an important function on the microbial community composition and water quality improvement.

  6. Sulfanilic acid functionalized mesoporous SBA-15: A water-tolerant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    led to a water-tolerant solid acid catalyst, SBA-15-PhSO3H, which showed excellent catalytic performance in synthesis of uracil-fused spirooxindoles in aqueous ethanol. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Keywords.

  7. Phytoplankton diversity and abundance as a function of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality and phytoplankton composition of two Reservoirs (Bomo and Kubanni) in Zaria, Nigeria, were investigated for their fish production potentials from April to June 2011. April represented the dry period, while May and June were months with rains. Physicochemical parameters of the two Reservoirs showed ...

  8. Water ecosystem service function assessment based on eco-hydrological process in Luanhe Basin,China (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Hao, C.; Qin, T.; Wang, G.; Weng, B.


    At present, ecological water are mainly occupied by a rapid development of social economic and population explosion, which seriously threat the ecological security and water security in watershed and regional scale. Due to the lack of a unified standard of measuring the benefit of water resource, social economic and ecosystem, the water allocation can't take place in social economic and ecosystem. The function which provided by water in terrestrial, aquatic and social economic system can be addressed through water ecosystem service function research, and it can guide the water allocation in water resource management. The function which provided by water in terrestrial, aquatic and social economic system can be addressed through water ecosystem service function research, and it can guide the water allocation in water resource management. Throughout the researches of water ecosystem service, a clear identification of the connection of water ecosystem service function has not been established, and eco-economic approach can't meet the practical requirement of water allocation. Based on "nature-artificiality" dual water cycle theory and eco-hydrological process, this paper proposes a connection and indicator system of water ecosystem service function. In approach, this paper establishes an integrated assessment approach through prototype observation technology, numerical simulation, physical simulation and modern geographic information technology. The core content is to couple an eco-hydrological model, which involves the key processes of distributed hydrological model (WEP), ecological model (CLM-DGVM), in terms of eco-hydrological process. This paper systematically evaluates the eco-hydrological process and evolution of Luanhe Basin in terms of precipitation, ET, runoff, groundwater, ecosystem's scale, form and distribution. According to the results of eco-hydrological process, this paper assesses the direct and derived service function. The result indicates that the

  9. Some Considerations on Horizontal Displacement and Horizontal Displacement Coefficient B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajduś Krzysztof


    Full Text Available Mining-induced deformations of the ground surface and within the rock mass may pose danger not only for surface constructions but also for underground objects (e.g., tunnels, underground storages, garages, diverse types of pipelines, electric cables, etc. For a proper evaluation of hazard for surface and underground objects, such parameters as horizontal displacement and horizontal deformations, especially their maximum values, are of crucial importance. The paper is an attempt at a critical review of hitherto accomplished studies and state of the art of predicting horizontal displacement u, in particular the coefficient B, whose value allows determination of the value of maximum displacement if the value of maximum slope is known, or the value of maximum deformation if the value of maximum trough slope is recognized. Since the geodesic observations of fully developed subsidence troughs suggest that the value of the coefficient depends on the depth H, radius of main influences range r and properties of overburden rock, in particular the occurrence of sub-eras Paleogene and Neogene layers (old name: Quaternary and Tertiary with low strength parameters, therefore a formula is provided in the present paper allowing for the estimation of the influence of those factors on the value of coefficient B.

  10. Estimating Hydrologic Processes from Subsurface Soil Displacements (United States)

    Freeman, C. E.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L.; MIller, S.


    Soil moisture and the processes that control it are important components of the hydrologic cycle, but measuring these processes remains challenging. We have developed a new measurement method that offers flexibility compared to existing technology. The approach is to measure small vertical displacements in the soil which responds proportionally to distributed surface load changes such as variation in the near-surface water content. The instrument may be installed at a depth of several meters to hundreds of meters below the surface. Because the measurement averaging region scales with the depth of the displacement measurements, this approach provides the means for estimating the soil moisture time series over tens of square meters to tens of thousands of square meters. The instrument developed for this application is called a Sand-X, which is short for Sand Extensometer. It is designed for applications in unconsolidated material, ranging from clay to sand. The instrument is simple and relatively inexpensive, and it can be installed in a boring made with a hand auger or with a small drill rig. Studies at the field scale are ongoing at a field site near Clemson, SC. The site is underlain by saprolite weathered primarily from biotite gneiss. Several Sand-X devices are installed at a field site that is instrumented for validating soil moisture, precipitation, and evapotranspiration estimates. These instruments are emplaced at a depth of 6 m and respond to the weight of a vehicle out to 18 m from the well. Calibration is performed by comparing precipitation measurements to the soil displacement response. For example, the coefficient for one installation is roughly 185 nm soil displacement/mm water content change. The resolution of the instrument is approximately 10 nm, so the Sand-X is capable of detecting changes of soil moisture on the order of tenths of one mm in compliant soils like saprolite. A typical soil displacement time series shows alternating periods of

  11. Integrated control and health monitoring capacitive displacement sensor development task. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program (United States)

    Collamore, Frank N.


    The development of a miniature multifunction turbomachinery shaft displacement sensor using state-of-the-art non-contract capacitive sensing technology is described. Axial displacement, radial displacement, and speed are sensed using a single probe within the envelope normally required for a single function. A survey of displacement sensing technology is summarized including inductive, capacitive, optical and ultrasonic techniques. The design and operation of an experimental triple function sensor is described. Test results are included showing calibration tests and simultaneous dynamic testing of multiple functions. Recommendations for design changes are made to improve low temperature performance, reliability, and for design of a flight type signal conditioning unit.

  12. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.


    Bacterioplankton play a key role in marine waters facilitating processes important for carbon cycling. However, the influence of specific bacterial populations and environmental conditions on bacterioplankton community performance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...... of common drivers of bacterioplankton community functions in two different systems indicates that the drivers may be of broader relevance in coastal temperate waters....

  13. Estimation of permanent displacements of the Tehri dam in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    water content, compaction effort, etc., which often can not be properly quantified. Also often the exact direction of the ... In order to meet the huge demand for power by the industries and ever increasing population, .... permanent displacements take place whenever the rigid body acceleration,Kmax, of a potential sliding mass ...

  14. Calibrating optical bubble size by the displaced-mass method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.; Cohen, L.H.


    Bubble sizing by optical means is very common, but requires calibration by non-optical means. This is particularly important since apparent bubble size increases with decreasing threshold intensity. A calibration experiment was conducted comparing the displaced water mass from captured bubbles with

  15. Ecological and functional adaptations to water management in a semiarid agroecosystem: a soil metaproteomics approach. (United States)

    Starke, Robert; Bastida, Felipe; Abadía, Joaquín; García, Carlos; Nicolás, Emilio; Jehmlich, Nico


    Climate change models point to a decrease in water availability in semiarid areas that would compromise the maintenance of sustainable agriculture. Here, we used a grapefruit agroecosystem model to evaluate the responses of the active soil microbial community - as a microbial subset directly involved in soil functionality- undergoing strategies to cope with the low water availability in south-east Spain. For this purpose, we tested the impacts of: (i) water quality: transfer-water from a river (TW) or reclaimed-water from a wastewater-treatment plant (RW); and (ii) water quantity: continuous optimal amount of water or reduced irrigation (RDI) in the temporal frame when the crop is less sensitive; and their interactions. Metaproteomics revealed that the phylogenetic diversity of the active community and its functional diversity were lowered in soils with RW. RDI lowered soil respiration and functional diversity while the phylogenetic diversity remained constant. The reestablishment of full irrigation after RDI led to a recovery of soil respiration that was accompanied by an enhanced abundance of resilient bacterial populations. Bacterial populations displayed molecular mechanisms against water stress that have been conserved evolutionarily in plants. Protein-based studies shed light on ecological and functional mechanisms that govern the adaptive responses of soil microbial communities to climate-change friendly water management.

  16. Effects of a deep-water running program on muscle function and functionality in elderly women community dwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Alberti


    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS The aim of the study was to determine the effects of deep-water running on muscle function and functionality in community dwelling old women. METHODS Older women (n=19 were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: deep-water running (DWR: n=09, 64.33±4.24 years, 75.15±12.53 kg, 160.45±7.52 cm; or control group CG: n=10, 64.40±4.22 years, 74.46±12.39 kg, 158.88±5.48 cm. The DWR group carried out 18 weeks of deep-water running, twice/week 50 min sessions. Dynamic isokinetic strength for the lower limb and functionality was assessed before and after intervention. RESULTS DWR group increased peak torque, total work and average power of the knee and hip flexors and extensors. Additionally showed better performance on gait speed, timed up and go test, five-times-sit-to-stand-test repetitions from a chair as well as the six-minute walk test. CONCLUSION The deep-water running program was effective to improve muscle function and functionality.

  17. Density and Compressibility of Liquid Water and Ice from First-Principles Simulations with Hybrid Functionals. (United States)

    Gaiduk, Alex P; Gygi, François; Galli, Giulia


    We determined the equilibrium density and compressibility of water and ice from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations using gradient-corrected (PBE) and hybrid (PBE0) functionals. Both functionals predicted the density of ice to be larger than that of water, by 15 (PBE) and 35% (PBE0). The PBE0 functional yielded a lower density of both ice and water with respect to PBE, leading to better agreement with experiment for ice but not for liquid water. Approximate inclusion of dispersion interactions on computed molecular-dynamics trajectories led to a substantial improvement of the PBE0 results for the density of liquid water, which, however, resulted to be slightly lower than that of ice.

  18. β-Cyclodextrin functionalized carbon quantum dots as sensors for determination of water-soluble C60 fullerenes in water. (United States)

    Cayuela, Angelina; Laura Soriano, M; Valcárcel, Miguel


    A selective photoluminescence method based on Carbon Quantum Dots (CQDs) functionalized with carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin for the direct determination of water-soluble C60 fullerene has been developed. CQDs were synthesized using a top-down methodology from multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and further functionalized with N-Boc-ethylenediamine to confer monoprotected amine groups onto their surface. Once amine-functionalized CQDs were obtained after deprotection, an amidation reaction with carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin cavitands was achieved and the obtained fluorescent β-cyclodextrin functionalized Carbon Quantum Dots (cd-CQDs) were investigated for the inclusion complexation of water-soluble C60. Quenching of their fluorescence was observed owing to the non-covalent self-assembly of cd-CQDs and C60, making possible the quantification of C60. A method to determine water-soluble C60 is then proposed with detection and quantification limits of 0.525 and 1.751 μg mL(-1), respectively. The method was validated by determining soluble C60 fullerene in spiked river water. One added value of the paper is the fact that it can be ascribed to the "Third Way in Analytical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology".

  19. Structural Waters Define a Functional Channel Mediating Activation of the GPCR, rhodopsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, T.; Gupta, S; Jastrzebska, B; Palczewski, K; Chance, M


    Structural water molecules may act as prosthetic groups indispensable for proper protein function. In the case of allosteric activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), water likely imparts structural plasticity required for agonist-induced signal transmission. Inspection of structures of GPCR superfamily members reveals the presence of conserved embedded water molecules likely important to GPCR function. Coupling radiolytic hydroxyl radical labeling with rapid H2O18 solvent mixing, we observed no exchange of these structural waters with bulk solvent in either ground state or for the Meta II or opsin states. However, the radiolysis approach permitted labeling of selected side chain residues within the transmembrane helices and revealed activation-induced changes in local structural constraints likely mediated by dynamics of both water and protein. These results suggest both a possible general mechanism for water-dependent communication in family A GPCRs based on structural conservation, and a strategy for probing membrane protein structure.

  20. Enhancement of Hydrophobic Solvation by Hydrophilic Functional Groups: Trehalose and Kojibiose in Water (United States)

    Kramer Campen, R.; Vila Verde, Ana


    The structure and dynamics of water around biomacromolecules differs significantly from that of water in bulk in ways critical for biological function. The manner in which water structure differs is a function of both chemical and topological heterogeneity. Attempts to disentangle these effects have generally focussed on solvation of large molecules at either particular locations or in an averaged sense. In either case, understanding how chemical and topological heterogeneity combine can be difficult. Here we circumvent this problem by examining, in all atom simulations, water structure around the disaccharides Trehalose and Kojibiose. Taken together water structure around these molecules provides a series of internal control experiments for disentangling topological and chemical effects and allows us to conclude that, in the case of Trehalose, topological effects can lead to slow down of water reorientation by a factor of 2 relative to a chemically equivalent system.

  1. A density functional theory study of the benzene-water complex. (United States)

    Li, Shen; Cooper, Valentino R; Thonhauser, T; Puzder, Aaron; Langreth, David C


    The intermolecular interaction of the benzene-water complex is calculated using real-space pseudopotential density functional theory utilizing a van der Waals density functional. Our results for the intermolecular potential energy surface clearly show a stable configuration with the water molecule standing above or below the benzene with one or both of the H atoms pointing toward the benzene plane, as predicted by previous studies. However, when the water molecule is pulled outside the perimeter of the ring, the configuration of the complex becomes unstable, with the water molecule attaching in a saddle point configuration to the rim of the benzene with its O atom adjacent to a benzene H. We find that this structural change is connected to a change in interaction from H (water)/pi cloud (benzene) to O (water)/H (benzene). We compare our results for the ground-state structure with results from experiments and quantum-chemical calculations.

  2. Displacement determinations of synergistic motion platform jacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Кабанячий


    Full Text Available Urgency, statement and precise solution of displacement determinations problem of synergistic motion platform jacks depending on construction parameters and desired displacements along degrees of freedom are represented

  3. Artificial Neural Network for Displacement Vectors Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bohmann


    Full Text Available An artificial neural network (NN for displacement vectors (DV determination is presented in this paper. DV are computed in areas which are essential for image analysis and computer vision, in areas where are edges, lines, corners etc. These special features are found by edges operators with the following filtration. The filtration is performed by a threshold function. The next step is DV computation by 2D Hamming artificial neural network. A method of DV computation is based on the full search block matching algorithms. The pre-processing (edges finding is the reason why the correlation function is very simple, the process of DV determination needs less computation and the structure of the NN is simpler.

  4. Note: Assessment of the SCAN+rVV10 functional for the structure of liquid water. (United States)

    Wiktor, Julia; Ambrosio, Francesco; Pasquarello, Alfredo


    The performance of the SCAN+rVV10 functional in modeling the structural properties of liquid water is studied through constant-volume ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with both classical and quantum nuclei. The radial distribution functions are found to be slightly overstructured with respect to experiment, but overall similar to those achieved with the bare SCAN and the rVV10 functionals. From the pressures calculated during the dynamics, it is inferred that the SCAN+rVV10 functional leads to a noticeable overestimation of the density of liquid water.

  5. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions. (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo


    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  6. Accounting for multiple functions in environmental life cycle assessment of storm water management solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rygaard, Martin

    The wide range of approaches to handle storm water runoff have varying effects on the environment. Local stormwater control measures for retention and treatment are increasingly used components in urban climate adaptation plans. Often, these solutions modify the multiple functions of urban...... environments by adding green and blue elements, and they change the water balance compared to traditional, underground approaches. Additionally, different implementation and maintenance processes are required. All of these transformations affect the environmental impacts of urban storm water management (SWM...

  7. Effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis) growth and functional quality


    Ahmed, Selena; Orians, Colin M.; Griffin, Timothy S; Buckley, Sarabeth; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Stratton, Anne Elise; Stepp, John Richard; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Kennelly, Edward J.


    Extreme shifts in water availability linked to global climate change are impacting crops worldwide. The present study examines the direct and interactive effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae) growth and functional quality. Manipulative greenhouse experiments were used to measure the effects of variable water availability and pest pressures simulated by jasmonic acid (JA) on tea leaf growth and secondary metabolites that determine tea quality. Wa...

  8. ENSIS, Pollution inventory, pollution budget model, water quality model and scenario handling. Functional specification


    Bakken, T.H.; Bjørkenes, A.; Dagestad, K.


    Årsliste 2003 This is the functional specification of a complete pollution budget model for water. A crucial improvement of this model is implementation of new pollution sources and modification of existing sources. The specification of a water quality model, based on the results from the pollution budget model is also included. The document is intended to give a cost and time estimate of the programming of the functionality it describes, and will be the guideline for implementation of the...

  9. Effect of cold storage on stomatal functionality, water relations and flower performance in cut roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, Ernst J.; Paillart, Maxence J.M.


    Symptoms of water stress are the most frequent cause for the “end of vase life” in prior stored roses. It was hypothesized that dark storage may alter the stomatal functionality and may cause water balance problems during the subsequent vase life period. The effect of short- and long-term storage

  10. Capillary pressure as a unique function of electric permittivity and water saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, W.J.; Slob, E.; Van Turnhout, J.; Bruining, J.


    The relation between capillary pressure (Pc) and interfacial area has been investigated by measuring Pc and the electric permittivity at 100 kHz simultaneously as function of the water saturation, (Sw). Drainage and imbibition experiments have been conducted for sand-distilled water-gas (CO2/N2)

  11. Uncertainty in Multimodel Water Flow Simulation Associated with Pedotransfer Functions and Weighing Methods (United States)

    Multimodeling (MM) has been developed during the last decade to improve prediction capability of hydrological models. The MM combined with the pedotransfer functions (PTFs) was successfully applied to soil water flow simulations. This study examined the uncertainty in water content simulations assoc...

  12. Functional roles of lower-limb joint moments while walking in water. (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tasuku; Shirota, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami


    To clarify the functional roles of lower-limb joint moments and their contribution to support and propulsion tasks while walking in water compared with that on land. Sixteen healthy, young subjects walked on land and in water at several different speeds with and without additional loads. Walking in water is a major rehabilitation therapy for patients with orthopedic disorders. However, the functional role of lower-limb joint moments while walking in water is still unclear. Kinematics, electromyographic activities in biceps femoris and gluteus maximums, and ground reaction forces were measured under the following conditions: walking on land and in water at a self-determined pace, slow walking on land, and fast walking in water with or without additional loads (8 kg). The hip, knee, and ankle joint moments were calculated by inverse dynamics. The contribution of the walking speed increased the hip extension moment, and the additional weight increased the ankle plantar flexion and knee extension moment. The major functional role was different in each lower-limb joint muscle. That of the muscle group in the ankle is to support the body against gravity, and that of the muscle group involved in hip extension is to contribute to propulsion. In addition, walking in water not only reduced the joint moments but also completely changed the inter-joint coordination. It is of value for clinicians to be aware that the greater the viscosity of water produces a greater load on the hip joint when fast walking in water.

  13. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic centimeter...

  14. Functional polyketones for the removal of calcium and magnesium from water (Part II) : cross-linking and functional characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figaroa, Patrick; Miedema, Henk; Euverink, Gerrit; Picchioni, Francesco

    Functional polyketones were chemically cross-linked for the softening of hard water, i.e. for the removal of the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. Elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, solubility- and swelling-experiments were used to demonstrate the occurrence of the cross-link reaction. Testing

  15. Multi-functional surfaces with controllable wettability and water adhesion (United States)

    Anastasiadis, Spiros H.; Frysali, Melani A.; Kenanakis, George; Kaklamani, Georgia; Papoutsakis, Lampros

    The design of multifunctional surfaces based on biomimetic structures has gained the interest of the scientific community. Novel multifunctional surfaces have been developed, able to alter their wetting properties in response to temperature and pH as well as light illumination, by combining proper chemistry and surface micro/nano-structuring using ultrafast (femtosecond) laser irradiation. The combination of the hierarchical surface with a ZnO and/or a responsive polymer coating results in efficient photo-active properties as well as reversible superhydrophobic / superhydrophilic surfaces in response to external stimuli. These surfaces can be optimized to exhibit high or zero water adhesion and/or controllable directionality as well. Moreover, they can be seeded with human fibroblasts to examine the cellular response on both surface roughness and surface chemistry. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the General Secretariat for Research and Technology (''ARISTEIA II'' Action, SMART-SURF) and the European Union (NFFA Europe -Grant agreement No. 654360).

  16. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo


    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  17. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao


    Full Text Available The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  18. Dynamic Measurement of Air Permeability as a Function of Water Content (United States)

    Crenshaw, A. D.; Tyner, J. S.


    Determining the air permeability of a soil column as a function of water content is typically a tedious task because each measurement of permeability requires a constant water content over space and time. Between each individual measurement of permeability, the water content of the sample must be modified and allowed to equilibrate. A dynamic air permeability test is proposed that measures airflow rate, water content, and air pressure, while continually modifying the water content. Dry air is pumped into the inlet of an initially wet soil column, which slowly dries the soil within approximately 24-48 hours. A computer controlled gamma ray attenuation system measures and logs the water content along the length of the soil column over time. Hypodermic needles are inserted into the soil column and connected to pressure transducers, which measure the air pressure at multiple locations over time. An electronic flow meter logs the airflow rate over time. These measurements enable direct calculation of air permeability as a function of water content. Due to the large number of air pressure and water content measurements along the length of the soil column, the air permeability functions of individual layers can be distinguished from the remainder of the soil core. Because all measurements are computer controlled and logged, the system is completely autonomous.

  19. Conversion function between the Linke turbidity and the atmospheric water vapor and aerosol content


    Ineichen, Pierre


    This technical note presents a conversion function between the widely used Linke turbidity coefficient TL, the atmospheric water vapor and urban aerosol content. It takes into account the altitude of the application site. The function is based on radiative transfer calculations and validated with the help of an independent clear sky model. Its precision is around 0.12 units of TL.

  20. Displacement of squeezed propagating microwave states (United States)

    Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, Ling; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Friedrich; Xie, Edwar; Menzel, Edwin; Deppe, Frank; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf

    Displacement of propagating squeezed states is a fundamental operation for quantum communications. It can be applied to fundamental studies of macroscopic quantum coherence and has an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with propagating microwaves. We generate propagating squeezed states using a Josephson parametric amplifier and implement displacement using a cryogenic directional coupler. We study single- and two-mode displacement regimes. For the single-mode displacement we find that the squeezing level of the displaced squeezed state does not depend on the displacement amplitude. Also, we observe that quantum entanglement between two spatially separated channels stays constant across 4 orders of displacement power. We acknowledge support by the German Research Foundation through SFB 631 and FE 1564/1-1, the EU project PROMISCE, and Elite Network of Bavaria through the program ExQM.

  1. Hydrological-niche models predict water plant functional group distributions in diverse wetland types. (United States)

    Deane, David C; Nicol, Jason M; Gehrig, Susan L; Harding, Claire; Aldridge, Kane T; Goodman, Abigail M; Brookes, Justin D


    Human use of water resources threatens environmental water supplies. If resource managers are to develop policies that avoid unacceptable ecological impacts, some means to predict ecosystem response to changes in water availability is necessary. This is difficult to achieve at spatial scales relevant for water resource management because of the high natural variability in ecosystem hydrology and ecology. Water plant functional groups classify species with similar hydrological niche preferences together, allowing a qualitative means to generalize community responses to changes in hydrology. We tested the potential for functional groups in making quantitative prediction of water plant functional group distributions across diverse wetland types over a large geographical extent. We sampled wetlands covering a broad range of hydrogeomorphic and salinity conditions in South Australia, collecting both hydrological and floristic data from 687 quadrats across 28 wetland hydrological gradients. We built hydrological-niche models for eight water plant functional groups using a range of candidate models combining different surface inundation metrics. We then tested the predictive performance of top-ranked individual and averaged models for each functional group. Cross validation showed that models achieved acceptable predictive performance, with correct classification rates in the range 0.68-0.95. Model predictions can be made at any spatial scale that hydrological data are available and could be implemented in a geographical information system. We show the response of water plant functional groups to inundation is consistent enough across diverse wetland types to quantify the probability of hydrological impacts over regional spatial scales. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Olive response to water availability: yield response functions, soil water content indicators and evaluation of adaptability to climate change (United States)

    Riccardi, Maria; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Menenti, Massimo; Monaco, Eugenia; De Lorenzi, Francesca


    Climate evolution, with the foreseen increase of temperature and frequency of drought events during the summer, could cause significant changes in the availability of water resources specially in the Mediterranean region. European countries need to encourage sustainable agriculture practices, reducing inputs, especially of water, and minimizing any negative impact on crop quantity and quality. Olive is an important crop in the Mediterranean region that has traditionally been cultivated with no irrigation and is known to attain acceptable production under dry farming. Therefore this crop will not compete for foreseen reduced water resources. However, a good quantitative knowledge must be available about effects of reduced precipitation and water availability on yield. Yield response functions, coupled with indicators of soil water availability, provide a quantitative description of the cultivar- specific behavior in relation to hydrological conditions. Yield response functions of 11 olive cultivars, typical of Mediterranean environment, were determined using experimental data (unpublished or reported in scientific literature). The yield was expressed as relative yield (Yr); the soil water availability was described by means of different indicators: relative soil water deficit (RSWD), relative evapotranspiration (RED) and transpiration deficit (RTD). Crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions and exhibit threshold responses, so for the yield functions of each olive cultivar both linear regression and threshold-slope models were considered to evaluate the best fit. The level of relative yield attained in rain-fed conditions was identified and defined as the acceptable yield level (Yrrainfed). The value of the indicator (RSWD, RED and RTD) corresponding to Yrrainfed was determined for each cultivar and indicated as the critical value of water availability. The error in the determination of the critical value was estimated. By means of a

  3. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality Versus Design (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.


    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmember food and drinking packages. There is one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. Shuttle mission STS-126 delivered the USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) to ISS on ULF2; subsequent activation occurred on November 2008. The PWD is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six, but nominally supplies only half this crew size. The PWD design provides incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US food and beverage packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Water Recovery System (WRS) Fuel Cell Water Bus, which feeds from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 L of hot water (65 to 93 ?C) every 30 min. During a single meal, this quantity of water supports three to four crewmembers? food rehydration and beverages. The unit design has a functional life expectancy of 10 years, with replacement of limited life items, such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance is acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there were several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is discussed for the following key areas: 1) microbial contamination, 2) no-dispense and water leakage scenarios, and 3) under-dispense scenarios.

  4. Case Report: Transoral retrieval of a displaced mandibular tooth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental displacement of the lower third molar is a fairly rare complication, but may cause tissue injury and considerable functional incapacitation when it occurs. We report this particular case to remind clinicians on the ways to manage this complication, highlighting the use of basic imaging and simple surgical techniques ...

  5. Ab Initio Density Functional Theory Investigation of the Interaction between Carbon Nanotubes and Water Molecules during Water Desalination Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loay A. Elalfy


    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations using B3LYP/3-21G level of theory have been implemented on 6 carbon nanotubes (CNTs structures (3 zigzag and 3 armchair CNTs to study the energetics of the reverse osmosis during water desalination process. Calculations of the band gap, interaction energy, highest occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, electronegativity, hardness, and pressure of the system are discussed. The calculations showed that the water molecule that exists inside the CNT is about 2-3 Å away from its wall. The calculations have proven that the zigzag CNTs are more efficient for reverse osmosis water desalination process than armchair CNTs as the reverse osmosis process requires pressure of approximately 200 MPa for armchair CNTs, which is consistent with the values used in molecular dynamics simulations, while that needed when using zigzag CNTs was in the order of 60 MPa.

  6. Rampant Exchange of the Structure and Function of Extramembrane Domains between Membrane and Water Soluble Proteins (United States)

    Nam, Hyun-Jun; Han, Seong Kyu; Bowie, James U.; Kim, Sanguk


    Of the membrane proteins of known structure, we found that a remarkable 67% of the water soluble domains are structurally similar to water soluble proteins of known structure. Moreover, 41% of known water soluble protein structures share a domain with an already known membrane protein structure. We also found that functional residues are frequently conserved between extramembrane domains of membrane and soluble proteins that share structural similarity. These results suggest membrane and soluble proteins readily exchange domains and their attendant functionalities. The exchanges between membrane and soluble proteins are particularly frequent in eukaryotes, indicating that this is an important mechanism for increasing functional complexity. The high level of structural overlap between the two classes of proteins provides an opportunity to employ the extensive information on soluble proteins to illuminate membrane protein structure and function, for which much less is known. To this end, we employed structure guided sequence alignment to elucidate the functions of membrane proteins in the human genome. Our results bridge the gap of fold space between membrane and water soluble proteins and provide a resource for the prediction of membrane protein function. A database of predicted structural and functional relationships for proteins in the human genome is provided at PMID:23555228

  7. Healthcare needs of displaced women: Osire refugee camp, Namibia. (United States)

    Pinehas, Lusia N; van Wyk, Neltjie C; Leech, Ronell


    The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of healthcare needs of displaced women in the Osire refugee camp in Namibia. Namibia is a country where displaced people from other African countries seek refuge as a result of their own country's political instability. All displaced people are hosted in the Osire camp, which is a highly protected area. There are more women than men in the camp and their health is often compromised. In this descriptive phenomenological study, the natural dimension of the experiences of the participants of their healthcare needs were explored through in-depth interviews and reflected upon through transcendental processes to formulate the phenomenological dimension thereof. The essence of displaced women's healthcare needs was "the need for the restoration of hope and human dignity". Their needs refer to measures to enhance their autonomy and freedom; skills training; certainty about their future; security with aid distribution; protection against stigmatization due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; protection against abuse; and participation in reproductive health care. When displaced women are admitted in a camp they lose their freedom to make decisions about everyday functioning and future. They thus develop feelings of insecurity and vulnerability. The participants referred to several factors that were detrimental for their well-being. The essence of their needs was "the need for the restoration of hope and human dignity" that could only be achieved when their needs are addressed. As nurses are in close contact with displaced women in refugee camps they should negotiate opportunities for the women to discuss their concerns with the camp officials. Policies should make provision for the involvement of displaced people in all aspects that relate to their everyday and future living arrangements. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Characteristics of children with hip displacement in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Philippe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP is a common and severe problem. The dislocation can be avoided, by screening and preventive treatment of children with hips at risk. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of children with CP who develop hip displacement, in order to optimise a hip surveillance programme. Methods In a total population of children with CP a standardised clinical and radiological follow-up of the hips was carried out as a part of a hip prevention programme. The present study is based on 212 children followed until 9–16 years of age. Results Of the 212 children, 38 (18% developed displacement with Migration Percentage (MP >40% and further 19 (9% MP between 33 and 39%. Mean age at first registration of hip displacement was 4 years, but some hips showed MP > 40% already at two years of age. The passive range of hip motion at the time of first registration of hip displacement did not differ significantly from the findings in hips without displacement. The risk of hip displacement varied according to CP-subtype, from 0% in children with pure ataxia to 79% in children with spastic tetraplegia. The risk of displacement (MP > 40% was directly related to the level of gross motor function, classified according to the gross motor function classification system, GMFCS, from 0% in children in GMFCS level I to 64% in GMFCS level V. Conclusion Hip displacement in CP often occurs already at 2–3 years of age. Range of motion is a poor indicator of hips at risk. Thus early identification and early radiographic examination of children at risk is of great importance. The risk of hip displacement varies according to both CP-subtype and GMFCS. It is sometimes not possible to determine subtype before 4 years of age, and at present several definitions and classification systems are used. GMFCS is valid and reliable from 2 years of age, and it is internationally accepted. We recommend a hip

  9. Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.H. Boozer and N. Pomphrey


    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

  10. Water Purification Using Functionalized Cellulosic Fibers with Nonleaching Bacteria Adsorbing Properties. (United States)

    Ottenhall, Anna; Illergård, Josefin; Ek, Monica


    Portable purification systems are easy ways to obtain clean drinking water when there is no large-scale water treatment available. In this study, the potential to purify water using bacteria adsorbing cellulosic fibers, functionalized with polyelectrolytes according to the layer-by-layer method, is investigated. The adsorbed polyelectrolytes create a positive charge on the fiber surface that physically attracts and bonds with bacteria. Three types of cellulosic materials have been modified and tested for the bacterial removal capacity in water. The time, material-water ratio and bacterial concentration dependence, as well as the bacterial removal capacity in water from natural sources, have been evaluated. Freely dispersed bacteria adsorbing cellulosic fibers can remove greater than 99.9% of Escherichia coli from nonturbid water, with the most notable reduction occurring within the first hour. A filtering approach using modified cellulosic fibers is desirable for purification of natural water. An initial filtration test showed that polyelectrolyte multilayer modified cellulosic fibers can remove greater than 99% of bacteria from natural water. The bacteria adsorbing cellulosic fibers do not leach any biocides, and it is an environmentally sustainable and cheap option for disposable water purification devices.

  11. Two-Region Model for Soil Water Repellency as a Function of Matric Potential and Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken


    [-ψ], where ψ is the soil water matric potential in centimeters of H2O) plot, with linear increase in WR from the moisture content where WR first occurs during drying to the maximum WR at pFWR-max, and a linear decrease from pFWR-max until ambient air-dried conditions. The van Genuchten soil water retention......Soil water repellency (WR) occurs worldwide and affects hydrologic processes such as infiltration, preferential flow, and surface erosion. The degree of WR varies with soil organic C (SOC) and water contents. In this study, we measured WR (by ethanol molarity) as a function of moisture conditions...... for two soil profiles (17 layers, of which 13 exhibited WR), representing different vegetation and SOC between 0.6 and 14%. Generally, WR was found at SOC ≥2%. Based on measured data, a two-region water repellency (TRWR) model was developed. The model assumes two linear regions in a WR vs. pF (=log...

  12. Supervised Learning in Adaptive DNA Strand Displacement Networks. (United States)

    Lakin, Matthew R; Stefanovic, Darko


    The development of engineered biochemical circuits that exhibit adaptive behavior is a key goal of synthetic biology and molecular computing. Such circuits could be used for long-term monitoring and control of biochemical systems, for instance, to prevent disease or to enable the development of artificial life. In this article, we present a framework for developing adaptive molecular circuits using buffered DNA strand displacement networks, which extend existing DNA strand displacement circuit architectures to enable straightforward storage and modification of behavioral parameters. As a proof of concept, we use this framework to design and simulate a DNA circuit for supervised learning of a class of linear functions by stochastic gradient descent. This work highlights the potential of buffered DNA strand displacement as a powerful circuit architecture for implementing adaptive molecular systems.

  13. Executive Functions of Divers Are Selectively Impaired at 20-Meter Water Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Steinberg


    Full Text Available Moving and acting underwater within recreational or occupational activities require intact executive functions, since they subserve higher cognitive functions such as successful self-regulation, coping with novel situations, and decision making; all of which could be influenced by nitrogen narcosis due to elevated partial pressure under water. However, specific executive functions that could provide a differentiated view on humans’ cognitive performance ability have not yet been systematically analyzed in full-water immersion, which is a research gap addressed within this approach to contribute to a better understanding of nitrogen narcosis. In this study, 20 young, healthy, and certified recreational divers participated and performed three different executive-function tests: the Stroop test (Inhibition, the Number/Letter test (Task switching, the 2-back test (Updating/Working memory, and a simple reaction time test (Psychomotor performance. These tests were performed once on land, at 5-meter (m water depth, and at 20-meter (m water depth of an indoor diving facility in standardized test conditions (26°C in all water depths. A water-proofed and fully operational tablet computer was used to present visual stimuli and to register reaction times. Performance of the simple reaction time test was not different between underwater and land testing, suggesting that reaction times were not biased by the utilization of the tablet in water immersion. Executive functions were not affected by the shallow water immersion of 5-m water depth. However, performance scores in 20-m water depth revealed a decreased performance in the incongruent test condition (i.e., an index of inhibitory control ability of the Stroop test, while all other tests were unaffected. Even though only one out of the three tested cognitive domains was affected, the impairment of inhibitory control ability even in relatively shallow water of 20-m is a critical component that should be

  14. Long-Time Mean Square Displacements in Proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Vural, Derya; Smith, Jeremy C; Glyde, Henry R


    We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic, long time mean square displacement (MSD) of atoms and molecules in proteins from finite time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Typical data from simulations are limited to times of 1 to 10 ns and over this time period the calculated MSD continues to increase without a clear limiting value. The proposed method consists of fitting a model to MD simulation-derived values of the incoherent intermediate neutron scattering function, $I_{inc}(Q,t)$, for finite times. The infinite time MSD, $$, appears as a parameter in the model and is determined by fits of the model to the finite time $I_{inc}(Q,t)$. Specifically, the $$ is defined in the usual way in terms of the Debye-Waller factor as $I(Q,t = \\infty) = \\exp(- Q^2 /3)$. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD $$ of hydrated lysozyme powder (h = 0.4 g water/g protein) over a wide temperature range. The intrinsic $$ obtained from data out to 1 ns and to 10 ns is found to be the same. The intrinsi...

  15. Decentralised water and wastewater treatment technologies to produce functional water for irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, Adriano; Steiner, Michele; Andersen, Martin


    which allow using the lowest irrigation water quality without harming food safety or yield and fruit or derivatives quality. This study presents the results of prototype testing of a small-scale compact pressurized membrane bioreactor and of a modular field treatment system including commercial gravel...... prototype version. In 2008, 100% of samples fulfilled WHO standards (1989) and Global Gap requirement for faecal contamination. MBR removed from inlet flow in the average 82% of arsenic, 82% of cadmium, 97% of chromium, 93% of copper and 99% of lead. Boron and manganese were not removed from permeate....... The field treatment system (FTS) proved to be effective against faecal contamination when applied with its complete set up including UV treatment. The sole gravel filter and heavy metal removal device (HMR) cannot provide sufficient and steadily treatment for microbial contamination. Nevertheless, gravel...

  16. Preventing re-displacement through genuine reintegration in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Hovil


    Full Text Available Displacement is often part of a cyclical process of conflict anddisplacement. Preventing displacement, therefore, is not only aboutpreventing new displacement but about ensuring that people do notget re-displaced.

  17. Determinants of Hip Displacement in Children With Cerebral Palsy. (United States)

    Chang, Chia Hsieh; Wang, Ying Chih; Ho, Pei Chi; Hwang, Ai Wen; Kao, Hsuan Kai; Lee, Wei Chun; Yang, Wen E; Kuo, Ken N


    Coxa valga and femoral anteversion often are seen in patients with spastic hip displacement and osteotomy is recommended. However, the relationship between femoral deformities and hip displacement has not been clearly defined and other factors, such as joint motion and posture, should be considered before recommending treatment. For children with cerebral palsy with Gross Motor Function Classification System Level IV or V, we questioned (1) whether hip abduction range correlates with hip displacement, (2) what the relationships are between proximal femoral deformities and hip displacement, and (3) whether the patient with a windblown posture has greater degrees of femoral anteversion? We retrospectively studied 31 consecutive children with cerebral palsy with Level IV or V gross motor function who underwent three-dimensional CT for preoperative assessment of hip displacement between January 2010 and December 2013. Among the children, 23 had a windblown posture and eight had symmetric hip motion. Femoral anteversion and true neck-shaft angle were measured from the three-dimensional CT images. Migration percentage was the dependent variable we chose to study in relation to femoral anteversion, neck-shaft angle, maximal hip abduction, and hip flexion contracture, using correlations and multiple linear regressions. Using ANOVA and Scheffé's post hoc tests, we analyzed and compared the data of 23 abducted hips and 23 adducted hips in the 23 children with windblown posture and in 16 displaced hips in the eight children with symmetric hip abduction. Greater migration percentage was associated with less hip abduction range (r = -0.86; p < 0.001). Femoral anteversion had a weak correlation (r = 0.28; p < 0.05) to migration percentage, and the association became insignificant after considering hip abduction motion. Adducted windblown hips had greater femoral anteversion than the symmetric displaced hips and abducted windblown hips (46° vs 36° and 38°, respectively; p < 0

  18. Greater extracellular free-water in first-episode psychosis predicts better neurocognitive functioning. (United States)

    Lyall, A E; Pasternak, O; Robinson, D G; Newell, D; Trampush, J W; Gallego, J A; Fava, M; Malhotra, A K; Karlsgodt, K H; Kubicki, M; Szeszko, P R


    Free Water Imaging is a novel diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging method that is able to separate changes affecting the extracellular space from those that reflect changes in neuronal cells and processes. A previous Free Water Imaging study in schizophrenia identified significantly greater extracellular water volume in the early stages of the disorder; however, its clinical and functional sequelae have not yet been investigated. Here, we applied Free Water Imaging to a larger cohort of 63 first-episode patients with psychosis and 70 healthy matched controls to better understand the functional significance of greater extracellular water. We used diffusion MR imaging data and the Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analytic pipeline to first analyze fractional anisotropy (FA), the most commonly employed metric for assessing white matter. This comparison was then followed by Free Water Imaging analysis, where two parameters, the fractional volume of extracellular free-water (FW) and cellular tissue FA (FA-t), were estimated and compared across the entire white matter skeleton between groups, and correlated with cognitive measures at baseline and following 12 weeks of antipsychotic treatment. Our results indicated lower FA across the whole brain in patients compared with healthy controls that overlap with significant increases in FW, with only limited decreases in FA-t. In addition, higher FW correlated with better neurocognitive functioning following 12 weeks of antipsychotic treatment. We believe this is the first study to suggest that an extracellular water increase during the first-episode of psychosis, which may be indicative of an acute neuroinflammatory process, and/or cerebral edema may predict better functional outcome.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 28 March 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.43.

  19. Testing peatland water-table depth transfer functions using high-resolution hydrological monitoring data (United States)

    Swindles, Graeme T.; Holden, Joseph; Raby, Cassandra L.; Turner, T. Edward; Blundell, Antony; Charman, Dan J.; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Kløve, Bjørn


    Transfer functions are now commonly used to reconstruct past environmental variability from palaeoecological data. However, such approaches need to be critically appraised. Testate amoeba-based transfer functions are an established method for the quantitative reconstruction of past water-table variations in peatlands, and have been applied to research questions in palaeoclimatology, peatland ecohydrology and archaeology. We analysed automatically-logged peatland water-table data from dipwells located in England, Wales and Finland and a suite of three year, one year and summer water-table statistics were calculated from each location. Surface moss samples were extracted from beside each dipwell and the testate amoebae community composition was determined. Two published transfer functions were applied to the testate-amoeba data for prediction of water-table depth (England and Europe). Our results show that estimated water-table depths based on the testate amoeba community reflect directional changes, but that they are poor representations of the real mean or median water-table magnitudes for the study sites. We suggest that although testate amoeba-based reconstructions can be used to identify past shifts in peat hydrology, they cannot currently be used to establish precise hydrological baselines such as those needed to inform management and restoration of peatlands. One approach to avoid confusion with contemporary water-table determinations is to use residuals or standardised values for peatland water-table reconstructions. We contend that our test of transfer functions against independent instrumental data sets may be more powerful than relying on statistical testing alone.

  20. The Function and Value of Water Conservation of Forest Ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve of Tibet


    Tang, Jia; Fang, Jiang-ping; Li, Ping; Guo, Jian-bin; Lu, Jie; Yuan, Qing-juan


    Gongbo Nature Reserve, located in Nyingchi of Tibet, is by far the largest construction project of forest reserves that China approves and invests in. This article adopts the shadow project method, and estimates the water conservation function of forest ecosystem of Gongbo Nature Reserve based on the Specifications for Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China promulgated by State Forestry Administration of China. The results show that the total value of water conservation of forest ec...

  1. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality vs Design (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.


    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmembers food and drinking packages with one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. The USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) was delivered to ISS on ULF2, Shuttle Mission STS-126, and was subsequently activated in November 2008. The PWD activation on ISS is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six but nominally supplies only half the crew. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US style food packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Laboratory Fuel Cell Water Bus, which is fed from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity supports three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance has been acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there have been several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is outlined for the following key areas: microbiology, PWD to food package water leakage, no-dispense scenarios, under-dispense scenarios, and crewmember feedback on actual on-orbit use.

  2. Water monomer interaction with gold nanoclusters from van der Waals density functional theory. (United States)

    Xue, Yongqiang


    We investigate the interaction between water molecules and gold nanoclusters Au(n) through a systematic density functional theory study within both the generalized gradient approximation and the nonlocal van der Waals (vdW) density functional theory. Both planar (n = 6-12) and three-dimensional (3D) clusters (n = 17-20) are studied. We find that applying vdW density functional theory leads to an increase in the Au-Au bond length and a decrease in the cohesive energy for all clusters studied. We classify water adsorption on nanoclusters according to the corner, edge, and surface adsorption geometries. In both corner and edge adsorptions, water molecule approaches the cluster through the O atom. For planar clusters, surface adsorption occurs in a O-up/H-down geometry with water plane oriented nearly perpendicular to the cluster. For 3D clusters, water instead favors a near-flat surface adsorption geometry with the water O atom sitting nearly atop a surface Au atom, in agreement with previous study on bulk surfaces. Including vdW interaction increases the adsorption energy for the weak surface adsorption but reduces the adsorption energy for the strong corner adsorption due to increased water-cluster bond length. By analyzing the adsorption induced charge rearrangement through Bader's charge partitioning and electron density difference and the orbital interaction through the projected density of states, we conclude that the bonding between water and gold nanocluster is determined by an interplay between electrostatic interaction and covalent interaction involving both the water lone-pair and in-plane orbitals and the gold 5d and 6s orbitals. Including vdW interaction does not change qualitatively the physical picture but does change quantitatively the adsorption structure due to the fluxionality of gold nanoclusters.

  3. Improving the performance of water desalination through ultra-permeable functionalized nanoporous graphene oxide membrane (United States)

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Azamat, Jafar; Erfan-Niya, Hamid


    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the water desalination performance of nanoporous graphene oxide (NPGO) membranes. The simulated systems consist of a NPGO as a membrane with a functionalized pore in its center immersed in an aqueous ionic solution and a graphene sheet as a barrier. The considered NPGO membranes are involved four types of pore with different size and chemistry. The results indicated that the NPGO membrane has effective efficiency in salt rejection as well as high performance in water flux. For all types of pore with the radius size of 2.9-4.5 Å, the NPGO shows salt rejection of >89%. Functional groups on the surface and edge of pores have a great effect on water flux. To precisely understand the effect of functional groups on the surface of nanostructured membranes, nanoporous graphene was simulated under the same condition for comparison. Hydrophilic groups on the surface make the NPGO as an ultra-permeable membrane. As a result, the obtained water flux for NPGO was about 77% greater than graphene. Also, it was found that the water flux of NPGO is 2-5 orders of magnitude greater than other existing reverse osmosis membranes. Therefore, the investigated systems can be recommended as a model for the water desalination.

  4. Atomic displacement effects in near-edge resonant 'forbidden' reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikova, E.N. [Moscow State University, Physical Department, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail:; Dmitrienko, V.E. [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail:; Ishida, K. [Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Kirfel, A. [Mineralogisch-Petrologisches Institut der Universitat Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Collins, S.P. [Diamond Light Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX, UK (United Kingdom); Oreshko, A.P. [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Cabaret, D. [Laboratoire de Mineralogie-Cristallographie, case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Vedrinskii, R.V. [Rostov State University, 344090 Rostov-Don (Russian Federation); Kraizman, V.L. [Rostov State University, 344090 Rostov-Don (Russian Federation); Novakovich, A.A. [Rostov State University, 344090 Rostov-Don (Russian Federation); Krivitskii, E.V. [Rostov State University, 344090 Rostov-Don (Russian Federation); Tolochko, B.P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, 630128 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    A survey of atomic displacement effects in the resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation is presented. It is shown that the dynamical displacements, associated with thermal vibrations, provide the thermal-motion-induced (TMI) 'forbidden' reflections, while static displacements (e.g. induced by impurities) provide the point-defect-induced (PDI) 'forbidden' reflections. Both kinds of reflections occur owing to perturbation of valent electrons wave functions by atomic displacements. The results of numerical calculations of TMI forbidden reflections in Ge and ZnO are compared with experimental data.

  5. Water-Dispersible Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Obtained from Citric-Acid-Assisted Oxygen Plasma Functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jellur Rahman


    Full Text Available A new and safe method has been developed to functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs with fewer surface defects, which significantly increases their dispersibility in water. MWCNTs are pretreated in pure ethanol by a supersonic homogenizer. Then, the mixture is dried and soaked in weak citric acid solution. Finally, the MWCNTs in the citric acid solution are treated with radio frequency (13.56 MHz oxygen plasma. As a result, many carboxyl functional groups are attached onto the MWCNT surfaces and stable dispersion of the MWCNTs in water is obtained. The treatment conditions are optimized in this study.

  6. The need for a standard approach to assessing the functionality of rural community water supplies (United States)

    Bonsor, Helen; MacDonald, Alan; Casey, Vincent; Carter, Richard; Wilson, Paul


    The Sustainable Development Goals have set an agenda for transformational change in water access, aiming for secure household connections globally. Despite this goal, communal groundwater supplies are likely to remain the main source of improved water supplies for many rural areas in Africa and South Asia for decades to come. Understanding the poor functionality of existing communal supplies remains, therefore, a priority. A critical first step is to establish a sector-wide definition of borehole supply functionality and a standard method of its assessment.

  7. Vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) berries. (United States)

    Clearwater, Michael J; Luo, Zhiwei; Ong, Sam Eng Chye; Blattmann, Peter; Thorp, T Grant


    Indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. This inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis 'Hort16A') exhibiting a pre-harvest 'shrivel' disorder in California, and normal development in New Zealand. Dye labelling and mass balance experiments indicated that the xylem and phloem were both functional and contributed approximately equally to the fruit water supply during this stage of development. The modelled fruit water balance was dominated by transpiration, with net water loss under high vapour pressure deficit (D(a)) conditions in California, but a net gain under cooler New Zealand conditions. Direct measurement of pedicel sap flow under controlled conditions confirmed inward flows in both the phloem and xylem under conditions of both low and high D(a). Phloem flows were required for growth, with gradual recovery after a step increase in D(a). Xylem flows alone were unable to support growth, but did supply transpiration and were responsive to D(a)-induced pressure fluctuations. The results suggest that the shrivel disorder was a consequence of a high fruit transpiration rate, and that the perception of complete loss or reversal of inward xylem flows in ripening fruits should be re-examined.

  8. First report on the association of drinking water hardness and endothelial function in children and adolescents. (United States)

    Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Hashemi, Mohammad; Amin, Maryam


    This study aims to investigate the relationship of water hardness and its calcium and magnesium content with endothelial function in a population-based sample of healthy children and adolescents. This case-control study was conducted in 2012 among 90 individuals living in two areas with moderate and high water hardness in Isfahan County, Iran. The flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and the serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1) were measured as surrogate markers of endothelial function, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as a marker of inflammation. Data of 89 participants (51% boys, mean age 14.75 (2.9) years) were complete. Those participants living in the area with high water hardness had higher FMD, hs-CRP, and soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1) than their counterparts living in the area with moderate water hardness. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that after adjustment for confounding factors of age, gender, body mass index, healthy eating index and physical activity level, total water hardness, as well as water content of calcium and magnesium, had a significant positive relationship with FMD. The corresponding associations were inverse and significant with soluble adhesion molecules (p water hardness, as well as its calcium and magnesium content, may have a protective role against early stages of atherosclerosis in children and adolescents.

  9. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, J.A.G.; Coppens, L.J.C.; Laak, ter T.L.; Raterman, B.W.; Wezel, van A.P.


    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at,

  10. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters : Defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Lieke J C; van Gils, Jos A G; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Raterman, Bernard W; van Wezel, Annemarie P


    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at,


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Vindišar


    Full Text Available Background. The exact knowledge of the anatomic relations of the juvenile skeleton is of great importance for the determination of the injury and proper treatment. The treatment should be uniform and carried out in one act. Considering this facts the functional results are usually very good and no late sequel are recorded.Methods. In 5-years period 25 children with age 7 to 17 were treated with displaced fracture of ankle. The Salter-Harris classification (SHC was used. Children were classified in two groups. In first group (G-I 11 children were treated with closed reduction. Whole group was classified as type II fractures of SHC. In second group (G-II 14 children were treated operatively. 10 cases were type III, 2 cases were type IV of SHC and 2 were juvenil Tillaux fracture. In follow-up we registered the duration of immobilisation, non-weight bearing period, mobility and residual pain at the end of the treatment.Results. In G-I average non-weight bearing period was 10.4 weeks, in G-II only 7.8 weeks. At the end of the treatment in both groups very good functional results were achieved. There were no complications in operative group (G-II.Conclusions. Children relatively often suffer ankle injuries. With proper diagnosis and early adequate treatment the prognosis is good and no functional sequel were recorded.

  12. Articular disc displacement in mandibular asymmetry patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boonsiva Buranastidporn; Hisano, Masataka; Soma, Kunimichi


    ...) inmandibular asymmetry have not been clearlydefined. This study examines the degree anddirection of disc displacement and their relationshipwith vertical asymmetry in terms of both clinicaland biomechanical aspects...

  13. Percutaneous Fixation of Displaced Calcaneal Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Yip-Kan


    Conclusion: Percutaneous fixation of displaced tongue-type calcaneal fractures is an effective treatment with acceptable clinical outcome, short hospital stay, minimal skin complications, and quick recovery.

  14. Effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis) growth and functional quality. (United States)

    Ahmed, Selena; Orians, Colin M; Griffin, Timothy S; Buckley, Sarabeth; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Stratton, Anne Elise; Stepp, John Richard; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Kennelly, Edward J


    Extreme shifts in water availability linked to global climate change are impacting crops worldwide. The present study examines the direct and interactive effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae) growth and functional quality. Manipulative greenhouse experiments were used to measure the effects of variable water availability and pest pressures simulated by jasmonic acid (JA) on tea leaf growth and secondary metabolites that determine tea quality. Water treatments were simulated to replicate ideal tea growing conditions and extreme precipitation events in tropical southwestern China, a major centre of tea production. Results show that higher water availability and JA significantly increased the growth of new leaves while their interactive effect was not significant. The effect of water availability and JA on tea quality varied with individual secondary metabolites. Higher water availability significantly increased total methylxanthine concentrations of tea leaves but there was no significant effect of JA treatments or the interaction of water and JA. Water availability, JA treatments or their interactive effects had no effect on the concentrations of epigallocatechin 3-gallate. In contrast, increased water availability resulted in significantly lower concentrations of epicatechin 3-gallate but the effect of JA and the interactive effects of water and JA were not significant. Lastly, higher water availability resulted in significantly higher total phenolic concentrations but there was no significant impact of JA and their interaction. These findings point to the fascinating dynamics of climate change effects on tea plants with offsetting interactions between precipitation and pest pressures within agro-ecosystems, and the need for future climate studies to examine interactive biotic and abiotic effects.

  15. Polybenzoxazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement (United States)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)


    Polybenzoxazoles (PBO) are heterocyclic macromolecules which were first synthesized in a two-step process by the initial formation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s through solution condensation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s followed by thermal cyclodehydration. Since then several methods were utilized in their synthesis. The most common synthetic method for PBO involves a polycondensation of bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid diphenyl esters. Another preparative route involves the solution polycondensation of the hydrochloride salts of bis(o-amino phenol)s with aromatic diacids in polyphosphoric acid. Another synthetic method involves the initial formation of poly(o-hydroxy amide)s from silylated bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid chlorides followed by thermal cyclodehydration to PBO. A recent preparative route involves the reaction of aromatic bisphenols with bis(fluorophenyl) benzoxazoles by the displacement reaction to form PBO. The novelty of the present invention is that high molecular weight PBO of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  16. Hydropedology at Hubbard Brook: Differentiating soil functional units with shallow ground water response data (United States)

    Gannon, J. P.; McGuire, K. J.; Bailey, S. W.


    Headwater catchments dominate the drainage basins of larger rivers and determine the water quality of downstream water bodies. In these catchments, hydrology strongly influences soil development and soil chemistry, thereby determining stream water quality. This study aims to explain spatial and temporal variations in stream water chemistry at the headwater catchment scale utilizing a hydropedological approach. Hydropedologic units (HPUs), defined by differing soil morphological characteristics and hypothesized to be indicative of different hydrologic flow regimes, provide a framework for describing the function of different soil types in a catchment. Relationships between HPUs and shallow groundwater responses measured by 10-minute water level data were examined for 50 wells throughout the 41 ha watershed 3 at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Relationships between hydropedological units and observed water table fluctuations are presented. Comparisons were made between descriptive statistics of each time series as well as rainfall-response analyses. When grouped by HPU, wells in the catchment were shown to exhibit statistically significant differences in overall water table dynamics as well as distinct threshold responses to precipitation and antecedent wetness. As HPUs are hypothesized to occur in predictable landscape positions, the results of this study suggest a hydropedological approach may be a useful approach for describing catchment runoff response as well as spatial patterns in soil moisture, soil chemistry, and therefore stream water chemistry.

  17. Cotransport of water and solutes in plant membranes: The molecular basis, and physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars H. Wegner


    Full Text Available Current concepts of plant membrane transport are based on the assumption that water and solutes move across membranes via separate pathways. According to this view, coupling between the fluxes is more or less exclusively constituted via the osmotic force that solutes exert on water transport. This view is questioned here, and experimental evidence for a cotransport of water and solutes is reviewed. The overview starts with ion channels that provide pathways for both ion and water transport, as exemplified for maxi K+ channels from cytoplasmic droplets of Chara corallina. Aquaporins are usually considered to be selective for water (just allowing for slippage of some other small, neutral molecules. Recently, however, a “dual function” aquaporin has been characterized from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPIP2.1 that translocates water and at the same time conducts cations, preferentially Na+. By analogy with mammalian physiology, other candidates for solute-water flux coupling are cation-chloride cotransporters of the CCC type, and transporters of sugars and amino acids. The last part is dedicated to possible physiological functions that could rely on solute-water cotransport. Among these are the generation of root pressure, refilling of embolized xylem vessels, fast turgor-driven movements of leaves, cell elongation (growth, osmoregulation and adjustment of buoyancy in marine algae. This review will hopefully initiate further research in the field.

  18. Estimating Water Footprints of Vegetable Crops: Influence of Growing Season, Solar Radiation Data and Functional Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsie le Roux


    Full Text Available Water footprint (WF accounting as proposed by the Water Footprint Network (WFN can potentially provide important information for water resource management, especially in water scarce countries relying on irrigation to help meet their food requirements. However, calculating accurate WFs of short-season vegetable crops such as carrots, cabbage, beetroot, broccoli and lettuce presented some challenges. Planting dates and inter-annual weather conditions impact WF results. Joining weather datasets of just rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature with ones that include solar radiation and wind-speed affected crop model estimates and WF results. The functional unit selected can also have a major impact on results. For example, WFs according to the WFN approach do not account for crop residues used for other purposes, like composting and animal feed. Using yields in dry matter rather than fresh mass also impacts WF metrics, making comparisons difficult. To overcome this, using the nutritional value of crops as a functional unit can connect water use more directly to potential benefits derived from different crops and allow more straightforward comparisons. Grey WFs based on nitrogen only disregards water pollution caused by phosphates, pesticides and salinization. Poor understanding of the fate of nitrogen complicates estimation of nitrogen loads into the aquifer.


    Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water and Menstrual Cycle FunctionGayle C. Windham1, Kirsten Waller2, Meredith Anderson2, Laura Fenster1, Pauline Mendola3, Shanna Swan41California Department of Health Services, Division of Environmental and Occupational Disea...

  20. Functionally relevant climate variables for arid lands: Aclimatic water deficit approach for modelling desert shrub distributions (United States)

    Thomas E. Dilts; Peter J. Weisberg; Camie M. Dencker; Jeanne C. Chambers


    We have three goals. (1) To develop a suite of functionally relevant climate variables for modelling vegetation distribution on arid and semi-arid landscapes of the Great Basin, USA. (2) To compare the predictive power of vegetation distribution models based on mechanistically proximate factors (water deficit variables) and factors that are more mechanistically removed...

  1. Effects of environmental and water quality parameters on the functioning of copepod assemblages in tropical estuaries (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana V.; Dias, Cristina O.; Bonecker, Sérgio L. C.


    We examined changes in the functioning of copepod assemblages with increasing pollution in estuaries, using sampling standardization of the salinity range to enable comparisons. Copepod assemblages were analyzed in four southeast Brazilian estuaries with different water quality levels and hydrodynamic characteristics over two years. We obtained mesozooplankton samples together with environmental and water quality parameters in the estuaries, every two months under predetermined salinities ranging from 15 to 25. The values of parameters, except species size, associated with the functioning of the copepod assemblages (biomass, productivity, and turnover rate) did not differ among estuaries. However, in the more polluted estuaries, the biomass and productivity of copepod assemblages of mesozooplankton were negatively correlated with concentration of pollution indicator parameters. Conversely, in the less polluted estuaries some degree of enrichment still seems to increase the system biomass and productivity, as these parameters were inversely related to indicators of improved water quality. The pollution level of estuaries distorted the relationship between temperature and the efficiency of converting energy to organic matter. In the less polluted estuaries, the relationship between turnover rate and temperature was over 70%, while in the most polluted estuaries, this relationship was only approximately 50%. Our results demonstrated that the functioning of assemblages in the estuaries was affected differently by increasing pollution depending on the water quality level of the system. Thus, investigating the functioning of assemblages can be a useful tool for the analysis of estuarine conditions.

  2. The advantages of deep ocean water for the development of functional fermentation food. (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Lin


    Deep ocean water (DOW) is obtained from 600 m below the sea surface. In recent years, DOW has been applied in the development of fermentation biotechnologies and functional foods. DOW is rich in trace minerals, comprises multiple physiological and health functions, and is able to promote microbe growth; therefore, the application of DOW directly benefits the development of the fermentation industry and functional foods. This study integrated the current health functions and applications of DOW with the latest results from studies related to fermentation biotechnology. Subsequently, the influence of applying DOW in fermented functional food development and the effects in health function improvements were summarized. According to the previous studies, the main reasons for the increased effect of fermented functional foods through the application of DOW are increased generation of functional metabolite contents in the microbes, intrinsic health functions of DOW, and the microbial use of mechanisms of converting the absorbed inorganic ions into highly bioavailable organic ions for the human body. These combined advantages not only enhance the health functions of fermentation products but also provide fermentation products with the intrinsic health functions of DOW.

  3. Seismic displacement of gravity retaining walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Seismic displacement of gravity walls had been studied using conventional static methods for controlled displacement design. In this study plain strain numerical analysis is performed using Plaxis dynamic program where prescribed displacement is applied at the bottom boundary of the soil to simulate the applied seismic load. Constrained absorbent side boundaries are introduced to prevent any wave reflection. The studied soil is chosen dense granular sand and modeled as elasto-plastic material according to Mohr–Column criteria while the gravity wall is assumed elastic. By comparing the resulted seismic wall displacements calculated by numerical analysis for six historical ground motions with that calculated by the pseudo-static method, it is found that numerical seismic displacements are either equal to or greater than corresponding pseudo-static values. Permissible seismic wall displacement calculated by AASHTO can be used for empirical estimation of seismic displacement. It is also found that seismic wall displacement is directly proportional with the positive angle of inclination of the back surface of the wall, soil flexibility and with the earthquake maximum ground acceleration. Seismic wall sliding is dominant and rotation is negligible for rigid walls when the ratio between the wall height and the foundation width is less than 1.4, while for greater ratios the wall becomes more flexible and rotation (rocking increases till the ratio reaches 1.8 where overturning is susceptible to take place. Cumulative seismic wall rotation increases with dynamic time and tends to be constant at the end of earthquake.

  4. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  5. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 68; Issue 4. Atomic displacements in bcc ... metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method.

  6. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect (United States)

    Fisher, Carla Christine


    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  7. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has been...

  8. Avulsions and intrusions: the controversial displacement injuries. (United States)

    Kenny, David J; Barrett, Edward J; Casas, Michael J


    Avulsions and intrusions are the most complicated and controversial displacement injuries of permanent teeth. Clinical guidelines published by authorities such as the American Association of Endodontists, the Royal College of Surgeons of England and the International Association of Dental Traumatology are inconsistent. While a certain amount of inconsistency might be expected, some of these guidelines recommend treatments that are experimental or have not incorporated research information from the past 5 years, and in one case the guidelines incorrectly describe the nature of Hank's balanced salt solution. Recent laboratory studies support previous clinical outcome studies in emphasizing that only for teeth replanted within 5 minutes of avulsion is there a chance of regeneration of the periodontal ligament and normal function. Teeth replanted beyond 5 minutes will take another path, that of repair followed by root resorption, ankylosis and eventual extraction. Dentists should explain these outcomes at the time of the replantation decision. Severe intrusions also have predictable outcomes. Teeth intruded beyond 6 mm cannot regenerate a functional periodontal ligament and so are prone to root resorption and eventual extraction as well. In this situation the decision is one of immediate extraction or repositioning, with the understanding that it is inevitable that the tooth will eventually be extracted. Authoritative clinical guidelines available on the Internet provide the clinician with useful outlines for treatment. However, individual inconsistencies stimulate academic controversies and, in some cases, clinical misdirection.

  9. Adsorption of organic arsenic acids from water over functionalized metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Sarker, Mithun; Song, Ji Yoon; Jhung, Sung Hwa


    Organic arsenic acids (OAAs) are regarded as water pollutants because of their toxicity and considerable solubility in water. Adsorption of OAAs such as phenylarsonic acid (PAA) and p-arsanilic acid (ASA) from water was investigated over functionalized (with OH groups) metal-organic framework (MOF, MIL-101), as well as over pristine MIL-101 and commercial activated carbon. The highly porous MIL-101 bearing three hydroxyl groups (MIL-101(OH)3) exhibited remarkable PAA and ASA adsorption capacities. Based on the effects of pH on PAA and ASA adsorption, hydrogen bonding was suggested as a plausible mechanism of OAA adsorption. Importantly, OAAs and MIL-101(OH)3 can be viewed as hydrogen-bond acceptors and donors, respectively. Moreover, MIL-101(OH)3 could be regenerated by acidic ethanol treatment, being a promising adsorbent for the removal of PAA and ASA from water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Macroscopic Profile Modification and Microscopic Displacement Mechanism of Weak Gel Flowing in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper, the flowing mechanism and function on the macroscopic and microscopic scale in the porous media of a widely used weak gel of an acrylamide based polymer crosslinked with chromium(III were studied. Innovative microscopic plane visualization model was designed for microscopic scale experiment and sand pack physical model for macroscopic scale. The microscopic displacing experiments indicate that weak gel mainly intrudes into big pores rather than small ones, which can improve the conformance horizontally and increase the sweep efficiency benefiting from fluid diversion. Additionally, due to good viscoelasticity of weak gel, the negative pressure effect was formed enhancing oil recovery flow from small pore throats. Results of macroscopic physical sand pack flow experiment indicate positive influence of weak gel on vertical conformance control. Although the high permeable layer was not completely blocked, the oil recovery improved as a result of weak gel movement by continuous water flooding. Experiments results lead to conclusion, the primary function of weak gel is oil displacement, profile modification is secondary, and its effect is temporary.

  11. Asymmetric SOL Current in Vertically Displaced Plasma (United States)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.


    Experiments at the DIII-D tokamak demonstrate a non-monotonic relationship between measured scrape-off layer (SOL) currents and vertical displacement event (VDE) rates with SOL currents becoming largely n=1 dominant as plasma is displaced by the plasma control system (PCS) at faster rates. The DIII-D PCS is used to displace the magnetic axis 10x slower than the intrinsic growth time of similar instabilities in lower single-null plasmas. Low order (n control is disabled. Previous inquiry shows VDE asymmetry characterized by SOL current fraction and geometric parameters of tokamak plasmas. We note that, of plasmas displaced by the PCS, short displacement time scales near the limit of the PCS temporal control appear to result in larger n=1/n=2 asymmetries. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  12. Carbon-Based Functional Materials Derived from Waste for Water Remediation and Energy Storage. (United States)

    Ma, Qinglang; Yu, Yifu; Sindoro, Melinda; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua


    Carbon-based functional materials hold the key for solving global challenges in the areas of water scarcity and the energy crisis. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have shown promising results in various fields of application, their high preparation cost and low production yield still dramatically hinder their wide practical applications. Therefore, there is an urgent call for preparing carbon-based functional materials from low-cost, abundant, and sustainable sources. Recent innovative strategies have been developed to convert various waste materials into valuable carbon-based functional materials. These waste-derived carbon-based functional materials have shown great potential in many applications, especially as sorbents for water remediation and electrodes for energy storage. Here, the research progress in the preparation of waste-derived carbon-based functional materials is summarized, along with their applications in water remediation and energy storage; challenges and future research directions in this emerging research field are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Comparison of Pattern Recognition, Artificial Neural Network and Pedotransfer Functions for Estimation of Soil Water Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir LAKZIAN


    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of three different approaches to estimate soil water content at defined values of soil water potential based on selected parameters of soil solid phase. Forty different sampling locations in northeast of Iran were selected and undisturbed samples were taken to measure the water content at field capacity (FC, -33 kPa, and permanent wilting point (PWP, -1500 kPa. At each location solid particle of each sample including the percentage of sand, silt and clay were measured. Organic carbon percentage and soil texture were also determined for each soil sample at each location. Three different techniques including pattern recognition approach (k nearest neighbour, k-NN, Artificial Neural Network (ANN and pedotransfer functions (PTF were used to predict the soil water at each sampling location. Mean square deviation (MSD and its components, index of agreement (d, root mean square difference (RMSD and normalized RMSD (RMSDr were used to evaluate the performance of all the three approaches. Our results showed that k-NN and PTF performed better than ANN in prediction of water content at both FC and PWP matric potential. Various statistics criteria for simulation performance also indicated that between kNN and PTF, the former, predicted water content at PWP more accurate than PTF, however both approach showed a similar accuracy to predict water content at FC.

  14. Traumatic corneal flap displacement after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai TH


    Full Text Available Tsung-Han Tsai,1 Kai-Ling Peng,1 Chien-Jen Lin2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan Background: Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK is the most common and popular procedure performed for the correction of refractive errors in the last two decades. We report a case of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding which occurred 3 years after LASIK was performed. Previous literature suggests that vision prognosis would be closely related to proper and prompt management of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding 3 years after LASIK.Case presentation: A 23-year-old female presented to our hospital who had undergone uneventful LASIK in both eyes 3 years prior. Unfortunately, she had suffered a blunt trauma in her right eye in a car accident. A late onset of corneal flap displacement was found with upper and lower portion of the flap being folded inside the corneal bed. Surgical intervention for debridement with subsequent reposition of corneal flap was performed as soon as possible in the operating room. A bandage contact lens was placed, and topical antibiotic and corticosteroids were given postoperatively. Two days after the operation, the displaced corneal flap was found to be well attached smoothly on the corneal bed without folds. The best-corrected visual acuity was 6/6 with refraction of −0.75 D to 1.0 D ×175° in her right eye 1 month later.Literature review: We reviewed a total of 19 published cases of late-onset traumatic flap dislocations or displacements after LASIK with complete data from 2000 to 2014.Conclusion: Traumatic displacement of corneal flaps after LASIK may occur after blunt injury with specific direction of force to the flap margin, especially tangential one. According to the previous literature, late-onset traumatic flap displacement may happen at any time after LASIK and be caused by various types of injuries. Fortunately, good visual function could

  15. Neurobehavioral Function in School-Age Children Exposed to Manganese in Drinking Water (United States)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bellinger, David C.; Bouffard, Thérèse; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Saint-Amour, Dave; Legrand, Melissa; Sauvé, Sébastien


    Background: Manganese neurotoxicity is well documented in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne particulates, but few data are available on risks from drinking-water exposure. Objective: We examined associations of exposure from concentrations of manganese in water and hair with memory, attention, motor function, and parent- and teacher-reported hyperactive behaviors. Methods: We recruited 375 children and measured manganese in home tap water (MnW) and hair (MnH). We estimated manganese intake from water ingestion. Using structural equation modeling, we estimated associations between neurobehavioral functions and MnH, MnW, and manganese intake from water. We evaluated exposure–response relationships using generalized additive models. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in log10 MnH was associated with a significant difference of –24% (95% CI: –36, –12%) SD in memory and –25% (95% CI: –41, –9%) SD in attention. The relations between log10 MnH and poorer memory and attention were linear. A 1-SD increase in log10 MnW was associated with a significant difference of –14% (95% CI: –24, –4%) SD in memory, and this relation was nonlinear, with a steeper decline in performance at MnW > 100 μg/L. A 1-SD increase in log10 manganese intake from water was associated with a significant difference of –11% (95% CI: –21, –0.4%) SD in motor function. The relation between log10 manganese intake and poorer motor function was linear. There was no significant association between manganese exposure and hyperactivity. Conclusion: Exposure to manganese in water was associated with poorer neurobehavioral performances in children, even at low levels commonly encountered in North America. Citation: Oulhote Y, Mergler D, Barbeau B, Bellinger DC, Bouffard T, Brodeur ME, Saint-Amour D, Legrand M, Sauvé S, Bouchard MF. 2014. Neurobehavioral function in school-age children exposed to manganese in drinking water. Environ Health

  16. Water (United States)

    ... Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  17. Rheticus Displacement: an Automatic Geo-Information Service Platform for Ground Instabilities Detection and Monitoring (United States)

    Chiaradia, M. T.; Samarelli, S.; Agrimano, L.; Lorusso, A. P.; Nutricato, R.; Nitti, D. O.; Morea, A.; Tijani, K.


    Rheticus® is an innovative cloud-based data and services hub able to deliver Earth Observation added-value products through automatic complex processes and a minimum interaction with human operators. This target is achieved by means of programmable components working as different software layers in a modern enterprise system which relies on SOA (service-oriented-architecture) model. Due to its architecture, where every functionality is well defined and encapsulated in a standalone component, Rheticus is potentially highly scalable and distributable allowing different configurations depending on the user needs. Rheticus offers a portfolio of services, ranging from the detection and monitoring of geohazards and infrastructural instabilities, to marine water quality monitoring, wildfires detection or land cover monitoring. In this work, we outline the overall cloud-based platform and focus on the "Rheticus Displacement" service, aimed at providing accurate information to monitor movements occurring across landslide features or structural instabilities that could affect buildings or infrastructures. Using Sentinel-1 (S1) open data images and Multi-Temporal SAR Interferometry techniques (i.e., SPINUA), the service is complementary to traditional survey methods, providing a long-term solution to slope instability monitoring. Rheticus automatically browses and accesses (on a weekly basis) the products of the rolling archive of ESA S1 Scientific Data Hub; S1 data are then handled by a mature running processing chain, which is responsible of producing displacement maps immediately usable to measure with sub-centimetric precision movements of coherent points. Examples are provided, concerning the automatic displacement map generation process, as well as the integration of point and distributed scatterers, the integration of multi-sensors displacement maps (e.g., Sentinel-1 IW and COSMO-SkyMed HIMAGE), the combination of displacement rate maps acquired along both ascending

  18. Immersion freezing of water and aqueous ammonium sulphate droplets initiated by Humic Like Substances as a function of water activity (United States)

    Rigg, Y. J.; Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.


    Immersion freezing of water and aqueous (NH4)2SO4 droplets containing Leonardite (LEO) and Pahokee peat (PP) serving as surrogates for Humic Like Substances (HULIS) has been investigated. Organic aerosol containing HULIS are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, however, their potential for ice cloud formation is uncertain. Immersion freezing has been studied for temperatures as low as 215 K and solution water activity, aw, from 0.85-1.0. The freezing temperatures of water and aqueous solution droplets containing LEO and PP are 5-15 K warmer than homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. Heterogeneous freezing temperatures can be represented by a horizontal shift of the ice melting curve as a function of solution aw, Δaw, by 0.2703 and 0.2466, respectively. Corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, Jhet, are (9.6 ± 2.5)×104 and (5.4 ± 1.4)×104 cm-2 s-1 for LEO and PP containing droplets, respectively, and remain constant along freezing curves characterized by Δaw. Consequently predictions of freezing temperatures and kinetics can be made without knowledge of the solute type when relative humidity and IN surface areas are known. The acquired ice nucleation data are applied to evaluate different approaches to fit and reproduce experimentally derived frozen fractions. In addition, we apply a basic formulation of classical nucleation theory (α(T)-model) to calculate contact angles and frozen fractions. Contact angles calculated for each ice nucleus as a function of temperature, α(T)-model, reproduce exactly experimentally derived frozen fractions without involving free fit parameters. However, assigning the IN a single contact angle for entire population (single-α model) is not suited to represent the frozen fractions. Application of α-PDF, active sites, and deterministic model approaches to measured frozen fractions yield similar good representations. Thus, from fitting frozen fractions only, the underlying ice nucleation mechanism and nature of

  19. The effect of stopping water exercise for 12 weeks on the functional fitness of elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Flores da Rosa


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week pause in exercising in water on the functional fitness of elderly women. The sample was 31 elderly women, with x _ = 68.97 years (SD = 5.34, all participants in a water exercise program. The women were tested in November 2005 and, after a 12-week pause in water exercises, in March2006, using the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance – AAHPERD test battery. The statistical analysis was descriptive, using simple frequencies and percentages, plus the t test for paired samples. A statistically significant difference was observed between mean scores for coordination, agility and the general functional fitness index (GFFI at the end of the exercise program and 12 weeks later. The GFFI and coordination scores had reduced after the 12-week period, but the participants’ agility had improved. It was concluded that a 12-week pause in water exercise impacted the GFFI of these elderly women. These results emphasize the importance of physical exercise during the ageing process and of raising awareness of the need for the elderly to keep physically active even during the holiday period in order to improve and/or maintain functional fitness levels.

  20. Modeling Molecular Interactions in Water: From Pairwise to Many-Body Potential Energy Functions. (United States)

    Cisneros, Gerardo Andrés; Wikfeldt, Kjartan Thor; Ojamäe, Lars; Lu, Jibao; Xu, Yao; Torabifard, Hedieh; Bartók, Albert P; Csányi, Gábor; Molinero, Valeria; Paesani, Francesco


    Almost 50 years have passed from the first computer simulations of water, and a large number of molecular models have been proposed since then to elucidate the unique behavior of water across different phases. In this article, we review the recent progress in the development of analytical potential energy functions that aim at correctly representing many-body effects. Starting from the many-body expansion of the interaction energy, specific focus is on different classes of potential energy functions built upon a hierarchy of approximations and on their ability to accurately reproduce reference data obtained from state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations and experimental measurements. We show that most recent potential energy functions, which include explicit short-range representations of two-body and three-body effects along with a physically correct description of many-body effects at all distances, predict the properties of water from the gas to the condensed phase with unprecedented accuracy, thus opening the door to the long-sought "universal model" capable of describing the behavior of water under different conditions and in different environments.

  1. Modeling Molecular Interactions in Water: From Pairwise to Many-Body Potential Energy Functions (United States)


    Almost 50 years have passed from the first computer simulations of water, and a large number of molecular models have been proposed since then to elucidate the unique behavior of water across different phases. In this article, we review the recent progress in the development of analytical potential energy functions that aim at correctly representing many-body effects. Starting from the many-body expansion of the interaction energy, specific focus is on different classes of potential energy functions built upon a hierarchy of approximations and on their ability to accurately reproduce reference data obtained from state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations and experimental measurements. We show that most recent potential energy functions, which include explicit short-range representations of two-body and three-body effects along with a physically correct description of many-body effects at all distances, predict the properties of water from the gas to the condensed phase with unprecedented accuracy, thus opening the door to the long-sought “universal model” capable of describing the behavior of water under different conditions and in different environments. PMID:27186804

  2. Thermodynamic Functions of Solvation of Hydrocarbons, Noble Gases, and Hard Spheres in Tetrahydrofuran-Water Mixtures. (United States)

    Sedov, I A; Magsumov, T I


    Thermodynamic solvation properties of mixtures of water with tetrahydrofuran at 298 K are studied. The Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of solvation of n-octane and toluene are determined experimentally. For molecular dynamics simulations of the binary solvent, we have modified a TraPPE-UA model for tetrahydrofuran and combined it with the SPC/E potential for water. The excess thermodynamic functions of neon, xenon, and hard spheres with two different radii are calculated using the particle insertion method. Simulated and real systems share the same characteristic trends for the thermodynamic functions. A maximum is present on dependencies of the enthalpy of solvation from the composition of solvent at 70-90 mol % water, making it higher than in both of the cosolvents. It is caused by a high enthalpy of cavity formation in the mixtures rich with water due to solvent reorganization around the cavity, which is shown by calculation of the enthalpy of solvation of hard spheres. Addition of relatively small amounts of tetrahydrofuran to water effectively suppresses the hydrophobic effect, leading to a quick increase of both the entropy and enthalpy of cavity formation and solvation of low polar molecules.

  3. Hydrological functioning and water balance in a heavily modified hydrographic system (United States)

    Carbonnel, Vincent; Brion, Natacha; Elskens, Marc; Claeys, Philippe; Verbanck, Michel A.


    Rivers and canals are often the location for the historical settlement of cities and the backbone for their expansion, as they permit the transport of goods and people, the access to water for industrial activities and energy production, and the evacuation of the domestic and industrial wastewaters. In turn, human activities can result in modifications of the natural river systems to allow for instance ship transport or protection against flooding. The complex interconnected hydrographic network composed of the Zenne and the parallel Charleroi-Brussels-Scheldt Canal, which supports the development of the economy and urbanization of Brussels Metropolitan Area (Belgium), is a good example of such an altered system. The natural water course has been profoundly modified by the deviation of rivers to feed the canal, the control of the water flow in the canal by locks and pumps and the overflow exchange of water between the river and the canal for flood protection purposes. Also, the functioning of this system is strongly impacted by urban hydrology in Brussels, which results in amounts of wastewater discharged in the Zenne River that are nearly equivalent to the natural riverine flow. Water and water quality management in such complex and altered systems correspond to difficult tasks. They require, as a first step, a deep understanding of their hydrological functioning. Building an accurate water budget is also a necessary step in the investigation of the pollution sources, sinks, dynamics and mass-balance. In order to assess the water quality and provide insights for water management in the Zenne-Canal hydrographic network (cf. other contributions in this session), we established a detailed box-model representation of the water budget for the whole system, with a particular interest on the importance and the effects of the exchanges of water between the river and the canal. A particularity of this study is that, in contrast to the widespread use of hydrological

  4. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: Defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions. (United States)

    Coppens, Lieke J C; van Gils, Jos A G; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Raterman, Bernard W; van Wezel, Annemarie P


    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at, or in the service area of, STPs. This study was performed on a nation-wide scale for the Netherlands. Point source emissions included were 345 Dutch STPs and nine rivers from neighboring countries. The Dutch surface waters were represented by 2511 surface water units. Modeling was performed for two extreme discharge conditions. Monitoring data of 7 locations along the rivers Rhine and Meuse fall mostly within the range of modeled concentrations. Half of the abstracted volumes of raw water for drinking water production, and a quarter of the Natura 2000 areas (European Union nature protection areas) hosted by the surface waters, are influenced by STPs at low discharge. The vast majority of the total impact of all Dutch STPs during both discharge conditions can be attributed to only 19% of the STPs with regard to the drinking water function, and to 39% of the STPs with regard to the Natura 2000 function. Attributing water treatment technologies to STPs as one of the possible measures to improve water quality and protect susceptible functions can be done in a spatially smart and cost-effective way, using consumption-based detailed hydrological and water quality modeling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface displacement and hydraulic connectivity in Bangkok plain inferred from persistent scatterer interferometry (United States)

    Ishitsuka, K.; Fukushima, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Yamada, Y.; Matsuoka, T.


    Land subsidence induced by the compaction of overdrafted aquifer systems have occurred in a lot of cities all over the world and have induced severe damage to buildings and infrastructures. In recent decades, some cities have taken measures to mitigate severe ground subsidence caused by groundwater extraction by, for instance, implementing artificial water injection schemes or regulating groundwater pumping, and surface rebound in these regions has been reported. Previously, SAR interferometry and persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) has been successfully used as a monitoring tool for the uplifting event and we can also use the data to infer the extension of unrecognized fault and geological boundary as well as the elastic property of the aquifer. In this study, we first estimated recent ground displacement by using PSI analysis of ALOS/PALSAR images obtained during November 2007 and December 2010, focusing on the Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand. In this region, ground subsidence due to excessive groundwater pumping had been reported previously, however, we detected ground uplift from 0.5 to 3.0 cm during ALOS observation period. The estimated displacement time-series are consistent with those obtained from surface settlement measurement points in monitoring wells. Since groundwater usage has decreased in Bangkok due to the regulation of groundwater pumping, and groundwater level at productive aquifer has been rising at the estimated uplift area after the regulation, this uplift can be attributed to the increase in the hydraulic head due to the preceding depression in pore pressure. And then, we estimated the lateral connectivity of aquifer as well as the aquifer elastic properties using a temporal model. We considered seasonal factor by a sinusoidal function with a period of one year, and the non-seasonal factor by an exponential function. As a result, we found that non-seasonal uplift occurred uniformly over the whole area at the rate of 0.5-1.5 cm

  6. Optimization of Moving Coil Actuators for Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Bech, Michael Møller; Roemer, Daniel Beck


    This paper focuses on deriving an optimal moving coil actuator design, used as force pro-ducing element in hydraulic on/off valves for Digital Displacement machines. Different moving coil actuator geometry topologies (permanent magnet placement and magnetiza-tion direction) are optimized for actu......This paper focuses on deriving an optimal moving coil actuator design, used as force pro-ducing element in hydraulic on/off valves for Digital Displacement machines. Different moving coil actuator geometry topologies (permanent magnet placement and magnetiza-tion direction) are optimized...... for actuating annular seat valves in a digital displacement machine. The optimization objectives are to the minimize the actuator power, the valve flow losses and the height of the actuator. Evaluation of the objective function involves static finite element simulation and simulation of an entire operation...... cycle using a single chamber Digital Displacement lumped parameter model. The optimization results shows that efficient operation is achievable using all of the proposed moving coil geometries, however some geometries require more space and actuator power. The most appealing of the optimized actuator...

  7. Theoretical Investigation on the Solubilization in Water of Functionalized Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mananghaya


    Full Text Available An important technique to increase the solubility and reactivity of carbon nanotube is through functionalization. In this study, the effects of functionalization of some single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs were investigated with the aid of density functional theory. The SWCNT model used in the study consists of a finite, (5, 0 zigzag nanotube segment containing 60 C atoms with hydrogen atoms added to the dangling bonds of the perimeter carbons. There are three water-dispersible SWCNTs used in this study that were functionalized with (a formic acid, as a model of carboxylic acid, (b isophthalic acid, as a model aromatic dicarboxylic acid, and (c benzenesulfonic acid, as a model aromatic sulfonic acid. Binding energies of the organic radicals to the nanotubes are calculated, as well as the HOMO-LUMO gaps and dipole moments of both nanotubes and functionalized nanotubes. Binding was found out to be thermodynamically favorable. The functionalization increases the electrical dipole moments and results in an enhancement in the solubility of the nanotubes in water manifested through favorable changes in the free energies of solvation. This should lower the toxicity of nanotubes and improve their biocompatibility.

  8. Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoli, Chuka [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden); Boutonnet, Magali; Jaeras, Sven [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Chemical Technology (Sweden); Rajarao-Kuttuva, Gunaratna, E-mail: [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden)


    Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

  9. Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment (United States)

    Okoli, Chuka; Boutonnet, Magali; Järås, Sven; Rajarao-Kuttuva, Gunaratna


    Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

  10. Transforming Water: Social Influence Moderates Psychological, Physiological, and Functional Response to a Placebo Product. (United States)

    Crum, Alia J; Phillips, Damon J; Goyer, J Parker; Akinola, Modupe; Higgins, E Tory


    This paper investigates how social influence can alter physiological, psychological, and functional responses to a placebo product and how such responses influence the ultimate endorsement of the product. Participants consumed a product, "AquaCharge Energy Water," falsely-labeled as containing 200 mg of caffeine but which was actually plain spring water, in one of three conditions: a no social influence condition, a disconfirming social influence condition, and a confirming social influence condition. Results demonstrated that the effect of the product labeling on physiological alertness (systolic blood pressure), psychological alertness (self-reported alertness), functional alertness (cognitive interference), and product endorsement was moderated by social influence: participants experienced more subjective, physiological and functional alertness and stronger product endorsement when they consumed the product in the confirming social influence condition than when they consumed the product in the disconfirming social influence condition. These results suggest that social influence can alter subjective, physiological, and functional responses to a faux product, in this case transforming the effects of plain water.

  11. [Physical therapy for temporomandibular joint anterior disc displacement without reduction]. (United States)

    Cai, B


    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDwoR) is a common type of temporomandibular joint disorders. Most patients experience limited mouth opening and joint pain at the same time. The standpoint of physical therapy is the function of the joint instead of the displaced disc. The treatment aims to make symptoms disappeared and joint function regained through 3M techniques, including modality, manual and movement. For ADDwoR patients with limited mouth opening within 2 month, manual therapy may reposition disc and the following splint and movement therapy can maintain disc-condyle relationship. Even so, restoring anatomical relationship is not the end of physical therapy. Enhanced health education and multidisciplinary cooperation are important for successful management of the ADDwoR patients.

  12. Analytical method development using functionalized polysulfone membranes for the determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water. (United States)

    Nuhu, Abdulmumin A; Basheer, Chanbasha; Abu-Thabit, Nedal Y; Alhooshani, Khalid; Al-Arfaj, Abdul Rahman


    In this study, functionalized polysulfone membrane has been utilized as a sorbent for the extraction of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) in water samples. Two different functionalized polysulfones (i) phosphonic acid functionalized polysulfone (PPSU-A) with different forms (cross-linked and non cross-linked) membranes and (ii) phosphonic ester functionalized polysulfone (PPSU-E) with different forms (cross-linked and non cross-linked) were evaluated for the extraction of CHCs in water. A 10 ml of spiked water sample was extracted with 50mg piece of the functionalized membrane. After extraction, the membrane was desorbed by organic solvent and the extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eight CHCs, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-TCB), 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (1,2,3-TCB), 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (HCBD), 1,2,4-trichloro-3-methylbenzene (TCMB), 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (1,2,4,5-TeCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were used as model compounds. Experimental parameters such as extraction time, desorption time, types of polymer membrane as well the nature of desorption solvent were optimized. Using optimum extraction conditions calibration curves were linear with coefficients of determination between 0.9954 and 0.9999 over wide range of concentrations (0.05-100 μgl(-1)). The method detection limits (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) were in the range of 0.4-3.9 ng l(-1). The proposed method was evaluated for the determination of CHCs in drinking water samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. What can density functional theory tell us about artificial catalytic water splitting? (United States)

    Mavros, Michael G; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Kowalczyk, Tim; McIsaac, Alexandra; Wang, Lee-Ping; Voorhis, Troy Van


    Water splitting by artificial catalysts is a critical process in the production of hydrogen gas as an alternative fuel. In this paper, we examine the essential role of theoretical calculations, with particular focus on density functional theory (DFT), in understanding the water-splitting reaction on these catalysts. First, we present an overview of DFT thermochemical calculations on water-splitting catalysts, addressing how these calculations are adapted to condensed phases and room temperature. We show how DFT-derived chemical descriptors of reactivity can be surprisingly good estimators for reactive trends in water-splitting catalysts. Using this concept, we recover trends for bulk catalysts using simple model complexes for at least the first-row transition-metal oxides. Then, using the CoPi cobalt oxide catalyst as a case study, we examine the usefulness of simulation for predicting the kinetics of water splitting. We demonstrate that the appropriate treatment of solvent effects is critical for computing accurate redox potentials with DFT, which, in turn, determine the rate-limiting steps and electrochemical overpotentials. Finally, we examine the ability of DFT to predict mechanism, using ruthenium complexes as a focal point for discussion. Our discussion is intended to provide an overview of the current strengths and weaknesses of the state-of-the-art DFT methodologies for condensed-phase molecular simulation involving transition metals and also to guide future experiments and computations toward the understanding and development of novel water-splitting catalysts.

  14. Functionalized Cellulose Networks for Efficient Oil Removal from Oil–Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam C. Paul


    Full Text Available The separation of oil from water in emulsions is a great environmental challenge, since oily wastewater is industrially produced. Here, we demonstrate a highly efficient method to separate oil from water in non-stabilized emulsions, using functionalized cellulose fiber networks. This is achieved by the modification of the wetting properties of the fibers, transforming them from oil- and water-absorbing to water-absorbing and oil-proof. In particular, two diverse layers of polymeric coatings, paraffin wax and poly(dimethylsiloxane-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PDMS-b-PEO diblock copolymer, are applied on the surface of each individual fiber by a two-step dip adsorption process. The resulting cellulose networks exhibit superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity and they are mechanically reinforced. Therefore, the described treatment makes cellulose fiber networks excellent candidates for the filtration and subsequent removal of oil from oil-in-water non-stabilized emulsions with oil separation efficiency up to 99%. The good selectivity, reproducibility, and cost effectiveness of the preparation process leads to the production of low cost filters that can be used in oil–water separation applications.

  15. Effect of cold-water immersion duration on body temperature and muscle function. (United States)

    Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Abbiss, Chris R; Watson, Greig; Nosaka, Ken; Laursen, Paul B


    This study compared the effect of 5, 10 and 20 min of cold-water (14 degrees C) immersion on rectal and muscle temperature and neuromuscular function. Twelve cyclists performed four cycling time-to-exhaustion trials in hot conditions (40 degrees C and 40%rh), followed 25 min later by cold-water immersion for 5, 10 or 20 min or 20 min in room temperature (24 degrees C; control). Rectal temperature was measured continuously, and muscle temperature was measured before, immediately after and 45 min after the time-to-exhaustion-test, as well as before and after water immersion. Sixty-second maximal voluntary isometric torque and isokinetic torque of the knee extensors were measured before, immediately after and 55 min after time-to-exhaustion-test. A greater rate of decrease in rectal temperature was observed in all water immersion conditions 45-80 min after time-to-exhaustion-test compared with control. Compared with control, muscle temperature 45 min after time-to-exhaustion-test was lower for all water immersion conditions; however, muscle temperature was lower for the 10- and 20-min conditions compared with 5 min. Isometric torque measured 55 min after time-to-exhaustion-test was lower for all conditions. Isokinetic torque was lower for all conditions immediately and 55-min post-time-to-exhaustion-test. Of the durations measured, 5 min of cold-water immersion appeared as the most appropriate duration for reducing rectal temperature but limiting decreases in muscle temperature.

  16. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine (United States)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.


    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  17. Stress intensity and crack displacement for small edge cracks (United States)

    Orange, Thomas W.


    The weight function method was used to derive stress intensity factors and crack mouth displacement coefficients for small edge cracks (less than 20 percent of the specimen width) in common fracture specimen configurations. Contact stresses due to point application of loads were found to be small but significant for three-point bending and insignificant for four-point bending. The results are compared with available equations and numerical solutions from the literature and with unpublished boundary collocation results.

  18. Phytoplankton functional groups and harmful algae species in anthropogenically impacted waters of the NW Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Vila


    Full Text Available Phytoplankton assemblages were analysed by multivariate analysis techniques in highly modified waterbodies (harbours of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea over an annual cycle. The phytoplankton functional groups that characterise these anthropogenically impacted waters were identified and related to HAB events. Four functional groups can be distinguished from the analysis: (1 bloom-forming dinoflagellates, (2 winter diatoms, (3 summer-autumn diatoms, and (4 large dinoflagellates and elongated diatoms. The species that characterise these functional groups occurred at all sampling stations. Potentially harmful species are distributed through all the clusters. However, bloom-forming dinoflagellates occur particularly in large harbours and during summer months. The results indicate that: (1 functional groups indicate where and when there is a high risk of blooms, but they cannot determine the risk of a toxic or fish-killing event; and (2 large harbours in tideless seas must be considered as areas with a high risk of high-biomass bloom occurrences.

  19. Functional diversity and redundancy across fish gut, sediment and water bacterial communities. (United States)

    Escalas, Arthur; Troussellier, Marc; Yuan, Tong; Bouvier, Thierry; Bouvier, Corinne; Mouchet, Maud A; Flores Hernandez, Domingo; Ramos Miranda, Julia; Zhou, Jizhong; Mouillot, David


    This article explores the functional diversity and redundancy in a bacterial metacommunity constituted of three habitats (sediment, water column and fish gut) in a coastal lagoon under anthropogenic pressure. Comprehensive functional gene arrays covering a wide range of ecological processes and stress resistance genes to estimate the functional potential of bacterial communities were used. Then, diversity partitioning was used to characterize functional diversity and redundancy within (α), between (β) and across (γ) habitats. It was showed that all local communities exhibit a highly diversified potential for the realization of key ecological processes and resistance to various environmental conditions, supporting the growing evidence that macro-organisms microbiomes harbour a high functional potential and are integral components of functional gene dynamics in aquatic bacterial metacommunities. Several levels of functional redundancy at different scales of the bacterial metacommunity were observed (within local communities, within habitats and at the metacommunity level). The results suggested a high potential for the realization of spatial ecological insurance within this ecosystem, that is, the functional compensation among microorganisms for the realization and maintenance of key ecological processes, within and across habitats. Finally, the role of macro-organisms as dispersal vectors of microbes and their potential influence on marine metacommunity dynamics were discussed. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Wernet, M. P.


    Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative velocity measurement technique for measuring instantaneous planar cross sections of a flow field. The technique offers very high precision (1%) directionally resolved velocity vector estimates, but its use has been limited by high equipment costs and complexity of operation. Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) is an all-electronic PIV data acquisition and reduction procedure which is simple, fast, and easily implemented. The procedure uses a low power, continuous wave laser and a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera to electronically record the particle images. A frame grabber board in a PC is used for data acquisition and reduction processing. PDT eliminates the need for photographic processing, system costs are moderately low, and reduced data are available within seconds of acquisition. The technique results in velocity estimate accuracies on the order of 5%. The software is fully menu-driven from the acquisition to the reduction and analysis of the data. Options are available to acquire a single image or 5- or 25-field series of images separated in time by multiples of 1/60 second. The user may process each image, specifying its boundaries to remove unwanted glare from the periphery and adjusting its background level to clearly resolve the particle images. Data reduction routines determine the particle image centroids and create time history files. PDT then identifies the velocity vectors which describe the particle movement in the flow field. Graphical data analysis routines are included which allow the user to graph the time history files and display the velocity vector maps, interpolated velocity vector grids, iso-velocity vector contours, and flow streamlines. The PDT data processing software is written in FORTRAN 77 and the data acquisition routine is written in C-Language for 80386-based IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS v3.0 or higher. Machine requirements include 4 MB RAM (3 MB Extended), a single or

  1. Epoxy-functionalized Porous Organic Polymers via Diels-Alder Cycloaddition Reaction for Atmospheric Water Capture. (United States)

    Byun, Yearin; Coskun, Ali


    We report on the synthesis of highly microporous, epoxy-functionalized porous organic polymers (ep-POPs) through one pot, catalyst-free Diels-Alder cycloaddition polymerization. The high oxygen content of ep-POPs offered efficient hydrogen bonding sites for water molecules, thus leading to high water uptake capacities, up to 39.2-42.4%, under a wide temperature range of 5-45oC, covering the climatic conditions and various manufacturing applications. Importantly, ep-POPs demonstrated regeneration temperatures as low as 55oC and excellent water stability, recyclability as well as high specific surface areas (up to 852 m2 g-1). © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Comparison Of Selected Pedotransfer Functions For The Determination Of Soil Water Retention Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupec Michal


    Full Text Available Soil water retention curves were measured using a sandbox and the pressure plate extractor method on undisturbed soil samples from the Borská Lowland. The basic soil properties (e.g. soil texture, dry bulk density of the samples were determined. The soil water retention curve was described using the van Genuchten model (Van Genuchten, 1980. The parameters of the model were obtained using the RETC program (Van Genuchten et al., 1991. For the determination of the soil water retention curve parameters, two pedotransfer functions (PTF were also used that were derived for this area by Skalová (2003 and the Rosetta computer program (Schaap et al., 2001. The performance of the PTFs was characterized using the mean difference and root mean square error.

  3. Watering, fertilization, and slurry inoculation promote recovery of biological crust function in degraded soils. (United States)

    Maestre, Fernando T; Martín, Noelia; Díez, Beatriz; López-Poma, Rosario; Santos, Fernando; Luque, Ignacio; Cortina, Jordi


    Biological soil crusts are very sensitive to human-induced disturbances and are in a degraded state in many areas throughout their range. Given their importance in the functioning of arid and semiarid ecosystems, restoring these crusts may contribute to the recovery of ecosystem functionality in degraded areas. We conducted a factorial microcosm experiment to evaluate the effects of inoculation type (discrete fragments vs slurry), fertilization (control vs addition of composted sewage sludge), and watering frequency (two vs five times per week) on the cyanobacterial composition, nitrogen fixation, chlorophyll content, and net CO2 exchange rate of biological soil crusts inoculated on a semiarid degraded soil from SE Spain. Six months after the inoculation, the highest rates of nitrogen fixation and chlorophyll a content were found when the biological crusts were inoculated as slurry, composted sewage sludge was added, and the microcosms were watered five times per week. Net CO2 exchange rate increased when biological crusts were inoculated as slurry and the microcosms were watered five times per week. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints and phylogenetic analyses indicated that most of the cyanobacterial species already present in the inoculated crust had the capability to spread and colonize the surface of the surrounding soil. These analyses showed that cyanobacterial communities were less diverse when the microcosms were watered five times per week, and that watering frequency (followed in importance by the addition of composted sewage sludge and inoculation type) was the treatment that most strongly influenced their composition. Our results suggest that the inoculation of biological soil crusts in the form of slurry combined with the addition of composted sewage sludge could be a suitable technique to accelerate the recovery of the composition and functioning of biological soil crusts in drylands.

  4. Fluoride exposure and indicators of thyroid functioning in the Canadian population: implications for community water fluoridation. (United States)

    Barberio, Amanda M; Hosein, F Shaun; Quiñonez, Carlos; McLaren, Lindsay


    There are concerns that altered thyroid functioning could be the result of ingesting too much fluoride. Community water fluoridation (CWF) is an important source of fluoride exposure. Our objectives were to examine the association between fluoride exposure and (1) diagnosis of a thyroid condition and (2) indicators of thyroid functioning among a national population-based sample of Canadians. We analysed data from Cycles 2 and 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Logistic regression was used to assess associations between fluoride from urine and tap water samples and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between fluoride exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level (low/normal/high). Other available variables permitted additional exploratory analyses among the subset of participants for whom we could discern some fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products. There was no evidence of a relationship between fluoride exposure (from urine and tap water) and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. There was no statistically significant association between fluoride exposure and abnormal (low or high) TSH levels relative to normal TSH levels. Rerunning the models with the sample constrained to the subset of participants for whom we could discern some source(s) of fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products revealed no significant associations. These analyses suggest that, at the population level, fluoride exposure is not associated with impaired thyroid functioning in a time and place where multiple sources of fluoride exposure, including CWF, exist. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Using density functional theory to solve complex problems: from liquid water to dark matter (United States)

    Fernandez Serra, Marivi

    In this talk I will review our current efforts on on understanding the physics of liquid water and the interaction of water with functional semiconductor surfaces using ab initio molecular dynamics methods. I will present the state of the art of current simulations and the challenges we face, focusing on two specific problems: the description of electron-electron interactions using semilocal density functionals and the role of nuclear quantum effects. I will finish the talk introducing our work in the field of dark matter detection, showing how electronic structure theory is a tool that can easily be used by high energy theorists to evaluate their predictions about the interactions of dark matter particles with electrons in solids, opening a bridge between two otherwise very distant communities.

  6. Effects of water extract of Curcuma longa (L.) roots on immunity and telomerase function. (United States)

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Wu, Jia-Ching; Ho, Chi-Tang; Badmaev, Vladimir


    Background Immunity and Longevity Methods A water extract of Curcuma longa (L.) [vern. Turmeric] roots (TurmericImmune™) standardized for a minimum 20 % of turmeric polysaccharides ukonan A, B, C and D was evaluated for its biological properties in in vitro tissue culture studies. Results The water extract of turmeric (TurP) exhibited induced-nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages. These results suggested the immunomodulatory effects of TurP. In addition, the polysaccharides up-regulated function of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) equally to the phenolic compound from turmeric, curcumin. Conclusions The ukonan family of polysaccharides may assist in promoting cellular immune responses, tissue repair and lifespan by enhancing immune response and telomere function.

  7. Methodology of functionality selection for water management software and examples of its application. (United States)

    Vasilyev, K N


    When developing new software products and adapting existing software, project leaders have to decide which functionalities to keep, adapt or develop. They have to consider that the cost of making errors during the specification phase is extremely high. In this paper a formalised approach is proposed that considers the main criteria for selecting new software functions. The application of this approach minimises the chances of making errors in selecting the functions to apply. Based on the work on software development and support projects in the area of water resources and flood damage evaluation in economic terms at CH2M HILL (the developers of the flood modelling package ISIS), the author has defined seven criteria for selecting functions to be included in a software product. The approach is based on the evaluation of the relative significance of the functions to be included into the software product. Evaluation is achieved by considering each criterion and the weighting coefficients of each criterion in turn and applying the method of normalisation. This paper includes a description of this new approach and examples of its application in the development of new software products in the are of the water resources management.

  8. Superhydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers based on a water-soluble functional monomer for the recognition of gastrodin in water media. (United States)

    Ji, Wenhua; Zhang, Mingming; Wang, Daijie; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Huang, Luqi


    In this study, the first successfully developed superhydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for gastrodin recognition have been described. MIPs were prepared via the bulk polymerization process in an aqueous solution using alkenyl glycosides glucose (AGG) as the water-soluble functional monomer. The non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were also synthesized using the same method without the use of the template. The dynamic water contact angles and photographs of the dispersion properties confirmed that the molecularly imprinted polymers displayed excellent superhydrophilicity. The results demonstrated that the MIPs exhibited high selectivity and an excellent imprinting effect. A molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method was established. Optimization of various parameters affecting MISPE was investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a wide linear range (0.001-100.0μgmL(-1)) and low limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) (0.03 and 0.09ngmL(-1), respectively) were achieved. When compared with the NIPs, higher recoveries (90.5% to 97.6%) of gastrodin with lower relative standard deviations values (below 6.4%) using high performance liquid chromatography were obtained at three spiked levels in three blank samples. These results demonstrated one efficient, highly selective and environmentally-friendly MISPE technique with excellent reproducibility for the purification and pre-concentration of gastrodin from an aqueous extract of Gastrodia elata roots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional Segregation within the Muscles of Aquatic Propulsion in the Asiatic Water Monitor (Varanus salvator)


    Bruce Arthur Young; Jessica Dumais; Nicholas John; Brandon Lyons; Andrew Macduff; Matthew Most; Nathan A. Reiser; Peter J Reiser


    Water monitor lizards (Varanus salvator) swim using sinusoidal oscillations generated at the base of their long (50% of total body length) tail. In an effort to determine which level of the structural/organizational hierarchy of muscle is associated with functional segregation between the muscles of the tail base, an array of muscle features — myosin heavy chain profiles, enzymatic fiber types, twitch and tetanic force production, rates of fatigue, muscle compliance, and electrical activity ...

  10. Nonparametric estimation of the derivative of the regression function: application to sea shores water quality


    Bercu, Bernard; Capderou, Sami; Durrieu, Gilles


    This paper is devoted to the nonparametric estimation of the derivative of the regression function in a nonparametric regression model. We implement a very efficient and easy to handle statistical procedure based on the derivative of the recursive Nadaraya-Watson estimator. We establish the almost sure convergence as well as the asymptotic normality for our estimates. We also illustrate our nonparametric estimation procedure on simulated and real life data associated with sea shores water qua...

  11. Structural, Dynamical, and Electronic Properties of Liquid Water: A Hybrid Functional Study. (United States)

    Ambrosio, Francesco; Miceli, Giacomo; Pasquarello, Alfredo


    We study structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of liquid water through ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on a hybrid functional which includes nonlocal van der Waals (vdW) interactions. The water dimer, the water hexamer, and two phases of ice are studied as benchmark cases. The hydrogen-bond energy depends on the balance between Fock exchange and vdW interactions. Moreover, the energetic competition between extended and compact structural motifs is found to be well described by theory provided vdW interactions are accounted for. Applied to the hydrogen-bond network of liquid water, the dispersion interactions favor more compact structural motifs, bring the density closer to the experimental value, and improve the agreement with experimental observables such as radial distribution functions. The description of the self-diffusion coefficient is also found to improve upon the combined consideration of Fock exchange and vdW interactions. The band gap and the band edges are found to agree with experiment within 0.1 eV.

  12. Synthesis and properties of amino acid functionalized water-soluble perylene diimides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yongshan; Li, Xuemei; Wei, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Tianyi; Wu, Junsen; Ren, Huixue [Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan (China)


    We prepared amino acid functionalized water-soluble perylene diimides: N,N'-bi(L-glutamic acid)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (1), N,N'-bi(L-phenylalanine acid)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (2), N,N'-bi(Lglutamic amine)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (3) and N,N'-bi(L-phenylalanine amine)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (4). The structures of 3 and 4 were confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR, FT-IR and MS. The maximal absorption bands of compound 1 and 2 in concentrated sulfuric acid were red-shifted for about 48 and 74 nm, respectively, compared with that of Perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA). Nearly no fluorescence was observed for compounds 1 and 2 in water, while compounds 3 and 4 were significantly water-soluble and had very high fluorescent quantum. The mechanism of the optical properties change was discussed, and the π-π stacking caused by H{sup +} led to the changes of fluorescence spectrum and absorption spectrum. The calculated molecular orbital energies and the frontier molecular orbital maps of compounds 1-2 based on density function theory (DFT) calculations were reported. Owing to the high water-soluble, the perylene derivatives 3 and 4 were successfully applied as high-performance fluorochromes for living hela cells imaging.

  13. Effects of water temperature change on immune function in surf clams, Mactra veneriformis (Bivalvia: Mactridae). (United States)

    Yu, Jin Ha; Song, Jae Hee; Choi, Min Chul; Park, Sung Woo


    Surf clam, Mactra veneriformis is one of the crucial fishery resources in Korea. This study was performed to examine the immune functions of the surf clam under the stress of water temperature changes at 10 degrees C, 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C for 24h. Viable bacterial counts (VBC), total haemocyte count (THC), phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity, NRR times and SOD activity were assessed in three different water temperature groups. Clams held at 10 degrees C decreased in THC, lysozyme activity and NRR times, but phagocytic activity was increased. The highest temperature (30 degrees C) significantly increased in THC, whereas it decreased in phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity and NRR times. In clams maintained at 20 degrees C, phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity and NRR times were increased whereas THC was somewhat decreased with respect to clams held at 30 degrees C. However, water temperature changes did not elicit any alteration of VBC and SOD activity. The present study demonstrates that acute water temperature change affects the haemocytic and haemolymphatic functions, reducing immunosurveillance in stressed surf clam, M. veneriformis.

  14. Outcome of alternative approach to displaced acetabular fractures. (United States)

    Park, K S; Chan, C K; Lee, G W; Ahn, H W; Yoon, T R


    Anatomical reduction of displaced acetabular fracture is not without its' limitations and complications. This study is conducted to assess clinical and radiological outcomes as well as complications of treating displaced acetabular fractures with emphasis on anatomical reduction in weight-bearing area, mainly the posterior column, and imperfect reduction of the anterior column is acceptable. However, stability of both columns is mandatory. It was a retrospective study carried out in a Level 1 arthroplasty and trauma centre. 23 patients (17 males, 6 females) with average age of 50.1 years (range, 36-68 years) with displaced acetabular fracture treated with combined incisions and plate-cable systems were included. There were 3 elementary and 18 associated fractures according to Letournel classification. Average follow-up was 23.5 months (range, 12-38.7 months). Mean operation time was 160min (range: 75-320min). Functional scores were evaluated using Harris Hip Score (HHS) whilst reduction was assessed by Matta criteria. Any displacement of reduction, osteoarthritis, heterotopic ossification, and other complications was recorded. 65.2% (15/23) of the patients obtained excellent HHS and 21.7% (5/23) had good HHS. There were 12 anatomical, 6 imperfect, and 5 poor reductions. No displacement was recorded in final follow-up. Complications documented: three lateral femoral cutaneous nerve injuries, two conversions to total hip arthroplasty, three Brooker stage 1 heterotrophic ossification, one pulmonary embolism and one screw irritation. No incidence of wound breakdown, infection and radiological osteoarthritis was reported. Imperfect reduction of the anterior column provided clinical outcomes that are as good as total anatomical reduction. This approach minimizes soft tissue damage and reduces perioperative morbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assisting the return of displaced Dinka Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Murphy


    Full Text Available The issues involved in supporting the return of internally displaced Dinka Bor communities highlight the complex, and often ignored, challenges of addressing the consequencesof South-South conflict.

  16. Colombia’s displaced indigenous women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Escobar Cuero


    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples are one of the most vulnerable groups within Colombia’s internally displaced population, and a lack of understanding of their culture and needs constitutes a major challenge to their protection and assistance.

  17. Miscible, Porous Media Displacements with Density Stratification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    A bstract : High accuracy, three‐dimensional numerical simulations of miscible displacements with gravity override, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, are discussed for the quarter five‐spot configuration...

  18. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko


    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  19. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.


    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  20. Molecular density functional theory for water with liquid-gas coexistence and correct pressure. (United States)

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levesque, Maximilien; Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr; Borgis, Daniel


    The solvation of hydrophobic solutes in water is special because liquid and gas are almost at coexistence. In the common hypernetted chain approximation to integral equations, or equivalently in the homogenous reference fluid of molecular density functional theory, coexistence is not taken into account. Hydration structures and energies of nanometer-scale hydrophobic solutes are thus incorrect. In this article, we propose a bridge functional that corrects this thermodynamic inconsistency by introducing a metastable gas phase for the homogeneous solvent. We show how this can be done by a third order expansion of the functional around the bulk liquid density that imposes the right pressure and the correct second order derivatives. Although this theory is not limited to water, we apply it to study hydrophobic solvation in water at room temperature and pressure and compare the results to all-atom simulations. The solvation free energy of small molecular solutes like n-alkanes and hard sphere solutes whose radii range from angstroms to nanometers is now in quantitative agreement with reference all atom simulations. The macroscopic liquid-gas surface tension predicted by the theory is comparable to experiments. This theory gives an alternative to the empirical hard sphere bridge correction used so far by several authors.

  1. Instability in Immiscible Fluids Displacement from Cracks and Porous Samples (United States)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Ivashnyov, O. E.


    number of fingers in the cell, and allowed us to make some additional suggestions for the cleanup procedure. depending on the resident fluid properties, for which the displacement still remains stable. viscous one were carried out. Validation of the code was performed by comparing the results of model problems simulations with the existing solutions published in literature. Being in a good agreement with the previously obtained results, nevertheless, the developed code is an advanced one. While the existing codes could operate with linear equations and regular geometry and initial disturbances only, the new code permits taking into account non-linear effects as well. characterizing the quality of displacement. The functional dependence of the dimensionless criteria on the values of governing parameters needs further investigations. Services, an international company in the oil and gas industry.

  2. Phenomenon of displacement in Arabic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Displacement is one of the characteristics of language and common phenomena in the Arabic language. Not only is this phenomenon limited to Arabic poetry and prose, but it is also broadened, so we can see examples of this in the Qur'an. Because of this phenomenon extensively in Arabic literature and also because of its essence that leads to the transmission of the elements for the first visibility to the other visibility in the sentence and sometimes had to change the grammatical role of the words, its identify helps us in a better understanding of text and the correct translation of it and protects the reader from mistakes. This paper in the descriptive analytical approach tries studying of the phenomenon of the displacement in the Arabic language and bringing its instances in Arabic poetry and prose as well as verses contained in the Holy Quran, to show that through the types and characteristics in the Arabic language and to response to several questions, including: how important is the displacement and what is its types in rhetoric, and the reasons of the displacement, and etc... Of the most important results of this study may refer to the undeniable role of the displacement as a rhetorical method to better understanding of the texts including: one of the most important reasons of the displacement in the use of language is to improve speech verbally and morally, and violation of the standard language and create a poetic atmosphere, and the recognition of the occurrence of the phenomenon of displacement in the Arabic language that uphold different interpretations remote and estimates when faced with the displacement in the text and help us to understand it and etc...

  3. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary


    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  4. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.


    chromatin. The condensed nature of chromatin inhibits many DNA metabolizing activities, including NER. In order to promote efficient repair, detection of a lesion not only has to activate the NER pathway but also chromatin remodeling. In general, such remodeling is thought on the one hand to precede NER...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER....

  5. Suppression of displacement in severely slowed saccades


    MacAskill, Michael R; Tim J. Anderson; Jones, Richard D


    Severely slowed saccades in spinocerebellar ataxia have previously been shown to be at least partially closed-loop in nature: their long duration means that they can be modified in-flight in response to intrasaccadic target movements. In this study, a woman with these pathologically slowed saccades could modify them in-flight in response to target movements, even when saccadic suppression of displacement prevented conscious awareness of those movements. Thus saccadic suppression of displace...

  6. Dielectric constant of water as a function of separation in a slab geometry: A molecular dynamics study. (United States)

    Itoh, Hidenosuke; Sakuma, Hiroshi


    Water in confining geometries shows various anomalous properties related to its structure and dynamics compared with bulk water. Here, the dielectric constant of water as a function of separation in a graphite slab geometry was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The dielectric constants of water were calculated from the orientational polarization of water molecules when an external electric field was applied parallel and normal to the slabs. The reduction of the dielectric constant of water compared with bulk water can be explained by investigating the structure and dynamics of water in slab geometries. We found a preferred orientation of water molecules in the layer closest to the graphite surface. The self-diffusion coefficient distribution of water molecules along the direction normal to the slabs was also computed. Highly mobile water molecules in the intermediate region were generated by the weak hydrogen bonding produced by the preferred orientation of water molecules in the layer. We concluded that the dielectric constant of water in the slab geometry is lower than that of bulk water because of the reduction of the polarization of water and the highly mobile water molecules in the intermediate region arising from the preferred orientation of water molecules.

  7. Silicon Application Increases Drought Tolerance of Kentucky Bluegrass by Improving Plant Water Relations and Morphophysiological Functions (United States)

    Saud, Shah; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Lu; Sadiq, Arooj; Chen, Yajun


    Drought stress encumbers the growth of turfgrass principally by disrupting the plant-water relations and physiological functions. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of silicon (Si) in improving the drought tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Drought stress and four levels (0, 200, 400, and 800 mg L−1) of Si (Na2SiO3·9H2O) were imposed after 2 months old plants cultured under glasshouse conditions. Drought stress was found to decrease the photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, leaf water content, relative growth rate, water use efficiency, and turf quality, but to increase in the root/shoot and leaf carbon/nitrogen ratio. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Kentucky bluegrass were significantly alleviated by the addition of Si after drought stress. For example, Si application at 400 mg L−1 significantly increased the net photosynthesis by 44%, leaf water contents by 33%, leaf green color by 42%, and turf quality by 44% after 20 days of drought stress. Si application proved beneficial in improving the performance of Kentucky bluegrass in the present study suggesting that manipulation of endogenous Si through genetic or biotechnological means may result in the development of drought resistance in grasses. PMID:25054178

  8. A New system for Measuring Electrical Conductivity of Water as a Function of Admittance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haval Yacoob


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new system for measuring water conductivity as a function of electrophysical property (admittance. The system is cheap and its manufacturing is easy. In addition, it dose not require any sort of electrolysis and calibration. The system consists of four electrodes made of silver (Ag 92.5 g to Cu 7.5 g fixed in a plastic tube filled by water which allows the use of two and four electrode setups. The admittance (reciprocal of impedance is measured for different water sources (distilled, rainfall, mineral, river and tap water using different frequencies between 50 Hz and 100 kHz. These measurements were taken twice, once with four electrodes and another with two electrodes of two modes (inner and outer electrodes. The results have shown good correlation between the measured admittance and the conductivity of all the water sources and the best correlation was found at low frequencies between 50 Hz and 20 kHz. The highest efficiency can be achieved by performing the four electrodes system which allows circumventing the effect of the electrode impedance. This result makes the system efficient compared to traditional conductivity meters which usually require high frequencies for good operation. doi:10.5617/jeb.203 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 86-92, 2011

  9. Effects of once-weekly shallow water aerobic exercise on functional performance in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kramperová


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 24-week shallow-water aerobic exercise on functional performance in postmenopausal women. Thirty-seven women aged 60+ (mean age 67.2 ± 4.8 years were self-selected to a water exercise group (n = 21 or to a comparison group (n = 16. The training consisted of a 24-week (60−1, 1 d.wk−1 supervised and guided exercise programme that included aerobic and strength training using an aquatic noodle in shallow water (1.2 m. Outcome measures were 30-s chair stand and 30-s arm curl tests, assessed at baseline and 24 weeks. Significant differences between groups were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test. At 24 weeks there was a significantly (p < 0.05 greater improvement in measure of upper-body strength in the water exercise group. Arm curling improved by 15.8 versus 14.3% in the water exercise and comparison groups, respectively.

  10. Monsoonal loading in Ethiopia and Eritrea from vertical GPS displacement time series (United States)

    Birhanu, Yelebe; Bendick, Rebecca


    Vertical GPS displacement time series from 16 continuous sites over a period from 2007 to 2014 are compared to time series of monthly averages of liquid water equivalent thickness from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and precipitation from the Climate Research Unit to investigate hydrologic loading in Ethiopia and Eritrea. The GPS vertical time series record the presence of one or two rainy seasons, the amplitude surface displacements in response to monsoon water load, and phases consistent with a purely elastic response to a water load that accumulates throughout the rainy period. Comparison of observed amplitudes to those calculated for an average Earth model shows no systematic weakness related to the rift.

  11. Rectus Pulley Displacements without Abnormal Oblique Contractility Explain Strabismus in Superior Oblique Palsy. (United States)

    Suh, Soh Youn; Le, Alan; Clark, Robert A; Demer, Joseph L


    . Rectus pulley displacements alone, without abnormal oblique muscle contractility, can create the clinical patterns of incomitant strabismus in SO palsy. This finding supports accumulating evidence that clinical binocular misalignment patterns are not reliable indicators of contractile function of the SO muscle. Ocular torsion does not correlate with and thus cannot account for pulley displacements in SO palsy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diversity and functions of bacterial community in drinking water biofilms revealed by high-throughput sequencing (United States)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Mao, Yanping; Wang, Zhiping; Zhang, Tong


    The development of biofilms in drinking water (DW) systems may cause various problems to water quality. To investigate the community structure of biofilms on different pipe materials and the global/specific metabolic functions of DW biofilms, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing data for 16S rRNA genes and Illumina metagenomic data were generated and analysed. Considerable differences in bacterial diversity and taxonomic structure were identified between biofilms formed on stainless steel and biofilms formed on plastics, indicating that the metallic materials facilitate the formation of higher diversity biofilms. Moreover, variations in several dominant genera were observed during biofilm formation. Based on PCA analysis, the global functions in the DW biofilms were similar to other DW metagenomes. Beyond the global functions, the occurrences and abundances of specific protective genes involved in the glutathione metabolism, the SoxRS system, the OxyR system, RpoS regulated genes, and the production/degradation of extracellular polymeric substances were also evaluated. A near-complete and low-contamination draft genome was constructed from the metagenome of the DW biofilm, based on the coverage and tetranucleotide frequencies, and identified as a Bradyrhizobiaceae-like bacterium according to a phylogenetic analysis. Our findings provide new insight into DW biofilms, especially in terms of their metabolic functions.

  13. Water Processable Polythiophene Nanowires by Photo-Cross-Linking and Click-Functionalization. (United States)

    Kim, Hyeong Jun; Skinner, Matthew; Yu, Hojeong; Oh, Joon Hak; Briseno, Alejandro L; Emrick, Todd; Kim, Bumjoon J; Hayward, Ryan C


    Replacing or minimizing the use of halogenated organic solvents in the processing and manufacturing of conjugated polymer-based organic electronics has emerged as an important issue due to concerns regarding toxicity, environmental impact, and high cost. To date, however, the processing of well-ordered conjugated polymer nanostructures has been difficult to achieve using environmentally benign solvents. In this work, we report the development of water and alcohol processable nanowires (NWs) with well-defined crystalline nanostructure based on the solution assembly of azide functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT-azide) and subsequent photo-cross-linking and functionalization of these NWs. The solution-assembled P3HT-azide NWs were successfully cross-linked by exposure to UV light, yielding good thermal and chemical stability. Residual azide units on the photo-cross-linked NWs were then functionalized with alkyne terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG-alkyne) using copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition chemistry. PEG functionalization of the cross-linked P3HT-azide NWs allowed for stable dispersion in alcohols and water, while maintaining well-ordered NW structures with electronic properties suitable for the fabrication of organic field effect transistors (OFETs).

  14. A functional cutin matrix is required for plant protection against water loss. (United States)

    Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Li, Chao; Yamaji, Naoki; Nevo, Eviatar


    The plant cuticle, a cutin matrix embedded with and covered by wax, seals the aerial organ's surface to protect the plant against uncontrolled water loss. The cutin matrix is essential for the cuticle to function as a barrier to water loss. Recently, we identified from wild barley a drought supersensitive mutant, eibi1, which is caused by a defective cutin matrix as the result of the loss of function of HvABCG31, an ABCG full transporter. Here, we report that eibi1 epidermal cells contain lipid-like droplets, which are supposed to consist of cutin monomers that have not been transported out of the cells. The eibi1 cuticle is fragile due to a defective cutin matrix. The rice ortholog of the EIBI1 gene has a similar pattern of expression, young shoot but not flag leaf blade, as the barley gene. The model of the function of Eibi1 is discussed. The HvABCG31 full transporter functions in the export of cutin components and contributed to land plant colonization, hence also to terrestrial life evolution.

  15. Benefit of warm water immersion on biventricular function in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardassis Dimitris


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity and exercise are well-known cardiovascular protective factors. Many elderly patients with heart failure find it difficult to exercise on land, and hydrotherapy (training in warm water could be a more appropriate form of exercise for such patients. However, concerns have been raised about its safety. The aim of this study was to investigate, with echocardiography and Doppler, the acute effect of warm water immersion (WWI and effect of 8 weeks of hydrotherapy on biventricular function, volumes and systemic vascular resistance. A secondary aim was to observe the effect of hydrotherapy on brain natriuretic peptide (BNP. Methods Eighteen patients [age 69 ± 8 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 31 ± 9%, peakVO2 14.6 ± 4.5 mL/kg/min] were examined with echocardiography on land and in warm water (34°C. Twelve of these patients completed 8 weeks of control period followed by 8 weeks of hydrotherapy twice weekly. Results During acute WWI, cardiac output increased from 3.1 ± 0.8 to 4.2 ± 0.9 L/min, LV tissue velocity time integral from 1.2 ± 0.4 to 1.7 ± 0.5 cm and right ventricular tissue velocity time integral from 1.6 ± 0.6 to 2.5 ± 0.8 cm (land vs WWI, p There was no change in the cardiovascular response or BNP after 8 weeks of hydrotherapy. Conclusion Hydrotherapy was well tolerated by all patients. The main observed cardiac effect during acute WWI was a reduction in heart rate, which, together with a decrease in afterload, resulted in increases in systolic and diastolic biventricular function. Although 8 weeks of hydrotherapy did not improve cardiac function, our data support the concept that exercise in warm water is an acceptable regime for patients with heart failure.

  16. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs): Underlying Mechanisms and Displacement Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin


    Micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) is a newly developed profile control and oil displacement agent for enhanced oil recovery in heterogeneous reservoirs. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of MPEMs in brine water. A transparent sandpack micromodel was used to observe the microscopic flow and displacement mechanisms, and parallel-sandpack models were used to investigate the profile control and oil displacement performance using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs. The results indicate that MPEMs almost do not increase the viscosity of injection water and can be conveniently injected using the original water injection pipelines. The microscopic profile control and oil displacement mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media mainly behave as selective-plugging in large pores, fluid diversion after MPEMs plugging, oil drainage caused by MPEMs breakthrough, and the mechanism of oil droplets converging into oil flow. MPEMs have a high plugging strength, which can tolerate a long-term water flushing. MPEMs can selectively enter and plug the large pores and pore-throats in high permeability sandpack, but almost do not damage the low permeability sandpack. MPEMs can effectively divert the water flow from the high permeability sandpack to the low permeability sandpack and improve the sweep efficiency of low permeability sandpack and low permeability area in the high permeability sandpack. The results also confirm the dynamic process of profile control and oil displacement using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs.

  17. Lung function in subjects exposed to crude oil spill into sea water. (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Meo, Imran M U; Al-Saadi, Muslim M; Azeem, Muhammad Abdul


    A Greek oil-tanker ran aground, resulting in a huge oil spill along the costal areas of Karachi, Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to assess the lung function and follow up change after one year in subjects exposed to crude oil spill in sea water. It was a cross sectional study with follow up in 20 apparently healthy, non-smoking, male workers, who were exposed to a crude oil spill environment during oil cleaning operation. The exposed group was matched with 31 apparently healthy male control subjects. Pulmonary function test was performed using an electronic Spirometer. Subjects exposed to polluted air have significant reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV(1)), forced expiratory flow (FEF(25-75%)) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) compared to their matched controls. This impairment was reversible and lung functions parameters were improved when the subjects were withdrawn from the polluted air environment.

  18. Is there a change in water proton density associated with functional magnetic resonance imaging? (United States)

    Jochimsen, Thies H; Norris, David G; Möller, Harald E


    In a recent series of studies (see, for example, Stroman et al. Magn Reson Imag 2001; 19:827-831), an increase of water proton density has been suggested to correlate with neuronal activity. Owing to the significant implications of such a mechanism for other functional experiments, the functional signal changes in humans at very short echo times were re-examined by spin-echo EPI at 3 T. The results do not confirm the previous hypothesis of a significant increase in extravascular proton density at TE = 0. Instead, an alternative explanation of the effect is offered: The use of a low threshold to identify activated voxels may generate an artificial offset in functional contrast due to the inclusion of false-positives in the analysis.

  19. Search for R-parity violating supersymmetry with displaced vertices

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration


    A search for $R$-parity violating supersymmetry has been performed using proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The data analyzed correspond to an integrated luminosity of $17.6~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. This search assumes a minimal flavor violating model where the lightest supersymmetric particle is a long-lived neutralino or gluino, leading to a signal with jets emanating from displaced vertices. Based on a sample of events with two displaced vertices, the pair production cross section is bounded as a function of mass and lifetime of the neutralino or gluino. For a mass of 400 GeV and mean proper decay length of 10 mm, the analysis excludes cross sections above $0.6~\\mathrm{fb}$ at $95\\%$ confidence level.

  20. Improving the controlled release of water-insoluble emodin from amino-functionalized mesoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yunqiang; Wang Chunfeng [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China); Zhou Guowei, E-mail: [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China); Wu Yue; Chen Jing [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China)


    Several types of amino-functionalized mesoporous silica, including F5-SBA-15, F10-SBA-15, and F15-SBA-15 were prepared through co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) in varying molar ratios (5 mol%, 10 mol%, and 15 mol%) via a hydrothermal process. The materials obtained were characterized by means of small-angle X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, Fourier transformed infrared spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Increasing APTES molar ratios decreased the degree of orderliness of the functionalized mesoporous silica. Pure and amino-functionalized SBA-15 samples were employed as supports for the controlled release of water-insoluble drug emodin. Loading experiments showed that drug loading capacities mainly depended on the surface areas and pore diameters of the carriers. Controlled release profiles of emodin-loaded samples were studied in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), and results indicated that the emodin release rate could be controlled by surface amino-functionalized carriers. Emodin loaded on functionalized mesoporous supports exhibited a lower release rate than that of loaded on pure SBA-15, emodin loaded on F10-SBA-15 showed the smallest release amount (71.74 wt%) after stirring in PBS for 60 h. Findings suggest that functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 is a promising carrier for achieving prolonged release time periods.

  1. Functional milk beverage fortified with phenolic compounds extracted from olive vegetation water, and fermented with functional lactic acid bacteria. (United States)

    Servili, M; Rizzello, C G; Taticchi, A; Esposto, S; Urbani, S; Mazzacane, F; Di Maio, I; Selvaggini, R; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R


    Functional milk beverages (FMB100 and FMB200) fortified with phenolic compounds (100 and 200mg/l) extracted from olive vegetable water, and fermented with γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-producing (Lactobacillus plantarum C48) and autochthonous human gastro-intestinal (Lactobacillus paracasei 15N) lactic acid bacteria were manufactured. A milk beverage (MB), without addition of phenolic compounds, was used as the control. Except for a longer latency phase of FMB200, the three beverages showed an almost similar kinetic of acidification, consumption of lactose and synthesis of lactic acid. Apart from the beverage, Lb. plantarum C48 showed a decrease of ca. Log 2.52-2.24 cfu/ml during storage. The cell density of functional Lb. paracasei 15N remained always above the value of Log 8.0 cfu/ml. During fermentation, the total concentration of free amino acids markedly increased without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. The concentration of GABA increased during fermentation and further storage (63.0 ± 0.6-67.0 ± 2.1mg/l) without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. After fermentation, FMB100 and FMB200 showed the same phenolic composition of the phenol extract from olive vegetable water but a different ratio between 3,4-DHPEA and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA. During storage, the concentrations of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA and verbascoside of both FMB100 and FMB200 decreased. Only the concentration of 3,4-DHPEA increased. As shown by SPME-GC-MS analysis, diactetyl, acetoin and, especially, acetaldehyde were the main volatile compounds found. The concentration of phenolic compounds does not interfere with the volatile composition. Sensory analyses based on triangle and paired comparison tests showed that phenolic compounds at the concentrations of 100 or 200mg/l were suitable for addition to functional milk beverages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Allosteric indicator displacement enzyme assay for a cyanogenic glycoside. (United States)

    Jose, D Amilan; Elstner, Martin; Schiller, Alexander


    Indicator displacement assays (IDAs) represent an elegant approach in supramolecular analytical chemistry. Herein, we report a chemical biosensor for the selective detection of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin in aqueous solution. The hybrid sensor consists of the enzyme β-glucosidase and a boronic acid appended viologen together with a fluorescent reporter dye. β-Glucosidase degrades the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin into hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde. Only the released cyanide binds at the allosteric site of the receptor (boronic acid) thereby inducing changes in the affinity of a formerly bound fluorescent indicator dye at the other side of the receptor. Thus, the sensing probe performs as allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) for cyanide in water. Interference studies with inorganic anions and glucose revealed that cyanide is solely responsible for the change in the fluorescent signal. DFT calculations on a model compound revealed a 1:1 binding ratio of the boronic acid and cyanide ion. The fluorescent enzyme assay for β-glucosidase uses amygdalin as natural substrate and allows measuring Michaelis-Menten kinetics in microtiter plates. The allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) probe can also be used to detect cyanide traces in commercial amygdalin samples. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Cryogenic Displacement and Accumulation of Biogenic Methane in Frozen Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb Kraev


    Full Text Available Evidences of highly localized methane fluxes are reported from the Arctic shelf, hot spots of methane emissions in thermokarst lakes, and are believed to evolve to features like Yamal crater on land. The origin of large methane outbursts is problematic. Here we show, that the biogenic methane (13C ≤ −71‰ which formed before and during soil freezing is presently held in the permafrost. Field and experimental observations show that methane tends to accumulate at the permafrost table or in the coarse-grained lithological pockets surrounded by the sediments less-permeable for gas. Our field observations, radiocarbon dating, laboratory tests and theory all suggest that depending on the soil structure and freezing dynamics, this methane may have been displaced downwards tens of meters during freezing and has accumulated in the lithological pockets. The initial flux of methane from the one pocket disclosed by drilling was at a rate of more than 2.5 kg C(CH4 m−2 h−1. The age of the methane was 8–18 thousand years younger than the age of the sediments, suggesting that it was displaced tens of meters during freezing. The theoretical background provided the insight on the cryogenic displacement of methane in support of the field and experimental data. Upon freezing of sediments, methane follows water migration and either dissipates in the freezing soils or concentrates at certain places controlled by the freezing rate, initial methane distribution and soil structure.

  4. Functioning of Water Users Associations or Pani Panchayat in Orissa: Principle, Procedure, Performance and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanta Kumar Mahapatra


    Full Text Available The current paper deals with an evaluation of water management through community participation and emergence of Pani Panchayat (PP in a case study of the Vir Bajrang Bali Pani Panchayat under Lift Irrigation Project of the Hirakud Command Area (HCA, Orissa state in Eastern India . The broad objective of this paper is to examine the functioning of Water User Association (WUA or Pani Panchayat promoted by the State and the local traditional irrigation institutions in the HCA, Orissa and to evaluate their functioning & characteristics in the context of local water management. The precise objectives are: (1 to analytically review the Orissa Farmers Management of Irrigation Systems Act and study the functioning of the Pani Panchayat, (2 to examine people's participation (3 study the apparatus of water management and control, and the impact of such management on productivity among the members and (4 to recommend policy interventions to make the formal institutions more successful. The paper concludes that the Pani Panchayats performance as regulatory institutions in charge of water distribution on equitable basis has been weak and unsuccessful. Even though the Pani Panchayat has been initiated and endorsed in the State for more than a couple of years, the acceptance of this model have been lethargic and scattered. As Pani Panchayat is a new concept needing experimentation and experience before finalisation of its content in greater detail, the irrigation agency is not in a position to spell out the different components of the programme in concrete terms. A detailed action plan should be prepared by the irrigation authority in consultation with the water users through Participatory Rural Appraisal method. A feasibility study should be under taken by examining the caste/class conflict, groupism, political differences and history of confrontation and conflict, if any. It is necessary to apply a bottom-up approach instead of a top-down one for

  5. Intramolecular cyclization of aspartic acid residues assisted by three water molecules: a density functional theory study (United States)

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota


    Aspartic acid (Asp) residues in peptides and proteins (l-Asp) are known to undergo spontaneous nonenzymatic reactions to form l-β-Asp, d-Asp, and d-β-Asp residues. The formation of these abnormal Asp residues in proteins may affect their three-dimensional structures and hence their properties and functions. Indeed, the reactions have been thought to contribute to aging and pathologies. Most of the above reactions of the l-Asp residues proceed via a cyclic succinimide intermediate. In this paper, a novel three-water-assisted mechanism is proposed for cyclization of an Asp residue (forming a gem-diol precursor of the succinimide) by the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) density functional theory calculations carried out for an Asp-containing model compound (Ace-Asp-Nme, where Ace = acetyl and Nme = NHCH3). The three water molecules act as catalysts by mediating ‘long-range’ proton transfers. In the proposed mechanism, the amide group on the C-terminal side of the Asp residue is first converted to the tautomeric iminol form (iminolization). Then, reorientation of a water molecule and a conformational change occur successively, followed by the nucleophilic attack of the iminol nitrogen on the carboxyl carbon of the Asp side chain to form the gem-diol species. A satisfactory agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental energetics.

  6. Hydrated goethite (alpha-FeOOH) (100) interface structure: Ordered water and surface functional groups.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, S.K.; Waychunas, G.A.; Trainor, T.P.; Eng, P.J.


    Goethite({alpha}-FeOOH), an abundant and highly reactive iron oxyhydroxide mineral, has been the subject of numerous stud-ies of environmental interface reactivity. However, such studies have been hampered by the lack of experimental constraints on aqueous interface structure, and especially of the surface water molecular arrangements. Structural information of this type is crucial because reactivity is dictated by the nature of the surface functional groups and the structure or distribution of water and electrolyte at the solid-solution interface. In this study we have investigated the goethite(100) surface using surface diffraction techniques, and have determined the relaxed surface structure, the surface functional groups, and the three dimensional nature of two distinct sorbed water layers. The crystal truncation rod (CTR) results show that the interface structure consists of a double hydroxyl, double water terminated interface with significant atom relaxations. Further, the double hydroxyl terminated surface dominates with an 89% contribution having a chiral subdomain structure on the(100) cleavage faces. The proposed interface stoichiometry is ((H{sub 2}O)-(H{sub 2}O)-OH{sub 2}-OH-Fe-O-O-Fe-R) with two types of terminal hydroxyls; a bidentate (B-type) hydroxo group and a monodentate (A-type) aquo group. Using the bond-valence approach the protonation states of the terminal hydroxyls are predicted to be OH type (bidentate hydroxyl with oxygen coupled to two Fe{sup 3+} ions) and OH{sub 2} type (monodentate hydroxyl with oxygen tied to only one Fe{sup 3+}). A double layer three dimensional ordered water structure at the interface was determined from refinement of fits to the experimental data. Application of bond-valence constraints to the terminal hydroxyls with appropriate rotation of the water dipole moments allowed a plausible dipole orientation model as predicted. The structural results are discussed in terms of protonation and H-bonding at the interface

  7. Experimental determination of the effective point of measurement and the displacement correction factor for cylindrical ionization chambers in a 6 MV photon beam. (United States)

    Legrand, C; Hartmann, G H; Karger, C P


    The displacement effect of cylindrical ionization chambers is taken into account either by an effective point of measurement (EPOM) or, alternatively, by using a displacement correction factor. The dependence of these effects on water was examined as a function of the cavity radius for (60)Co gamma radiation in a previous paper. This paper describes results for high-energy photon beams using the same measurement technique. Additionally, the displacement correction factor was directly measured. Absorbed doses measured under reference conditions following the international protocol IAEA TRS-398 and the German protocol DIN 6800-2 agreed well between the chambers with different cavity radii within a standard uncertainty of 0.2%. However, there was a constant difference of 0.2% between both protocols. Similar to our observations made in (60)Co, absorbed doses measured with the different chambers at depths beyond the maximum showed deviations of up to 0.6% and 0.5% for IAEA TRS-398 and DIN 6800-2, respectively, and deviations of more than 1% were found for both protocols in the build-up and maximum region. We therefore propose modified formulas for the determination of the EPOM and the displacement correction factor.

  8. Gas phase dispersion in compost as a function of different water contents and air flow rates (United States)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.


    Gas phase dispersion in a natural porous medium (yard waste compost) was investigated as a function of gas flow velocity and compost volumetric water content using oxygen and nitrogen as tracer gases. The compost was chosen because it has a very wide water content range and because it represents a wide range of porous media, including soils and biofilter media. Column breakthrough curves for oxygen and nitrogen were measured at relatively low pore gas velocities, corresponding to those observed in for instance soil vapor extraction systems or biofilters for air cleaning at biogas plants or composting facilities. Total gas mechanical dispersion-molecular diffusion coefficients were fitted from the breakthrough curves using a one-dimensional numerical solution to the advection-dispersion equation and used to determine gas dispersivities at different volumetric gas contents. The results showed that gas mechanical dispersion dominated over molecular diffusion with mechanical dispersion for all water contents and pore gas velocities investigated. Importance of mechanical dispersion increased with increasing pore gas velocity and compost water content. The results further showed that gas dispersivity was relatively constant at high values of compost gas-filled porosity but increased with decreasing gas-filled porosity at lower values of gas-filled porosity. Results finally showed that measurement uncertainty in gas dispersivity is generally highest at low values of pore gas velocity.

  9. Changes in free water fraction and aquaporin function with dwell time during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. (United States)

    Stachowska-Pietka, Joanna; Waniewski, Jacek; Vonesh, Edward; Lindholm, Bengt


    Diffusive (K(BD), A₀/Δx(t)) transport parameters and sieving coefficients (S) for small solutes and free water fraction (FWF), that is, the fraction of total water flow that is transported through aquaporins, were assessed as functions of dwell time t for 35 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients using glucose 3.86% dialysis fluid.The individual values of the unrestricted pore area over diffusion distance, A₀/Δx(t), were estimated using the mixed effects nonlinear regression and applied for evaluation of S(t) for sodium and FWF(t). FWF decreased on average from the initial 51% of the total transcapillary water flow to 36% at 120 min, whereas the small pore water fraction and sodium sieving coefficient increased. Our results were consistent with the three-pore model if the contribution of the transcellular pores (α(TP)) at the beginning of dwell study was doubled and later decreased to the standard value of 0.02.We conclude that transport characteristics of fluid and small solutes should be considered as time-dependent variables during the peritoneal dialysis.

  10. Effect of pressure on the anomalous response functions of a confined water monolayer at low temperature (United States)

    Mazza, Marco G.; Stokely, Kevin; Stanley, H. Eugene; Franzese, Giancarlo


    We study a coarse-grained model for a water monolayer that cannot crystallize due to the presence of confining interfaces, such as protein powders or inorganic surfaces. Using both Monte Carlo simulations and mean field calculations, we calculate three response functions: the isobaric specific heat CP, the isothermal compressibility KT, and the isobaric thermal expansivity αP. At low temperature T, we find two distinct maxima in CP, KT, and |αP|, all converging toward a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) with increasing pressure P. We show that the maximum in CP at higher T is due to the fluctuations of hydrogen (H) bond formation and that the second maximum at lower T is due to the cooperativity among the H bonds. We discuss a similar effect in KT and |αP|. If this cooperativity were not taken into account, both the lower-T maximum and the LLCP would disappear. However, comparison with recent experiments on water hydrating protein powders provides evidence for the existence of the lower-T maximum, supporting the hypothesized LLCP at positive P and finite T. The model also predicts that when P moves closer to the critical P the CP maxima move closer in T until they merge at the LLCP. Considering that other scenarios for water are thermodynamically possible, we discuss how an experimental measurement of the changing separation in T between the two maxima of CP as P increases could determine the best scenario for describing water.

  11. Assessment of water retention function as tool to improve integrated watershed management (case study of Poprad river basin, Slovakia). (United States)

    Šatalová, Barbora; Kenderessy, Pavol


    The presented study concentrates on assessing the ecosystem function of water retention. The water retention function is defined as the ability of the landscape to retain water, slow runoff and encourage water infiltration. The water retention function was expressed by calculating the hydric significance (HS) indicator. This method is based on scoring the individual input parameters according to their overall impact on watershed hydrology. The study was conducted on a sample area of Poprad River basin. The final results presented a spatial distribution of hydric function within the watershed classified according to its significance into four classes (from limited to excellent significance). A breakdown of the results on the level of elementary watersheds was used in order to examine those with low hydric function. The results showed a significant influence of land-use on retention function; however, this impact could be limited by extreme precipitation or high soil water saturation. The methodology of hydric significance represents an innovative approach towards assessment of ecosystem function of water retention on regional level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical treatment of displaced acetabular fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Saša


    Full Text Available Introduction. Acetabular fractures are severe injuries, generally caused by high-energy trauma, most frequently from traffic accidents or falls from heights. Fractures of the extremities, head injuries, chest, abdomen and pelvic ring injuries are most commonly associated injuries. Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures. The open anatomical reduction of the articular surface combined with a rigid internal fixation and early mobilisation have become the standard treatment of these injuries. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 22 patients of average age 43.13 years. The patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation at the Orthopaedic Clinic of Niš from 2005-2009. The follow-up was 12 to 60 months, with the average of 21.18 months after surgery. Results. All injured patients were operated on between 4 and 11 days (5.7 days on the average. According to the classification by Judet and Letournel, 15 (68.18% patients had an elementary acetabular fracture, whereas 7 (31.82% patients had associated fracture. A satisfactory postoperative reduction implying less than 2 mm of displacement was achieved in 19 (86.36% patients. The radiological status of the hip joint, determined according to Matta score, was excellent in 15 (68.18% patients, good in 4 (18.18% patients and moderate in 3 (13.63% patients. According to Merle d’Aubigné Scale, the final functional results of the treatment of all operated patients were excellent in 12 (54.54% patients, good in 7 (31.81% patients and moderate in 3 (13.63% patients. Conclusion. Surgical treatment of dislocated acetabular fractures requires an open reduction and a stable internal fixation. Excellent and good results can be expected only if anatomical reduction and stable internal fixation are achieved.

  13. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.


    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  14. Unique selectivity windows using selective displacers/eluents and mobile phase modifiers on hydroxyapatite. (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher J; Gagnon, Pete; Cramer, Steven M


    A detailed study was carried out to combine the unique selectivity of ceramic hydroxyapatite (CHA) with the separation power of selective displacement chromatography. A robotic liquid handling system was employed to carry out a parallel batch screen on a displacer library made up of analogous compounds. By incorporating positively charged, metal chelating and/or hydrogen bonding groups into the design of the displacer, specific interaction sites on CHA were targeted, thus augmenting the selectivity of the separation. The effect of different mobile phase modifiers, such as phosphate, sulfate, lactate and borate, were also investigated. Important functional group moieties and trends for the design of CHA displacers were established. Selective batch separations were achieved between multiple protein pairs which were unable to be resolved using linear gradient techniques, demonstrating the applicability of this technique to multiple protein systems. The specific interaction moieties used on the selective displacer were found to dictate which protein was selectively displaced in the separation, a degree of control not possible using a mono-interaction type resin in displacement chromatography. Mobile phase modifiers were also shown to play a crucial role, augmenting the selectivity of a displacer in a synergistic fashion. Column separations were carried out using selective displacers and mobile phase modifiers identified in the batch experiments, and baseline separation of the previously unresolved protein pairs was achieved. Further, the elution order in these systems was able to be reversed while still maintaining baseline separations. This work establishes a new class of separations which combine the selectivities of multi-modal resins, displacers/eluents, and mobile phase modifiers to create unique selectivity windows unattainable using traditional modes of operation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moeys


    Full Text Available Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisations usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedotransfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which accounts for preferential flow in soil macropores. We used tracer monitoring data from 16 lysimeter studies, carried out in three European countries, to evaluate the ability of MACRO and this "blind parameterisation" scheme to reproduce measured solute leaching at the base of each lysimeter. We focused on the prediction of early tracer breakthrough due to preferential flow, because this is critical for pesticide leaching. We then calibrated a selected number of parameters in order to assess to what extent the prediction of water and solute leaching could be improved.

    Our results show that water flow was generally reasonably well predicted (median model efficiency, ME, of 0.42. Although the general pattern of solute leaching was reproduced well by the model, the overall model efficiency was low (median ME = −0.26 due to errors in the timing and magnitude of some peaks. Preferential solute leaching at early pore volumes was also systematically underestimated. Nonetheless, the ranking of soils according to solute loads at early pore volumes was reasonably well estimated (concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, between 0.54 and 0.72. Moreover, we also found that ignoring macropore flow leads to a significant deterioration in the ability of the model to reproduce the observed leaching pattern, and especially the early breakthrough in some soils. Finally, the calibration procedure showed that improving the estimation of solute transport parameters is

  16. Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO (United States)

    Moeys, J.; Larsbo, M.; Bergström, L.; Brown, C. D.; Coquet, Y.; Jarvis, N. J.


    Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisations usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedo)transfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which accounts for preferential flow in soil macropores. We used tracer monitoring data from 16 lysimeter studies, carried out in three European countries, to evaluate the ability of MACRO and this "blind parameterisation" scheme to reproduce measured solute leaching at the base of each lysimeter. We focused on the prediction of early tracer breakthrough due to preferential flow, because this is critical for pesticide leaching. We then calibrated a selected number of parameters in order to assess to what extent the prediction of water and solute leaching could be improved. Our results show that water flow was generally reasonably well predicted (median model efficiency, ME, of 0.42). Although the general pattern of solute leaching was reproduced well by the model, the overall model efficiency was low (median ME = -0.26) due to errors in the timing and magnitude of some peaks. Preferential solute leaching at early pore volumes was also systematically underestimated. Nonetheless, the ranking of soils according to solute loads at early pore volumes was reasonably well estimated (concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, between 0.54 and 0.72). Moreover, we also found that ignoring macropore flow leads to a significant deterioration in the ability of the model to reproduce the observed leaching pattern, and especially the early breakthrough in some soils. Finally, the calibration procedure showed that improving the estimation of solute transport parameters is probably more important than the

  17. Trends in ecosystem water use efficiency are potentially amplified by plasticity in plant functional traits (United States)

    Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Pappas, Christoforos; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo; Keenan, Trevor F.; Gentine, Pierre; Fatichi, Simone


    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations stimulate photosynthesis and reduce stomatal conductance, modifying plant water use efficiency. We analyzed eddy covariance flux tower observations from 20 forested ecosystems across the Northern Hemisphere. For these sites, a previous study showed an increase in inherent water use efficiency (IWUE) five times greater than expectations. We used an updated dataset and robust uncertainty quantification to analyze these contemporary trends in IWUE. We found that IWUE increased in the last 15-20 years by roughly 1.4% yr-1, which is less than previously reported, but still 2.8 times greater than theoretical expectations. Numerical simulations by means of an ecosystem model based on temporally static plant functional traits (i.e. model parameters) do not reproduce this increase. We tested the hypothesis that the observed increase in IWUE could be attributed to changes in plant functional traits, potentially triggered by environmental changes. Simulation results accounting for trait plasticity (i.e. by changing model parameters such as specific leaf area and maximum Rubisco capacity) match the observed trends in IWUE, with an increase in both leaf internal CO2 concentration and gross ecosystem production (GEP), and with a negligible trend in evapotranspiration (ET). This supports the hypothesis that changes in plant functional traits of about 1.0% yr-1 can explain the observed IWUE trends and are consistent with observed trends of GEP and ET at larger scales. Our results highlight that at decadal or longer time scales trait plasticity can considerably influence the water, carbon and energy fluxes with implications for both the monitoring of temporal changes in plant traits and their representation in Earth system models.

  18. The effect of dispersion damping functions on the structure of water clusters (United States)

    Hernández-Rojas, J.; Wales, David J.


    We investigate the structural predictions obtained using new force fields for rigid water models proposed recently (Nicolini et al., 2013) for (H2O)n clusters. These new force fields are characterized by dispersion damping functions. The putative global minima of these new models up to n < 21 are obtained using basin-hopping global optimization technique and compared with previous results for the TIP4P potential and with ab initio calculations. The new models often give different morphologies, and generally exhibit fewer hydrogen bonds, and will require reparameterization if they are to be used for clusters.

  19. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar


    This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught...... as the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves blocked...... the diffusers by rearranging the furniture. Half of the surveyed occupants were not satisfied with the indoor air quality. The main conclusion is that displacement ventilation needs careful design and room furnishing in order to ensure a comfortable environment. Occupants must understand the underlying...

  20. Overtreatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Nowak, Jan; Virtanen, Kaisa


    Background and purpose - The best treatment for displaced clavicle fractures has been debated for decades. Operative treatment has become more common. However, several randomized trials comparing non-operative and operative treatment have not shown any compelling evidence in favor of surgery. We...... identified the preferred treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures at public hospitals in 3 countries in Scandinavia. Patients and methods - A purpose-made multiple-choice questionnaire in English was sent to all public hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. This was addressed to the orthopedic...... surgeon responsible for treatment of clavicle fractures, and completed questionnaires were obtained from 85 of 118 hospitals. Results - In the 3 countries, 69 of the 85 hospitals that responded would treat displaced clavicle fractures operatively. Clear criteria for treatment allocation were used at 58...

  1. Amine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for removal of oil droplets from produced water and accelerated magnetic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Saebom, E-mail: [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Kim, Eun Song [University of Texas, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States); Park, Siman [University of Texas, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering (United States); Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Milner, Thomas E. [University of Texas, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States); Huh, Chun [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Bennetzen, Martin V. [Maersk Oil Corporate (Denmark); Geremia, Giuliano A. [Maersk Oil Research and Technology Centre (Qatar)


    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with surface coatings designed for water treatment, in particular for targeted removal of contaminants from produced water in oil fields, have drawn considerable attention due to their environmental merit. The goal of this study was to develop an efficient method of removing very stable, micron-scale oil droplets dispersed in oilfield produced water. We synthesized MNPs in the laboratory with a prescribed surface coating. The MNPs were superparamagnetic magnetite, and the hydrodynamic size of amine functionalized MNPs ranges from 21 to 255 nm with an average size of 66 nm. The initial oil content of 0.25 wt.% was reduced by as much as 99.9% in separated water. The electrostatic attraction between negatively charged oil-in-water emulsions and positively charged MNPs controls, the attachment of MNPs to the droplet surface, and the subsequent aggregation of the electrically neutral oil droplets with attached MNPs (MNPs-oils) play a critical role in accelerated and efficient magnetic separation. The total magnetic separation time was dramatically reduced to as short as 1 s after MNPs, and oil droplets were mixed, in contrast with the case of free, individual MNPs with which separation took about 36∼72 h, depending on the MNP concentrations. Model calculations of magnetic separation velocity, accounting for the MNP magnetization and viscous drag, show that the total magnetic separation time will be approximately 5 min or less, when the size of the MNPs-oils is greater than 360 nm, which can be used as an optimum operating condition.

  2. Pedotransfer functions to estimate water retention parameters of soils in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo Cezar Barros


    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTF were developed to estimate the parameters (α, n, θr and θs of the van Genuchten model (1980 to describe soil water retention curves. The data came from various sources, mainly from studies conducted by universities in Northeast Brazil, by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa and by a corporation for the development of the São Francisco and Parnaíba river basins (Codevasf, totaling 786 retention curves, which were divided into two data sets: 85 % for the development of PTFs, and 15 % for testing and validation, considered independent data. Aside from the development of general PTFs for all soils together, specific PTFs were developed for the soil classes Ultisols, Oxisols, Entisols, and Alfisols by multiple regression techniques, using a stepwise procedure (forward and backward to select the best predictors. Two types of PTFs were developed: the first included all predictors (soil density, proportions of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter, and the second only the proportions of sand, silt and clay. The evaluation of adequacy of the PTFs was based on the correlation coefficient (R and Willmott index (d. To evaluate the PTF for the moisture content at specific pressure heads, we used the root mean square error (RMSE. The PTF-predicted retention curve is relatively poor, except for the residual water content. The inclusion of organic matter as a PTF predictor improved the prediction of parameter a of van Genuchten. The performance of soil-class-specific PTFs was not better than of the general PTF. Except for the water content of saturated soil estimated by particle size distribution, the tested models for water content prediction at specific pressure heads proved satisfactory. Predictions of water content at pressure heads more negative than -0.6 m, using a PTF considering particle size distribution, are only slightly lower than those obtained by PTFs including bulk density and organic matter

  3. Stream Flooding Response and Water Quality as a Function of Increasing Impervious Surface Area (United States)

    Hasenmueller, E. A.; Criss, R. E.; Winston, W. E.; Shaughnessy, A. R.


    Urban and suburban streams often exhibit frequent flash floods and low water quality, but surprisingly few studies of these systems attempt to resolve the relative contributions of different runoff fractions and their associated geochemistry. This study deliberately examined concurrent responses in three watersheds and two subbasins along a gradient of increasing impervious surface area in and around highly urbanized Saint Louis, Missouri, USA, to quantify changes in the relative contributions of pre-event (baseflow) and event (runoff) water to streamflow during flooding using hydrograph separations. Our high frequency monitoring of stable isotopes ratios (δ2H and δ18O) and water quality (temperature, dissolved O2, pH, turbidity, specific conductivity, concentrations of Cl- and nutrients, and bacterial loads) quantify large hydrologic and geochemical differences across the land use gradient. Following precipitation events, floods on a rural stream feature slow flow responses, hydrographs with low peak discharges and long lag times, high baseflow contributions, and small geochemical variations. In contrast, the flows of an urban stream and its tributary respond in a flashier manner, with peak flows that are nearly 10 times higher, average lag times that decrease by 85%, and event water contributions that are 2 times higher compared to the rural stream. The urban streams also exhibit large fluctuations in geochemistry, often with 5 times the variability of the rural end-member. These large geochemical changes in urban streams following storms are paralleled by more chaotic diurnal and seasonal variations. Importantly, we find that reduced baseflow as a function of increasing impervious surface area is not linear; thus, the hydrology of suburban streams is less impacted than would be predicted by impervious surface alone. This non-linear relationship with impervious surface area is also observed in some of the geochemical responses to flooding, and therefore

  4. Percolation line, response functions, and Voronoi polyhedra analysis in supercritical water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Škvor


    Full Text Available The problem of a physical relevance (meaning of percolation in supercritical fluids is addressed considering a primitive model of water. Two different criteria, physical and configurational, are used for the cluster definition in Monte Carlo simulations over a range of pressures to determine the percolation line and skewness, and a theoretical analytic equation of state is used to evaluate response functions. It is found that both criteria yield practically the same percolation line. However, unlike the findings for simple fluids, the loci of the response function extrema exhibit density/pressure dependence quite different from that of the percolation line. The only potential coincidence between the loci of the extrema of a thermodynamic property and a detectable structural change is found for the coefficient of isothermal compressibility and Voronoi neighbors distribution skewness maximum.

  5. Mussel-inspired synthesis of polydopamine-functionalized graphene hydrogel as reusable adsorbents for water purification. (United States)

    Gao, Hongcai; Sun, Yimin; Zhou, Jiajing; Xu, Rong; Duan, Hongwei


    We present a one-step approach to polydopamine-modified graphene hydrogel, with dopamine serving as both reductant and surface functionalization agents. The synthetic method is based on the spontaneous polymerization of dopamine and the self-assembly of graphene nanosheets into porous hydrogel structures. Benefiting from the abundant functional groups of polydopamine and the high specific surface areas of graphene hydrogel with three-dimensional interconnected pores, the prepared material exhibits high adsorption capacities toward a wide spectrum of contaminants, including heavy metals, synthetic dyes, and aromatic pollutants. Importantly, the free-standing graphene hydrogel can be easily removed from water after adsorption process, and can be regenerated by altering the pH values of the solution for adsorbed heavy metals or using low-cost alcohols for synthetic dyes and aromatic molecules.

  6. Tsunami Energy, Ocean-Bottom Pressure, and Hydrodynamic Force from Stochastic Bottom Displacement (United States)

    Ramadan, Khaled T.; Omar, M. A.; Allam, Allam A.


    Tsunami generation and propagation due to a randomly fluctuating of submarine earthquake modeled by vertical time-dependent of a stochastic bottom displacement are investigated. The increase in oscillations and amplitude in the free surface elevation are controlled by the noise intensity parameter of the stochastic bottom displacement. Evolution of kinetic and potential energy of the resulting waves by the stochastic bottom displacement is examined. Exchange between potential and kinetic energy was achieved in the propagation process. The dynamic ocean-bottom pressure during tsunami generation is investigated. As the vertical displacement of the stochastic bottom increases, the peak amplitude of the ocean-bottom pressure increases through the dynamic effect. Time series of the maximum tsunami wave amplitude, kinetic and potential energy, wave and ocean-bottom pressure gauges and the hydrodynamic force caused by the stochastic source model under the effect of the water depth of the ocean are investigated.

  7. [Understanding and treatment strategy for disc displacement of temporomandibular disorders]. (United States)

    Ma, X C


    Understanding and treatment strategy for disc displacement of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were discussed in the present review. It has been strongly recommended by the author that the treatment strategy for disc displacement, one subtype of TMD, should be mainly the reversible conservative treatment methods. The most important goal of treatment for disc displacement is to recover the mobility and function of the joint in order to improve the quality of the patient's life. Comprehensive assessments both from somatic and psychological aspects for each TMD patient are necessary, especially for the patients with chronic pain. Although the role of surgical operative treatments is very limited in the general treatment strategy for TMD, it is still important for a few patients who had definite diagnosis of intra-articular disorders, severe symptoms affecting the quality of patient's life and failed to response to the correct conservative treatments. It should be very careful to treat the TMD patients by surgical operation or irreversible occlusion treatments changing the natural denture of the patient, such as full mouth occlusional reconstruction and extensive adjustment of occlusion.

  8. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...... in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should...

  9. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  10. Aquaporin-Mediated Water and Hydrogen Peroxide Transport Is Involved in Normal Human Spermatozoa Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Laforenza


    Full Text Available Different aquaporins (AQPs are expressed in human sperm cells and with a different localization. Their function has been related to cell volume control in response to the osmotic changes encountered passing from the epididymal fluid to the cervical mucus or involved in the end stage of cytoplasm removal during sperm maturation. Recently, AQPs have also shown hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 permeability properties. Here, we investigate the expression, localization and functioning of AQPs in human sperm cells with particular attention to their role as peroxiporins in reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging in both normospermic and sub-fertile human subjects. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry were used to confirm and clarify the AQPs expression and localization. Water and H2O2 permeability was tested by stopped flow light scattering method and by the CM-H2DCFDA (5-(and-6-chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester H2O2 fluorescence probe, respectively. AQP3, -7, -8, and -11 proteins were found in human sperm cells and localized in the head (AQP7, in the middle piece (AQP8 and in the tail (AQP3 and -11 in both the plasma membrane and in intracellular structures. Sperm cells showed water and H2O2 permeability which was reversibly inhibited by H2O2, heat stress and the AQP inhibitor HgCl2. Reduced functionality was observed in patients with compromised basal semen parameters. Present findings suggest that AQPs are involved in both volume regulation and ROS elimination. The relationship between sperm number and motility and AQP functioning was also demonstrated.

  11. A novel concept in ground water quality management: Towards function specific screening values. (United States)

    Swartjes, Frank A; Otte, Piet F


    This paper is meant to initiate and feed the discussion on a more sophisticated procedure for the derivation and use of groundwater screening values (GSVs). To this purpose, the possibilities and tools for the derivation of function specific GSVs, i.e., GSVs that depend on the actual contact of humans and ecosystems with groundwater and groundwater-related mediums, are elaborated in this study. Application of GSVs geared to the specific use and function of specific groundwater volumes could result in a more effective and cost-efficient groundwater quality management, without compromising the protection of human health and the ecosystem. Therefore, a procedure to derive function specific GSVs was developed. For illustrative purposes, risk limits have been derived for human health and ecological protection targets, for arsenic, benzene, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and vinylchloride. Agriculture and Nature reserves (combined), Residential and Industrial land uses have been considered and two different groundwater management purposes, i.e., curative and sustainable groundwater management. For each of the four contaminants, this results in a series of risks limits for each function and land use combination. It is shown that for all four contaminants higher groundwater screening values are considered appropriate for less sensitive combinations of function and land use. In the process towards (policy) implementation of these function specific GSV, it is recommended to evaluate the selection of protection targets, the scientific basis of the risk assessment procedures applied and the methodology to assess the time factor for groundwater quality assessment, given the fact that groundwater is a dynamic medium. Moreover, protection levels must be harmonized with national or regional groundwater quality standards and correspond with the requirements of the Groundwater Daughter Directive of the European Union Water Framework Directive. Groundwater plumes that are judged as

  12. 40 CFR 86.419-2006 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle... displacement, motorcycle classes. (a)(1) Engine displacement shall be calculated using nominal engine values... reference in § 86.1). (2) For rotary engines, displacement means the maximum volume of a combustion chamber...

  13. Loading effects in GPS vertical displacement time series (United States)

    Memin, A.; Boy, J. P.; Santamaría-Gómez, A.; Watson, C.; Gravelle, M.; Tregoning, P.


    Surface deformations due to loading, with yet no comprehensive representation, account for a significant part of the variability in geodetic time series. We assess effects of loading in GPS vertical displacement time series at several frequency bands. We compare displacement derived from up-to-date loading models to two global sets of positioning time series, and investigate how they are reduced looking at interannual periods (> 2 months), intermediate periods (> 7 days) and the whole spectrum (> 1day). We assess the impact of interannual loading on estimating velocities. We compute atmospheric loading effects using surface pressure fields from the ECMWF. We use the inverted barometer (IB) hypothesis valid for periods exceeding a week to describe the ocean response to the pressure forcing. We used general circulation ocean model (ECCO and GLORYS) to account for wind, heat and fresh water flux. We separately use the Toulouse Unstructured Grid Ocean model (TUGO-m), forced by air pressure and winds, to represent the dynamics of the ocean response at high frequencies. The continental water storage is described using GLDAS/Noah and MERRA-land models. Non-hydrology loading reduces the variability of the observed vertical displacement differently according to the frequency band. The hydrology loading leads to a further reduction mostly at annual periods. ECMWF+TUGO-m better agrees with vertical surface motion than the ECMWF+IB model at all frequencies. The interannual deformation is time-correlated at most of the locations. It is adequately described by a power-law process of spectral index varying from -1.5 to -0.2. Depending on the power-law parameters, the predicted non-linear deformation due to mass loading variations leads to vertical velocity biases up to 0.7 mm/yr when estimated from 5 years of continuous observations. The maximum velocity bias can reach up to 1 mm/yr in regions around the southern Tropical band.

  14. Comparison of some functionalities of water soluble peptides derived from Turkish cow and goat milk Tulum cheeses during ripening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hale İnci ÖZTÜRK; Nihat AKIN


    Abstract In this study, profiles and functional properties such as antioxidant, mineral binding, and antimicrobial activities of water-soluble peptides from Turkish goat milk Tulum cheese and cow milk...

  15. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Prette


    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  16. Copper ions removal from water using functionalized carbon nanotubes–mullite composite as adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofighy, Maryam Ahmadzadeh; Mohammadi, Toraj, E-mail:


    Highlights: • CNTs–mullite composite was prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. • The prepared composite was modified with concentrated nitric acid and chitosan. • The modified CNTs–mullite composites were used as novel adsorbents. • Copper ion removal from water by the prepared adsorbents was performed. • Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes–mullite composite was synthesized by direct growth of carbon nanotubes on mullite particles via chemical vapor deposition method using cyclohexanol and ferrocene as carbon precursor and catalyst, respectively. The carbon nanotubes–mullite composite was oxidized with concentrated nitric acid and functionalized with chitosan and then used as a novel adsorbent for copper ions removal from water. The results demonstrated that modification with concentrated nitric acid and chitosan improves copper ions adsorption capacity of the prepared composite, significantly. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data. The carbon nanotubes growth on mullite particles to form the carbon nanotubes–mullite composite with further modification is an inherently safe approach for many promising environmental applications to avoid some concerns regarding environment, health and safety. It was found that the modified carbon nanotubes–mullite composite can be considered as an excellent adsorbent for copper ions removal from water.

  17. Characteristic of Water Pervaporation Using Hydrophilic Composite Membrane Containing Functional Nano Sized NaA zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Duckkyu; Lee, Yongtaek [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The NaA zeolite particles were dispersed in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix to prepare a composite membrane. The nano sized zeolite particles of NaA were synthesized in the laboratory and the mean size was approximately 60 nm. Pervaporation characteristics such as a permeation flux and a separation factor were investigated using the membrane as a function of the feed concentration from 0.01 to 0.05 mole fraction and the weight % of NaA particles between 0 wt% and 5 wt% in the membrane. Also, the micro sized particles of 5 mm were dispersed in the membrane for a comparison purpose. When the ethanol concentration in the feed solution was 0.01 mole fraction, the flux of water significantly increased from 600 g/m{sup 2}/hr to 2000 g/m{sup 2}/hr as the content of the nano NaA particles in the membrane increased from 0 wt% to 5 wt%, while the NaA particles improved the separation factor from 1.5 to 7.9. When the flux of water through the membrane containing nano sized particles was roughly 15% increased compared to the micro sized particles, whereas the separation factor of water was found to be approximately 5% increased. It can be said that the role of the nano sized NaA particles is quite important since both the flux and the separation factor are strongly affected.

  18. Covalent Functionalization of Fluorinated Graphene and Subsequent Application as Water-based Lubricant Additive. (United States)

    Ye, Xiangyuan; Ma, Limin; Yang, Zhigang; Wang, Jinqing; Wang, Honggang; Yang, Shengrong


    Although the fluorinated graphene (FG) possesses numerous excellent properties, it can not be really applied in aqueous environments due to its high hydrophobicity. Therefore, how to achieve hydrophilic FG is a challenge. Here, a method of solvent-free urea melt synthesis is developed to prepare the hydrophilic urea-modified FG (UFG). Some characterizations via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrate that the urea molecules can covalently functionalize the FG and the hydrophilic UFG can be prepared. According to the tribological tests run on an optimal-SRV-I reciprocation friction tester, it can be found that the antiwear ability of water can be largely improved by adding the appropriate UFG. When the concentration of UFG aqueous dispersion is 1 mg/mL, the sample of UFG-1 has the best antiwear ability with a 64.4% decrease of wear rate compared with that of the pure water (UFG-0), demonstrating the prepared UFG can be used as a novel and effective water-based lubricant additive.

  19. Electrospun and functionalized PVDF/PAN composite for the removal of trace metals in contaminated water (United States)

    Nthumbi, R. M.; Adelodun, A. A.; Ngila, J. C.


    The electrospinning of a nanofiber composite of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in a dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent was carried out prior to functionalization by free radical grafting of acrylic acid (AA) brushes. Subsequent application for the removal of Pb2+ and Cd2+ from contaminated water is reported. Free radicals were initiated on the polymeric nanofiber composite using 5% 2,2‧-Azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) in acetone. Upon solvent removal by air-drying, AA was added and grafting (in a methanol-water solvent system) was carried out in an oil bath at 70 °C for 5 h under nitrogen atmosphere. Structural and chemical characterization of the composite was done using scanning electron microscope (SEM), nitrogen sorption at 77 K (BET method), goniometer and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), while changes in metal ion concentration during batch adsorption were monitored using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Through isotherm study, the adsorption was confirmed to follow both Langmuir and Freundlich models whilst adsorption kinetic studies showed that the adsorption rate is of pseudo-second order. In furtherance, the respective values for adsorption capacity and estimated removal efficiency for Pb2+ and Cd2+ were 1.585 and 0.164 mg g-1, 90% and 80% respectively, while a 5% loss in regeneration efficiency after 10 cycles was also observed. Consequently, the nanocomposite was found efficient when applied to the removal of Pb2+ and Cd2+ from contaminated water.

  20. Multi-functional electrospun nanofibres for advances in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment. (United States)

    Peng, Shengjie; Jin, Guorui; Li, Linlin; Li, Kai; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chen, Jun


    Tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment are some of the most critical challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In order to address such challenges, one-dimensional (1D) materials are projected to play a key role in developing emerging solutions for the increasingly complex problems. Eletrospinning technology has been demonstrated to be a simple, versatile, and cost-effective method in fabricating a rich variety of materials with 1D nanostructures. These include polymers, composites, and inorganic materials with unique chemical and physical properties. In this tutorial review, we first give a brief introduction to electrospun materials with a special emphasis on the design, fabrication, and modification of 1D functional materials. Adopting the perspective of chemists and materials scientists, we then focus on the recent significant progress made in the domains of tissue regeneration (e.g., skin, nerve, heart and bone) and conversion & storage of clean energy (e.g., solar cells, fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors), where nanofibres have been used as active nanomaterials. Furthermore, this review's scope also includes the advances in the use of electrospun materials for the removal of heavy metal ions, organic pollutants, gas and bacteria in water treatment applications. Finally a conclusion and perspective is provided, in which we discuss the remaining challenges for 1D electrospun nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment.

  1. Controlled Design of Functional Nano-Coatings: Reduction of Loss Mechanisms in Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting. (United States)

    Landsmann, Steve; Surace, Yuri; Trottmann, Matthias; Dilger, Stefan; Weidenkaff, Anke; Pokrant, Simone


    Efficient water splitting with photoelectrodes requires highly performing and stable photoactive materials. Since there is no material known which fulfills all these requirements because of various loss mechanisms, we present a strategy for efficiency enhancement of photoanodes via deposition of functional coatings in the nanometer range. Origins of performance losses in particle-based oxynitride photoanodes were identified and specifically designed coatings were deposited to address each loss mechanism individually. Amorphous TiO2 located at interparticle boundaries enables high electron conductivity. A thin layer of amorphous Ta2O5 can be used as protection layer for photoanodes because of its hole conductivity and thermal and chemical stability. An amorphous layer of NiOx and Co(OH)2 reduces photocorrosion or increases water oxidation kinetics because they act as a hole-capture material or water oxidation catalyst, respectively. Crystalline CoOx nanoparticles increase photocurrent and reduce the onset potential due to enhanced charge separation. The combination of all coatings deposited by a scalable, mild, and reproducible step-by-step approach leads to high-performance oxynitride-based photoanodes providing a maximum photocurrent of 2.52 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 VRHE under AM1.5G illumination.

  2. Sensing of contaminants in potable water using TiO{sub 2} functional film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akshatha, N.; Poonia, Monika; Gupta, R. K., E-mail:; Manjuladevi, V.; Shukla, P.; Gupta, Rajiv [Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, 333031, Rajasthan (India)


    The piezoelectric based quartz crystal microbalance is employed for sensing contaminants in potable water. A spin coated thin layer of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was formed at the sensing area of a 5 MHz AT-cut quartz wafer. The thin film of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles forms a mesoporous functional layer for the trapping of water borne contaminants. The morphology of the thin film of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was studied using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The surface morphology of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles reveals the mesoporous structures indicating large number of defects and porous sites. Such film was employed for the detection of water borne contaminants by detecting the piezoelectric response from a quartz crystal microbalance. We found the film to be very sensitive to the contaminants. The minimum detection limit was found to be 330 ppb. The effect of surface recharging was also studied by altering the physical conditions so that the film can be used for repetitive usage.

  3. New multifunctional polymeric additives for water based fluids to be used in drilling of wells with extensive horizontal displacement in ultra deep water; Novos aditivos polimericos multifuncionais para fluidos de base aquosa a serem utilizados na perfuracao de pocos de grande afastamento horizontal em aguas ultraprofundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Junior, Jorge de Almeida; Lachter, Elizabeth Roditi; Nascimento, Regina Sandra Veiga [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica], e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:


    This work presents the development of a new class of polymeric additives for water based muds (WBM), that show simultaneously several properties for good performance, being ecologically correct and of low cost. The additives were obtained through the chemical modification of hydrophilic polymers by coupling different hydrophobic segments to the polymeric chains. The rheological analysis of aqueous systems of the products showed a pseudoplastic behavior, and it is suggested a model to explain the obtained results. A series of drilling fluids was formulated with the best systems. The developed additives successfully played the functions of rheology modifiers, shale inhibitors, filtrate reducers and lubricants, leading to excellent results at low pressure and low temperature (LPLT) conditions. (author)

  4. Functional Traits and Water Transport Strategies in Lowland Tropical Rainforest Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M G Apgaua

    Full Text Available Understanding how tropical rainforest trees may respond to the precipitation extremes predicted in future climate change scenarios is paramount for their conservation and management. Tree species clearly differ in drought susceptibility, suggesting that variable water transport strategies exist. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we examined the hydraulic variability in trees in a lowland tropical rainforest in north-eastern Australia. We studied eight tree species representing broad plant functional groups (one palm and seven eudicot mature-phase, and early-successional trees. We characterised the species' hydraulic system through maximum rates of volumetric sap flow and velocities using the heat ratio method, and measured rates of tree growth and several stem, vessel, and leaf traits. Sap flow measures exhibited limited variability across species, although early-successional species and palms had high mean sap velocities relative to most mature-phase species. Stem, vessel, and leaf traits were poor predictors of sap flow measures. However, these traits exhibited different associations in multivariate analysis, revealing gradients in some traits across species and alternative hydraulic strategies in others. Trait differences across and within tree functional groups reflect variation in water transport and drought resistance strategies. These varying strategies will help in our understanding of changing species distributions under predicted drought scenarios.

  5. Functional Traits and Water Transport Strategies in Lowland Tropical Rainforest Trees. (United States)

    Apgaua, Deborah M G; Ishida, Françoise Y; Tng, David Y P; Laidlaw, Melinda J; Santos, Rubens M; Rumman, Rizwana; Eamus, Derek; Holtum, Joseph A M; Laurance, Susan G W


    Understanding how tropical rainforest trees may respond to the precipitation extremes predicted in future climate change scenarios is paramount for their conservation and management. Tree species clearly differ in drought susceptibility, suggesting that variable water transport strategies exist. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we examined the hydraulic variability in trees in a lowland tropical rainforest in north-eastern Australia. We studied eight tree species representing broad plant functional groups (one palm and seven eudicot mature-phase, and early-successional trees). We characterised the species' hydraulic system through maximum rates of volumetric sap flow and velocities using the heat ratio method, and measured rates of tree growth and several stem, vessel, and leaf traits. Sap flow measures exhibited limited variability across species, although early-successional species and palms had high mean sap velocities relative to most mature-phase species. Stem, vessel, and leaf traits were poor predictors of sap flow measures. However, these traits exhibited different associations in multivariate analysis, revealing gradients in some traits across species and alternative hydraulic strategies in others. Trait differences across and within tree functional groups reflect variation in water transport and drought resistance strategies. These varying strategies will help in our understanding of changing species distributions under predicted drought scenarios.

  6. Determining the impacts of trawling on benthic function in European waters : a biological traits approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolam, Stefan; Kenny, Andrew; Garcia, Clement

    One of the most widespread yet manageable pressures we impose on the seabed is disturbance of the substrate by towed demersal fishing gear (bottom trawling and dredging). Over the past forty to fifty years, many studies have been conducted specifically aiming to understand the impacts of such fis......One of the most widespread yet manageable pressures we impose on the seabed is disturbance of the substrate by towed demersal fishing gear (bottom trawling and dredging). Over the past forty to fifty years, many studies have been conducted specifically aiming to understand the impacts...... the functional impacts of this activity (as opposed to impacts on the structure of benthic assemblages) has only recently been attempted. Advances in the application of biological traits analysis (BTA) wherein the assemblages are described in terms of their life history, behavioural and morphological...... on benthic ecosystem functioning over much larger spatial scales than previously undertaken. Biological traits information from 887 stations across European waters (Norwegian, UK, Belgian, Dutch, Danish waters, the Mediterranean and Black Sea) were analysed to: i) quantify the relationships between infaunal...

  7. Evaluation of functional groups responsible for chloroform formation during water chlorination using compound specific isotope analysis. (United States)

    Arnold, William A; Bolotin, Jakov; Von Gunten, Urs; Hofstetter, Thomas B


    Compound-specific isotope analysis was used to monitor the delta(13)C signature of chloroform produced upon the chlorination of model compounds representing natural organic matter functional groups (resorcinol, acetylacetone, acetophenone, phenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) and a natural water sample. For each model compound, a different apparent kinetic isotope effect was found for chloroform formation. Normal isotope effects were found for resorcinol, acetylacetone, and acetophenone, and ranged from 1.009 +/- 0.002 to 1.024 +/- 0.004. For the two phenols, an inverse effect was found (0.980 +/- 0.004). Lake Zürich water also had a inverse effect (0.997 +/- NOM, but that other functional groups may also participate. The apparent 13C kinetic isotope effect for the addition/ elimination reaction of 1,1,1-trichloropropanone mediated by OH- to yield chloroform is 1.014 +/- 0.002. A comparison of this value to those found for the chlorination of the model precursors and an evaluation of the differences in chloroform production kinetics for the different model precursors argue against a mechanism in which all NOM precursors react via a common intermediate. Compound specific isotope analysis may give additional insights into chloroform formation mechanisms beyond those allowed by current techniques.

  8. Miscible displacement of a non-Newtonian fluid in a capillary tube (United States)

    Soori, Tejaswi; Ward, Thomas


    This talk focuses on experiments conducted to further our understanding of how to displace an aqueous polymer within a capillary tube (diameter range of shear rates and fit the data obtained to the Carreau fluid parameters. Separately we measure the average bulk diffusion coefficient of the aqueous polymer and water in water and aqueous polymer phases respectively. Previous studies on the immiscible displacement of polymers have shown residual film thickness to be dependent on the tube diameter. We will investigate if this is true when the two fluids are miscible in nature. American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund.

  9. Toward direct pore-scale modeling of three-phase displacements (United States)

    Mohammadmoradi, Peyman; Kantzas, Apostolos


    A stable spreading film between water and gas can extract a significant amount of bypassed non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) through immiscible three-phase gas/water injection cycles. In this study, the pore-scale displacement mechanisms by which NAPL is mobilized are incorporated into a three-dimensional pore morphology-based model under water-wet and capillary equilibrium conditions. The approach is pixel-based and the sequence of invasions is determined by the fluids' connectivity and the threshold capillary pressure of the advancing interfaces. In addition to the determination of three-phase spatial saturation profiles, residuals, and capillary pressure curves, dynamic finite element simulations are utilized to predict the effective permeabilities of the rock microtomographic images as reasonable representations of the geological formations under study. All the influential features during immiscible fluid flow in pore-level domains including wetting and spreading films, saturation hysteresis, capillary trapping, connectivity, and interface development strategies are taken into account. The capabilities of the model are demonstrated by the successful prediction of saturation functions for Berea sandstone and the accurate reconstruction of three-phase fluid occupancies through a micromodel.

  10. Water (United States)

    ... environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Health effects of water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  11. Sleep quality among internally displaced Georgian adolescents and population-based controls. (United States)

    Sakhelashvili, Irine; Eliozishvili, Marine; Lortkipanidze, Nani; Oniani, Nikoloz; Cervena, Katerina; Darchia, Nato


    Sleep problems in children and adolescents are a significant public health concern and may be linked to a variety of psychoemotional difficulties. This study aimed to evaluate sleep quality and associated factors in conflict-affected Georgian adolescents after 9 months of forced displacement. Thirty-three internally displaced adolescents (mean age 11.4 years) and 33 adolescents (mean age 10.8 years) from the general population completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Parents completed the Children's Sleep-Wake Scale and provided information on their socioeconomic status (SES) and the adolescents' sleep behavior, academic performance, and peer social relationships. The groups differed significantly in sleep quality, peer relationships, SES, and CDI scores. In the internally displaced group, the only significant predictor of sleep quality was SES, which increased the predictive capacity of the model (demographic and psychosocial variables) by 20% in the hierarchical analyses. The most significant predictor in the non-internally displaced group was CDI. This research indicates that displacement may affect sleep quality and psychosocial functioning. The importance of family SES as a contributing factor to displaced adolescents' poor sleep quality is highlighted. An integrated approach designed to improve the psychosocial environment of internally displaced adolescents is needed for their protection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Evaluation of water quality functions of conventional and advanced soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems. (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer A; Loomis, George W; Kalen, David V; Amador, Jose A


    Shallow narrow drainfields are assumed to provide better wastewater renovation than conventional drainfields and are used for protection of surface and ground water. To test this assumption, we evaluated the water quality functions of two advanced onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) drainfields-shallow narrow (SND) and Geomat (GEO)-and a conventional pipe and stone (P&S) drainfield over 12 mo using replicated ( = 3) intact soil mesocosms. The SND and GEO mesocosms received effluent from a single-pass sand filter, whereas the P&S received septic tank effluent. Between 97.1 and 100% of 5-d biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), fecal coliform bacteria, and total phosphorus (P) were removed in all drainfield types. Total nitrogen (N) removal averaged 12.0% for P&S, 4.8% for SND, and 5.4% for GEO. A mass balance analysis accounted for 95.1% (SND), 94.1% (GEO), and 87.6% (P&S) of N inputs. When the whole treatment train (excluding the septic tank) is considered, advanced systems, including sand filter pretreatment and SND or GEO soil-based treatment, removed 99.8 to 99.9% of BOD, 100% of fecal coliform bacteria and P, and 26.0 to 27.0% of N. In contrast, the conventional system removed 99.4% of BOD and 100% of fecal coliform bacteria and P but only 12.0% of N. All drainfield types performed similarly for most water quality functions despite differences in placement within the soil profile. However, inclusion of the pretreatment step in advanced system treatment trains results in better N removal than in conventional treatment systems despite higher drainfield N removal rates in the latter. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harno Dwi Pranowo


    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulations were performed for I-, Br- and Cl-, in water using ab initio pair potential. The systems consisting of one anion in 215 solvent molecules have been simulated at 298 K. Anion-water pair potentials have been newly developed based on ab initio calculations of split valence basis set plus polarization quality. The structure of the solvated ion is discussed in terms of radial distribution functions, coordination number and pair potential distribution. Structural properties were investigated by means of radial distribution functions and their running integration numbers, leading for the first solvation shell to an average 12.60 H2O around I- with I--O distance of 3.74 Å and I--H distance of 2.86 Å, 11.84 H2O around Br- with Br--O distance of 3.40 Å and Br--H distance of 2.42 Å, and 10.68 H2O around Cl- with Cl--O distance of 3.20 Å and Cl--H distance of 2.24 Å, respectively. The structure of the water-anion complexes are agreed with dipole orientation. Pair energy distribution of hydrated anions showed that the pair interaction energy are increase from I-, Cl-, to Br-, namely, -6.28, -9.98 and -13.67 kcal/mol, respectively. The coordination number distribution analysis for the first solvation shell of the all hydrated anions indicated a high exchange rate for the first solvation shell ligands.   Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, halogen anion, ab initio

  14. Compositional Simulation of Subsurface Remediation via Density Modified Displacement (United States)

    Phelan, T. J.; Ramsburg, C. A.; Abriola, L. M.


    Reduced interfacial tension displacement of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface can be an efficient means of remediating contaminant source zones. Application of technologies based upon this principle, however, is problematic for NAPLs that are denser than water (DNAPLs) due to their tendency to sink further into the subsurface when mobilized. Pre-mobilization density conversion via alcohol partitioning has been suggested as a means of overcoming this problem. This presentation details efforts in the mathematical modeling of this proposed technology. A comprehensive, empirically-based, multiphase flow and transport model which incorporates the ternary phase partitioning behavior of the DNAPL-alcohol-water system and compositionally dependent phase (e.g., density and viscosity) and interfacial properties (i.e., interfacial tension, capillary pressure-saturation and relative permeability relationships, NAPL entrapment behavior) is described. Model simulations of bench-scale laboratory experiments examining the density conversion and mobilization of entrapped trichloroethene with n-butanol are presented. These results demonstrate the compositional model's ability to accurately describe the density modified displacement process. Sensitivity of model predictions to different physicochemical processes is highlighted.

  15. Structure and functions of water-membrane interfaces and their role in proto-biological evolution (United States)

    Pohorille, A.; Wilson, M.; Macelroy, R. D.


    Among the most important developments in proto-biological evolution was the emergence of membrane-like structures. These are formed by spontaneous association of relatively simple amphiphilic molecules that would have been readily available in the primordial environment. The resulting interfacial regions between water and nonpolar interior of the membrane have several properties which made them uniquely suitable for promoting subsequent evolution. They can (1) selectively attract organic material and mediate its transport, (2) serve as simple catalysts for chemical reactions, and (3) promote the formation of trans-membrane electrical and chemical gradients which could provide energy sources for proto-cells. Understanding the structure of interfaces, their interactions with organic molecules and molecular mechanisms of their functions is an essential step to understanding proto-biological evolution. In our computer simulation studies, we showed that the structure of water at interfaces with nonpolar media is significantly different from that in the bulk. In particular, the average surface dipole density points from the vapor to the liquid. As a result, negative ions can approach the interface more easily than positive ions. Amphiphilic molecules composed of hydrocarbon conjugated rings and polar substituents (e.g., phenol) assume at the interface rigid orientations in which polar groups are buried in water while hydrocarbon parts are located in the nonpolar environment. These orientational differences are of special interest in connection with the ability of some of these molecules to efficiently absorb photons. Flexible molecules with polar substituents often adopt at interfaces conformations different from those in the bulk aquaeous solution and in the gas phase. As a result, in many instances both specificity and kinetics of chemical reactions in which these molecules can participate is modified by the presence of surfaces. Of special interest is the mechanism by

  16. Structure and functions of simple membrane-water interfaces. [Abstract only (United States)

    Pohorille, A.; Wilson, M. A.


    The structure and functions of the earliest ancestors of contemporary cells are focal points in studies of the origin of life. Probably the first cell-like structures were vesicles - closed, spheroidal structures with aqueous medium trapped inside. The membranous walls of vesicles were most likely bilayers composed of simple amphiphilic material available on early earth. The membrane studied was composed of glycerol 1-monooleate (GMO). Glycerol forms the polar head group and the oily tail contains 18 carbon atoms. All head groups have been found to be located in two narrow regions at the interfaces with water. The membrane interior, formed by the hydrophobic tails, is quite fluid with chain disorder increasing towards the center of the bilayer. These results are in agreement with x-ray and neutron scattering data from related bilayers. The width of the membrane is not constant, but fluctuates in time and space. Occasional thinning defects in the membrane, observed during the course of the simulations, may have a significant influence on rates of passive transport of small molecules across membranes. It has been found that water penetrates the head group region but not the oily interior of the membrane. Water molecules near the interface are oriented by dipoles of the head groups. The resulting electrostatic potential across the interface, determined in our simulations, has been found to be markedly larger than across the water-oil interface. This quantity has been implicated as the source of selectivity, with respect to the sign of the charge, as an ion approaches the interface and during transport of hydrophobic ions across membranes.

  17. Comparision of Chitosan Function as Adsorbent for Nitrate Removal Using Synthetic Aqueous Solution and Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Norisepehr


    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Nitrate and nitrite compounds pollution of groundwater resources in recent years which recently their mean concentration due to enhancement of different kind of municipal, industrial and agriculture waste water, were increased. The most common source of nitrates entering the water include chemical fertilizers and animal manure in agriculture, septic tank effluent, wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, animal and plant residue analysis on the ground of non-sanitary disposal of solid waste and the use of absorbing wells for sewage disposal. Materials and methods: This experimental study is applied to the nitrate removal using chitosan in laboratory scale at ambient temperature and the design of the system was Batch. Effects of parameters such as pH, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent concentration of nitrate on nitrate removal from aqueous solution was studied. Results: Function of chitosan in synthetic aqueous solution and drinking water according to the slurry system results, the optimum condition was obtained at pH=4, 20 min contact time and increasing the initial concentration of nitrate enhance the adsorption capacity of chitosan. Also optimum dosage of adsorbent was obtained at 0.5 g/l. The data obtained from the experiments of adsorbent isotherm were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir equation was found to be the best fitness with the experimental data (R2>0.93. Conclusion: Although efficiency of Nitrate removal in synthetic aqueous solution was better than drinking water, adsorption process using chitosan as an option for the design and selection nitrate removal should be considered in order to achieve environmental standards.

  18. Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pais


    Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

  19. Education: protecting the rights of displaced children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suba Mahalingam


    Full Text Available UNICEF and its partners work with displaced communitiesto provide material assistance and protection, using as their basis the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child1 and other internationallegal instruments. Education has proven a valuable tool in this effort, not only making children aware of their rights but also providing a way to participate in the realisation of these rights.

  20. Displacement Damage in Bipolar Linear Integrated Circuits (United States)

    Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.


    Although many different processes can be used to manufacture linear integrated circuits, the process that is used for most circuits is optimized for high voltage -- a total power supply voltage of about 40 V -- and low cost. This process, which has changed little during the last twenty years, uses lateral and substrate p-n-p transistors. These p-n-p transistors have very wide base regions, increasing their sensitivity to displacement damage from electrons and protons. Although displacement damage effects can be easily treated for individual transistors, the net effect on linear circuits can be far more complex because circuit operation often depends on the interaction of several internal transistors. Note also that some circuits are made with more advanced processes with much narrower base widths. Devices fabricated with these newer processes are not expected to be significantly affected by displacement damage for proton fluences below 1 x 10(exp 12) p/sq cm. This paper discusses displacement damage in linear integrated circuits with more complex failure modes than those exhibited by simpler devices, such as the LM111 comparator, where the dominant response mode is gain degradation of the input transistor. Some circuits fail catastrophically at much lower equivalent total dose levels compared to tests with gamma rays. The device works satisfactorily up to nearly 1 Mrad(Si) when it is irradiated with gamma rays, but fails catastrophically between 50 and 70 krad(Si) when it is irradiated with protons.

  1. Public policy to address displacement in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Cossío Díaz


    Full Text Available At hearings of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in November 2013 on the human rights situation in Mexico, the issue of the internally displaced in particular caught my attention, both due to its current serious level and for its potential impact in the not too distant future.

  2. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Atomic displacements; crystal defects; crystalline solids. PACS Nos 63.43.j; 63.43.Dq; 61.66.Dk; 61.72.Ji. 1. Introduction. The transition metal dilute alloys are studied for their unique properties such as high strength ...... Even the recent techniques like EXAFS are inadequate for bcc alloys because in the EXAFS ...

  3. Comb-drive actuators for large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, Rob; Legtenberg, R.; Groeneveld, A.W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    The design, fabrication and experimental results of lateral-comb-drive actuators for large displacements at low driving voltages is presented. A comparison of several suspension designs is given, and the lateral large deflection behaviour of clamped-clamped beams and a folded flexure design is

  4. Isolated Displaced Fracture of the Lesser Tuberosity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injury Extra. 2006;37:31-3. 4. Collier SG, Wynn-Jones CH. Displacement of the biceps with subscapularis avulsion. J Bone Joint. Surg Br. 1990;72:145. 5. Ogawa K, Takahashi M. Long-term outcome of isolated lesser tuberosity fractures of the humerus. J Trauma. 1997;42:955-9. 6. Robinson CM, Teoh KH, Baker A, et al.

  5. Displacement Ventilation by Different Types of Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Hoff, Lars; Pedersen, Lars Germann

    The paper describes measuring results of the air movement from three different types of diffusers for displacement ventilation. Two of the diffusers are lowlevel wall mounted diffusers, one with a low and one with a high initial entrainment. The third diffuser is of the floor mounted type....

  6. Simulating People Moving in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, M.; Bjørn, Erik; Sandberg, M.

    A displacement ventilation system works better the more uni-directional the air flow through the ventilated room is: from floor to ceiling. Thus, from an air quality point of view, there should be as little vertical mixing of the room air as possible. It is therefore comprehensible that physical...

  7. Olympic scale of sport-induced displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean du Plessis


    Full Text Available The Olympic Games have displaced more than two million people in the last 20 years, disproportionately affecting particular groups such as the homeless, the poor, Roma and African-Americans. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games often leave a negative housing legacy for local populations.

  8. Olympic scale of sport-induced displacement


    Jean du Plessis


    The Olympic Games have displaced more than two million people in the last 20 years, disproportionately affecting particular groups such as the homeless, the poor, Roma and African-Americans. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games often leave a negative housing legacy for local populations.

  9. A Personal Appearance Program for Displaced Homemakers. (United States)

    Fiore, Ann Marie; De Long, Marilyn Revell


    A career counseling program evaluated the self-esteem of 28 displaced homemakers, then presented 3 sessions on the importance of personal appearance in hiring practices, wardrobe management, nonverbal communication, professional image, and self-concept. Analysis of participant evaluations indicated improved levels of control and confidence and…

  10. Internal displacement in Nigeria: an urgent challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia McGoldrick


    Full Text Available In the past five years an estimated 800,000 people have been displaced in Africa’s most populous state. AddressingNigeria’s neglected IDP crisis must be a key priority in the run-up to the country’s 2007 presidential elections.

  11. Geometric interpretation of density displacements and charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ``geometric” interpretation of the electronic density displacements in the Hilbert space is given and the associated projection-operator partitioning of the hardness and softness operators (kernels) is developed. The eigenvectors |á 〉 = \\{| 〉 \\} of the hardness operator define the complete (identity) projector P ^ = |  ...

  12. Heterodyne displacement interferometer, insensitive for input polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.


    Periodic nonlinearity (PNL) in displacement interferometers is a systematic error source that limits measurement accuracy. The PNL of coaxial heterodyne interferometers is highly influenced by the polarization state and orientation of the source frequencies. In this Letter, we investigate this error

  13. The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks. (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig


    Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals' understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and, thus, reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so because of their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply because of the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object's location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species' performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past.

  14. Understanding handpump sustainability: Determinants of rural water source functionality in the Greater Afram Plains region of Ghana (United States)

    Fisher, Michael B.; Shields, Katherine F.; Chan, Terence U.; Christenson, Elizabeth; Cronk, Ryan D.; Leker, Hannah; Samani, Destina; Apoya, Patrick; Lutz, Alexandra; Bartram, Jamie


    Safe drinking water is critical to human health and development. In rural sub-Saharan Africa, most improved water sources are boreholes with handpumps; studies suggest that up to one third of these handpumps are nonfunctional at any given time. This work presents findings from a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 1509 water sources in 570 communities in the rural Greater Afram Plains (GAP) region of Ghana; one of the largest studies of its kind. 79.4% of enumerated water sources were functional when visited; in multivariable regressions, functionality depended on source age, management, tariff collection, the number of other sources in the community, and the district. A Bayesian network (BN) model developed using the same data set found strong dependencies of functionality on implementer, pump type, management, and the availability of tools, with synergistic effects from management determinants on functionality, increasing the likelihood of a source being functional from a baseline of 72% to more than 97% with optimal management and available tools. We suggest that functionality may be a dynamic equilibrium between regular breakdowns and repairs, with management a key determinant of repair rate. Management variables may interact synergistically in ways better captured by BN analysis than by logistic regressions. These qualitative findings may prove generalizable beyond the study area, and may offer new approaches to understanding and increasing handpump functionality and safe water access. This article was corrected on 11 Nov 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  15. Factors shaping bacterial phylogenetic and functional diversity in coastal waters of the NW Mediterranean Sea (United States)

    Boras, Julia A.; Vaqué, Dolors; Maynou, Francesc; Sà, Elisabet L.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Sala, Maria Montserrat


    To evaluate the main factors shaping bacterioplankton phylogenetic and functional diversity in marine coastal waters, we carried out a two-year study based on a monthly sampling in Blanes Bay (NW Mediterranean). We expected the key factors driving bacterial diversity to be (1) temperature and nutrient concentration, together with chlorophyll a concentration as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass and, hence, a carbon source for bacteria (here called bottom-up factors), and (2) top-down pressure (virus- and protist-mediated mortality of bacteria). Phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA. Functional diversity was assessed by using monomeric carbon sources in Biolog EcoPlates and by determining the activity of six extracellular enzymes. Our results indicate that the bacterial phylogenetic and functional diversity in this coastal system is shaped mainly by bottom-up factors. A dendrogram analysis of the DGGE banding patterns revealed three main sample clusters. Two clusters differed significantly in temperature, nitrate and chlorophyll a concentration, and the third was characterized by the highest losses of bacterial production due to viral lysis detected over the whole study period. Protistan grazing had no effect on bacterial functional diversity, since there were no correlations between protist-mediated mortality (PMM) and extracellular enzyme activities, and utilization of only two out of the 31 carbon sources (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and α-cyclodextrin) was correlated with PMM. In contrast, virus-mediated mortality correlated with changes in the percentage of use of four carbon sources, and also with specific leu-aminopeptidase and β-glucosidase activity. This suggests that viral lysate provides a pool of labile carbon sources, presumably including amino acids and glucose, which may inhibit proteolytic and glucosidic activity. Our results indicate that bottom-up factors play a more important role than

  16. Utilization of an ultrasound beam steering angle for measurements of tissue displacement vector and lateral displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikayoshi Sumi


    Full Text Available Chikayoshi SumiDepartment of Information and Communication Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: A number of ultrasonic displacement/velocity measurement methods have been extensively developed for measurements of blood flow, tissue motion, and strain. Lateral modulation (LM methods have also been reported using steered, crossed beams, and these methods permit measurements of displacement vectors. In this report, a new beam steering method for the transmission and reception of ultrasound is proposed, which can enable measurements of lateral displacements and of arbitrary displacement vectors with a very high degree of accuracy. Because this beam steering method uses only a steering angle, this method is referred to as ASTA. With ASTA, the number of available methods to obtain a displacement vector measurement is limited to previously developed block-matching methods, such as the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method, and the multidimensional autocorrelation method (MAM and the multidimensional Doppler method (MDM using a block-matching method (the methods using block matching are referred to as MAMb and MDMb, respectively. Being dependent on the measurement method, only a lateral displacement measurement can be made even if the methods are multidimensional, ie, previously developed MAM and MDM using a moving average and a mirror setting of the obtained steered beams, and one-dimensional (1D, such as an autocorrelation method. Considerations of beamforming schemes using LM and ASTA show that the simple ASTA beamforming method increases capabilities for real-time measurements and requires a small physical aperture when compared with LM. For lateral displacement measurements (eg, blood flow in a carotid artery, a lateral coordinate must correspond to the direction of the target’s lateral motion, and the steering angle used is as large as possible to increase the measurement accuracy

  17. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  18. A Robust, Water-Based, Functional Binder Framework for High-Energy Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. (United States)

    Lacey, Matthew J; Österlund, Viking; Bergfelt, Andreas; Jeschull, Fabian; Bowden, Tim; Brandell, Daniel


    We report here a water-based functional binder framework for the lithium-sulfur battery systems, based on the general combination of a polyether and an amide-containing polymer. These binders are applied to positive electrodes optimised towards high-energy electrochemical performance based only on commercially available materials. Electrodes with up to 4 mAh cm-2 capacity and 97-98 % coulombic efficiency are achievable in electrodes with a 65 % total sulfur content and a poly(ethylene oxide):poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PEO:PVP) binder system. Exchange of either binder component for a different polymer with similar functionality preserves the high capacity and coulombic efficiency. The improvement in coulombic efficiency from the inclusion of the coordinating amide group was also observed in electrodes where pyrrolidone moieties were covalently grafted to the carbon black, indicating the role of this functionality in facilitating polysulfide adsorption to the electrode surface. The mechanical properties of the electrodes appear not to significantly influence sulfur utilisation or coulombic efficiency in the short term but rather determine retention of these properties over extended cycling. These results demonstrate the robustness of this very straightforward approach, as well as the considerable scope for designing binder materials with targeted properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The behaviour of 39 pesticides in surface waters as a function of scale (United States)

    Capel, P.D.; Larson, S.J.; Winterstein, T.A.


    A portion of applied pesticides runs off agricultural fields and is transported through surface waters. In this study, the behaviour of 39 pesticides is examined as a function of scale across 14 orders of magnitude from the field to the ocean. Data on pesticide loads in streams from two US Geological Survey programs were combined with literature data from field and watershed studies. The annual load as percent of use (LAPU) was quantified for each of the fields and watersheds and was used as the normalization factor across watersheds and compounds. The in-stream losses of each pesticide were estimated for a model stream with a 15 day travel time (similar in characteristics to the upper Mississippi River). These estimated in-stream losses agreed well with the observed changes in apparent LAPU values as a function of watershed area. In general, herbicides applied to the soil surface had the greatest LAPU values and minimal in-stream losses. Soil-incorporated herbicides had smaller LAPU values and substantial in-stream losses. Insecticides generally had LAPU values similar to the incorporated herbicides, but had more variation in their in-stream losses. On the basis of the LAPU values of the 39 pesticides as a function of watershed area, a generalized conceptual model of the movement of pesticides from the field to the ocean is suggested. The importance of considering both field runoff and in-stream losses is discussed in relation to interpreting monitoring data and making regulatory decisions.

  20. Effect of Body Mass Index on Intrafraction Prostate Displacement Monitored by Real-Time Electromagnetic Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Wayne M., E-mail: [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Morris, Mallory N. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Kurko, Brian S.; Murray, Brian C. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate, using real-time monitoring of implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafraction prostate displacement of patients as a function of body mass index (BMI). Methods and Materials: The motions of Beacon radiofrequency transponders (Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA) implanted in the prostate glands of 66 men were monitored throughout the course of intensity modulated radiation therapy. Data were acquired at 10 Hz from setup to the end of treatment, but only the 1.7 million data points with a 'beam on' tag were used in the analysis. There were 21 obese patients, with BMI {>=}30 and 45 nonobese patients in the study. Results: Mean displacements were least in the left-right lateral direction (0.56 {+-} 0.24 mm) and approximately twice that magnitude in the superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions. The net vector displacement was larger still, 1.95 {+-} 0.47 mm. Stratified by BMI cohort, the mean displacements per patient in the 3 Cartesian axes as well as the net vector for patients with BMI {>=}30 were slightly less (<0.2 mm) but not significantly different than the corresponding values for patients with lower BMIs. As a surrogate for the magnitude of oscillatory noise, the standard deviation for displacements in all measured planes showed no significant differences in the prostate positional variability between the lower and higher BMI groups. Histograms of prostate displacements showed a lower frequency of large displacements in obese patients, and there were no significant differences in short-term and long-term velocity distributions. Conclusions: After patients were positioned accurately using implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafractional displacements in the lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions as well as the net vector displacements were smaller, but not significantly so, for obese men than for those with lower BMI.

  1. Effect of body mass index on intrafraction prostate displacement monitored by real-time electromagnetic tracking. (United States)

    Butler, Wayne M; Morris, Mallory N; Merrick, Gregory S; Kurko, Brian S; Murray, Brian C


    To evaluate, using real-time monitoring of implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafraction prostate displacement of patients as a function of body mass index (BMI). The motions of Beacon radiofrequency transponders (Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA) implanted in the prostate glands of 66 men were monitored throughout the course of intensity modulated radiation therapy. Data were acquired at 10 Hz from setup to the end of treatment, but only the 1.7 million data points with a "beam on" tag were used in the analysis. There were 21 obese patients, with BMI ≥ 30 and 45 nonobese patients in the study. Mean displacements were least in the left-right lateral direction (0.56 ± 0.24 mm) and approximately twice that magnitude in the superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions. The net vector displacement was larger still, 1.95 ± 0.47 mm. Stratified by BMI cohort, the mean displacements per patient in the 3 Cartesian axes as well as the net vector for patients with BMI ≥ 30 were slightly less (<0.2 mm) but not significantly different than the corresponding values for patients with lower BMIs. As a surrogate for the magnitude of oscillatory noise, the standard deviation for displacements in all measured planes showed no significant differences in the prostate positional variability between the lower and higher BMI groups. Histograms of prostate displacements showed a lower frequency of large displacements in obese patients, and there were no significant differences in short-term and long-term velocity distributions. After patients were positioned accurately using implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafractional displacements in the lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions as well as the net vector displacements were smaller, but not significantly so, for obese men than for those with lower BMI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hybrid Stochastic Forecasting Model for Management of Large Open Water Reservoir with Storage Function (United States)

    Kozel, Tomas; Stary, Milos


    The main advantage of stochastic forecasting is fan of possible value whose deterministic method of forecasting could not give us. Future development of random process is described better by stochastic then deterministic forecasting. Discharge in measurement profile could be categorized as random process. Content of article is construction and application of forecasting model for managed large open water reservoir with supply function. Model is based on neural networks (NS) and zone models, which forecasting values of average monthly flow from inputs values of average monthly flow, learned neural network and random numbers. Part of data was sorted to one moving zone. The zone is created around last measurement average monthly flow. Matrix of correlation was assembled only from data belonging to zone. The model was compiled for forecast of 1 to 12 month with using backward month flows (NS inputs) from 2 to 11 months for model construction. Data was got ridded of asymmetry with help of Box-Cox rule (Box, Cox, 1964), value r was found by optimization. In next step were data transform to standard normal distribution. The data were with monthly step and forecast is not recurring. 90 years long real flow series was used for compile of the model. First 75 years were used for calibration of model (matrix input-output relationship), last 15 years were used only for validation. Outputs of model were compared with real flow series. For comparison between real flow series (100% successfully of forecast) and forecasts, was used application to management of artificially made reservoir. Course of water reservoir management using Genetic algorithm (GE) + real flow series was compared with Fuzzy model (Fuzzy) + forecast made by Moving zone model. During evaluation process was founding the best size of zone. Results show that the highest number of input did not give the best results and ideal size of zone is in interval from 25 to 35, when course of management was almost same for

  3. Toward image registration process: Using different interpolation methods in case of subpixel displacement (United States)

    Flores Padilla, Deyanira; Jimenez-Hernández, Hugo; Reynosa Canseco, Jaqueline


    Interpolating for data sample is required in many image processing methods. For example, in the estimation of displacement which are smaller than one pixel. In the case of displacement calculation in an image sequence using the numerical method, Newton-Rapson is very common to use a linear interpolator due to its simplicity and speed. However this method generates discontinuous functions. Therefore, theoretically it should not be used in combination with Newton-Rapson due to the use of the derivative in the numerical method. This work shows a comparative analysis of different interpolators, along with a comparison between "real world" and image displacements and their relationship. All of this with the purpose of identifying which interpolator offers the most exact approximation in the estimation of displacement calculation.

  4. Changes in water manganese levels and longitudinal assessment of intellectual function in children exposed through drinking water. (United States)

    Dion, Laurie-Anne; Saint-Amour, Dave; Sauvé, Sébastien; Barbeau, Benoit; Mergler, Donna; Bouchard, Maryse F


    Manganese is commonly found in water but potential neurotoxic effects from exposure through drinking water are poorly understood. We previously reported a cross-sectional study showing that drinking water Mn concentration was associated with lower IQ in children aged 6 to 13 years. For this follow-up study, we aimed to re-assess the relation between exposure to Mn from drinking water and IQ at adolescence. In addition, we aimed to examine whether changes in drinking water Mn concentration was associated with changes in IQ scores. From the 380 children enrolled in the baseline study, 287 participated to this follow-up study conducted in average 4.4 years after. Mn concentration was measured in home tap water and children's hair. The relationships between these Mn exposure indicators and IQ scores (Weschsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence) at follow-up were assessed with linear regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders. Intra-individual differences in IQ scores between the two examinations were compared for children whose Mn concentration in water remained stable between examinations, increased or decreased. The mean age at follow-up was 13.7 years (range, 10.5 to 18.0 years). Geometric mean of Mn concentration in water at follow-up was 14.5μg/L. Higher Mn concentration in water measured at follow-up was associated with lower Performance IQ in girls (β for a 10-fold increase=-2.8, 95% confidence intervals [CI] -4.8 to -0.8) and higher Performance IQ in boys (β=3.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 6.4). IQ scores were not significantly associated with Mn concentration in hair, although similar trends as for concentration in water were observed. For children whose Mn concentration in water increased between baseline and follow-up, Performance IQ scores decreased significantly (intra-individual difference, -2.4 points). Higher levels of Mn in drinking water were associated with lower Performance IQ in girls, whereas the opposite was observed in boys. These findings

  5. Evaluation of temporomandibular joint disc displacement as a risk factor for osteoarthrosis. (United States)

    Dias, I M; Cordeiro, P C de F; Devito, K L; Tavares, M L F; Leite, I C G; Tesch, R de S


    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacement is a clinical sign often found in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and associated with TMJ osteoarthrosis. Osteoarthrosis is a degenerative joint disease that may be associated with pain and functional disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the odds ratio (OR) of joints with disc displacement presenting osteoarthrosis via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. In total, 224 TMJ images from patients with signs and symptoms of a TMD were evaluated. The OR, a measure of association, was used to calculate the likelihood of TMJ disc displacement (with or without reduction) with osteoarthrosis. Joints with anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDwR) and anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDwoR) were 2.73- and 8.25-times, respectively, more likely to have osteoarthrosis. A nine-times greater likelihood of osteophyte occurrence was observed in cases of ADDwoR, whereas a lower OR for their occurrence (OR 2.96) was observed in cases of ADDwR. The significant OR of joints with disc displacement presenting osteoarthrosis, particularly in cases of ADDwoR, emphasizes the importance of accurate assessment of changes in disc position, which may be associated with other painful and functional disorders of the TMJ. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Density functional for van der Waals forces accounts for hydrogen bond in benchmark set of water hexamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelkkanen, Kari André; Lundqvist, Bengt; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    of low-lying isomers and van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces to give key contributions to the dissociation energy. The question raised whether functionals that incorporate vdW forces implicitly into the XC functional predict the correct lowest-energy structure for the water hexamer and yield accurate...

  7. Sound effects: Multimodal input helps infants find displaced objects. (United States)

    Shinskey, Jeanne L


    Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion, suggesting auditory input is more salient in the absence of visual input. This article addresses how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for displaced objects. In AB tasks, infants who previously retrieved an object at A subsequently fail to find it after it is displaced to B, especially following a delay between hiding and retrieval. Experiment 1 manipulated auditory input by keeping the hidden object audible versus silent, and visual input by presenting the delay in the light versus dark. Infants succeeded more at B with audible than silent objects and, unexpectedly, more after delays in the light than dark. Experiment 2 presented both the delay and search phases in darkness. The unexpected light-dark difference disappeared. Across experiments, the presence of auditory input helped infants find displaced objects, whereas the absence of visual input did not. Sound might help by strengthening object representation, reducing memory load, or focusing attention. This work provides new evidence on when bimodal input aids object processing, corroborates claims that audiovisual processing improves over the first year of life, and contributes to multisensory approaches to studying cognition. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion. This suggests they find auditory input more salient in the absence of visual input in simple search tasks. After 9 months, infants' object processing appears more sensitive to multimodal (e.g., audiovisual) input. What does this study add? This study tested how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for an object displaced in an AB task. Sound helped infants find displaced objects in both the presence and absence of visual input. Object processing becomes more

  8. Study on distribution of reservoir endogenous microbe and oil displacement mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yue


    Full Text Available In order to research oil displacement mechanism by indigenous microbial communities under reservoir conditions, indigenous microbial flooding experiments using the endogenous mixed bacterium from Shengli Oilfield were carried out. Through microscopic simulation visual model, observation and analysis of distribution and flow of the remaining oil in the process of water flooding and microbial oil displacement were conducted under high temperature and high pressure conditions. Research has shown that compared with atmospheric conditions, the growth of the microorganism metabolism and attenuation is slowly under high pressure conditions, and the existence of the porous medium for microbial provides good adhesion, also makes its growth cycle extension. The microbial activities can effectively launch all kinds of residual oil, and can together with metabolites, enter the blind holes off which water flooding, polymer flooding and gas flooding can’t sweep, then swap out remaining oil, increase liquidity of the crude oil and remarkably improve oil displacement effect.

  9. Global surface displacement data for assessing variability of displacement at a point on a fault (United States)

    Hecker, Suzanne; Sickler, Robert; Feigelson, Leah; Abrahamson, Norman; Hassett, Will; Rosa, Carla; Sanquini, Ann


    This report presents a global dataset of site-specific surface-displacement data on faults. We have compiled estimates of successive displacements attributed to individual earthquakes, mainly paleoearthquakes, at sites where two or more events have been documented, as a basis for analyzing inter-event variability in surface displacement on continental faults. An earlier version of this composite dataset was used in a recent study relating the variability of surface displacement at a point to the magnitude-frequency distribution of earthquakes on faults, and to hazard from fault rupture (Hecker and others, 2013). The purpose of this follow-on report is to provide potential data users with an updated comprehensive dataset, largely complete through 2010 for studies in English-language publications, as well as in some unpublished reports and abstract volumes.

  10. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.


    Bacterioplankton play a key role in marine waters facilitating processes important for carbon cycling. However, the influence of specific bacterial populations and environmental conditions on bacterioplankton community performance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify...... drivers of bacterioplankton community functions, taking into account the variability in community composition and environmental conditions over seasons, in two contrasting coastal systems. A Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) analysis of the biological and chemical data obtained from...... utilization capacity could not be directly linked to the community dynamics. The overall importance of dissolved organic matter (DOM) parameters in the LASSO models indicate that bacterioplankton respond to the present substrate landscape, with a particular importance of nitrogenous DOM. The identification...

  11. Sodium citrate functionalized reusable Fe3O4@TiO2 photocatalyst for water purification (United States)

    Li, Wenyu; Wu, Haoyi


    Easy-recycle photocatalysts are new materials for water treatment technologies. In order to improve the recyclable ability, we employed Fe3O4 particles, which were functionalized by sodium citrate, to serve as a substrate core to attract the deposition of a shell of TiO2 particles. When compared to the calcining process for preparing the composite, the TiO2 distributed homogeneously on the sodium citrate treated Fe3O4, forming a mesoporous shell layer. Due to the mesoporous structure, this Fe3O4@TiO2 exhibited high photocatalytic degradation activity to Rhodamine B, and it was easily recycled using a magnetic field to recover the catalyst from solution.

  12. Degradation of water protection function of the Western Caucasus mountain oakeries as a result of fellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Bitukov


    Full Text Available The article analyses the effect of fellings for primary use on the disturbance of the water protection function of sessile oak (Quercus petraea forests in the Western Caucasus. The study is based on long-term monitoring of spring runoff in catchments with experimental fellings in the Forest and Hydrological Station «Gorsky» (Tuapse District, Krasnodarsky Krai. It has been established that over a 28-year period after the experimental fellings, the stabilisation of runoff conditions has never come. The runoff in oak forests is mostly impacted by clear-cuttings with tractor harvesting technology. Over 30 years after clear-cutting, the spring runoff has increased on an average by 1.46 times, with a maximum increase (by 2.5 times being observed for the first two years after cutting. In areas with group fellings, the runoff regime is generally similar to that of the control catchment for the same period.

  13. The Campbell Soil-Water Retention Function: Predictions Using Visible Near-Infrared Spectroscopy or Soil Fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysodonta, Zampela Pittaki; Møldrup, Per; Hermansen, Cecilie

    The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is one of the most uncertain soil properties while, at the same time, it is essential for modelling water and solute movement in the vadose zone. The Campbell soil-water retention function and its b parameter (pore-size distribution index) is a simple method......-infrared spectroscopy (vis-NIR) measurements will be highly useful. To enable this, we suggest to anchor the Campbell retention model not at water saturation but rather with a reference point at the volumetric water content at -1000 cm H2O of soil-water matric potential (pF 3). The soil-water content at the reference...... wavelengths to Campbell b and volumetric water content at pF 3. The volumetric water content at pF 3 and Campbell b could both be well predicted from soil fines content and vis-NIR measurements. The hereby predicted Campbell function anchored at pF 3 using both methods, compared closely with measured water...

  14. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East. (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani


    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

  15. Extraction of triazole fungicides in environmental waters utilizing poly (ionic liquid)-functionalized magnetic adsorbent. (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Liao, Yingmin; Huang, Xiaojia


    This work prepared a new poly (ionic liquid)-functionalized magnetic adsorbent (PFMA) for the extraction of triazole fungicides (TFs) in environmental waters prior to determination by high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). A polymerizable ionic liquid, 1-methyl-3-allylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide was employed to copolymerize with divinylbenzene on the surface of modified magnetite to fabricate the PFMA. The morphology, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of the new adsorbent were investigated by different techniques. A series of key parameters that influence the extraction performance including the amount of PFMA, desorption solvent, adsorption and desorption time, sample pH value and ionic strength were optimized in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the prepared PFMA could extract targeted TFs effectively and quickly under the format of magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). Satisfactory linearities were achieved in the range of 0.1-200.0μg/L for triadimenol and 0.05-200.0μg/L for other TFs with good coefficients of determination above 0.99 for all analytes. The limits of detection (S/N=3) and limits of quantification (S/N=10) for TFs were in the range of 0.0050-0.0078μg/L and 0.017-0.026μg/L, respectively. Environmental waters including lake, river and well waters were used to demonstrate the applicability of developed MSPE-HPLC-DAD method, and satisfactory recoveries and repeatability were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Functionalized chitosan electrospun nanofiber for effective removal of trace arsenate from water (United States)

    Min, Ling-Li; Zhong, Lu-Bin; Zheng, Yu-Ming; Liu, Qing; Yuan, Zhi-Huan; Yang, Li-Ming


    An environment-friendly iron functionalized chitosan elctrospun nanofiber (ICS-ENF) was synthesized for trace arsenate removal from water. The ICS-ENF was fabricated by electrospinning a mixture of chitosan, PEO and Fe3+ followed by crosslinking with ammonia vapor. The physicochemical properties of ICS-ENF were characterized by FESEM, TEM-EDX and XRD. The ICS-ENF was found to be highly effective for As(V) adsorption at neutral pH. The As(V) adsorption occurred rapidly and achieved equilibrium within 100 min, which was well fitted by pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The As(V) adsorption decreased with increased ionic strength, suggesting an outer-sphere complexation of As(V) on ICS-ENF. Freundlich model well described the adsorption isotherm, and the maximum adsorption capacity was up to 11.2 mg/g at pH 7.2. Coexisting anions of chloride and sulfate showed negligible influence on As(V) removal, but phosphate and silicate significantly reduced As(V) adsorption by competing for adsorption sites. FTIR and XPS analysis demonstrated -NH, -OH and C-O were responsible for As(V) uptake. ICS-ENF was easily regenerated using 0.003 M NaOH, and the removal rate remained above 98% after ten successively adsorption-desorption recycles. This study extends the potential applicability of electrospun nanofibers for water purification and provides a promising approach for As(V) removal from water.

  17. Dry under water: comparative morphology and functional aspects of air-retaining insect surfaces. (United States)

    Balmert, Alexander; Florian Bohn, Holger; Ditsche-Kuru, Petra; Barthlott, Wilhelm


    Superhydrophobic surfaces prevent certain body parts of semiaquatic and aquatic insects from getting wet while submerged in water. The air layer on these surfaces can serve the insects as a physical gill. Using scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the morphology of air-retaining surfaces in five insect species with different levels of adaptation to aquatic habitats. We found surfaces with either large and sparse hairs (setae), small and dense hairs (microtrichia), or hierarchically structured surfaces with both types of hairs. The structural parameters and air-film persistence of these surfaces were compared. Air-film persistence varied between 2 days in the beetle Galerucella nymphaea possessing only sparse setae and more than 120 days in the bugs Notonecta glauca and Ilyocoris cimicoides possessing dense microtrichia (up to 6.6 × 10(6) microtrichia per millimeter square). From our results, we conclude that the density of the surface structures is the most important factor that affects the persistence of air films. Combinations of setae and microtrichia are not decisive for the overall persistence of the air film but might provide a thick air store for a short time and a thin but mechanically more stable air film for a long time. Thus, we assume that a dense cover of microtrichia acts as a "backup system" preventing wetting of the body surface in case the air-water interface is pressed toward the surface. Our findings might be beneficial for the development of biomimetic surfaces for long-term air retention and drag reduction under water. In addition, the biological functions of the different air retention capabilities are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Anomalous neural circuit function in schizophrenia during a virtual Morris water task. (United States)

    Folley, Bradley S; Astur, Robert; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Calhoun, Vince D; Pearlson, Godfrey D


    Previous studies have reported learning and navigation impairments in schizophrenia patients during virtual reality allocentric learning tasks. The neural bases of these deficits have not been explored using functional MRI despite well-explored anatomic characterization of these paradigms in non-human animals. Our objective was to characterize the differential distributed neural circuits involved in virtual Morris water task performance using independent component analysis (ICA) in schizophrenia patients and controls. Additionally, we present behavioral data in order to derive relationships between brain function and performance, and we have included a general linear model-based analysis in order to exemplify the incremental and differential results afforded by ICA. Thirty-four individuals with schizophrenia and twenty-eight healthy controls underwent fMRI scanning during a block design virtual Morris water task using hidden and visible platform conditions. Independent components analysis was used to deconstruct neural contributions to hidden and visible platform conditions for patients and controls. We also examined performance variables, voxel-based morphometry and hippocampal subparcellation, and regional BOLD signal variation. Independent component analysis identified five neural circuits. Mesial temporal lobe regions, including the hippocampus, were consistently task-related across conditions and groups. Frontal, striatal, and parietal circuits were recruited preferentially during the visible condition for patients, while frontal and temporal lobe regions were more saliently recruited by controls during the hidden platform condition. Gray matter concentrations and BOLD signal in hippocampal subregions were associated with task performance in controls but not patients. Patients exhibited impaired performance on the hidden and visible conditions of the task, related to negative symptom severity. While controls showed coupling between neural circuits, regional

  19. Sensitivity analysis of point and parametric pedotransfer functions for estimating water retention of soils in Algeria (United States)

    Touil, Sami; Degre, Aurore; Nacer Chabaca, Mohamed


    Improving the accuracy of pedotransfer functions (PTFs) requires studying how prediction uncertainty can be apportioned to different sources of uncertainty in inputs. In this study, the question addressed was as follows: which variable input is the main or best complementary predictor of water retention, and at which water potential? Two approaches were adopted to generate PTFs: multiple linear regressions (MLRs) for point PTFs and multiple nonlinear regressions (MNLRs) for parametric PTFs. Reliability tests showed that point PTFs provided better estimates than parametric PTFs (root mean square error, RMSE: 0.0414 and 0.0444 cm3 cm-3, and 0.0613 and 0.0605 cm3 cm-3 at -33 and -1500 kPa, respectively). The local parametric PTFs provided better estimates than Rosetta PTFs at -33 kPa. No significant difference in accuracy, however, was found between the parametric PTFs and Rosetta H2 at -1500 kPa with RMSE values of 0.0605 cm3 cm-3 and 0.0636 cm3 cm-3, respectively. The results of global sensitivity analyses (GSAs) showed that the mathematical formalism of PTFs and their input variables reacted differently in terms of point pressure and texture. The point and parametric PTFs were sensitive mainly to the sand fraction in the fine- and medium-textural classes. The use of clay percentage (C %) and bulk density (BD) as inputs in the medium-textural class improved the estimation of PTFs at -33 kPa.

  20. Hematite(001)-liquid water interface from hybrid density functional-based molecular dynamics. (United States)

    von Rudorff, Guido Falk; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Rosso, Kevin M; Blumberger, Jochen


    The atom-scale characterisation of interfaces between transition metal oxides and liquid water is fundamental to our mechanistic understanding of diverse phenomena ranging from crystal growth to biogeochemical transformations to solar fuel production. Here we report on the results of large-scale hybrid density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations for the hematite(001)-liquid water interface. A specific focus is placed on understanding how different terminations of the same surface influence surface solvation. We find that the two dominant terminations for the hematite(001) surface exhibit strong differences both in terms of the active species formed on the surface and the strength of surface solvation. According to present simulations, we find that charged oxyanions (-O(-)) and doubly protonated oxygens (-OH[Formula: see text]) can be formed on the iron terminated layer via autoionization of neutral -OH groups. No such charged species are found for the oxygen terminated surface. In addition, the missing iron sublayer in the iron terminated surface strongly influences the solvation structure, which becomes less well ordered in the vicinity of the interface. These pronounced differences are likely to affect the reactivity of the two surface terminations, and in particular the energetics of excess charge carriers at the surface.

  1. Water-Based Assembly of Polymer-Metal Organic Framework (MOF) Functional Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Souvik [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, 77843-3122 TAMU College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Nandasiri, Manjula I. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Schaef, Herbert T. [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; McGrail, Benard Peter [Energy & Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Nune, Satish K. [Energy & Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L. [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, 77843-3122 TAMU College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Texas A& M University, 3122 TAMU College Station TX 77843-3122 USA


    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained tremendous attention for their porosity, size selectivity, and structural diversity. There is a need for MOF-based coatings, particularly in applications such as separations, electronics and energy; yet forming thin, functional, conformal coatings is prohibitive because MOFs exist as a powder. Layer-by- layer assembly, a versatile thin film coating approach, offers a unique solution to this problem, but this approach requires MOFs that are water-dispersible and bear a surface charge. Here, we address these issues by examining water-based dispersions of MIL-101(Cr) that facilitate the formation of robust polymer-MOF hybrid coatings. Specifically, the substrate to be coated is alternately exposed to an aqueous solution of poly(styrene sulfonate) and dispersion MIL-101(Cr), yielding linear film growth and coatings with a MOF content as high as 77 wt%.This approach is surface-agnostic, in which the coating is successfully applied to silicon, glass, flexible plastic, and even cotton fabric, conformally coating individual fibers. In contrast, prior attempts at forming MOF-coatings were severely limited to a handful of surfaces, required harsh chemical treatment, and were not conformal. The approach presented here unambiguously confirms that MOFs can be conformally coated onto complex and unusual surfaces, opening the door for a wide variety of applications.

  2. Adsorption of fluoride from water by surface-functionalized polyurethane foam. (United States)

    Krupadam, R J; Khan, M S; Das, S


    Surface-functionalized polyurethane foam (SPUF) showed an exceptionally high adsorption potential for defluoridation of drinking water. Kinetic experiments of fluoride adsorption on SPUF demonstrated quick adsorption in first 60 min and then achieved maximum adsorption (7.8 mg g⁻¹). The adsorption isotherm was described using Bradley equation. The adsorption capacity of SPUF was significantly influenced by the pH of the solution. The highest adsorption capacity was attained at pH 6.7 and no drastic reduction noticed in the adsorption capacity of SPUF at normal pH range (5.8-8.2). The fluoride adsorption capacity of SPUF was compared with other adsorbents like activated carbon, soil, alumina and carbon nanotubes. The added advantage of SPUF adsorbent is, it can be easily recharged by altering the pH of the solution using NaOH or Ca(OH)₂. The high adsorption capacity and easy-to-use nature of SPUF in batch mode and continuous system makes the new adsorbent a promising material for defluoridation of drinking water.

  3. Defluoridation of water using chitosan assisted ethylenediamine functionalized synthetic polymeric blends. (United States)

    Prabhu, Subbaiah Muthu; Viswanathan, Natrayasamy; Meenakshi, Sankaran


    In this paper, a new kind of approach undertakes for the synthesis of novel chitosan (CS) blended with ethylenediamine (ED) functionalized synthetic polymers viz., acrylonitrile/divinylbenzene/vinylbenzyl chloride (CS@AN/DVB/VBC-ED) and styrene/divinylbenzene/vinylbenzyl chloride (CS@ST/DVB/VBC-ED) for defluoridation of water. Under batch mode, various influencing parameters like shaking time, pH, competitor ions and temperature were optimized. The fluoride removal was reasonably explained using Freundlich, Langmuir and D-R isotherms. The thermodynamic parameters viz., ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° indicates the nature of the fluoride sorption with the sorbents. The FT-IR, XRD and SEM with EDAX analysis were used to study the fluoride adsorption of CS@AN/DVB/VBC-ED and CS@ST/DVB/VBC-ED blends. The thermal stability of both the sorbents was tested using TGA/DSC analysis. Studies were also conducted to test the potential application of the prepared polymeric blends for fluoride removal from field water collected from the nearby fluoride endemic area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Density functional theory study on water-gas-shift reaction over molybdenum disulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, X. R.; Wang, Shengguang; Hu, J.


    species HCOO formation is the surface CO2 reaction with H as a side reaction of CO2 desorption on S-termination with 50% S coverage. The formed HCOO species will react further with adsorbed hydrogen yielding H2COO followed by breaking its C-O bond to form the surface CH2O and O species.......Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to investigate the adsorption of reaction intermediates appearing during water-gas-shift reaction at the sulfur covered MoS2 (1 0 0)surfaces, Mo-termination with 37.5% S coverage and S-termination with 50% S coverage using periodic slabs....... The pathway for water-gas-shift reaction on both terminations has been carefully studied where the most favorable reaction path precedes the redox mechanism, namely the reaction takes place as follows: CO + H2O --> CO + OH + H --> CO + O + 2H --> CO2 + H-2. The most likely reaction candidates for the formate...

  5. Water (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.


    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  6. Déplacements polyphasiques en milieu poreux. Injection de vapeur en conditions adiabatiques Multiphase Displacements in Porous Media. Steam Flooding under Adiabatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koci X.


    that no heating collars are necessary. The experimental device shown in Figs. 1 and 2 can work under either isothermal or adiabatic conditions. It is designed to operate up to 250°C and 20 bar. The residual oil saturations after steam injection are calculated from the mass balance. Some of these results are shown in Table 1. The parameters modified were the injection flow rate (between 2 and 5 g/min. and the absolute pressure at the inlet of the porous medium (between 4 and 7 bar. Figures 3 to 6 correspond to an experiment performed under the following conditions :(a Initial condition: irreducible water saturation. (b Injection flow rate = 2 g/min. (c Injection temperature = 220°C. (d Absolute pressure at outlet = 3 bar. (e The injected steam was slightly overheated (this allows to know what is really injected and, due to the rather low enthalpy added compared to the enthalpy of saturated steam, this does not have any significant influence on the heat balance and therefore on the displacement. This experiment shows a very clearcut steam front moving all along the tube. The entire displacement occurs under conditions corresponding to vaporization/condensation equilibrium of steam (Table 2. Experiments were modeled by the TSAR (Thermal Simulator Applied to Reservoir simulator for thermal methods developed at IFP [2]. This 3-D model can be used to either simulate field processes or laboratory experiments. Relative permeabilities in function of saturations and temperatures obtained from previous isothermal experiments [1] were used in the simulator. Three-phase permeabilities were computed by the Stone method [4 to 6]. For computing, the following assumptions were made :(a The porous medium is considered to be as homogeneous and isotropic. (b There is no interaction between fluids and the mineral phase. (c Steam is considered to be a perfect gas. (d Steam is injected at a constant weight rate. (e Contact time between phases is long enough to assume that local

  7. Thermal regulation of functional groups in running water ecosystems. Progress report, October 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, K.W.; Klug, M.J.


    Progress is reported on the following research projects: characterization of functional groups of running water organisms, particularly macroconsumers; studies on relationship of functional groups to qualitative and quantitative characteristics of organic inputs to stream ecosystems; studies on relationship of functional groups to thermal regimes; and dimensioning the control of feeding and growth by temperature and food quality and quantity and determining the extent of compensatory action of each. (HLW)

  8. Static loading and vertical displacement at southern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton V. Timofeev


    Full Text Available Seismic method is usually used for elastic parametric estimation. This is why this method presents dynamic parameters of Earth. Frequency seismic range changes greatly from geodynamic modelling time. Now we have opportunity to use geodesy result for some years for elastic parameters estimation. Static solution from elastic theory may be used for the interpretation of long term results. It presents static elastic parameter. The inverse problem for different types of vertical surface loading on one year period is calculated. Two cases of loading with maximal and minimal area are presented. Results are determined by space geodesy and leveling methods. Current relation between atmospheric pressure and vertical displacements was estimated at the center of Siberian Anti Cyclone with size varied from 2000 km to 3000 km. Pressure-displacement coefficients (PDC can be achieved by three years observation (0.997 mm/mbar for NVSK GPS station. It is used for elastic module study of geology medium with maximum thickness up to 600 km. In the context of elastic model, the modulus of rigidity is estimated to be 113 GPa. Vast expanse of anti-cyclone may relate with rheology of crust and upper mantle. Smaller size of surface loading – local loading is seasonal variation of water reservoir. Annual vertical changes were obtained by leveling near the dam of the reservoir. PDC ratio was 1.15 mm/bar for these places. In elastic theory, the Young modulus E = 80 GPa (Poisson ratio = 0.25, the modulus of rigidity = 32 GPa was calculated by sixteen years of leveling measurements. This result can effectively be represented for upper crust. Our results were checked by solution for coseismic displacement of Chyia-Altai earthquake (Sep. 27, 2003, M = 7.3. Coseismic results calculated by static modules agree with experimental coseismic GPS data at 10% level.

  9. Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm


    in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation......Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification...... height is examined by means of full-scale measurements. A breathing thermal manikin is used to simulate a person. It is found that the flow in the boundary layer around a person is able to a great extent to entrain and transport air from below the breathing zone. In the case of non-passive, heated...

  10. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner


    If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ →ℓ‧ γ but rather ℓ →ℓ‧ X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z‧ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ →ℓ‧ + inv , but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ → eX , X → γγ , ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  11. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck


    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  12. Regaining water swallowing function in the rehabilitation of critically ill patients with intensive-care-unit acquired muscle weakness. (United States)

    Thomas, Simone; Sauter, Wolfgang; Starrost, Ulrike; Pohl, Marcus; Mehrholz, Jan


    Treatment in intensive care units (ICUs) often results in swallowing dysfunction. Recent longitudinal studies have described the recovery of critically ill people, but we are not aware of studies of the recovery of swallowing function in patients with ICU-acquired muscle weakness. This paper aims to describe the time course of regaining water swallowing function in patients with ICU-acquired weakness in the post-acute phase and to describe the risks of regaining water swallowing function and the risk factors involved. This cohort study included patients with ICU-acquired muscle weakness in our post-acute department, who were unable to swallow. We monitored the process of regaining water swallowing function using the 3-ounce water swallowing test. We included 108 patients with ICU-acquired muscle weakness. Water swallowing function was regained after a median of 12 days (interquartile range =17) from inclusion in the study and after a median of 59 days (interquartile range= 36) from the onset of the primary illness. Our multivariate Cox Proportional Hazard model yielded two main risk factors for regaining water swallowing function: the number of medical tubes such as catheters at admission to the post-acute department (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.282; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.099-1.495) and the time until weaning from the respirator in days (adjusted HR =1.02 per day; 95%CI: 0.998 to 1.008). We describe a time course for regaining water swallowing function based on daily tests in the post-acute phase of critically ill patients. Risk factors associated with regaining water swallowing function in rehabilitation are the number of medical tubes and the duration of weaning from the respirator. Implications for rehabilitation Little guidance is available for the management of swallowing dysfunction in the rehabilitation of critically ill patients with intensive-care-units acquired muscle weakness. There is a time dependent pattern of recovery from

  13. Displacement and stress fields around rock fractures opened by irregular overpressure variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigekazu eKusumoto


    Full Text Available Many rock fractures are entirely driven open by fluids such as ground water, geothermal water, gas, oil, and magma. These are a subset of extension fractures (mode I cracks; e.g., dikes, mineral veins and joints referred to as hydrofractures. Field measurements show that many hydrofractures have great variations in aperture. However, most analytical solutions for fracture displacement and stress fields assume the loading to be either constant or with a linear variation. While these solutions have been widely used, it is clear that a fracture hosted by heterogeneous and anisotropic rock is normally subject to loading that is neither constant nor with a linear variation. Here we present new general solutions for the displacement and stress fields around hydrofractures, modelled as two-dimensional elastic cracks, opened by irregular overpressure variations given by the Fourier cosine series. Each solution has two terms. The first term gives the displacement and stress fields due to the average overpressure acting inside the crack; it is given by the initial term of the Fourier coefficients expressing the overpressure variation. The second term gives the displacement and stress fields caused by the overpressure variation; it is given by general terms of the Fourier coefficients and solved through numerical integration. Our numerical examples show that the crack aperture variation closely reflects the overpressure variation. Also, that the general displacement and stress fields close to the crack follow the overpressure variation but tend to be more uniform far from the crack. The present solutions can be used to estimate the displacement and stress fields around any fluid-driven crack, that is, any hydrofracture, as well as its aperture, provided the variation in overpressure can be described by Fourier series. The solutions add to our understanding of local stresses, displacements, and fluid transport associated with hydrofractures in the crust.

  14. A 3-D functional-structural grapevine model that couples the dynamics of water transport with leaf gas exchange. (United States)

    Zhu, Junqi; Dai, Zhanwu; Vivin, Philippe; Gambetta, Gregory A; Henke, Michael; Peccoux, Anthony; Ollat, Nathalie; Delrot, Serge


    Predicting both plant water status and leaf gas exchange under various environmental conditions is essential for anticipating the effects of climate change on plant growth and productivity. This study developed a functional-structural grapevine model which combines a mechanistic understanding of stomatal function and photosynthesis at the leaf level (i.e. extended Farqhuhar-von Caemmerer-Berry model) and the dynamics of water transport from soil to individual leaves (i.e. Tardieu-Davies model). The model included novel features that account for the effects of xylem embolism (fPLC) on leaf hydraulic conductance and residual stomatal conductance (g0), variable root and leaf hydraulic conductance, and the microclimate of individual organs. The model was calibrated with detailed datasets of leaf photosynthesis, leaf water potential, xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and hourly whole-plant transpiration observed within a soil drying period, and validated with independent datasets of whole-plant transpiration under both well-watered and water-stressed conditions. The model well captured the effects of radiation, temperature, CO2 and vapour pressure deficit on leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential, and correctly reproduced the diurnal pattern and decline of water flux within the soil drying period. In silico analyses revealed that decreases in g0 with increasing fPLC were essential to avoid unrealistic drops in leaf water potential under severe water stress. Additionally, by varying the hydraulic conductance along the pathway (e.g. root and leaves) and changing the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to ABA and leaf water potential, the model can produce different water use behaviours (i.e. iso- and anisohydric). The robust performance of this model allows for modelling climate effects from individual plants to fields, and for modelling plants with complex, non-homogenous canopies. In addition, the model provides a

  15. The effect of stopping water exercise for 12 weeks on the functional fitness of elderly women

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    Aline Huber da Silva


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week pause in exercising in water on the functional fitness of elderly women. The sample was 31 elderly women, with x _ = 68.97 years (SD = 5.34, all participants in a water exercise program. The women were tested in November 2005 and, after a 12-week pause in water exercises, in March2006, using the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance – AAHPERD test battery. The statistical analysis was descriptive, using simple frequencies and percentages, plus the t test for paired samples. A statistically significant difference was observed between mean scores for coordination, agility and the general functional fitness index (GFFI at the end of the exercise program and 12 weeks later. The GFFI and coordination scores had reduced after the 12-week period, but the participants’ agility had improved. It was concluded that a 12-week pause in water exercise impacted the GFFI of these elderly women. These results emphasize the importance of physical exercise during the ageing process and of raising awareness of the need for the elderly to keep physically active even during the holiday period in order to improve and/or maintain functional fitness levels. ResumoEsse estudo teve como objetivo verificar a influência do período de interrupção de 12 semanas na aptidão funcional de mulheres idosas, praticantes de atividades aquáticas. A amostra foi composta por 31 idosas, com x _ = 68,97 anos (DP = 5,34, praticantes de atividades aquáticas, que fizeram os testes da Bateria da American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance – AAHPERD, em novembro de 2005 e após 12 semanas de interrupção (março de 2006. Os resultados dos testes foram comparados com os valores normativos para essa bateria. O tratamento estatístico foi descritivo, mediante a freqüência simples e percentagem, e o teste t para amostras emparelhadas/pareadas, com n

  16. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for the decontamination of water polluted with cesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Helal


    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles are attracting considerable interest because of their potential applications in practically all fields of science and technology, including the removal of heavy metals from contaminated waters. It is, therefore, of great importance to adapt the surfaces of these nanoparticles according to the application. In this work advanced nanoparticles (NPs with well-tailored surface functionalities were synthesized using the polyol method. The efficiency of a chelating agent, succinyl-β-cyclodextrin (SBCD, was first investigated spectrophotometrically and by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC. SBCD was then grafted onto nanoparticles previously functionalized with 3-aminopropyl triethoxsilane (NP-APTES. The resulting NP-SBCD system was then incubated with a solution of cesium. After magnetic separation, the solid residue was removed from the supernatant and characterized by X-Ray Photoelectron spectrometry (XPS, X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF and Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID magnetometry. These characterizations show the presence of cesium in the solid residue, which indicates Cs uptake by the NP-SBCD system. This nanohybrid system constitutes a promising model for heavy metal decontamination.

  17. EDTA functionalized magnetic nanoparticle as a multifunctional adsorbent for Congo red dye from contaminated water (United States)

    Sahoo, Jitendra Kumar; Rath, Juhi; Dash, Priyabrat; Sahoo, Harekrushna


    The present work reports the applicability of magnetite iron nanoparticles (Fe3O4) functionalized with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Congo red (CR) dye from contaminated water. Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) are prepared by chemical precipitation method in which Fe2+ and Fe3+ salt from aqueous solution were reacted in presence of ammonia solution. The surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticle was first coated with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxy silane (APTES) by a salinization reaction and then linked with EDTA via reaction between -NH2 and -COOH to form well dispersed surface functionalised biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained EDTA functionalized magnetic nanoparticles are characterized in terms of their morphological, XRD, BET surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The adsorption of CR on Fe3O4-APTES-EDTA nanocomposite corresponds well to the Langmuir model and the Freundlich model respectively. The adsorption processes for CR followed the pseudo-second-order model.

  18. Structural mechanism and photoprotective function of water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein. (United States)

    Horigome, Daisuke; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Nobue; Mitsunaga, Katsuyoshi; Oonishi, Isao; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Uchida, Akira


    A water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) is the single known instance of a putative chlorophyll (Chl) carrier in green plants. Recently the photoprotective function of WSCP has been demonstrated by EPR measurements; the light-induced singlet-oxygen formation of Chl in the WSCP tetramer is about four times lower than that of unbound Chl. This paper describes the crystal structure of the WSCP-Chl complex purified from leaves of Lepidium virginicum (Virginia pepperweed) to clarify the mechanism of its photoprotective function. The WSCP-Chl complex is a homotetramer comprising four protein chains of 180 amino acids and four Chl molecules. At the center of the complex one hydrophobic cavity is formed in which all of the four Chl molecules are tightly packed and isolated from bulk solvent. With reference to the novel Chl-binding mode, we propose that the photoprotection mechanism may be based on the inhibition of physical contact between the Chl molecules and molecular oxygen.

  19. Stress Intensity Factor calculation from displacement fields

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    S. Beretta


    Full Text Available In the last two decades, visual image techniques such as Digital Image Correlation (DIC enabled to experimentally determine the crack tip displacement and strain fields at small scales. The displacements are tracked during loading, and parameters as the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF, opening and closing loads, T-stress can be readily measured. In particular, the SIFs and the T-stress can be obtained by fitting the analytical equation of the Williamstype expansion with the experimentally-determined displacement fields. The results in terms of fracture mechanics parameters strictly depend on the dimension of the area considered around the crack tip in conjunction with the crack length, the maximum SIF (and thus the plastic tip radius, and the number of terms to be considered in the Williams-type expansion. This work focuses in understanding the accuracy of the SIF calculation based on these factors. The study is based on Finite Element Analysis simulations where purely elastic material behavior is considered. The accuracy of the estimation of the SIF is investigated and a guide-line is provided to properly set the DIC measurements. The analysis is then experimentally validated for crack closure measurements adopting the SENT specimen geometry.

  20. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício


    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  1. Character displacement promotes cooperation in bacterial biofilms. (United States)

    Brockhurst, Michael A; Hochberg, Michael E; Bell, Thomas; Buckling, Angus


    Resource competition within a group of cooperators is expected to decrease selection for cooperative behavior but can also result in diversifying selection for the use of different resources, which in turn could retard the breakdown of cooperation. Diverse groups are likely to be less susceptible to invasion by noncooperating social cheats: First, competition repression resulting from character displacement may provide less of a selective advantage to cheating; second, cheats may trade off the ability to exploit cooperators that specialize in one type of resource against cooperators that specialize in another ; third, diverse communities of any kind may have higher invasion resistance because there are fewer resources available for an invader to use . Furthermore, diverse groups are likely to be more productive than clonal groups if a wider range of total resources are being used . We addressed these issues by using the cooperative trait of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Character displacement through resource competition evolved within biofilms; productivity increased with increasing character displacement, and diverse biofilms were less susceptible to invasion by cheats. These results demonstrate that diversification into different ecological niches can minimize selection against cooperation in the face of local resource competition.

  2. Water (United States)

    ... the tap as described). 3. In all situations, drink or cook only with water that comes out of the tap cold. Water that comes out of the tap warm or hot can contain much higher levels of lead. Boiling ...

  3. Adaptation to Laterally Displacing Prisms in Anisometropic Amblyopia. (United States)

    Sklar, Jaime C; Goltz, Herbert C; Gane, Luke; Wong, Agnes M F


    Using visual feedback to modify sensorimotor output in response to changes in the external environment is essential for daily function. Prism adaptation is a well-established experimental paradigm to quantify sensorimotor adaptation; that is, how the sensorimotor system adapts to an optically-altered visuospatial environment. Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by spatiotemporal deficits in vision that impacts manual and oculomotor function. This study explored the effects of anisometropic amblyopia on prism adaptation. Eight participants with anisometropic amblyopia and 11 visually-normal adults, all right-handed, were tested. Participants pointed to visual targets and were presented with feedback of hand position near the terminus of limb movement in three blocks: baseline, adaptation, and deadaptation. Adaptation was induced by viewing with binocular 11.4° (20 prism diopter [PD]) left-shifting prisms. All tasks were performed during binocular viewing. Participants with anisometropic amblyopia required significantly more trials (i.e., increased time constant) to adapt to prismatic optical displacement than visually-normal controls. During the rapid error correction phase of adaptation, people with anisometropic amblyopia also exhibited greater variance in motor output than visually-normal controls. Amblyopia impacts on the ability to adapt the sensorimotor system to an optically-displaced visual environment. The increased time constant and greater variance in motor output during the rapid error correction phase of adaptation may indicate deficits in processing of visual information as a result of degraded spatiotemporal vision in amblyopia.

  4. Effects of viruses on bacterial functions under contrasting nutritional conditions for four species of bacteria isolated from Hong Kong waters (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Yuan, Xiangcheng; Xu, Jie; Harrison, Paul J.; He, Lei; Yin, Kedong


    Free living viruses are ubiquitous in marine waters and concentrations are usually several times higher than the bacterial abundance. These viruses are capable of lysing host bacteria and therefore, play an important role in the microbial loop in oligotrophic waters. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the role of viruses in regulating bacterial abundance and heterotrophic activities between natural oligotrophic waters and anthropogenic influenced eutrophic waters. In this study, we examined viral effects on bacterial functions of four single bacterial species incubated with natural viral assemblages in seawater samples from eutrophic and oligotrophic waters. The viral-lysis of bacteria was significantly higher in eutrophic than oligotrophic waters. This suggests that viruses were capable of controlling bacterial abundance, respiration and production in the eutrophic waters. Cellular bacterial respiration and production was higher with viruses than without viruses, which was more evident in the oligotrophic waters. These results indicate that viruses can slow down bacterial consumption of oxygen and reduce bacteria-induced eutrophication effects in anthropogenic eutrophic waters, but switch to the role of sustaining the bacterial population when nutrients are limiting. There were bacterial species differences in resisting viral attack, which can influence the dominance and biodiversity of bacterial species in coastal waters.

  5. Reproductive Health Education and Services Needs of Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees following Disaster (United States)

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Lopez, Guillermo E.; Zapata, Lauren B.; Wilke Corvin, Jaime A.; Allen, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.


    Background: Following the occurrence of natural or man-made disaster, relief worker priorities include providing water, food, shelter, and immunizations for displaced persons. Like these essential initiatives, reproductive health education and services must also be incorporated into recovery efforts. Purpose: This study examined reproductive…

  6. Mobility and transport of mercury and methylmercury in peat as a function of changes in water table regime and plant functional groups (United States)

    Kristine M. Haynes; Evan S. Kane; Lynette Potvin; Erik A. Lilleskov; Randy Kolka; Carl P. J. Mitchell


    Climate change is likely to significantly affect the hydrology, ecology, and ecosystem function of peatlands, with potentially important but unclear impacts on mercury mobility within and transport from peatlands. Using a full-factorial mesocosm approach, we investigated the potential impacts on mercury mobility of water table regime changes (high and low) and...

  7. Spatial patterning of water quality in Biscayne Bay, Florida as a function of land use and water management. (United States)

    Caccia, Valentina G; Boyer, Joseph N


    An objective classification analysis was performed on a water quality data set from 25 sites collected monthly during 1994-2003. The water quality parameters measured included: TN, TON, DIN, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, TP, SRP, TN:TP ratio, TOC, DO, CHL A, turbidity, salinity and temperature. Based on this spatial analysis, Biscayne Bay was divided into five zones having similar water quality characteristics. A robust nutrient gradient, driven mostly by dissolved inorganic nitrogen, from alongshore to offshore in the main Bay, was a large determinant in the spatial clustering. Two of these zones (Alongshore and Inshore) were heavily influenced by freshwater input from four canals which drain the South Dade agricultural area, Black Point Landfill, and sewage treatment plant. The North Bay zone, with high turbidity, phytoplankton biomass, total phosphorus, and low DO, was affected by runoff from five canals, the Munisport Landfill, and the urban landscape. The South Bay zone, an embayment surrounded by mangrove wetlands with little urban development, was high in dissolved organic constituents but low in inorganic nutrients. The Main Bay was the area most influenced by water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean and showed the lowest nutrient concentrations. The water quality in Biscayne Bay is therefore highly dependent of the land use and influence from the watershed.

  8. Are fire, soil fertility and toxicity, water availability, plant functional diversity, and litter decomposition related in a Neotropical savanna? (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo Henrique; Batalha, Marco Antônio; Silva, Igor Aurélio; Cianciaruso, Marcus Vinicius; Petchey, Owen L


    Understanding how biodiversity and ecosystem functioning respond to changes in the environment is fundamental to the maintenance of ecosystem function. In realistic scenarios, the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning path may account for only a small share of all factors determining ecosystem function. Here, we investigated the strength to which variations in environmental characteristics in a Neotropical savanna affected functional diversity and decomposition. We sought an integrative approach, testing a number of pairwise hypotheses about how the environment, biodiversity, and functioning were linked. We used structural equation modelling to connect fire frequency, soil fertility, exchangeable Al, water availability, functional diversity of woody plants, tree density, tree height, and litter decomposition rates in a causal chain. We found significant effects of soil nutrients, water availability, and Al on functional diversity and litter decomposition. Fire did not have a significant direct effect on functional diversity or litter decomposition. However, fire was connected to both variables through soil fertility. Functional diversity did not influence rates of litter decomposition. The mediated effects that emerged from pairwise interactions are encouraging not only for predicting the functional consequences of changes in environmental variables and biodiversity, but also to caution against predictions based on only environmental or only biodiversity change.

  9. Sol-Gel Derived Adsorbents with Enzymatic and Complexonate Functions for Complex Water Remediation. (United States)

    Pogorilyi, Roman P; Pylypchuk, Ievgen; Melnyk, Inna V; Zub, Yurii L; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A; Kessler, Vadim G


    Sol-gel technology is a versatile tool for preparation of complex silica-based materials with targeting functions for use as adsorbents in water purification. Most efficient removal of organic pollutants is achieved by using enzymatic reagents grafted on nano-carriers. However, enzymes are easily deactivated in the presence of heavy metal cations. In this work, we avoided inactivation of immobilized urease by Cu (II) and Cd (II) ions using magnetic nanoparticles provided with additional complexonate (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid or DTPA) functions. Obtained nanomaterials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). According to TGA, the obtained Fe₃O₄/SiO₂-NH₂-DTPA nanoadsorbents contained up to 0.401 mmol/g of DTPA groups. In the concentration range Ceq = 0-50 mmol/L, maximum adsorption capacities towards Cu (II) and Cd (II) ions were 1.1 mmol/g and 1.7 mmol/g, respectively. Langmuir adsorption model fits experimental data in concentration range Ceq = 0-10 mmol/L. The adsorption mechanisms have been evaluated for both of cations. Crosslinking of 5 wt % of immobilized urease with glutaraldehyde prevented the loss of the enzyme in repeated use of the adsorbent and improved the stability of the enzymatic function leading to unchanged activity in at least 18 cycles. Crosslinking of 10 wt % urease on the surface of the particles allowed a decrease in urea concentration in 20 mmol/L model solutions to 2 mmol/L in up to 10 consequent decomposition cycles. Due to the presence of DTPA groups, Cu2+ ions in concentration 1 µmol/L did not significantly affect the urease activity. Obtained magnetic Fe₃O₄/SiO₂-NH₂-DTPA-Urease nanocomposite sorbents revealed a high potential for urease decomposition, even in presence of heavy metal ions.

  10. Stimulatory Effects of Balanced Deep Sea Water on Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function.

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    Byung Geun Ha

    Full Text Available The worldwide prevalence of metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes, is increasing. Mitochondrial dysfunction is recognized as a core feature of these diseases. Emerging evidence also suggests that defects in mitochondrial biogenesis, number, morphology, fusion, and fission, contribute to the development and progression of metabolic diseases. Our previous studies revealed that balanced deep-sea water (BDSW has potential as a treatment for diabetes and obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism by which BDSW regulates diabetes and obesity by studying its effects on mitochondrial metabolism. To determine whether BDSW regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and function, we investigated its effects on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and the expression of transcription factors and mitochondria specific genes, as well as on the phosphorylation of signaling molecules associated with mitochondria biogenesis and its function in C2C12 myotubes. BDSW increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a time and dose-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that BDSW enhances gene expression of PGC-1α, NRF1, and TFAM for mitochondrial transcription; MFN1/2 and DRP1 for mitochondrial fusion; OPA1 for mitochondrial fission; TOMM40 and TIMM44 for mitochondrial protein import; CPT-1α and MCAD for fatty acid oxidation; CYTC for oxidative phosphorylation. Upregulation of these genes was validated by increased mitochondria staining, CS activity, CytC oxidase activity, NAD+ to NADH ratio, and the phosphorylation of signaling molecules such as AMPK and SIRT1. Moreover, drinking BDSW remarkably improved mtDNA content in the muscles of HFD-induced obese mice. Taken together, these results suggest that the stimulatory effect of BDSW on mitochondrial biogenesis and function may provide further insights into the regulatory mechanism of BDSW-induced anti-diabetic and anti-obesity action.

  11. Sol-Gel Derived Adsorbents with Enzymatic and Complexonate Functions for Complex Water Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman P. Pogorilyi


    Full Text Available Sol-gel technology is a versatile tool for preparation of complex silica-based materials with targeting functions for use as adsorbents in water purification. Most efficient removal of organic pollutants is achieved by using enzymatic reagents grafted on nano-carriers. However, enzymes are easily deactivated in the presence of heavy metal cations. In this work, we avoided inactivation of immobilized urease by Cu (II and Cd (II ions using magnetic nanoparticles provided with additional complexonate (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid or DTPA functions. Obtained nanomaterials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. According to TGA, the obtained Fe3O4/SiO2-NH2-DTPA nanoadsorbents contained up to 0.401 mmol/g of DTPA groups. In the concentration range Ceq = 0–50 mmol/L, maximum adsorption capacities towards Cu (II and Cd (II ions were 1.1 mmol/g and 1.7 mmol/g, respectively. Langmuir adsorption model fits experimental data in concentration range Ceq = 0–10 mmol/L. The adsorption mechanisms have been evaluated for both of cations. Crosslinking of 5 wt % of immobilized urease with glutaraldehyde prevented the loss of the enzyme in repeated use of the adsorbent and improved the stability of the enzymatic function leading to unchanged activity in at least 18 cycles. Crosslinking of 10 wt % urease on the surface of the particles allowed a decrease in urea concentration in 20 mmol/L model solutions to 2 mmol/L in up to 10 consequent decomposition cycles. Due to the presence of DTPA groups, Cu2+ ions in concentration 1 µmol/L did not significantly affect the urease activity. Obtained magnetic Fe3O4/SiO2-NH2-DTPA-Urease nanocomposite sorbents revealed a high potential for urease decomposition, even in presence of heavy metal ions.

  12. Deteriorations of pulmonary function, elevated carbon monoxide levels and increased oxidative stress amongst water-pipe smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Karaduman Yalcin


    Full Text Available Objectives: A water pipe (hookah is a tobacco smoking tool which is thought to be more harmless than a cigarette, and there are no adequate studies about its hazards to health. Water-pipe smoking is threatening health of the youth in the world today. The objective of this study has been to investigate the carbon monoxide (CO levels in breath, examine the changes in pulmonary function tests (PFT and to assess the change of the oxidative stress parameters in blood after smoking a water pipe. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional analytical study that has included 50 volunteers who smoke a water pipe and the control group of 50 volunteers who smoke neither a cigarette nor a water pipe. Carbon monoxide levels were measured in the breath and pulmonary function tests (PFTs were performed before and after smoking a water pipe. Blood samples were taken from either the volunteer control group or water-pipe smokers group after smoking a water pipe for the purpose of evaluation of the parameters of oxidative stress. Results: Carbon monoxide values were measured to be 8.08±7.4 ppm and 28.08±16.5 ppm before and after smoking a water pipe, respectively. This increment was found statistically significant. There were also significant reductions in PFTs after smoking a water pipe. Total oxidative status (TOS, total antioxidant status (TAS and oxidative stress index (OSI were found prominently higher after smoking a water pipe for the group of water-pipe smokers than for the control group. Conclusions: This study has shown that water-pipe smoking leads to deterioration in pulmonary function and increases oxidative stress. To the best of our knowledge this study is the only one that has shown the effect of water-pipe smoking on oxidative stress. More studies must be planned to show the side effects of water-pipe habit and protective policies should be planned especially for young people in Europe. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:731

  13. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades (United States)

    Jumel, Stéphanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean


    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricité de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumel, Stephanie E-mail:; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean E-mail:


    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  15. Density functional for van der Waals forces accounts for hydrogen bond in benchmark set of water hexamers. (United States)

    Kelkkanen, André K; Lundqvist, Bengt I; Nørskov, Jens K


    A recent extensive study has investigated how various exchange-correlation (XC) functionals treat hydrogen bonds in water hexamers and has shown traditional generalized gradient approximation and hybrid functionals used in density-functional (DF) theory to give the wrong dissociation-energy trend of low-lying isomers and van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces to give key contributions to the dissociation energy. The question raised whether functionals that incorporate vdW forces implicitly into the XC functional predict the correct lowest-energy structure for the water hexamer and yield accurate total dissociation energy is here answered affirmatively for the vdW-DF [M. Dion et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 246401 (2004)].

  16. A watershed approach to upgrade rainfed agriculture in water scarce regions through Water System Innovations: an integrated research initiative on water for food and rural livelihoods in balance with ecosystem functions (United States)

    Rockström, J.; Folke, C.; Gordon, L.; Hatibu, N.; Jewitt, G.; Penning de Vries, F.; Rwehumbiza, F.; Sally, H.; Savenije, H.; Schulze, R.

    The challenge of producing food for a rapidly increasing population in semi-arid agro-ecosystems in Southern Africa is daunting. More food necessarily means more consumptive use of so-called green water flow (vapour flow sustaining crop growth). Every increase in food production upstream in a watershed will impact on water user and using systems downstream. Intensifying agriculture has in the past often been carried out with negative side effects in terms of land and water degradation. Water legislation is increasingly incorporating the requirement to safeguard a water reserve to sustain instream ecology. To address the challenges of increasing food production, improving rural livelihoods, while safeguarding critical ecological functions, a research programme has recently been launched on “Smallholder System Innovations in Integrated Watershed Management” (SSI). The programme takes an integrated approach to agricultural water management, analysing the interactions between the adoption and participatory adaptation of water system innovations (such as water harvesting, drip irrigation, conservation farming, etc.), increased water use in agriculture and water flows to sustain ecological functions that deliver critical ecosystem services to humans. The research is carried out in the Pangani Basin in Tanzania and the Thukela Basin in South Africa. A nested scale approach is adopted, which will enable the analysis of scale interactions between water management at the farm level, and cascading hydrological impacts at watershed and basin scale. This paper describes the integrated research approach of the SSI programme, and indicates areas of potential to upgrade rainfed agriculture in water scarcity-prone agro-ecosystems while securing water for downstream use.

  17. Determination of Alanine concentration in Alanine-supercritical water mixture, using UNIQUAC methods and density functional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid mohammadrezaee


    Full Text Available In the following paper, density functional method and Universal QUAsi-chemical (UNIQUA activity index model were applied to calculate the concentration of Alanine I supercritical water. B3LYB method and 6-311G+ (2D, 2P basic function were used to optimize the molecular structure of Alanine, water and Alanine water complex. Then, reaction parameters of UNIQUAC model were calculated, using formation energy values. PCM method and zeropoint energy were utilized to include solvent effect and BSSE effect respectively. The resulted errors indicate that the method in a fairly good agreement with the experimental data. Including SSE in the interaction parameter calculations reduces the total error significantly. According to our calculations theAlanine- water complex showed a negative deviation from Raoul’s law.

  18. Evidence that displacement activities facilitate behavioural transitions in ring-tailed lemurs. (United States)

    Buckley, Victoria; Semple, Stuart


    Displacement activities are behavioural patterns defined by their apparent irrelevance to an animal's ongoing actions. Despite being identified in diverse taxa, their function remains poorly understood. One hypothesis posits that displacement activities facilitate transitions between different behaviours by mediating changes in animals' motivational state. Under this hypothesis, it is predicted that displacement activities will occur more frequently around changes in behaviour than at other times, and also that rates of displacement activities will be higher before than after such behavioural transitions. We tested these two predictions in wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). During focal observations, animals' behavioural state was continuously recorded, as were all occurrences of self-scratching, a common displacement activity in this species. Self-scratching rates were found to be significantly elevated both before and after behavioural transitions. Furthermore, self-scratching rates were significantly higher before behavioural transitions occurred than after. These results, therefore, provide support for the hypothesis that displacement activities facilitate behavioural transitions in L. catta. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Head-shaft angle is a risk factor for hip displacement in children with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Hermanson, Maria; Hägglund, Gunnar; Riad, Jacques; Wagner, Philippe


    Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a common and severe problem. The Swedish follow-up program for CP (CPUP) includes standardized monitoring of the hips. Migration percentage (MP) is a widely accepted measure of hip displacement. Coxa valga and valgus of the femoral head in relation to the femoral neck can be measured as the head-shaft angle (HSA). We assessed HSA as a risk factor for hip displacement in CP. We analyzed radiographs of children within CPUP from selected regions of Sweden. Inclusion criteria were children with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III-V, MP of 40% of either hip within 5 years. Risk ratio between children who differed in HSA by 1 degree was calculated and corrected for age, MP, and GMFCS level using multiple Poisson regression. 145 children (73 boys) with a mean age of 3.5 (0.6-9.7) years at the initial radiograph were included. 51 children developed hip displacement whereas 94 children maintained a MP of < 40%. The risk ratio for hip displacement was 1.05 (p < 0.001; 95% CI 1.02-1.08). When comparing 2 children of the same age, GMFCS level, and MP, a 10-degree difference in HSA results in a 1.6-times higher risk of hip displacement in the child with the higher HSA. A high HSA appears to be a risk factor for hip displacement in children with CP.

  20. Displacement fields from point cloud data: Application of particle imaging velocimetry to landslide geodesy (United States)

    Aryal, Arjun; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Reid, Mark E.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Pawlak, Geno


    Acquiring spatially continuous ground-surface displacement fields from Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) will allow better understanding of the physical processes governing landslide motion at detailed spatial and temporal scales. Problems arise, however, when estimating continuous displacement fields from TLS point-clouds because reflecting points from sequential scans of moving ground are not defined uniquely, thus repeat TLS surveys typically do not track individual reflectors. Here, we implemented the cross-correlation-based Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method to derive a surface deformation field using TLS point-cloud data. We estimated associated errors using the shape of the cross-correlation function and tested the method's performance with synthetic displacements applied to a TLS point cloud. We applied the method to the toe of the episodically active Cleveland Corral Landslide in northern California using TLS data acquired in June 2005–January 2007 and January–May 2010. Estimated displacements ranged from decimeters to several meters and they agreed well with independent measurements at better than 9% root mean squared (RMS) error. For each of the time periods, the method provided a smooth, nearly continuous displacement field that coincides with independently mapped boundaries of the slide and permits further kinematic and mechanical inference. For the 2010 data set, for instance, the PIV-derived displacement field identified a diffuse zone of displacement that preceded by over a month the development of a new lateral shear zone. Additionally, the upslope and downslope displacement gradients delineated by the dense PIV field elucidated the non-rigid behavior of the slide.

  1. Land Restitution and Prevention of Forced Displacement in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felipe Gómez-Isa


    The armed conflict in Colombia, which has generated over three million internally displaced persons, has dramatic humanitarian consequences and raises serious issues regarding the protection of displaced peoples’ rights...

  2. Displaced, Homeless and Abused: The Dynamics of Gender-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based abuse (SPGBV) experienced by displaced Zimbabwean refugees, perpetrators of such abuses and the gender of perpetrators in South Africa. Refugee and Internally displaced persons are interchangeably used in this study. Through in-depth ...

  3. Predicting target displacements using ultrasound elastography and finite element modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, J.O. den; Hansen, H.H.G.; Lopata, R.G.P.; Korte, C.L. de; Misra, S.


    Soft tissue displacements during minimally invasive surgical procedures may cause target motion and subsequent misplacement of the surgical tool. A technique is presented to predict target displacements using a combination of ultrasound elastography and finite element (FE) modeling. A cubic

  4. Predicting target displacements using ultrasound elastography and finite element modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Buijs, J.; Hansen, Hendrik H.G.; Lopata, Richard G.P.; de Korte, Chris L.; Misra, Sarthak

    Soft tissue displacements during minimally invasive surgical procedures may cause target motion and subsequent misplacement of the surgical tool. A technique is presented to predict target displacements using a combination of ultrasound elastography and finite element (FE) modeling. A cubic

  5. Switching the Biointerface of Displaceable Poly-p-xylylene Coatings. (United States)

    Guan, Zhen-Yu; Wu, Chih-Yu; Li, Yi-Jye; Chen, Hsien-Yeh


    A new class of functionalized poly-p-xylyene coating has been synthesized to provide switchable and displaceable surface properties for biomaterials. The switchability is achieved through a mechanism for detaching/attaching biomolecules and/or a mechanism through which the programmed restoration of functions or their replacement by other functions can be carried out. This advanced version of poly-p-xylylene comprises an integrated disulfide moiety within the functional side group, and the switching phenomenon between the immobilized functional molecules is triggered by the redox thiol-disulfide interchange reaction. These dynamically well-defined molecules on the surfaces respond simultaneously to altered biological properties and controlled biointerfacial functions, for example, switching wettability or reversibly altered cell adhesion activity. Poly-p-xylylenes are a key player in controlling surface properties for many important applications, such as medical implants, biosensors, bioMEMS devices, and microfluidics. The introduction of this new facet of poly-p-xylylenes enables the dynamic mimicry of biological functions relevant to the design of new biomaterials.

  6. Nanoscale zero-valent iron functionalized Posidonia oceanica marine biomass for heavy metal removal from water. (United States)

    Boubakri, Saber; Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Bouaziz, Zaineb; Namour, Philippe; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem; Ghorbel-Abid, Ibtissem; Kalfat, Rafik


    Because of the excellent reducing capacity of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI), it can be used as alternative materials for the removal of a variety of reducible water contaminants including toxic metals. The current paper reports the research results obtained for self-prepared biosorbent, Posidonia oceanica biomass, activated in alkaline medium and functionalized with NZVI particles. The structural characteristics, surface morphology, and binding properties of the resulting nanobiosorbent are presented. Batch comparative adsorption trials including adsorption kinetics and isothermals onto raw Posidonia, Posidonia-OH and Posidonia-OH-NZVI were investigated on three heavy metal ions: Cd(II), Pb(II), and Cu(II). The nanobiosorbent showed better properties, such as high reactivity and high uptake rate through the sorption process. The toxic metal removal has been monitored in terms of pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetics, and both Langmuir- and Freundlich-type isotherm models have been used to describe the sorption mechanism. The experimental data of all studied systems showed that the uptake kinetics follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the equilibrium uptake can adopt the Langmuir-type isotherm model which assumes a monolayer coverage as the adsorption saturates and no further adsorption occurs. The thermodynamic results confirm that all sorption processes were feasible, spontaneous and thermodynamically favorable. Zeta potential data displayed that Cd(II), Pb(II), and Cu(II) tend to be reduced after exposure on the Posidonia-OH-NZVI surface. Furthermore, sorption competitions of the metals from binary and ternary systems were carried out onto Posidonia-OH-NZVI in order to gain further insight into the sorption efficiency of this material. Therefore, as a result, the proposed new nanobiosorbent could offer potential benefits in remediation of heavy metal-contaminated water as a green and environmentally friendly bionanocomposite.

  7. Assessment of extravascular lung water and cardiac function in trimix SCUBA diving. (United States)

    Marinovic, Jasna; Ljubkovic, Marko; Obad, Ante; Breskovic, Toni; Salamunic, Ilza; Denoble, Petar J; Dujic, Zeljko


    An increasing number of recreational self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) divers use trimix of oxygen, helium, and nitrogen for dives deeper than 60 m of sea water. Although it was seldom linked to the development of pulmonary edema, whether SCUBA diving affects the extravascular lung water (EVLW) accumulation is largely unexplored. Seven divers performed six dives on consecutive days using compressed gas mixture of oxygen, helium, and nitrogen (trimix), with diving depths ranging from 55 to 80 m. The echocardiographic parameters (bubble grade, lung comets, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), and left ventricular function) and the blood levels of the N-terminal part of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were assessed before and after each dive. Venous gas bubbling was detected after each dive with mean probability of decompression sickness ranging from 1.77% to 3.12%. After each dive, several ultrasonographically detected lung comets rose significantly, which was paralleled by increased pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and decreased left ventricular contractility (reduced ejection fraction at higher end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes) as well as the elevated NT-proBNP. The number of ultrasound lung comets and mean PAP did not return to baseline values after each dive. This is the first report that asymptomatic SCUBA dives are associated with accumulation of EVLW with concomitant increase in PAP, diminished left ventricular contractility, and increased release of NT-proBNP, suggesting a significant cardiopulmonary strain. EVLW and PAP did not return to baseline during repetitive dives, indicating possible cumulative effect with increasing the risk for pulmonary edema.

  8. Water and forests in the Mediterranean hot climate zone: a review based on a hydraulic interpretation of tree functioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares David, T.; Assunção Pinto, C.; Nadezhdina, N.; Soares David, J.


    Aim of the study: Water scarcity is the main limitation to forest growth and tree survival in the Mediterranean hot climate zone. This paper reviews literature on the relations between water and forests in the region, and their implications on forest and water resources management. The analysis is based on a hydraulic interpretation of tree functioning. Area of the study: The review covers research carried out in the Mediterranean hot climate zone, put into perspective of wider/global research on the subject. The scales of analysis range from the tree to catchment levels. Material and Methods: For literature review we used Sc opus, Web of Science and Go ogle Scholar as bibliographic databases. Data from two Quercus suber sites in Portugal were used for illustrative purposes. Main results: We identify knowledge gaps and discuss options to better adapt forest management to climate change under a tree water use/availability perspective. Forest management is also discussed within the wider context of catchment water balance: water is a constraint for biomass production, but also for other human activities such as urban supply, industry and irrigated agriculture. Research highlights: Given the scarce and variable (in space and in time) water availability in the region, further research is needed on: mapping the spatial heterogeneity of water availability to trees; adjustment of tree density to local conditions; silviculture practices that do not damage soil properties or roots; irrigation of forest plantations in some specific areas; tree breeding. Also, a closer cooperation between forest and water managers is needed. (Author)

  9. A density-functional theory-based neural network potential for water clusters including van der Waals corrections. (United States)

    Morawietz, Tobias; Behler, Jörg


    The fundamental importance of water for many chemical processes has motivated the development of countless efficient but approximate water potentials for large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, from simple empirical force fields to very sophisticated flexible water models. Accurate and generally applicable water potentials should fulfill a number of requirements. They should have a quality close to quantum chemical methods, they should explicitly depend on all degrees of freedom including all relevant many-body interactions, and they should be able to describe molecular dissociation and recombination. In this work, we present a high-dimensional neural network (NN) potential for water clusters based on density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, which is constructed using clusters containing up to 10 monomers and is in principle able to meet all these requirements. We investigate the reliability of specific parametrizations employing two frequently used generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation functionals, PBE and RPBE, as reference methods. We find that the binding energy errors of the NN potentials with respect to DFT are significantly lower than the typical uncertainties of DFT calculations arising from the choice of the exchange-correlation functional. Further, we examine the role of van der Waals interactions, which are not properly described by GGA functionals. Specifically, we incorporate the D3 scheme suggested by Grimme (J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 132, 154104) in our potentials and demonstrate that it can be applied to GGA-based NN potentials in the same way as to DFT calculations without modification. Our results show that the description of small water clusters provided by the RPBE functional is significantly improved if van der Waals interactions are included, while in case of the PBE functional, which is well-known to yield stronger binding than RPBE, van der Waals corrections lead to overestimated binding energies.

  10. Comparação entre as medidas inferenciais de edema de membros inferiores utilizando o Leg-O-Meter e o deslocador de água Comparison between inferential measurements of lower limb edema utilizing the Leg-O-Meter and water displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABC Oliveira


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A quantificação precisa da severidade e extensão de edema periférico é necessária antes e após a intervenção fisioterapêutica para avaliar a eficiência do tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar as medidas de volume em membros inferiores (MMII obtidas com dois instrumentos o Leg-O-Meter (LM e o deslocador de água (DA em um período de 2 semanas. Materiais e métodos: Trinta e uma mulheres portadoras de edema de MMII com idade entre 20 e 70 anos participaram deste estudo. O edema foi inicialmente avaliado pela perimetria (LM dos MMII ao nível do tornozelo e pelo volume de água deslocada após imersão do membro (DA. Após 2 semanas as medidas foram repetidas sem que houvesse alteração na medicação ou na rotina diária. Resultado: O percentual de alteração de edema no membro inferior direito (MID com o LM e com o DA foi 0,3±4,18% e 0,9±3,31% (p=0,21, respectivamente. Para o membro inferior esquerdo o percentual de alteração foi de 0,7±3,44% e 0,5±3,84% (p=0,29, com o LM e o DA, respectivamente. A magnitude da correlação entre as medidas obtidas com o LM e o DL foi alta e significativa, variando de r=0,73 a r=0,83 (pBackground: Precise quantification of the severity and extent of edema is necessary before and after physiotherapeutic intervention, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment. The objective of this study was to compare lower limb (LL volume measurements from two methods: Leg-O-Meter (LM and water displacement (WD, over a two-week interval. Method: Thirty-one women with LL edema, aged between 20 and 70 years, participated in this study. Edema was initially evaluated by circumference measurement (LM at the ankle level, and by means of the volume of water displaced upon immersion of the limb (WD. After 2 weeks, these measurements were repeated without there having been any change in daily routines or medication intake. Results: the percent changes in edema in the right lower

  11. Displacement Ventilation in a Room with Low-Level Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices.......Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices....

  12. Endothermic decompositions of inorganic monocrystalline thin plates. II. Displacement rate modulation of the reaction front (United States)

    Bertrand, G.; Comperat, M.; Lallemant, M.


    Copper sulfate pentahydrate dehydration into trihydrate was investigated using monocrystalline platelets with (110) crystallographic orientation. Temperature and pressure conditions were selected so as to obtain elliptical trihydrate domains. The study deals with the evolution, vs time, of elliptical domain dimensions and the evolution, vs water vapor pressure, of the {D}/{d} ratio of ellipse axes and on the other hand of the interface displacement rate along a given direction. The phenomena observed are not basically different from those yielded by the overall kinetic study of the solid sample. Their magnitude, however, is modulated depending on displacement direction. The results are analyzed within the scope of our study of endothermic decomposition of solids.

  13. Deteriorations of pulmonary function, elevated carbon monoxide levels and increased oxidative stress amongst water-pipe smokers


    Funda Karaduman Yalcin; Mukremin Er; H. Canan Hasanoglu; Hatice Kilic; Aysegul Senturk; Aysegul Karalezli; Merve Ergin; Ozcan Erel


    Objectives: A water pipe (hookah) is a tobacco smoking tool which is thought to be more harmless than a cigarette, and there are no adequate studies about its hazards to health. Water-pipe smoking is threatening health of the youth in the world today. The objective of this study has been to investigate the carbon monoxide (CO) levels in breath, examine the changes in pulmonary function tests (PFT) and to assess the change of the oxidative stress parameters in blood after smoking a water pipe....

  14. Price elasticity reconsidered: Panel estimation of an agricultural water demand function (United States)

    Schoengold, Karina; Sunding, David L.; Moreno, Georgina


    Using panel data from a period of water rate reform, this paper estimates the price elasticity of irrigation water demand. Price elasticity is decomposed into the direct effect of water management and the indirect effect of water price on choice of output and irrigation technology. The model is estimated using an instrumental variables strategy to account for the endogeneity of technology and output choices in the water demand equation. Estimation results indicate that the price elasticity of agricultural water demand is -0.79, which is greater than that found in previous studies.

  15. Functions of biological soil crusts on central European inland dunes: Water repellency and pore clogging influence water infiltration (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas; Spröte, Roland; Veste, Maik; Wiehe, Wolfgang; Lange, Philipp; Bens, Oliver; Raab, Thomas; Hüttl, Reinhard F.


    Biological soil crusts play a key role for hydrological processes in many open landscapes. They seal and stabilize the topsoil and promote surface run-off. Three crust types were identified on two inland dunes in Brandenburg, North-East Germany: A natural, active dune, located in a former military training area near Lieberose, and an artificial dune, which was constructed in 2001 and which serves as a study area for geo-ecological monitoring of flora and fauna from the forefield of an opencast-mine ("Neuer Lugteich"). Both dunes consisted of Quarternary, carbonate-free, siliceous sandy substrate. Utilization of the mineral substrate at early stages of microbiotic crust development was assessed using chlorophyll concentrations, scanning electron (SEM) and optical microscopy. Water repellency indices, which are an indication of surface polarity and wettability, were measured using the ethanol/water microinfiltrometer method, and steady state water flow was determined on the dry crusts and after 0, 300, 600, 1200 and 1800 seconds of wetting, thus allowing to follow pore clogging through swelling of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Chlorophyll concentrations indicated early stages of crust development at both sites. In crust type 1, dominating sand grains were physically stabilized in their contact zones by accumulated organic matter and by few filamentous cyanobacteria and filamentous green algae. The pore space was defined by the mineral matrix only. In crust type 2, filamentous cyanobacteria and algae partially filled in the matrix pores and enmeshed sand grains. In the dry sample, the pore space was dominated by crust organisms but still micropore channels, which are known to increase water infiltration, were left. Crust type 3 was characterized by intense growth of filamentous and coccoid algae and cyanobacteria, and by few mosses, which covered less than 5% of the surface. Crust organisms completely utilized the substrate and clogged the pores between

  16. A new method to prevent the corrosion of dental metals, during disinfection using functional water: sacrificial protection. (United States)

    Kashiwabara, Toshiya; Goto, Takaharu; Sato, Yutaka; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Nagao, Kan; Ichikawa, Tetsuo


    This paper demonstrates a simple method using sacrificial protection for preventing the corrosion of dental metals. Dental metals are directly connected or/and wound with a pure commercial aluminum/zinc wire/plate with high ionization tendency, before their immersion into oxidizing functional water. Dental materials such as Co-Cr alloy wires, stainless steel, and Au-Ag-Pd alloys did not corrode when this method was used. Thus, this method is very simple and effective for preventing corrosion of dental metals during disinfection using functional water. Copyright 2010 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 40 CFR 86.419-78 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle... Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.419-78 Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. (a)(1) Engine displacement shall be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to...

  18. Year of displaced people’s rights in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alberto Romero


    Full Text Available A Campaign for the Rights of Displaced People in Colombia, launched in 2007 by UNHCR, Colombian NGO CODHES and the Catholic Church, has tried to raise awareness in Colombia and the international community about the severity of the country’s displacement crisis and its failure to guarantee the rights of displaced people.

  19. Water-dispersible triethylenetetramine-functionalized graphene: Preparation, characterization and application as an amperometric glucose sensor. (United States)

    Ren, Qunxiang; Feng, Li; Fan, Ronghua; Ge, Xin; Sun, Yingying


    The triethylenetetramine-functionalized graphene (TFGn) was prepared using graphene oxide (GO) and triethylenetetramine as raw materials through a one-step reaction under alkaline condition. The triethylenetetramine not only acted as cross-linker to combine GO, but also as reductant of GO. The TFGn was characterized by its ultraviolet spectrum (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that triethylenetetramine was successfully grafted onto the surface of the GO through covalent bonding between amine and epoxy groups. The resultant TFGn was uniformly dispersed in water over several weeks, suggesting that the introduction of amino groups greatly increased the hydrophilicity of TFGn. The triethylenetetramine-functionalized graphene was then applied to fabricate glucose biosensors with IO4(-) oxidized glucose oxidase (GOx) through layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly by the covalent bonding between the aldehyde groups of GOx and amino groups of TFGn. The gold electrodes modified with the (GOx/TFGn)n multilayer films were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and showed outstanding electrocatalytical response to the oxidation of glucose when ferrocenemethanol was used as an artificial redox mediator. The response increased with an increasing number of GOx/TFGn bilayers, indicating that the analytical performance, such as the sensitivity of the glucose biosensor, could be adjusted by tuning the number of deposited GOx/TFGn bilayers. The linear response range of the biosensor constructed with six bilayers of GOx/TFGn to the concentration of glucose can extend to at least 8mM with a sensitivity of 19.9μAmM(-1)cm(-2). In addition, the sensor exhibited good stability due to the covalent interactions between the GOx and TFGn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Noncovalently-functionalized reduced graphene oxide sheets by water-soluble methyl green for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Xiaoying; Hu, Zhongai, E-mail:; Hu, Haixiong; Qiang, Ruibin; Li, Li; Li, Zhimin; Yang, Yuying; Zhang, Ziyu; Wu, Hongying


    Graphical abstract: Electroactive methyl green (MG) is selected to functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through non-covalent modification and the composite achieves high specific capacitance, good rate capability and excellent long life cycle. - Highlights: • MG–RGO composites were firstly prepared through non-covalent modification. • The mass ratio in composites is a key for achieving high specific capacitance. • MG–RGO 5:4 exhibits the highest specific capacitance of 341 F g{sup −1}. • MG–RGO 5:4 shows excellent rate capability and long life cycle. - Abstract: In the present work, water-soluble electroactive methyl green (MG) has been used to non-covalently functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for enhancing supercapacitive performance. The microstructure, composition and morphology of MG–RGO composites are systematically characterized by UV–vis absorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical performances are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fast redox reactions from MG could generate additional pseudocapacitance, which endows RGO higher capacitances. As a result, the MG–RGO composite (with the 5:4 mass ratio of MG:RGO) achieve a maximum value of 341 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} within the potential range from −0.25 to 0.75 V and provide a 180% enhancement in specific capacitance in comparison with pure RGO. Furthermore, excellent rate capability (72% capacitance retention from 1 A g{sup −1} to 20 A g{sup −1}) and long life cycle (12% capacitance decay after 5000 cycles) are achieved for the MG–RGO composite electrode.

  1. Effect of the Pore Size Distribution on the Displacement Efficiency of Multiphase Flow in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yongfei


    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of porous media, it is difficult to use traditional experimental methods to study the quantitative impact of the pore size distribution on multiphase flow. In this paper, the impact of two pore distribution function types for three-phase flow was quantitatively investigated based on a three-dimensional pore-scale network model. The results show that in the process of wetting phase displacing the non-wetting phase without wetting films or spreading layers, the displacement efficiency was enhanced with the increase of the two function distribution’s parameters, which are the power law exponent in the power law distribution and the average pore radius or standard deviation in the truncated normal distribution, and vice versa. Additionally, the formation of wetting film is better for the process of displacement.

  2. Maggie Creek Water Quality Data for Ecological Proper Functioning Condition Analysis (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data are "standard" water quality parameters collected for surface water condition analysis (for example pH, conductivity, DO, TSS). This dataset is associated...

  3. Measuring fast stochastic displacements of bio-membranes with dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy (United States)

    Monzel, C.; Schmidt, D.; Kleusch, C.; Kirchenbüchler, D.; Seifert, U.; Smith, A.-S.; Sengupta, K.; Merkel, R.


    Stochastic displacements or fluctuations of biological membranes are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of many physiological processes, but hitherto their precise quantification in living cells was limited due to a lack of tools to accurately record them. Here we introduce a novel technique--dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy (DODS), to measure stochastic displacements of membranes with unprecedented combined spatiotemporal resolution of 20 nm and 10 μs. The technique was validated by measuring bending fluctuations of model membranes. DODS was then used to explore the fluctuations in human red blood cells, which showed an ATP-induced enhancement of non-Gaussian behaviour. Plasma membrane fluctuations of human macrophages were quantified to this accuracy for the first time. Stimulation with a cytokine enhanced non-Gaussian contributions to these fluctuations. Simplicity of implementation, and high accuracy make DODS a promising tool for comprehensive understanding of stochastic membrane processes.

  4. New Electromagnetic Force-Displacement Sensor


    Benabdellah, Amine; Abbassi, Zakarya; Nakheli, Abdelrhani


    A new electromagnetic force-displacement sensor is presented. Its operating principle is based on the fundamental laws of electromagnetism (Faraday-Lenz law) and the mechanical properties of a spring. The active elements are two coils made by a wire of 60 µm in diameter. Using different wire diameters or different number of wire turns in the coil modify the intensity of the magnetic field and the sensor response. The average accuracy of the sensor is about ∆d=1µm, and as a force sensor is abo...

  5. Two-Domain DNA Strand Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cardelli


    Full Text Available We investigate the computing power of a restricted class of DNA strand displacement structures: those that are made of double strands with nicks (interruptions in the top strand. To preserve this structural invariant, we impose restrictions on the single strands they interact with: we consider only two-domain single strands consisting of one toehold domain and one recognition domain. We study fork and join signal-processing gates based on these structures, and we show that these systems are amenable to formalization and to mechanical verification.

  6. Assessment of pedotransfer functions for estimating soil water retention curves for the amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Medeiros


    Full Text Available Knowledge of the soil water retention curve (SWRC is essential for understanding and modeling hydraulic processes in the soil. However, direct determination of the SWRC is time consuming and costly. In addition, it requires a large number of samples, due to the high spatial and temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties. An alternative is the use of models, called pedotransfer functions (PTFs, which estimate the SWRC from easy-to-measure properties. The aim of this paper was to test the accuracy of 16 point or parametric PTFs reported in the literature on different soils from the south and southeast of the State of Pará, Brazil. The PTFs tested were proposed by Pidgeon (1972, Lal (1979, Aina & Periaswamy (1985, Arruda et al. (1987, Dijkerman (1988, Vereecken et al. (1989, Batjes (1996, van den Berg et al. (1997, Tomasella et al. (2000, Hodnett & Tomasella (2002, Oliveira et al. (2002, and Barros (2010. We used a database that includes soil texture (sand, silt, and clay, bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and the SWRC. Most of the PTFs tested did not show good performance in estimating the SWRC. The parametric PTFs, however, performed better than the point PTFs in assessing the SWRC in the tested region. Among the parametric PTFs, those proposed by Tomasella et al. (2000 achieved the best accuracy in estimating the empirical parameters of the van Genuchten (1980 model, especially when tested in the top soil layer.

  7. Simulation of the radiolysis of water using Green's functions of the diffusion equation. (United States)

    Plante, I; Cucinotta, F A


    Radiation chemistry is of fundamental importance in the understanding of the effects of ionising radiation, notably with regard to DNA damage by indirect effect (e.g. damage by ·OH radicals created by the radiolysis of water). In the recent years, Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDEs) have been used extensively in biochemistry, notably to simulate biochemical networks in time and space. In the present work, an approach based on the GFDE will be used to refine existing models on the indirect effect of ionising radiation on DNA. As a starting point, the code RITRACKS (relativistic ion tracks) will be used to simulate the radiation track structure and calculate the position of all radiolytic species formed during irradiation. The chemical reactions between these radiolytic species and with DNA will be done by using an efficient Monte Carlo sampling algorithm for the GFDE of reversible reactions with an intermediate state that has been developed recently. These simulations should help the understanding of the contribution of the indirect effect in the formation of DNA damage, particularly with regards to the formation of double-strand breaks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  8. An advanced CFD model to study the effect of non-condensable gas on cavitation in positive displacement pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannetti Aldo


    Full Text Available An advanced transient CFD model of a positive displacement reciprocating pump was created to study its behavior and performance in cavitating condition during the inlet stroke. The “full” cavitation model developed by Singhal et al. was utilized, and a sensitivity analysis test on two air mass fraction amounts (1.5 and 15 parts per million was carried out to study the influence of the dissolved air content in water on the cavitation phenomenon. The model was equipped with user defined functions to introduce the liquid compressibility, which stabilizes the simulation, and to handle the two-way coupling between the pressure field and the inlet valve lift history. Estimation of the performance is also presented in both cases.

  9. Boundary lubrication of bearing steel in water-based lubricants with functional additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.


    This thesis focuses on the effect of additives on boundary lubrication of bearing steel for water-based lubrication systems. The oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion and the water-glycol based liquid were selected as the base fluids for research. Sulfur compounds, nitrogen heterocycles and graphene

  10. Biophysical properties and functional significance of stem water storage tissues in Neotropical savanna trees. (United States)

    F.G. Scholz; S.J. Bucci; G. Goldstein; F.C. Meinzer; A.C. Franco; F. Miralles-Wilhelm


    Biophysical characteristics of sapwood and outer parenchyma water storage compartments were studied in stems of eight dominant Brazilian Cerrado tree species to assess the impact of differences in tissue capacitance on whole-plant water relations. Both the sapwood and outer parenchyma tissues played an important role in regulation of internal water deficits of Cerrado...

  11. Health status among internally displaced persons in Louisiana and Mississippi travel trailer parks. (United States)

    Larrance, Ryan; Anastario, Michael; Lawry, Lynn


    We used a global humanitarian aid perspective to assess basic needs, women's health, mental health, and opinions about the status of internally displaced persons living in travel trailer parks to inform recovery efforts for this population. This was a systematic randomized survey of 366 internally displaced persons, conducted with structured questionnaires. The study setting was commercial and group travel trailer parks in Louisiana and Mississippi. Information was gathered about respondent demographics, food security, basic needs, domestic and sexual violence, security concerns, reproductive health, mental health, morbidity, mortality, health care assessment, substance use, and opinions about internally displaced persons and social status. Respondents were 45.9 (standard deviation 0.8) years of age on average and were mostly white (62%) in Mississippi and mostly black (65%) in Louisiana. Shelter, transportation, security, and lack of financial means were listed as the worst problems since displacement. Sixteen percent of respondents reported not having enough drinking water, and only 13% of those living in counties and parishes under boil orders were doing so. More than half of households reported an ill adult or child in the previous 2 months. The number of parents reporting problems getting children to school more than tripled after displacement. Intimate partner violence rates postdisplacement were 3 times higher than US baseline rates. Fifty percent of respondents met criteria for major depression. Suicide completion rates after displacement were more than 14 times the baseline rates, and attempt rates were more than 78 times baseline. The health burdens identified present a formidable challenge for the health infrastructures in Louisiana and Mississippi without outside assistance. Those planning and leading recovery efforts must understand internally displaced persons in a more global context and tailor programming that follows well-developed international

  12. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia (United States)


    Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Methods Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Results Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Conclusions Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on

  13. Dual-Functional Superhydrophobic Textiles with Asymmetric Roll-Down/Pinned States for Water Droplet Transportation and Oil-Water Separation. (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Liao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jing; Chen, Zhonghua; He, Jie; Zeng, Xingrong


    Superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable adhesion from lotus-leaf to rose-petal states have generated much attention for their potential applications in self-cleaning, anti-icing, oil-water separation, microdroplet transportation, and microfluidic devices. Herein we report a facile magnetic-field-manipulation strategy to fabricate dual-functional superhydrophobic textiles with asymmetric roll-down/pinned states on the two surfaces of the textile simultaneously. Upon exposure to a static magnetic field, fluoroalkylsilane-modified iron oxide (F-Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) moved along the magnetic field to construct discrepant hierarchical structures and roughnesses on the two sides of the textile. The positive surface (closer to the magnet, or P-surface) showed a water contact angle up to 165°, and the opposite surface (or O-surface) had a water contact angle of 152.5°. The P-surface where water droplets easily slid off with a sliding angle of 7.5° appeared in the "roll-down" state as Cassie mode, while the O-surface was in the "pinned" state as Wenzel mode, where water droplets firmly adhered even at vertical (90°) and inverted (180°) angles. The surface morphology and wetting mode were adjustable by varying the ratios of F-Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and PDMS. By taking advantage of the asymmetric adhesion behaviors, the as-fabricated superhydrophobic textile was successfully applied in no-loss microdroplet transportation and oil-water separation. Our method is simple and cost-effective. The fabricated textile has the characteristics of superhydrophobicity, magnetic responsiveness, excellent chemical stability, adjustable surface morphology, and controllable adhesion. Our findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate functional superhydrophobic materials with asymmetric surface properties for various potential applications.

  14. Conserved waters mediate structural and functional activation of family A (rhodopsin-like) G protein-coupled receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, T.; Chance, M; Palczewski, K


    G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane {alpha}-helices (GPCRs) comprise the largest receptor superfamily and are involved in detecting a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. The availability of high-resolution crystal structures of five prototypical GPCRs, bovine and squid rhodopsin, engineered A2A-adenosine, {beta}1- and {beta}2-adrenergic receptors, permits comparative analysis of features common to these and likely all GPCRs. We provide an analysis of the distribution of water molecules in the transmembrane region of these GPCR structures and find conserved contacts with microdomains demonstrated to be involved in receptor activation. Colocalization of water molecules associating with highly conserved and functionally important residues in several of these GPCR crystal structures supports the notion that these waters are likely to be as important to proper receptor function as the conserved residues. Moreover, in the absence of large conformational changes in rhodopsin after photoactivation, we propose that ordered waters contribute to the functional plasticity needed to transmit activation signals from the retinal-binding pocket to the cytoplasmic face of rhodopsin and that fundamental features of the mechanism of activation, involving these conserved waters, are shared by many if not all family A receptors.

  15. Meridional displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (United States)

    Gille, Sarah T


    Observed long-term warming trends in the Southern Ocean have been interpreted as a sign of increased poleward eddy heat transport or of a poleward displacement of the entire Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) frontal system. The two-decade-long record from satellite altimetry is an important source of information for evaluating the mechanisms governing these trends. While several recent studies have used sea surface height contours to index ACC frontal displacements, here altimeter data are instead used to track the latitude of mean ACC transport. Altimetric height contours indicate a poleward trend, regardless of whether they are associated with ACC fronts. The zonally averaged transport latitude index shows no long-term trend, implying that ACC meridional shifts determined from sea surface height might be associated with large-scale changes in sea surface height more than with localized shifts in frontal positions. The transport latitude index is weakly sensitive to the Southern Annular Mode, but is uncorrelated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Displacing lateral meniscus masquerading as patella dislocation. (United States)

    Arendt, Elizabeth A; Fontboté, Cristián A; Rohr, Sara R


    To alert the treating clinician to an uncommon knee meniscal condition that often masquerades as a more common patella condition. Retrospective chart review of a series of cases was undertaken. A series of 12 knees in 11 patients were referred to an orthopaedic surgeon with a diagnosis of recurrent lateral patella dislocation. Three knees had undergone patella realignment surgery with continuance of symptoms. Eight patients had prior magnetic resonance images read as no meniscal pathology and no acute patella/patella retinacular injury. All patients presented for a consult with a similar history. Under anaesthesia, all knees had a stable patella as judged by physical examination. At the time of surgery, six patients had a frank tear in the lateral meniscus, all of which were readily displaceable. Six knees showed a displaceable lateral meniscus with attenuation but not a visible frank tear. Ten menisci were treated with repair, and two knees underwent partial lateral meniscectomies. Patient follow-up of minimally 18 months revealed no further episodes of "knee-cap dislocation" or symptoms of catching and locking. The clinician treating a patient with a history of a knee locking in flexion should have a high index of suspicion for a lateral meniscus tear or an unstable hypermobile lateral meniscus, despite patient report of perceived patella movement. History of symptoms occurring in knee flexion and attention to patella physical examination should be key factors in this diagnostic conundrum. Retrospective chart review, Level IV.

  17. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.


    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board.

  18. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the performance of Stirling engine with pendulum type displacer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isshiki, Seita; Isshiki, Naotsugu [Isshiki R and D Lab., Tokyo (Japan); Takanose, Eiichiro; Igawa, Yoshiharu [Shiroki Corp., Toyokawashi (Japan)


    This paper describes the detailed experimental and theoretical performance of new type Stirling engine with pendulum type displacer (PDSE) which was proposed last year. This kind of engine has a pendulum type displacer suspended by the hinge shaft, and swings right and left in displacer space. The present paper mainly discusses the PDSE-3B which is an atmospheric 30[W] engine heated by fuel and cooled by water. It is clear that power required to provide a pendulum type displacer motion is expressed as a simple equation consisting of viscous flow loss term proportional to the square of rotational speed and dynamic pressure loss term proportional to the cube of rotational speed. It is also clear that theoretical engine power defined as the difference between experimental indicated power and power required to provide pendulum type displacer motion agrees well with the experimental engine power. It is also clear that measured Nusselt number of regenerator`s wire meshes agreed with the equation of previous study. In conclusion, PDSE is considered effective for measuring many aspects of performance of the Stirling engine.

  19. Exposure to Lithium and Cesium Through Drinking Water and Thyroid Function During Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Study. (United States)

    Harari, Florencia; Bottai, Matteo; Casimiro, Esperanza; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie


    Impaired thyroid function is a common side effect of lithium medication. Recent data indicate that lithium exposure through drinking water, although providing much lower doses than the medication, may also affect thyroid hormone levels. However, the effects in susceptible groups like pregnant women are not known. In a population-based mother-child cohort in the Argentinean Andes (n = 194), an area with varying concentrations of lithium in the drinking water, we assessed lithium exposure repeatedly during pregnancy by measuring the concentrations in blood using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The markers of thyroid function included thyrotropin (TSH), free/total thyroxine (fT4/T4), free/total triiodothyronine (fT3/T3), thyroglobulin, and transthyretin in serum, sampled at the same time. Multiple potential confounders, including exposure to arsenic, cesium, and boron (elevated in water) as well as selenium and iodine (essential for thyroid function) were considered. The lithium concentrations in blood [median 25 μg/L (0.0036 mmol/L); range 1.9-145 μg/L (0.000027-0.021 mmol/L)] correlated significantly with those in urine and drinking water (rs = 0.84, p lithium (log2 transformed) and TSH concentrations, particularly in the lowest percentiles of TSH (B = 0.20 mIU/L, [95% confidence interval 0.048-0.35] at the fifth percentile). We also found inverse associations of blood lithium with transthyretin, particularly at the highest percentiles, as well as with fT3 and T3, with less obvious variation across percentiles. Unexpectedly, blood cesium concentrations (median 111 μg/L, range 2.5-711 μg/L) were also inversely associated with fT3 and T3, particularly at the highest T3 percentiles, but not with TSH or transthyretin. Arsenic and boron exposure (also through drinking water) did not show any associations with the thyroid parameters. The study supports previous findings that lithium exposure through drinking water may impair

  20. Respiratory Biomechanics, Intrapulmonary Water, and Pulmonary Oxygenizing Function During Uncomplicated Operations under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kozlov


    Full Text Available Objective: to study the time course of changes in the respiratory biomechanics, extravascular water of the lung (EVWL and its oxygenizing function and their relationship at different stages of surgical interventions under extracorporeal circulation (EC. Subjects and methods. 29 patients aged 37 to 72 years were examined during uncomplicated operations under EC. The parameters of artificial ventilation (AV and lung biomechanics were recorded in real time on a Servo-I monitoring apparatus. PaO2/FiO2, Qs/Qt, and body mass index (BMI were calculated. The EVWL index (EVWLI was determined by the transpulmonary thermodilution technique. Studies were conducted at stages: 1 after tracheal intubation and the initiation of AV; 2 before sternotomy; 3 after sternal uniting at the end of surgery. Results. Pressures in the airways and their resistance were statistically significantly unchanged. There were significant reductions in Cdyn and Cst at the end of surgery (Stage 3. The mean values of PaO2/FiO2, Qs/Qt, and EVWLI did not undergo considerable changes. There was a significant correlation between PaO2/FiO2 and Qs/Qt (r=-0.5 to -0.8; p<0.05. At Stage 1, BMI proved to be a significant predictor of the level of PaO2/FiO2 and Qs/Qt (r=-0.5 and 0.65; p<0.05. A significant moderate relationship between Qs/Qt and Cdyn was found at Stage 3 (r=-0.44; p<0.05. There were no statistically significant correlations between the parameters of respiratory biomechanics, PaO2/FiO2, Qs/Qt, and EVWLI. At the end of surgery, pulmonary oxygenizing dysfunction (POD was detected in 5 (17.2% patients with increased BMI. Alveolar mobilization with a steady-state effect was used to correct POD. Conclusion. When cardiac surgery is uncomplicated and the AV and EC protocols are carefully followed, the rate of intraoperative POD is not greater than 20%, its leading causes are obesity and, most likely, microatelectasis under AV. Key words: pulmonary oxygenizing dysfunction