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Sample records for water discharge elbe

  1. Development and adaptation of the ELBIS Elbe river information system into a water quality information system of the ARGE-ELBE working group. Final report; Entwicklung und Anpassung des Elbeinformationssystems ELBIS fuer ein Gewaessergueteinformationssystem der ARGE-ELBE. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, B.; Prange, A.

    2001-07-01

    The geo-information system ELBIS was installed in mid-November 2000 to provide information on the web on Elbe water quality and other information. It presents the current results of the national Elbe monitoring programme of the ARGE Elbe working group, as well as the results of the 'Elbe 2000' programme of the nineties. [German] Das Geo-Informationssystem ELBIS informiert seit November 2000 im Internet ueber die Wasserqualitaet und verwandte Elbe-Themen. Mittels einer geografischen Oberflaeche stellt es die fortlaufenden, aktuellen Ergebnisse der nationalen Elbe-Messprogramme der ARGE Elbe (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe) dar sowie Forschungsdaten aus der 'Elbe 2000'-Schadstoffforschung der neunziger Jahre. Auf einfache und zeitgemaesse Weise macht ELBIS diese Ergebnisse der interessierten Oeffentlichkeit zugaenglich und bietet Fachleuten einen umfassenden Ueberblick ueber die Datenlage. (orig.)

  2. Revising time series of the Elbe river discharge for flood frequency determination at gauge Dresden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bartl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The German research programme RIsk MAnagment of eXtreme flood events has accomplished the improvement of regional hazard assessment for the large rivers in Germany. Here we focused on the Elbe river at its gauge Dresden, which belongs to the oldest gauges in Europe with officially available daily discharge time series beginning on 1 January 1890. The project on the one hand aimed to extend and to revise the existing time series, and on the other hand to examine the variability of the Elbe river discharge conditions on a greater time scale. Therefore one major task were the historical searches and the examination of the retrieved documents and the contained information. After analysing this information the development of the river course and the discharge conditions were discussed. Using the provided knowledge, in an other subproject, a historical hydraulic model was established. Its results then again were used here. A further purpose was the determining of flood frequency based on all pre-processed data. The obtained knowledge about historical changes was also used to get an idea about possible future variations under climate change conditions. Especially variations in the runoff characteristic of the Elbe river over the course of the year were analysed. It succeeded to obtain a much longer discharge time series which contain fewer errors and uncertainties. Hence an optimized regional hazard assessment was realised.

  3. Revising time series of the Elbe river discharge for flood frequency determination at gauge Dresden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, S.; Schümberg, S.; Deutsch, M.

    2009-11-01

    The German research programme RIsk MAnagment of eXtreme flood events has accomplished the improvement of regional hazard assessment for the large rivers in Germany. Here we focused on the Elbe river at its gauge Dresden, which belongs to the oldest gauges in Europe with officially available daily discharge time series beginning on 1 January 1890. The project on the one hand aimed to extend and to revise the existing time series, and on the other hand to examine the variability of the Elbe river discharge conditions on a greater time scale. Therefore one major task were the historical searches and the examination of the retrieved documents and the contained information. After analysing this information the development of the river course and the discharge conditions were discussed. Using the provided knowledge, in an other subproject, a historical hydraulic model was established. Its results then again were used here. A further purpose was the determining of flood frequency based on all pre-processed data. The obtained knowledge about historical changes was also used to get an idea about possible future variations under climate change conditions. Especially variations in the runoff characteristic of the Elbe river over the course of the year were analysed. It succeeded to obtain a much longer discharge time series which contain fewer errors and uncertainties. Hence an optimized regional hazard assessment was realised.

  4. Effects of climate, land use and changes in these on water availability and high water events in Europe. Projects: Effects of climate change on water availability and high water events in Germany and Europe: An integrated analysis. - Water availability and high water discharge (Elbe and Oder rivers) as a function of climate and land use and changes in these. - Modelling of discharge in the upper section of the Oder river in case of extreme high water events.. Joint final report; Auswirkungen des Klimas und der Landnutzung sowie ihrer Aenderungen auf die Wasserverfuegbarkeit und auf Hochwasserereignisse in Europa. Einzelprojekte: Einfluss des Klimawandels auf Wasserverfuegbarkeit und Hochwasser in Deutschland und Europa: eine integrierte Analyse. - Wasserverfuegbarkeit und Hochwasserabfluss (Elbe- und Odergebiet) in Abhaengigkeit von Klima und Landnutzung und deren Aenderungen. - Modellierung des Abflusses im Oberlauf der Oder fuer Extremereignisse. Gemeinsamer Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcamo, J.; Doell, P.; Lehner, B.; Becker, A.; Beckmann, T.; Mengelkamp, H.T.; Sutmoeller, J.

    2001-07-01

    The integrated global water model WaterGAP (macroscale; time step: 1 month) was used for large-scale simulation of the effects of climate change and global change on water availability, high water and low water events and the hydroelectric potential of Germany and Europe, in consideration of long-term scenarios of change. The polygon-based hydrological modelling system ARC/EGMO, with high spatial resolution (mesoscale; time step: 1 day) is used for investigations with high spatial and temporal differentiation of the effects of changes in climate and land use on discharge in river catchment areas of different sizes, i.e. with different degrees of complexity of modelling. The investigations focused on the Elbe and Oder region. The development of high water events as in July 1997 on the upper section of the Oder river is investigated in detail using the complex, high-resolution model system GESIMA/SEWAB/TOPMODEL (mesoscale; time step: 1 hour) [German] Das integrierte globale Wassermodell WaterGAP (makroskalig, Zeitschritt: 1 Monaten) wird zur grossskaligen Simulation der Auswirkungen von Klimaaenderungen und Globalem Wandel auf die Wasserverfuegbarkeit (Wasserdargebot und Wassernutzung), auf die Hoch- und Niedrigwasserhaeufigkeiten und auf das Wasserkraftpotential in Deutschland und Europa unter Verwendung langfristiger Aenderungszenarien eingesetzt. Das raeumlich hochaufloesende, polygonbasiert arbeitende hydrologische Modellierungssystem ARC/EGMO (mesoskalig, Zeitschritt: 1 Tag) wird zur raeumlich und zeitlich differenzierten Untersuchung der Auswirkungen von Klima- und Landnutzungsaenderungen auf das Abflussverhalten in Flussgebieten unterschiedlicher Groesse eingesetzt, wobei der Modellierungsaufwand entsprechend hoeher ist. Im Rahmen des Projektverbunds erfolgt die Anwendung im Elbe- oder Odergebiet. Mithilfe des komplexen, hochaufloesenden Modellsystems GESIMA/SEWAB/TOPMODEL (mesoskalig, Zeitschritt: 1 Stunde und kleiner) wird die Entstehung von Hochwasser

  5. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - multi-element analysis of water samples from the Elbe and selected tributaries; Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - Multielementanalysen von Wasserproben der Elbe und ausgewaehlter Nebenfluesse. Laengsprofilbeprobung vom September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, F.; Berger, H. [Umweltbehoerde Hamburg (Germany). Amt fuer Umweltschutz, Umweltuntersuchungen; Aulinger, A.; Stachel, B.; Reincke, H. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    This special report focuses on measurements of elements whose scope goes far beyond the routine monitoring for metals. The present studies are intended to extend the existing knowledge on the pollution situation of the Elbe and certain of its tributaries as well as provide a basis for formulating future guidelines for action. The first step towards this goal is sampling by means of an helicopter. The sampling is followed by a very involved and costly analysis programme, accompanied by extensive quality assurance measures. This is the only way of reliably analysing a large number of elements occurring in extremely low concentrations. Once the data have been recorded the question arises how they are to be evaluated. What schemes are suitable for categorising a large number of elements measured in either the suspended matter or the water compartment? What elements are to be regarded as the result of anthropogenic influences and what are their respective background concentrations in the fluvial system under study? These questions are approached by means of statistical methods which permit identifying elemental patterns and pollution sources as well as optimising the selection of measuring points for future studies. [German] In diesem Sonderbericht steht die Bestimmung von Elementen, die in ihrem Umfang ueber die routinemaessig erfassten Metalle deutlich hinausgeht, im Vordergrund. Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen sollen das bereits vorhandene Wissen zur Beschreibung der Immissionssituation der Elbe und von bestimmten Nebenfluessen erweitern, verbunden mit der Moeglichkeit, zukuenftige Handlungsmaximen zu erarbeiten. Zur Erreichung dieses Ziels steht zu Beginn die Probenahme mit einem Helicopter. Im Anschluss an die Probenahme folgt eine sehr aufwendige und teure Analytik, die begleitet wird von umfassenden Massnahmen zur Qualitaetssicherung. Nur so ist es moeglich, eine grosse Vielzahl von Elementen in extrem niedrigen Konzentrationen sicher analysieren zu koennen. Sind

  6. Polyfluorinated compounds in waste water treatment plant effluents and surface waters along the River Elbe, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Lutz; Felizeter, Sebastian; Sturm, Renate; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2009-09-01

    Polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and surface waters of the River Elbe from samples collected in 2007. Concentrations of various PFCs, including C(4)-C(8) perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), C(6) and C(8) perfluorinated sulfinates, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate, C(5)-C(13) perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), C(4) and C(8) perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides and 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 unsaturated fluorotelomercarboxylic acids were quantified. Sum PFC concentrations of the river water ranged from 7.6 to 26.4ngL(-1), whereas sum PFC concentrations of WWTP effluents were approximately 5-10 times higher (30.5-266.3ngL(-1)), indicating that WWTPs are potential sources of PFCs in the marine environment. PFC patterns of different WWTP effluents varied depending on the origin of the waste water, whereas the profile of PFC composition in the river water was relatively constant. In both kinds of water samples, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the major PFC, whereas perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) was the predominant PFSA.

  7. Institutional design and regime effectiveness in transboundary river management - the Elbe water quality regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowsky, I.

    2008-02-01

    The literature on transboundary river management suggests that institutions play an important role in bringing about cooperation. However, knowledge about how such institutions should be designed in order to do so remains limited. One way to learn more about adequate institutional design is to assess the effectiveness of existing regimes, and to trace the causal relationships that lead to the respective outcomes. In order to gain further insights into the relationship between institutional design and regime effectiveness, this paper presents a study on the water quality regime of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE). The analysis is based on a review of pertinent documents and ten qualitative interviews with Czech and German Commission members and NGO representatives. Particular emphasis has been put on determining the ICPE's specific contribution and the no-regime counterfactual as well as on the perceived expediency of the institutional arrangements. The study shows overall that the countries were relatively successful in improving water quality in the Elbe basin. However, this outcome can only partly be attributed to the ICPE itself. Furthermore, the ICPE's contribution towards achieving the various goals varied significantly between the different areas of activity: it was relatively significant where the main responsibility for action lay with the public authorities, such as in the area of wastewater treatment and the establishment of an international alarm plan and model, but was practically non-existent in the reduction of non-point pollution from agriculture, where success depended on the behavior of individual private actors (farmers). The commission contributed towards problem solving by serving as a forum for the joint identification of priorities for action from a basin-wide perspective. The resulting international obligations increased the power of national water administrations and their access to funds. At the same time

  8. Institutional design and regime effectiveness in transboundary river management – the Elbe water quality regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dombrowsky

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature on transboundary river management suggests that institutions play an important role in bringing about cooperation. However, knowledge about how such institutions should be designed in order to do so remains limited. One way to learn more about adequate institutional design is to assess the effectiveness of existing regimes, and to trace the causal relationships that lead to the respective outcomes. In order to gain further insights into the relationship between institutional design and regime effectiveness, this paper presents a study on the water quality regime of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The analysis is based on a review of pertinent documents and ten qualitative interviews with Czech and German Commission members and NGO representatives. Particular emphasis has been put on determining the ICPE's specific contribution and the no-regime counterfactual as well as on the perceived expediency of the institutional arrangements. The study shows overall that the countries were relatively successful in improving water quality in the Elbe basin. However, this outcome can only partly be attributed to the ICPE itself. Furthermore, the ICPE's contribution towards achieving the various goals varied significantly between the different areas of activity: it was relatively significant where the main responsibility for action lay with the public authorities, such as in the area of wastewater treatment and the establishment of an international alarm plan and model, but was practically non-existent in the reduction of non-point pollution from agriculture, where success depended on the behavior of individual private actors (farmers. The commission contributed towards problem solving by serving as a forum for the joint identification of priorities for action from a basin-wide perspective. The resulting international obligations increased the power of national water administrations and their access to funds

  9. Fipronil and two of its transformation products in water and European eel from the river Elbe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, N; Freese, M; Brinkmann, M; Pohlmann, J-D; Hollert, H; Kammann, U; Haarich, M; Theobald, N; Gerwinski, W; Rotard, W; Hanel, R

    2016-10-15

    Fipronil is an insecticide which, based on its mode of action, is intended to be predominantly toxic towards insects. Fipronil bioaccumulates and some of its transformation products were reported to be similar or even more stable in the environment and to show an enhanced toxicity against non-target organisms compared to the parent compound. The current study investigated the occurrence of Fipronil and two of its transformation products, Fipronil-desulfinyl and Fipronil-sulfone, in water as well as muscle and liver samples of eels from the river Elbe (Germany). In water samples total concentrations of FIP, FIP-d and FIP-s ranged between 0.5-1.6ngL(-1) with FIP being the main component in all water samples followed by FIP-s and FIP-d. In contrast, FIP-s was the main component in muscle and liver tissues of eels with concentrations of 4.05±3.73ngg(-1) ww and 19.91±9.96ngg(-1) ww, respectively. Using a physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model for moderately hydrophobic organic chemicals, the different distributions of FIP, FIP-d and FIP-s in water and related tissue samples could be attributed to metabolic processes of eels. The measured concentrations in water of all analytes and their fractional distribution did not reflect the assumed seasonal application of FIP and it seems that the water was constantly contaminated with FIP, FIP-d and FIP-s. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection and assessment of micropollutants in the river Elbe. Part project 3: Relevant organic substances for drinking water. Final report; Erfassung und Beurteilung der Belastung der Elbe mit Schadstoffen. Teilprojekt 3: Trinkwasserrelevante Organika. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, H.J.; Bethmann, D.; Fichtner, S.; Klinger, J.; Mueller, U.; Pietsch, J.; Sacher, F.; Schmidt, W.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this research program was the detection and the assessment of micropollutants in the river Elbe, which are recalcitrant and weak adsorbable. Moreover, studies were conducted to determine the recalcitrant and weak adsorbable fraction of substances, measured as sum parameters such as DOC, AOX or IOS, continuing experiments of another research project of the German Research Ministry, registered under WT 9148/5. Sampling of river water was carried out at several places from Monday to Friday over a period of 2 years. Before analysis, samples taken over a period of one month were mixed to avoid short term variations which are typical for surface waters. The analytical program combines measurements with GC and HPLC and technological experiments such as biological degradation and adsorption. The study includes the determination of aromatic sulfonates, chelating agents, chloroacetic acids and pesticides such as phenoxyalkanoic acids and nitrophenol herbicides, which are thought to be recalcitrant and weak adsorbable. Chealting agents such as EDTA, NTA and DTPA were detected in every sample of river Elbe. EDTA and DTPA were considered as substances passing the treatment steps in a waterworks easily. Nineteen different aromatic sulfonates, mostly naphthalene sulfonates, were identified in Elbe water samples. Five of them were insufficient removed in a waterworks. A dependence was found between the structure of the micropollutant and the biological degradability. A new analytical method, based on HPLC/FLD and GC/MS-measurements after pre-enrichment derivatization by FMOC-Cl and TCECF, was developed to determine the occurrence of aliphatic amines in the river Elbe. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das Forschungsvorhaben befasste sich mit der Erfassung und Bewertung von biologisch resistenten und zudem schlecht adsorbierbaren Einzelsubstanzen im Elbewasser. Ausserdem wurden Untersuchungen aus dem Forschungsprogramm WT 9148/5 weitergefuehrt, bei denen die Ermittlung der

  11. Methane distribution and methane oxidation in the water column of the Elbe estuary, Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušů, Anna; Osudar, R.; Šimek, Karel; Bussmann, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 3 (2017), s. 443-458 ISSN 1015-1621 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : estuary * methane * methane budget * ethane oxidation * River Elbe Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.821, year: 2016

  12. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - endocrineously active substances in the Elbe, its tributaries and the North Sea; Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - Endokrin wirksame Stoffe in der Elbe, in Nebenfluessen und in der Nordsee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemken, O.P. [GALAB, Geesthacht (Germany); Theobald, N. [Bundesamt fuer Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie, Hamburg (Germany); Hebbel, H. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Hamburg (Germany); Stachel, B. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Endocrineously active substances are discharged into surface bodies of water with communal and industrial effluents. Especially estrogenic substances like Bisphenol A, alkyl phenols and alkyl phenol ethoxylates in the Elbe and its tributaries have been neglected so far. In the context of an interdisciplinary project, chemists, biologists and mathematicians investigated the concentrations and fate of these xenoestrogens, relative potential effects of unknown water constituents and quantitative statistical mechanisms based on the available analytical findings. The contribution intends to contribute information on the pollutant situation of selected endocrineously active substances in the Elbe and its tributaries. [German] Ein relevanter Eintragspfad fuer endokrin wirksame Stoffe in die Oberflaechengewaesser sind die Abwaesser kommunaler und industrieller Klaeranlagen. Insbesondere das Vorkommen und der Verbleib von oestrogen wirkenden Stoffen wie Bisphenol A, den Alkylphenolen und Alkylphenolethoxylaten in der Elbe und in Elbenebenfluessen wurde bisher zu wenig Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. In einem interdisziplinaeren Projekt, an dem sich Chemiker, Biologen und Mathematiker beteiligten, wird versucht, eine erste Antwort zu geben ueber das Vorkommen und den Verbleib dieser Xenooestrogene, ueber relative Wirkpotenzen von unbekannten Wasserinhaltsstoffen durch die Anwendung von In-vitro-Tests und ueber quantitative statistische Zusammenhaenge, die auf vorhandenen Analysenergebnissen basieren. Dieser Bericht soll einen Beitrag leisten zur Immissionssituation von ausgewaehlten endokrin wirksamen Stoffen in der Elbe und in Elbenebenfluessen. (orig.)

  13. Flood Plain Lakes Along the Elbe River - a Forgotten Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Flood Plain Lakes Along the Elbe River - a Forgotten Risk Introduction: Along the German part of the Elbe River, more than 1000 "side structures" form potential sinks of contaminated sediment. They are mostly remains of previous river courses which have been cut off by natural causes or anthropogenic alterations of the river (oxbow lakes), or are floodplain lakes that were formed during high water conditions. These water bodies sometimes have a small opening towards the Elbe, or are hydrodynamically connected only in situations of high discharges. High discharges in the Elbe River, however, are mainly responsible for transporting historic contaminants along with suspended matter from former historic sources in the middle Elbe downstream. As these may settle when the current dies down at the end of a high discharge period, side structures have been under suspicion to have accumulated contaminated material over the last decades. Until this study was conducted, nothing was known about erodibility and contamination of sediment in these lakes even though they could have a large impact on the Elbe River itself: A preliminary investigation showed that the total surface of side structures in the Elbe floodplain adds up to about 50 km2. In case that deposited sediment is contaminated and only the upper 20 cm are prone to resuspension and transport during flooding, 10 Mio m3 of contaminated sediment could potentially be added to the contaminant load during a high water event. This study was carried out to evaluate the risk from these side structures for the environmental quality of the Elbe River. Methods: 15 side structures were investigated. Sediment cores were taken on 1 to 3 locations per water body in order to obtain the following information: • Depth of sediment layer • Erodibility of surface sediment, measured immediately after sampling - using the "Gust Microcosm", • Eroded mass at over-critical shear stress, measured in the lab by eroding a sediment core for

  14. Comparison of balance of tritium activity in waste water from nuclear power plants and at selected monitoring sites in the Vltava River, Elbe River and Jihlava (Dyje) River catchments in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslík, Eduard; Marešová, Diana; Juranová, Eva; Sedlářová, Barbora

    2017-12-01

    During the routine operation, nuclear power plants discharge waste water containing a certain amount of radioactivity, whose main component is the artificial radionuclide tritium. The amounts of tritium released into the environment are kept within the legal requirements, which minimize the noxious effects of radioactivity, but the activity concentration is well measurable in surface water of the recipient. This study compares amount of tritium activity in waste water from nuclear power plants and the tritium activity detected at selected relevant sites of surface water quality monitoring. The situation is assessed in the catchment of the Vltava and Elbe Rivers, affected by the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant as well as in the Jihlava River catchment (the Danube River catchment respectively), where the waste water of the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant is discharged. The results show a good agreement of the amount of released tritium stated by the power plant operator and the tritium amount detected in the surface water and highlighted the importance of a robust independent monitoring of tritium discharged from a nuclear power plant which could be carried out by water management authorities. The outputs of independent monitoring allow validating the values reported by a polluter and expand opportunities of using tritium as e.g. tracer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A two-step approach to investigate the effect of rating curve uncertainty in the Elbe decision support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, YuePing; Holzhauer, Harriette; Booij, Martijn J.; Sun, Hong-yue; Sun, H.

    2008-01-01

    For river basin management, the reliability of the rating curves mainly depends on the accuracy and time period of the observed discharge and water level data. In the Elbe decision support system (DSS), the rating curves are combined with the HEC-6 model to investigate the effects of river

  16. The herbicide Glyphosate affects nitrification in the Elbe estuary, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Tina; Lassen, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The Elbe River is one of the biggest European rivers discharging into the North Sea. It also transports high amounts of nutrients and pollutants like pesticides. Important source regions of both nutrients and pollutants are located within the river catchment, which is dominated by agricultural land-use. From these agricultural soils, pesticides can be carried via the river and estuary into the North Sea. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and mainly used to regulate unwanted plant growth and for the expedition of crop ripening. In Germany, ~ 6000 tons of glyphosate are applied yearly in agriculture and private use. Glyphosate is degradable by microorganisms and has a half-life in water of 35 to 60 days. This herbicide specifically inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria, which play an important role in the internal nitrogen cycling in the Elbe estuary, also possess this enzyme. The aim of our study was to quantify the concentration of glyphosate in water and sediment samples of the Elbe to get an overview about relevant environmental levels and to assess the impact of glyphosate on inhibition of nitrifying activities. To quantify the effect of glyphosate on nitrification activity, natural samples as well as pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europea (strain Nm50) were incubated with different concentrations of glyphosate over a period of some weeks. The nitrifying activity was determined according to changes of the nitrite and nitrate concentration as well as the cell number. Glyphosate was detectable in water and sediment samples in the Elbe estuary with up to 5 ppb mainly in the Port of Hamburg region. In both incubation experiments an inhibiting effect of glyphosate on nitrification could be shown. The incubated natural water sample was affected by a glyphosate

  17. Long-term operational experiences in the preparation of river Elbe water to boiler feedwater with membrane processes; Langzeitbetriebserfahrungen bei der Aufbereitung von Elbewasser zu Kesselspeisewasser mit Membranverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Juergen [OSMO Membrane Systems GmbH, Korntal-Muenchingen (Germany); Batram, Juergen; Portner, Ronny [Aurubis AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    In Hamburg/Germany, the Aurubis AG (formerly Norddeutsche Affinerie) operates an industrial power plant to generate electricity and steam. For the past ten years, the annual demand of boiler feedwater (350,000 m{sup 3}) has been obtained with an economical water treatment plant based on membrane processes directly from the river Elbe. The water treatment plant called NAqua built uses roughly pre-filtered river water. The produced water quality corresponds to the requirements of the current VGB-Standard 450 'Feedwater, Boiler Water and Steam Quality for Power Plants/Industrial Plants'. Since August 2002, the water treatment plant has been successfully in operation, and based on the described technique it belongs to the least recently operating plants in Germany. (orig.)

  18. Applying of Indicator Vertebrate Species to Environmental Assessment in the Landscape: Danube – Oder – Elbe Water Canal in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poprach Karel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess potential impact of construction of the Danube - Oder - Elbe (DOL water canal on populations of vertebrate species - amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals - and present using these species as bioindicators on landscape level. For analysis of the data, the canal route was divided into smaller sections which were assessed separately. The following criteria were analysed: 1 current occurrence of target vertebrate species, 2 identification of species affected by canal construction, including evaluation of their numbers, 3 identification of affected species protected by Czech legislation, 4 identification of affected species protected by EU legislation, 5 impact assessment of the DOL project on Special Protection Areas (SPAs and Special Areas of Conservation (SACs, 6 data synthesis and impact assessment of the DOL vertebrates in the particular catchment areas. It is apparent that the most important negative impacts on vertebrate populations and their habitats in case of implementation of the DOL plan can be expected in the following sections of the Morava river: Hodonín - Břeclav, Kroměříž - Otrokovice, Veselí na Moravě - Hodonín, Troubky - Kroměříž, Doubravice - Střelice; of the Oder river: Jeseník nad Odrou - Ostrava, Ostrava - state border; and of the Elbe river: Česká Třebová - Pardubice. In case of construction of the DOL canal, disturbance, damage or loss of vertebrate habitats will occur at least at 6 out of 9 studied sections in the Morava catchment area, at 3 of 4 sections in the Oder catchment area and at 2 of 3 sections in the Elbe catchment area.

  19. Water purification by electrical discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Malik, Muhammad; Ghaffar, Abdul; Akbar Malik, Salman

    2001-02-01

    There is a continuing need for the development of effective, cheap and environmentally friendly processes for the disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants from water. Ozonation processes are now replacing conventional chlorination processes because ozone is a stronger oxidizing agent and a more effective disinfectant without any side effects. However, the fact that the cost of ozonation processes is higher than chlorination processes is their main disadvantage. In this paper recent developments targeted to make ozonation processes cheaper by improving the efficiency of ozone generation, for example, by incorporation of catalytic packing in the ozone generator, better dispersion of ozone in water and faster conversion of dissolved ozone to free radicals are described. The synthesis of ozone in electrical discharges is discussed. Furthermore, the generation and plasma chemical reactions of several chemically active species, such as H2O2, Obullet, OHbullet, HO2bullet, O3*, N2*, e-, O2-, O-, O2+, etc, which are produced in the electrical discharges are described. Most of these species are stronger oxidizers than ozone. Therefore, water treatment by direct electrical discharges may provide a means to utilize these species in addition to ozone. Much research and development activity has been devoted to achieve these targets in the recent past. An overview of these techniques and important developments that have taken place in this area are discussed. In particular, pulsed corona discharge, dielectric barrier discharge and contact glow discharge electrolysis techniques are being studied for the purpose of cleaning water. The units based on electrical discharges in water or close to the water level are being tested at industrial-scale water treatment plants.}

  20. Site profiles of low-volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons - cause-oriented monitoring in aquatic media. Vol.2. Low-volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in surface water, sediments, suspended matter and fish of the Elbe river and its tributaries; Standortprofile schwerfluechtiger chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe (SCKW) - ursachenorientiertes Monitoring in aquatischen Medien. Bd. 2. SCKW in Oberflaechenwasser, Sediment, Schwebstoffen und Fischen aus der Elbe und Nebenfluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, E.; Kettrup, A.; Gebefuegi, I.; Martens, D.; Bergheim, W.; Wenzel, S.

    2001-07-01

    Evaluating the primary data from ARGE ELBE, LAU Halle/Saale and the Environmental Specimen Banking (Umweltprobenbank) as well from publications from the Czech Republic (CHMU) the concentrations of the following low volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons were established for surface water, sediment, breams and eels from the rivers Elbe, Schwarze Elster, Mulde and Saale partly from 1989 till 1999: DDT and its metabolites DDE and DDD, partly as 2,4'- and 4,4' isomers; HCH ({alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and {delta} isomers); chlorinated benzenes with 1-6 Cl atoms and octachlorostyrene. The data evaluated were drawn up into tables - comprehensive in a separate supplement, in short versions within the text - and consolidated into graphs. Aim of the paper was a cause-oriented monitoring. The by far most important emission sources, found from the distance and time profiles as well as from special assessments of the substance patterns, were chemical plants. (orig.) [German] Durch Auswertung von Primaerdaten der ARGE ELBE, des LAU Halle/Saale und der Umweltprobenbank sowie von Publikationen aus Tschechien (CHMU) wurden fuer Oberflaechenwasser, Sediment, Brassen/Bleien und Aale aus der Elbe, Schwarzen Elster, Mulde und Saale fuer die Jahre von z.T. 1989 bis 1999 die Konzentrationen der folgenden schwerfluechtigen Kohlenwasserstoffe (SCKW) ermittelt: DDT und seine Metabolite DDE und DDD, z.T. als 2,4'- und 4,4'-Isomere; HCH ({alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- und {delta}-Isomere); chlorierte Benzole mit 1-6 Cl-Atomen und Octachlorstyrol. Die ausgewerteten Daten wurden zu Tabellen - ausfuehrlich in einem gesonderten Tabellenanhang und verkuerzt im Textteil - zusammengestellt sowie zu Grafiken verdichtet. Ziel der Arbeit war ein ursachenorientiertes Monitoring. Als mit Abstand wesentlichste Emissionsquellen konnten anhand von Streckenprofilen und Zeitrastern sowie durch spezielle Auswertungen der Stoffmusterverteilungen Chemibetriebe ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  1. Non-storm water discharges technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, S.

    1994-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) submitted a Notice of Intent to the California State Water Resources Control Board (hereafter State Board) to discharge storm water associated with industrial activities under the California General Industrial Activity Storm Water National Pollutant Elimination System Discharge Permit (hereafter General Permit). As required by the General Permit, LLNL provided initial notification of non-storm water discharges to the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (hereafter Regional Board) on October 2, 1992. Additional findings and progress towards corrective actions were reported in subsequent annual monitoring reports. LLNL was granted until March 27, 1995, three years from the Notice of Intent submission date, to eliminate or permit the non-storm water discharges. On May 20, 1994, the Regional Board issued Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR Board Order No. 94-131, NPDES No. CA0081396) to LLNL for discharges of non-contact cooling tower wastewater and storm water related to industrial activities. As a result of the issuance of WDR 94-131, LLNL rescinded its coverage under the General Permit. WDR 94-131 allowed continued non-storm water discharges and requested a technical report describing the discharges LLNL seeks to permit. For the described discharges, LLNL anticipates the Regional Board will either waive Waste Discharge Requirements as allowed for in The Water Quality Control Plan for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region (hereafter Basin Plan) or amend Board Order 94-131 as appropriate.

  2. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  3. The significance of sediment contamination in the Elbe River floodplain (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupová, Dagmar; Janský, Bohumír; Langhammer, Jakub; Šobr, Miroslav; Jiři, Medek; Král, Stanislav; Jiřinec, Petr; Kaiglova, Jana; Černý, Michal; Žáček, Miroslav; Leontovyčova, Drahomíra; Halířová, Jarmila

    2015-04-01

    The abstract brings the information about the research that was focused on anthropogenic pollution of river and lake sediments in the middle course of the Elbe River (Czech Republic). The main aim was to identify and to evaluate the significance of old polluted sediments in the river and its side structures (old meanders, cut lakes, oxbow lakes) between Hradec Králové and Mělník (confluence with the Moldau River) and to assess the risk coming from the remobilization of the contaminated matter. The Elbe River floodplain has been highly inhabited since the Middle Ages, and, especially in the 20th century, major industrial plants were founded here. Since that time, the anthropogenic load of the river and it`s floodplain has grown. Although the contaminants bound to the sediment particles are usually stable, the main risk is coming from the fact that under changes in hydrological regime and water quality (floods, changes in pH, redox-potential, presence of complex substances etc.), the pollution can be released and remobilized again. The most endangered areas are: the surroundings of Pardubice (chemical factory Synthesia, Inc.; refinery PARAMO), and Neratovice (chemical factory Spolana, Inc.). The chemical factories situated close to these towns represented the most problematic polluters of the Elbe River especially during 2nd half of 20th century. In the research, the main attention was aimed at subaquatic sediments of selected cut lakes situated in the vicinity of the above mentioned sources of pollution. To describe the outreach of contamination, several further fluvial lakes were taken into account too. Sediment sampling was carried out from boats on lakes and with the help of drilling rig in the floodplain. Gained sediment cores were divided into several parts which were analysed separately. Chemical analyses included substances identified by ICPER (International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River) as well as chemicals considered as significant in

  4. Assessment of Hydrologic Alterations in Elbe and Rhine Rivers, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Madlene Pfeiffer; Monica Ionita

    2017-01-01

    In light of recent anthropogenic-induced climate change, a burning question at present is how these changes influence the water regime of rivers, which are of vital importance for humans as well as for biota. In this study, we investigate the changes in the hydrologic regime of two major German rivers, Elbe and Rhine, after the middle of the 20th century. Here, we use the widely adopted Range of Variability Approach (RVA) method on daily streamflow data from five (Elbe) and seven ...

  5. Characterisation of pulsed discharge in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocik, Marek; Dors, Miroslaw; Podlinski, Janusz; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Kanazawa, Seiji; Ichiki, Ryuta; Sato, Takehiko

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, Schlieren photography technique has been applied for the visualization of the pressure field of a single-shot underwater pulsed discharge. A needle-to-plane electrode configuration submerged in distilled water was used. The detailed time- and space-resolved images of both streamers and pressure waves were captured. As a result, several phenomena, such as the phase change prior to the initiation of the discharge, primary and secondary streamers propagation, shock wave generation, and the bubble formation, were observed. From these observations, a scenario of multiple events from prebreakdown to post-discharge was proposed. The gas bubbles generated in discharge were used to visualize the electrohydrodynamic flow induced by the discharge. This work was presented on the occasion of the 13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII).

  6. Enhanced Primary Production, and Altered Biogeochemical Patterns in the German Bight in Response to the Extreme June 2013 Elbe Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voynova, Y. G.; Petersen, W.; Brix, H.

    2016-02-01

    Due to a number of well documented and unusual atmospheric conditions, the late-spring of 2013 in Central and Eastern Europe was colder and wetter than usual, with saturated soils and higher than average cumulative precipitation. Additional precipitation at the end of May, and beginning of June 2013, caused widespread floods within the Danube and Elbe Rivers, and billions of euros in damages. Within the Elbe watershed, the discharge generated under these conditions was the largest among all summer floods and the second largest on record over the last 140 years (based on daily discharges). The high-frequency monitoring network of the Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) captured the influence of this major freshwater influx on the German Bight. Data from an Elbe Estuary (Cuxhaven) monitoring station, and from a FerryBox aboard a ferry travelling between Büsum and Helgoland, documented the salinity changes in the German Bight, which persisted for a month after the peak river discharge. The flood generated a large influx of dissolved and particulate organic carbon, associated with the freshwater plume, while surface dissolved oxygen between Büsum and Helgoland became undersaturated (not typical for the summer). The Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) also reported unusually high nutrient concentrations in the German Bight caused by the flood. These conditions subsequently generated a month-long chlorophyll bloom, prolonged dissolved oxygen supersaturation, and higher than usual surface water pH within the German Bight. In the context of predicted increase in frequency of extreme discharge events due to climate change, the June 2013 flood-related biogeochemical changes could become more ubiquitous in the future, and should be considered in management and modeling efforts.

  7. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  8. Effects of climate, land use and changes in these on water availability and high water events in Europe. Sub-projects: Effects of climate change on water availability and high water in Germany and Europe: An integrated analysis. - Water availability and high water discharge (Elbe and Oder rivers) as a function of climate and land use and changes in these. - Modelling of discharge in the upper section of the Oder river in case of extreme high water events.. Final report; Auswirkungen des Klimas und der Landnutzung sowie ihrer Aenderungen auf die Wasserverfuegbarkeit und auf Hochwasserereignisse in Europa. Einfluss des Klimawandels auf Wasserverfuegbarkeit und Hochwasser in Deutschland und Europa: eine integrierte Analyse - EuroWasser. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcamo, J.; Doell, P.; Lehner, B.

    2001-06-01

    The EuroWater project led to further development, improvement, and validation of the integrated global water model WaterGAP. WaterGAP 2 is a model that, being unique in its kind, allows to calculate both water abstractions and water availability in a consistent manner on a grid-, watershed-, and country-scale. Combined with scenario analysis, WaterGAP provides a valuable tool to assess the impacts of Global Change upon water resource systems on the continental and global scale. The project's first phase allowed for important modifications and refining of the WaterGAP model and it's applications. In particular, the previous concept of 'water criticality' (i.e. stress on water resources) was re-defined, taking both water availability and water withdrawals into account. Additionally, new concepts were developed on how the effects of Global Change on flood and drought frequencies as well as on hydropower generation can be assessed. In these fields of research, applying consistent model-based approaches for macro-scale analyses was breaking new ground in science. The results may support the evaluation of risk- and conflict-potentials both on a national and an international level, and can thus be especially interesting for political decision-makers. (orig.) [German] Im durchgefuehrten Vorhaben wurde, auf bestehenden Grundlagen aufbauend, eine Verbesserung, Weiterentwicklung und Validierung des integrierten globalen Wassermodells WaterGAP erreicht. WaterGAP 2 stellt ein einzigartiges Modell zur Berechnung des Wasserdargebots und der Wassernutzung sowohl auf Zell-, Einzugsgebiets- und Laenderebene dar, das es erlaubt, die Folgen des Globalen Wandels auf die Ressource Wasser auf kontinentalem und globalem Massstab abzuschaetzen. Im Vorhaben wurden zunaechst bestehende Anwendungskonzepte von WaterGAP modifiziert und verfeinert, insbesondere die Berechnung der Wasserkritikalitaet (Wasserstress) und ihre Aenderung fuer Europa, berechnet aus dem Verhaeltnis

  9. Cellular Electronic Logbook cELB Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ELB program provides data on Gulf shrimp fishing effort that is critical to the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council) and NOAA Fisheries in...

  10. Substrate origin and morphology differentially determine oxygen dynamics in two major European estuaries, the Elbe and the Schelde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, L.; Cox, T. J. S.; Maris, T.; Wolfstein, K.; Meire, P.; Soetaert, K.

    2017-05-01

    The expansion of oxygen minimum zones (OMZ's) in estuaries can be harmful for ecology and economy, prompting the demand for expensive measures. Here we look at the oxygen dynamics in two northern temperate European estuaries, the Schelde (The Netherlands/Belgium) and the Elbe (Germany) and analysed data from the period of 2004-2009. The Schelde is characterized by two zones of increased oxygen consumption; the Elbe shows one zone of increased oxygen consumption. Despite reduction in biochemical oxygen demand in both estuaries, oxygen conditions improved in the Schelde estuary, while the oxygen minimum zone persisted in the Elbe estuary. To understand these different oxygen dynamics, we applied a one-dimensional reactive transport model to both estuaries. In the Schelde we found low oxygen concentrations to be related to organic matter and ammonium input from the major tributaries. In the Elbe, additionally to a high input of organic matter from upstream, oxygen dynamics were influenced by abrupt changes in estuarine morphology. Next, the origin of the organic matter substrate differs between the two estuaries. In the Elbe, the organic matter imported is mostly composed of algal die-off produced in the Elbe River upstream. In the Schelde the organic matter and ammonium input is mostly related to sewage input of anthropogenic origin. This implies that waste water treatment will be more effective to remediate hypoxia related problems in the Schelde than in the Elbe.

  11. Discharge of water containing waste emanating from land to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    Abstract. The National Water Act, 1998 (Act 36 of 1998) mandates the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry to manage all water ... ground rules and management framework that will be applied to the discharge of land-derived wastewater to the marine ..... inventory of waste discharges to the marine environment, both in.

  12. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - selected organic trace pollutants in the Elbe and its tributaries 1994-1999; Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - Ausgewaehlte organische Spurenverunreinigungen in der Elbe und Elbenebenfluessen im Zeitraum 1994 - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fooken, C.; Stachel, B.; Reincke, H. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    The present report contains results on the occurrence of polar and nonpolar substances in the Elbe and selected tributaries which were analysed in the period from 1994 to 1999. It shows that industrial and municipal purification plants still have an insufficient cleaning capacity for certain substances. The process by which ubiquitous pollutants can enter the Elbe via a small, widely ramified fluvial system is exemplified for the family of chloroalkyl phosphates. These mainly occur in flame retardants and plasticisers in polyurethanes. The paper also presents results from a selection of 28 substances listed in Directive 76/464/ECC. They provide a decision aid for the planning of future measuring concepts based on the EU Water Framework Directive. In the ARGE ELBE programme organic pollutants are recorded and published on a routine basis. These are mostly nonpolar substances such as the well-known polychlorinated biphenyls or slow-evaporating insecticidal chlorinated hydrocarbons such as DTT. Recent analysis results show that this group of substances is relevant now as before and that it will remain so for the years to come. Special studies involving aqueous phase measurements were performed on a different group of substances, namely polar substances, which are generally readily soluble. The substances on which this report is chiefly focused originate from different sources: industrial and municipal effluents, diffuse inputs from agriculture and atmospheric depositions. In many cases they are difficultly degradable and could attain significance where river water in the form of river bank filtrate is used for drinking water production. However, due to complex and effective purification technologies they rarely enter drinking water. [German] Der vorliegende Bericht enthaelt Ergebnisse zum Vorkommen polarer und unpolarer Stoffe in der Elbe und in ausgewaehlten Nebenfluessen, die in dem Zeitraum von 1994 bis 1999 analysiert worden sind. Er zeigt, dass fuer einzelne

  13. Numerical modelling of fine-grained sediments remobilization in heavily polluted streams. Case study: Elbe and Bílina River, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiglová, Jana; Langhammer, Jakub; Jiřinec, Petr; Janský, Bohumír; Chalupová, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    The study aimed to estimate remobilization of channel and riparian cohesive sediment of streams, heavily polluted by industrial emmissions. There were analyzed four stream stretches in Czech Republic: (1) Elbe River from Usti nad Labem to the boundary with Germany; (2) Bílina river, draining industrial and mining areas of Northwest Bohemia; (3) Midstream reach of Czech Elbe by the confluence with Vltava river, affected by chemical industry and (4) fluvial lakes in the riparian zone of Czech Elbe river downstream of Pardubice burdened by old loads from heavy chemical industry. Sediments of clay and silt character bedded in the riparian water-courses are regarded heavily polluted by wide range of toxic matters. In the sediment samples, there were found elevated concentrations of persistent organic matters (DDT, PCB, HCH, Fluoranthen), Heavy metals (Hg, As, Cd), and others. The pollution in sediment is resulting from the unregulated heavy industrial production in the area in the second half of 20th century during the socialistic regime in Czech republic that still play an important role in Elbe river water quality. The main goal of the study was to evaluate the risk of remobilization of polluted sediments by the assessment of discharge (values and return periods), initiating remobilization of sediment from the river bed. The modeling stems on basic assumption, that once the sediment is elevated from the bed, it could be transported far downstream in the form of suspended load. The evaluation was made on the basis of numerical hydrodynamic calculation coupled with sediment transport model. The MIKE by DHI modelling software with different levels of schematization was used according the flow conditions and available data sources. For 50 km stretch of Bílina river the 1D schematization (MIKE 11) was selected as the discharges driving remobilization were expected within the extent of channel capacity due to the stream regulation. For the lower and middle course of Elbe

  14. Electrical Discharges in Water. A Hydrodynamic Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-23

    discharges wit), wires. The method of initiation used usually must provide for a brief initihtior, proceso in comparison with the duration of the discharge...de- termined primarily by the radius of curvature of the point r and by the voltage u, it being higher for the case of electrodes of the point-plane...After the formation of the leaders, their development is de- termined by the field strength at their heads. When the field strengths prove to be lower

  15. Nitrogen isotope and mass balance approach in the Elbe Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Tina; Wankel, Scott D.; Dähnke, Kirstin

    2017-04-01

    The supply of bioavailable nitrogen is crucial to primary production in the world's oceans. Especially in estuaries, which act as a nutrient filter for coastal waters, microbial nitrogen turnover and removal has a particular significance. Nitrification as well as other nitrogen-based processes changes the natural abundance of the stable isotope, which can be used as proxies for sources and sinks as well as for process identification. The eutrophic Elbe estuary in northern Germany is loaded with fertilizer-derived nitrogen, but management efforts have started to reduce this load effectively. However, an internal nitrate source in turn gained in importance and the estuary changed from a sink to a source of dissolved inorganic nitrogen: Nitrification is responsible for significant estuarine nutrient regeneration, especially in the Hamburg Port. In our study, we aimed to quantify sources and sinks of nitrogen based on a mass and stable isotope budget in the Elbe estuary. A model was developed reproduce internal N-cycling and associated isotope changes. For that approach we measured dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), particulate nitrogen and their stable isotopes in a case study in July 2013. We found an almost closed mass balance of nitrogen, with only low lost or gains which we attribute to sediment resuspension. The isotope values of different DIN components and the model approach both support a high fractionation of up to -25‰ during nitrification. However, the nitrogen balance and nitrogen stable isotopes suggest that most important processes are remineralization of organic matter to ammonium and further on the oxidation to nitrate. Denitrification and nitrate assimilation play a subordinate role in the Elbe Estuary.

  16. Influence of mine hydrogeology on mine water discharge chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, S.B.; Bowell, R.J.; Wiseman, I. [SRK Consulting, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    Using data for 18 coal mine discharges in the UK, the influence of discharge hydrogeology on discharge chemistry is assessed and typical chemical parameters derived for five discharge types. A combination of modified and new classification schemes is used to differentiate between the various discharge sources. Drainage from spoil tips generally has a pH below 5 and net-alkalinity values as low as -2500 mgl{sup -1} CaCO{sub 3}. Drainage from flooded workings and pumped discharges are net-alkaline, while drainage from flooded and free draining workings are either moderately net-alkaline or net-acidic. Iron is the major contaminant of concern, although many mine waters contain less than 30 mgl{sup -1} and Fe/SO{sub 4} ratios are less than unity. The classification schemes developed can be used to assess mine water treatment requirements and processes operating in passive treatment systems. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Generation of river discharge using water balance computer model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents a study on river discharge generation using a water balance computer model. The results of the data generated shows that the computer program designed gave a good· prediction of the recorded discharge within 95% confidence interval. The model is therefore recommended for other catchments with ...

  18. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruma, Hosseini, S. H. R.; Yoshihara, K.; Akiyama, M.; Sakugawa, T.; Lukeš, P.; Akiyama, H.

    2014-09-01

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H2O2 and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  19. Corona Discharge from Water Droplet on Electrically Stressed Polymer Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Otsubo, Masahisa; Honda, Chikahisa; Tanaka, Shou

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the results of experiments and simulations made to examine the corona discharges from water droplets on a polymer surface exposed to electrical stress. In this study, water droplets with different conductivities and volumes were placed on the surface of plate-shaped high temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (HTV-SR) energized with ac voltage, and the corona discharge phenomena were observed by a high-speed camera with an image intensifier. The electric-field distributions were calculated by the finite element method (FEM). It is demonstrated that the electric field is intensified at the triple junction of the water droplet, air and the insulating material due to the difference in their permittivities, which can ionize the surrounding air and trigger a corona discharge. It can also be confirmed that the contact angle, volume, conductivity and number of water droplets are shown to have a marked effect on the mode of the corona discharge development.

  20. Oil field produced water discharges into wetlands in Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Approximately 600 oil field produced water discharges are permitted in Wyoming by the State’s Department of Environmental Quality's (WDEQ) National Pollutant...

  1. Multi-spark discharge system for preparation of nutritious water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Kusumawan, Sholihatta Aziz; Shimomura, Tomoya; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi

    2018-01-01

    The nitrogen compound concentration in water is increased by atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge treatment. A rod-to-water electrode discharge treatment system using plasma discharge has been developed by our group to obtain water with a high concentration of nitrogen compounds, and this plasma-treated water improves the growth of chrysanthemum roots. However, it is difficult to apply the system to the agriculture because the amount of treated water obtained by using the system too small. In this study, a multi-spark discharge system (MSDS) equipped multiple spark plugs is presented to obtain a large amount of plasma-treated water. The MSDS consisted of inexpensive parts in order to reduce the system introduction cost for agriculture. To suppress the temperature increase of the spark plugs, the 9 spark plugs were divided into 3 groups, which were discharged in order. The plasma-treated water with a NO3- concentration of 50 mg/L was prepared using the MSDS for 90 min, and the treatment efficiency was about 6 times higher than that of our previous system. It was confirmed that the NO2-, O3, and H2O2 concentrations in the water were also increased by treating the water using the MSDS.

  2. Pesticides and other organic micro pollutants in the river Elbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, J. [DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser, Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, W. [DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser, Dresden (Germany); Sacher, F. [DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fichtner, S. [DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser, Dresden (Germany); Brauch, H.J. [DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    The main components of organic micro pollution regularly found in the river Elbe, belong to the wide spectrum of pesticides, nitro and chloro benzenes and the chelating agents, especially ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The level of organic micro pollution with pesticides and the other organic micro pollutants in the upper and middle reaches of the river Elbe between Schmilka and Wittenberge was determined over a period of nearly three years. Four sample preparation methods (SPE: solid-phase extraction and LLE: liquid-liquid extraction both with and without derivatization) have been used to analyze a wide spectrum of pesticides with different polarities by GC/ECD, NPD and MS. The pesticide pollution caused by the triazines decreases significantly from 0.35 {mu}g/l (mean value) in 1992 up to 0.15 {mu}g/l (mean value) in 1994. The correlation with the river water flow shows the diffuse character of the triazine input. In the last year of the pesticide screening a change to the more polar substances such as phenoxyalkanoic acid pesticides have been noticed. The origin of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) can be explained by the waste influence, supported by the good correlation of the TCA course with the chloroform concentrations determined. (orig.)

  3. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-01-01

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  4. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-12-31

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  5. EPA Office of Water (OW): Facilities that Discharge to Water NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Discharge of pollutants into waters of the United States is regulated under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), a mandated provision of the...

  6. Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Most ground water used for drinking occurs near the earth's surface and is easily contaminated. Of major concern is the potential contamination of underground sources of drinking water by any of the hundreds of thousands of subsurface wastewater disposal injection wells nationwide.

  7. Vorticity analysis of transient shallow water eddy fields at the river plume front of the River Elbe in the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippner, Joachim W.

    1998-01-01

    The mesoscale variability of the circulation of the German Bight is investigated for selected wind forcing situations with an eddy resolving model. A vorticity equation is derived which considers explicitly both mass distribution and tides. Different shallow water eddy regimes are identified in the German Bight. Using the vorticity equation, the statistical steady state eddy fields are analyzed with respect to the production mechanisms of the gyres and shallow water eddies. The large German Bight gyre is affected by the joint effect of baroclinicity and topography. It is demonstrated that all shallow water eddies which appear at the East-Friesian coast are affected by the interaction between wind stress and the gradient of bottom topography. Small shallow water eddies at the North-Friesian coast formed from the baroclinic forcing, the vortex squeezing and the interaction between wind stress and the gradient of bottom topography. The results further suggest that the contribution of advection or of tidal stress to the vorticity production is of minor relevance.

  8. Pulsed electrical discharge in gas bubbles in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Sophia

    A phenomenological picture of pulsed electrical discharge in gas bubbles in water is produced by combining electrical, spectroscopic, and imaging methods. The discharge is generated by applying one microsecond long 5 to 20 kilovolt pulses between the needle and disk electrodes submerged in water. A gas bubble is generated at the tip of the needle electrode. The study includes detailed experimental investigation of the discharge in argon bubbles and a brief look at the discharge in oxygen bubbles. Imaging, electrical characteristics, and time-resolved optical emission data point to a fast streamer propagation mechanism and formation of a plasma channel in the bubble. Spectroscopic methods based on line intensity ratios and Boltzmann plots of line intensities of argon, atomic hydrogen, and argon ions and the examination of molecular emission bands from molecular nitrogen and hydroxyl radicals provide evidence of both fast beam-like electrons and slow thermalized ones with temperatures of 0.6 -- 0.8 electron-volts. The collisional nature of plasma at atmospheric pressure affects the decay rates of optical emission. Spectroscopic study of rotational-vibrational bands of hydroxyl radical and molecular nitrogen gives vibrational and rotational excitation temperatures of the discharge of about 0.9 and 0.1 electron-volt, respectively. Imaging and electrical evidence show that discharge charge is deposited on the bubble wall and water serves as a dielectric barrier for the field strength and time scales of this experiment. Comparing the electrical and imaging information for consecutive pulses applied at a frequency of 1 Hz indicates that each discharge proceeds as an entirely new process with no memory of the previous discharge aside from long-lived chemical species, such as ozone and oxygen. Intermediate values for the discharge gap and pulse duration, low repetition rate, and unidirectional character of the applied voltage pulses make the discharge process here unique

  9. Estimating water discharge from large radar altimetry datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. V. Getirana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of large altimetry datasets as a complementary gauging network capable of providing water discharge in ungauged regions. A rating curve-based methodology is adopted to derive water discharge from altimetric data provided by the Envisat satellite at 475 virtual stations (VS within the Amazon basin. From a global-scale perspective, the stage–discharge relations at VS are built based on radar altimetry and outputs from a modeling system composed of a land surface model and a global river routing scheme. In order to quantify the impact of model uncertainties on rating-curve based discharges, a second experiment is performed using outputs from a simulation where daily observed discharges at 135 gauging stations are introduced in the modeling system. Discharge estimates at 90 VS are evaluated against observations during the curve fitting calibration (2002–2005 and evaluation (2006–2008 periods, resulting in mean normalized RMS errors as high as 39 and 15% for experiments without and with direct insertion of data, respectively. Without direct insertion, uncertainty of discharge estimates can be mostly attributed to forcing errors at smaller scales, generating a positive correlation between performance and drainage area. Mean relative streamflow volume errors (RE of altimetry-based discharges varied from 15 to 84% for large and small drainage areas, respectively. Rating curves produced a mean RE of 51% versus 68% from model outputs. Inserting discharge data into the modeling system decreases the mean RE from 51 to 18%, and mean NRMSE from 24 to 9%. These results demonstrate the feasibility of applying the proposed methodology to the continental or global scales.

  10. Water discharge from Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone NP, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, F.; Randolph-Flagg, N. G.; Hurwitz, S.

    2014-12-01

    During four days in April, 2014 we made a series of measurements at Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, WY. This work included the continuous measurement of liquid water discharge from the geyser and some nearby not springs, and concurrent meteorological measurements. The discharge of the geyser and the hot springs was measured in channels that carry the water to the Firehole River. We found that average measured discharge varies from day to night, likely due to melting of geyser-generated and meteoric snow during warmer daylight hours and freezing of erupted liquid and vapor during the night. The nearby hot springs contribute a nearly constant flow of about 3 l/s to the Firehole River, while during eruptions the total discharge increases to a maximum of about 25 l/s. Two small geysers within 5 meters of the Lone Star Geyser cone were observed to erupt during a time when Lone Star Geyser was not erupting. The water discharged from these small geysers is a very small fraction of that from Lone Star Geyser.

  11. Towards Zero Liquid Discharge in drinking water production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvador Cob, S.

    2014-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are used to produce clean water, but also produce a concentrate stream which contains most of the contaminants. Discharging concentrate streams to the environment is hindered by regulations, which are becoming more strict, and by the desire of

  12. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  13. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  14. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  15. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  16. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  17. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  18. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  19. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  20. Proposed test method for determining discharge rates from water closets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, V.; Fjord Jensen, T.

    At present the rates at which discharge takes place from sanitary appliances are mostly known only in the form of estimated average values. SBI has developed a measuring method enabling determination of the exact rate of discharge from a sanitary appliance as function of time. The methods depends...... on the application of a calibrated measuring vessel, the volume of water in the vessel being measured at a given moment by means of a transducer and recorded by an UV recorder which is able to follow very rapid variations. In the article the apparatus is described in detail, and an example is given...

  1. Pressure caused by underwater discharge near the surface of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, K.; Uchiyama, M.; Isuzugawa, Kohji

    2001-04-01

    Spark discharge in water generates a spherical shock wave and a bubble that contains water vapor, with each center at a gap between electrodes. The bubble repeats the movement of the expansion and contraction. An impulsive pressure wave also arises at each transition from the contraction to the expansion of the bubble. In case that a rigid wall exists near the bubble, the bubble moves toward it keeping the expansion and contraction and then a water jet is formed toward the wall. The jet exerts the impulsive pressure on the wall. In case that the bubble is near the surface of water, it moves as if a rigid wall existed just below it and then the downward water jet is also formed. We are interested in the relationship of the movement of the bubble to the effect of the pressure caused by the under-water discharge near the surface of water. We are also interested in whether there are some differences between the following two cases as to the effect of pressure; one case is that the bubble exists near the surface of water and its movement is affected by the surface, another case the movement of the bubble is not affected by the surface of water for the sake of enough large distance between the bubble and the surface. In this study, impulsive pressure waves caused by the under-water discharge in above two cases are observed by means of a transducer or their schlieren photographs are taken with an image converter camera, and observations are examined.

  2. Design of Water Discharge of Medewi Watershed Using Avswat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramana, Y. H.; Purwanto, B. P.

    2013-12-01

    Medewi watersheds is located in the southern of Bali Island and its estuary is located in Medewi Beach at Kabupaten Jembrana. The exact location of Medewi watersheds is between Desa Medewi and Desa Pulukan, Kecamatan Pekutatan, Kabupaten Jembrana. The watersheds itself, due to its strategic location is used as a territorial border between the two villages. Geographically, Medewi watersheds is between 114o48'00' - 114o50'00' east longitude and 08o20'00' - 08o26,5'00' south latitude. The main river of Medewi Watersheds is 25,64 km long and is classified as a continuous river, the width of the watersheds itself is measured 128,2 km2. Medewi watersheds have two tributaries which is Medaan watersheds and Pangliman watersheds, both watersheds' heads are located in Medewi Beach. Medewi watersheds is often flooded and brings heavy toll to its surrounding areas and citizen. Therefore, there is an urgent need to perform engineering techniques to overcome the aforementioned problem. However, there is a slight issue in the definition of water discharge plan in the location. The water discharge plan, which is used as a basis to prevent flooding, is often inaccurate. That is the reason why it is needed to build a model in order to accurately find out the amount of water discharge in the study location. Medewi watersheds' area usage is as follow: bushes (9,44%), forestation (77,10%), farm (7,76%), settlement (2,15%), irrigation field (1,64%), rainfed field (1,88%) and crops field (0,48%). The result of our modeling using ASVAT shows that the maximum water discharge is 149,9 m3/sec. The discharge is calibrated with the available water discharge data log. According to AWLR data, it is known that the largest discharge occurred on June 2nd, 2009 and measured at 147,9 m3/sec. Our conclusion is that the model used in this study managed to approach the field result with minimum error.

  3. Fine-Water-Mist Multiple-Orientation-Discharge Fire Extinguisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, James R.; Turchi, Craig S.; Kimball, Amanda; McKinnon, Thomas; Riedel, Edward

    2010-01-01

    A fine-water-mist fire-suppression device has been designed so that it can be discharged uniformly in any orientation via a high-pressure gas propellant. Standard fire extinguishers used while slightly tilted or on their side will not discharge all of their contents. Thanks to the new design, this extinguisher can be used in multiple environments such as aboard low-gravity spacecraft, airplanes, and aboard vehicles that may become overturned prior to or during a fire emergency. Research in recent years has shown that fine water mist can be an effective alternative to Halons now banned from manufacture. Currently, NASA uses carbon dioxide for fire suppression on the International Space Station (ISS) and Halon chemical extinguishers on the space shuttle. While each of these agents is effective, they have drawbacks. The toxicity of carbon dioxide requires that the crew don breathing apparatus when the extinguishers are deployed on the ISS, and Halon use in future spacecraft has been eliminated because of international protocols on substances that destroy atmospheric ozone. A major advantage to the new system on occupied spacecraft is that the discharged system is locally rechargeable. Since the only fluids used are water and nitrogen, the system can be recharged from stores of both carried aboard the ISS or spacecraft. The only support requirement would be a pump to fill the water and a compressor to pressurize the nitrogen propellant gas. This system uses a gaseous agent to pressurize the storage container as well as to assist in the generation of the fine water mist. The portable fire extinguisher hardware works like a standard fire extinguisher with a single storage container for the agents (water and nitrogen), a control valve assembly for manual actuation, and a discharge nozzle. The design implemented in the proof-of-concept experiment successfully extinguished both open fires and fires in baffled enclosures.

  4. ELBE Center for High-Power Radiation Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dr. Michel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ELBE Center for High-Power Radiation Sources, the superconducting linear electron accelerator ELBE, serving  two free electron lasers, sources for intense coherent THz radiation, mono-energetic positrons, electrons, γ-rays, a neutron time-of-flight system as well as two synchronized ultra-short pulsed Petawatt laser systems are collocated. The characteristics of these beams make the ELBE center a unique research instrument for a variety of external users in fields ranging from material science over nuclear physics to cancer research, as well as scientists of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR.

  5. Discharge and Treatment of Waste Water in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the waste water treatment situation in the area of Esbjerg. This example was chosen because the situation in Esbjerg is typical of that of most towns in Denmark, and because Esbjerg is closest to the British situation with respect to the receiving water. Esbjerg has...... a population of 70.000 inhabitans, and waste water treatment takes place in two treatment plants. These plants are now being extended to perform tertiary treatment, to fulfil the new Danish requirements. From 1992, the maximum average concentrations allowed for municipal waste water discharges to receiving...... waters will be; 15 mg/1 for BOD5, 8 mg/1 for total nitrogen, and 1.5 mg/1 for total phosphorus. These general requirements cover all types of receiving waters, but regional authorities have, in a number of cases, fixed lower values for sensitive areas....

  6. Feasibility of potable water generators to meet vessel numeric ballast water discharge limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Ryan J; Viveiros, Edward; Falatko, Debra S; Tamburri, Mario N

    2017-07-15

    Ballast water is taken on-board vessels into ballast water tanks to maintain vessel draft, buoyancy, and stability. Unmanaged ballast water contains aquatic organisms that, when transported and discharged to non-native waters, may establish as invasive species. Technologies capable of achieving regulatory limits designed to decrease the likelihood of invasion include onboard ballast water management systems. However, to date, the treatment development and manufacturing marketplace is limited to large vessels with substantial ballast requirements. For smaller vessels or vessels with reduced ballast requirements, we evaluated the feasibility of meeting the discharge limits by generating ballast water using onboard potable water generators. Case studies and parametric analyses demonstrated the architectural feasibility of installing potable water generators onboard actual vessels with minimal impacts for most vessel types evaluated. Furthermore, land-based testing of a potable water generator demonstrated capability to meet current numeric discharge limits for living organisms in all size classes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Benefits of Riverine Water Discharge into the Lorian Swamp, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipporah Musyimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Use and retention of river water in African highlands deprive communities in arid lowlands of their benefits. This paper reviews information on water use in the Ewaso Ng’iro catchment, Kenya, to evaluate the effects of upstream abstraction on the Lorian Swamp, a wetland used by pastoralists downstream. We first assess the abstractions and demands for water upstream and the river water supplies at the upper and the lower end of the Lorian Swamp. Further analysis of 12 years of monthly SPOT-VEGETATION satellite imagery reveals higher NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index values in the swamp than nearby rainfed areas, with the difference in NDVI between the two positively related to river water discharged into the swamp. The paper next reviews the benefits derived from water entering the swamp and the vulnerability to abstractions for three categories of water: (i the surface water used for drinking and sanitation; (ii the surface water that supports forage production; and (iii the water that recharges the Merti Aquifer. Our results suggest that benefits from surface water for domestic use and forage production are vulnerable to abstractions upstream whereas the benefits from the aquifer, with significant fossil water, are likely to be affected in the long run, but not the short term.

  8. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana Open Bays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1995-06-23

    Data were collected prior to termination of discharge at three sites (including two open bay sites at Delacroix Island and Bay De Chene) for the risk assessments. The Delacroix Island Oil and Gas Field has been in production since the first well drilling in 1940; the Bay De Chene Field, since 1942. Concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Po, and 228Th were measured in discharges. Radium conc. were measured in fish and shellfish tissues. Sediment PAH and metal conc. were also available. Benthos sampling was conducted. A survey of fishermen was conducted. The tiered risk assessment showed that human health risks from radium in produced water appear to be small; ecological risk from radium and other radionuclides in produced water also appear small. Many of the chemical contaminants discharged to open Louisiana bays appear to present little human health or ecological risk. A conservative screening analysis suggested potential risks to human health from Hg and Pb and a potential risk to ecological receptors from total effluent, Sb, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Ag, Zn, and phenol in the water column and PAHs in sediment; quantitiative risk assessments are being done for these contaminants.

  9. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the >50-μm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction–diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a “zero detectable organisms” standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction–diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems

  10. GRACE-based estimates of water discharge over the Yellow River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As critical component of hydrologic cycle, basin discharge is a key issue for understanding the hydrological and climatologic related to water and energy cycles. Combining GRACE gravity field models with ET from GLDAS models and precipitation from GPCP, discharge of the Yellow River basin are estimated from the water balance equation. While comparing the results with discharge from GLDAS model and in situ measurements, the results reveal that discharge from Mosaic and CLM GLDAS model can partially represent the river discharge and the discharge estimation from water balance equation could reflect the discharge from precipitation over the Yellow River basin.

  11. Waste water discharge and its effect on the quality of water of Mahim creek and bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    Coastal environment around Mahim was monitored to evaluate the effects of domestic and industrial waste water discharge in Mahim Creek, Maharashtra, India. Vertical salinity and DO gradient occasionally observed in the Mahim Bay during postmonsoon...

  12. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the watercourses of Elbe basin in Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, Petr; Rezek, Jan; Židková, Monika; Kramulová, Barbora; Tauchen, J.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 171, MAR (2017), s. 97-105 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22593S Grant - others:European Regional Development Fund(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24014; European Regional Development Fund(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : chromatography-mass-spectrometry * gas-chromatography * human pharmaceuticals * waste - water * surface- water * risk-assessment * diclofenac * ibuprofen * products * plants * NSAID Surface water * Pharmaceuticals * GCxGC-TOFMS Elbe basin * Czech Republic Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.208, year: 2016

  13. Grafted cellulose for PAHs removal present in industrial discharge waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euvrard, Elise; Druart, Coline; Poupeney, Amandine; Crini, Nadia; Vismara, Elena; Lanza, Tommaso; Torri, Giangiacomo; Gavoille, Sophie; Crini, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: cellulose; biosorbent; PAHs; polycontaminated wastewaters; trace levels. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chemicals essentially formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials from anthropogenic activities, were present in all compartments of the ecosystem, air, water and soil. Notably, a part of PAHs found in aquatic system was introduced through industrial discharge waters. Since the Water Framework Directive has classified certain PAHs as priority hazardous substances, industrials are called to take account this kind of organic pollutants in their global environmental concern. Conventional materials such as activated carbons definitively proved their worth as finishing treatment systems but remained costly. In this study, we proposed to use cellulose grafted with glycidyl methacrylate [1] for the removal of PAHs present in discharge waters of surface treatment industries. Firstly, to develop the device, we worked with synthetic solutions containing 16 PAHs at 500 ng/L. Two types of grafted cellulose were tested over a closed-loop column with a concentration of 4g cellulose/L: cellulose C2 with a hydroxide group and cellulose C4 with an amine group. No PAH was retained by the raw cellulose whereas abatement percentages of PAHs were similar between C2 and C4 (94% and 98%, respectively, for the sum of the 16 PAHs) with an experiment duration of 400 min (corresponding to about 20 cycles through grafted cellulose). Secondly, to determine the shorter time to abate the amount maximum of PAHs through the system, a kinetic was realized from 20 min (one cycle) to 400 min with C4. The steady state (corresponding to about 95% of abatement of the total PAHs) was reached at 160 min. Finally, the system was then tested with real industrial discharge waters containing both mineral and organic compounds. The results indicated that the abatement percentage of PAHs was similar between C2 and C4, corroborating the tests with synthetic solution. In return

  14. Biogeochemical investigations on processes affecting the transport behaviour of trace elements in the tidal Elbe River; Biogeochemische Prozessuntersuchungen zum Transportverhalten von Spurenelementen in der Tide-Elbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennies, K. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserphysik

    1997-12-31

    This work concentrates on distribution and transport of micropollutants in anthropogenically affected estuary systems. Choosing the tidal Elbe River as an example, the influence of microlagae on two important partial processes of the transport regime, the remobilization (a) from undisturbed sediments and (b) from suspended particulate matter, was simulated and quantified in the laboratory. Benthic and planktonic release of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn into the dissolved phase of the river pelagial were estimated and comparatively evaluated for summer/late summer situation. During that season natural decomposition of suspended particulate matter in the water column thus represents the quantitatively most significant mobilization pathway for particle bound heavy metals in the river section between Hamburg and Glueckstadt. Knowing the composition and heavy metal load of suspended particulate matter, rich in algae, mobilization rates can consequently be calculated for the water column with regard to conditions typical for estuaries. The prognosis of the differing transport behaviour of single heavy metals for greater sections of estuaries is also possible if these rates are implemented into transport-reaction models. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit Verteilung und Transport von Spurenschadstoffen in anthropogen belasteten Aestuarsystemen. Am Beispiel der Tide-Elbe wurde der Einfluss von Mikroalgen auf zwei wichtige Teilprozesse des Transportregimes, die Remobilisierung (a) aus ungestoerten Sedimenten und (b) aus suspendierten Schwebstoffen, im Labor simuliert und quantifiziert. Benthische und planktische Freisetzung von Cd, Cu, Pb und Zn in die Loesungsphase des Flusspelagials der Tide-Elbe wurden fuer die Sommer-/Spaetsommer-Situation abgeschaetzt und vergleichend bewertet. Der natuerliche Schwebstoff-Abbau in der Wassersaeule stellt demnach in dieser Jahreszeit im Stromabschnitt zwischen Hamburg und Glueckstadt den quantitativ bedeutsamsten

  15. DC diaphragm discharge in water solutions of selected organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnankova, Edita J.; Hammer, Malte U.; Reuter, Stephan; Krcma, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Effect of four simple organic acids water solution on a DC diaphragm discharge was studied. Efficiency of the discharge was quantified by the hydrogen peroxide production determined by UV-VIS spectrometry of a H2O2 complex formed with specific titanium reagent. Automatic titration was used to study the pH behaviour after the plasma treatment. Optical emission spectroscopy overview spectra were recorded and detailed spectra of OH band and Hβ line were used to calculate the rotational temperature and comparison of the line profile (reflecting electron concentration) in the acid solutions. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  16. Improvement of water quality using dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quyen, N. T.; Traikool, T.; Nitisoravut, R.; Onjun, T.

    2017-06-01

    The improvement of water quality using by atmospheric plasma produced from a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was studied. An experiment was set-up with a 4 mm diameter pipe, which contains 2 electrodes and has an air flow with the rate of 15 liters per minute. Surface water, domestic wastewater and DI water were treated with the DBD plasma for some period of time. Electricity was supplied at 3.5 kV with the frequency of 5.5 kHz. Some key parameters of water quality includes the level of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid (TSS), color, and odor are measured before and after. The result showed that strong acid with pH below 2 was observed after 60 minutes plasma treatment for the DI water, while the surface water and wastewater needs about 120 minutes to pH below 2 even though the pH value are about the same at the beginning. Moreover, It was formed that the COD, TSS microorganism was noticeably decreased, therefore the increasing of transparency level. This result confirms that atmospheric DBD plasma generated acidity in water as reduce amount of organic and suspended solid in water.

  17. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  18. Can Humic Water Discharge Counteract Eutrophication in Coastal Waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Agneta; Jurgensone, Iveta; Rowe, Owen F.; Simonelli, Paolo; Bignert, Anders; Lundberg, Erik; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (humic carbon), in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP), and only with inorganic nutrients (NP). The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 µm algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy. PMID:23637807

  19. Monitoring Environmental Recovery at Terminated Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents the results of a study of terminated produced water discharge sites in the coastal waters of Louisiana. Environmental recovery at the sites is documented by comparing pre-termination and post-termination (six months and one year) data. Produced water, sediments, and sediment interstitial water samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons. Benthic infauna were identified from samples collected in the vicinity of the discharge and reference sites. Radium isotope activities were determined in fish and crustacean samples. In addition, an environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  20. Can humic water discharge counteract eutrophication in coastal waters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Andersson

    Full Text Available A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (humic carbon, in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP, and only with inorganic nutrients (NP. The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 µm algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria <5 µm. Our results suggest that climate change scenarios, resulting in increased humic-rich river inflow, may counteract eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy.

  1. Can humic water discharge counteract eutrophication in coastal waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Agneta; Jurgensone, Iveta; Rowe, Owen F; Simonelli, Paolo; Bignert, Anders; Lundberg, Erik; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (humic carbon), in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP), and only with inorganic nutrients (NP). The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 µm algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria <5 µm. Our results suggest that climate change scenarios, resulting in increased humic-rich river inflow, may counteract eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy.

  2. Extraordinary traces produced during pulsed discharges in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes experiments of electrical discharges in water, in which AC shots of up to 100 V were applied to wire electrodes of palladium and platinum. Various kinds of anomalous traces were observed on the nuclear emulsions. Some of them were similar to that which were observed in previous experiments of electrolysis cold fusion. Extraordinary combined rings were newly observed, suggesting that tiny ball-lightning was hopping up and down between the nuclear emulsions. The mechanisms of forming the traces are also discussed by The Nattoh Model. (author).

  3. Dechlorination Technology Manual. Final report. [Utility cooling water discharge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschoff, A.F.; Chiesa, R.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Lee, Y.H.; Mehta, S.C.; Meko, A.C.; Musil, R.R.; Sopocy, D.M.; Wilson, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    On November 19, 1982, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated regulations severely restricting chlorination practices as they relate to utility cooling water discharge systems. EPRI authorized the preparation of a manual on dechlorination technology to assist utilities in evaluating the various alternatives available to them to meet these new requirements. The Dechlorination Technology Manual emphasizes the engineering aspects involved in the selection and design of dechlorination systems. However, background information is included concerning chemistry, regulatory requirements, environmental considerations and aquatic impacts. There is also a brief discussion of the various alternatives to dechlorination. Case studies are given to acquaint the user with the use of the manual for the design of chlorination facilities given various site-related characteristics, such as salt versus fresh waters. Numerous graphs and tables are presented to facilitate the selection and design process. 207 references, 66 figures, 60 tables.

  4. OH Radical and a Drizzling Water Jet Production from the Ball-Lightning Discharge in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeyama, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Yasutomo

    The ball lightning, or fireball discharge using the typical electrode configuration was reported to produce a long-living spherical plasmoid with radius exceed 10 cm at atmospheric pressure. In this study, we investigated the relationship between a optical output emitted from OH radicals and discharge conditions of the ball-lightning electrode configuration, and discussed its possibility to the water treatment process. As a results, in both polarity cases of the charged voltage V0, a ball-lightning discharge and the optical emission from OH radicals as a major radiation can be generated on the condition |V0| > 4 kV in tap water. Furthermore, an intensive upward water jet from the rod electrode is observed in case of positive polarity and in 0.2% NaCl solution, which is composed of drizzling water drops near the rod electrode.

  5. The effects of brewery effluent discharge on the water quality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effluent discharge into the river significantly altered the water quality. Monitoring of effluent discharge into the aquatic environment and strict adherence to regulatory limits will halt further degradation of the environment. Key words: Water, sediment physico-chemistry, distribution coefficient, effluent discharge, tropical river ...

  6. Wakefield dechirping with a dielectrically lined waveguide at ELBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, Franziska; Rienen, Ursula van [Universitaet Rostock, Institut fuer Allgemeine Elektrotechnik (Germany); Michel, Peter; Lehnert, Ulf [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Dielectrically lined waveguides are planned to be used as a passive wakefield dechirper for the electron beam at the ELBE facility of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf. In this work we introduce the design of such a passive wakefield dechirper based on the analysis of dielectrically lined rectangular waveguides with a semi-analytical model developed at the University of Rostock. The generality of this model allows for a quick calculation of the wakefields of numerous different beam types via the Green's function method. In this work, we present the dechirped phase-spaces of a variety of beam distributions, as well as the theoretically possible dechirping for the ELBE beam. Furthermore, we present an experimental structure planned at the ELBE facility to verify the calculated dechirping effect.

  7. Tide Management in the Elbe River and Changes in Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Mangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood currents (tidal pumping have led to the increase of transportation of sediments to the river’s upper estuary. In the tidal section of the Elbe River, more sediment is transported to the upper estuary with flood currents (tidal pumping related to tidal asymmetry. This process contributes, amongst others, to dredging in order to obtain the water depth required for navigation safety. Cognizant of the above problems, construction of shallow water area is planned in order to reduce tidal asymmetry while improving ecological integrity at the tidal Elbe areas. The study on which this paper is based was conducted to assess ecological integrity and ecosystem services before and after the shallow water creation. Habitat identification and quality ranking were conducted for current habitat, while model habitats representing future state (after shallow water creation were designed using HEC-RAS model simulation. The assessment matrix was used to assess ecological integrity and ecosystem services provisioning of the study area’s habitats before and after the shallow water creation, using potential indicators. Results indicate that there is increase in the ecological integrity after the project implementation. Based on the above explanation, it can be concluded that the measure will increase the flow of ecosystem services after its implementation.

  8. Upstream expansion of round goby (Neogobius Melanostomus – first record in the upper reaches of the Elbe river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buřič M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814 is one of the most problematic invasive fish species in recent years in Europe. It has proliferated from its native Ponto-Caspian region to several European river systems including their mouths and coastal brackish waters and was also introduced to and became widely established in the Great Lakes in North America. Despite recent reports about further invasions of round goby in the Odra and Vistula Rivers, including penetration of Baltic and North Seas, in the Elbe River this species was only recorded near its mouth close to Hamburg. Here we report the occurrence of round goby 622 km upstream from the previous record in Geesthacht (Germany in the upper part of the Elbe River in Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic. This report illustrates the fast spread of round goby through several possible pathways, but the most certain is an introduction in ballast water.

  9. Long-living plasmoids from an atmospheric water discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versteegh, A; Fussmann, G; Juettner, B; Noack, S [Institut fuer Physik der Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Behringer, K; Fantz, U [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)], E-mail: alex.versteegh@physik.hu-berlin.de

    2008-05-01

    Ball-like plasmoids were generated from discharging a capacitor bank via a water surface. In the autonomous stage after current zero they have diameters up to 0.2 m and lifetimes of some hundreds of milliseconds, thus resembling ball lightning in some way. They were studied by applying high speed cameras, electric probes, calorimetric measurements, and spectroscopy. The plasmoids are found to consist of a true plasma surrounded by a cold envelope. Decreasing electron densities in the order of 10{sup 20}-10{sup 22} m{sup -3} were measured from Stark broadening in the initial (formation) phase. The electron temperature is estimated to be 2000-5000 K during most of the plasmoid's lifetime. The temperature of the neutral particles can exceed 1300 K. Calcium hydroxide molecular band emission is the major source of visible radiation in the autonomous phase. Chemiluminescence reactions between dissociation products of water and dissolved calcium are proposed as a source for this emission. The plasmoid's colder boundary layer consists of electric double layers that may be attributed to the characteristic shape of the balls.

  10. Long-living plasmoids from an atmospheric water discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteegh, A.; Behringer, K.; Fantz, U.; Fussmann, G.; Jüttner, B.; Noack, S.

    2008-05-01

    Ball-like plasmoids were generated from discharging a capacitor bank via a water surface. In the autonomous stage after current zero they have diameters up to 0.2 m and lifetimes of some hundreds of milliseconds, thus resembling ball lightning in some way. They were studied by applying high speed cameras, electric probes, calorimetric measurements, and spectroscopy. The plasmoids are found to consist of a true plasma surrounded by a cold envelope. Decreasing electron densities in the order of 1020-1022 m-3 were measured from Stark broadening in the initial (formation) phase. The electron temperature is estimated to be 2000-5000 K during most of the plasmoid's lifetime. The temperature of the neutral particles can exceed 1300 K. Calcium hydroxide molecular band emission is the major source of visible radiation in the autonomous phase. Chemiluminescence reactions between dissociation products of water and dissolved calcium are proposed as a source for this emission. The plasmoid's colder boundary layer consists of electric double layers that may be attributed to the characteristic shape of the balls.

  11. Trans-Himalayan water contributions to river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andermann, Christoff; Stieglitz, Thomas; Schuessler, Jan A.; Parajouli, Binod

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological processes in high mountains are not well understood. Groundwater is commonly considered to be of little importance in the mountain water balance, while direct runoff, snow and ice melt are thought to be the principal hydrological buffer. We present new insights into hydrological fluxes between major reservoirs in a trans-Himalayan catchment. The study area is the Kali Gandaki catchment, rising in the dry Tibetan interior, carving through the high Himalayas and draining the full width of the foothills to the Ganges foreland. The catchment has a well-defined monsoon climate, with pronounced annual wet and dry seasons and a clear separation of wind- and leeward regions. We have sampled the main river and its tributaries as well as several springs during the four hydrological seasons (winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon). We have measured major element abundances as well as 222Rn in situ, as a tracer for groundwater contribution. These measurements are placed in a context of topographic analyses as well as continuous discharge and precipitation measurements. Furthermore, we have equipped two sites with continuous water samplers, sampling over > 4 monsoon seasons, allowing us to resolve the seasonal hydrological dynamic range on a very high temporal resolution. Chemical fluxes vary spatially over several orders of magnitude, showing a systematic downstream dilution trend for most major elements during all hydrological seasons. High initial concentrations derive from evaporite deposits in the uppermost part of the catchment, constituting a large scale, natural salt tracer experiment. The well-defined decline of solute concentrations along the main river, paired with constraints on the composition of lateral water inputs downstream allow the calculation of the spatial distribution of additional hydrological fluxes, by applying end member mixing modeling. Continuous river stage and bulk dissolved load (electrical conductivity) monitoring depict well

  12. 77 FR 11401 - Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): No Discharge Zone (NDZ) for California State Marine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... discharges of treated sewage from land-based wastewater treatment plants and may cause or contribute to water... discharge and wastewater treatment facilities, because they are a larger source of pollutants. EPA agrees... sewage discharges include solids, nutrients, pathogens, petroleum products, heavy metals, pesticides...

  13. Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Planktonic Rotifers in the Elbe Estuary during Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, H.; Zimmermann, H.; Kausch, H.; Koste, W.

    1998-09-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of planktonic rotifers in the Elbe Estuary, Germany, was investigated at weekly intervals from March to July, 1995. Samples were taken at a fixed site in the Hahnöfer Nebenelbe, and the main channel was surveyed four times at eight stations from Hamburg to the upstream limits of the brackish-water zone. Abiotic and biotic parameters were determined and correlated with rotifer abundance to gain information about the forces that structure the rotifer community in this dynamic environment. A maximum density of 2048 ind. l -1was observed at the beginning of June. More than 70 rotifer species were identified during the whole period, but only a few of them appeared at significant densities. The predominant species were Keratella cochlearis, which accounted for over 32% of the total abundance, Keratella quadrata, Brachionus calyciflorusand species of the genera Synchaetaand Polyarthra. At the end of July Synchaeta bicornisappeared at the low density of 23 ind. l -1at the station farthest downstream. Except for this typical brackish-water species, all rotifers encountered belonged to freshwater taxa, which decreased in abundance rather rapidly toward the river mouth. From March to the middle of June, rotifers grazed predominantly on heterotrophic components of the microbial food-web, such as planktonic and aggregate-associated bacteria, detritus and heterotrophic flagellates. Toward the end of June, the chlorophyll aconcentration increased sharply, and a new rotifer community established itself, feeding mainly on autotrophic organisms in the Elbe Estuary.

  14. Improvement of growth rate of plants by bubble discharge in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Junichiro; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Fujio, Takuya; Sasaki, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bubble discharge in water on the growth rate of plants was investigated experimentally for application to plant cultivation systems. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus var. sativus), and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) were used as specimens to clarify the effect of the discharge treatment on edible parts of the plants. The specimens were cultivated in pots filled with artificial soil, which included chicken manure charcoal. Distilled water was sprayed on the artificial soil and drained through a hole in the pots to a water storage tank. The water was circulated from the water storage tank to the cultivation pots after 15 or 30 min discharge treatment on alternate days. A magnetic compression-type pulsed power generator was used to produce the bubble discharge with a repetition rate of 250 pps. The plant height in the growth phase and the dry weight of the harvested plants were improved markedly by the discharge treatment in water. The soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value of the plants also improved in the growth phase of the plants. The concentration of nitrate nitrogen, which mainly contributed to the improvement of the growth rate, in the water increased with the discharge treatment. The Brix value of edible parts of Fragaria × ananassa increased with the discharge treatment. The inactivation of bacteria in the water was also confirmed with the discharge treatment.

  15. Effect of land use on water discharge in humid regions: An example ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of land use on water discharge is one of the most important environmental problems of our times, particularly in the humid regions. However, there exists controversy over the hydrological effects of land use in the humid tropics. This paper therefore examines the effect of land use on water discharge in southern ...

  16. Discharge Fee Policy Analysis: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE Model of Water Resources and Water Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model to simulate the regional economic and environmental effects of discharge fees. Firstly, water resources and water environment factors are separated from the input and output sources of the National Economic Production Department. Secondly, an extended Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of Jiangsu province is developed to simulate various scenarios. By changing values of the discharge fees (increased by 50%, 100% and 150%, three scenarios are simulated to examine their influence on the overall economy and each industry. The simulation results show that an increased fee will have a negative impact on Gross Domestic Product (GDP. However, waste water may be effectively controlled. Also, this study demonstrates that along with the economic costs, the increase of the discharge fee will lead to the upgrading of industrial structures from a situation of heavy pollution to one of light pollution which is beneficial to the sustainable development of the economy and the protection of the environment.

  17. Operational forecasting with the subgrid technique on the Elbe Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehili, Aissa

    2017-04-01

    Modern remote sensing technologies can deliver very detailed land surface height data that should be considered for more accurate simulations. In that case, and even if some compromise is made with regard to grid resolution of an unstructured grid, simulations still will require large grids which can be computationally very demanding. The subgrid technique, first published by Casulli (2009), is based on the idea of making use of the available detailed subgrid bathymetric information while performing computations on relatively coarse grids permitting large time steps. Consequently, accuracy and efficiency are drastically enhanced if compared to the classical linear method, where the underlying bathymetry is solely discretized by the computational grid. The algorithm guarantees rigorous mass conservation and nonnegative water depths for any time step size. Computational grid-cells are permitted to be wet, partially wet or dry and no drying threshold is needed. The subgrid technique is used in an operational forecast model for water level, current velocity, salinity and temperature of the Elbe estuary in Germany. Comparison is performed with the comparatively highly resolved classical unstructured grid model UnTRIM. The daily meteorological forcing data are delivered by the German Weather Service (DWD) using the ICON-EU model. Open boundary data are delivered by the coastal model BSHcmod of the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH). Comparison of predicted water levels between classical and subgrid model shows a very good agreement. The speedup in computational performance due to the use of the subgrid technique is about a factor of 20. A typical daily forecast can be carried out within less than 10 minutes on standard PC-like hardware. The model is capable of permanently delivering highly resolved temporal and spatial information on water level, current velocity, salinity and temperature for the whole estuary. The model offers also the possibility to

  18. Supporting inland waterway transport on German waterways by operational forecasting services - water-levels, discharges, river ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Dennis; Klein, Bastian; Ionita, Monica; Hemri, Stephan; Rademacher, Silke

    2017-04-01

    Inland waterway transport (IWT) is an important commercial sector significantly vulnerable to hydrological impacts. River ice and floods limit the availability of the waterway network and may cause considerable damages to waterway infrastructure. Low flows significantly affect IWT's operation efficiency usually several months a year due to the close correlation of (low) water levels / water depths and (high) transport costs. Therefore "navigation-related" hydrological forecasts focussing on the specific requirements of water-bound transport (relevant forecast locations, target parameters, skill characteristics etc.) play a major role in order to mitigate IWT's vulnerability to hydro-meteorological impacts. In light of continuing transport growth within the European Union, hydrological forecasts for the waterways are essential to stimulate the use of the free capacity IWT still offers more consequently. An overview of the current operational and pre-operational forecasting systems for the German waterways predicting water levels, discharges and river ice thickness on various time-scales will be presented. While short-term (deterministic) forecasts have a long tradition in navigation-related forecasting, (probabilistic) forecasting services offering extended lead-times are not yet well-established and are still subject to current research and development activities (e.g. within the EU-projects EUPORIAS and IMPREX). The focus is on improving technical aspects as well as on exploring adequate ways of disseminating and communicating probabilistic forecast information. For the German stretch of the River Rhine, one of the most frequented inland waterways worldwide, the existing deterministic forecast scheme has been extended by ensemble forecasts combined with statistical post-processing modules applying EMOS (Ensemble Model Output Statistics) and ECC (Ensemble Copula Coupling) in order to generate water level predictions up to 10 days and to estimate its predictive

  19. Atmospheric-pressure electric discharge as an instrument of chemical activation of water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkin, V. V.; Shutov, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    Results of experimental studies and numerical simulations of physicochemical characteristics of plasmas generated in different types of atmospheric-pressure discharges (pulsed streamer corona, gliding electric arc, dielectric barrier discharge, glow-discharge electrolysis, diaphragmatic discharge, and dc glow discharge) used to initiate various chemical processes in water solutions are analyzed. Typical reactor designs are considered. Data on the power supply characteristics, plasma electron parameters, gas temperatures, and densities of active particles in different types of discharges excited in different gases and their dependences on the external parameters of discharges are presented. The chemical composition of active particles formed in water is described. Possible mechanisms of production and loss of plasma particles are discussed.

  20. Impact of Stormwater Discharges on Water Quality in Coastal Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Kenneth; Luk, Brenda; Gregorio, Dominic

    2015-09-01

    Marine protected areas worldwide limit harvest to protect sensitive fisheries, but rarely do they address water quality goals that may have equally demonstrable impacts. California has over 500 coastal shoreline miles of marine protected areas designated as Areas of Special Biological Significance (ASBS), but receives untreated wet weather runoff discharges from over 1600 storm drain outfalls. The goal of this study was to assess the extent and magnitude of water quality impacts in ASBS following storm events. A stratified probabilistic design was used for sampling receiving water shorelines near (discharge) and far (non-discharge) from storm drain outfalls. In general, reasonably good water quality exists in California's ASBS following storm events. Many of the target analytes measured did not exceed water quality standards. The post-storm concentrations of most constituents in discharge and non-discharge strata of ASBS were similar. The three potentially problematic parameters identified were total PAH, chromium, and copper.

  1. Characteristics and applications of diffuse discharge of water electrode in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzheng, LIU; Tahan, WANG; Xiaozhong, CHEN; Chuanlong, MA

    2018-01-01

    Plasma water treatment technology, which aims to produce strong oxidizing reactive particles that act on the gas–liquid interface by way of discharging, is used to treat the organic pollutants that do not degrade easily in water. This paper presents a diffuse-discharge plasma water treatment method, which is realized by constructing a conical air gap through an uneven medium layer. The proposed method uses water as one electrode, and a dielectric barrier discharge electrode is constructed by using an uneven dielectric. The electric field distribution in the discharge space will be uneven, wherein the long gap electric field will have a smaller intensity, while the short one will have a larger intensity. A diffuse glow discharge is formed in the cavity. With this type of plasma water treatment equipment, a methyl orange solution with a concentration of 10 mg l‑1 was treated, and the removal rate was found to reach 88.96%.

  2. Effects of a nearshore wastewater discharge: Water column and sediment pore water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, P.R. [MEC Analytical Systems, Inc., Tiburon, CA (United States); Carr, R.S. [National Biological Survey, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between water column and sediment pore water toxicity was investigated near a municipal-industrial wastewater discharge in southern Texas. Toxicity associated with effluent distributions in the water column are known to vary in both time and space. Toxicity of sediment, however, is often more stable over time. Sediment can serve as a long-term integrator of toxicity in areas subject to chronic exposure of effluents. This study addressed the relationship between water column toxicity and that found in the sediments on both spatial and temporal scales. Four 2 Km transacts were established around a nearshore wastewater outfall. Eight stations along each transact were sampled for both surface waters and sediment pore water toxicity. Toxicity was determined using a modified sea urchin fertilization test. Surface waters were sampled and tested for eight consecutive months, while sediment pore waters were sampled on three occasions over the length of this study. Results have shown that toxicity in receiving waters was a good indicator to trace movements of the highly variable effluent plume. The distribution of effluent in the water column, and hence water column toxicity, was primarily driven by local wind conditions. Toxicity in sediment porewater was, much less variable and more evenly distributed over the study site. Sediment pore water toxicity was also a good predictor of the distribution of benthic infaunal invertebrates over much of the study site.

  3. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    Warm Mineral Springs, located in southern Sarasota County, Florida, is a warm, highly mineralized, inland spring. Since 1946, a bathing spa has been in operation at the spring, attracting vacationers and health enthusiasts. During the winter months, the warm water attracts manatees to the adjoining spring run and provides vital habitat for these mammals. Well-preserved late Pleistocene to early Holocene-age human and animal bones, artifacts, and plant remains have been found in and around the spring, and indicate the surrounding sinkhole formed more than 12,000 years ago. The spring is a multiuse resource of hydrologic importance, ecological and archeological significance, and economic value to the community.The pool of Warm Mineral Springs has a circular shape that reflects its origin as a sinkhole. The pool measures about 240 feet in diameter at the surface and has a maximum depth of about 205 feet. The sinkhole developed in the sand, clay, and dolostone of the Arcadia Formation of the Miocene-age to Oligocene-age Hawthorn Group. Underlying the Hawthorn Group are Oligocene-age to Eocene-age limestones and dolostones, including the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. Mineralized groundwater, under artesian pressure in the underlying aquifers, fills the remnant sink, and the overflow discharges into Warm Mineral Springs Creek, to Salt Creek, and subsequently into the Myakka River. Aquifers described in the vicinity of Warm Mineral Springs include the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system within the Hawthorn Group, and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. The Hawthorn Group acts as an upper confining unit of the Upper Floridan aquifer.Groundwater flow paths are inferred from the configuration of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for September 2010. Groundwater flow models indicate the downward flow of water into the Upper Floridan aquifer

  4. Analyzing Conductivity Profiles in Stream Waters Influenced by Mine Water Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Teemu; Hämäläinen, Emmy; Hämäläinen, Matias; Turunen, Kaisa; Pajula, Pasi; Backnäs, Soile

    2015-04-01

    Conductivity is useful as a general measure of stream water quality. Each stream inclines to have a quite constant range of conductivity that can be used as a baseline for comparing and detecting influence of contaminant sources. Conductivity in natural streams and rivers is affected primarily by the geology of the watershed. Thus discharges from ditches and streams affect not only the flow rate in the river but also the water quality and conductivity. In natural stream waters, the depth and the shape of the river channel change constantly, which changes also the water flow. Thus, an accurate measuring of conductivity or other water quality indicators is difficult. Reliable measurements are needed in order to have holistic view about amount of contaminants, sources of discharges and seasonal variation in mixing and dilution processes controlling the conductivity changes in river system. We tested the utility of CastAway-CTD measuring device (SonTek Inc) to indicate the influence of mine waters as well as mixing and dilution occurring in the recipient river affected by treated dewatering and process effluent water discharges from a Finnish gold mine. The CastAway-CTD measuring device is a small, rugged and designed for profiling of depths of up to 100m. Device measures temperature, salinity, conductivity and sound of speed using 5 Hz response time. It has also built-in GPS which produces location information. CTD casts are normally used to produce vertical conductivity profile for rather deep waters like seas or lakes. We did seasonal multiple Castaway-CTD measurements during 2013 and 2014 and produced scaled vertical and horizontal profiles of conductivity and water temperature at the river. CastAway-CTD measurement pinpoints how possible contaminants behave and locate in stream waters. The conductivity profiles measured by CastAway-CTD device show the variation in maximum conductivity values vertically in measuring locations and horizontally in measured cross

  5. Neutron transmission measurement for natural W at nELBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, T.-Y.; Kim, J. W.; Kim, H. I.; Yang, S.-C.; Lee, C. W.; Lee, Y.-O.; Junghans, A. R.; Beyer, R.; Kögler, T.; Schwengner, R.; Hannaske, R.; Wagner, L.; Leinhardt, T. P.; Takacs, M. P.; Massarczyk, R.; Müller, S.; Ferrari, A.; Schmidt, K.; Röder, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Szücs, T.; Wagner, A.

    2017-09-01

    Korea has developed a Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector Test Blanket Module (Ko HCCR TBM) related to the ITER project. Tungsten is considered as a prime candidate for the plasma facing materials in fusion reactors, and for the structure material of Ko HCCR TBM. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been evaluating neutron cross sections of tungsten isotopes for neutron energy of up to 150 MeV based on nuclear reaction codes and available measurement data. New experimental data were measured at nELBE of HZDR (Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf) for a comparison with the evaluated and existing measurement data. The neutron source nELBE adopts a 40 MeV superconducting electron linac and a liquid Pb target for time-of-flight measurements. The nELBE neutron source uses no moderator and provides fast neutrons. An electron bunch length of 5 ps and a compact target provide a good neutron energy resolution with a relatively short flight length compared to other time-of-flight neutron sources. Transmission data of a natural tungsten sample were measured with a flight path length of 852.1 cm and a repetition rate of 101.56 kHz. The neutron total cross section of natural tungsten was obtained for an energy range of 100 keV to 10 MeV.

  6. Investigation of microplasma discharge in sea water for optical emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaleev, Vladislav; Okamura, Yo; Kitamura, Kensuke; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Oh, Jun-Seok; Furuta, Hiroshi; Hatta, Akimitsu

    2016-07-01

    Microplasma discharge in sea water for optical emission spectroscopy was investigated using a needle-to-plane electrode system. The electrodes of a Pd needle and a Pt plate were placed with a gap of 25 µm in typical artificial sea water or locally sampled natural deep sea water. A pulse current source, consisting of a MOSFET switch, a capacitor, an inductor and the resistance of the sea water between the electrodes, was used. The circuit parameters were optimized to decrease the breakdown voltage and the spark duration to suppress erosion of the electrodes. Using a microgap configuration, spark discharges were reproducibly ignited in the highly conductive sea water at low breakdown voltages. The ignition of spark discharges required not only a critical voltage sufficient for breakdown, but also a critical energy for preheating of the sea water, sufficient for bubble formation. The possibility of using optical emission spectroscopy of microplasma in water is shown for identifying elemental composition of sea water.

  7. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Hamdan; Min Suk Cha

    2016-01-01

    Electric discharge in liquids is an emerging field of research, and is involved into various environmental applications (water purification, fuel reforming, nanomaterial synthesis, etc.). Increasing the treatment efficiency with simultaneous decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today’s research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge i...

  8. Discharge of water containing waste emanating from land to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    international Conventions and treaties such as the London Convention, is committed to certain requirements pertaining to the ... ground rules and management framework that will be applied to the discharge of land-derived wastewater to the marine ..... the risks to the environment in the event of malfunctioning, both.

  9. Wastewater discharge degrades coastal waters and reef communities in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai; Crossland, C J

    2010-06-01

    Runoff and sewage discharge from land developments can cause significant changes in water quality of coastal waters, resulting in coral degradation. Coastal waters around Phuket, Thailand are influenced by numerous sewage outfalls associated with rapid tourism development. Water quality and biological monitoring around the Phuket region was undertaken to quantify water quality and biotic characteristics at various distances from sewage outfalls. The surveys revealed strong gradients in water quality and biotic characteristics associated with tourism concentration levels as well as seasonal variability. Water and reef quality tended to decrease with increasing tourist intensity, but improved with increasing distance from sewage discharge within each of the three study locations. In addition, the effect of wastewater discharge was not localised around the source of pollution, but appeared to be transported to non-developed sites by currents, and exacerbated in the wet season.

  10. Discharge of water containing waste emanating from land to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Water Act, 1998 (Act 36 of 1998) mandates the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry to manage all water containing waste (wastewater), which emanates from land-based sources and which directly impact on the marine environment. These sources include sea outfalls, storm water drains, canals, rivers ...

  11. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

    1996-06-01

    This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices.

  12. Revisions to the Clean Water Act Regulatory Definition of Discharge of Dredged Material; Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated a final rule Amending a Clean Water Act (CWA) section 404 regulation that defines the term discharge of dredged material.

  13. Valorisation of discharge water from substrate-grown crops in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balendonck, J.; Os, E.A. van; Ruijven, J.P.M. van; Lans, C.J.M. van der; Beerling, E.A.M.; Feenstra, L.

    2014-01-01

    Due to mismatch of nutrients, high sodium concentration, growth inhibition or system failures, greenhouse growers with substrate-grown crops tend to discharge their drain water. To comply with Water Framework regulations, in future, they must re-use drain water streams as much as possible. With

  14. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge occurs...

  15. Characterization of fish hold effluent discharged from commercial fishing vessels into harbor waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Ryan J; McLaughlin, Christine; Falatko, Debra

    2014-10-15

    Fish hold effluent and the effluent produced from the cleaning of fish holds may contain organic material resulting from the degradation of seafood and cleaning products (e.g., soaps and detergents). This effluent is often discharged by vessels into near shore waters and, therefore, could have the potential to contribute to water pollution in bays and estuaries. We characterized effluent from commercial fishing vessels with holds containing refrigerated seawater, ice slurry, or chipped ice. Concentrations of trace heavy metals, wet chemistry parameters, and nutrients in effluent were compared to screening benchmarks to determine if there is a reasonable potential for effluent discharge to contribute to nonattainment of water quality standards. Most analytes (67%) exceeded their benchmark concentration and, therefore, may have the potential to pose risk to human health or the environment if discharges are in significant quantities or there are many vessels discharging in the same areas. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A participatory approach for Integrated River Basin Management in the Elbe catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunneri, C.; Hofmann, J.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a qualitative analysis of a series of in-depth interviews with governmental and non-governmental institutions (NGOs). Within the EUROCAT 1 project this methodology of participatory approach, aiming to scope the present perceptions about environmental issues and possible strategies for environmental improvement, is applied to the study of the Elbe catchment for the first time. In this frame, an Advisory Board (AB) was created, with the aim of giving insights into conflicting interests in the river catchment and guidelines for river basin management. Focus of the Elbe case study is the issue of nutrient enrichment (from the catchment) and the induced eutrophication of the coastal waters (the German Bight). Specifically, regarding this topic, the possible reduction of eutrophication in the German Bight by a (policy driven) decrease in nutrient inputs from the catchment area is analysed. Different measures for reducing the input of nutrients from the catchment, and ultimately preventing eutrophication of the coastal waters are considered. In this context, the members of the AB were asked about the efficiency and feasibility of different measures and the criteria for choosing 'better' management solutions among the possible ones. Although there is a general agreement about the necessity of reducing nutrient emissions, some members of the AB perceive other environmental issues (e.g. altered morphodynamics) as more relevant than nutrient enrichment. Voluntary cooperation, eco-efficiency and 'trans-sectoral' communication are the key concepts mentioned as being indispensable for integrated management. The (public) acceptance of measures for nutrient reduction have to find its way through compromises and social equity, allowing for win-win solutions among different groups of interests and balanced spatial division of costs and benefits. EUROpean CATchments, Project N° EVK1-CT-2000-00044 ( http://www.iia-cnr.unical.it/EUROCAT/project.htm).

  17. Evaluation of the potentials of humic acid removal in water by gas phase surface discharge plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Ren, Jingyu; Yan, Qiuhe; Sun, Qiuhong; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-02-01

    Degradation of humic acid (HA), a predominant type of natural organic matter in ground water and surface waters, was conducted using a gas phase surface discharge plasma system. HA standard and two surface waters (Wetland, and Weihe River) were selected as the targets. The experimental results showed that about 90.9% of standard HA was smoothly removed within 40 min's discharge plasma treatment at discharge voltage 23.0 kV, and the removal process fitted the first-order kinetic model. Roles of some active species in HA removal were studied by evaluating the effects of solution pH and OH radical scavenger; and the results presented that O3 and OH radical played significant roles in HA removal. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and FTIR analysis showed that HA surface topography and molecular structure were changed during discharge plasma process. The mineralization of HA was analyzed by UV-Vis spectrum, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), specific UV absorbance (SUVA), UV absorption ratios, and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence. The formation of disinfection by-products during HA sample chlorination was also identified, and CHCl3 was detected as the main disinfection by-product, but discharge plasma treatment could suppress its formation to a certain extent. In addition, approximately 82.3% and 67.9% of UV254 were removed for the Weihe River water and the Wetland water after 40 min of discharge plasma treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamics of fish diseases in the lower Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, H.

    1984-03-01

    As part of a survey on population dynamics and ecology of fishesin the Elbe River, seasonal and regional fluctuations of external fish diseases were studied from the open North Sea to Hamburg in 1981 1982. Clinical signs of 11 different diseases, several of them not being recorded before, were noted in 22 fish species. Averaged over all samples, the total disease prevalence was below 1 % in 16 species. Highest prevalences were found in smelt (12.7 %), eel (9.2 %), and flounder (5.5 %). The frequency of most diseases increased in larger (older) fish. High prevalences of skeletal abnormalities in cod could be related to abnormal migration habits of diseased fish. Spawning papillomatosis, skin ulceration, and fin rot in smelt occurred predominantly during the spawning season. Most diseases observed occurred at relatively high prevalences in the central Elbe estuary between Cuxhaven and Brunsbüttel. This is most obvious for lymphocystis, fin rot, skin ulceration, and bleaching syndrome in flounder, but such a tendency also seems to occur in cauliflower disease of eel, as well as spawning papillomatosis and pharyngeal granuloma in smelt. This area is less heavily polluted and less frequently affected by oxygen deficiency than the area upstream of Glückstadt, where diseases in general occurred at lower frequencies. Therefore, it is concluded that neither pollution nor lack of oxygen are the main triggers for the outbreak of diseases in Elbe fish. It is supposed that large tidal fluctuations of salinity are a major stress factor for fish in the estuary between Cuxhaven and Brunsbüttel. Flounder from this area usually are in a relatively bad nutritional state. Their condition factor increases significantly towards Hamburg, while their disease prevalence decreases in the same direction.

  19. Modelling mid-span water table depth and drainage discharge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... groundwater table depth at varied drain depth and spacing combinations (ASAE Standards, 1999). ... Where ∆Va is the change in water pore space (cm) at any time increment ∆t (h); F is the amount of water ...... and nitrogen losses in a cold climate using DRAINMOD 5.1. Trans. ASAE 53 (2) 385−395.

  20. Discharge, suspended sediment, bedload, and water quality in Clear Creek, western Nevada, water years 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Jena M.; Savard, Charles S.

    2015-09-30

    Clear Creek is a small stream that drains the eastern Sierra Nevada near Lake Tahoe, flows roughly parallel to the U.S. Highway 50 corridor, and discharges to the Carson River near Carson City, Nevada. Historical and ongoing development in the drainage basin is thought to be affecting Clear Creek and its sediment-transport characteristics. A baseline study from water years 2004–07 collected and evaluated data at three Clear Creek sampling sites. These data included discharge, selected water-quality parameters, and suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, and yields. This study builds on what was learned from the baseline study in water years 2004–07 and serves as a continuation of the data collection and analyses of the Clear Creek discharge regime and associated water-quality and sediment concentrations and loads during water years 2010–12.

  1. Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Jennifer Hause; Raymond Lovett; David Locke Harry Johnson; Doug Patchen

    2012-03-31

    Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of the Appalachian Basin. The most-efficient technique for stimulating Marcellus gas production involves hydraulic fracturing (injection of a water-based fluid and sand mixture) along a horizontal well bore to create a series of hydraulic fractures in the Marcellus. The hydraulic fractures free the shale-trapped gas, allowing it to flow to the well bore where it is conveyed to pipelines for transport and distribution. The hydraulic fracturing process has two significant effects on the local environment. First, water withdrawals from local sources compete with the water requirements of ecosystems, domestic and recreational users, and/or agricultural and industrial uses. Second, when the injection phase is over, 10 to 30% of the injected water returns to the surface. This water consists of flowback, which occurs between the completion of fracturing and gas production, and produced water, which occurs during gas production. Collectively referred to as returned frac water (RFW), it is highly saline with varying amounts of organic contamination. It can be disposed of, either by injection into an approved underground injection well, or treated to remove contaminants so that the water meets the requirements of either surface release or recycle use. Depending on the characteristics of the RFW and the availability of satisfactory disposal alternatives, disposal can impose serious costs to the operator. In any case, large quantities of water must be transported to and from well locations, contributing to wear and tear on local roadways that were not designed to handle the heavy loads and increased traffic. The search for a way to mitigate the situation and improve the overall efficiency of shale gas production suggested a treatment method that would allow RFW to be used as make

  2. Luminous phase of nanosecond discharge in deionized water: morphology, propagation velocity and optical emission.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Pongrác, Branislav; Babický, Václav; Člupek, Martin; Lukeš, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 7 (2017), č. článku 07LT01. ISSN 0963-0252 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12987S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : water * nanosecond discharge * emission spectra * breakdown Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6595/aa758d

  3. Assimilation of water temperature and discharge data for ensemble water temperature forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet-Proulx, Sébastien; Chimi Chiadjeu, Olivier; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; St-Hilaire, André

    2017-11-01

    Recent work demonstrated the value of water temperature forecasts to improve water resources allocation and highlighted the importance of quantifying their uncertainty adequately. In this study, we perform a multisite cascading ensemble assimilation of discharge and water temperature on the Nechako River (Canada) using particle filters. Hydrological and thermal initial conditions were provided to a rainfall-runoff model, coupled to a thermal module, using ensemble meteorological forecasts as inputs to produce 5 day ensemble thermal forecasts. Results show good performances of the particle filters with improvements of the accuracy of initial conditions by more than 65% compared to simulations without data assimilation for both the hydrological and the thermal component. All thermal forecasts returned continuous ranked probability scores under 0.8 °C when using a set of 40 initial conditions and meteorological forecasts comprising 20 members. A greater contribution of the initial conditions to the total uncertainty of the system for 1-dayforecasts is observed (mean ensemble spread = 1.1 °C) compared to meteorological forcings (mean ensemble spread = 0.6 °C). The inclusion of meteorological uncertainty is critical to maintain reliable forecasts and proper ensemble spread for lead times of 2 days and more. This work demonstrates the ability of the particle filters to properly update the initial conditions of a coupled hydrological and thermal model and offers insights regarding the contribution of two major sources of uncertainty to the overall uncertainty in thermal forecasts.

  4. Residence time of water discharging from the Hanging Gardens of Zion Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, B.A.; Christensen, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanging Gardens are a unique feature of Zion National Park. Knowledge of the source and residence time of water discharging from the Hanging Gardens is necessary to help preserve these features. Ground-water chemical and isotopic data distinguish the discharge from seeps and springs into two groups, one of low and one of high conductivity. Water with low conductivity likely originates as recharge near the steps and springs, and it only interacts with the Navajo Sandstone. High conductivity water, on the other hand, originates as recharge on the tops of plateaus to the east, where it interacts with marine rocks of the Carmel Formation. Carbon dating of these ground waters indicates that the low conductivity water is essentially modern recharge, while the high conductivity water was recharged 1,000 to 4,000 years ago.The Hanging Gardens are a unique feature of Zion National Park. Knowledge of the source and residence time of water discharging from the Hanging Gardens is necessary to help preserve these features. Ground-water chemical and isotopic data distinguish the discharge from seeps and springs into two groups, one of low and one of high conductivity. Water with low conductivity likely originates as recharge near the seeps and springs, and it only interacts with the Navajo Sandstone. High conductivity water, on the other hand, originates as recharge on the tops of plateaus to the cast, where it interacts with marine rocks of the Carmel Formation. Carbon dating of these ground waters indicates that the low conductivity water is essentially modern recharge, while the high conductivity water was recharged 1,000 to 4,000 years ago.

  5. Operation of the superconducting RF photo gun at ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Teichert, J; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schneider, C; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Xiang, R; Kamps, T; Rudolph, J; Schenk, M; Klemz, G; Will, I

    2011-01-01

    As the first superconducting RF photo-injector (SRF gun) in practical operation, the SRF gun has been successfully connected to the superconducting linac ELBE at Forschungzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The injection with this new gun will improve the beam quality for the users of the radiation source. The SRF gun contains a 3½ cell superconducting accelerating cavity with a frequency of 1.3 GHz. The design is for use of normal conducting photocathodes. At present, caesium telluride photocathodes are applied which are illuminated by an ultraviolet laser beam. The kinetic energy of the produced electron beam is 3 MeV which belongs to a peak electric field of 16 MV/m in the cavity. The maximum bunch charge which is obtained and measured in a Faraday cup is about 400 pC (20 µA average current at a repetition rate of 50 kHz). The SRF gun injector is connected to the ELBE accelerator via a dogleg with two 45° deflection magnets. This connection beam line was commissioned in January 2010. A first beam injection into...

  6. Operation of the superconducting RF photo gun at ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Teichert, J; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Xiang, R; Kamps, T; Rudolph, J; Schenk, M; Klemz, G; Will, I

    2012-01-01

    As the first superconducting RF photo-injector (SRF gun) in practical operation, the SRF gun has been successfully connected to the superconducting linac ELBE at Forschungzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The injection with this new gun will improve the beam quality for the users of the radiation source. The SRF gun contains a 3½ cell superconducting accelerating cavity with a frequency of 1.3 GHz. The design is for use of normal conducting photocathodes. At present, caesium telluride photocathodes are applied which are illuminated by an ultraviolet laser beam. The kinetic energy of the produced electron beam is 3 MeV which belongs to a peak electric field of 16 MV/m in the cavity. The maximum bunch charge which is obtained and measured in a Faraday cup is about 400 pC (20 μA average current at a repetition rate of 50 kHz). The SRF gun injector is connected to the ELBE accelerator via a dogleg with two 45° deflection magnets. This connection beam line was commissioned in January 2010. A first beam injection into...

  7. First Lasing at the ELBE mid-IR FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Peter

    2004-01-01

    First lasing of the mid infrared FEL at ELBE was achieved on May 7, 2004. The Radiation Source ELBE at the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf in Dresden is currently under transition from commissioning to regular user operation. Presently the electron linac produces an up to 18 MeV, 1 mA (cw) electron beam which is alotted to generate various kinds of secondary radiation. After the successful commissioning of the bremsstrahlung and channeling-X-ray facilities during 2003 stable lasing has now been observed in the IR range (15 to 22 μm). The oscillator FEL is equipped with two planar undulator units, both consisting of 34 hybrid permanent magnet periods of 27.3 mm (Krms = 0.3 - 0.8). The distance between the two parts is variable and the gaps can be adjusted and tapered independently. At 19.6 µm an optical power of 3W was out-coupled in a macro pulse of 0.6 ms duration using an electron beam energy of 16.1 MeV and an energy spread of less than 100 keV; the micropulse charge was 50 pC and its width slightly a...

  8. Impact of water and sediment discharges on subaqueous delta evolution in Yangtze Estuary from 1950 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-ping YANG

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine how the subaqueous delta evolution depends on the water and sediment processes in the Yangtze Estuary, the amounts of water and sediment discharged into the estuary were studied. The results show that, during the period from 1950 to 2010, there was no significant change in the annual water discharge, and the multi-annual mean water discharge increased in dry seasons and decreased in flood seasons. However, the annual sediment discharge and the multi-annual mean sediment discharge in flood and dry seasons took on a decreasing trend, and the intra-annual distribution of water and sediment discharges tended to be uniform. The evolution process from deposition to erosion occurred at the ?10 m and ?20 m isobaths of the subaqueous delta. The enhanced annual water and sediment discharges had a silting-up effect on the delta, and the effect of sediment was greater than that of water. Based on data analysis, empirical curves were built to present the relationships between the water and sediment discharges over a year or in dry and flood seasons and the erosion/deposition rates in typical regions of the subaqueous delta, whose evolution followed the pattern of silting in flood seasons and scouring in dry seasons. Notably, the Three Gorges Dam has changed the distribution processes of water and sediment discharges, and the dam’s regulating and reserving functions can benefit the subaqueous delta deposition when the annual water and sediment discharges are not affected.

  9. Impact of water and sediment discharges on subaqueous delta evolution in Yangtze Estuary from 1950 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-ping Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine how the subaqueous delta evolution depends on the water and sediment processes in the Yangtze Estuary, the amounts of water and sediment discharged into the estuary were studied. The results show that, during the period from 1950 to 2010, there was no significant change in the annual water discharge, and the multi-annual mean water discharge increased in dry seasons and decreased in flood seasons. However, the annual sediment discharge and the multi-annual mean sediment discharge in flood and dry seasons took on a decreasing trend, and the intra-annual distribution of water and sediment discharges tended to be uniform. The evolution process from deposition to erosion occurred at the −10 m and −20 m isobaths of the subaqueous delta. The enhanced annual water and sediment discharges had a silting-up effect on the delta, and the effect of sediment was greater than that of water. Based on data analysis, empirical curves were built to present the relationships between the water and sediment discharges over a year or in dry and flood seasons and the erosion/deposition rates in typical regions of the subaqueous delta, whose evolution followed the pattern of silting in flood seasons and scouring in dry seasons. Notably, the Three Gorges Dam has changed the distribution processes of water and sediment discharges, and the dam's regulating and reserving functions can benefit the subaqueous delta deposition when the annual water and sediment discharges are not affected.

  10. 77 FR 35268 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 151 46 CFR Part 162 RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships... entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters''. The.... Coast Guard; telephone 202-372-1402, email environmental_standards@uscg.mil . If you have questions...

  11. Research on Discharge Circuit of Electro-Hydraulic Power Impulse Water Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Gao, Quanjie; Wang, Wei; Liao, Zhenfang

    2012-01-01

    Electro-hydraulic power impulse water jets can convert the shock wave generated in the liquid by discharging into mechanical energy, and it has been widely used in material forming, surface cleaning, pipeline dirt cleaning and ore breaking process. Compared with the traditional high pressure water jets, the energy utilization of electro-hydraulic power impulse water jets is up to 80% while the water consumption is reduced by 40-55%. This paper has taken electro-hydraulic power impulse water jets as the research object, employed obtaining the maximum pressure of compression impulse matrix surface as the research goal, studied in depth the equivalent discharge circuit, characteristic equation and the relationship between the electrical parameters of the electro-hydraulic power impulse discharge circuit and built the calculation method of the voltage, the inductance, the capacitance and the electrode spacing parameter of electro-hydraulic power impulse water jets discharge circuit. So, it will provide important theoretical basis for further studies of electro-hydraulic power impulse technology and the existing water jets device.

  12. Determination of radionuclides in discharged water from gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples collected from each processing stage were screened for gross alpha-beta using Quantulus 1220 Wallac Liquid Scintillation Counter. The physical processing steps relatively concentrated alpha emitting radionuclides compared to that of beta. In the chemical processing stages of the oxide and sulphide ores ...

  13. Modelling total sewage water discharge to a regional treatment plant.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, J.V.; Stricker, H.

    1986-01-01

    In the Netherlands, sewage water is often treated on a regional basis. In case of combined systems that are spread within a large region of several hundreds of square kilometers, reduction of the hydraulic capacity of the regional treatment plant seems possible, because of space-time variations in

  14. Modelling mid-span water table depth and drainage discharge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... during calibration period, showed that there was a very strong agreement between simulated and observed WTDs with a goodness-of-fit (R2) of 0.826 ..... DRAINMOD model calibration, evaluation and statistical analysis ..... EL-SADEK A (2007) Up-scaling field scale hydrology and water quality modeling to ...

  15. Influence of discharged effluent on the quality of surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... This article reports on the level of toxic trace metals (Cd, Pb, Mn, Zn, Cu and Ni) in surface water and sediment along the Blaauwbankspruit in the West Rand District of South Africa. This spruit serves as receiving channel of wastewaters from sewage treatment plant and a gold mine. Some physical and.

  16. Influence of discharged effluent on the quality of surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the level of toxic trace metals (Cd, Pb, Mn, Zn, Cu and Ni) in surface water and sediment along the Blaauwbankspruit in the West Rand District of South Africa. This spruit serves as receiving channel of wastewaters from sewage treatment plant and a gold mine. Some physical and chemical influences ...

  17. Modelling mid-span water table depth and drainage discharge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water table depths were monitored in 1.7 m deep piezometers installed mid-way between two drains by using an electronic dip meter with a beeper, while DDs were measured at drain lateral outlet points, using a bucket and a stop watch. Both WTDs and DDs were monitored from September 2011 to February 2012. Results ...

  18. Ground water discharge and nitrate flux to the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Carolyn B; Poreda, Robert J; Hunt, Andrew G; Carey, Anne E

    2004-01-01

    Ground water samples (37 to 186 m depth) from Baldwin County, Alabama, are used to define the hydrogeology of Gulf coastal aquifers and calculate the subsurface discharge of nutrients to the Gulf of Mexico. The ground water flow and nitrate flux have been determined by linking ground water concentrations to 3H/3He and 4He age dates. The middle aquifer (A2) is an active flow system characterized by postnuclear tritium levels, moderate vertical velocities, and high nitrate concentrations. Ground water discharge could be an unaccounted source for nutrients in the coastal oceans. The aquifers annually discharge 1.1 +/- 0.01 x 10(8) moles of nitrate to the Gulf of Mexico, or 50% and 0.8% of the annual contributions from the Mobile-Alabama River System and the Mississippi River System, respectively. In southern Baldwin County, south of Loxley, increasing reliance on ground water in the deeper A3 aquifer requires accurate estimates of safe ground water withdrawal. This aquifer, partially confined by Pliocene clay above and Pensacola Clay below, is tritium dead and contains elevated 4He concentrations with no nitrate and estimated ground water ages from 100 to 7000 years. The isotopic composition and concentration of natural gas diffusing from the Pensacola Clay into the A3 aquifer aids in defining the deep ground water discharge. The highest 4He and CH4 concentrations are found only in the deepest sample (Gulf State Park), indicating that ground water flow into the Gulf of Mexico suppresses the natural gas plume. Using the shape of the CH4-He plume and the accumulation of 4He rate (2.2 +/- 0.8 microcc/kg/1000 years), we estimate the natural submarine discharge and the replenishment rate for the A3 aquifer.

  19. Effect of land use change on water discharge in Srepok watershed, Central Highland, Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Ngoc Quyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Srepok watershed plays an important role in Central Highland in Viet Nam. It impacts to developing social-economic conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to research elements which impact to natural resources in this watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model and Geography Information System (GIS were used to simulate water discharge in the Srepok watershed. The objectives of the research were to apply GIS and SWAT model for simulation water discharge and then, we assessed land use change which impacted on water discharge in the watershed. The observed stream flow data from Ban Don Stream gauge station was used to calibrate for the period from 1981 to 2000 and then validate for the period from 2001 to 2009. After using SWAT-CUP software to calibration, NSI reached 0.63 and R square value achieved 0.64 from 2004 to 2008 in calibration and NSI gained good level at 0.74 and R square got 0.75 from 2009 to 2012 in validation step at Ban Don Station. After that, land cover in 2010 was processed like land cover in 2000 and set up SWAT model again. The simulated water discharge in scenario 1 (land use 2000 was compared with scenario 2 (land use 2010, the simulation result was not significant difference between two scenarios because the change of area of land use was not much enough to affect the fluctuation of water discharge. However, the effect of land cover on water resource could be seen clearly via total water yield. The percentage of surface flow in 2000 was twice times more than in 2010; retard and base flow in 2000 was slightly more than in 2010. Therefore, decreased surface flow, increased infiltration capacity of water and enriched base flow resulted in the growth of land cover.

  20. Differential Inactivation of Fungal Spores in Water and on Seeds by Ozone and Arc Discharge Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Ho; Pengkit, Anchalee; Choi, Kihong; Jeon, Seong Sil; Choi, Hyo Won; Shin, Dong Bum; Choi, Eun Ha; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon

    2015-01-01

    Seed sterilization is essential for preventing seed borne fungal diseases. Sterilization tools based on physical technologies have recently received much attention. However, available information is very limited in terms of efficiency, safety, and mode of action. In this study, we have examined antifungal activity of ozone and arc discharge plasma, potential tools for seed sterilization. In our results, ozone and arc discharge plasma have shown differential antifungal effects, depending on the environment associated with fungal spores (freely submerged in water or infected seeds). Ozone inactivates Fusarium fujikuroi (fungus causing rice bakanae disease) spores submerged in water more efficiently than arc discharge plasma. However, fungal spores associated with or infecting rice seeds are more effectively deactivated by arc discharge plasma. ROS generated in water by ozone may function as a powerful fungicidal factor. On the other hand, shockwave generated from arc discharge plasma may have greatly contributed to antifungal effects on fungus associated with rice seeds. In support of this notion, addition of ultrasonic wave in ozone generating water has greatly increased the efficiency of seed disinfection.

  1. Synergistic effect of pulsed corona discharges and ozonation on decolourization of methylene blue in water

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, M A; Ghaffar, A; Ahmed, K

    2002-01-01

    The effect of O sub 2 and O sub 3 bubbling on decolourization of methylene blue by pulsed corona discharges in water was studied. The pulsed corona discharges were produced by charging an 80 pF capacitor with a 40 kV DC source, through a 100 M OMEGA resistor, and discharging it into a needle-plate type reactor at 60 Hz through a rotating spark gap switch. A 20 ml sample of 13.25 mg l sup - sup 1 methylene blue in distilled water was decolourized in 120 min. Bubbling O sub 2 at 10 ml min sup - sup 1 through the discharge region reduced the decolourization time to 25 min. Bubbling O sub 2 containing 1500 mu mol O sub 3 l sup - sup 1 at 10 ml min sup - sup 1 reduced the decolourization time to 8 min. The O sub 3 was produced by fractionating input energy between a water treatment reactor and a O sub 3 generator, i.e. no additional energy was consumed for O sub 3 production. Under the same experimental conditions methylene blue solution in tap water was decolourized in >210 min by corona discharge in solution, in...

  2. Differential Inactivation of Fungal Spores in Water and on Seeds by Ozone and Arc Discharge Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ho Kang

    Full Text Available Seed sterilization is essential for preventing seed borne fungal diseases. Sterilization tools based on physical technologies have recently received much attention. However, available information is very limited in terms of efficiency, safety, and mode of action. In this study, we have examined antifungal activity of ozone and arc discharge plasma, potential tools for seed sterilization. In our results, ozone and arc discharge plasma have shown differential antifungal effects, depending on the environment associated with fungal spores (freely submerged in water or infected seeds. Ozone inactivates Fusarium fujikuroi (fungus causing rice bakanae disease spores submerged in water more efficiently than arc discharge plasma. However, fungal spores associated with or infecting rice seeds are more effectively deactivated by arc discharge plasma. ROS generated in water by ozone may function as a powerful fungicidal factor. On the other hand, shockwave generated from arc discharge plasma may have greatly contributed to antifungal effects on fungus associated with rice seeds. In support of this notion, addition of ultrasonic wave in ozone generating water has greatly increased the efficiency of seed disinfection.

  3. Nanosecond Discharge in Bubbled Liquid n-Heptane: Effects of Gas Composition and Water Addition

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad

    2016-08-30

    Recently, an aqueous discharge reactor was developed to facilitate reformation of liquid fuels by in-liquid plasma. To gain a microscopic understanding of the physical elements behind this aqueous reactor, we investigate nanosecond discharges in liquid n-heptane with single and double gaseous bubbles in the gap between electrodes. We introduce discharge probability (DP) to characterize the stochastic nature of the discharges, and we investigate the dependence of DP on the gap distance, applied voltage, gaseous bubble composition, and the water content in n-heptane/distilled-water emulsified mixtures. Propagation of a streamer through the bubbles indicates no discharges in the liquids. DP is controlled by the properties of the gaseous bubble rather than by the composition of the liquid mixture in the gap with a single bubble; meanwhile, DP is determined by the dielectric permittivity of the liquid mixture in the gap with double bubbles, results that are supported by static electric field simulations. We found that a physical mechanism of increasing DP is caused by an interaction between bubbles and an importance of the dielectric permittivity of a liquid mixture on the local enhancement of field intensity. We also discuss detailed physical characteristics, such as plasma lifetime and electron density within the discharge channel, by estimating from measured emissions with a gated-intensified charge-coupled device and by using spectroscopic images, respectively. © 1973-2012 IEEE.

  4. Critical discharge of initially subcooled water through slits. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, C N; Schrock, V E

    1983-09-01

    This report describes an experimental investigation into the critical flow of initially subcooled water through rectangular slits. The study of such flows is relevant to the prediction of leak flow rates from cracks in piping, or pressure vessels, which contain sufficient enthalpy that vaporization will occur if they are allowed to expand to the ambient pressure. Two new analytical models, which allow for the generation of a metastable liquid phase, are developed. Experimental results are compared with the predictions of both these new models and with a Fanno Homogeneous Equilibrium Model.

  5. Pin Hole Discharge Creation in Na2SO4 Water Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Hlavatá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the diaphragm discharge generated in water solutions containing Na2SO4 as a supporting electrolyte. The solution conductivity was varied in the range of 270 ÷ 750 µScm-1. The batch plasma reactor with volume of 100 ml was divided into two electrode spaces by the Shapal-MTM ceramics dielectric barrier with a pin-hole (diameter of 0.6 mm. Three variable barrier thicknesses (0.3; 0.7 and 1.5 mm and non-pulsed DC voltage up to 2 kV were used for the discharge creation. Each of the current–voltage characteristic can be divided into three parts: electrolysis, bubble formation and discharge operation. The experimental results showed that the discharge ignition moment in the pin-hole was significantly dependent on the dielectric diaphragm thickness. Breakdown voltage increases with the increase of the dielectric barrier thickness.

  6. Water and Sediment Discharges from a Glacier-covered Basin under Maritime Climate in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Takane; Chikita, Kazuhisa A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to clarify the characteristics of water and sediment discharges from glacier-covered basins under maritime climate, hydrological observations were carried out within a drainage basin which contains Koryto Glacier in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Water discharge of a proglacial stream near the glacier terminus varied between 3 and 12 m^3 s^[-1] during the summer of 2000. Variation in suspended sediment concentration was positively correlated with water discharge, and values of sediment...

  7. Characterization of a dielectric barrier discharge in contact with liquid and producing a plasma activated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neretti, G.; Taglioli, M.; Colonna, G.; Borghi, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a low-temperature plasma source for the generation of plasma activated water (PAW) is developed and characterized. The plasma reactor was operated by means of an atmospheric-pressure air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The plasma generated is in contact with the water surface and is able to chemically activate the liquid medium. Electrodes were supplied by both sinusoidal and nanosecond-pulsed voltage waveforms. Treatment times were varied from 2 to 12 min to increase the energy dose released to the water by the DBD plasma. The physics of the discharge was studied by means of electrical, spectroscopic and imaging diagnostics. The interaction between the plasma and the liquid was investigated as well. Temperature and composition of the treated water were detected. Images of the discharges showed a filamentary behaviour in the sinusoidal case and a more homogeneous behaviour in the nanosecond-pulsed one. The images and the electrical measurements allowed to evaluate an average electron number density of about 4  ×  1019 and 6  ×  1017 m-3 for the sinusoidal and nanosecond-pulsed discharges respectively. Electron temperatures in the range of 2.1÷2.6 eV were measured by using spectroscopic diagnostics. Rotational temperatures in the range of 318-475 K were estimated by fitting synthetic spectra with the measured ones. Water temperature and pH level did not change significantly after the exposure to the DBD plasma. The production of ozone and hydrogen peroxide within the water was enhanced by increasing the plasma treatment time and the energy dose. Numerical simulations of the nanosecond-pulsed discharge were performed by using a self-consistent coupling of state-to-state kinetics of the air mixture with the Boltzmann equation of free electron kinetics. Temporal evolution of the electron energy distribution function shows departure from the Maxwellian distribution especially during the afterglow phase of the discharge. When

  8. Effect of Electrolytes on the Decomposition of Dye by Pulsed Discharge in Air Spraying Water Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, Taisuke; Yokoyama, Yuzo; Minamitani, Yasushi

    Effect of electrolytes on the decolorization of indigo carmine and on the production of H2O2 by pulsed discharge in air spraying water droplets was performed in sodium chloride and magnesium sulfate solutions. Peak voltage of the discharge decreased with increasing solution conductivity, but peak current and discharge energy increased. Decolorization rate and decolorization efficiency of indigo carmine and the yield of H2O2 decreased with increasing chloride and sulfate ion concentrations. It was found that the decolorization of indigo carmine and the production of H2O2 are affected by the ion concentration even in the case of discharge in air spraying water droplets. However it was less effective than that of discharge in water. Chloride ion was more effective than sulfate ion regarding the decrease of decolorization rate and the production of H2O2. Decolorization rate of indigo carmine was strongly related to the production of H2O2. These results also indicated that decolorization of indigo carmine depends on the production of hydroxyl radical.

  9. Discharge, water temperature, and selected meteorological data for Vancouver Lake, Vancouver, Washington, water years 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, James R.; Marshall, Cameron A.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey partnered with the Vancouver Lake Watershed Partnership in a 2-year intensive study to quantify the movement of water and nutrients through Vancouver Lake in Vancouver, Washington. This report is intended to assist the Vancouver Lake Watershed Partnership in evaluating potential courses of action to mitigate seasonally driven blooms of harmful cyanobacteria and to improve overall water quality of the lake. This report contains stream discharge, lake water temperature, and selected meteorological data for water years 2011, 2012, and 2013 that were used to develop the water and nutrient budgets for the lake.

  10. TELBE - the super-radiant THz facility at ELBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Bertram; Kovalev, Sergei; Hauser, Jens; Kuntzsch, Michael; Schneider, Harald; Winnerl, Stephan; Seidel, Wolfgang; Zvyagin, Sergei; Lehnert, Ulf; Helm, Manfred; Michel, Peter; Gensch, Michael [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Al-Shemmary, Alaa; Radu, Ilie; Stojanovic, Nikola; Cavalleri, Andrea [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany); Wall, Simon [FHI Berlin (Germany); Eng, Lukas M. [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Heberle, Joachim [FU Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    It has been shown recently that relativistic electron bunches can be utilized for the generation of super-radiant coherent THz radiation by one single pass through an undulator, bending magnet, or CDR/CTR screens. However, the high THz fields have all been achieved at large accelerators that allow for high electron beam energies. A crucially important research topic for the next years at the HZDR is therefore to investigate whether an equally fine control over highly charged electron bunch form can be routinely achieved in a low electron beam energy accelerator like ELBE. If successful this development would allow the generation of high field THz fields by linear accelerators at considerably reduced cost. Given stable operation can be provided, TELBE, could also become a world-wide unique research facility for high field THz science. The current status and an outlook on future developments are presented.

  11. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle; Martin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  12. Permitted water pollution discharges and population cancer and non-cancer mortality: toxicity weights and upstream discharge effects in US rural-urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The study conducts statistical and spatial analyses to investigate amounts and types of permitted surface water pollution discharges in relation to population mortality rates for cancer and non-cancer causes nationwide and by urban-rural setting. Data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) were used to measure the location, type, and quantity of a selected set of 38 discharge chemicals for 10,395 facilities across the contiguous US. Exposures were refined by weighting amounts of chemical discharges by their estimated toxicity to human health, and by estimating the discharges that occur not only in a local county, but area-weighted discharges occurring upstream in the same watershed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) mortality files were used to measure age-adjusted population mortality rates for cancer, kidney disease, and total non-cancer causes. Analysis included multiple linear regressions to adjust for population health risk covariates. Spatial analyses were conducted by applying geographically weighted regression to examine the geographic relationships between releases and mortality. Results Greater non-carcinogenic chemical discharge quantities were associated with significantly higher non-cancer mortality rates, regardless of toxicity weighting or upstream discharge weighting. Cancer mortality was higher in association with carcinogenic discharges only after applying toxicity weights. Kidney disease mortality was related to higher non-carcinogenic discharges only when both applying toxicity weights and including upstream discharges. Effects for kidney mortality and total non-cancer mortality were stronger in rural areas than urban areas. Spatial results show correlations between non-carcinogenic discharges and cancer mortality for much of the contiguous United States, suggesting that chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may contribute to cancer mortality risk. The

  13. Permitted water pollution discharges and population cancer and non-cancer mortality: toxicity weights and upstream discharge effects in US rural-urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Conley, Jamison; Fedorko, Evan; Luo, Juhua; Armistead, Matthew

    2012-04-02

    The study conducts statistical and spatial analyses to investigate amounts and types of permitted surface water pollution discharges in relation to population mortality rates for cancer and non-cancer causes nationwide and by urban-rural setting. Data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) were used to measure the location, type, and quantity of a selected set of 38 discharge chemicals for 10,395 facilities across the contiguous US. Exposures were refined by weighting amounts of chemical discharges by their estimated toxicity to human health, and by estimating the discharges that occur not only in a local county, but area-weighted discharges occurring upstream in the same watershed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) mortality files were used to measure age-adjusted population mortality rates for cancer, kidney disease, and total non-cancer causes. Analysis included multiple linear regressions to adjust for population health risk covariates. Spatial analyses were conducted by applying geographically weighted regression to examine the geographic relationships between releases and mortality. Greater non-carcinogenic chemical discharge quantities were associated with significantly higher non-cancer mortality rates, regardless of toxicity weighting or upstream discharge weighting. Cancer mortality was higher in association with carcinogenic discharges only after applying toxicity weights. Kidney disease mortality was related to higher non-carcinogenic discharges only when both applying toxicity weights and including upstream discharges. Effects for kidney mortality and total non-cancer mortality were stronger in rural areas than urban areas. Spatial results show correlations between non-carcinogenic discharges and cancer mortality for much of the contiguous United States, suggesting that chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may contribute to cancer mortality risk. The geographically weighted

  14. Water Treatment using Discharge Generated in Cavitation Field with Micro Bubble Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Satoshi; Hirohata, Taiki; Kominato, Yuichi; Yamabe, Chobei; Ike, Hideaki; Hakiai, Kazunori; Hirabayashi, Kazuya; Tamagawa, Masaaki

    New method of water treatment for wastewater using discharge in water cavitation field, in which numerous micro bubbles were generated by high-speed water flow, was proposed in this paper. Indigo carmine solution, which is a type of dye, with a concentration of 9mg/Liter was used as a specimen for demonstration of water treatment. The total volume of solution and average speed of solution in the cavitation field was 20 Liter and about 7.4 m/s, respectively. A reduction ratio of absorbance of 96% was obtained in 50 min of treatment time at an electrode distance of 2 mm and a discharge power of 16 W. Also it was found that the efficiency of decolorization was improved by changing the electrode location.

  15. Time-delayed transition of normal-to-abnormal glow in pin-to-water discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S.-Y.; Byeon, Y.-S.; Yoo, S.; Hong, E. J.; Kim, S. B.; Yoo, S. J.; Ryu, S., E-mail: smryu@nfri.re.kr [Plasma Technology Research Center of National Fusion Research Institute, 37, Dongjangsan-ro, Gunsan-si, Jeollabuk-do, Gunsan 54004 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Time-delayed transition of normal-to-abnormal glow was investigated in discharge between spoke-like pins and ultrapure water by applying AC-driven power at a frequency of 14.3 kHz at atmospheric pressure. The normal-to-abnormal transition can be recognized from the slope changes of current density, gas temperature, electrode temperature, and OH density. The slope changes took place in tens of minutes rather than just after discharge, in other words, the transition was delayed. The time-delay of the transition was caused by the interaction between the plasma and water. The plasma affected water properties, and then the water affected plasma properties.

  16. Recombination time of an RF discharge plasma in the presence of water molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protasevich, E.T.

    1986-05-01

    The authors show that the introduction of water vapor into an electrodeless rf discharge noticeably reduces the excitation temperature and substantially increases the recombination time of the plasma. An attempt is made to explain the physical processes associated with these phenomena.

  17. Environmental impacts of produced water and drilling waste discharges from the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Torgeir; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Sanni, Steinar

    2013-12-01

    Operational discharges of produced water and drill cuttings from offshore oil and gas platforms are a continuous source of contaminants to continental shelf ecosystems. This paper reviews recent research on the biological effects of such discharges with focus on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The greatest concern is linked to effects of produced water. Alkylphenols (AP) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from produced water accumulate in cod and blue mussel caged near outlets, but are rapidly metabolized in cod. APs, naphtenic acids, and PAHs may disturb reproductive functions, and affect several chemical, biochemical and genetic biomarkers. Toxic concentrations seem restricted to <2 km distance. At the peak of discharge of oil-contaminated cuttings fauna disturbance was found at more than 5 km from some platforms, but is now seldom detected beyond 500 m. Water-based cuttings may seriously affect biomarkers in filter feeding bivalves, and cause elevated sediment oxygen consumption and mortality in benthic fauna. Effects levels occur within 0.5-1 km distance. The stress is mainly physical. The risk of widespread, long term impact from the operational discharges on populations and the ecosystem is presently considered low, but this cannot be verified from the published literature. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Global land-ocean linkage: direct inputs of nitrogen to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusen, A.H.W.; Slomp, C.P.; Bouwman, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    The role of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), the leakage of groundwater from aquifers into coastal waters, in coastal eutrophication has been demonstrated mostly for the North American and European coastlines, but poorly quantified in other regions. Here, we present the first spatially

  19. Impact of reservoirs on river discharge and irrigation water supply during the 20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, H.; Haddeland, I.; Kabat, P.; Ludwig, F.; Hutjes, R.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative estimation of the impact of reservoirs on discharge and irrigation water supply during the 20th century at global, continental, and river basin scale. Compared to a natural situation the combined effect of reservoir operation and irrigation extractions decreased

  20. Flow Alteration and Chemical Reduction: Air Stripping to Lessen Subsurface Discharges of Mercury to Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. C.; Bogle, M.; Liang, L.; Miller, C. L.; Peterson, M.; Southworth, G. R.; Spalding, B. P.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury concentrations in groundwater, surface water, and biota near an industrial facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee remain high some 50 years after the original major releases from the facility to the environment. Since the mid-1980s, various remedial and abatement actions have been implemented at the facility, including re-routing water flows, armoring contaminated stream banks, relining or cleanout of facility storm drains, and activated charcoal treatment of groundwater and sump discharges. These actions were taken to reduce inorganic mercury inputs from the facility to the stream; a strategy that assumes limiting the inorganic mercury precursor will reduce Hg methylation and its subsequent bioaccumulation. To date, such actions have reduced mercury loading from the site by approximately 90% from levels typical of the mid 1980's, but waterborne mercury at the facility boundary remains roughly 100 times the typical local background concentration and methylmercury accumulation in aquatic biota exceed standards for safe consumption by humans and wildlife. In 2008 and 2009, a series of investigations was initiated to explore innovative approaches to further control mercury concentrations in stream water. Efforts in this study focused on decreasing waterborne inorganic mercury inputs from two sources. The first, a highly localized source, is the discharge point of the enclosed stormdrain network whereas the second is a more diffuse short reach of stream where metallic Hg in streambed sediments generates a continued input of dissolved Hg to the overlying water. Moving a clean water flow management discharge point to a position downstream of the contaminated reach reduced mercury loading from the streambed source by 75% - 100%, likely by minimizing resuspension of Hg-rich fine particulates and changing characteristic hyporheic flow path length and residence time. Mercury in the stormdrain discharge exists as highly reactive dissolved Hg(II) due to residual chlorine in

  1. The Time Evolution of Streamer Discharges in Single and Multiple Bubbles in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujovic, Selman; Groele, Joseph; Foster, John

    2015-09-01

    The interaction of plasma with liquid water lies at the heart of a variety of revisited technological applications ranging from water treatment to wound healing. Plasma ignition and propagation in water, however, is poorly understood. It has been theorized that plasma streamer propagation takes place in microbubbles, namely streamer bubble hopping. In this work, discharge development in single and multiple bubble acoustic systems is investigated using high-speed imaging and emission spectroscopy. Optical filters allow for time resolved measurements of specific chemical species as well. Better understanding of these breakdown processes will guide the construction of an effective plasma water purifier. NSF CBET 1336375.

  2. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min Suk

    2016-10-01

    Electric discharge in liquids is an emerging field of research, and is involved into various environmental applications (water purification, fuel reforming, nanomaterial synthesis, etc.). Increasing the treatment efficiency with simultaneous decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today's research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge efficiency can be improved by changing the interface position regarding the anode tip. The efficiency increase is due to the increase of the discharge probability as well as the plasma volume. The understanding of the experimental results is brought and strengthened by simulating the electric field distribution, using Comsol Multiphysics software. Because the dielectric permittivity ( ɛ ) is discontinuous at the interface, the electric field is enhanced by a factor that depends on the relative value of ɛ of the two liquids. The present result is very promising in future: opportunities for potential applications as well as fundamental studies for discharges in liquid.

  3. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hamdan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric discharge in liquids is an emerging field of research, and is involved into various environmental applications (water purification, fuel reforming, nanomaterial synthesis, etc.. Increasing the treatment efficiency with simultaneous decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today’s research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge efficiency can be improved by changing the interface position regarding the anode tip. The efficiency increase is due to the increase of the discharge probability as well as the plasma volume. The understanding of the experimental results is brought and strengthened by simulating the electric field distribution, using Comsol Multiphysics software. Because the dielectric permittivity ( ε is discontinuous at the interface, the electric field is enhanced by a factor that depends on the relative value of ε of the two liquids. The present result is very promising in future: opportunities for potential applications as well as fundamental studies for discharges in liquid.

  4. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad

    2016-10-24

    Electric discharge in liquids is an emerging field of research, and is involved into various environmental applications (water purification, fuel reforming, nanomaterial synthesis, etc.). Increasing the treatment efficiency with simultaneous decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today’s research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge efficiency can be improved by changing the interface position regarding the anode tip. The efficiency increase is due to the increase of the discharge probability as well as the plasma volume. The understanding of the experimental results is brought and strengthened by simulating the electric field distribution, using Comsol Multiphysics software. Because the dielectric permittivity (ε) is discontinuous at the interface, the electric field is enhanced by a factor that depends on the relative value of ε of the two liquids. The present result is very promising in future: opportunities for potential applications as well as fundamental studies for discharges in liquid.

  5. Regionalisation of the base flow index from dynamically simulated flow components — a case study in the Elbe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberlandt, U.; Klöcking, B.; Krysanova, V.; Becker, A.

    2001-07-01

    This study investigates possibilities for the regionalisation of flow components within large river basins. One main purpose is the derivation of an empirical relationship for the estimation of the average base flow index (i.e. the ratio of base flow to total flow, BFI), which can be included into simplified models in form of decision support systems aimed at rapid integrated water resources assessment. Based on results from the hydrological models ARC/EGMO and HBV in 25 mesoscale sub basins of the macroscale Elbe River Basin, the modelled BFI is regionalised for the whole German part of the Elbe Basin, divided into 114 subbasins. For regionalisation of the average BFI multiple regression (MREG) and two geostatistical approaches (ordinary kriging (OK) and external drift kriging (EDK)) are applied using different physical catchment attributes and observed climate data as independent variables. The average base flow index is strongly related to topographical, pedological, hydrogeological and precipitation characteristics and less influenced by land cover/land use properties of the catchments. As indicated by cross validations, both EDK and MREG are suitable for regionalising the BFI with coefficients of determination of 0.80 and 0.77, respectively. Furthermore, the plausibility of the estimated BFI values is shown by comparisons with parameters calculated from statistical and fractal analysis of daily flow time series, which represent a strong relation to the regionalised BFI values.

  6. Temporal modelling of ballast water discharge and ship-mediated invasion risk to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert C; Prowse, Thomas A A; Ross, Joshua V; Wittmann, Talia A; Cassey, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    Biological invasions have the potential to cause extensive ecological and economic damage. Maritime trade facilitates biological invasions by transferring species in ballast water, and on ships' hulls. With volumes of maritime trade increasing globally, efforts to prevent these biological invasions are of significant importance. Both the International Maritime Organization and the Australian government have developed policy seeking to reduce the risk of these invasions. In this study, we constructed models for the transfer of ballast water into Australian waters, based on historic ballast survey data. We used these models to hindcast ballast water discharge over all vessels that arrived in Australian waters between 1999 and 2012. We used models for propagule survival to compare the risk of ballast-mediated propagule transport between ecoregions. We found that total annual ballast discharge volume into Australia more than doubled over the study period, with the vast majority of ballast water discharge and propagule pressure associated with bulk carrier traffic. As such, the ecoregions suffering the greatest risk are those associated with the export of mining commodities. As global marine trade continues to increase, effective monitoring and biosecurity policy will remain necessary to combat the risk of future marine invasion events.

  7. 'Waterstreams': A model for estimation of crop water demand, water supply, salt accumulation and discharge for soilless crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Os, van E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Closed growing systems are obligatory for soilless grown greenhouse crops in The Netherlands. It requires water sources of high quality as sodium (Na) accumulation is a potential risk and necessitates frequent discharge, which causes undesirable emission of nutrients and plant protection

  8. Variables of state and charateristics for isentropic discharge phenomena of water, starting with saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudisch, H.

    1968-03-15

    The tables presented in this report contain the thermodynamic values of isentropic change of state for water in the two-phase region starting from the saturation line down to 0.01 at. The variables have been computed in the pressure range from 5-100 at. in equal pressure intervals of 5 at. and in the range from 100-170 at. in intervals of 10 at. Assuming a one-dimensional flow and a known saturation pressure, the dimensions of a discharge nozzle may be determined by interpolation of the calculated values for an isentropic discharge. 4 figs., 29 tabs., 23 refs.

  9. Plasma Kinetics in Electrical Discharge in Mixture of Air, Water and Ethanol Vapors for Hydrogen Enriched Syngas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Shchedrin, A. I.; Levko, D. S.; Ryabtsev, A. V.; Chernyak, V. Ya.; Yukhymenko, V. V.; Olszewski, S. V.; Naumov, V. V.; Prysiazhnevych, I. V.; Solomenko, E. V.; Demchina, V. P.; Kudryavtsev, V. S.

    2008-01-01

    The complex theoretical and experimental investigation of plasma kinetics of the electric discharge in the mixture of air and ethanol-water vapors is carried out. The discharge was burning in the cavity, formed by air jets pumping between electrodes, placed in aqueous ethanol solution. It is found out that the hydrogen yield from the discharge is maximal in the case when ethanol and water in the solution are in equal amounts. It is shown that the hydrogen production increases with the dischar...

  10. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1996-03-22

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has a program of research in the environmental aspects of oil and gas extraction. This sampling project will characterize the environmental impacts associated with the discharge of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), metals and organics in produced water. This report is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico, supported by the USDOE. These assessments are being coordinated with the field study, using the collected data to perform human health and ecological risk assessments. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the development and use of appropriate discharge practices. The initial human health and ecological risk assessments consist of conservative screening analyses meant to identify potentially important contaminants, and to eliminate others from further consideration. More quantitative assessments were done for contaminants identified, in the screening analysis, as being of potential concern. Section 2 gives an overview of human health and ecological risk assessment to help put the analyses presented here in perspective. Section 3 provides the hazard assessment portion of the risk assessment, and identifies the important receptors and pathways of concern. Section 3 also outlines the approach taken to the risk assessments presented in the rest of the report. The remaining sections (4 through 9) present the human health and ecological risk assessments for discharges of produced water to open bays in Louisiana.

  11. Acid-base status of soils in groundwater discharge zones — relation to surface water acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrström, Ann Catrine

    1995-08-01

    Critical load calculations have suggested that groundwater at depth of 2 m in Sweden is very sensitive to acid load. As environmental isotope studies have shown that most of the runoff in streams has passed through the soil, there is a risk in the near future of accelerated acidification of surface waters. To assess the importance of the last soil horizon of contact before discharge, the upper 0-0.2m of soils in seven discharge zones were analysed for pools of base cations, acidity and base saturation. The sites were about 3-4 m 2 in size and selected from two catchments exposed to different levels of acid deposition. The soils in the seven sites had high concentrations of exchangeable base cations and consequently high base saturation. The high correlation ( r2 = 0.74) between base saturation in the soils of the discharge zones and mean pH of the runoff waters suggested that the discharge zone is important for surface water acidification. The high pool of exchangeable base cations will buffer initially against the acid load. As the cation exchange capacity (meq dm -3) and base saturation were lower in the sites from the catchment receiving lower deposition, these streams may be more vulnerable to acidification in the near future. The high concentration of base cations in non-exchangeable fractions may also buffer against acidification as it is likely that some of these pools will become exchangeable with time.

  12. Environmental and biotechnological applications of high-voltage pulsed discharges in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masayuki

    2008-05-01

    A high-voltage pulse has wide application in fields such as chemistry, physics and biology and their combinations. The high-voltage pulse forms two kinds of physical processes in water, namely (a) a pulsed electric field (PEF) in the parallel electrode configuration and (b) plasma generation by a pulsed discharge in the water phase with a concentrated electric field. The PEF can be used for inactivation of bacteria in liquid foods as a non-thermal process, and the underwater plasma is applicable not only for the decomposition of organic materials in water but also for biological treatment of wastewater. These discharge states are controlled mainly by the applied pulse voltage and the electrode shape. Some examples of environmental and biotechnological applications of a high-voltage pulse are reviewed.

  13. Decolorization of Indigo Carmine Solution using Discharge on Surface of a Gas-layer in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miichi, Tomoaki

    A new method of a water treatment utilizing radicals produced by the discharge on the surface of a gas-layer in water is proposed. Radicals with short lifetime (e.g. OH radical and atomic oxygen) are used effectively for the water purification because radicals contact with water directly. The gas-layer (like a bubble) is formed when the gas is supplied to the reactor. The supply gas was argon. The indigo carmine solution was decolorized using the discharge on the surface of a gas-layer in water. The energy consumption of 1-pulse evaluated from waveforms of the applied voltage and the circuit current. When the total energy consumption was 5.46Wh, the decolorization rate of the indigo solution was 98.0%. The TOC concentration of the indigo solution which performed the discharge process was measured. When the charging voltage was 48.8kV, the treatment efficiency of TOC was 0.174g/kWh.

  14. Decline of Yangtze River water and sediment discharge: Impact from natural and anthropogenic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. L.; Xu, K. H.; Milliman, J. D.; Yang, H. F.; Wu, C. S.

    2015-07-01

    The increasing impact of both climatic change and human activities on global river systems necessitates an increasing need to identify and quantify the various drivers and their impacts on fluvial water and sediment discharge. Here we show that mean Yangtze River water discharge of the first decade after the closing of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) (2003-2012) was 67 km3/yr (7%) lower than that of the previous 50 years (1950-2002), and 126 km3/yr less compared to the relatively wet period of pre-TGD decade (1993-2002). Most (60-70%) of the decline can be attributed to decreased precipitation, the remainder resulting from construction of reservoirs, improved water-soil conservation and increased water consumption. Mean sediment flux decreased by 71% between 1950-1968 and the post-TGD decade, about half of which occurred prior to the pre-TGD decade. Approximately 30% of the total decline and 65% of the decline since 2003 can be attributed to the TGD, 5% and 14% of these declines to precipitation change, and the remaining to other dams and soil conservation within the drainage basin. These findings highlight the degree to which changes in riverine water and sediment discharge can be related with multiple environmental and anthropogenic factors.

  15. Effects of streamflow variation on critical water quality for multiple discharges of decaying pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eheart, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The assumption that the worst water quality occurs at the lowest streamflow may not always hold in instances involving multiple discharges and nonconservative pollutants. The additional dilution resulting from increased streamflow may be offset by adverse changes in the parameters that govern water quality and in decreased residence time, which allows the stream less time to recover from the effect of one discharge before receiving another. This paper addresses the question of whether, with multiple sources of decaying pollutants, water quality might worsen with increasing streamflow. For an isothermal uniform stream it is shown that the pattern of discharge that maximizes the derivative with respect to streamflow of critical dissolved oxygen deficit or the concentration of a substance exhibiting a first-order decay is an infinite uniform distributed load. Whether the maximum value of the derivative is positive or negative depends on the values of the parameters that characterize the hydraulic geometry of the channel and the dependence of reaeration on flow. Theoretical results presented here indicate that for most natural streams the traditional assumption, that the lowest streamflow is the worst from a water quality perspective, will usually be valid for first-order pollutants. Nevertheless, they also lead to the expectation that increases in impacts with increasing streamflow might occur for dissolved oxygen, especially in highly polluted and regulated streams (pollution, water quality models, rules and regulations, and management).

  16. Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Melanie; Miller, A. Whitman; Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, international, national, and state entities are establishing regulations to limit the concentration of living organisms that may be discharged from the ballast tanks of ships. The proposed discharge standards have ranged from zero detectable organisms to 3. If standard sampling methods are used, verifying whether ballast discharge complies with these stringent standards will be challenging due to the inherent stochasticity of sampling. Furthermore, at low concentrations, very large volumes of water must be sampled to find enough organisms to accurately estimate concentration. Despite these challenges, adequate sampling protocols comprise a critical aspect of establishing standards because they help define the actual risk level associated with a standard. A standard that appears very stringent may be effectively lax if it is paired with an inadequate sampling protocol. We describe some of the statistical issues associated with sampling at low concentrations to help regulators understand the uncertainties of sampling as well as to inform the development of sampling protocols that ensure discharge standards are adequately implemented.

  17. Nitrogen retention, removal, and nitrous oxide production in the Elbe Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dähnke, Kirstin; Brase, Lisa; Jacob, Juliane; Sanders, Tina

    2017-04-01

    The Elbe River, an important tributary to the coastal North Sea, is subject to massive anthropogenic pressures from, for example, fertilization and dredging of the river and its estuary. Despite clear improvements in nutrient loads, we find that these changes have impacted the river's capacity to cope with surplus inputs of nutrients. Based on measurements of nitrate stable isotopes and N2O concentration profiles, we investigated the estuarine capacity of nitrogen retention and denitrification, and compared it to the situation several decades ago. A combined water-column and sediment-based approach suggests that the denitrification capacity has decreased significantly to no more than 5-10% of summer nitrate loads, while nitrate regeneration via nitrification has in turn gained in importance. Active biogeochemical nitrogen cycling, seems to be almost exclusively restricted to the deeper areas of the port of Hamburg, where deepening of the riverbed has led to immense recycling activity. Overall, we find that the remineralization and oxidation of organic matter dominates the riverine N-budget. This is apparent in stable isotope signatures in the estuary and the limnic water sections, for which we calculated relative ratios of denitrification and nitrification. This shift from denitrification to nitrification is also mirrored in the production of nitrous oxide, which, despite improved nutrient status of the river and estuary, remained high. In combination, our data suggest that high loads of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and nitrous oxide production are a legacy of the past eutrophication period, and of enhanced upstream primary production.

  18. Activity of methane oxidizing bacteria along the River Elbe downstream to its estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušu, A.; Šimek, K.; Bussmann, I.

    2012-04-01

    Contribution of rivers and estuarine systems to the global methane (CH4) budget is still not clear yet and for improving the estimations on the CH4 emission it is essential to cover the whole natural system in large-scale studies. In this context we quantified the activity of methane oxidizing bacteria (as a microbial "biofilter") over almost two seasons along a large European river system, the river Elbe, from its source in the Czech Republic towards to its estuary in the North Sea. Determination of methane oxidation rate was measured using a tritiated CH4 radiotracer technique. Methane concentrations in the water column were analyzed by the headspace method. The range of CH4concentrations and related microbial oxidation activities displayed a strong increase from the upper river parts, which includes mainly natural river, to the polluted downstream canalized parts of the river with high CH4concentrations and microbial activities, where anaerobic sediments occur. In the water column of the estuarine zone a sharp decrease of the CH4 concentration- and CH4 oxidation rates is mainly influenced by the increasing salinity. Additional parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, amount of suspended particular matter and nutrient content) are possible factors influencing the methanotrophic activity. Further investigations will compare the population structure of MOB at the different sites along the whole transect.

  19. Characteristics of produced water discharged to the Gulf of Mexico hypoxiczone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Kimmell, T. A.; Rechner, A. C.

    2005-08-24

    Each summer, an area of low dissolved oxygen (the hypoxic zone) forms in the shallow nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters from the Mississippi River Delta westward to near the Texas/Louisiana border. Most scientists believe that the leading contributor to the hypoxic zone is input of nutrients (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate growth of phytoplankton. As the phytoplankton subsequently die, they fall to the bottom waters where they are decomposed by microorganisms. The decomposition process consumes oxygen in the bottom waters to create hypoxic conditions. Sources other than the two rivers mentioned above may also contribute significant quantities of oxygen-demanding pollutants. One very visible potential source is the hundreds of offshore oil and gas platforms located within or near the hypoxic zone. Many of these platforms discharge varying volumes of produced water. However, only limited data characterizing oxygen demand and nutrient concentration and loading from offshore produced water discharges have been collected. No comprehensive and coordinated oxygen demand data exist for produced water discharges in the Gulf of Mexico. This report describes the results of a program to sample 50 offshore oil and gas platforms located within the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone. The program was conducted in response to a requirement in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) general National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for offshore oil and gas discharges. EPA requested information on the amount of oxygen-demanding substances contained in the produced water discharges. This information is needed as inputs to several water quality models that EPA intends to run to estimate the relative contributions of the produced water discharges to the occurrence of the hypoxic zone. Sixteen platforms were sampled 3 times each at approximately one-month intervals to give an estimate of

  20. Wastewater discharge impact on drinking water sources along the Yangtze River (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuomin; Shao, Dongguo; Westerhoff, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Unplanned indirect (de facto) wastewater reuse occurs when wastewater is discharged into surface waters upstream of potable drinking water treatment plant intakes. This paper aims to predict percentages and trends of de facto reuse throughout the Yangtze River watershed in order to understand the relative contribution of wastewater discharges into the river and its tributaries towards averting water scarcity concerns. The Yangtze River is the third longest in the world and supports more than 1/15 of the world's population, yet the importance of wastewater on the river remains ill-defined. Municipal wastewater produced in the Yangtze River Basin increased by 41% between 1998 and 2014, from 2580m3/s to 3646m3/s. Under low flow conditions in the Yangtze River near Shanghai, treated wastewater contributions to river flows increased from 8% in 1998 to 14% in 2014. The highest levels of de facto reuse appeared along a major tributary (Han River) of the Yangtze River, where de facto reuse can exceed 20%. While this initial analysis of de facto reuse used water supply and wastewater data from 110 cities in the basin and 11 gauging stations with >50years of historic streamflow data, the outcome was limited by the lack of gauging stations at more locations (i.e., data had to be predicted using digital elevation mapping) and lack of precise geospatial location of drinking water intakes or wastewater discharges. This limited the predictive capability of the model relative to larger datasets available in other countries (e.g., USA). This assessment is the first analysis of de facto wastewater reuse in the Yangtze River Basin. It will help identify sections of the river at higher risk for wastewater-related pollutants due to presence of-and reliance on-wastewater discharge that could be the focus of field studies and model predictions of higher spatial and temporal resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Final Report: Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1996-03-01

    Potential human health and environmental impacts from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico are of concern to regulators at the State and Federal levels, the public, environmental interest groups and industry. Current and proposed regulations require a zero discharge limit for coastal facilities, based primarily on studies in low energy, poorly flushed environments. However, produced water discharges in coastal Louisiana include a number of open bay sites, where potential human health and environmental impacts are likely to be smaller than those demonstrated for low energy canal environments, but greater than the minimal impacts associated with offshore discharges. Additional data and assessments are needed to support risk managers at the State and Federal levels in the development of regulations that protect human health and the environment without unnecessary cost to the economic welfare of the region and the nation. This project supports the Natural Gas and Oil Initiative objectives to: (1) improve coordination on environmental research; (2) streamline State and Federal regulation; (3) enhance State, and Federal regulatory decision making capability; (4) enhance dialogue through industry/government/public partnerships; and (5) work with States and Native American Tribes.

  2. Predictive analyses of ground-water discharges in the Willow Creek Watershed, northeast Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Jack T.; Lappala, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    Ground-water discharge to Willow Creek in northeast Nebraska was predicted with a digital model of the ground-water/surface-water system. Recharge and irrigation requirements were determined with a model of the soil zone. The regional aquifer is Pliocene and Pleistocene sands and gravels. Water in the regional aquifer is unconfined in the western part of the watershed and confined in the eastern part. The confining layer is Pleistocene eolian silts with very fine sand interbeds overlying a basal clay. Where the regional aquifer is unconfined, perennial flow of Willow Creek is sustained by ground-water discharge. Where it is confined, the low hydraulic conductivity of the confining beds isolates the regional aquifer from Willow Creek. Adequate agreement between simulated and observed streamflows and water levels during 1975 and 1976 was obtained by modifying initial estimates of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. The future perennial flow of Willow Creek was simulated by superimposing six patterns of ground-water withdrawals upon variations in recharge for a monthly climatic sequence identical with the period 1931-34. These analyses showed that the perennial monthly flows would be less than 12 cubic feet per second at least 50 percent of the time. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Statistical prediction of seasonal discharge in the Naryn basin for water resources planning in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Gafurov, Abror; Gerlitz, Lars; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merkushkin, Aleksandr; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien-Shan and Pamirs. During the summer months the snow and glacier melt water of the rivers originating in the mountains provides the only water resource available for agricultural production but also for water collection in reservoirs for energy production in winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for a sustainable management and planning of water resources.. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of national hydro-meteorological services in the region. Thus this study aims at a statistical forecast of the seasonal water availability, whereas the focus is put on the usage of freely available data in order to facilitate an operational use without data access limitations. The study takes the Naryn basin as a test case, at which outlet the Toktogul reservoir stores the discharge of the Naryn River. As most of the water originates form snow and glacier melt, a statistical forecast model should use data sets that can serve as proxy data for the snow masses and snow water equivalent in late spring, which essentially determines the bulk of the seasonal discharge. CRU climate data describing the precipitation and temperature in the basin during winter and spring was used as base information, which was complemented by MODIS snow cover data processed through ModSnow tool, discharge during the spring and also GRACE gravimetry anomalies. For the construction of linear forecast models monthly as well as multi-monthly means over the period January to April were used to predict the seasonal mean discharge of May-September at the station Uchterek. An automatic model selection was performed in multiple steps, whereas the best models were selected according to several performance measures and their robustness in a leave-one-out cross validation. It could be shown that the seasonal discharge can be predicted with

  4. The production of magnetic nanoparticles of Iron Oxide by arc discharge in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Hamid Reza; Fathollah, Sara; Nikeyn, Maryam; Khatami, Shohreh

    2012-10-01

    Nanoparticles can be utilized for any practical application. In recent years; considerable attention has been paid to iron oxide magnetic. Iron oxide nanoparticles are the class of nanoparticle which can have useful magnetic properties. In this research, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were produced by Arc discharge method in water. Structural analysis carried out by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Spectrophotometer. Various magnetic nanoparticles like iron carbide (Fe3c), magnetic iron oxide (magnetite /maghemite) are obtained by arc discharge method in water. In this work have been showed, the influence of the time duration on the number of magnetic nanoparticles and the influence of the gap between the two electrodes on particle structure and size distribution. Furthermore, when iron nanoparticles are used under applied magnetic field, the particles would move in the direction of magnetic field. When the magnetic field is removed, the particles stop moving and still remain stably suspend in the dielectric liquid.

  5. Reconnaissance investigations of the discharge and water quality of the Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, Roy Edwin

    1968-01-01

    effect reaches upstream to Obidos at extremely low flows, the distribution of velocities in stream verticals is affected by large-scale turbulence, the standard procedure of basing mean velocity in vertical on the average of point velocities measured at 20 and 80 percent of the total depth is valid, and there is a low Manning roughness coefficient of 0.019 (English units). Samples of suspended sediment taken with a point sampler at various depths in selected verticals show, for the Obidos site, a variation in concentration from 300 to 340 mg/l (milligram per liter) near the streambed to 50 to 70 mg/l in the upper part of the verticals. Median diameter of bed material at Obidos averaged about 0.20 mm (millimeter) in a range of 0.15 to 0.25 ram. Analyses of water samples collected at Obidos in July and November 1963 and August 1964 are presented. The reconnaissance measurements of 1963-64 provide a well-supported value of mean annual water discharge of Amazon River at Obidos and the mouth. Many more measurements of flow and water-quality characteristics are needed to obtain more exact values of discharge, suspended sediment, and salt load.

  6. Nitrates in Groundwater Discharges from the Azores Archipelago: Occurrence and Fluxes to Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Virgílio Cruz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater discharge is an important vector of chemical fluxes to the ocean environment, and as the concentration of nutrients is often higher in discharging groundwater, the deterioration of water quality in the receiving environment can be the result. The main objective of the present paper is to estimate the total NO3 flux to coastal water bodies due to groundwater discharge in the volcanic Azores archipelago (Portugal. Therefore, 78 springs discharging from perched-water bodies have been monitored since 2003, corresponding to cold (mean = 14.9 °C and low mineralized (47.2–583 µS/cm groundwater from the sodium-bicarbonate to sodium-chloride water types. A set of 36 wells was also monitored, presenting groundwater with a higher mineralization. The nitrate content in springs range between 0.02 and 37.4 mg/L, and the most enriched samples are associated to the impact of agricultural activities. The total groundwater NO3 flux to the ocean is estimated in the range of 5.23 × 103 to 190.6 × 103 mol/km2/a (∑ = ~523 × 103 mol/km2/a, exceeding the total flux associated to surface runoff (∑ = ~281 × 103 mol/km2/a. In the majority of the islands, the estimated fluxes are higher than runoff fluxes, with the exception of Pico (47.2%, Corvo (46% and Faial (7.2%. The total N-NO3 flux estimated in the Azores (~118.9 × 103 mol/km2/a is in the lower range of estimates made in other volcanic islands.

  7. Study of Ag and Au Nanoparticles Synthesized by Arc Discharge in Deionized Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Chi Tien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of Ag and Au nanofluids synthesized by the arc discharge method (ADM in deionized water. The metallic Ag nanoparticle (Ag0 and ionic Ag (Ag+ have played an important role in the battle against germs which are becoming more drug-resistant every year. Our study indicates that Ag nanoparticle suspension (SNPS fabricated by using ADM without added surfactants exclusively contains the metallic Ag nanoparticle and ionic Ag. Besides that, the ADM in deionized water has also been employed for the fabrication process of Au nanoparticles. The experimental results indicate that the prepared Ag nanoparticles can react with the dissolved H2CO3 in deionized water, leading to the formation of Ag2CO3. Significantly different to Ag, the prepared Au nanoparticles with their surfaces bonded by oxygen are suspended in deionized water by the formation of hydrogen bonded with the neighboring water molecules.

  8. Learning from the interplay between discharge and water temperature for signals of hydrologic and atmospheric change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefli, Bettina; Larsen, Joshua

    2017-04-01

    The interplay between river discharge and water temperature regimes determines the habitat quality of river ecosystems, and understanding their interplay is thus critical to assess future ecosystem health in the context of climate change and anthropogenic impacts. Beyond the evident practical importance for ecosystem management, understanding this water temperature-discharge interplay also has great potential to gain new insights into the dominant hydro-climatological processes occurring at the catchment scale. Central to this is the analysis of bivariate distributions between discharge and water temperature, in combination with simple thermal models, at different temporal scales and across many catchments. Potential insights to be gained include: i) the relative roles of rain, glacier, snow, and groundwater inputs, ii) the influence of atmospheric forcings, and iii) the mixing of the stream network. Using detailed records from Swiss catchments, we show the relative importance of these drivers, how they vary between catchments, as well as their susceptibility to change over time. This work provides a data-based, yet physical basis for understanding how the thermal regime of rivers is regulated by hydrologic and atmospheric processes, and thus provides a template to understand the thermal range of aquatic ecosystems. Such a physical understanding is critical in order to better interpret changing stream temperatures, and the thermal flux they provide to downstream lake and ocean environments.

  9. Influence of pulse width on decolorization efficiency of organic dye by discharge inside bubble in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, S.; Wada, K.; Kakuta, T.; Takaki, K.; Satta, N.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-06-01

    Decolorization of an organic dye by discharge in high conductive water using a pulsed power generator and a discharge reactor was investigated. The discharge reactor consisted of a glass tube and a tungsten wire inserted into the glass tube, which was immersed in the water. Room air was injected into the glass tube to generate bubbles in the water. High voltage pulses were generated by an inductive-energy storage system using semiconductor opening switch (SOS) and by a magnetic pulse compression circuit. Fast recovery diodes were used as SOS diode in the inductive-energy storage system. The pulse width was changed in range from 10 to 1200 ns. The high voltage was applied to the tungsten wire. Indigo carmine was employed as a specimen to evaluate decolorization efficiency. Potassium nitrate was used to adjust the solution conductivity. The dye solution was successfully decolorized at 7 mS/cm conductivity. Energy efficiency for decolorization increased from 0.680 to 55.6 mg/Wh with decreasing the pulse width from 1200 to 10 ns owing to the reduction of ohmic loss.

  10. Research on the degradation mechanism of dimethyl phthalate in drinking water by strong ionization discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, ZHAO; Chengwu, YI; Rongjie, YI; Huijuan, WANG; Lanlan, YIN; I, N. MUHAMMAD; Zhongfei, MA

    2018-03-01

    The degradation mechanism of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in the drinking water was investigated using strong ionization discharge technology in this study. Under the optimized condition, the degradation efficiency of DMP in drinking water was up to 93% in 60 min. A series of analytical techniques including high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy were used in the study. It was found that a high concentration of ozone (O3) produced by dielectric barrier discharge reactor was up to 74.4 mg l‑1 within 60 min. Tert-butanol, isopropyl alcohol, carbonate ions ({{{{CO}}}3}2-) and bicarbonate ions ({{{{HCO}}}3}-) was added to the sample solution to indirectly prove the presence and effect of hydroxyl radicals (·OH). These analytical findings indicate that mono-methyl phthalate, phthalic acid (PA) and methyl ester PA were detected as the major intermediates in the process of DMP degradation. Finally, DMP and all products were mineralized into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) ultimately. Based on these analysis results, the degradation pathway of DMP by strong ionization discharge technology were proposed.

  11. An application of a large scale conceptual hydrological model over the Elbe region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lobmeyr

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the ability of the VIC-2L model coupled to a routing model to reproduce streamflow in the catchment of the lower Elbe River, Germany. The VIC-2L model, a hydrologically-based land surface scheme (LSS which has been tested extensively in the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS, is put up on the rotated grid of 1/6 degree of the atmospheric regional scale model (REMO used in the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX. For a 10 year period, the VIC-2L model is forced in daily time steps with measured daily means of precipitation, air temperature, pressure, wind speed, air humidity and daily sunshine duration. VIC-2L model output of surface runoff and baseflow is used as input for the routing model, which transforms modelled runoff into streamflow, which is compared to measured streamflow at selected gauge stations. The water balance of the basin is investigated and the model results on daily, monthly and annual time scales are discussed. Discrepancies appear in time periods where snow and ice processes are important. Extreme flood events are analyzed in more dital. The influence of calibration with respect to runoff is examined.

  12. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krämer, J.M., E-mail: jmkr@danfysik.dk [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Budde, M.; Bødker, F. [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Irman, A.; Jochmann, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Kristensen, J.P. [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Lehnert, U.; Michel, P. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Schramm, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-09-11

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and divergences of about 10 mrad using the FFS.

  13. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, J. M.; Budde, M.; Bødker, F.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Kristensen, J. P.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schramm, U.

    2016-09-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and divergences of about 10 mrad using the FFS.

  14. Electron Beam Final Focus System For Thomson Scattering At Elbe

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødkera, F.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Kristensena, J.P.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schramm, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  15. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødker, F.; Irman, A.; .Jochmann A.; Kristensen, J.P.; Lehnert U., HZDR; Michel, P.; Schrammb, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  16. Discharge, water quality, and native fish abundance in the Virgin River, Utah, Nevada, and Arizona, in support of Pah Tempe Springs discharge remediation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Lambert, Patrick M.; Hardy, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Pah Tempe Springs discharge hot, saline, low dissolved-oxygen water to the Virgin River in southwestern Utah, which is transported downstream to Lake Mead and the Colorado River. The dissolved salts in the Virgin River negatively influence the suitability of this water for downstream agricultural, municipal, and industrial use. Therefore, various remediation scenarios to remove the salt load discharged from Pah Tempe Springs to the Virgin River are being considered. One concern about this load removal is the potential to impact the ecology of the Virgin River. Specifically, information is needed regarding possible impacts of Pah Tempe Springs remediation scenarios on the abundance, distribution, and survival of native fish in the Virgin River. Future efforts that aim to quantitatively assess how various remediation scenarios to reduce the load of dissolved salts from Pah Tempe Springs into the Virgin River may influence the abundance, distribution, and survival of native fish will require data on discharge, water quality, and native fish abundance. This report contains organized accessible discharge, water quality, and native fish abundance data sets from the Virgin River, documents the compilation of these data, and discusses approaches for quantifying relations between abiotic physical and chemical conditions, and fish abundance.

  17. EFFECT OF THE CRITICAL IRRADIANCE ON PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMP DISCHARGE UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Abbas HELMY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aimed to study the effect of critical irradiance due to changing tilt angle of PV panel and tracking sun on submersible pump discharge. The authors used solar tracker and suitable tilt angle for the panel to increase the time interval during which the water pump operates. For the same irradiance collected by the PV, all systems pump the same amount of water, although they occur at different periods of the day. The pump itself 'does not know whether the electric power comes from any processes, as long as it has the same intensity.

  18. Real-time ecohydrological modelling in the Elbe river basin to assess the current weather trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roers, Michael; Wechsung, Frank; Gottschalk, Pia; Rachimow, Claus; Conradt, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    The ecohydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was applied to the German part of the Elbe River basin on a day-to-day basis using real-time data from 19 weather stations. An available parameterised version of the model was used, which was calibrated and validated in previous studies considering the runoff at the basin outlet and various interior stations. In this study, the range of analysed model outputs was extended to soil water dynamics, plant growth and yields. To evaluate these outputs, a validation study was conducted on different spatial scales. The data used for validation includes runoff, yield and evapotranspiration data, each corresponding to a specific spatial scale. The simulated runoff at the basin outlet and subbasin outlets was validated using gauge data, simulated crop yield was validated on basin and subbasin scale with yield data that was available for administrative districts. Lysimeter measurements were used to validate percolation, evapotranspiration rates and crop yield. The results for the runoff at basin scale are satisfactory, while there are discrepancies between the simulated and observed runoff of the Havel and Saale subbasins, due to modification of the runoff regime by hydrological management. The simulated yield is in agreement with observations on basin and subbasin scale. The inter-annual fluctuation, however, could not always be reproduced adequately. On the field scale, the comparison of the simulated yield with the lysimeter data shows a good fit. The monthly aggregated values of evapotranspiration rates and percolation water, that differ between soil types, exhibit some mismatches, especially in Loess soil. Apart from these deviations, the model performed well at the different scales and is capable of providing real-time simulations at watershed-, subbasin- and field scale. Since it integrates hydrology, soil water dynamics and plant growth, it provides useful information, e. g. the development of the soil

  19. Controlled cytotoxicity of plasma treated water formulated by open-air hybrid mode discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.; Boehm, D.; Cullen, P.; Bourke, P.

    2017-06-01

    Plasma treated liquids (PTLs) provide a means to convey a broad range of effects of relevance for food, environmental, or clinical decontamination, plant growth promotion, and therapeutic applications. Devising the reactive species ingredients and controlling the biological response of PTLs are of great interest. We demonstrate an approach by using an open-air hybrid mode discharge (HMD) to control the principal reactive species composition within plasma treated water (PTW), which is then demonstrated to regulate the cytotoxicity of PTW. The cytotoxicity of HMD produced PTW demonstrates a non-monotonic change over the discharge time. Although hydrogen peroxide and nitrite are not the sole effectors for cell death caused by PTW, using them as principal reactive species indicators, cytotoxicity can be removed and/or enhanced by formulating their concentrations and composition through adjusting the discharge mode and time on-line during PTW generation without the addition of additional working gas or chemical scavengers. This work demonstrates that a hybrid mode discharge can be employed to generate a PTW formulation to control a biological response such as cytotoxicity. This provides insights into how plasma treated liquids may be harnessed for biological applications in a specific and controllable manner.

  20. A Comparative Study: China’s Water Pollutants Discharge Permit System with Reference to the National Pollutants Discharge Elimination System of the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Ye

    2016-01-01

    China's water pollution control law stipulates the Water Pollution Discharge Permit (WPDP) institution and authorizes the State Council to draft the regulations for its implementation and enforcement. However, until today, national regulations have not been established and the permitting system has been operating according to provincial regulations. in contrast to USA, the effluents permit system has been operated for more than 40 years and received relatively successful results. The CWA/NPDE...

  1. Multi-Model Assessment of Global Hydropower and Cooling Water Discharge Potential Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, M. T. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Eisener, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding of how climate change may impact the availability and temperature of water resources is therefore of major importance. Here we use a multi-model ensemble to show the potential impacts of climate change on global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential. For the first time, combined projections of streamflow and water temperature were produced with three global hydrological models (GHMs) to account for uncertainties in the structure and parametrization of these GHMs in both water availability and water temperature. The GHMs were forced with bias-corrected output of five general circulation models (GCMs) for both the lowest and highest representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). The ensemble projections of streamflow and water temperature were then used to quantify impacts on gross hydropower potential and cooling water discharge capacity of rivers worldwide. We show that global gross hydropower potential is expected to increase between +2.4% (GCM-GHM ensemble mean for RCP 2.6) and +6.3% (RCP 8.5) for the 2080s compared to 1971-2000. The strongest increases in hydropower potential are expected for Central Africa, India, central Asia and the northern high-latitudes, with 18-33% of the world population living in these areas by the 2080s. Global mean cooling water discharge capacity is projected to decrease by 4.5-15% (2080s). The largest reductions are found for the United States, Europe, eastern Asia, and southern parts of South America, Africa and Australia, where strong water temperature increases are projected combined with reductions in mean annual streamflow. These regions are expected to affect 11-14% (for RCP2.6 and the shared socioeconomic

  2. Efficiency of preliminary discharge of stratum water in Tuymazinskoe oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almukhametova, E. M.; Akimov, A. V.; Kalinina, S. V.; Fatkullin, I. F.; Gizetdinov, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    The high water content of oil is a common occurrence for many Russian fields at the late stage of development. Due to the elimination of associated water in oil, the overload of field pipelines often takes place. Products are often collected by a one-pipe system, which means that the formation water is discharged using special plants PWDS. Research workers have made it clear that the complexity of production “BashNIPIneft” and OGPD “Tuymazaneft” on Tuimazy field was due to the fact that the collection of production, in most cases, uses a centralized system, which loses its advantages when there is a large content of water in the emulsions. Research has indicated that the reagents, used in the field, proved to be ineffective, as the oil of Devonian formations is heavily saturated with paraffins. But, ultimately, the most effective agents for the destruction of emulsions have been nonetheless identified. This paper describes the implementation of the system of track discharge of formation water, which is currently in use for many oil companies not only in Russia but also worldwide.

  3. Electric field measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges in air over liquid water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Baratte, Edmond; Zhang, Cheng; Frederickson, Kraig; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2018-01-01

    Electric field in nanosecond pulse discharges in ambient air is measured by picosecond four-wave mixing, with absolute calibration by a known electrostatic field. The measurements are done in two geometries, (a) the discharge between two parallel cylinder electrodes placed inside quartz tubes, and (b) the discharge between a razor edge electrode and distilled water surface. In the first case, breakdown field exceeds DC breakdown threshold by approximately a factor of four, 140 ± 10 kV cm‑1. In the second case, electric field is measured for both positive and negative pulse polarities, with pulse durations of ∼10 ns and ∼100 ns, respectively. In the short duration, positive polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at 85 kV cm‑1, after which the electric field decreases over several ns due to charge separation in the plasma, with no field reversal detected when the applied voltage is reduced. In a long duration, negative polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at a lower electric field, 30 kV cm‑1, after which the field decays over several tens of ns and reverses direction when the applied voltage is reduced at the end of the pulse. For both pulse polarities, electric field after the pulse decays on a microsecond time scale, due to residual surface charge neutralization by transport of opposite polarity charges from the plasma. Measurements 1 mm away from the discharge center plane, ∼100 μm from the water surface, show that during the voltage rise, horizontal field component (Ex ) lags in time behind the vertical component (Ey ). After breakdown, Ey is reduced to near zero and reverses direction. Further away from the water surface (≈0.9 mm), Ex is much higher compared to Ey during the entire voltage pulse. The results provide insight into air plasma kinetics and charge transport processes near plasma-liquid interface, over a wide range of time scales.

  4. Distribution of biochemical constituents in the surface sediments of western coastal Bay of Bengal: Influence of river discharge and water column properties

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, B.S.K.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Krishna, M.S.

    of discharged water and associated biogeochemical processes in the water column. The northwest (NW) region of coastal Bay of Bengal was influenced by discharges from Ganges river while peninsular (monsoonal) rivers influenced the southwest (SW) region. The NW...

  5. A comparative summary on streamers of positive corona discharges in water and atmospheric pressure gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Kunihide; Motomura, Hideki

    2015-07-01

    From an intention of summarizing present understandings of positive corona discharges in water and atmospheric pressure gases, we tried to observe streamers in those media by reproducing and complementing previously reported results under a common experimental setup. We used a point-to-plane electrode configuration with different combinations of electrode gap (7 and 19 mm length) and pulsed power sources (0.25 and 2.5 ɛs duration). The general features of streamers were similar and the streamer-to-spark transition was also observed in both the media. However, in the details large differences were observed due to inherent nature of the media. The measured propagation speed of streamers in water of 0.035 × 106 ms-1 was much smaller than the speed in gases (air, N2 and Ar) from 0.4 to 1.1 × 106 ms-1 depending on species. In He the discharge looked glow-like and no streamer was observed. The other characteristics of streamers in gases, such as inception voltage, number of branches and thickness did also depend on the species. The thickness and the length of streamers in water were smaller than those in gases. From the volumetric expansion of a streamer in water after the discharge, the molecular density within the streamer medium was estimated to be rarefied from the density of water by about an order of magnitude in the active discharge phase. We derived also the electron density from the analysis of Stark broadened spectral lines of H and O atoms on the order of 1025 m-3 at the earlier time of the streamer propagation. The analyzed background blackbody radiation, rotational temperature of OH band emission and population density of Cu atomic lines yielded a consistent temperature of the streamer medium between 7000 and 10 000 K. Using the present data with a combination of the analysis of static electric field and previously reported results, we discuss the reason for the relatively low streamer inception voltage in water as compared to the large difference in the

  6. Effects of water vapor on flue gas conditioning in the electric fields with corona discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liqiang, QI, E-mail: qi_liqiang@163.com; Yajuan, Zhang

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • The influence mechanism of water vapor humidification on SO{sub 2} oxidation was analyzed. •The effects of water vapor on the specific resistance in fly ash in ESPs were reported. • The effects of water vapor on the size distribution and specific surface area of fly ash were discussed. • The adhesive characteristic of fly ash in different water vapor was experimented. -- Abstract: Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal via pulsed discharge nonthermal plasma in the absence of ammonia was investigated to determine how electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) can effectively collect particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter from flue gas. SO{sub 2} removal increased as water vapor concentration increased. In a wet-type plasma reactor, directing a gas-phase discharge plasma toward the water film surface significantly enhanced the liquid-phase oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup −} to SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. Comparisons of various absorbents revealed that the hydroxyl radical is a key factor in plasma-induced liquid-phase reactions. The resistivity, size distribution, and cohesive force of fly ash at different water vapor contents were measured using a Bahco centrifuge, which is a dust electrical resistivity test instrument, as well as a cohesive force test apparatus developed by the researchers. When water vapor content increased by 5%, fly ash resistivity in flue gas decreased by approximately two orders of magnitude, adhesive force and size increased, and specific surface area decreased. Therefore, ESP efficiency increased.

  7. Analysis of experimental routines of high enthalpy steam discharge in subcooled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Rafael R., E-mail: Rafael.rade@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Andrade, Delvonei A., E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The discharge of high enthalpy steam through safety release valves out from pressurizers in PWR's needs to be condensed in order to allow the treatment of possibly present radwaste within. The Direct Contact Condensation is used in a relief tank to achieve the condensation. Care must be taken to avoid the bypass of the steam through the subcooled water, what would increase the peak of pressure and the necessity of structural reinforcement of the relief tank. An experiment to determine the optimal set up of the relief tank components and their characteristics (type of sprinkler, level of water, volume of tank, discharge direction, pressure in the pressurizer among others) was executed in 2000, in the CTE 150 facility, in CTMSP. In a total, 144 routines varying its components and characteristics were made, although no comprehensive analysis of its results were yet made, since the mass of data was too big to be readily analyzed. In order to comprehensively analyze it, a VBA program is being made to compile and graphically represent the mass of data. The current state of this program allowed conclusions over the peak pressure, adiabatic assumption of the experiment, and the quality of the steam generated due to the discharge. (author)

  8. Evaluating the vulnerability of surface waters to antibiotic contamination from varying wastewater treatment plant discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Angela L; Bruce, Ian B; Aga, Diana S

    2006-07-01

    Effluents from three wastewater treatment plants with varying wastewater treatment technologies and design were analyzed for six antibiotics and caffeine on three sampling occasions. Sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and clindamycin were detected in the effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.090 to 6.0 microg/L. Caffeine was detected in all effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.19 to 9.9 microg/L. These findings indicate that several conventional wastewater management practices are not effective in the complete removal of antibiotics, and their discharges have a large potential to affect the aquatic environment. To evaluate the persistence of antibiotics coming from the wastewater discharges on the surrounding surface waters, samples were collected from the receiving streams at 10-, 20- and 100-m intervals. Ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin (0.043 to 0.076 microg/L) were found as far as 100 m from the discharge point, which indicates the persistence of these drugs in surface waters.

  9. Research on the degradation mechanism of pyridine in drinking water by dielectric barrier discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Yi, Rongjie; Yi, Chengwu; Zhou, Biyun; Wang, Huijuan

    2017-03-01

    Pyridine, an important chemical raw material, is widely used in industry, for example in textiles, leather, printing, dyeing, etc. In this research, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system was developed to remove pyridine, as a representative type of nitrogen heterocyclic compound in drinking water. First, the influence of the active species inhibitors tertiary butanol alcohol (TBA), HCO3(-), and CO3(2-) on the degradation rate of pyridine was investigated to verify the existence of active species produced by the strong ionization discharge in the system. The intermediate and final products generated in the degradation process of pyridine were confirmed and analyzed through a series of analytical techniques, including liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ion chromatography (IC), total organic carbon (TOC) analysis, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, etc. The results showed that the degradation of pyridine was mainly due to the strong oxidizing power of ozone and hydroxyl radical produced by the DBD system. Several intermediate products including 3-hydroxyl pyridine, fumaric acid, 2, 3-dihydroxypyridine, and oxalic acid were detected. Nitrogen was removed from the pyridine molecule to form nitrate. Through analysis of the degradation mechanism of pyridine, the oxidation pathway was deduced. The study provided a theoretical and experimental basis for the application of DBD strong ionization discharge in treatment of nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in drinking water. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Isotope investigations of nitrification dynamics in the Elbe River and in pure cultures of nitrifying bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Juliane; Sanders, Tina; Dähnke, Kirstin

    2013-04-01

    Since the onset of industrialisation, the nutrient input to aquatic systems is significally enhanced. This leads to high nitrogen loads in rivers, which drain densely populated catchments, and an increased eutrophication pressure on coastal water bodies. Along the river - estuary - continuum, nitrogen processing in aquatic environments has the potential to alter river loads significantly. Especially nitrification, the stepwise oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and further to nitrate, is important, because it can create additional nitrate from freshly remineralized organic matter, but also represents the link to subsequent removal via denitrification. Stable isotopes are a valuable tool to track overlapping source and sink processes in natural environments: Changes in stable isotope ratios can be attributed to the corresponding turnover processes, if the corresponding isotope effects are carefully assessed. However, the data base on N and O isotope fractionation in natural environments and during specific turnover processes is scarce. Thus we aimed to better understand the isotope dynamics of nitrification, assigning specific fractionation factors to environmentally relevant bacterial species. Besides N and O isotope analyses of river nitrate over an annual cycle, we performed incubation experiments with pure cultures and river water. Biweekly water samples from the Elbe River (Northern Germany) were taken to analyse, among other parameters, the seasonal variations of δ15N and δ18O in nitrate, corresponding nitrification rates and isotope effects during nitrification. While changes in δ15N and δ18O suggest phytoplankton assimilation as the main turnover process, incubations of river water reveal the relevance of nutrient regeneration via nitrification, which increase 15-fold with the onset of spring. In these incubations, we analysed rates of ammonium and nitrite oxidation and the corresponding isotope fractionation factors. Additional experiments with newly

  11. Technical and economic aspects of purification strategies to minimise discharge water from companies with closed soilless cultivation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.; Bruins, M.A.; Beerling, E.A.M.; Jurgens, R.; Appelman, W.; Enthoven, N.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research project was to achieve closure by two complementary means: 1) maximising reuse of the nutrient solution by solving problems in recircula-tion that leads to discharge, and 2) purification of the left over discharged water. In this paper the technical and economic aspects of

  12. Technical and economic aspects of purification strategies to minimise discharge water from companies with closed soilless cultivation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, E.A. van; Bruins, M.; Beerling, E.; Jurgens, R.; Appelman, W.; Enthoven, N.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research project was to achieve closure by two complementary means: 1) maximising reuse of the nutrient solution by solving problems in recirculation that leads to discharge, and 2) purification of the left over discharged water. In this paper the technical and economic aspects of

  13. Characterization of a direct dc-excited discharge in water by optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Leys, Christophe [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Schram, Daan [Department of Applied Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gonzalez, Manuel A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Rego, Robby [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, VITO Materials, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Kong, Michael G [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: peter.bruggeman@ugent.be

    2009-05-01

    Dc-excited discharges generated in water at the tip of a tungsten wire which is located at the orifice of a quartz capillary are investigated by time-averaged optical emission spectroscopy. Two distinctive discharge modes are observed. For small conductivities of the liquid the discharge is a streamer-like discharge in the liquid itself (liquid mode). For conductivities above typically 45 {mu}S cm{sup -1} a large vapour bubble is formed and a streamer discharge in this vapour bubble is observed (bubble mode). Plasma temperatures and electron densities are investigated for both modes. The gas temperature is estimated from the rotational temperature of N{sub 2}(C-B) and is 1600 {+-} 200 K for the bubble mode and 1900 {+-} 200 K for the liquid mode. The rotational temperature of OH(A-X) is up to 2 times larger and cannot be used as an estimate for the gas temperature. The rotational population distribution of OH(A), {nu} = 0 is also non-Boltzmann with a large overpopulation of high rotational states. This discrepancy in rotational temperatures is discussed in detail. Electron densities are obtained from the Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer beta line. The electron densities in the liquid mode are of the order of 10{sup 21} m{sup -3}. In the bubble mode electron densities are significantly smaller: (3-4) x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}. These values are compared with the Stark broadening of the hydrogen alpha and gamma lines and with electron densities obtained from current density measurements. The chemical reactivities of the bubble and liquid modes are compared by means of the hydrogen peroxide production rate.

  14. An Improved Method for Interpretation of Concentration-Discharge Relationships in Riverine Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Harman, C. J.; Ball, W. P.

    2016-12-01

    Riverine concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships are powerful indicators that can provide important clues toward understanding nutrient and sediment export dynamics from river systems, and the analysis of such relations has been a long-standing topic of importance in hydrologic literature. Proper interpretation of such relationships can be made complex, however, if the relationships of ln(C) ln(Q) are nonlinear or if the relationships change over time, season, or discharge. Methods of addressing these issues by "binning" data or smoothing trends can introduce artifacts and ambiguities that obscure underlying interactions among time, discharge, and season. Here we illustrate these issues with examples and propose an alternative method that uses the regression coefficients of the recently-developed WRTDS ("Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season") model for examining riverine C-Q relationships, including their uncertainty. The method is applied to sediment concentration data from Susquehanna River at Conowingo Dam (Maryland, USA) to illustrate how the WRTDS coefficients can be accessed and presented in ways that provide additional insights toward the interpretation of river water-quality data. For this case, the results clearly reveal that sediment concentration in the reservoir effluent has become more sensitive to discharge at moderate and high flows (but not very low flows) as it approaches sediment storage capacity, reaffirming the recently-documented decadal-scale decline in reservoir trapping performance. The study also highlights an additional benefit of the method, which is the ability to perform uncertainty analyses. The proposed approach can be implemented by running additional R codes within the WRTDS software - such codes are made available to users through a DOI-referenced archive site (http://dx.doi.org/10.7281/T18G8HM0) that will be maintained for at least five years after publication.

  15. Plasma Discharges in Gas Bubbles in Liquid Water: Breakdown Mechanisms and Resultant Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucker, Sarah M. N.

    The use of atmospheric pressure plasmas in gases and liquids for purification of liquids has been investigated by numerous researchers, and is highly attractive due to their strong potential as a disinfectant and sterilizer. However, the fundamental understanding of plasma production in liquid water is still limited. Despite the decades of study dedicated to electrical discharges in liquids, many physical aspects of liquids, such as the high inhomogeneity of liquids, complicate analyses. For example, the complex nonlinearities of the fluid have intricate effects on the electric field of the propagating streamer. Additionally, the liquid material itself can vaporize, leading to discontinuous liquid-vapor boundaries. Both can and do often lead to notable hydrodynamic effects. The chemistry of these high voltage discharges on liquid media can have circular effects, with the produced species having influence on future discharges. Two notable examples include an increase in liquid conductivity via charged species production, which affects the discharge. A second, more complicated scenario seen in some liquids (such as water) is the doubling or tripling of molecular density for a few molecule layers around a high voltage electrode. These complexities require technological advancements in optical diagnostics that have only recently come into being. This dissertation investigates several aspects of electrical discharges in gas bubbles in liquids. Two primary experimental configurations are investigated: the first allows for single bubble analysis through the use of an acoustic trap. Electrodes may be brought in around the bubble to allow for plasma formation without physically touching the bubble. The second experiment investigates the resulting liquid phase chemistry that is driven by the discharge. This is done through a dielectric barrier discharge with a central high voltage surrounded by a quartz discharge tube with a coil ground electrode on the outside. The plasma

  16. Does zero-water discharged technology enhance culture performance of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suantika, Gede; Anggraeni, Jayanty; Hasby, Fahri Azhari; Yanuwiarti, Ni Putu Indah

    2014-03-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei or white leg shrimp is an introduced shrimp which has successfully cultured in Indonesia. In Indonesia, L. vannamei is commonly cultured on outdoor/earthen pond that requires renewal of water, less control in term of water quality and disease and attributed to unpredictable yield production. Based on the existing culture condition, a system that enable to minimize water consumption, improve the hygiene of the culture and at the same time maintain a more stable yield production is urgent to be developed by using a zero water discharge system. The system consists of: (a) culture tank - to retain and culture the shrimp; (b) CaCO3 grained - buffering agent and substrate of nitrifying bacteria; (c) aeration line - to provide O2 and homogenize the culture; (d) ancho (feeding) - to control an appropriate feed; (e) nitrifying bacteria adding - to consume ammonium and nitrite then convert it to nitrate, and also control pathogen Vibrio sp.; (f) diatom microalgae (Chaetoceros gracilis) - to uptake nitrate, bacteriostatic agent, feed source, provide O2 and shading. In this study, there were 2 treatments: the static culture (batch) system was set as control (K) (in 70 PL/m2), and culture system with zero-water discharge system which was inoculated by 0.02% v/v 106 CFU/ml of mixed culture nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae in 70 PL/m2 (P1). The white leg shrimp used in this experiment was at post larvae (PL) 10 and cultured in a batch system (1 × 1 × 0.5 m3 pond) during 2 months. Several parameters including survival rate, mean body weight, and water quality (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate) were measured. Based on the results, biomass of P1 (237.12 ± 31.11) gram is significantly higher than control (K) (180.80 ± 12.26) gram (P< 0,05). Water quality during the culture period in all treatments were still in tolerance range of white leg shrimp post larvae, except ammonium concentration in control (K) (2.612 ± 0.56) mg

  17. Forested hillslope water budget uncertainty: understanding the pathway from precipitation to biota to stream discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckman, H. N.; Beverly, D.; Mercer, J.; Chitrakar, S.; Thayer, D.; Carr, B.; Parsekian, A.; Ewers, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    Hillslopes provide the necessary scale for linking the hydrological processes that connect precipitation to stream discharge, making them ideal for improving our mechanistic understanding of local water budgets. Critical mechanisms affecting hillslope water flow include surface terrain, subsurface flow paths, and biota. These mechanisms are represented conceptually through the use of water budgets; however, it is important that such models are informed by data, and quantify the uncertainty in simulated hydrological fluxes. Our study site in southeast Wyoming is a montane riparian area hosting a loosing stream. Analyses from the water budget analysis conducted over a week's time indicates an ET flux of 3.5 mm/day, stream discharge of -4.1 mm/day, soil moisture depletion of 0.6 mm/day, and loss of 1.2 mm/day to groundwater recharge. We are testing a phenomenological hillslope water budget model against this data that describes uncertainty associated with hydraulic fluxes through the use of a spatially-explicit Bayesian hierarchy. Data to be integrated include transient, 3D estimates of soil moisture using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground water monitoring, evapotranspiration through Bowen ratio and Granier sap flux sensors, and stream flow measurements. We model the flow of water in each component acknowledging four sources of error: 1) uncertainty in the flux measurements, 2) uncertainty in driving forces, 3) uncertainty in scaling, 4) uncertainty in the process itself. This uncertainty will be carried throughout, affecting other water budget processes, and eventual probabilistic estimates of stream discharge. Our goals for this work include 1) identifying which hydrological processes are associated with the highest amount of uncertainty, 2) proposing ways in which uncertainty associate with such processes could be reduced, and 3) providing more accurate probabilistic predictions of hydraulic fluxes when compared to traditional frequentist

  18. Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge for Point-of-Use Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Alexander; Byrns, Brandon; Shannon, Steven; Knappe, Detlef

    2012-10-01

    Treatment of biological and chemical contaminants is an area of growing global interest where atmospheric pressure plasmas can make a significant contribution. Addressing key challenges of volume processing and operational cost, a large volume 162 MHz coaxial air-plasma source has been developed.footnotetextByrns (2012) J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 (2012) 195204 Because of VHF ballasting effects, the electric discharge is maintained at a steady glow, allowing formation of critical non-equilibrium chemistry. High densities, ne = 10^11-10^12, have been recorded. The atmospheric nature of the device permits straightforward and efficient treatment of water samples. [H^+] concentrations in 150 milliliter tap water samples have been shown to increase by 10^5 after five minutes of discharge exposure. Recent literature has demonstrated that increasing acidity is strongly correlated with a solution's ability to deactivate microbial contaminants.footnotetextTraylor (2011) J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44 (2011) 472001 The work presented here will explore the impact of treatment gas, system configuration, and power density on water disinfection and PFC abatement. An array of plasma diagnostics, including OES and electrical measurements, are combined with post-process water analysis, including GC-MS and QT analysis of coliform and E.coli bacteria. Development of volume processing atmospheric plasma disinfection methods offers promise for point-of-use treatments in developing areas of the world, potentially supplementing or replacing supply and weather-dependent disinfection methods.

  19. Impacts of drainage water discharge on the water chemistry of Lake Edku

    OpenAIRE

    Shakweer, L.

    2006-01-01

    Lake Edku which is considered as important fishing area in Egypt receives its water from two sources. The main source is the drainage water of Kom Belag and Bersik drains where it is annually supplied with 1836.55 × 106 m3 of water. The sea water of Abu Qir Bay enters the lake sometimes through the lake sea connection as subsurface water current under the action of wind specially in winter. The present study pointed out that the water temperature of the lake (22.38oC) was slightly higher than...

  20. Luminous phase of nanosecond discharge in deionized water: morphology, propagation velocity and optical emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimek, Milan; Pongrác, Branislav; Babický, Václav; Člupek, Martin; Lukeš, Petr

    2017-07-01

    We employed the techniques of time-resolved intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) microscopy and spectroscopy to register basic morphologic and emission fingerprints of micro-discharges produced in deionized water. Fast rise-time positive high-voltage pulses (full width at half maximum of ˜7 ns and amplitude of ˜100 kV) in a point-to-plane electrode geometry produced micro-discharges, either periodically or in a single-pulse regime with the energy of ˜0.1 J dissipated during a single discharge event. Time resolved ICCD images evidence typical streamer-like branched filamentary morphology. Luminous discharge filaments show very fast and approximately linear initial expansion of the length with propagation velocity of ˜2 × 105 m s-1. When the HV pulse reaches its maximum value, the length of the primary luminous filaments reaches ˜1.3 mm. After initial expansion, the length of luminous filaments collapses and can be characterised by velocity of ˜1.9 × 104 m s-1. The first collapse is followed by a second slightly slower expansion, which is driven by the arrival of a reflected HV pulse, and which can be roughly approximated by propagation velocity of ˜1.5 × 105 m s-1. The second collapse (occurring after second expansion) proceeds at a nearly identical velocity compared with the first one. By combining two ICCD based techniques, we have been able to associate, for the first time ever, characteristic emission spectra with the most important phases of the micro-discharge development. The UV-vis-NIR emission spectra show a broad-band continuum evolving during the first expansion and collapse, followed by the well-known HI/OI atomic lines occurring together with continuum emission during the second expansion and collapse. We conclude that bound-free and free-free radiative transitions are basic emission characteristics of the nanosecond discharge initiation mechanism in liquid water which does not involve the formation of vapour bubbles.

  1. A Review on overboard CEOR discharged produced water treatment and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawindran, H.; Krishnan, S.; Sinnathambi, C. M.

    2017-06-01

    Produced water is a waste by-product generated during oil and gas recovery operations. It contains the mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. Produced water management is a challenge faced by the petroleum practitioners worldwide. Build-up of chemical wastes from produced water causes huge footprint, which results in high CapEx and OpEx. Different technologies are practiced by various practitioners to treat the produced waste water. However, the constituents removed by each technology and the degree of organic compound removal has to be considered to identify the potential and effective treatment technologies for offshore industrial applications. Current produced water technologies and their successful applications have advantages and disadvantages and can be ranked on the basis of several factors, such as their discharge limit into water bodies, reinjection in producing well, or for any miscellaneous beneficial use. This paper attempts to provide a review of existing physical and chemical treatment technologies used for management of produced water. Based on our analysis, suitable methods will be recommended for offshore waste water treatment technologies.

  2. Beyond the Clean Water Rule: Impacts of a Non-Jurisdictional Ditch on Headwater Stream Discharge and Water Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Gannon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ephemeral drainage ditches in upland areas, such as those draining roads, are excluded from the jurisdiction of the U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA. While several studies have shown that road drainage and/or development in forested watersheds can impact water quality, the direct physical and chemical impacts of a single drainage ditch have not been identified. In this study, we measured water chemistry (silicon, calcium, and sulfate and magnitude of discharge from one such feature and at the outlet of the catchment it is within. We found that discharge from the drainage ditch was sometimes over 10% of the larger stream into which it drains, despite the small relative size of the ditch catchment (1.1 ha compared to the main catchment (43 ha. Furthermore, we observed sharp decreases in silicon and calcium and increases in sulfate concentrations downstream from the drainage ditch across longitudinal sampling of the stream network. This illustrates the impacts of a common feature in high relief, forested areas that when aggregated over the landscape are likely responsible for regional water quality impacts.

  3. Cold atmospheric plasma discharged in water and its potential use in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhitong; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Lin, Li; Keidar, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has emerged as a novel technology for cancer treatment. CAP can directly treat cells and tissue but such direct application is limited to skin or can be invoked as a supplement during open surgery. In this study we report indirect plasma treatment using CAP discharged in deionized (DI) water using three gases as carriers (argon (Ar), helium (He), and nitrogen (N2)). Plasma stimulated water was applied to the human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay tests showed that using Ar plasma had the strongest effect on inducing apoptosis in cultured human breast cancer cells. This result is attributed to the elevated production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in water.

  4. Problems of mine waters discharge in the Samara River and its influence on biota of the ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kochet

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of long-term studies of aquatic organisms’ reactions to mine waters the approximate estimation of the waters influence on theSamaraRiver’s ecosystems was performed. Modern variants of the waters discharge were analyzed. The most acceptable environmental and economic choice of mine pumping at the modern stage of coal mining is presented.

  5. Measurements of water molecule density by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy in dielectric barrier discharges with gas–water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Kunihide; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Kawasaki, Mitsuo; Morita, Tatsuo; Umekawa, Toyofumi; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    We measured water molecule (H2O) density by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) for applications in dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with a gas–water interface. First, the effects of water temperature and presence of gas flow were tested using a Petri dish filled with water and a gas injection nozzle. Second, the TDLAS system was applied to the measurements of H2O density in two types of DBDs; one was a normal (non-inverted) type with a dielectric-covered electrode above a water-filled counter electrode and the other was an inverted type with a water-suspending mesh electrode above a dielectric-covered counter electrode. The H2O density in the normal DBD was close to the density estimated from the saturated vapor pressure, whereas the density in the inverted DBD was about half of that in the former type. The difference is attributed to the upward gas flow in the latter type, that pushes the water molecules up towards the gas–water interface.

  6. Experimental and numerical study of shock wave propagation in water generated by pulsed arc electrohydraulic discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Maurel, Olivier; La Borderie, Christian; Reess, Thierry; De Ferron, Antoine; Matallah, Mohammed; Pijaudier-Cabot, Gilles; Jacques, Antoine; Rey-Bethbeder, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study is to simulate the propagation of the shock wave in water due to an explosion. The study is part of a global research program on the development of an alternative stimulation technique to conventional hydraulic fracturing in tight gas reservoirs aimed at inducing a distributed state of microcracking of rocks instead of localized fracture. We consider the possibility of increasing the permeability of rocks with dynamic blasts. The blast is a shock wave generated in water by pulsed arc electrohydraulic discharges. The amplitude of these shock waves is prescribed by the electrohydraulic discharges which generate high pressures of several kilobars within microseconds. A simplified method has been used to simulate the injected electrical energy as augmentation of enthalpy in water locally. The finite element code EUROPLEXUS is used to perform fluid fast dynamic computation. The predicted pressure is consistent with the experimental results. In addition, shock wave propagation characteristics predicted with simulation can be valuable reference for design of underwater structural elements and engineering of underwater explosion.

  7. Formation of radical and active chemical species in electrical discharge plasma in the presence of liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, B.R.; Shih, K.Y.; Burlica, R. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the interactions of plasma with liquid water using a combination of emission spectroscopy of radical and atomic species and direct measurements of more stable chemical compounds. The study focused on electrical discharge plasma formed directly in liquid water and on discharges formed in the gas phase above liquid water, in bubbles in liquid water, and in the gas phase with water droplet spray that result in a variety of active chemical species that can be used for pollution control as well as other applications in biomedical and materials engineering. The purpose was to improve the design and operation of plasma reactors for a variety of applications. This presentation also reviewed the mechanisms for the formation of active chemical species such as hydroxyl and other radicals, hydrogen peroxide and molecular hydrogen, in electrical discharge plasma formed in the presence of water.

  8. Long-Term Temporal Variability of the Freshwater Discharge and Water Levels at Patos Lagoon, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Barros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the importance of freshwater discharge as a physical forcing in Patos Lagoon at timescales longer than one year, as well as identify the temporal variability of the dominant processes in freshwater discharge and water levels along the Patos Lagoon. Due to its proximity to the mouth, the water level at the estuary is influenced by the remote effects associated with the adjacent ocean circulation and wave climatology, reducing the observed correlation. At the lagoonar region a high correlation is expected because interannual data is being used, reducing the influence of the wind. Cross wavelet technique is applied to examine the coherence and phase between interannual time-series (South Oscillation Index, freshwater discharge and water levels. The freshwater discharge of the main tributaries and water levels in Patos Lagoon are influenced by ENSO on interannual scales (cycles between 3.8 and 6 years. Therefore, El Niño events are associated with high mean values of freshwater discharge and water levels above the mean. On the other hand, La Niña events are associated with low mean values of freshwater discharge and water levels below the mean.

  9. Collapse of a cavitation bubble generated by low voltage discharge in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zima Patrik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents experimental results of the optical study of cavitation bubble collapse close to a solid boundary in water. The bubble was generated by discharge of two low-voltage capacitors. High-speed CCD camera was used to record the time evolution of the bubble size. High-power halogen lamp was used for illumination. The system was synchronized by pulse generator connected to an oscilloscope. The velocity of the re-entrant jet was estimated from the time resolved photography for different maximum bubble sizes.

  10. Modeling oxygen depletion forced by acetate discharge in the coastal waters of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinskaya, Alisa; Yakushev, Evgeny; Nøst, Ole-Anders; Pakhomova, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    Consequences of discharge of acetate produced during the production of X-ray contrast agents in the coastal waters of the Norwegian coast of the North Sea were analyzed with a set of mathematical models. The baseline seasonal variability of temperature, salinity, advection and turbulence were calculated with the Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) applied to the Southern coast of Norway. These data were used to force a vertical 2-Dimensional Benthic-Pelagic transport model (2DBP) coupled via Framework for Aquatic Biogeochemical Models (FABM) with a biogeochemical model OxyDep, considering phytoplankton, heterotrophs, nutrient, dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter, and dissolved oxygen (DO). Acetate was considered as a chemical oxygen depletion substrate leading to the decrease of oxygen concentrations. We simulated seasonal variability at a 10 km long vertical transect with a spatial resolution of 50 m horizontally and approximately 2 m vertically. These calculations reproduced local minimum in the vertical DO distributions in 2 km distance from the discharge point, that corresponded to the observations. We conducted numerical experiments on the effects of doubling of the acetate discharge and on formation of acetate complexes.

  11. Purification of water by bipolar pulsed discharge plasma combined with TiO2 catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongrui; Zhang, Ruobing; Ma, Wenchang; Zhang, Xian; Wang, Liming; Guan, Zhicheng

    2013-03-01

    In the process of water treatment by bipolar pulsed discharge plasma, there are not only the chemical effects such as the cold plasma, but also the physical effects such as the optical radiation. The energy of the optical radiation can be used by photocatalyst. Therefore, the effect of the photocatalyst to the degradation of the organic pollutant was investigated using a packed bed reactor by bipolar pulsed discharge in the air-liquid-solid mixture. The nanoparticle TiO2 photocatalyst was obtained using the sol-gel method and the typical dye solution Indigo Carmine was chosen as the degradation target to test the catalytic effect of the nanoparticle TiO2 photocatalyst. Experiment results proved that the degradation efficiency of the Indigo Carmine solution was increased by a certain extent with the TiO2 photocatalyst. It was totally decolorized within 3 minutes by bipolar pulsed discharge in the condition that the peak voltage was 30 kV and the air flow was 1.0 m3 h-1.

  12. The effect of purified sewage discharge from a sewage treatment plant on the physicochemical state of water in the receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanownik Włodzimierz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents changes in the contents of physicochemical indices of the Sudół stream water caused by a discharge of purified municipal sewage from a small mechanical-biological treatment plant with throughput of 300 m3·d−1 and a population equivalent (p.e. – 1,250 people. The discharge of purified sewage caused a worsening of the stream water quality. Most of the studied indices values increased in water below the treatment plant. Almost a 100-fold increase in ammonium nitrogen, 17-fold increase in phosphate concentrations and 12-fold raise in BOD5 concentrations were registered. Due to high values of these indices, the water physicochemical state was below good. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable effect of the purified sewage discharge on the stream water physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in 10 indices values (BOD5, COD-Mn, EC, TDS, Cl−, Na+, K+, PO43−, N-NH4+ and N-NO2 as well as significant decline in the degree of water saturation with oxygen were noted below the sewage treatment plant. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences between the water indices values were registered between the measurement points localised 150 and 1,000 m below the purified sewage discharge. It evidences a slow process of the stream water self-purification caused by an excessive loading with pollutants originating from the purified sewage discharge.

  13. Automated reconstruction of drainage basins and water discharge to the sea through glacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Over glacial cycles, ice masses and their geophysical impacts on surface topography dramatically changed drainage patterns and river discharges. These changes impacted meltwater discharge to the ocean, geomorphology, and climate. As the river systems'the threads that tied the ice sheets to the sea'were stretched, severed, and rearranged during deglaciation, they also shrank and swelled with the pulse of meltwater inputs and proglacial lake dynamics. Here I present a general method to compute past river flow paths, drainage basin geometries, and river discharges. I automate these calculations within GRASS GIS to take advantage of rapid solution techniques for drainage networks in an open-source and compute-cluster-ready environment. I combine modern topography and bathymetry with ice sheet reconstructions from the last glacial cycle and a global glacial isostatic adjustment model to build digital elevation models of the past Earth surface. I then sum ice sheet mass balance with computed precipitation and evapotranspiration from a paleoclimate general circulation model to produce grids of water input. I combine these topographic and hydrologic inputs to compute past river networks and discharges through time. These paleodrainage reconstructions connect ice sheets, sea level, and climate models to fluvial systems, which in turn generate measurable terrace and sedimentary records as they carry physical, compositional, and isotopic signatures of ice sheet melt and landscape change through their channels and to the sea. Therefore, this work provides a self-consistent paleogeographic framework within which models and geologic records may be quantitatively compared to build new insights into past glacial systems.

  14. Locating Ground-Water Discharge in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.R.; Geist, D.R.; Saldi, K.; Hartwig, D.; Cooper, T.

    1997-03-01

    A bottom-contacting probe for measuring electrical conductivity at the sediment-water interface was used to scan the bed of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford Site in southeast Washington State during a 10-day investigation. Four river-sections, each about a kilometer in length, were scanned for variations in electrical conductivity. The probe was towed along the riverbed at a speed of 1 m/s and is position was recorded using a Global Positioning System. The bottom tows revealed several areas of elevated electrical conductivity. Where these anomalies were relatively easy to access, piezometers were driven into the riverbed and porewater electrical conductivity ranged from 111 to 150 uS/cm. The piezometers, placed in electrical conductivity “hotspots,” yielded chemical or isotopic data consistent with previous analyses of water taken from monitoring wells and visible shoreline seeps. Tritium, nitrate, and chromium exceeded water quality standards in some porewaters. The highest tritium and nitrate levels were found near the Old Hanford Townsite at 120,000 pCi/L (+ 5,880 pCi/L total propagated analytical uncertainty) and ug/L (+ 5,880 ug/L), respectively. The maximum chromium (total and hexavalent) levels were found near 100-H reactor area where unfiltered porewater total chromium was 1,900 ug/L (+ 798 ug/L) and hexavalent chromium was 20 ug/L. The electrical conductivity probe provided rapid, cost-effective reconnaissance for ground-water discharge areas when used in combination with conventional piezometers. It may be possible to obtain quantitative estimates of both natural and contaminated ground-water discharge in the Hanford Reach with more extensive surveys of river bottom.

  15. Nanofiltration of Mine Water: Impact of Feed pH and Membrane Charge on Resource Recovery and Water Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Mullett

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two nanofiltration membranes, a Dow NF 270 polyamide thin film and a TriSep TS 80 polyamide thin film, were investigated for their retention of ionic species when filtering mine influenced water streams at a range of acidic pH values. The functional iso-electric point of the membranes, characterized by changes in retention over a small pH range, were examined by filtering solutions of sodium sulphate. Both membranes showed changes in retention at pH 3, suggesting a zero net charge on the membranes at this pH. Copper mine drainage and synthetic solutions of mine influenced water were filtered using the same membranes. These solutions were characterized by pH values within 2 and 5, thus crossing the iso-electric point of both membranes. Retention of cations was maximized when the feed solution pH was less than the iso-electric point of the membrane. In these conditions, the membrane has a net positive charge, reducing the transmission rate of cations. From the recoveries of a range of cations, the suitability of nanofiltration was discussed relative to the compliance with mine water discharge criteria and the recovery of valuable commodity metals. The nanofiltration process was demonstrated to offer advantages in metal recovery from mine waste streams, concomitantly enabling discharge criteria for the filtrate disposal to be met.

  16. Analytical approach for predicting fresh water discharge in an estuary based on tidal water level observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, H.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Jiang, C.

    2014-01-01

    As the tidal wave propagates into an estuary, the tidally averaged water level tends to rise in landward direction due to the density difference between saline and fresh water and the asymmetry of the friction. The effect of friction on the residual slope is even more remarkable when accounting for

  17. The mechanistic basis for storage-dependent age distributions of water discharged from an experimental hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangle, Luke A.; Kim, Minseok; Cardoso, Charlene; Lora, Marco; Meira Neto, Antonio A.; Volkmann, Till H. M.; Wang, Yadi; Troch, Peter A.; Harman, Ciaran J.

    2017-04-01

    Distributions of water transit times (TTDs), and related storage-selection (SAS) distributions, are spatially integrated metrics of hydrological transport within landscapes. Recent works confirm that the form of TTDs and SAS distributions should be considered time variant—possibly depending, in predictable ways, on the dynamic storage of water within the landscape. We report on a 28 day periodic-steady-state-tracer experiment performed on a model hillslope contained within a 1 m3 sloping lysimeter. Using experimental data, we calibrate physically based, spatially distributed flow and transport models, and use the calibrated models to generate time-variable SAS distributions, which are subsequently compared to those directly observed from the actual experiment. The objective is to use the spatially distributed estimates of storage and flux from the model to characterize how temporal variation in water storage influences temporal variation in flow path configurations, and resulting SAS distributions. The simulated SAS distributions mimicked well the shape of observed distributions, once the model domain reflected the spatial heterogeneity of the lysimeter soil. The spatially distributed flux vectors illustrate how the magnitude and directionality of water flux changes as the water table surface rises and falls, yielding greater contributions of younger water when the water table surface rises nearer to the soil surface. The illustrated mechanism is compliant with conclusions drawn from other recent studies and supports the notion of an inverse-storage effect, whereby the probability of younger water exiting the system increases with storage. This mechanism may be prevalent in hillslopes and headwater catchments where discharge dynamics are controlled by vertical fluctuations in the water table surface of an unconfined aquifer.

  18. Contribution of supra-permafrost discharge to thermokarst lake water balances on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xicai; Yu, Qihao; You, Yanhui; Chun, Kwok Pan; Shi, Xiaogang; Li, Yanping

    2017-12-01

    The seasonal hydrological mechanisms of two thermokarst lakes on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) were characterized by three-year intensive field observations and a water balance model. In three ice-free seasons, the supra-permafrost discharge contributed a mean ratio of over 170% of the precipitation. In the ice-cover seasons, the supra-permafrost discharge contribution varied between -20% and 22% of the water storage change. Results show that a large portion of the lake water storage change is because of the supra-permafrost discharge resulting from precipitation. Furthermore, a precipitation-subsurface runoff function is preliminarily identified in which the supra-permafrost discharge nonlinearly increased with more precipitation. Our results show that the recent lake expansion is linked with increasing supra-permafrost discharge dominated by precipitation. This study also suggests that we need to pay attention to the nonlinear increase of precipitation-controlled supra-permafrost discharge on the large lake expansion at the catchment scale in the QTP region, instead of only looking at the inputs (e.g., precipitation and river discharge) as shown in the previous studies.

  19. Optical properties of polyimides films treated by nanosecond pulsed electrical discharges in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, Ion; Kruth, Angela; Kolb, Juergen F.; Miron, Camelia

    2018-01-01

    Fluorinated polyimide films containing cobalt chloride based on hexafluoroisopropylidenediphthalic dianhydride and 4,4‧-diamino-3,3‧-dimethyl diphenylmethane were treated by nanosecond pulsed electrical discharges generated in distilled water. The polyimide films have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and contact angle measurements, optical transmission spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Significant changes in some intrinsic fluorescence features, such as the intensity and position of the emission peak, have been observed during exposure to water plasma. These effects have been considered to correlate with the development of specific chemical interactions between the liquid and the macromolecules, including the formation of hydrogen bridges. A slight increase in surface hydrophobicity was observed after plasma treatment. FTIR spectra showed a decrease in the intensity of the absorption band and an opening of the imide ring, depending on the treatment time.

  20. Dielectric Barrier Discharge based Mercury-free plasma UV-lamp for efficient water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ram; Hossain, Afaque M; Pal, U N; Kumar, N; Khairnar, K; Mohan, M Krishna

    2017-12-12

    A structurally simple dielectric barrier discharge based mercury-free plasma UV-light source has been developed for efficient water disinfection. The source comprises of a dielectric barrier discharge arrangement between two co-axial quartz tubes with an optimized gas gap. The outer electrode is an aluminium baked foil tape arranged in a helical form with optimized pitch, while the inner electrode is a hollow aluminium metallic rod, hermetically sealed. Strong bands peaking at wavelengths 172 nm and 253 nm, along with a weak band peaking at wavelength 265 nm have been simultaneously observed due to plasma radiation from the admixture of xenon and iodine gases. The developed UV source has been used for bacterial deactivation studies using an experimental setup that is an equivalent of the conventional house-hold water purifier system. Deactivation studies for five types of bacteria, i.e., E. coli, Shigella boydii, Vibrio, Coliforms and Fecal coliform have been demonstrated with 4 log reductions in less than ten seconds.

  1. Phosphonate removal from discharged circulating cooling water using iron-carbon micro-electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Qiao, Weimin; Lin, Yangbo; Shen, Xuelian; Hu, Dalong; Zhang, Jianqiao; Jiang, Lu-Man; Wang, Luochun

    2014-01-01

    Phosphonate is a commonly used corrosion and scale inhibitor for a circulating cooling water (CCW) system. Its discharge could cause eutrophication of receiving waters. The iron-carbon (Fe/C) micro-electrolysis technology was used to degrade and remove phosphonate from discharged CCW. The influences of initial pH, Fe/C ratio (FCR) and temperature on phosphonate removal were investigated in a series of batch tests and optimized by response surface methodology. The quadratic model of phosphonate removal was obtained with satisfactory degrees of fitness. The optimum conditions with total phosphorus removal efficiency of 95% were obtained at pH 7.0, FCR of 1.25, and temperature of 45 °C. The phosphonate removal mechanisms were also studied. Phosphonate removal occurred predominantly via two consecutive reactive phases: the degradation of phosphonate complexes (Ca-phosphonate) and the precipitation of Fe/C micro-electrolysis products (PO₄(3-), Ca²⁺ and Fe³⁺).

  2. Removal of atrazine in water by combination of activated carbon and dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanraes, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.vanraes@ugent.be [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Willems, Gert; Nikiforov, Anton [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic [Separation Science Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4-bis, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Vandamme, Jeroen; Van Durme, Jim [Research Group Molecular Odor Chemistry, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems (M2S), KU Leuven, Technology Campus, Gebroeders De Smetstraat 1, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Verheust, Yannick P.; Van Hulle, Stijn W.H.; Dumoulin, Ann [Department of Industrial Biological Sciences, Ghent University, Graaf Karel de Goedelaan 5, 8500 Kortrijk (Belgium); Leys, Christophe [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. • Chlorine containing oxidation by-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis, in agreement with literature. • Desorption analysis shows lower atrazine concentration and higher by-product concentration on activated carbon textile after plasma treatment. • Comparison with plasma reactors described in literature for atrazine decomposition confirms relatively high energy efficiency of our reactor. - Abstract: Efficiency of modern wastewater treatment plants to remove or decompose persistent contaminants in low concentration is often insufficient to meet the demands imposed by governmental laws. Novel, efficient and cheap methods are required to address this global issue. We developed a new type of plasma reactor, in which atrazine decomposition by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in dry air is combined with micropollutant adsorption on activated carbon textile and with extra bubbling of generated ozone. Investigation of reaction kinetics and by-product analysis shows that increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. By-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis in water and adsorbed on the activated carbon textile. Our reactor is compared in energy efficiency with reactors described in literature, showing that combination of plasma discharge with pollutant adsorption and ozone recycling is attractive for future applications of water treatment.

  3. Guidance for a harmonized emission scenario document (ESD) on ballast water discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipperle, Andreas [BIS - Beratungszentrum fuer integriertes Sedimentmanagement, Hamburg (Germany); Gils, Jos van [DELTARES, Delft (Netherlands); Hattum, Bert van [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). IVM - Institute for Environmental Studies; Heise, Susanne [BIS - Beratungszentrum fuer integriertes Sedimentmanagement, Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The present report provides guidance for a harmonized Emission Scenario Document (ESD) for the exposure assessment as part of the environmental risk assessment process which applicants seeking approval of a ballast water management system (BWMS) need to perform prior to notification and authorisation procedures. Despite the global variability of the marine environment, ballast water discharges and treatment methods, exposure assessments need to be comparable between different applications. In order to achieve this, this ESD points out the following aspects: - Applicants should use standardized scenarios in order to predict mean exposure. These should reflect generic situations, independent of region or port so that results are widely applicable. In addition to a harbour scenario, a standardized shipping lane scenario should be considered, - During or right after ballast water discharge, high concentrations may persist in a water body for a certain length of time until extensive mixing results in mean concentrations. Not taking exposure to peak concentrations within gradients into account could lead to an underestimation of risk, especially for rapidly degrading substances. Efforts have been made to approximate maximum exposure concentration with simple dilution factors. Their applicability was checked by near-field-evaluations. - Chemical properties determine the environmental fate of substances. If they are ambiguous, selection of a specific set of data strongly influences the result of an exposure assessment. Guidance is given on what to do about lacking data. - In order to harmonize the exposure assessments, reliable chemical model software should be used. A discussion on the requirements of suitable software and an evaluation of MAMPEC is given in this report. (orig.)

  4. THE EFFECT OF STOCKING FISH PRODUCTION ON THE QUALITY OF WATER DISCHARGED FROM THE HATCHERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bonisławska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a fish hatchery (Stocking-Breeding Centre in Goleniów -OHZ, focused on the production and on-growing of stocking material, on the quality of post-production water. The following parameters were determined: dissolved oxygen, organic matter content, buffering capacity, the concentration of some forms of nitrogen and phosphorus ((N-NH4+, N-NO2–, N-NO3-, total nitrogen, P-PO43-, total phosphorus and the concentration of chloride ions. The study also included the measurements of water temperature, electrolytic conductivity and pH. It was shown that the water supplied to the hatchery had good quality, providing optimum conditions for growth and living of fry and juvenile forms of various fish species (most indices were within the range of the first water quality class. Production activities at the hatchery caused a reduction in the quality of discharged post-production water with respect to indicators such as total suspended solids, organic matter and phosphorus.

  5. Transit time of water discharges from catchments in coastal mountain of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Ortega, Ramon; Morgenstern, Uwe; Ramirez de Arellano, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    Water quantity and quality response of forest catchments to climate and land-use change are difficult to understand and predict due to complexities of subsurface water flow paths. The main focus of forest hydrology in Chile has been the effect of canopy and soil together with rain in water availability. Groundwater, as a factor in water availability especially during dry season, has not been studied. Only a few studies have been carried out in northern Chile in a non-forestry area using the stable isotopes of the water to characterize recharge and depletion of the aquifer. We use tritium for understanding the dynamics of groundwater through small watersheds over a latitudinal gradient in the coastal range of Central Chile. The zone constitutes rapid growth plantations and a large population that depend on surface water and groundwater for drinking, agriculture, pasture and industry. The study areas have metamorphic bedrock with a Mediterranean weather, and precipitation ranging from 700-800 mm year-1 in the North (Constitución area) to 2300-2500 mm year-1 in the South (Valdivia area). The watersheds have been forested with Pinus radiata in 2003 and 1990 respectively, and flow stations were installed in 2008 by Forestal Arauco S.A. to identify the forest management impact on the water cycle. Tritium is present in meteoric water and decays through radioactive decay. In groundwater, which is separated from the tritium production source in the atmosphere, the tritium concentration decreases over time and therefore allows for determination of the residence time of the water in the groundwater system, and the lag time between recharge of the water, and discharge into the streams. Preliminary results of rain samples collected in 2014 in Constitución confirm the tritium input estimate that we made using the New Zealand input data from similar latitude, and the IAEA data (http://www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/ih/IHS_resources_gnip.html). The mean residence time of the water in

  6. Experimental investigation on the relationship between sluice caisson shape of tidal power plant and the water discharge capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Soo; Oh, Sang-Ho; Yi, Jin-Hak; Park, Woo-Sun [Coastal Engineering and Ocean Energy Research Department, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan 426-744 (Korea); Cho, Hyu-Sang; Kim, Duk-Gu; Ahn, Suk-Jin [Technology Research and Development Institute, Hyein E and C Co. Ltd., Seoul 157-861 (Korea); Eom, Hyun-Min [Global Environment System Research Laboratory, National Institute of Meteorological Research/KMA, Seoul 156-720 (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    The change of water discharge capability of the sluice caisson of tidal power plant according to the change of geometrical shape of the sluice caisson was investigated by performing laboratory experiments. The major design parameters that constitute general shape of the sluice caisson were deduced and a total of 32 different shapes of sluice caisson models were subjected to the hydraulic experiments. For every sluice caisson model, the water discharge capability was estimated with five different flow rates and three different water level conditions. The experiments were carried out in an open channel flume with a great care to measure flow rate and water level accurately, which are key physical quantities in estimating the water discharge capability of the sluice caisson models. By analyzing the experimental results, influence of the respective design parameters on the performance of the sluice caisson was examined and the general guidelines to enhance the water discharge capability were suggested. The discharge coefficient of the best sluice caisson model ranged from 2.3 to 3.1 depending on the experimental conditions, which is far higher than the values that were adopted in the past feasibility studies in Korea. (author)

  7. The effect of electrical conductivity on nanosecond discharges in distilled water and in methanol with argon bubbles

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad

    2017-03-27

    We investigated the effect of a liquid\\'s electrical conductivity (EC) on the physical characteristics of electrical discharges in liquids with gaseous bubbles. Argon gas was supplied into the liquid to form an array of gaseous bubbles in between two electrodes (a pin-to-hollow electrode setup). Methanol and water were considered as base liquids, representing a low and a high dielectric permittivity (ϵ) liquid respectively, while potassium chloride (KCl) was added to control the EC of the liquids. When increasing the EC of the liquids, we found that the discharge probability was reduced by 46% for in-water and 38% for in-methanol discharges. We also found that the injected charge decreased by ∼4 μC as the EC increased. Moreover, as the gap distance increased from 1 to 2.5 mm, the injected charge decreased by 2 μC for in-water discharge and by 4 μC for in-methanol discharge. The plasma emission is another important parameter in characterizing discharges. With increasing the EC, the plasma emission volume decreased linearly by a factor of ∼5. The plasma lifetime was shortened by around 33% for in-water and 20% for in-methanol discharges in the case of d = 1 mm, while the decrease was 40% for in-water and 30% for in-methanol discharges in the case of d = 2.5 mm. Using the broadening characteristics of the Hα line, the electron density was estimated during the first 100 ns by ∼3 × 10 cm for in-water discharges and by ∼2 × 10 cm for in-methanol discharges, and it decreased by about one order of magnitude after 800 ns; note that n dependence on the EC was not significant. The reported findings provide further understanding of electrical discharges in bubbled liquids and highlight the influence of a liquid\\'s EC, which are useful in the development and optimization of the applications based on such process.

  8. Mastectomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast removal surgery - discharge; Nipple-sparing mastectomy - discharge; Total mastectomy - discharge; Simple mastectomy - discharge; Modified radical mastectomy - discharge; Breast cancer - mastectomy -discharge

  9. Effect of Oxygen Gas on the Decomposition of Dye by Pulsed Discharge in Water Droplet Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, Taisuke; Yokoyama, Yuzo; Nakamura, Akira; Minamitani, Yasushi

    Effect of O2 on the decolorization of indigo carmine and on the production of dissolved species such as NO2-, NO3-, O3 and H2O2 in the treatment water by pulsed discharge in water droplet spray was investigated by controlling the O2/N2 ratios as carrier gases in the reactor. The decolorization rate gradually increased with rise in O2 ratio, which reached a constant value in the range of 50% to 90% O2 ratio and decreased in pure O2. The maximum value was about 2 times as high as that of 20% O2 ratio. The decolorization efficiency was not affected by gas flow rate in the range of 4 L/min to 50 L/min. NO2- in the treatment water was only detected in pure N2, but NO3- was produced in O2/N2. NO2- added to the treatment water was not oxidized in pure N2, but was perfectly converted to NO3- in O2/N2. These results implied that hydroxyl radical produced in gas phase does not directly contribute to the oxidation of substances in water. O3 concentration gradually increased with rise in O2 ratio, whereas H2O2 concentration decreased. In the range of 50 to 80% O2 ratio, O3 and H2O2 concentrations were approximately constant value, similar to the trend of decolorization rate. Moreover rate constants on various gas mixing ratio of O2/N2 were determined from the kinetics study. These results suggested that hydroxyl radical produced in the treatment water by the chain reactions of O3 and hydroperoxy radical (HO2·) plays an important role of the decomposition of molecules in water.

  10. Effects of River Discharge and Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) on Water Quality Dynamics in Migina Catchment, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwimana, Brigitte; Dam, van Anne; Gettel, Gretchen; Bigirimana, Bonfils; Irvine, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural intensification may accelerate the loss of wetlands, increasing the concentrations of nutrients and sediments in downstream water bodies. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of land use and land cover and river discharge on water quality in the Migina catchment,

  11. Considering the summation of the effect of harmful substances during the calculation of the environmentally safe waste water discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This article presents the technique of assessing the maximum allowable (standard) discharge of waste waters with several harmful substances into a water reservoir. The technique makes it possible to take into account the summation of their effect provided that the limiting harmful indices are the same. The expressions for the determination of the discharge limit of waste waters have been derived from the conditions of admissibility of the effect of several harmful substances on the waters of a reservoir. Mathematical conditions of admissibility of the effect of wastewaters on a reservoir are given for the characteristic combinations of limiting harmful indices and hazard classes of several substances. The conditions of admissibility of effects are presented in the form of logical products of the sums of relative concentrations that should not exceed the value of 1. It is shown that the calculation of the process of wastewater dilution in a flowing water reservoir is possible only on the basis of a numerical method to assess the wastewater discharge limit. An example of the numerical calculation of the standard limit of industrial enterprise wastewater discharges that contain polysulfide oil, flocculant VPK-101, and fungicide captan is given to test this method. In addition to these three harmful substances, the water reservoir also contained a fourth substance, namely, Zellek-Super herbicide, above the waste discharge point. The summation of the harmful effect was taken into account for VPK-101, captan, and Zellek-Super. The reliability of the technique was tested by the calculation of concentrations of the four substances in the control point of the flowing reservoir during the estimated maximum allowable wastewater discharge. It is shown that the value of the maximum allowable discharge limit was almost two times higher for the example under consideration, taking into account that the effect of harmful substances was unidirectional, which provides a higher level

  12. Investigation of positive and negative modes of nanosecond pulsed discharge in water and electrostriction model of initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Seepersad, Yohan; Pekker, Mikhail; Shneider, Mikhail; Fridman, Alexander; Dobrynin, Danil

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the development of nanosecond pulsed discharges in water ignited with the application of both positive and negative polarity pulses to submerged pin to plane electrodes. Optical diagnostics are used to study two main aspects of these discharges: the initiation phase, and the development phase. Nanosecond pulses up to 24 kV with 4 ns rise time, 10 ns duration and 5 ns fall time are used to ignite discharges in a 1.5 mm gap between a copper plate and a tungsten needle wit...

  13. Results of a Monitoring Program at a Sediment Trap in the Elbe Estuary near Wedel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohle, N.; Entelmann, I.; Winterscheid, A.

    2012-04-01

    In June 2008 a sediment trap was built in the Tidal Elbe River near Wedel. The trap is about 2 km long, 2 m deep in average and spans the whole roughly 300 meter width of the navigation channel. The geometry of the trap is aligned to the zones with maximum sedimentation in the past. Therefore it has a triangular geometry on the western side. The dimensions of the sediment traps were restricted due to more or less legal circumstances. A longer and deeper sediment trap requires a planning approval as the used dimensions were evaluated as supporting maintenance works. Hamburg Port Authority (HPA) and the Waterway and Shipping Administration of the Federal Government (WSV) want jointly further improve the management of sediments and dredging activities by means of this measure. Until end of 2010 a total amount of about 4 Mio. m3 of fine sediments has been removed from the basin in 4 maintenance campaigns and was relocated about 50 km downstream to the relocation area at Elbe-km 690. The main function of the sediment trap is to reduce the residual transport of marine sediments from the North Sea in direction of Hamburg by trapping minor polluted sediments before they reach the port area. In this area these sediments mix-up with higher polluted sediments. The three specific objectives of the sediment trap are: to reduce the dredging amounts in the area of the Hamburg port; to be able to relocate minor polluted sediments further downstream to areas where the ebb-tidal current dominates the flow regime; to economically optimize maintenance dredging activities within the sediment trap. Beside these qualitative advantages the sediment trap has additional advantages in regard to maintenance works of the fairway due to a higher flexibility. Since sediments are collected in one defined place they can be dredged more efficiently through the use of optimized equipment, e.g. larger hopper dredgers can be used resulting in a cost-benefit. Another optimisation possibility can be

  14. Fast estimation of lacustrine groundwater discharge volumes based on stable water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Jörg; Gercken, Jasper; Premke, Katrin; Meinikmann, Karin

    2017-04-01

    Lake eutrophication is still a severe problem in many parts of the world, commonly due to anthropogenic sources of nutrients such as fertilizer, manure or sewage. Improved quantification of nutrient inputs to lakes is required to address this problem. One possible input path for nutrients is lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD). However, LGD has often been disregarded in water and nutrient budgets of lakes although some studies reveal an extraordinary importance of LGD for phosphorus inputs. The aim of the present study is to identify lakes that receive large LGD volumes compared to other input paths. Such lakes are more prone to high groundwater-borne nutrient inputs than lakes with small LGD volumes. . The simple and fast approach used in the present study is based on the fact that evaporation of surface water causes an enrichment of heavier isotopes in lake and river water while precipitation and groundwater are lighter and have similar isotopic signatures. The isotopic signature of lake water depends on a) the isotopic signature of its inputs and b) the lakés residence time (the longer the more enriched with heavier isotopes). In the present study we used the citizen science project "Tatort Gewässer" to let people collect lake water samples all over Germany. Based on additional information we identified lakes without or with small (compared to the lake volume) aboveground inflows. Based on the isotopic signatures of these lakes and additional background information such as the mean depth we could identify lakes in which groundwater is an important component of the water balance. The results will be used as a basis of intense research on groundwater-driven lake eutrophication.

  15. Synthesis of SiOC:H nanoparticles by electrical discharge in hexamethyldisilazane and water

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad

    2017-07-25

    Nanoparticles have unique properties and are useful in many applications. Efficient synthesis of high yields of nanoparticles remains a challenge. Here, we synthesized SiOC:H, a low-dielectric-constant material, by electrical discharge at the interface of hexamethyldisilazane and water. The nanoparticle production rate of our technique was ∼17 mg per minute. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to characterize the synthesized material. Heating the nanoparticles to 500 °C for 2 h released hydrogen from CHx groups and evaporated volatile compounds. Our method to produce high yields of low-dielectric-constant nanoparticles for microelectronic applications is promising.

  16. Power supply improvements for ballasts-low pressure mercury/argon discharge lamp for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhtache, A. Aissa; Zegaoui, A.; Djahbar, A.; Allouache, H.; Hemici, K.; Kessaissia, F. Z.; Bouchrit, M. S.; Aillerie, M.

    2017-02-01

    The low-pressure electrical discharges established in the mercury rare gas mixtures are the basis of many applications both in the field of lighting and for industrial applications. In order to select an efficient high frequency power supply (ECG -based PWM inverter), we present and discuss results obtained in the simulation of three kinds of power supplies delivering a 0.65 A - 50KHz sinusoidal current dedicated to power low pressure UV Mercury - Argon lamp used for effect germicide on water treatment thus allowing maximum UVC radiation at 253.7 nm. Three ballasts half-bridge configurations were compared with criteria based on resulting germicide efficiency, electrical yield and reliability, for example the quality of the sinusoidal current with reduced THD, and finally, we also considered in this analysis the final economic aspect.

  17. Economic, Energetic, and Environmental Impact Evaluation of the Water Discharge Networks from Mining Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Cristian Rada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development represents an optimistic scenario for the evolution of contemporary civilization. The object of this paper is to define certain evaluation criteria regarding the performances of water discharge networks from mining works, and propose a method for aggregating the specific indicators for monetary costs, energetic costs, and environmental impact-related costs. The global pollution index (GPI represents a method for assessing environment health status or pollution levels. The GPI quantitatively expresses this status based on its index, which results from a ratio between the ideal value and the given value of certain quality indices that are considered specific for the analyzed environmental factors at certain moments. The proposed method in this paper tries to perform a synergistic aggregation of the balance sheet of harmfulness and classic balance sheets for matter and energy for an industrial process.

  18. Research on water discharge characteristics of PEM fuel cells by using neutron imaging technology at the NRF, HANARO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, TaeJoo; Sim, CheulMuu; Kim, MooHwan

    2008-05-01

    An investigation into the water discharge characteristics of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is carried out by using a feasibility test apparatus and the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) at HANARO. The feasibility test apparatus was composed of a distilled water supply line, a compressed air supply line, heating systems, and single PEM fuel cells, which were a 1-parallel serpentine type with a 100 cm(2) active area. Three kinds of methods were used: compressed air supply-only; heating-only; and a combination of the methods of a compressed air supply and heating, respectively. The resultant water discharge characteristics are different according to the applied methods. The compressed air supply only is suitable for removing the water at a flow field and a heating only is suitable for water at the MEA. Therefore, in order to remove all the water at PEM fuel cells, the combination method is needed at the moment.

  19. Effect of inflow discharges on the development of matric suction and volumetric water content for dike during overtopping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Marwan A.; Ismail, Mohd A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The point of this review is to depict the impact of various inflow discharge rate releases on the instruments of matric suction and volumetric water content during an experimental test of spatial overtopping failure at school of civil engineering in universiti Sains of Malaysia. A dry sand dike was conducted inside small flume channel with twelve sensors of tensiometer and Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR). Instruments are installed in the soil at different locations in downstream and upstream slopes of the dike for measuring the response of matric suction and volumetric water content, respectively. Two values of inflow discharge rates of 30 and 40 L/min are utilized as a part of these experiments to simulate the effectiveness of water reservoirs in erosion mechanism. The outcomes demonstrate that the matric suction and volumetric water content are decreased and increased, respectively for both inflow discharges. The higher inflow discharges accelerate the saturation of dike soil and the erosion process faster than that for the lower inflow discharges.

  20. Measurement of reactive species generated by dielectric barrier discharge in direct contact with water in different atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Vesna V.; Dojčinović, Biljana P.; Jović, Milica; Roglić, Goran M.; Obradović, Bratislav M.; Kuraica, Milorad M.

    2017-04-01

    The formation of hydroxyl radical and long-living chemical species (H2O2, O3, \\text{NO}3- and \\text{NO}2- ) generated in the liquid phase of a water falling film dielectric barrier discharge in dependence on the gas atmosphere (air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon and helium) was studied. The chemical molecular probe dimethyl sulfoxide was employed for quantification of ˙OH, and the influence of hydroxyl radical scavenging on formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species was investigated. In addition to liquid analysis, plasma diagnostics was applied to indicate possible reaction pathways of plasma-liquid interaction. The highest ˙OH production rate of 1.19  ×  10-5 mol l-1 s-1 was found when water was treated in oxygen, with a yield of 2.75  ×  10-2 molecules of ˙OH per 100 eV. Formation of hydrogen peroxide in air, nitrogen and argon discharges is determined by recombination reaction of hydroxyl radicals, reaching the highest yield of about 0.7 g kWh-1 when distilled water was treated in argon discharge. Ozone formation was dominant in oxygen and air discharges. Strong acidification along with formation of reactive nitrogen species was detected in water treated in air and nitrogen discharges.

  1. A zero discharge green roof system and species selection to optimize evapotranspiration and water retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, J.S.; Whitlow, T.H. [Cornell, Univ., Urban Horticulture Inst., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Horticulture

    2006-07-01

    Economic benefits must outweigh costs, with or without governmental subsidies or enforcement in order for green roofs to become commonplace in American cities. Municipal advantages to green roofs include stormwater management, environmental quality and an expansion of the native plant palette. These benefits are difficult to quantify monetarily for the owner of the roof, yet greater water evaporation from storm water attenuation has the ability to increase cooling of the building, an economic benefit to the owner. Current green roof design and testing methods fail to explore systems that maximize stormwater retention and evaporative cooling benefits that are often associated with green roofs. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated an alternate approach that optimizes water loss through evapotranspiration using a zero discharge target and plants that tolerate both medium drought and saturation. Species selection emphasizes native species and salt tolerance, which allows the possibility of grey water irrigation. Species studied include spartina alternafiora and solidago canadensis. Plants were studied over a growing season to examine the rates of ET as they relate to weather conditions, growing media composition and saturation levels, and plant species. The study was conducted on top of a four storey school building located in the South Bronx, New York City. In June 2005, a 3,500 square foot extensive green roof was installed. The conference described the site and study in detail followed by a discussion of the results. This includes a discussion of the planting containers, planting mediums, plant materials, data collection, and irrigation trials. It was concluded that further research is needed to test this concept, and to examine the possibility of supplemental irrigation via off-season rainwater catchment or grey water irrigation. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Application of Tank Model for Predicting Water Balance and Flow Discharge Components of Cisadane Upper Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Mulyana Arifjaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of hydrological tank model was well described into four compartments (tanks. The first tank (tank A comprised of one vertical (qA0 and two lateral (qA1 and qA2 water flow components and tank B comprised of one vertical (qB0 and one lateral (qB1 water flow components. Tank C comprised of one vertical (qC0 and one lateral (qC1 water flow components, whereas tank D comprised of one lateral water flow component (qD1.  These vertical water flows would also contribute to the depletion of water flow in the related tanks but would replenish tanks in the deeper layers. It was assumed that at all lateral water flow components would finally accumulate in one stream, summing-up of the lateral water flow, much or less, should be equal to the water discharge (Qo at specified time concerns. Tank A received precipitation (R and evapo-transpiration (ET which was its gradientof (R-ET over time would become the driving force for the changes of water stored in the soil profiles and thosewater flows leaving the soil layer.  Thus tank model could describe th vertical and horizontal water flow withinthe watershed. The research site was Cisadane Upper Catchment, located at Pasir Buncir Village of CaringinSub-District within the Regency of Bogor in West Java Province.  The elevations ranged 512 –2,235 m above sealevel, with a total drainage area of 1,811.5 ha and total length of main stream of 14,340.7 m.  The land cover wasdominated by  forest  with a total of 1,044.6 ha (57.67%,  upland agriculture with a total of 477.96 ha (26.38%,mixed garden with a total of 92.85 ha(5.13% and semitechnical irigated rice field with a total of 196.09 ha (10,8%.  The soil was classified as hydraquent (96.6% and distropept (3.4%.  Based on the calibration of tank model application in the study area, the resulting coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.72 with model efficiency (NSEof= 0.75, thus tank model could well illustrate the water flow distribution of

  3. The effects of gaseous bubble composition and gap distance on the characteristics of nanosecond discharges in distilled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min Suk

    2016-06-01

    Electric discharge in liquids with bubbles can reduce the energy consumption, which increases treatment efficiency. We present an experimental study of nanosecond discharges in distilled water bubbled with the monoatomic gas argon and with the polyatomic gases methane, carbon dioxide, and propane. We monitor the time evolution of the voltage and current waveforms, and calculate the injected charges to characterize the discharge. We establish a relationship between the injected charges and the shape of the plasma by time-resolved imaging to find that increasing the size of the gap reduces the injected charges. Moreover, we determine the plasma characteristics, including electron density, excitation temperatures (for atoms and ions), and rotational temperature of the OH and C2 radicals found in the plasma. Our space- and time-averaged measurements allow us to propose a spatial distribution of the plasma that is helpful for understanding the plasma dynamics necessary to develop and optimize applications based on nanosecond discharges in bubbled liquids.

  4. Estimates of ground-water discharge as determined from measurements of evapotranspiration, Ash Meadows area, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczniak, R.J.; DeMeo, G.A.; Reiner, S.R.; Smith, J. LaRue; Nylund, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    Ash Meadows is one of the major discharge areas within the regional Death Valley ground-water flow system of southern Nevada and adjacent California. Ground water discharging at Ash Meadows is replenished from inflow derived from an extensive recharge area that includes the eastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Currently, contaminants introduced into the subsurface by past nuclear testing at NTS are the subject of study by the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration Program. The transport of any contaminant in contact with ground water is controlled in part by the rate and direction of ground-water flow, which itself depends on the location and quantity of ground water discharging from the flow system. To best evaluate any potential risk associated with these test-generated contaminants, studies were undertaken to accurately quantify discharge from areas downgradient from the NTS. This report presents results of a study to refine the estimate of ground-water discharge at Ash Meadows. The study estimates ground-water discharge from the Ash Meadows area through a rigorous quantification of evapotranspiration (ET). To accomplish this objective, the study identifies areas of ongoing ground-water ET, delineates unique areas of ET defined on the basis of similarities in vegetation and soil-moisture conditions, and computes ET rates for each of the delineated areas. A classification technique using spectral-reflectance characteristics determined from satellite images recorded in 1992 identified seven unique units representing areas of ground-water ET. The total area classified encompasses about 10,350 acres dominated primarily by lush desert vegetation. Each unique area, referred to as an ET unit, generally consists of one or more assemblages of local phreatophytes. The ET units identified range from sparse grasslands to open water. Annual ET rates are computed by energy-budget methods from micrometeorological measurements made at 10 sites within six

  5. Effects of coal-bed methane discharge waters on the vegetation and soil ecosystem in Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, M.; Tindall, J.A.; Cronin, G.; Friedel, M.J.; Bergquist, E.

    2005-01-01

    Coal-bed methane (CBM) co-produced discharge waters in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, resulting from extraction of methane from coal seams, have become a priority for chemical, hydrological and biological research during the last few years. Soil and vegetation samples were taken from affected and reference sites (upland elevations and wetted gully) in Juniper Draw to investigate the effects of CBM discharge waters on soil physical and chemical properties and on native and introduced vegetation density and diversity. Results indicate an increase of salinity and sodicity within local soil ecosystems at sites directly exposed to CBM discharge waters. Elevated concentrations of sodium in the soil are correlated with consistent exposure to CBM waters. Clay-loam soils in the study area have a much larger specific surface area than the sandy soils and facilitate a greater sodium adsorption. However, there was no significant relation between increasing water sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values and increasing sediment SAR values downstream; however, soils exposed to the CBM water ranged from the moderate to severe SAR hazard index. Native vegetation species density was highest at the reference (upland and gully) and CBM affected upland sites. The affected gully had the greatest percent composition of introduced vegetation species. Salt-tolerant species had the greatest richness at the affected gully, implying a potential threat of invasion and competition to established native vegetation. These findings suggest that CBM waters could affect agricultural production operations and long-term water quality. ?? Springer 2005.

  6. Goodenough Spring, Texas, USA: Discharge and water chemistry of a large spring deeply submerged under the binational Amistad Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Ray H.; Tatum, Gregg S.; Gault, Mike; Groeger, Alan W.

    2009-06-01

    Goodenough Spring (Texas, USA) is a large spring near the border of the American state of Texas and the Mexican state of Coahuila, discharging into the international Amistad Reservoir on the river Rio Grande (Rio Bravo). Discharge was routinely measured from 1928 until 1968 to partition the flow of the river between the two countries in accordance with water-use treaties. Samples were analyzed for water-quality parameters in 1967-1968 prior to inundation under 45 m of Amistad Reservoir in 1968. Subsequently, discharge has been estimated indirectly by the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC). For the first direct measurements of the spring in 37 years, velocity and cross-sectional measurements were made and water samples collected in the summer of 2005 using advanced self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) techniques. Spring discharge was calculated at 2.03 m3 s-1, approximately one-half of the historical mean of 3.94 m3 s-1. In situ and laboratory analyses of samples for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, alkalinity, nitrate-nitrogen, dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, fluoride, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron showed the water quality to be very good for human consumption and crop irrigation. Measurement values are relatively unchanged from those reported 37 years prior.

  7. Removal of cyanide from water by means of plasma discharge technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María; Molina, Ricardo; Schikora, Hendrik; Müller, Michael; Bayona, Josep M

    2013-03-15

    Two different nonthermal plasma reactors at atmospheric pressure were assessed for the first time for cyanide removal (1 mg L(-1)) from aqueous solutions (0.025 M NaHCO(3)/NaOH buffer, pH 11) at laboratory scale. Both devices were dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors; one of them was a conventional batch reactor (R1) and the other one was a coaxial thin falling water film reactor (R2). A first-order degradation kinetics was proposed for both experiments, obtaining k(R1) = 0.5553 min(-1) and k(R2) = 0.7482 min(-1). The coaxial reactor R2 yielded a removal of 99% within only 3 min. Energy efficiencies (G) were calculated, yielding 1.74 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for R1 and 127.9 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for R2. When the treatment was applied to industrial wastewaters, cyanide elimination was confirmed, although at a lower rate (above 92% removal in 90 min with R2). Therefore, plasma reactors could be a relevant alternative to established advanced oxidation techniques (UV, H(2)O(2), ozonation, etc.) for the removal of cyanide from wastewaters with low organic loads or even drinking waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Destruction of 4-phenolsulfonic acid in water by anodic contact glow discharge electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiming; An, Baigang; Wang, Shaoyan; Li, Lixiang; Jin, Wenjie; Li, Lihua

    2013-06-01

    Destruction of 4-phenolsulfonic acid (4-PSA) in water was carried out using anodic contact glow discharge electrolysis. Accompanying the decay of 4-PSA, the amount of total organic carbon (TOC) in water correspondingly decreased, while the sulfonate group of 4-PSA was released as sulfate ion. Oxalate and formate were obtained as minor by-products. Additionally, phenol, 1,4-hydroquinone, hydroxyquinol and 1,4-benzoquinone were detected as primary intermediates in the initial stages of decomposition of 4-PSA. A reaction pathway involving successive attacks of hydroxyl and hydrogen radicals was assumed on the basis of the observed products and kinetics. It was revealed that the decay of both 4-PSA and TOC obeyed a first-order rate law. The effects of different Fe ions and initial concentrations of 4-PSA on the degradation rate were investigated. It was found that the presence of Fe ions could increase the degradation rate of 4-PSA, while initial concentrations lower than 80 mmol/L had no significant effect on kinetic behaviour. The disappearance rate of 4-PSA was significantly affected by pH.

  9. Application of Landsat 8 for Monitoring Impacts of Wastewater Discharge on Coastal Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Trinh

    2017-10-01

    of using Landsat 8 TIRS and OLI sensors for the monitoring of SST and surface chl-a concentrations at high spatial resolution in nearshore waters and highlights the value of these sensors for assessing the environmental effects of wastewater discharge in a coastal environment.

  10. Developing a methodology for real-time trading of water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Maryam; Kerachian, Reza

    2018-02-13

    In this paper, a new methodology is proposed for the real-time trading of water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits in agricultural areas along the rivers. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is chosen as an indicator of river water quality and the TDS load that agricultural water users discharge to the river are controlled by storing a part of return flows in some evaporation ponds. Available surface water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits are determined using a non-linear multi-objective optimization model. Total available permits are then fairly reallocated among agricultural water users, proportional to their arable lands. Water users can trade their water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits simultaneously, in a bilateral, step by step framework, which takes advantage of differences in their water use efficiencies and agricultural return flow rates. A trade that would take place at each time step results in either more benefit or less diverted return flow. The Nucleolus cooperative game is used to redistribute the benefits generated through trades in different time steps. The proposed methodology is applied to PayePol region in the Karkheh River catchment, southwest Iran. Predicting that 1922.7 Million Cubic Meters (MCM) of annual flow is available to agricultural lands at the beginning of the cultivation year, the real-time optimization model estimates the total annual benefit to reach 46.07 million US Dollars (USD), which requires 6.31 MCM of return flow to be diverted to the evaporation ponds. Fair reallocation of the permits, changes these values to 35.38 million USD and 13.69 MCM, respectively. Results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the real-time water and waste load allocation and simultaneous trading of permits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tracking stormwater discharge plumes and water quality of the Tijuana River with multispectral aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svejkovsky, Jan; Nezlin, Nikolay P.; Mustain, Neomi M.; Kum, Jamie B.

    2010-04-01

    Spatial-temporal characteristics and environmental factors regulating the behavior of stormwater runoff from the Tijuana River in southern California were analyzed utilizing very high resolution aerial imagery, and time-coincident environmental and bacterial sampling data. Thirty nine multispectral aerial images with 2.1-m spatial resolution were collected after major rainstorms during 2003-2008. Utilizing differences in color reflectance characteristics, the ocean surface was classified into non-plume waters and three components of the runoff plume reflecting differences in age and suspended sediment concentrations. Tijuana River discharge rate was the primary factor regulating the size of the freshest plume component and its shorelong extensions to the north and south. Wave direction was found to affect the shorelong distribution of the shoreline-connected fresh plume components much more strongly than wind direction. Wave-driven sediment resuspension also significantly contributed to the size of the oldest plume component. Surf zone bacterial samples collected near the time of each image acquisition were used to evaluate the contamination characteristics of each plume component. The bacterial contamination of the freshest plume waters was very high (100% of surf zone samples exceeded California standards), but the oldest plume areas were heterogeneous, including both polluted and clean waters. The aerial imagery archive allowed study of river runoff characteristics on a plume component level, not previously done with coarser satellite images. Our findings suggest that high resolution imaging can quickly identify the spatial extents of the most polluted runoff but cannot be relied upon to always identify the entire polluted area. Our results also indicate that wave-driven transport is important in distributing the most contaminated plume areas along the shoreline.

  12. Impact of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on Marine Water Quality and Reef Biota of Maui.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Amato

    Full Text Available Generally unseen and infrequently measured, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD can transport potentially large loads of nutrients and other land-based contaminants to coastal ecosystems. To examine this linkage we employed algal bioassays, benthic community analysis, and geochemical methods to examine water quality and community parameters of nearshore reefs adjacent to a variety of potential, land-based nutrient sources on Maui. Three common reef algae, Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis, and Ulva spp. were collected and/or deployed at six locations with SGD. Algal tissue nitrogen (N parameters (δ15N, N %, and C:N were compared with nutrient and δ15N-nitrate values of coastal groundwater and nearshore surface water at all locations. Benthic community composition was estimated for ten 10-m transects per location. Reefs adjacent to sugarcane farms had the greatest abundance of macroalgae, low species diversity, and the highest concentrations of N in algal tissues, coastal groundwater, and marine surface waters compared to locations with low anthropogenic impact. Based on δ15N values of algal tissues, we estimate ca. 0.31 km2 of Kahului Bay is impacted by effluent injected underground at the Kahului Wastewater Reclamation Facility (WRF; this region is barren of corals and almost entirely dominated by colonial zoanthids. Significant correlations among parameters of algal tissue N with adjacent surface and coastal groundwater N indicate that these bioassays provided a useful measure of nutrient source and loading. A conceptual model that uses Ulva spp. tissue δ15N and N % to identify potential N source(s and relative N loading is proposed for Hawai'i. These results indicate that SGD can be a significant transport pathway for land-based nutrients with important biogeochemical and ecological implications in tropical, oceanic islands.

  13. Impact of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on Marine Water Quality and Reef Biota of Maui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Daniel W; Bishop, James M; Glenn, Craig R; Dulai, Henrietta; Smith, Celia M

    2016-01-01

    Generally unseen and infrequently measured, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can transport potentially large loads of nutrients and other land-based contaminants to coastal ecosystems. To examine this linkage we employed algal bioassays, benthic community analysis, and geochemical methods to examine water quality and community parameters of nearshore reefs adjacent to a variety of potential, land-based nutrient sources on Maui. Three common reef algae, Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis, and Ulva spp. were collected and/or deployed at six locations with SGD. Algal tissue nitrogen (N) parameters (δ15N, N %, and C:N) were compared with nutrient and δ15N-nitrate values of coastal groundwater and nearshore surface water at all locations. Benthic community composition was estimated for ten 10-m transects per location. Reefs adjacent to sugarcane farms had the greatest abundance of macroalgae, low species diversity, and the highest concentrations of N in algal tissues, coastal groundwater, and marine surface waters compared to locations with low anthropogenic impact. Based on δ15N values of algal tissues, we estimate ca. 0.31 km2 of Kahului Bay is impacted by effluent injected underground at the Kahului Wastewater Reclamation Facility (WRF); this region is barren of corals and almost entirely dominated by colonial zoanthids. Significant correlations among parameters of algal tissue N with adjacent surface and coastal groundwater N indicate that these bioassays provided a useful measure of nutrient source and loading. A conceptual model that uses Ulva spp. tissue δ15N and N % to identify potential N source(s) and relative N loading is proposed for Hawai'i. These results indicate that SGD can be a significant transport pathway for land-based nutrients with important biogeochemical and ecological implications in tropical, oceanic islands.

  14. Discharge and water quality of springs in Roan and Parachute Creek basins, northwestern Colorado, 1981-83

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report is a compilation and interpretation of discharge, water-quality, and radiochemical data collected at springs in the oil-shale regions of Roan and Parachute Creek basins, Colorado, from 1981 to 1983. Springs located on upland plateaus and ridges are mixed-cation bicarbonate water types with 216 to 713 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. Calcite and dolomite dissolution are dominant chemical reactions in upland springs. Springs located in the canyons contain greater concentrations of sodium and sulfate and have 388 to 3,970 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. Gypsum dissolution is an important chemical reaction in canyon spring water. The only trace constituents with mean concentration greater than 10 micrograms per liter in the study area were barium, boron, lithium and strontium. None of the canyon springs investigated represent discharge from the lower aquifer in the Green River Formation. Analysis of chemical and discharge data for streams in the Roan Creek drainage showed evidence of lower-aquifer discharge into the canyons. Springs located near an oil-shale mine or processing plant could be used for monitoring groundwater quality and quantity. Bicarbonate, fluoride, arsenic, boron, lithium, mercury, ammonia, and organic carbon may be chemical indicators of mine or process-water contamination of shallow aquifers near an oil-shale plant or mine. (USGS)

  15. Quasi 2D hydrodynamic modelling of the flooded hinterland due to dyke breaching on the Elbe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In flood modeling, many 1D and 2D combination and 2D models are used to simulate diversion of water from rivers through dyke breaches into the hinterland for extreme flood events. However, these models are too demanding in data requirements and computational resources which is an important consideration when uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo techniques is used to complement the modeling exercise. The goal of this paper is to show the development of a quasi-2D modeling approach, which still calculates the dynamic wave in 1D but the discretisation of the computational units are in 2D, allowing a better spatial representation of the flow in the hinterland due to dyke breaching without a large additional expenditure on data pre-processing and computational time. A 2D representation of the flow and velocity fields is required to model sediment and micro-pollutant transport. The model DYNHYD (1D hydrodynamics from the WASP5 modeling package was used as a basis for the simulations. The model was extended to incorporate the quasi-2D approach and a Monte-Carlo Analysis was used to conduct a flood sensitivity analysis to determine the sensitivity of parameters and boundary conditions to the resulting water flow. An extreme flood event on the Elbe River, Germany, with a possible dyke breach area was used as a test case. The results show a good similarity with those obtained from another 1D/2D modeling study.

  16. Water-surface elevation and discharge measurement data for the Red River of the North and its tributaries near Fargo, North Dakota, water years 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damschen, William C.; Galloway, Joel M.

    2016-08-25

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fargo Diversion Board of Authority, collected water-surface elevations during a range of discharges needed for calibration of hydrologic and hydraulic models for specific reaches of interest in water years 2014–15. These water-surface elevation and discharge measurement data were collected for design planning of diversion structures on the Red River of the North and Wild Rice River and the aqueduct/diversion structures on the Sheyenne and Maple Rivers. The Red River of the North and Sheyenne River reaches were surveyed six times, and discharges ranged from 276 to 6,540 cubic feet per second and from 166 to 2,040 cubic feet per second, respectively. The Wild Rice River reach also was surveyed six times during 2014 and 2015, and discharges ranged from 13 to 1,550 cubic feet per second. The Maple River reach was surveyed four times, and discharges ranged from 16.4 to 633 cubic feet per second. Water-surface elevation differences from upstream to downstream in the reaches ranged from 0.33 feet in the Red River of the North reach to 9.4 feet in the Maple River reach.

  17. Prediction of diffuse sulfate emissions from a former mining district and associated groundwater discharges to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, Bastian J.; Koch, Christian; Prommer, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Rivers draining mining districts are often affected by the diffuse input of polluted groundwaters. The severity and longevity of the impact depends on a wide range of factors such as the source terms, the hydraulic regime, the distance between pollutant sources and discharge points and the dilution by discharge from upstream river reaches. In this study a deterministic multi-mine life-cycle model was developed. It is used to characterize pollutant sources and to quantify the resulting current and future effects on both groundwater and river water quality. Thereby sulfate acts as proxy for mining-related impacts. The model application to the Lausitz mining district (Germany) shows that the most important factors controlling concentrations and discharge of sulfate are mixing/dilution with ambient groundwater and the rates of biological sulfate reduction during subsurface transport. In contrast, future impacts originating from the unsaturated zones of the mining dumps showed to be of little importance due to the high age of the mining dumps and the associated depletion in reactive iron-sulfides. The simulations indicate that currently the groundwater borne diffuse input of sulfate into the rivers Kleine Spree and Spree is ∼2200 t/years. Our predictions suggest a future increase to ∼11,000 t/years within the next 40 years. Depending on river discharge rates this represents an increase in sulfate concentration of 40-300 mg/L. A trend reversal for the surface water discharge is not expected before 2050.

  18. Forsmark site investigation. Monitoring of brook water levels, electrical conductivities, temperatures and discharges January-December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult (Sweden)); Juston, John (Juston Konsult (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    This document reports the monitoring of water levels, electrical conductivities, temperatures and discharges at four brook discharge gauging stations, and the monitoring of water electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden in the Forsmark area. The report presents data from 1 January through 31 December 2009 and is a continuation of reporting from Johansson and Juston (2007, 2009), which covered the periods from 1 April 2004 through 31 March 2007 and 1 April 2007 through 31 December 2008, respectively. Long-throated flumes equipped with automatically recording devices were used for the discharge measurements. Every c. 14 days the water depths at the upstream edge of the flumes were measured manually by a ruler as a check. Electrical conductivity and temperature were automatically recorded and these parameters were also measured manually every c. 14 days with the site investigation field devices. SKB's Hydro Monitoring System (HMS) was used to collect and store all data. From HMS quality assured data were transferred to SKB's primary database Sicada. Measurements of levels, electrical conductivities and temperatures were made every 10 minutes (every 30 minutes for electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden). For the calculation of discharge, quality assured water level data from the flumes were used. The calculation procedure included consolidation of the time series to hourly averages, screening of data for removal of short-term spikes, noise and other data that were judged erroneous. After the calculations were performed, the results were delivered to Sicada. The amplitudes of water level variations during this reporting period were 0.26-0.33 m at the four stations. The mean electrical conductivities varied between 26 and 41 mS/m at the four discharge stations. The electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden varied between 53 and 188 mS/m during the period with the higher values at the end of the

  19. The effects of precipitation, river discharge, land use and coastal circulation on water quality in coastal Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburg, Charles E; Jordan, Linda M; Carlson, Amy E; Zeeman, Stephan I; Yund, Philip O

    2015-07-01

    Faecal pollution in stormwater, wastewater and direct run-off can carry zoonotic pathogens to streams, rivers and the ocean, reduce water quality, and affect both recreational and commercial fishing areas of the coastal ocean. Typically, the closure of beaches and commercial fishing areas is governed by the testing for the presence of faecal bacteria, which requires an 18-24 h period for sample incubation. As water quality can change during this testing period, the need for accurate and timely predictions of coastal water quality has become acute. In this study, we: (i) examine the relationship between water quality, precipitation and river discharge at several locations within the Gulf of Maine, and (ii) use multiple linear regression models based on readily obtainable hydrometeorological measurements to predict water quality events at five coastal locations. Analysis of a 12 year dataset revealed that high river discharge and/or precipitation events can lead to reduced water quality; however, the use of only these two parameters to predict water quality can result in a number of errors. Analysis of a higher frequency, 2 year study using multiple linear regression models revealed that precipitation, salinity, river discharge, winds, seasonality and coastal circulation correlate with variations in water quality. Although there has been extensive development of regression models for freshwater, this is one of the first attempts to create a mechanistic model to predict water quality in coastal marine waters. Model performance is similar to that of efforts in other regions, which have incorporated models into water resource managers' decisions, indicating that the use of a mechanistic model in coastal Maine is feasible.

  20. Instream coliform gradients in the Holtemme, a small headwater stream in the Elbe River Basin, Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthe, Daniel; Lin, Pei-Ying; Westphal, Katja

    2017-09-01

    The Holtemme is a small headwater stream in North Germany's Elbe River Basin. According to German and European legislation, hygienic monitoring is not mandatory for such water bodies which are neither drinking water sources nor categorized as bathing waters. Consequently, relatively little is known about the occurrence of-potentially pathogenic-bacteria and viruses in Germany's streams and rivers. The Holtemme was selected for a case study because it is relatively well monitored for both chemical water quality and aquatic ecology, but not for hygiene. Originating in the mountains of Harz Nature Park, the 47 km long Holtemme is characterized by a strong longitudinal gradient in chemical water quality, which is related to different land uses and the influx of treated wastewater from two urban areas (Wernigerode and Halberstadt). Waste water loads received by the Holtemme are comparatively high when compared to similarly small streams. In 2015, total coliform concentrations between more than 200 and 77,010 bacteria per 100 mL, and fecal coliform concentrations between 5 and 24,060 bacteria per 100 mL were observed in the Holtemme's main channel. The highest concentrations were typically found below the outlets of the two wastewater treatment plants. The treated wastewater contained total and fecal coliform concentrations of up to 200,500 and 83,100 per 100 mL, respectively; however, there were significant temporal variations. While the observed concentrations are unproblematic from a legal perspective (because no maximum permissible limits are defined for streams in Germany), they would exceed the tolerable limits for bathing waters in the EU, indicating moderate to critical pollution limits.

  1. Decolorization of reactive textile dyes using water falling film dielectric barrier discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dojčinović, Biljana P; Roglić, Goran M; Obradović, Bratislav M; Kuraica, Milorad M; Kostić, Mirjana M; Nešić, Jelena; Manojlović, Dragan D

    2011-08-30

    Decolorization of reactive textile dyes Reactive Black 5, Reactive Blue 52, Reactive Yellow 125 and Reactive Green 15 was studied using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in a non-thermal plasma reactor, based on coaxial water falling film dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Used initial dye concentrations in the solution were 40.0 and 80.0mg/L. The effects of different initial pH of dye solutions, and addition of homogeneous catalysts (H(2)O(2), Fe(2+) and Cu(2+)) on the decolorization during subsequent recirculation of dye solution through the DBD reactor, i.e. applied energy density (45-315kJ/L) were studied. Influence of residence time was investigated over a period of 24h. Change of pH values and effect of pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation on the decolorization was also tested. It was found that the initial pH of dye solutions and pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation did not influence the decolorization. The most effective decolorization of 97% was obtained with addition of 10mM H(2)O(2) in a system of 80.0mg/L Reactive Black 5 with applied energy density of 45kJ/L, after residence time of 24h from plasma treatment. Toxicity was evaluated using the brine shrimp Artemia salina as a test organism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Removal of caffeine from water by combining dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma with goethite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, dielectric barrier discharge plasma was developed to cooperate with goethite for removing caffeine in aqueous solution. Goethite was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of input power, initial concentration and catalysts concentration on the removal efficiency of caffeine were evaluated. Furthermore, the degradation pathways of caffeine were also discussed preliminarily. In the case of caffeine concentration at 50 mg L−1, the degradation efficiency of caffeine was improved from 41% to 94% after 24 min on the conditions of input power of 75 W by combining goethite catalysts (2.5 g L−1, while the energy efficiency could be enhanced 1.6–2.3 times compared to the single DBD reactor. The reaction mechanism experiments demonstrated that attack by hydroxyl radical and ozone was the main degradation process of caffeine in aqueous solution. These studies also provided a theoretical and practical basis for the application of DBD-goethite in treatment of caffeine from water.

  3. Using remotely sensed data to estimate river characteristics including water-surface velocity and discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jonathan M.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Legleiter, Carl; McDonald, Richard R.; Overstreet, Brandon; Conaway, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a project combining field studies and analyses directed at providing an assessment of the accuracy of remotely sensed methods for determining river characteristics such as velocity and discharge. In particular, we describe a remote sensing method for surface velocities using mid-wave thermal camera videography combined with image analysis. One of the critical problems in this work is determining a method for relating remotely measured water-surface velocities to vertically averaged velocities through a velocity index. We explore three similarity profiles that allow a relationship between surface and vertically averaged velocity to be found either using empirical results or simple roughness-to-depth ratios. To test the approaches we compare them in a situation where vertical structure is known over most of the flow depth through ADCP measurements. By determining best-fit profiles through the ADCP profiles, average values of the velocity index are found for the cross-sections where measurement were made. By comparing these to the predicted velocity indices from the three similarity profiles, we find that, although the differences between the various similarity profiles are substantial, they are smaller than differences associated with local nonuniformity and nonhydrostatic flow. Nevertheless, the velocity indices are accurate to about +/-5%, meaning that remotely sensed vertically averaged velocities can be computed to well within the current accuracy standard for such values when used for river gaging.

  4. Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Coastal Water Quality on the Kona Coast: The Land Use Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, K. L.; Street, J. H.; Grossman, E. G.; Boehm, A. B.; Paytan, A.

    2008-12-01

    For several decades, the Kona, or western, coast of the island of Hawai'i (Hawai'i, USA) has been recognized as a region of exceptionally high submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Maintaining good water quality on the Kona coast is important for the local coral reef ecosystems and tourism-based economy. However, rapid development in the recent past and planned development in the near future may pose a threat to coastal waters. In this study, we quantified SGD-related fluxes of freshwater, nutrients and trace metals into the coastal ocean at 12 sites on the Kona coast. Radium-224 activity, silica concentration, and salinity were used as groundwater tracers, and a mass-balance approach was used to estimate fluxes. The relation between fresh groundwater quality and land use was also investigated. Fresh SGD was pervasive along the Kona coast, occurring to a measurable extent at 11 of 12 study sites. However, the volume percent of fresh groundwater at coastal ocean sites varied considerably, from 0-47%, indicating that SGD affects some sites much more than others. Inverse, linear relationships between salinity and concentrations of nitrate+nitrite, phosphate, and silica in the coastal ocean indicated conservative behavior and suggested that nutrients are diluted or advected away from shore faster than they can be used biologically. Neither the population density nor the percentage of urbanized, agricultural, forested or bare land in the vicinity of the study sites influenced groundwater nutrient concentrations; however, sites closest to golf courses had significantly higher concentrations of nitrate+nitrite. Relations between land use and trace metal concentrations in groundwater were also investigated.

  5. Effect of water-surface discharge on the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis due to protein lysis and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Kazunori; Sone, Toshifumi; Kamikozawa, Takashi; Takasu, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satoru

    2009-09-01

    The effect of water-surface discharge on the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633 in water was examined by using a very short high-voltage pulse generator. The surviving number of spore cells at 10(4) CFU/ml in initial concentration exponentially decreased with increasing discharge-treatment time. The input energy into the water-surface discharge under an O(2) gas flow for reduction in the survival number to 10% was lower than that under an air flow because many oxidation agents such as ozone and OH radical were produced under the O(2) gas flow. The input energy density for the one-tenth reduction depended not only on the spore state but also on the initial cell concentration. The input energy for the high-concentration spore cells (10(7) CFU/ml) was much higher than that for the low-concentration spore cells (10(4) CFU/ml). Cellular proteins and DNA were degraded by a 30-min discharge treatment of vegetative cells, whereas DNA of the high-concentration spore cells was relatively resistant.

  6. Impact of wet season river flood discharge on phytoplankton absorption properties in the southern Great Barrier Reef region coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, Nagur; Brando, Vittorio E.; Blondeau-Patissier, David; Ford, Phillip W.; Clementson, Lesley A.; Robson, Barbara J.

    2017-09-01

    Light absorption due to particulate and dissolved material plays an important role in controlling the underwater light environment and the above water reflectance signature. Thorough understanding of absorption properties and their variability is important to estimate light propagation in the water column. However, knowledge of light absorption properties in flood impacted coastal waters is limited. To address this knowledge gap we investigated a bio-optical dataset collected during a flood (2008) in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region coastal waters. Results presented here show strong impact of river flood discharges on water column stratification, distribution of suspended substances and light absorption properties in the study area. Bio-optical analysis showed phytoplankton absorption efficiency to reduce in response to increased coloured dissolved organic matter presence in flood impacted coastal waters. Biogeophysical property ranges, relationships and parametrisation presented here will help model realistic underwater light environment and optical signature in flood impacted coastal waters.

  7. Forsmark site investigation. Monitoring of brook water levels, electrical conductivities, temperatures and discharges January-December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult (Sweden)); Juston, John (Juston Konsult (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    This document reports the monitoring of water levels, electrical conductivities, temperatures and discharges at four brook discharge gauging stations, and the monitoring of water electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden in the Forsmark area. The report presents data from 1 January through 31 December 2010 and is a continuation of reporting from Johansson and Juston (2007, 2009, 2011), which covered the periods from 1 April 2004 through 31 March 2007, 1 April 2007 through 31 December 2008, and 1 January through 31 December 2009, respectively. Long-throated flumes equipped with automatically recording devices were used for the discharge measurements. Every c. 14 days the water depths at the upstream edge of the flumes were measured manually by a ruler as a check. Electrical conductivity and temperature were automatically recorded and these parameters were also measured manually every c. 14 days with the site investigation field devices. SKB's Hydro Monitoring System (HMS) was used to collect and store all data. From HMS quality assured data were transferred to SKB's primary database Sicada. Measurements of levels, electrical conductivities and temperatures were made every 10 minutes (every 30 minutes for electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden). For the calculation of discharge, quality assured water level data from the flumes were used. The calculation procedure included consolidation of the time series to hourly averages, screening of data for removal of short-term spikes, noise and other data that were judged erroneous. After the calculations were performed, the results were delivered to Sicada. The amplitudes of water level variations during this reporting period were 0.41-0.55 m and the mean electrical conductivities varied between 23 and 39 mS/m at the four discharge stations. However, due to mal-function of measuring devices for electrical conductivity, data were missing for relatively long time periods. Due

  8. Regulation of stream water dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations during snowmelt; the role of discharge, winter climate and memory effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ågren

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a 15 year stream record from a northern boreal catchment, we demonstrate that the inter-annual variation in dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations during snowmelt was related to discharge, winter climate and previous DOC export. A short and intense snowmelt gave higher stream water DOC concentrations, as did long winters, while a high previous DOC export during the antecedent summer and autumn resulted in lower concentrations during the following spring. By removing the effect of discharge we could detect that the length of winter affected the modeled soil water DOC concentrations during the following snowmelt period, which in turn affected the concentrations in the stream. Winter climate explained more of the stream water DOC variations than previous DOC export during the antecedent summer and autumn.

  9. Effects of wastewater-lagoon discharge through wetlands on water quality in Bonifas Creek, Gogebic County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichele, Stephen S.; Ellis, James M.

    2000-01-01

    The Lac Vieux Desert Band of the Superior Chippewa (LVD) recently constructed a wastewater-treatment facility that discharges effluent twice annually from settling lagoons to wooded wetland areas adjoining the channel of Bonifas Creek, a small stream that flows near the LVD community in Watersmeet, Michigan. This report describes the hydrology of the site and the results of analyses of water samples from Bonifas Creek and the settling lagoons. Water samples were collected from sites on the creek upstream and downstream of the effluent-receiving area, before and after discharge from the lagoons. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate increased from the upstream to the downstream site, but the concentrations of sodium, chloride, and sulfate decreased. These changes in water chemistry, however, were similar both before and after the release from the lagoons, and are consistent with known pattern of influxes of ground water into Bonifas Creek. Therefore, it appears that the discharge of wastewater into the area adjoining Bonifas Creek is unlikely to have any immediate effect on the quality of water in the creek. 

  10. Precipitation v. River Discharge Controls on Water Availability to Riparian Trees in the Rhône River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M. B.; Sargeant, C. I.; Vallet-Coulomb, C.; Evans, C.; Bates, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Water availability to riparian trees in lowlands is controlled through precipitation and its infiltration into floodplain soils, and through river discharge additions to the hyporheic water table. The relative contributions of both water sources to the root zone within river floodplains vary through time, depending on climatic fluctuations. There is currently limited understanding of how climatic fluctuations are expressed at local scales, especially in 'critical zone' hydrology, which is fundamental to the health and sustainability of riparian forest ecosystems. This knowledge is particularly important in water-stressed Mediterranean climate systems, considering climatic trends and projections toward hotter and drier growing seasons, which have the potential to dramatically reduce water availability to riparian forests. Our aim is to identify and quantify the relative contributions of hyporheic (discharge) water v. infiltrated precipitation to water uptake by riparian Mediterranean trees for several distinct hydrologic years, selected to isolate contrasts in water availability from these sources. Our approach includes isotopic analyses of water and tree-ring cellulose, mechanistic modeling of water uptake and wood production, and physically based modeling of subsurface hydrology. We utilize an extensive database of oxygen isotope (δ18O) measurements in surface water and precipitation alongside recent measurements of δ18O in groundwater and soil water and in tree-ring cellulose. We use a mechanistic model to back-calculate source water δ18O based on δ18O in cellulose and climate data. Finally, we test our results via 1-D hydrologic modeling of precipitation infiltration and water table rise and fall. These steps enable us to interpret hydrologic cycle variability within the 'critical zone' and their potential impact on riparian trees.

  11. Effects of River Discharge and Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) on Water Quality Dynamics in Migina Catchment, Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwimana, Abias; van Dam, Anne; Gettel, Gretchen; Bigirimana, Bonfils; Irvine, Kenneth

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural intensification may accelerate the loss of wetlands, increasing the concentrations of nutrients and sediments in downstream water bodies. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of land use and land cover and river discharge on water quality in the Migina catchment, southern Rwanda. Rainfall, discharge and water quality (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, and temperature) were measured in different periods from May 2009 to June 2013. In 2011, measurements were done at the outlets of 3 sub-catchments (Munyazi, Mukura and Akagera). Between May 2012 and May 2013 the measurements were done in 16 reaches of Munyazi dominated by rice, vegetables, grass/forest or ponds/reservoirs. Water quality was also measured during two rainfall events. Results showed seasonal trends in water quality associated with high water flows and farming activities. Across all sites, the total suspended solids related positively to discharge, increasing 2-8 times during high flow periods. Conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH decreased with increasing discharge, while total nitrogen and total phosphorus did not show a clear pattern. The total suspended solids concentrations were consistently higher downstream of reaches dominated by rice and vegetable farming. For total nitrogen and total phosphorus results were mixed, but suggesting higher concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus during the dry and early rainy (and farming) season, and then wash out during the rainy season, with subsequent dilution at the end of the rains. Rice and vegetable farming generate the transport of sediment as opposed to ponds/reservoir and grass/forest.

  12. Validation of the GPU-Accelerated CFD Solver ELBE for Free Surface Flow Problems in Civil and Environmental Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F. Janßen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is dedicated to demonstrating the high potential and manifold applications of state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD tools for free-surface flows in civil and environmental engineering. All simulations were performed with the academic research code ELBE (efficient lattice boltzmann environment, http://www.tuhh.de/elbe. The ELBE code follows the supercomputing-on-the-desktop paradigm and is especially designed for local supercomputing, without tedious accesses to supercomputers. ELBE uses graphics processing units (GPU to accelerate the computations and can be used in a single GPU-equipped workstation of, e.g., a design engineer. The code has been successfully validated in very different fields, mostly related to naval architecture and mechanical engineering. In this contribution, we give an overview of past and present applications with practical relevance for civil engineers. The presented applications are grouped into three major categories: (i tsunami simulations, considering wave propagation, wave runup, inundation and debris flows; (ii dam break simulations; and (iii numerical wave tanks for the calculation of hydrodynamic loads on fixed and moving bodies. This broad range of applications in combination with accurate numerical results and very competitive times to solution demonstrates that modern CFD tools in general, and the ELBE code in particular, can be a helpful design tool for civil and environmental engineers.

  13. Effect of water flux and sediment discharge of the Yangtze River on PAHs sedimentation in the estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rufeng; Feng, Chenghong; Wang, Dongxin; He, Maozhi; Hu, Lijuan; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-12-01

    Historical distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carriers (i.e., organic matter and mineral particles) in the sediment cores of the Yangtze Estuary were investigated, with emphasis laid on the role of the Yangtze River. Grain size component of sediments (clay, silt, and sand) and organic carbon (black carbon and total organic carbon) in the sediment cores were markedly affected by water flux and sediment discharge of the Yangtze River. Qualitative and quantitative analysis results showed that sands and black carbon acted as the main carriers of PAHs. The sedimentation of two-ring to three-ring PAHs in the estuary had significant correlations with water flux and sediment discharge of the Yangtze River. The relative lower level of the four-ring and five-ring to six-ring PAHs concentrations appeared around the year 2003 and remained for the following several years. This time period accorded well with the water impoundment time of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The decreased level of two-ring to three-ring PAHs occurred in the year 1994, and the peak points around the year 2009 indicated that PAHs sedimentation in the estuary also had close relationship to severe drought and flood in the catchments. The findings presented in this paper could provide references for assessing the impacts of water flux and sediment discharge on the historical deposition of PAHs and their carriers in the Yangtze Estuary.

  14. Sea Water Acidification Affects Osmotic Swelling, Regulatory Volume Decrease and Discharge in Nematocytes of the Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Morabito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased acidification/PCO2 of sea water is a threat to the environment and affects the homeostasis of marine animals. In this study, the effect of sea water pH changes on the osmotic phase (OP, regulatory volume decrease (RVD and discharge of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa nematocytes, collected from the Strait of Messina (Italy, was assessed. Methods: Isolated nematocytes, suspended in artificial sea water (ASW with pH 7.65, 6.5 and 4.5, were exposed to hyposmotic ASW of the same pH values and their osmotic response and RVD measured optically in a special flow through chamber. Nematocyte discharge was analyzed in situ in ASW at all three pH values. Results: At normal pH (7.65, nematocytes subjected to hyposmotic shock first expanded osmotically and then regulated their cell volume within 15 min. Exposure to hyposmotic ASW pH 6.5 and 4.5 compromised the OP and reduced or totally abrogated the ensuing RVD, respectively. Acidic pH also significantly reduced the nematocyte discharge response. Conclusion: Data indicate that the homeostasis and function of Cnidarians may be altered by environmental changes such as sea water acidification, thereby validating their use as novel bioindicators for the quality of the marine environment.

  15. Removal of priority pollutants from water by means of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María; Molina, Ricardo; Schikora, Hendrik; Müller, Michael; Bayona, Josep M

    2013-11-15

    Two different nonthermal plasma reactors at atmospheric pressure were assessed for the removal of organic micropollutants (atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, 2,4-dibromophenol, and lindane) from aqueous solutions (1-5 mg L(-1)) at laboratory scale. Both devices were dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors; one was a conventional batch reactor (R1) and the other a coaxial thin-falling-water-film reactor (R2). A first-order degradation kinetics was proposed for both experiments. The kinetic constants (k) were slightly faster in R1 (0.534 min(-1) for atrazine; 0.567 min(-1) for chlorfenvinfos; 0.802 min(-1) for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.389 min(-1) for lindane) than in R2 (0.104 min(-1) for atrazine; 0.523 min(-1) for chlorfenvinfos; 0.273 min(-1) for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.294 min(-1) for lindane). However, energy efficiencies were about one order of magnitude higher in R2 (89 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for atrazine; 447 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for c hlorfenvinfos; 47 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for 2,4-dibromophenol; 50 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for lindane) than in R1. Degradation by -products of all four compounds were identified in R1. As expected, when the plasma treatment (R1) was applied to industrial wastewater spiked with atrazine or lindane, micropollutant removal was also achieved, although at a lower rate than with aqueous solutions (k = 0.117 min(-1) for atrazine; k = 0.061 min(-1) for lindane). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Decolorization of reactive textile dyes using water falling film dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dojcinovic, Biljana P. [Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Center of Chemistry, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Roglic, Goran M. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 158, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Obradovic, Bratislav M., E-mail: obrat@ff.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 368, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Kuraica, Milorad M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 368, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Kostic, Mirjana M. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Textile Engineering, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Nesic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Dragan D. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 158, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} Decolorization of four reactive textile dyes using non-thermal plasma reactor. {yields} Influence of applied energy on decolorization. {yields} Effects of initial pH and addition of homogeneous catalysts. {yields} Toxicity evaluation using the brine shrimp as a test organism. - Abstract: Decolorization of reactive textile dyes Reactive Black 5, Reactive Blue 52, Reactive Yellow 125 and Reactive Green 15 was studied using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in a non-thermal plasma reactor, based on coaxial water falling film dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Used initial dye concentrations in the solution were 40.0 and 80.0 mg/L. The effects of different initial pH of dye solutions, and addition of homogeneous catalysts (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Fe{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}) on the decolorization during subsequent recirculation of dye solution through the DBD reactor, i.e. applied energy density (45-315 kJ/L) were studied. Influence of residence time was investigated over a period of 24 h. Change of pH values and effect of pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation on the decolorization was also tested. It was found that the initial pH of dye solutions and pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation did not influence the decolorization. The most effective decolorization of 97% was obtained with addition of 10 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a system of 80.0 mg/L Reactive Black 5 with applied energy density of 45 kJ/L, after residence time of 24 h from plasma treatment. Toxicity was evaluated using the brine shrimp Artemia salina as a test organism.

  17. Inactivation of invasive marine species in the process of conveying ballast water using OH based on a strong ionization discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mindong; Zheng, Qilin; Tian, Yiping; Zhang, Zhitao; Chen, Cao; Cheng, Chao; Meng, Xiangying

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, invasive marine species in medium-salinity ballast water were inactivated using OH generated from a strong ionization discharge. The OH is determined by the concentration of oxygen active species combined with the effects of water jet cavitation. The results indicated that the OH concentration reached 7.62 μM, within 1 s, which is faster and higher than in conventional AOP methods. In a pilot-scale OH ballast water system with a capacity of 10 m(3)/h, algae were inactivated when CT value was 0.1 mg min/L with a contact time only 6 s. The viable and nonviable cells were determined using SYTOX Green nucleic acid stain and Flow cytometry. As a result, the OH treatment could be completed during the process of conveying the ballast water. In addition, the concentrations of relevant disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and bromate, were less than that required by the World Health Organization's drinking water standards, which suggest that the discharged ballast water posed no risks to the oceanic environment. Nevertheless, for conventional ozonation and electrolysis methods, the ballast water should be treated only in the treated tanks during the ship's voyage and form higher level DBPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Water uptake by two river red gum ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis) clones in a discharge site plantation in the Western Australian wheatbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John K.; Morgan, Anne L.; Akilan, Kandia; Farrell, Richard C. C.; Bell, David T.

    1997-12-01

    The heat-pulse technique was used to estimate year-long water uptake in a discharge zone plantation of 9-year-old clonal Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. near Wubin, Western Australia. Water uptake matched rainfall closely during weter months but exceeded rainfall as the dry season progressed. Average annual water uptake (1148 mm) exceeded rainfall (432 mm) by about 2.7 fold and approached 56% of pan evaporation for the area. The data suggest that at least 37% (i.e. ( {1}/{2.7}) × 100 ) of the lower catchment discharge zone should be planted to prevent the rise of groundwater. Water uptake varied with soil environment, season and genotype. Upslope trees used more water than did downslope trees. Water uptake was higher in E. camaldulensis clone M80 than in clone M66 until late spring. The difference reversed as summer progressed. Both clones, however, have the potential to dry out the landscape when potential evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall. This variation in water uptake within the species indicates the potential for manipulating plantation uptake by matching tree characteristics to site characteristics. Controlled experiments on the heat-pulse technique indicated accuracy errors of approximately 10%. This, combined with the ability to obtain long-term, continuous data and the superior logistics of use of the heat-pulse technique, suggests that results obtained by it would be much more reliable than those achieved by the ventilated chamber technique.

  19. Assessment of the potential environmental fate and effects of oil-field discharge waters containing {sup 226}radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, A.W.; Hill, S.L.; Bergman, H.L. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Zoology and Physiology

    1994-12-31

    The naturally occurring radionuclide, radium-226, has been detected in oil production waters in all regions of the country. A produced water discharge into the Loch Katrina wetland in Park County, WY was investigated with respect to the transport and fate of radium in surface waters. The 866-acre Loch Katrina wetland complex is sustained primarily by oil-field produced waters and provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. While the short-term benefits of this discharge are indisputable, the long-term hazards posed by the transport of radium from deep aquifers to surface waters are not well understood. Guidelines regulating the management of radium-contaminated sediments in receiving waters or settling ponds in Wyoming have yet to be established. The purpose of this study was to provide information to regional regulatory agencies and the oil and gas industry in the development of guidelines and procedures for managing radium and other naturally occurring radioactive materials. The authors will report the results of the sampling survey of produced waters, sediment and biota performed in the Loch Katrina wetland complex in Wyoming.

  20. Impacts of saline water irrigation and shrimp pond discharges on the surrounding waters of a coastal district in the Mekong delta of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tho, N.; R. Merckx; Ut, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses impacts of saline water irrigation and shrimp pond discharges on the surrounding waters in the coastal Cai Nuoc district, Mekong delta of Vietnam where the landscape was re-shaped by shrimp aquaculture since 2000. Sampling took place at the end of the wet season of 2009 in the district (as aquaculture sites) and a nearby freshwater-dominated reference site. The aquaculture sites showed significantly higher salinities and organic loadings (biochemical oxygen demand, chemic...

  1. Removal of priority pollutants from water by means of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María, E-mail: mhijv@unileon.es [Instituto de Diagnóstico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua (IDAEA), CID, CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Molina, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardo.molina@cid.csic.es [Instituto de Química Avanzada de Cataluña (IQAC), CID, CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Schikora, Hendrik, E-mail: hendrik.schikora@igb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer IGB, Nobelstraße 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Müller, Michael, E-mail: michael.mueller@igb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer IGB, Nobelstraße 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bayona, Josep M., E-mail: josep.bayona@cid.csic.es [Instituto de Diagnóstico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua (IDAEA), CID, CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • DBD plasma reactors were used to remove pollutants from aqueous solutions. • Atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, 2,4-dibromophenol and lindane were studied. • First-order degradation kinetics were observed for all the compounds. • Degradation by-products were identified by GC–MS. • Treatment efficiencies were lower in industrial wastewater than in pure water. -- Abstract: Two different nonthermal plasma reactors at atmospheric pressure were assessed for the removal of organic micropollutants (atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, 2,4-dibromophenol, and lindane) from aqueous solutions (1–5 mg L{sup −1}) at laboratory scale. Both devices were dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors; one was a conventional batch reactor (R1) and the other a coaxial thin-falling-water-film reactor (R2). A first-order degradation kinetics was proposed for both experiments. The kinetic constants (k) were slightly faster in R1 (0.534 min{sup −1} for atrazine; 0.567 min{sup −1} for chlorfenvinfos; 0.802 min{sup −1} for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.389 min{sup −1} for lindane) than in R2 (0.104 min{sup −1} for atrazine; 0.523 min{sup −1} for chlorfenvinfos; 0.273 min{sup −1} for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.294 min{sup −1} for lindane). However, energy efficiencies were about one order of magnitude higher in R2 (89 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for atrazine; 447 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for chlorfenvinfos; 47 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for 2,4-dibromophenol; 50 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for lindane) than in R1. Degradation by-products of all four compounds were identified in R1. As expected, when the plasma treatment (R1) was applied to industrial wastewater spiked with atrazine or lindane, micropollutant removal was also achieved, although at a lower rate than with aqueous solutions (k = 0.117 min{sup −1} for atrazine; k = 0.061 min{sup −1} for lindane)

  2. Estimates of natural ground-water discharge and characterization of water quality in Dry Valley, Washoe County, West-Central Nevada, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David L.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Lopes, Thomas J.; Halford, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The Dry Valley Hydrographic Area is being considered as a potential source area for additional water supplies for the Reno-Sparks area, which is about 25 miles south of Dry Valley. Current estimates of annual ground-water recharge to Dry Valley have a considerable range. In undeveloped valleys, such as Dry Valley, long-term ground-water discharge can be assumed the same as long-term ground-water recharge. Because estimating ground-water discharge has more certainty than estimating ground-water recharge from precipitation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Washoe County, began a three-year study to re-evaluate the ground-water resources by estimating natural ground-water discharge and characterize ground-water quality in Dry Valley. In Dry Valley, natural ground-water discharge occurs as subsurface outflow and by ground-water evapotranspiration. The amount of subsurface outflow from the upper part of Dry Valley to Winnemucca and Honey Lake Valleys likely is small. Subsurface outflow from Dry Valley westward to Long Valley, California was estimated using Darcy's Law. Analysis of two aquifer tests show the transmissivity of poorly sorted sediments near the western side of Dry Valley is 1,200 to 1,500 square feet per day. The width of unconsolidated sediments is about 4,000 feet between exposures of tuffaceous deposits along the State line, and decreases to about 1,500 feet (0.5 mile) west of the State line. The hydraulic gradient east and west of the State line ranges from 0.003 to 0.005 foot per foot. Using these values, subsurface outflow to Long Valley is estimated to be 50 to 250 acre-feet per year. Areas of ground-water evapotranspiration were field mapped and partitioned into zones of plant cover using relations derived from Landsat imagery acquired July 8, 2002. Evapotranspiration rates for each plant-cover zone were multiplied by the corresponding area and summed to estimate annual ground-water evapotranspiration. About 640 to 790 acre-feet per

  3. Vegetation and Channel Morphology Responses to Ordinary High Water Discharge Events in Arid West Stream Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    events that occur between periods of drought. It is important to understand how vegetation and stream channel morphology respond to various discharge...because there were no discharge events in our study watersheds during our study period that were large enough to affect this part of the channel...AZ 36.94389103 –109.7106684 Southwest– Northeast Compound/ Single Thread Tropical/ Subtropical Steppe Soft Rock Jurassic Navajo sandstone In a

  4. Structure-based geoelectrical models derived from genetic algorithms: A case study for hydrogeological investigations along Elbe River coastal area, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwa, Mohamed; Akca, Irfan; Basokur, Ahmet T.; Günther, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys are performed to assess the hydrogeological conditions along Elbe River coastal area, Germany. Because the interpretation of actual resistivity data still has a degree of non-uniqueness and ill-conditioning, linear and non-linear inversion methods have been applied in this paper for optimal interpretation of the measured data. The 1D model generation using hybrid genetic algorithms (GA) represents an accurate and quick solution to image the subsurface resistivity distributions; freshwater aquifer and two highly conductive zones of perched saltwater and seawater intrusion. The longitudinal conductance of the interpreted layers above the water table is calculated to explain why the vulnerable zone to the perched saltwater concentrates at the central and southern parts of the area investigated.

  5. Spatial-temporal evolution of self-organized loop-patterns on a water surface and a diffuse discharge in the gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Geng, Jinling; Jia, Pengying; Zhang, Panpan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Yaru

    2017-11-01

    Excited by an alternating current voltage, a patterned discharge and a diffuse discharge are generated in a needle to liquid configuration. Using an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), temporal evolution of the discharge between the two electrodes is investigated for the diffuse mode and the patterned mode, respectively. For the diffuse mode, the positive discharge is in a glow regime, and the negative discharge is in a Townsend discharge regime. For the patterned mode, the discharge always belongs to the Townsend discharge regime. Moreover, in the patterned mode, various patterns including the single loop, single loop with the surrounding corona, triple loops, and concentric loops with a central spot are observed on the water surface with the increasing positive peak-value of the applied voltage (Upp). Temporally resolved images of the loop-patterns are captured on the water surface. From the electrical measurements and the ICCD imaging, it is found that the loop pattern emerges after the discharge bridges the two electrodes. Then, it begins to evolve and finally degenerates with the decrease in the discharge current. The pattern does not disappear until the discharge quenches. Formation of the loop-patterns is attributed to the role of negative ions.

  6. Assessment of Hydrologic Alterations in Elbe and Rhine Rivers, Germany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madlene Pfeiffer; Monica Ionita

    2017-01-01

    In light of recent anthropogenic-induced climate change, a burning question at present is how these changes influence the water regime of rivers, which are of vital importance for humans as well as for biota...

  7. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, Florian

    2016-03-30

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  8. Cross-linked cyclodextrin-based material for treatment of metals and organic substances present in industrial discharge waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Euvrard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a polymer, prepared by crosslinking cyclodextrin (CD by means of a polycarboxylic acid, was used for the removal of pollutants from spiked solutions and discharge waters from the surface treatment industry. In spiked solutions containing five metals, sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and three alkylphenols (AP, the material exhibited high adsorption capacities: >99% of Co2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ were removed, between 65 and 82% of the PAHs, as well as 69 to 90% of the APs. Due to the structure of the polymer and its specific characteristics, such as the presence of carboxylic groups and CD cavities, the adsorption mechanism involves four main interactions: ion exchange, electrostatic interactions and precipitation for metal removal, and inclusion complexes for organics removal. In industrial discharge waters, competition effects appeared, especially because of the presence of calcium at high concentrations, which competed with other pollutants for the adsorption sites of the adsorbent.

  9. Cross-linked cyclodextrin-based material for treatment of metals and organic substances present in industrial discharge waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euvrard, Élise; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Druart, Coline; Bugnet, Justine; Martel, Bernard; Cosentino, Cesare; Moutarlier, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this study, a polymer, prepared by crosslinking cyclodextrin (CD) by means of a polycarboxylic acid, was used for the removal of pollutants from spiked solutions and discharge waters from the surface treatment industry. In spiked solutions containing five metals, sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and three alkylphenols (AP), the material exhibited high adsorption capacities: >99% of Co2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ were removed, between 65 and 82% of the PAHs, as well as 69 to 90% of the APs. Due to the structure of the polymer and its specific characteristics, such as the presence of carboxylic groups and CD cavities, the adsorption mechanism involves four main interactions: ion exchange, electrostatic interactions and precipitation for metal removal, and inclusion complexes for organics removal. In industrial discharge waters, competition effects appeared, especially because of the presence of calcium at high concentrations, which competed with other pollutants for the adsorption sites of the adsorbent. PMID:27829889

  10. Numerical Modelling and Simulation of Chemical Reactions in a Nano-Pulse Discharged Bubble for Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuchen; Satoshi, Uehara; Hidemasa, Takana; Hideya, Nishiyama

    2016-09-01

    A zero-dimensional model to simulate a nano-pulse-discharged bubble in water was developed. The model consists of gas and liquid phases corresponding to the inside and outside of the bubble, respectively. The diffusions of chemical species from the gas to the liquid phase through the bubble interface was also investigated. The initial gas is Ar, but includes a little H2O and O2 in the bubble. The time evolution of the OH concentration in the liquid phase was mainly investigated as an important species for water treatment. It was shown that OH was generated in the bubble and then diffused into the liquid. With the application of a continuous nano-pulse discharge, more OH radicals were generated as the frequency increased at a low voltage for a given power consumption. supported partially by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI (No. 26249015)

  11. An atmospheric air gas-liquid diffuse discharge excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse in quartz container used for water sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Tang, Kai; Song, Ying

    2013-12-01

    In this Letter, we report that the air gas-liquid diffuse discharge plasma excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse in quartz container with different bottom structures at atmospheric pressure. Optical diagnostic measurements show that bountiful chemically and biologically active species, which are beneficial for effective sterilization in some areas, are produced. Such diffuse plasmas are then used to treat drinking water containing the common microorganisms (Candida albicans and Escherichia coli). It is found that these plasmas can sterilize the microorganisms efficiently.

  12. Pollutant removal from industrial discharge water using individual and combined effects of adsorption and ion-exchange processes: Chemical abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Charles

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, adsorption-oriented processes for pollutant removal from metal polycontaminated surface-finishing discharge water were applied individually as well as in combination with ion-exchange treatment to remove the remaining metal ions and organic load. Several materials were compared using batch experiments, namely an activated carbon, three ion-exchange resins (IRA 402Cl, IR 120H and TP 207, and two non-conventional cross-linked polysaccharide-based biosorbents (starch and cyclodextrin. This article presents the abatements obtained in chemical pollution as monitored by complete chemical analysis. For the same experimental conditions (similar discharge water, pollutant concentrations, stirring rate, contact time, and initial pH, the highest levels of pollutant removal were attained with the combined use of two materials, an activated carbon and a mixture of two ion-exchange resins. This physicochemical treatment effectively lowered the main pollutants present in the discharge water such as Cu, Ni and COD, by more than 96%, 79% and 74% respectively (average values for three samples, while the treatment with carbon alone lowered them by 58%, 9% and 70%, and resins alone by 85%, 61% and 16%. Similar interesting results were obtained with the cyclodextrin-based adsorbent and its use alone was sufficient to obtain decreases in Cu, Ni and COD of more than 94%, 77% and 67% respectively. The adsorption-oriented process using cyclodextrin polymer could be an advantageous approach for removing organic and metallic pollutants from metal surface-finishing discharge water due to the non-toxic character of CD to humans and the environment.

  13. How does rapidly changing discharge during storm events affect transient storage and channel water balance in a headwater mountain stream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam S. Ward; Michael N. Gooseff; Thomas J. Voltz; Michael Fitzgerald; Kamini Singha; Jay P. Zarnetske

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of transient storage in coupled surface-water and groundwater systems are widely made during base flow periods and rarely made during storm flow periods. We completed 24 sets of slug injections in three contiguous study reaches during a 1.25 year return interval storm event (discharge ranging from 21.5 to 434 L s1 ) in a net gaining headwater stream within...

  14. Experimental and theoretical study on chemical reactions and species diffusion by a nano-pulse discharged bubble for water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuchen; Uehara, Satoshi; Takana, Hidemasa; Nishiyama, Hideya

    2018-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes using hydroxyl radicals (ṡOH) generated inside bubbles in water has drawn widely interest for the high oxidation potential of OH radical to decompose persistent organic pollutants such as dioxins and humic acid for water purification. In this study, a two-dimensional diffusion model for a nano-pulse discharged bubble in water is established. Based on the experimental results of streamer propagation inside a bubble, the diffusion processes around the bubble interface and reactions of chemical species in liquids are simulated. The simulation results show that OH radicals can diffuse only several micrometers away from the bubble interface in water. Furthermore, the optimal operating voltage and frequency conditions for OH generation is obtained by comparing the OH concentration in water obtained from numerical simulation with that measured by spectroscopy in experiment.

  15. Effect of water vapor on plasma morphology, OH and H2O2 production in He and Ar atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanjun; Nayak, Gaurav; Oinuma, Gaku; Peng, Zhimin; Bruggeman, Peter J.

    2017-04-01

    Although atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) have a long history, the effects of water vapor on the discharge morphology and kinetics have not been studied intensively. We report a simultaneous investigation of discharge morphology, OH and H2O2 production in Ar and He DBDs operated at different water vapor concentrations and powers. The combined study allows us to assess the impact of the discharge morphology and power on the concentration dependence of the OH and H2O2 production. The morphology of the discharge is investigated by ICCD images and current-voltage waveforms. These diagnostics are complemented by broadband absorption and a colorimetric method to measure the gas temperature and the OH and H2O2 concentrations. The number of filaments in Ar DBD increases with increasing water concentration and power. The surface discharge part of the micro-discharge also reduces with increasing water concentration most likely due to a change in surface conductivity of the dielectric with changing water concentration. The OH density in the case of Ar is approximately double the OH density in He for similar power and water admixture. In contrast to the root square dependence of the OH density on the water concentration in He similar to diffuse RF discharges, the OH density in Ar increases for small water concentrations followed by a saturation and reduces for higher water concentrations. This dependence of OH density on water concentration is found to correlate with changes in discharge morphology. An analytical balance of the production and destruction mechanism of H2O2 is shown to be able to reproduce the ratio of the measured OH and H2O2 density for realistic values of electron densities.

  16. Computation and error analysis of discharge for the Lake Michigan Diversion Project in Illinois: 1997-99 water years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, James J.; Over, Thomas M.; Gonzalez, Juan A.

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic velocity meters (AVM's) and acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP's) were used to measure streamflow at four streamflow-gaging stations in the Chicago River system. The streamflow data were used to compute discharge and to determine the uncertainty in the computed annual mean discharge at each station for the Lake Michigan Diversion Project in Illinois. Descriptions of the instrumentation at each station, stage-area and index-velocity ratings, and methods utilized for computing discharge and estimating missing record are given. Daily mean and annual mean discharges were computed for each station for 1997-99 water years (WY's). A water year is defined as the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. The water year is designated by the calender year in which it ends and which includes 9 of the 12 months. Thus, the year ending September 30, 1999, is called the 1999 water year. A first-order error analysis was applied to acoustic velocity meter (AVM) data, stage-area, and index-velocity ratings at each streamflow-gaging station. The error analysis results indicate that the uncertainty is sensitive to the value of uncertainty associated with acoustic Doppler cur-rent profiler (ADCP) discharge measurement data. At the Chicago River at Columbus Drive at Chicago, Illinois station for the 1997-99 WY's, the uncertainty, expressed as a standard deviation of the average annual discharge, ranged from 13 to 18 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) when ADCP uncertainty was not included, whereas total uncertainty ranged from 55 to 69 ft3/s when ADCP uncertainty was included. At the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal at Romeoville, Illinois station for the 1997-99 WY's, the uncertainty ranged from 18 to 20 ft3/s when ADCP uncertainty was not included, whereas it ranged from 64 to 68 ft3/s when it was included. At the Calumet River below O'Brien Lock and Dam at Chicago, Illinois station for the 1997-99 WY's, the uncertainty ranged from 13 to 22 ft3/s when ADCP

  17. Neutron total cross section measurements of gold and tantalum at the nELBE photoneutron source

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaske, Roland; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd; Bemmerer, Daniel; Birgersson, Evert; Ferrari, Anna; Grosse, Eckart; Kempe, Mathias; Kögler, Toni; Marta, Michele; Massarczyk, Ralph; Matic, Andrija; Schramm, Georg; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Neutron total cross sections of 197 Au and nat Ta have been measured at the nELBE photoneutron source in the energy range from 0.1 - 10 MeV with a statistical uncertainty of up to 2 % and a total systematic uncertainty of 1 %. This facility is optimized for the fast neutron energy range and combines an excellent t ime structure of the neutron pulses (electron bunch width 5 ps) with a short flight path of 7 m. Because of the low instantaneous neutron flux transmission measurements of neutron total cross sections are possible, that exhibit very different beam and back ground conditions than found at other neutron sources.

  18. Determination of settling velocity in the Elbe estuary using quisset tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. E.; Jago, C. F.

    1996-09-01

    A version of the Owen tube with reduced flow disturbance and wider operating concentration range —UWB QUISSET—is described. Quasi in situ settling velocity distributions of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were determined using these during an intercalibration exercise in the Elbe estuary in June 1993. Systematic variation was observed, in response to tidal resuspension, advection and redeposition. The observed variation in median settling velocity was in good agreement with that obtained by other workers using different settling tubes. Systematic differences in absolute values of up to an order of magnitude between the various techniques may have been caused by differences in tube design, sample handling or raw data interpretation.

  19. Fast-neutron-induced fission of 242Pu at nELBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kögler Toni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast neutron-induced fission cross section of 242Pu was determined in the range of 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV relative to 235U(n,f at the neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE. The number of target nuclei was calculated by means of measuring the spontaneous fission rate of 242Pu. Neutron transport simulations with Geant4 and MCNP6 are used to correct the relative cross section for neutron scattering. The determined results are in good agreement with current experimental and evaluated data sets.

  20. Scale-dependent variability of as and Heavy metals in a river elbe floodplain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, Dana; Kiersch, Kristian; Baum, Christel; Mueller, Robert; Jandl, Gerald; Leinweber, Peter [Institute for Land Use, University of Rostock, Rostock (Germany); Meissner, Ralph [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Soil Physics, Falkenberg (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The River Elbe has been one of the worst polluted major rivers of Europe. For designing a successful remediation strategy of the floodplain soils the spatial variation in total concentrations and bioavailability of pollutants must be known, and the remediation efficiency should be monitored. The obtained data present the ''status quo'' which is a baseline for evaluating the medium-term effects of the phytoremediation with fast-growing willows established in the flood channel. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge in Water without Bubbles: A Fundamental Study of Initiation, Propagation and Plasma Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepersad, Yohan

    The state of plasma is widely known as a gas-phase phenomenon, but plasma in liquids have also received significant attention over the last century. Generating plasma in liquids however is theoretically challenging, and this problem is often overcome via liquid-gas phase transition preceding the actual plasma formation. In this sense, plasma forms in gas bubbles in the liquid. Recent work at the Drexel Plasma Institute has shown that nanosecond pulsed electric fields can initiate plasma in liquids without any initial cavitation phase, at voltages below theoretical direct-ionization thresholds. This unique regime is poorly understood and does not fit into any current descriptive mechanisms. As with all new phenomena, a complete fundamental description is paramount to understanding its usefulness to practical applications. The primary goals of this research were to qualitatively and quantitatively understand the phenomenon of nanosecond pulsed discharge in liquids as a means to characterizing properties that may open up niche application possibilities. Analysis of the plasma was based on experimental results from non-invasive, sub-nanosecond time-resolved optical diagnostics, including direct imaging, transmission imaging (Schlieren and shadow), and optical emission spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of the plasma were studied as a function of variations in the electric field amplitude and polarity, liquid permittivity, and pulse duration. It was found that the plasma size and emission intensity was dependent on the permittivity of the liquid, as well as the voltage polarity, and the structure and dynamics were explained by a 'cold-lightning' mechanism. The under-breakdown dynamics at the liquid-electrode interface were investigated by transmission imaging to provide evidence for a novel mechanism for initiation based on the electrostriction. This mechanism was proposed by collaborators on the project and developed alongside the experimental work in this

  2. The effects of gaseous bubble composition and gap distance on the characteristics of nanosecond discharges in distilled water

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad

    2016-05-17

    Electric discharge in liquids with bubbles can reduce the energy consumption, which increases treatment efficiency. We present an experimental study of nanosecond discharges in distilled water bubbled with the monoatomic gas argon and with the polyatomic gases methane, carbon dioxide, and propane. We monitor the time evolution of the voltage and current waveforms, and calculate the injected charges to characterize the discharge. We establish a relationship between the injected charges and the shape of the plasma by time-resolved imaging to find that increasing the size of the gap reduces the injected charges. Moreover, we determine the plasma characteristics, including electron density, excitation temperatures (for atoms and ions), and rotational temperature of the OH and C2 radicals found in the plasma. Our space- and time-averaged measurements allow us to propose a spatial distribution of the plasma that is helpful for understanding the plasma dynamics necessary to develop and optimize applications based on nanosecond discharges in bubbled liquids. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Examining Submarine Ground-Water Discharge into Florida Bay by using 222Rn and Continuous Resistivity Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter; Reich, Chris; Rudnick, David

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of submarine ground-water discharge (SGD) into Florida Bay remain one of the least understood components of a regional water balance. To quantify the magnitude and seasonality of SGD into upper Florida Bay, research activities included the use of the natural geochemical tracer, 222Rn, to examine potential SGD hotspots (222Rn surveys) and to quantify the total (saline + fresh water component) SGD rates at select sites (222Rn time-series). To obtain a synoptic map of the 222Rn distribution within our study site in Florida Bay, we set up a flow-through system on a small boat that consisted of a Differential Global Positioning System, a calibrated YSI, Inc CTD sensor with a sampling rate of 0.5 min, and a submersible pump (z = 0.5 m) that continuously fed water into an air/water exchanger that was plumbed simultaneously into four RAD7 222Rn air monitors. To obtain local advective ground-water flux estimates, 222Rn time-series experiments were deployed at strategic positions across hydrologic and geologic gradients within our study site. These time-series stations consisted of a submersible pump, a Solinist DIVER (to record continuous CTD parameters) and two RAD7 222Rn air monitors plumbed into an air/water exchanger. Repeat time-series 222Rn measurements were conducted for 3-4 days across several tidal excursions. Radon was also measured in the air during each sampling campaign by a dedicated RAD7. We obtained ground-water discharge information by calculating a 222Rn mass balance that accounted for lateral and horizontal exchange, as well as an appropriate ground-water 222Rn end member activity. Another research component utilized marine continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys to examine the subsurface salinity structure within Florida Bay sediments. This system consisted of an AGI SuperSting 8 channel receiver attached to a streamer cable that had two current (A,B) electrodes and nine potential electrodes that were spaced 10 m apart. A separate DGPS

  4. The study of contamination of discharged runoff from surface water disposal channels of Bushehr city in 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaheid Noroozi-Karbasdehi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In coastal cities, wastewater discharge into the sea is one of the options for sewage disposal that in case of non-compliance with health standards  in wastewater disposal will be led to the spread of infection and disease. On the other hand, water resources preservation and using them efficiently are the principles of sustainable development of each country. This study was aimed to investigate the contamination of discharged runoff from the surface water disposal channels of Bushehr city in 2012 - 13. Materials and Methods: In this study, Sampling was conducted by composite sampling method from output of the five main surface water disposal channels leading to the Persian Gulf located in the coastal region of Bushehr city during two seasons including wet (winter and dry (summer in 2012- 13. Then, experimental tests of BOD5, total coliform and fecal coliform were done on any of the 96 samples according to the standard method. Results: Analysis of the data showed that the BOD5, total coliform and fecal coliform of effluent runoff of the channels were more than the national standard output of disposal wastewaters into the surface waters, and the highest and lowest amount of BOD5 which obtained were 160 mg/L and 28 mg/L, respectively. Conclusion: considering the fact that discharged runoff from surface water disposal channels link from shoreline to sea in close distance and they often are as natural swimming sites and even fishing sites of Bushehr city, and also according to high level of organic and bacterial load of these channels, it is urgently required to be considered by the authorities.

  5. Ecological effects of scrubber water discharge on coastal plankton: Potential synergistic effects of contaminants reduce survival and feeding of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Stedmon, Colin; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    To meet the oncoming requirements for lower sulphur emissions, shipping companies can install scrubbers where the exhaust is sprayed with seawater and subsequently discharged to the sea. The discharge water has a pH around 3 and contains elevated concentrations of vanadium, nickel, lead and hydro......To meet the oncoming requirements for lower sulphur emissions, shipping companies can install scrubbers where the exhaust is sprayed with seawater and subsequently discharged to the sea. The discharge water has a pH around 3 and contains elevated concentrations of vanadium, nickel, lead...... and hydrocarbons. We investigated 1) the threshold concentrations of scrubber discharge water for survival, feeding and reproduction of the copepod Acartia tonsa, 2) whether the effects depend on the exposure route and 3) whether exposure to discharge water can be detected in field-collected organisms. A direct...... exposure to discharge water increased adult copepod mortality and reduced feeding at metal concentrations which were orders of magnitude lower than the lethal concentrations in previous single-metal studies. In contrast, reproduction was not influenced by dietary uptake of contaminants. Scrubber water...

  6. Development of a numerical model for calculating exposure to toxic and nontoxic stressors in the water column and sediment from drilling discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rye, H.; Reed, M.; Frost, T.K.; Smit, M.G.D.; Durgut, S.

    2008-01-01

    Drilling discharges are complex mixtures of chemical components and particles which might lead to toxic and nontoxic stress in the environment. In order to be able to evaluate the potential environmental consequences of such discharges in the water column and in sediments, a numerical model was

  7. Method of preparing water purification membranes. [polymerization of allyl amine as thin films in plasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Allyl amine and chemically related compounds are polymerized as thin films in the presence of a plasma discharge. The monomer compound can be polymerized by itself or in the presence of an additive gas to promote polymerization and act as a carrier. The polymerized films thus produced show outstanding advantages when used as reverse osmosis membranes.

  8. An experimental study on the mixing behavior of Ti, Zr, V and Mo in the Elbe, Rhine and Weser estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Alexandre B.; Koschinsky, Andrea; Kiprotich, Joseph; Poehle, Sandra; do Nascimento, Paulo C.

    2016-03-01

    Estuaries are important interfaces between land and ocean, in which the input of trace metals into the ocean via the rivers is often significantly modified along the mixing gradient between freshwater and seawater. In the present study we have carried out mixing experiments using river water from the Rhine, the Elbe and the Weser and seawater from the North Sea with the aim of gaining more insights into the behavior of titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), vanadium (V) and molybdenum (Mo) and their distribution between dissolved and particulate forms during mixing in the estuaries. Little is known about the modification of their concentrations in estuaries and these metals increasingly enter the rivers and the ocean due to their application as so-called high-tech metals in industrial activities. Such laboratory experiments at controlled conditions allow the systematic investigation of chemical changes related to the mixing ratios, independent of further influence factors occurring in natural systems. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry was used for the analytical determination of the four metals. Although our data largely confirmed a strong particle-reactive behavior of Ti and Zr and a mostly conservative behavior of Mo, our mixing experiments revealed partial deviation from this behavior. Vanadium mostly does not follow a strict conservative mixing trend but shows both small ad- and desorption effects along the salinity transect. Also Mo shows some deviations from conservative mixing at mid-salinities. The enrichment of dissolved Ti and Zr at about 50:50 river: seawater mixtures agrees with recently published data of similar field studies and appears to be a systematic effect possibly related to charge transitions on particle surfaces or change of the dissolved metal speciation. The observed effects partly differed in experiments with filtered and non-filtered river water samples, especially for Ti and Zr, highlighting the role of riverine particulate matter for the

  9. Pulsed power supply and coaxial reactor applied to E. coli elimination in water by pulsed dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroz V, V. E.; Lopez C, R.; Rodriguez M, B. G.; Pena E, R.; Mercado C, A.; Valencia A, R.; Hernandez A, A. N.; Barocio, S. R.; Munoz C, A. E. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); De la Piedad B, A., E-mail: regulo.lopez@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    The design and instrumentation intended for ATTC8739 Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria elimination in water, based on non thermal plasma generation at room pressure have been carried out by means of dielectric pulsed discharges. The latter have been produced by a power supply capable of providing voltages up to the order of 45 kV, 1-500 {mu}s pulse widths and variable frequencies between 100 Hz to 2000 Hz. This supply feeds a coaxial discharge reactor of the simple dielectric barrier type. The adequate operation of the system has been tested with the elimination of E. coli at 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} bacteria/ml concentrations, leading to reductions up to 85.3% and 95.1%, respectively, during the first 30 min of treatment. (Author)

  10. Modeling of experimental treatment of acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-containing water using corona discharge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Sano, Noriaki; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut

    2006-03-01

    Acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-contaminated water were experimentally treated using corona discharge reactions and gas absorption in a single water-film column. Mathematical modeling of the combined treatment was developed in this work. Efficient removal of the gaseous acetaldehyde was achieved while the corona discharge reactions produced short-lived species such as O and O- as well as ozone. Direct contact of the radicals and ions with water was known to produce aqueous OH radical, which contributes to the decomposition of organic contaminants: phenol, absorbed acetaldehyde, and intermediate byproducts in the water. The influence of initial phenol concentration ranging from 15 to 50 mg L(-1) and that of influent acetaldehyde ranging from 0 to 200 ppm were experimentally investigated and used to build the math model. The maximum energetic efficiency of TOC, phenol, and acetaldehyde were obtained at 25.6 x 10(-9) mol carbon J(-1), 25.0 x 10(-9) mol phenol J(-1), and 2.0 x 10(-9) mol acetaldehyde J(-1), respectively. The predictions for the decomposition of acetaldehyde, phenol, and their intermediates were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Mn-doped carbon xerogels as catalyst in the removal of microcystin-LR by water-surface discharge plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qing; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Kai B

    2013-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs), the most common class of cyanobacterial toxins and emerging drinking water contaminants, are harmful to animal and human health. We report on the effective removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) using water surface plasma discharge in the presence of carbon xerogels that have been doped with various levels of manganese (Mn). Mn-doped carbon xerogels were prepared by a sol-gel method and characterized via several techniques: N(2) adsorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that different concentrations of dopant change the texture properties, but that they have no obvious influence on the chemical properties or the surface morphologies of Mn-doped carbon xerogels. Water treatment in which MC-LR was removed using water surface plasma discharge was performed. With the addition of carbon xerogels, the removal rate of MC-LR increased from 75.3% to 90.2% after a 6-min treatment. An oxidation-adsorption kinetic model that produces a good fit to the experimental data is proposed.

  12. Industrial water resources management based on violation risk analysis of the total allowable target on wastewater discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wencong; Cai, Yanpeng; Xu, Linyu; Yang, Zhifeng; Yin, Xin'An; Su, Meirong

    2017-07-11

    To improve the capabilities of conventional methodologies in facilitating industrial water allocation under uncertain conditions, an integrated approach was developed through the combination of operational research, uncertainty analysis, and violation risk analysis methods. The developed approach can (a) address complexities of industrial water resources management (IWRM) systems, (b) facilitate reflections of multiple uncertainties and risks of the system and incorporate them into a general optimization framework, and (c) manage robust actions for industrial productions in consideration of water supply capacity and wastewater discharging control. The developed method was then demonstrated in a water-stressed city (i.e., the City of Dalian), northeastern China. Three scenarios were proposed according to the city's industrial plans. The results indicated that in the planning year of 2020 (a) the production of civilian-used steel ships and machine-made paper & paperboard would reduce significantly, (b) violation risk of chemical oxygen demand (COD) discharge under scenario 1 would be the most prominent, compared with those under scenarios 2 and 3, (c) the maximal total economic benefit under scenario 2 would be higher than the benefit under scenario 3, and (d) the production of rolling contact bearing, rail vehicles, and commercial vehicles would be promoted.

  13. Long-term changes in quality of discharge water from abandoned underground coal mines in Uniontown Syncline, Fayette County, PA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Douglas C; McDonough, Kathleen M; Dzombak, David A

    2004-01-01

    Changes in water quality over 25 years have been documented for discharges from an extensive network of abandoned underground coal mines in the Uniontown Syncline, Fayette County, PA, USA. A baseline study of 136 mine discharges in the syncline was conducted in 1974-1975. In 1998-2000, follow-up water flow and quality monitoring was conducted at 21 selected discharges for 2 years to assess the degree of mine water-quality improvement since 1974-1975. The data from the two periods of time were compared, with consideration of differences in measurement methods. The degree and rate of water-quality improvement was found to be highly dependent on the amount and duration of flooding in the mine voids. Water quality of discharges from the substantially flooded mine voids improved significantly, going from acidic water with high sulfate and iron concentrations in 1974-1975 to alkaline water with substantially lower sulfate and iron concentrations in 1998-2000. In contrast, the water quality in the unflooded mines showed less improvement over the 25 years between studies. The water discharging from the unflooded mines in 1974-1975 was acidic with high sulfate concentrations and in 1998-2000 was still acidic but showed somewhat lower sulfate and iron concentrations, reflecting depletion of readily available pyrite. The data obtained provide insight into the potential and rate of natural amelioration of mine water quality in different abandoned underground coal mine systems.

  14. A water availability and low-flow analysis of the Tagliamento River discharge in Italy under changing climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Gunawardhana

    2012-03-01

    . Moreover, a consistent shift in river discharge timing would eventually cause snowmelt-generated river discharge to occur approximately 12 days earlier during the 2080–2099 time period compared to the baseline climate. These results are expected to raise the concern of policy makers, leading to the development of new water management strategies in the Tagliamento River basin to cope with changing climate conditions.

  15. Combined technology for observing, understanding and predicting suspended particle transport and fate from anthropogenic discharges in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, E. J.

    2016-02-01

    The combined observation, understanding and prediction of suspended particle transport and fate in coastal waters is essential for assessing environmental stresses that originate from anthropogenic sources. We present a toolbox consisting of an optics-based instrument suite, post-processing and analysis tools, and numerical models for understanding particle transport and fate, and its effect on the marine environment. We show results from a combined measurement and modelling campaign, focussed on understanding the transport of flocculating particulate material discharged into a Norwegian fjord, and demonstrate the application of this approach to real-time monitoring of drilling discharges in the vicinity of coral reefs. Unique measurements and images of suspended particulates, obtained from multiple water column profiles within a fjord, are presented. Initial model predictions of particle transport were used to highlight target areas for the field campaign, where model uncertainty was highest. Regular discharges of flocculating material were released into the fjord, requiring particle observations to span several orders of magnitude in size and concentration. This was achieved by combining data from a LISST-100, LISST-HOLO, and a bespoke Silhouette particle imaging system. Together, these instruments produced size distributions ranging from 2.5-10000microns. In-situ imaging proved essential in providing a realistic picture of the nature of the flocculated material, with many long, string-like flocs of several cm in length being advected hundreds of metres from their discharge location. Observations surrounding the discharge within this fjord system are used to help validate an improved particle transport model aimed at accurately accounting for flocculation, subsequent sedimentation and modifications to seabed bathymetry. The numerical formulation enhanced by this combined measurement and modelling approach is applicable for a wide variety of scenarios where human

  16. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Casas-Monroy

    Full Text Available Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic, ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine, and timescales (annual and per discharge event under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature, and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards. Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic and recipient (freshwater ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions.

  17. Potential areas of ground-water discharge in the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent potential areas of ground-water discharge for selected hydrographic areas in eastern Nevada and western Utah. The data are based on phreatophyte...

  18. A method for simultaneous estimation of groundwater evapotranspiration and inflow rates in the discharge area using seasonal water table fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Sun, Zhi-Chao; Zhao, Ke-Yu; Shi, Fu-Sheng; Wan, Li; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Shi, Zhe-Ming

    2017-05-01

    As an indispensable component of groundwater circulation, groundwater evapotranspiration rate (ETG) estimation using water table fluctuations is a hot research topic in the past decades. However, most existing methods for estimating ETG using either diurnal or seasonal water table fluctuations are based on the assumptions that groundwater recharge equals 0 in the whole period and ETG equals 0 in a specific duration of time. The aim of the current study is to develop a method to estimate ETG when both assumptions do not apply. In the discharge area of a semi-arid catchment in the Ordos Plateau, NW China, it is found out that the water table fluctuations are influenced greatly by recharge, ETG and the vertical inflow rate (qin) in the seasonal scale but are controlled by atmospheric pressure instead of evapotranspiration in the diurnal scale, which implies that the existing methods are not applicable. Therefore, we propose a method to estimate ETG and qin using the seasonal water table fluctuations based on the assumptions that qin is stable throughout the year and ETG has a linear relationship to the reference evapotranspiration (ET0). It is found out that qin is around 1.12 mm/d, and the ratio of ETG to ET0 is around 0.4. ETG in April through July with the highest ET0 of the year is found to be around 3 mm/d, which is much larger than qin, thus leads to significant decline in water table. ETG in November with the lowest ET0 of the unfrozen period is found to be 1.0 mm/d, which is slightly smaller than qin, thus results in a weak increase in water table. The vertical component of regional groundwater inflow is found to exceed precipitation recharge, indicating that regional groundwater inflow plays the major role on maintaining the shallow water table in the discharge area. Groundwater evapotranspiration is also found to exceed precipitation recharge in most time of the unfrozen period, indicating a specified-flux upper boundary with water loss in the discharge area

  19. Influence of Irrigation Water Discharge Frequency on Soil Salt Removal and Rice Yield in a Semi-Arid and Saline-Sodic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Huang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation practice for rice culture can be especially challenging in areas with limited water supply and soil salinization. In this study, we carried out a field experiment to assess the effects of different water discharge frequencies on soil salt content, rice yield and water use efficiency on a saline-sodic soil in a semi-arid region of Northeast China. The experiment comprised of three frequency levels of discharge [9-time (I-9-30, 6-time (I-6-30 and 3-time (I-3-30 discharge, all followed with a 30-mm irrigation] in comparison with the traditional irrigation practice of 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation (I-2-80. Our initial hypothesis was that increasing discharge frequency would increase both salt reduction and rice yield. Daily precipitation was recorded by a nearby weather station, and evapotranspiration and soil water percolation rates were measured at experimental sites using soil pits. The measurements were used to establish a water balance for each treatment. Our results showed that soil salt reduction increased with the increasing discharge frequency at a 30-mm irrigation water depth. The 9-time discharge reduced a large amount of soil salt (995.0 kg ha−1 after five months of the study. Rice yield also increased with the increasing discharge frequency with a 30-mm irrigation water depth; however, when compared to the traditional 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation, rice yield at the sites with more frequent discharge (i.e., I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30 was 11%–18% lower. Because of this, rice yield and irrigation water use efficiency were significantly higher under the traditional practice of high-irrigation with low-frequency discharge (I-2-80 than under I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30. These results indicate a need for a trade-off amongst salt reduction, rice yield and water use when considering selection of irrigation and discharge schedules.

  20. Degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water by glow discharge plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shaoping; Ni, Yanyan; Shen, Chensi; Wen, Yuezhong; Jiang, Xuanzhen

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the glow discharge plasma (GDP) technique to degrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in an aqueous solution. The results showed that a large amount of hydrogen peroxide and highly active *OH free radicals were produced during the treatment. Various experimental parameters including discharge current, initial MTBE concentration and initial pH played significant roles on MTBE degradation. In addition, Fe2+ had a catalytic effect on the degradation of MTBE, which is potentially attributable to the reaction between Fe3+ and the hydrated electron. It was also confirmed that GDP was comparable to electrocatalytic oxidation and high-density plasma and more efficient than photocatalytic degradation techniques. These results suggest that GDP may become a competitive MTBE wastewater treatment technology.

  1. Potential of pulsed corona discharges generated in water for the degradation of persistent pharmaceutical residues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banaschik, R.; Lukeš, Petr; Jablonowski, H.; Hammer, M. U.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Kolb, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 84, November (2015), s. 127-135 ISSN 0043-1354 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14080 Grant - others:European Cooperation in Science and Technology(XE) COST TD1208 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Advanced oxidation * Non-thermal plasma * Ethinylestradiol * Diclofenac * Phenol * Hydroxyl radicals Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 5.991, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00431354/84/supp/C

  2. Changes in water clarity in response to river discharges on the Great Barrier Reef continental shelf: 2002-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, K. E.; Logan, M.; Weeks, S. J.; Lewis, S. E.; Brodie, J.

    2016-05-01

    Water clarity is a key factor for the health of marine ecosystems. The Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is located on a continental shelf, with >35 major seasonal rivers discharging into this 344,000 km2 tropical to subtropical ecosystem. This work investigates how river discharges affect water clarity in different zones along and across the GBR. For each day over 11 years (2002-2013) we calculated 'photic depth' as a proxy measure of water clarity (calibrated to be equivalent to Secchi depth), for each 1 km2 pixel from MODIS-Aqua remote sensing data. Long-term and seasonal changes in photic depth were related to the daily discharge volumes of the nearest rivers, after statistically removing the effects of waves and tides on photic depth. The relationships between photic depths and rivers differed across and along the GBR. They typically declined from the coastal to offshore zones, and were strongest in proximity to rivers in agriculturally modified catchments. In most southern inner zones, photic depth declined consistently throughout the 11-year observation period; such long-term trend was not observed offshore nor in the northern regions. Averaged across the GBR, photic depths declined to 47% of local maximum values soon after the onset of river floods, and recovery to 95% of maximum values took on average 6 months (range: 150-260 days). The river effects were strongest at latitude 14.5°-19.0°S, where river loads are high and the continental shelf is narrow. Here, even offshore zones showed a >40% seasonal decline in photic depth, and 17-24% reductions in annual mean photic depth in years with large river nutrients and sediment loads. Our methodology is based on freely available data and tools and may be applied to other shelf systems, providing valuable insights in support of ecosystem management.

  3. Pressure-Discharge Law of Local Tanks Connected to a Water Distribution Network: Experimental and Mathematical Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro De Marchis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In many Mediterranean countries, users store water resources in private tanks, which are typically located on rooftops. These local reservoirs are generally connected directly to the water distribution network (WDN. This installation scheme causes a disconnection of the WDN from the users, and thus, the users’ water supply is no longer linked to their consumption, which changes the network operating conditions from the designed conditions. For WDNs characterized by the presence of several private tanks, specific models have to be developed to correctly simulate the operation of the WDN while accounting for reservoirs located between the hydraulic network and users. Some mathematical models that are able to reproduce the tank emptying/filling cycles have already been developed, which combine a tank continuity equation with a float valve emitter law. In the present work, a new emitter law is proposed that improves the predictability of actual models. The new formulation takes into account the variation of the emitter coefficient and of the discharge area during the phases of the filling process of private tanks. Specifically, hyperbolic tangent laws were adopted. A comparison between the proposed mathematical model and the experimental data demonstrated the ability of the new law to estimate the flow discharging into private tanks independently of the float valve branch and of the pressure in the network. The developed model can easily be implemented in hydrodynamic models to take private tanks into account.

  4. Heat exchange in the environment. A study of the physical principles relating to power plant condenser cooling water discharges. EEI publication No. 65-902

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edinger, J.E.; Geyer, J.C.

    1965-06-01

    Studies on heated water discharges were of the following types: planning and predictive; reconnaissance survey; and intensive scientific studies. These studies are described under the following headings: exchange of heat between water and the atmosphere; equilibrium temperature and exchange coefficient; properties of the heat exchange formulae; analysis of heat distributions; applications to cooling ponds, rivers, streams, lakes, and reservoirs; a study of a power plant discharge; and an analysis of a power plant discharge. The following appendices are included; alternate derivation of heat exchange relations; a glossary; and a bibliography. (HLW)

  5. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, M. T H; van Beek, L. P H; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F P

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding

  6. 76 FR 43230 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Water Intake Structures at Existing Facilities and Phase I Facilities AGENCY: Environmental Protection... proposed requirements under section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act for all existing power generating....gov . Mail: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; EPA Docket Center ] (EPA/DC) Water Docket, MC 28221T...

  7. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  8. GIS based water quality indexing of Malad creek, Mumbai (India): an impact of sewage discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Bhattacharyya, Tapas; Joshi, Rucha R; Dhage, S S; Sohony, R A

    2011-04-01

    Malad creek is one of the most heavily polluted water bodies in Mumbai, India. Presently, creek receives wastewater and sewage from open drains and nallahs as well as partially treated wastewater from treatment facilities. The objective of the present study was to assess and classify the water quality zones spatially and temporally based on physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis. For this, GIS based methodology was integrated with water quality indexing, according to National Sanitation Foundation. Nine water quality parameters were considered to generate the indices that represent the overall status of creek water quality. Based on field observations and spatial distribution of water quality, various options were suggested for improvement in water quality of the creek.

  9. Long-term biomonitoring of a produced water discharge from the Cedar Cove degasification field, Alabama. January 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, P.E.; Harris, S.C.; Mettee, M.F.; McGregor, S.W.; Shepard, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Development of coalbed methane has become a major industry for the state of Alabama. In excess of 1,300 wells were producing methane by the end of July 1990. A byproduct of methane production is produced water containing elevated concentrations of chloride, sodium, iron and bicarbonate. These waters are currently permitted for discharge into streams or as a land application. The purpose of the study was to examine the long-term impacts of produced waters to streams relative to water-quality changes and aquatic biological effects. Distinct water-quality changes in the receiving stream were documented and consisted primarily of increased dissolved solids, changes in the pH regime and changes in the carbonate buffering system. In contrast, no significant or consistent detrimental change in the structure or function of the stream biological community could be detected. Subtle changes in biological community structure and composition were noted and most likely due to effects associated with algal productivity in settling lagoons. These changes, however, were within the boundaries of variation typically observed for the communities. Based on the results of this and earlier studies, it was concluded that the national water-quality criterion for chloride was protective of stream life as examined in the study.

  10. Noncontact methods for measuring water-surface elevations and velocities in rivers: Implications for depth and discharge extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jonathan M.; Kinzel, Paul J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Schmeeckle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Recently developed optical and videographic methods for measuring water-surface properties in a noninvasive manner hold great promise for extracting river hydraulic and bathymetric information. This paper describes such a technique, concentrating on the method of infrared videog- raphy for measuring surface velocities and both acoustic (laboratory-based) and laser-scanning (field-based) techniques for measuring water-surface elevations. In ideal laboratory situations with simple flows, appropriate spatial and temporal averaging results in accurate water-surface elevations and water-surface velocities. In test cases, this accuracy is sufficient to allow direct inversion of the governing equations of motion to produce estimates of depth and discharge. Unlike other optical techniques for determining local depth that rely on transmissivity of the water column (bathymetric lidar, multi/hyperspectral correlation), this method uses only water-surface information, so even deep and/or turbid flows can be investigated. However, significant errors arise in areas of nonhydrostatic spatial accelerations, such as those associated with flow over bedforms or other relatively steep obstacles. Using laboratory measurements for test cases, the cause of these errors is examined and both a simple semi-empirical method and computational results are presented that can potentially reduce bathymetric inversion errors.

  11. HABITAT USE OF AGE - 0 TWAITE SHAD (ALOSA FALLAX LACÉPÈDE, 1803 IN THE TIDAL FRESHWATER REGION OF THE ELBE RIVER, GERMANY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERKENS M.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Between April and August 1997 the distribution of twaite shad larvae in the lower Elbe River downstream the city of Hamburg was examined by ring net, lift net and pop net sampling. During each haul six environmental parameters - water depth, water temperature, conductivity, oxygen concentration, distance from shore line and distance from river channel - were estimated. Twaite shad larvae were found from 26 May to 10 July. Yolk sac larvae were present from 26 May to 25 June. High abundances of twaite shad larvae were found in the side channels and main channels. A canonical correspondence analysis was calculated to evaluate the importance of measured environmental parameters for the distribution of age - 0 fishes. Water depth, distance from shore line and distance from river channel were identified as main parameters for the distribution of species. Twaite shad larvae preferred maximum water depth and distance from shore line and short distances to the river channel. An upstream displacement of the spawning grounds of twaite shad was observed, following a trend first noticed in the early 90th. Nowadays, the location of spawning grounds corresponds to the situation at the beginning of the 19th century. Reduced water pollution is believed to be the main reason for this phenomenon.

  12. Impact modelling of water resources development and climate scenarios on Zambezi River discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Kling

    2014-07-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Comparisons between historical and future scenarios show that the biggest changes have already occurred. Construction of Kariba and CahoraBassa dams in the mid 1900s altered the seasonality and flow duration curves. Future irrigation development will cause decreases of a similar magnitude to those caused by current reservoir evaporation losses. The discharge is highly sensitive to small precipitation changes and the two climate models used give different signs for future precipitation change, suggestive of large uncertainty. The river basin model and database are available as anopen-online Decision Support System to facilitate impact assessments of additional climate or development scenarios.

  13. Monitoring and Deformation Analysis of Groynes Using Tls at the River Elbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirschwitz, F.; Mechelke, K.; Jansch, H.; Kersten, T. P.

    2016-06-01

    To enter the Port of Hamburg, one of Europe's busiest ports all vessels need to navigate around 145 km along the Elbe river, a tide influenced navigation channel. To protect the Elbe shoreline from erosion and to channel the waterway groynes (rigid hydraulic structures) have been built along the river. In the past years since ca. 2001 there has been a large increase in damage of groynes structural integrity at parts of the German waterways. The reason for this was determined in the ever growing size of container vessels passing by and inducing long periodical primary waves which have such a force that they erode the groynes rock structure. To analyse and improve the groynes structural resistance for vessel-induced long periodical wave loads an in-situ study is carried out at Juelssand, located at the Elbe river estuary. Over a period of two years the change of the geometrical structure of two different groyne shapes is monitored automatically by utilising two terrestrial laser scanners mounted in protective housings, located each on a 12 m high platform. The self-contained monitoring systems perform scanning of the two groynes one to two times a day at low tide, as the structures are fully submerged at high tide. The long-periodical wave loads are also determined using pressure sensors in each groyne. To correlate the captured data with vessel events and analyse the effects, vessel related parameters are recorded utilizing the Automatic Identification System (AIS). This paper describes the automated processes for the data acquisition and focusses on the deformation that is calculated using current, extended and new algorithms of the Point Cloud Library. It shows the process chain from the acquisition of raw scan files from an elevated station to the filtering of point cloud, the registration, the calculation of pointwise changes and the aggregation to a grid for later correlation with ship parameters. When working outdoor in all kinds of weather conditions, the

  14. MONITORING AND DEFORMATION ANALYSIS OF GROYNES USING TLS AT THE RIVER ELBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tschirschwitz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To enter the Port of Hamburg, one of Europe’s busiest ports all vessels need to navigate around 145 km along the Elbe river, a tide influenced navigation channel. To protect the Elbe shoreline from erosion and to channel the waterway groynes (rigid hydraulic structures have been built along the river. In the past years since ca. 2001 there has been a large increase in damage of groynes structural integrity at parts of the German waterways. The reason for this was determined in the ever growing size of container vessels passing by and inducing long periodical primary waves which have such a force that they erode the groynes rock structure. To analyse and improve the groynes structural resistance for vessel-induced long periodical wave loads an in-situ study is carried out at Juelssand, located at the Elbe river estuary. Over a period of two years the change of the geometrical structure of two different groyne shapes is monitored automatically by utilising two terrestrial laser scanners mounted in protective housings, located each on a 12 m high platform. The self-contained monitoring systems perform scanning of the two groynes one to two times a day at low tide, as the structures are fully submerged at high tide. The long-periodical wave loads are also determined using pressure sensors in each groyne. To correlate the captured data with vessel events and analyse the effects, vessel related parameters are recorded utilizing the Automatic Identification System (AIS. This paper describes the automated processes for the data acquisition and focusses on the deformation that is calculated using current, extended and new algorithms of the Point Cloud Library. It shows the process chain from the acquisition of raw scan files from an elevated station to the filtering of point cloud, the registration, the calculation of pointwise changes and the aggregation to a grid for later correlation with ship parameters. When working outdoor in all kinds of weather

  15. Discharge of water containing waste emanating from land to the marine environment: a water quality management perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Water Act, 1998 (Act 36 of 1998) mandates the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry to manage all water containing waste (wastewater), which emanates from land-based sources and which directly impact on the marine environment...

  16. 77 FR 17253 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... identified on 51 existing or developmental ballast water treatment technologies, although detailed data were... Protocol for the Verification of Ballast Water Treatment Technologies developed under EPA's ETV Program. 74... approval process for ballast water management systems. These new regulations will aid in controlling the...

  17. Glow discharge plasma in water: a green approach to enhancing ability of chitosan for dye removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuezhong; Shen, Chensi; Ni, Yanyan; Tong, Shaoping; Yu, Feng

    2012-01-30

    There is a need to explore effective and green approaches to enhancing the ability to use chitosan for contaminant removal for practical implementation of this technology. In the present study, glow discharge plasma (GDP), which has thus far been studied for degradation of contaminants, was used for the first time to pre-treat chitosan for dye removal in aqueous solution. The results show that the GDP treatment changed the morphology and crystallinity of chitosan particles, and the number of -CH(2) and -CH(3) groups in the chitosan samples increased. Various pretreatment parameters, including discharge current and time, played significant roles in the chitosan modification. It is observed that dye uptake in GDP-modified chitosan was faster than adsorption in untreated chitosan. The maximum adsorption by chitosan followed the order of untreated chitosanGDP current: 50 mA)GDP current: 120 mA), implying that the chitosan modified by GDP had a higher maximum adsorption capacity in comparison with the untreated chitosan. A possible mechanism is proposed. These results show that GDP may be an attractive pretreatment technology for environmental adsorption materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Discharge and Treatment of Waste Water in Denmark:a case study about Esbjerg

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Torben

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the waste water treatment situation in the area of Esbjerg. This example was chosen because the situation in Esbjerg is typical of that of most towns in Denmark, and because Esbjerg is closest to the British situation with respect to the receiving water. Esbjerg has a population of 70.000 inhabitans, and waste water treatment takes place in two treatment plants. These plants are now being extended to perform tertiary treatment, to fulfil the new Danish requirements. From ...

  19. Satellite Derived Water Quality Observations Are Related to River Discharge and Nitrogen Loads in Pensacola Bay, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Lehrter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between satellite-derived water quality variables and river discharges, concentrations and loads of nutrients, organic carbon, and sediments were investigated over a 9-year period (2003–2011 in Pensacola Bay, Florida, USA. These analyses were conducted to better understand which river forcing factors were the primary drivers of estuarine variability in several water quality variables. Remote sensing reflectance time-series data were retrieved from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS and used to calculate monthly and annual estuarine time-series of chlorophyll a (Chla, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, and total suspended sediments (TSS. Monthly MERIS Chla varied from 2.0 mg m−3 in the lower region of the bay to 17.2 mg m−3 in the upper bay. MERIS CDOM and TSS exhibited similar patterns with ranges of 0.51–2.67 (m−1 and 0.11–8.9 (g m−3. Variations in the MERIS-derived monthly and annual Chla, CDOM, and TSS time-series were significantly related to monthly and annual river discharge and loads of nitrogen, organic carbon, and suspended sediments from the Escambia and Yellow rivers. Multiple regression models based on river loads (independent variables and MERIS Chla, CDOM, or TSS (dependent variables explained significant fractions of the variability (up to 62% at monthly and annual scales. The most significant independent variables in the regressions were river nitrogen loads, which were associated with increased MERIS Chla, CDOM, and TSS concentrations, and river suspended sediment loads, which were associated with decreased concentrations. In contrast, MERIS water quality variations were not significantly related to river total phosphorus loads. The spatially synoptic, nine-year satellite record expanded upon the spatial extent of past field studies to reveal previously unseen system-wide responses to river discharge and loading variation. The results indicated that variations in Pensacola Bay Chla

  20. Experimental observation of the luminescence flash at the collapse phase of a bubble produced by pulsed discharge in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yifan; Zhang, Liancheng; Zhu, Xinlei; Liu, Zhen, E-mail: zliu@zju.edu.cn; Yan, Keping [Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310007 (China); Chen, Jim [Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310007 (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2015-11-02

    This letter presents an experimental observation of luminescence flash at the collapse phase of an oscillating bubble produced by a pulsed discharge in water. According to the high speed records, the flash lasts around tens of microseconds, which is much longer than the lifetime of laser and ultrasound induced luminescence flashes in nanoseconds and picoseconds, respectively. The pulse width of temperature waveform and minimum radius calculated at the collapse phase also show that the thermodynamic and dynamic signatures of the bubbles in this work are much larger than those of ultrasound and laser induced bubbles both in time and space scales. However, the peak temperature at the point of collapse is close to the results of ultrasound and laser induced bubbles. This result provides another possibility for accurate emission spectrum measurement other than amplification of the emitted light, such as increasing laser energy or sound energy or substituting water with sulphuric acid.

  1. Dynamic sediment discharge in the Hekou-Longmen region of Yellow River and soil and water conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Deng, Jingcheng; Chai, Xueke; Mu, Xingmin; Zhao, Guangju; Shao, Hongbo; Sun, Wenyi

    2017-02-01

    The middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin transport the vast majority of sediment (>85% of the basin's total available sediment load), which has had profound effects on the characteristics of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. Since the late 1950s, soil and water conservation measures have been extensively implemented in the Loess Plateau, China, especially since the 1970s. This has resulted in sediment discharge changing significantly. In this study, data from 22 catchments in the region of the Loess Plateau from Hekou to Longmen in the middle reaches of the Yellow River were analyzed to investigate the responses of the sediment regime to climate change and human activities. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and the Pettitt test were used to identify trends and shifts in sediment discharge. All 22 catchments had a significantly decreasing trend (Pwater conservation and environmental rehabilitation campaigns, have played a more prominent role in the changes in sediment regimes. In order to reduce soil erosion and sediment yield, more attention should be paid to proper and rational soil and water conservation and eco-restoration in this region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High-efficiency removal of NOx using dielectric barrier discharge nonthermal plasma with water as an outer electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, ZHAO; Feng, YU; Amin, ZHOU; Cunhua, MA; Bin, DAI

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid increase in the number of cars and the development of industry, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions have become a serious and pressing problem. This work reports on the development of a water-cooled dielectric barrier discharge reactor for gaseous NOx removal at low temperature. The characteristics of the reactor are evaluated with and without packing of the reaction tube with 2 mm diameter dielectric beads composed of glass, ZnO, MnO2, ZrO2, or Fe2O3. It is found that the use of a water-cooled tube reduces the temperature, which stabilizes the reaction, and provides a much greater NO conversion efficiency (28.8%) than that obtained using quartz tube (14.1%) at a frequency of 8 kHz with an input voltage of 6.8 kV. Furthermore, under equivalent conditions, packing the reactor tube with glass beads greatly increases the NO conversion efficiency to 95.85%. This is because the dielectric beads alter the distribution of the electric field due to the influence of polarization at the glass bead surfaces, which ultimately enhances the plasma discharge intensity. The presence of the dielectric beads increases the gas residence time within the reactor. Experimental verification and a theoretical basis are provided for the industrial application of the proposed plasma NO removal process employing dielectric bead packing.

  3. Traveltime and dispersion data, including associated discharge and water-surface elevation data, Kanawha River West Virginia, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Virginia Environmental Endowment, Marshall University Research Corporation, and the West Virginia Depart- ment of Environmental Protection, to evaluate traveltime of a soluble dye on the Kanawha River. The Kanawha River originates in south-central West Virginia and flows northwestward to the Ohio River. Knowledge of traveltime and dispersion of a soluble dye could help river managers mitigate effects of an accidental spill. Traveltime and dispersion data were collected from June 20 through July 4, 1991, when river discharges decreased from June 24 through July 3, 1991. Daily mean discharges decreased from 5,540 ft 3/s on June 24 to 2,790 ft3/s on July 2 at Kanawha Falls and from 5,680 ft3/s on June 24 to 3,000 ft3/s on July 2 at Charleston. Water-surface elevations in regulated pools indicated a loss of water storage during the period. A spill at Gauley Bridge under similar streamflow conditions of this study is estimated to take 15 days to move beyond Winfield Dam. Estimated time of passage (elapsed time at a particular location) at Marmet Dam and Winfield Dam is approximately 2.5 days and 5.5 days, respectively. The spill is estimated to spend 12 days in the Winfield pool.

  4. Effects of Sewage Discharge on Trophic State and Water Quality in a Coastal Ecosystem of the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Hugo Vargas-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence of the effects of urban wastewater discharges on the trophic state and environmental quality of a coastal water body in a semiarid subtropical region in the Gulf of California. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients and organic matter from urban wastewater primary treatment were estimated. La Salada Cove was the receiving water body and parameters measured during an annual cycle were temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, orthophosphate, and chlorophyll a. The effects of sewage inputs were determined by using Trophic State Index (TRIX and the Arid Zone Coastal Water Quality Index (AZCI. It was observed that urban wastewater of the city of Guaymas provided 1,237 ton N yr−1 and 811 ton P yr−1 and TRIX indicated that the receiving water body showed symptoms of eutrophication from an oligotrophic state to a mesotrophic state; AZCI also indicated that the environmental quality of the water body was poor. The effects of urban wastewater supply with insufficient treatment resulted in symptoms of eutrophication and loss of ecological functions and services of the coastal ecosystem in La Salada Cove.

  5. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Beek, van L.P.H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved

  6. Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

  7. Alkaloid decomposition by DC pin-hole discharge in water solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Edita J.; Krcma, Frantisek; Jonisova, Lenka

    2016-08-01

    DC diaphragm discharge generated in a batch reactor was used to decompose two selected model alkaloids, caffeine and quinine in concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 ppm or 5 to 15 ppm, respectively. UV-vis spectrometry was utilized in evaluation of H2O2 production during the process as well as degradation of caffeine. Fluorescence spectrometry was used for quantification of quinine. High rates of decomposition were reached in both cases in the anode part of the reactor. On the other hand, up to four times lower decomposition was observed in the cathode part. Total removal efficiency gained up to 300 mg/kWh for caffeine and 210 mg/kWh for quinine. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  8. Uncertainty Of Stream Nutrient Transport Estimates Using Random Sampling Of Storm Events From High Resolution Water Quality And Discharge Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, P. A.; Arnscheidt, J.; Jordan, P.; Beven, K.; Heathwaite, L.

    2007-12-01

    The uncertainties associated with stream nutrient transport estimates are frequently overlooked and the sampling strategy is rarely if ever investigated. Indeed, the impact of sampling strategy and estimation method on the bias and precision of stream phosphorus (P) transport calculations is little understood despite the use of such values in the calibration and testing of models of phosphorus transport. The objectives of this research were to investigate the variability and uncertainty in the estimates of total phosphorus transfers at an intensively monitored agricultural catchment. The Oona Water which is located in the Irish border region, is part of a long term monitoring program focusing on water quality. The Oona Water is a rural river catchment with grassland agriculture and scattered dwelling houses and has been monitored for total phosphorus (TP) at 10 min resolution for several years (Jordan et al, 2007). Concurrent sensitive measurements of discharge are also collected. The water quality and discharge data were provided at 1 hour resolution (averaged) and this meant that a robust estimate of the annual flow weighted concentration could be obtained by simple interpolation between points. A two-strata approach (Kronvang and Bruhn, 1996) was used to estimate flow weighted concentrations using randomly sampled storm events from the 400 identified within the time series and also base flow concentrations. Using a random stratified sampling approach for the selection of events, a series ranging from 10 through to the full 400 were used, each time generating a flow weighted mean using a load-discharge relationship identified through log-log regression and monte-carlo simulation. These values were then compared to the observed total phosphorus concentration for the catchment. Analysis of these results show the impact of sampling strategy, the inherent bias in any estimate of phosphorus concentrations and the uncertainty associated with such estimates. The

  9. Elbe floods: An interaction of hydrological and meteorological (pre-)conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nied, M.; Pardowitz, T.; Nissen, K.; Hundecha, Y.; Merz, B.; Ulbrich, U.

    2012-04-01

    The genesis of a river flood is triggered by the interaction of various elements. Key factors are the hydrological pre-conditions (e.g. soil saturation, snow cover) and the meteorological situation (e.g. amount and spatial distribution of precipitation). For the analysis of those key factors, we propose to classify the hydrological and meteorological (pre-)conditions of the Elbe river catchment and to identify flood favouring patterns. The meteorological classification is based on ERA 40 reanalysis data by Simulated Annealing clustering of mean sea level pressure, surface temperature and tropospheric humidity content. We find a good representation of typical winter and summer patterns, when using 40 classes. For each class its seasonality and probability to occur in connection with river flooding is determined. Two main types of patterns are found to be associated with Elbe river flooding: During summer, the most distinct pattern shows a cyclone over Southern Europe, which transports moist air from the Mediterranean towards central Europe, a situation also known as Vb. During winter, the patterns occurring prior to the floods mostly show a strong zonal flow, carrying moist air from the North East Atlantic. The hydrological classification is based on soil moisture as a representative of the initial catchment state. Soil moisture is simulated using a semi-distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff model that is calibrated using a Monte Carlo scheme with an objective function emphasizing high flows. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis are applied successively to identify patterns explaining most of the variability of the soil moisture dynamics and to identify days of similar soil moisture patterns. Independently of the number of clusters finally chosen, flood prone soil moisture clusters are detected. In a subsequent step, this pattern analysis will serve as the basis to estimate joint probabilities of the occurrence of hydro-meteorological pattern

  10. Estimation of the possible flood discharge and volume of stormwater for designing water storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirzhner, Felix; Kadmon, Avri

    2011-01-01

    The shortage of good-quality water resources is an important issue in arid and semiarid zones. Stormwater-harvesting systems that are capable of delivering good-quality wastewater for non-potable uses while taking into account environmental and health requirements must be developed. For this reason, the availability of water resources of marginal quality, like stormwater, can be a significant contribution to the water supply. Current stormwater management practices in the world require the creation of control systems that monitor quality and quantity of the water and the development of stormwater basins to store increased runoff volumes. Public health and safety considerations should be considered. Urban and suburban development, with the creation of buildings and roads and innumerable related activities, turns rain and snow into unwitting agents of damage to our nation's waterways. This urban and suburban runoff, legally known as stormwater, is one of the most significant sources of water pollution in the world. Based on various factors like water quality, runoff flow rate and speed, and the topography involved, stormwater can be directed into basins, purification plants, or to the sea. Accurate floodplain maps are the key to better floodplain management. The aim of this work is to use geographic information systems (GIS) to monitor and control the effect of stormwater. The graphic and mapping capabilities of GIS provide strong tools for conveying information and forecasts of different storm-water flow and buildup scenarios. Analyses of hydrologic processes, rainfall simulations, and spatial patterns of water resources were performed with GIS, which means, based on integrated data set, the flow of the water was introduced into the GIS. Two cases in Israel were analyzed--the Hula Project (the Jordan River floods over the peat soil area) and the Kishon River floodplains as it existed in the Yizrael Valley.

  11. Water-quality, water-level, and discharge data associated with the Mississippi embayment agricultural chemical-transport study, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Rose, Claire E.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport and Fate study team (Agricultural Chemicals Team, ACT) of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program began a study in northwestern Mississippi to evaluate the influence of surface-water recharge on the occurrence of agriculturally related nutrients and pesticides in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. The ACT study was composed in the Bogue Phalia Basin, an indicator watershed within the National Water-Quality Assessment Program Mississippi Embayment Study Unit and utilized several small, subbasins within the Bogue Phalia to evaluate surface and groundwater interaction and chemical transport in the Basin. Data collected as part of this ACT study include water-quality data from routine and incident-driven water samples evaluated for major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, physical properties, and commonly used pesticides in the area; discharge, gage height and water-level data for surface-water sites, the shallow alluvial aquifer, and hyporheic zone; additionally, agricultural data and detailed management activities were reported by land managers for farms within two subbasins of the Bogue Phalia Basin—Tommie Bayou at Pace, MS, and an unnamed tributary to Clear Creek near Napanee, MS.

  12. Design of a process for supercritical water desalination with zero liquid discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odu, Samuel Obarinu; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Metz, S.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional desalination methods have a major drawback; the production of a liquid waste stream which must be disposed. The treatment of this waste stream has always presented technical, economic, and environmental challenges. The supercritical water desalination (SCWD) process meets these

  13. Contaminants Investigation Bulletin: Environmental contaminants in sediments from oilfield produced water discharge points

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Trace element concentrations in sediment samples are shown in Table 2. Sediments from a wetland receiving oilfield produced water from the Arnell oil production site...

  14. Natural radionuclides in waste water discharged from coal-fired power plants in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Marija M; Todorović, Dragana J; Sarap, Nataša B; Krneta Nikolić, Jelena D; Rajačić, Milica M; Pantelić, Gordana K

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of the natural radioactivity levels in water around power plants, as well as in plants, coal, ash, slag and soil, and to assess the associated radiation hazard is becoming an emerging and interesting topic. This paper is focused on the results of the radioactivity analysis in waste water samples from five coal-fired power plants in Serbia (Nikola Tesla A, Nikola Tesla B, Kolubara, Morava and Kostolac), which were analyzed in the period 2003-2015. River water samples taken upstream and downstream from the power plants, drain water and overflow water were analyzed. In the water samples gamma spectrometry analysis was performed as well as determination of gross alpha and beta activity. Natural radionuclide 40 K was detected by gamma spectrometry, while the concentrations of other radionuclides, 226 Ra, 235 U and 238 U, usually were below the minimum detection activity (MDA). 232 Th and artificial radionuclide 137 Cs were not detected in these samples. Gross alpha and beta activities were determined by the α/β low level proportional counter Thermo Eberline FHT 770 T. In the analyzed samples, gross alpha activity ranged from MDA to 0.47 Bq L - 1 , while the gross beta activity ranged from MDA to 1.55 Bq L - 1 .

  15. Produced water treatment and discharge solutions in TRANSPETRO maritime terminals; Solucoes de tratamento e descarte de agua produzida nos terminais aquaviarios da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansor, Leonardo Mitidiero; Burburan, Alexandre; Rodrigues, Fernanda Fonseca; Cerqueira, Ana Claudia F.P. de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Padilha, Carlos Frederico [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The PETROBRAS produced water programme, conducted by PETROBRAS S.A. is the response to the challenge faced in handling, treating and discharging produced water associated to oil production that comes from Campos Basin mainly. After run modeling studies in oil and produced water associated through 2015 scenario, it was identified the total amount of produced water that will be handle monthly, increasing from 215.000 m{sup 3} up to 420.000 m{sup 3}. To achieve the goals of treating e discharging that huge amount of water, the program understood the following main actions: built 5 produced water plants (Sao Sebastiao, Macae-Cabiunas, Angra dos Reis, Sao Francisco do Sul and Osorio) and 2 reinjection sites (Cabiunas and Lagoa Parda). These plants and sites will be able to treat monthly the total produced water amount of 677.000 m{sup 3}. (author)

  16. Thermal and hydraulic considerations regarding the fate of water discharged by the outflow channels to the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    The identification of possible shorelines in the Martian northern plains suggests that the water discharged by the circum-Chryse outflow channels may have led to the formation of transient seas, or possibly even an ocean, covering as much as one-third of the planet. Speculations regarding the possible fate of this water have included local ponding and reinfiltration into the crust; freezing, sublimation, and eventual cold-trapping at higher latitudes; or the in situ survival of this now frozen water to the present day -- perhaps aided by burial beneath a protective cover of eolian sediment or lavas. Although neither cold-trapping at higher latitudes nor the subsequent freezing and burial of flood waters can be ruled out, thermal and hydraulic considerations effectively eliminate the possibility that any significant reassimilation of this water by local infiltration has occurred given climatic conditions resembling those of today. The arguments against the local infiltration of flood water into the northern plains are two-fold. First, given the climatic and geothermal conditions that are thought to have prevailed on Mars during the Late Hesperian (the period of peak outflow channel activity in the northern plains), the thickness of the cryosphere in Chryse Planitia is likely to have exceeded 1 km. A necessary precondition for the widespread occurrence of groundwater is that the thermodynamic sink represented by the cryosphere must already be saturated with ice. For this reason, the ice-saturated cryosphere acts as an impermeable barrier that effectively precludes the local resupply of subpermafrost groundwater by the infiltration of water discharged to the surface by catastraphic floods. Note that the problem of local infiltration is not significantly improved even if the cryosphere were initially dry, for as water attempts to infiltrate the cold, dry crust, it will quickly freeze, creating a seal that prevents any further infiltration from the ponded water above

  17. Water treatments in semi-closed cooling circuits and their impact on the quality of effluents discharged by CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Santos Leite Cima Gomes, J; Kleiner, S

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to assess the impact of the discharges of the semi-closed water cooling circuits of CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research) on the overall quality of CERN's effluents, taking as guidelines the international legislation supported on the knowledge of the water systems of CERN. In order to reach this goal, a thorough analysis of the functioning of the semi-closed water cooling systems of CERN's particle accelerators was done, as well as, an analysis of the treatment that is done to prevent the proliferation of bacteria such as Legionella. The products used in these water treatments, as well as their impact, were also researched. In addition, a study of the applicable regulation to CERN's effluent was done. This study considered not only the regulation of France and Switzerland (CERN's host states) but also the international regulation from the European community, Portugal Germany, Spain, U.S. and Canada, having in view a better understanding of the limit values of the parameter...

  18. Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Sabrina J.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges—a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal blooms, the economic consequences of microscopic invaders have not been studied, despite their potentially great negative effects. In this paper, we show how to estimate the economic benefits of preventing the introduction and spread of harmful bacteria, microalgae, and viruses delivered in U.S. waters. Our calculations of net social welfare show the damages from a localized incident, cholera-causing bacteria found in shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico, to be approximately 706,000 (2006). On a larger scale, harmful algal species have the potential to be transported in ships’ ballast tanks, and their effects in the United States have been to reduce commercial fisheries landings and impair water quality. We examine the economic repercussions of one bloom-forming species. Finally, we consider the possible translocation within the Great Lakes of a virus that has the potential to harm commercial and recreational fisheries. These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges.

  19. Numerical modelling of the thermal effects on the aquatic environment from the thermal power plant by using two water discharge pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issakhov, Alibek

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents a numerical modelling of the thermal load on the aquatic environment by using two water discharge pipes of the thermal power plant. It is solved by the Navier-Stokes and temperature transport equations for an incompressible fluid in a stratified medium. The numerical solution of the equation system is divided into four stages by using projection method which was approximated by the finite volume method. At the first step it is assumed that the momentum transfer was carried out only by convection and diffusion. Intermediate velocity field is solved by 5-step Runge-Kutta method. At the second stage, the pressure field is solved by found the intermediate velocity field. Poisson equation for the pressure field is solved by Jacobi method. The third step is assumed that the transfer is carried out only by pressure gradient. The fourth step of the temperature transport equation is also solved as momentum equations. The obtained numerical results of stratified turbulent flow for two water discharged pipes were compared with experimental data and with numerical results for one water discharged pipe. General thermal load in the reservoir-cooler decreases comparing one water discharged pipe and revealed qualitatively and quantitatively approximately the basic laws of hydrothermal processes occurring in the reservoir-cooler can be seen that from numerical simulations where two water discharged pipes were used.

  20. Heavy metals in the waste and in the water discharge area of municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ermindo Cavallet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The county of Paranaguá discards 80 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW daily in the Embocuí landfill without proper treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the concentration of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, lead (Pb and mercury (Hg in the dump area and to compare it with reference values for soil and water quality stipulated by CETESB (2005. The methodology of the study involved the collection of waste samples (organic waste mixed with soil from a depth of 1 m deep at 12 points of the dump, and the collection of water samples from a depth of 3 m at 3 points in the deposited waste. Extraction of heavy metals in the water samples was performed according to the USEPA (1999 method and analysis followed ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Analysis of the solid waste samples showed the following concentrations: (mg kg -1: As < 10; Cd < 1; Cr = 26; Pb = 52; e Hg = 0.2. The water samples showed the following concentrations: (mg L- 1: As < 5; Cd < 5; Cr =29 e Pb = 10. The amounts of heavy metals in samples of tailings and water from the landfill area fall below the values considered to create a risk of contamination.

  1. Characterisation of hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes in the bank filtrate and landward groundwater in the Torgau Basin of the Elbe valley by means of isotope analysis giving particular consideration to the origin and transformation of carbon and sulphur species; Isotopenanalytische Charakterisierung hydrodynamischer und biogeochemischer Prozesse in Uferfiltrat und landseitigen Grundwaessern der Torgauer Elbtalwanne unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Herkunft und Umwandlungen von Kohlenstoff- und Schwefelspezies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallen, G.

    2000-07-01

    Isotope studies were carried out in the catchment area of East Torgau waterworks in the Torgau Basin of the Elbe valley, focussing largely on two measuring profiles. The drinking water conveying wells lining the western bank of the Elbe in this area produce a mixture of bank filtrate and landward groundwater. The purpose of the study was to examine the flow and mixing processes of the waters and their constituents as well as the origin, transformation and fate of their exogenously or endogenously acquired constituents and in this way to clarify the complex succession of reactions and degradation processes in the aquifer as a function of the production rate of the catchment areas and the properties of the bank filtrate and landward groundwater. The time series analyses on the hydrochemistry and isotope ratios of the water (mainly {delta}{sup 18}O, {sup 3}H) and various constituents (mainly {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} {delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO3} {delta}{sup 34}S{sub S04}) served to track time and space-related variations in the aquifer under the influence of the bank filtrate. This in turn permitted determining flow times and allowed a distinction between fluctuations attributable to the Elbe and those caused by admixture from the unsaturated and saturated zones and by redox reactions in the microbiologically highly active, barely permeable colmation zone (immediately below the river bed) and in the sandy aquifer below. [German] In der Elbtalwanne bei Torgau, wo die entlang des westlichen Elbufers angeordneten Trinkwasserfoerderbrunnen ein Gemisch aus Uferfiltrat und landseitigen Grundwaessern foerdern, wurden schwerpunktmaessig entlang zweier Messprofile im Einzugsgebiet des Wasserwerkes Torgau-Ost Isotopenuntersuchungen durchgefuehrt, um - Stroemungs- und Mischgungsprozesse der Waesser und Inhaltsstoffe sowie - Herkunft, Umwandlung und Verbleib der exogen und endogen eingetragenen Inhaltsstoffe und damit die komplexe Abfolge der Reaktions- und Abbauprozesse im Aquifer

  2. Groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration, flow of water in unsaturated soil, and stable isotope water sourcing in areas of sparse vegetation, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreo, Michael T.; Andraski, Brian J.; Garcia, C. Amanda

    2017-08-29

    This report documents methodology and results of a study to evaluate groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration (GWET) in sparsely vegetated areas of Amargosa Desert and improve understanding of hydrologic-continuum processes controlling groundwater discharge. Evapotranspiration and GWET rates were computed and characterized at three sites over 2 years using a combination of micrometeorological, unsaturated zone, and stable-isotope measurements. One site (Amargosa Flat Shallow [AFS]) was in a sparse and isolated area of saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) where the depth to groundwater was 3.8 meters (m). The second site (Amargosa Flat Deep [AFD]) was in a sparse cover of predominantly shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia) where the depth to groundwater was 5.3 m. The third site (Amargosa Desert Research Site [ADRS]), selected as a control site where GWET is assumed to be zero, was located in sparse vegetation dominated by creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) where the depth to groundwater was 110 m.Results indicated that capillary rise brought groundwater to within 0.9 m (at AFS) and 3 m (at AFD) of land surface, and that GWET rates were largely controlled by the slow but relatively persistent upward flow of water through the unsaturated zone in response to atmospheric-evaporative demands. Greater GWET at AFS (50 ± 20 millimeters per year [mm/yr]) than at AFD (16 ± 15 mm/yr) corresponded with its shallower depth to the capillary fringe and constantly higher soil-water content. The stable-isotope dataset for hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) illustrated a broad range of plant-water-uptake scenarios. The AFS saltgrass and AFD shadscale responded to changing environmental conditions and their opportunistic water use included the time- and depth-variable uptake of unsaturated-zone water derived from a combination of groundwater and precipitation. These results can be used to estimate GWET in other areas of Amargosa Desert where hydrologic conditions are similar.

  3. High-resolution water column survey to identify active sublacustrine hydrothermal discharge zones within Lake Rotomahana, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sharon L.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Fornari, Daniel; Tivey, Maurice A.; Stucker, Valerie K.

    2016-03-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles were used to conduct a high-resolution water column survey of Lake Rotomahana using temperature, pH, turbidity, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) to identify active hydrothermal discharge zones within the lake. Five areas with active sublacustrine venting were identified: (1) the area of the historic Pink Terraces; (2) adjacent to the western shoreline subaerial "Steaming Cliffs," boiling springs and geyser; (3) along the northern shoreline to the east of the Pink Terrace site; (4) the newly discovered Patiti hydrothermal system along the south margin of the 1886 Tarawera eruption rift zone; and (5) a location in the east basin (northeast of Patiti Island). The Pink Terrace hydrothermal system was active prior to the 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera, but venting along the western shoreline, in the east basin, and the Patiti hydrothermal system appear to have been initiated in the aftermath of the eruption, similar to Waimangu Valley to the southwest. Different combinations of turbidity, pH anomalies (both positive and negative), and ORP responses suggest vent fluid compositions vary over short distances within the lake. The seasonal period of stratification limits vertical transport of heat to the surface layer and the hypolimnion temperature of Lake Rotomahana consequently increases with an average warming rate of ~ 0.010 °C/day due to both convective hydrothermal discharge and conductive geothermal heating. A sudden temperature increase occurred during our 2011 survey and was likely the response to an earthquake swarm just 11 days prior.

  4. Quantification of leachate discharged to groundwater using the water balance method and the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance (HELP) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alslaibi, Tamer M; Abustan, Ismail; Mogheir, Yunes K; Afifi, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Landfills are a source of groundwater pollution in Gaza Strip. This study focused on Deir Al Balah landfill, which is a unique sanitary landfill site in Gaza Strip (i.e., it has a lining system and a leachate recirculation system). The objective of this article is to assess the generated leachate quantity and percolation to the groundwater aquifer at a specific site, using the approaches of (i) the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance model (HELP) and (ii) the water balance method (WBM). The results show that when using the HELP model, the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the period 1997 to 2007 was around, 6800 m3/year. Meanwhile, the average volume of leachate percolated through the clay layer was 550 m3/year, which represents around 8% of the generated leachate. Meanwhile, the WBM indicated that the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the same period was around 7660 m3/year--about half of which comes from the moisture content of the waste, while the remainder comes from the infiltration of precipitation and re-circulated leachate. Therefore, the estimated quantity of leachate to groundwater by these two methods was very close. However, compared with the measured leachate quantity, these results were overestimated and indicated a dangerous threat to the groundwater aquifer, as there was no separation between municipal, hazardous and industrial wastes, in the area.

  5. An inversion of the estuarine circulation by sluice water discharge and its impact on suspended sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kirstin; Gerkema, Theo

    2018-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is characterized by a complex topography of branching channels and intertidal flats, in which the interplay between fresh water discharges, wind forcing and the tidal current causes sediment transport rates and direction to be highly variable in space and time. During three field campaigns, indications of a negative estuarine circulation have been found in a channel adjacent to the coast in the Western Dutch Wadden Sea. Contrary to the classical picture of estuarine circulation, a periodic density stratification was observed that builds up during flood and breaks down during ebb. This can be related to a large freshwater source at the mouth of the channel, the sluice in Kornwerderzand. In this study, observations of this phenomenon are presented, and with the help of a numerical model the different drivers for residual suspended matter transport in this area, namely tidal asymmetries in the current velocity and the above mentioned periodic stratification, are investigated. It is found that the residual current in the area of interest points in ebb direction, caused by both the elongated ebb flow phase and the periodic stratification. On the contrary, the stronger flood currents cause a transport of suspended matter in flood direction. This transport is counteracted and therefore diminished by the effects of the sluice discharge.

  6. Trend analysis of ground-water levels and spring discharge in the Yucca Mountain Region, Nevada and California, 1960-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Moreo, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water level and discharge data from 1960 to 2000 were analyzed for the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada and eastern California. Included were water-level data from 37 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole) and discharge data from five springs and from a flowing well. Data were evaluated for variability and for upward, downward, or cyclic trends with an emphasis on the period 1992-2000. Potential factors causing trends in water levels and discharge include ground-water withdrawal, infiltration of precipitation, earthquakes, evapotranspiration, barometric pressure, and earth tides. Statistically significant trends in ground-water levels or spring discharge from 1992 to 2000 were upward at 12 water-level sites and downward at 14 water-level sites and 1 spring-discharge site. In general, the magnitude of the change in water level from 1992 to 2000 was small (less than 2 feet), except where influenced by pumping or local effects such as possible equilibration from well construction or diversion of nearby surface water. Seasonal trends are superimposed on some of the long-term (1992-2000) trends in water levels and discharge. Factors causing seasonal trends include barometric pressure, evapotranspiration, and pumping. The magnitude of seasonal change in water level can vary from as little as 0.05 foot in regional aquifers to greater than 5 feet in monitoring wells near large supply wells in the Amargosa Farms area. Three major episodes of earthquake activity affected water levels in wells in the Yucca Mountain region between 1992 and 2000: the Landers/Little Skull Mountain, Northridge, and Hector Mine earthquakes. The Landers/Little Skull Mountain earthquakes, in June 1992, had the largest observed effect on water levels and on discharge during the study period. Monthly measurements of wells in the study network show that earthquakes affected water levels from a few tenths of a foot to 3.5 feet. In the Ash Meadows area, water levels remained relatively stable

  7. Degradation of benzodiazepines using water falling film dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Vesna M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical methods of wastewater treatment are often not suitable for the treatment of pharmaceutical waste. The previous studies have shown that the use of the advanced oxidation procedures (AOP can lead to a more efficient degradation of various biologically active compounds, which are active pharmaceutical ingredients of applied drugs. The aim of this paper is the application of the plasma technology on the degradation of a two active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs, diazepam and alprazolam and the finished products (Bensedin® and Ksalol® using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor for AOP. We studied the degradation rate of these pharmaceuticals, depending on the number of passes through the reactor. This degradation method was efficient 61 % for diazepam and 95 % alprazolam. We also examined the influence of the pH adjustment between the passes of APIs through the DBD reactor. The degradation rate of APIs and the finished products was monitored by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC technique, using a photodiode array detector. The concentration of the dissolved ozone was determined using the iodometric procedure. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172030

  8. Characteristics of exploding metal wires in water with three discharge types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruoyu; Wu, Jiawei; Zhou, Haibin; Ding, Weidong; Qiu, Aici; Clayson, Thomas; Wang, Yanan; Ren, Hang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of underwater electrical wire explosion (UEWE) with three discharge types, namely, Type-A, Type-B, and Type-C. Experiments were carried out with copper and tungsten wires (4 cm long and 50-300 μm in diameter) driven by a microsecond time-scale pulsed current source with 500 J stored energy. A time-integrated spectrometer and a photodiode were used to measure the optical emission of UEWE. A Polyvinylidene Fluoride probe was adopted to record the pressure waveforms. Experimental results indicate that from Type-A to Type-C, more energy deposits prior to the voltage peak and the first peak power increases drastically. This variation of energy deposition influences the optical emission and shock wave generation process. Specifically, the light intensity decreases by more than 90% and the peak of continuous spectra moves from ˜400 nm to ˜700 nm. In addition, the peak pressure of the first shock wave increases from ˜2 MPa to more than 7.5 MPa.

  9. Hydrogeochemical and stable isotope geochemical characterization of shallow ground waters and submarine ground water discharge in North-Eastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Michael E.; Schmiedinger, Iris; Böttcher, Gerd; Schwerdtfeger, Beate; Lipka, Marko; Westphal, Julia

    2017-04-01

    The evolution and hydrochemical composition of ground waters in Mecklenburg-Western Pommerania (North-Eastern Germany) is controlled by different natural and anthropogenic factors. In the present study, the hydrogeochemistry and stable isotope geochemistry (H, C, O, S) of shallow ground waters was investigated in 2014 and 2015. A mass balance approach is combined with physico-chemical modeling to define the mineral dissolution/precipitation potential as well as the processes taking place during the ground water development. The dissolved inorganic carbon system of the ground waters is controlled by the dissolution of biogenic carbon dioxide, the dissolution of (marine) carbonates and the oxidation of anthropogenically introduced DOC and at a few sites biogenic methane. The sulfur isotope composition of dissolved sulfate indicates the substantial impact from the oxidation of sedimentary pyrite using oxygen or nitrate as electron acceptor. The combined results are the base for a quantitative reaction path analysis. The composition of ground water is discussed with respect to its role as a source for fresh waters forming SGD and in a re-wetting wetland area (Hütelmoor) at the southern Baltic Sea coast line. Acknowledgements: The SGD/Hütelmoor part of this study is supported by German Science Foundation during DFG research training group BALTIC TRANSCOAST.

  10. Probabilistic Prognosis of Environmental Radioactivity Concentrations due to Radioisotopes Discharged to Water Bodies from Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás Zerquera, Juan; Mora, Juan C; Robles, Beatriz

    2017-11-15

    Due to their very low values, the complexity of comparing the contribution of nuclear power plants (NPPs) to environmental radioactivity with modeled values is recognized. In order to compare probabilistic prognosis of radioactivity concentrations with environmental measurement values, an exercise was performed using public data of radioactive routine discharges from three representative Spanish nuclear power plants. Specifically, data on liquid discharges from three Spanish NPPs: Almaraz, Vandellós II, and Ascó to three different aquatic bodies (river, lake, and coast) were used. Results modelled using generic conservative models together with Monte Carlo techniques used for uncertainties propagation were compared with values of radioactivity concentrations in the environment measured in the surroundings of these NPPs. Probability distribution functions were inferred for the source term, used as an input to the model to estimate the radioactivity concentrations in the environment due to discharges to the water bodies. Radioactivity concentrations measured in bottom sediments were used in the exercise due to their accumulation properties. Of all the radioisotopes measured in the environmental monitoring programs around the NPPs, only Cs-137, Sr-90, and Co-60 had positive values greater than their respective detection limits. Of those, Sr-90 and Cs-137 are easily measured in the environment, but significant contribution from the radioactive fall-out due to nuclear explosions in the atmosphere exists, and therefore their values cannot be attributed to the NPPs. On the contrary, Co-60 is especially useful as an indicator of the radioactive discharges from NPPs because its presence in the environment can solely be attributed to the impact of the closer nuclear facilities. All the modelled values for Co-60 showed a reasonable correspondence with measured environmental data in all cases, being conservative in two of them. The more conservative predictions obtained with

  11. Probabilistic Prognosis of Environmental Radioactivity Concentrations due to Radioisotopes Discharged to Water Bodies from Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tomás Zerquera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their very low values, the complexity of comparing the contribution of nuclear power plants (NPPs to environmental radioactivity with modeled values is recognized. In order to compare probabilistic prognosis of radioactivity concentrations with environmental measurement values, an exercise was performed using public data of radioactive routine discharges from three representative Spanish nuclear power plants. Specifically, data on liquid discharges from three Spanish NPPs: Almaraz, Vandellós II, and Ascó to three different aquatic bodies (river, lake, and coast were used. Results modelled using generic conservative models together with Monte Carlo techniques used for uncertainties propagation were compared with values of radioactivity concentrations in the environment measured in the surroundings of these NPPs. Probability distribution functions were inferred for the source term, used as an input to the model to estimate the radioactivity concentrations in the environment due to discharges to the water bodies. Radioactivity concentrations measured in bottom sediments were used in the exercise due to their accumulation properties. Of all the radioisotopes measured in the environmental monitoring programs around the NPPs, only Cs-137, Sr-90, and Co-60 had positive values greater than their respective detection limits. Of those, Sr-90 and Cs-137 are easily measured in the environment, but significant contribution from the radioactive fall-out due to nuclear explosions in the atmosphere exists, and therefore their values cannot be attributed to the NPPs. On the contrary, Co-60 is especially useful as an indicator of the radioactive discharges from NPPs because its presence in the environment can solely be attributed to the impact of the closer nuclear facilities. All the modelled values for Co-60 showed a reasonable correspondence with measured environmental data in all cases, being conservative in two of them. The more conservative

  12. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: the potential impact on microphytoplankton of bottom water discharge at subsurface in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Mélanie; Boye, Marie; Garçon, Véronique; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Donval, Anne; De la Broise, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Part of the solar energy can be harvested and used in different processes. Taking advantage of the natural temperature gradient between the surface and deep ocean, the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) process fulfills this goal. The IMPALA project (Impacts of artificial upwelling on microplankton) aims to study the potential environmental impacts of releasing, below the surface, deep seawater flowing out of a scheduled OTEC pilot plant offshore the Martinique Island in the Caribbean Sea. Biogeochemical processes involved in the artificial upwelling generated by the use of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant were studied in this poor nutrient environment. The biogeochemical and physical ecosystem structure and functioning on the OTEC site were described and deep seawater discharge using in situ microcosm experiments was carried out off Martinique. Surface seawater was collected in ultra-clean conditions at two depths (corresponding to the maximum of chlorophyll a concentration and bottom of nutricline) and mixed in different proportions with deep seawater (2% and 10%). Pigments determination, picophytoplankton abundance, macro-nutrients (silicates, nitrates, and phosphates), particular organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations and primary production were documented to assess the variability between the natural environment and within the microcosms. The latter were immersed for 6 days on a 250 meters mooring. Variations observed in microcosms experiments and in the surrounding waters were compared in order to evaluate the natural variability of the phytoplankton assemblage and the potential shifts induced by deep water supply. Results obtained during two fields campaigns conducted off Martinique at the onset of the dry (November-December 2013) and wet seasons (June 2014), respectively, will be presented and discussed. Incubating mixtures of subsurface and deep waters at two ratios and at two depths, allows evaluating the potential impact of a deep

  13. Environmental Risk Assessment of Produced Water Discharges on the Dutch Continental Shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de P.; Karman, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    The OSPAR Offshore Industry Committee (OIC) has decided, in its meeting of 2008, to evaluate the possibility of implementing a risk based approach towards produced water management. Currently, Norway has made most progress in this field as it has fully implemented the Environmental Impact Factor as

  14. Measuring water and sediment discharge from a road plot with a settling basin and tipping bucket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Black; Charles H. Luce

    2013-01-01

    A simple empirical method quantifies water and sediment production from a forest road surface, and is well suited for calibration and validation of road sediment models. To apply this quantitative method, the hydrologic technician installs bordered plots on existing typical road segments and measures coarse sediment production in a settling tank. When a tipping bucket...

  15. Monitoring strategies for drill cutting discharge in the vicinity of cold-water coral ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Autun; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2012-11-01

    Cold-water coral reefs represent some of the most biodiverse and biomass rich ecosystems in the marine environment. Despite this, ecosystem functioning is still poorly understood and the susceptibility of key species to anthropogenic activities and pollutants is unknown. In European waters, cold-water corals are often found in greatest abundance on the continental margin, often in regions rich in hydrocarbon reserves. In this viewpoint paper we discuss some of the current strategies employed in predicting and minimizing exposure of cold-water coral reef ecosystems on the Norwegian margin to waste materials produced during offshore drilling operations by the oil and gas industry. In the light of recent in situ and experimental research conducted with the key reef species Lophelia pertusa, we present some possible improvements to these strategies which may be utilized by industry and managers to further reduce the likelihood of exposure. We further highlight important outstanding research questions in this field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. INFLUENCE OF SHOCK VOLTAGE FROM THE ELECTRIC DISCHARGE ON THE FATIGUE ENDURANCE OF CARBON STEEL IN WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Vakulenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research supposes the explanation of influence of stress impulses from an electrical discharge in water on the level of the limited endurance at a cyclic loading of the thermally work-hardened carbon steel. Methodology. Material for research was steel 45 (0,45 % carbon with сoncentration of chemical elements within the limits of steel composition. Specimens for tests are made as plates in 1 thick, width 15 and length 120-180 mm. The structural state of steel corresponded to quenching on a martensite from the normal temperatures of annealing and tempering at 300C, duration of 1 h. Microstructure was investigated with the use of electronic microscopy, the density of dislocations was estimated on the methods of X-ray analysis. Hardness was measured on the method of Rockwell (scale of «C». A cyclic loading was carried out in the conditions of symmetric bend on a tester «Saturn-10» at a temperature +20C. The treatment by shock voltage from the electrical discharge was carried out in water on setting of bath type «Iskra-23», used for cleaning of castings manufactures. Electric impulses were formed at 15-18 kV with energy of 10-12 kJ and amplitude of 1-2 GPа. Findings. As a result of processing pulses of a pressure wave of heat-strengthened steel 45 found the increase of endurance under the cyclic loading corresponds to an increased amount of accumulated dislocations on the fracture surface. The use of Coffin–Manson Equation allowed finding the decrease of deformation per cycle of loading as a result of arising stress from an electrical discharge in water. On the fracture surface (after pulse exposure was found the increased number of dislocations, located in different crystallographic systems, that is a testament to the rather complicated development of dislocation transformations in the structure of steel, which provide an increase of endurance at a fatigue. The increase of the limited endurance became as a result of impulsive

  17. Annual ground-water discharge by evapotranspiration from areas of spring-fed riparian vegetation along the eastern margin of Death Valley, 2000-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczniak, Randell J.; Smith, J. LaRue; DeMeo, Guy A.

    2006-01-01

    Flow from major springs and seeps along the eastern margin of Death Valley serves as the primary local water supply and sustains much of the unique habitat in Death Valley National Park. Together, these major spring complexes constitute the terminus of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System--one of the larger flow systems in the Southwestern United States. The Grapevine Springs complex is the least exploited for water supply and consequently contains the largest area of undisturbed riparian habitat in the park. Because few estimates exist that quantify ground-water discharge from these spring complexes, a study was initiated to better estimate the amount of ground water being discharged annually from these sensitive, spring-fed riparian areas. Results of this study can be used to establish a basis for estimating water rights and as a baseline from which to assess any future changes in ground-water discharge in the park. Evapotranspiration (ET) is estimated volumetrically as the product of ET-unit (general vegetation type) acreage and a representative ET rate. ET-unit acreage is determined from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery; and a representative ET rate is computed from data collected in the Grapevine Springs area using the Bowen-ratio solution to the energy budget, or from rates given in other ET studies in the Death Valley area. The ground-water component of ET is computed by removing the local precipitation component from the ET rate. Two different procedures, a modified soil-adjusted vegetation index using the percent reflectance of the red and near-infrared wavelengths and land-cover classification using multi-spectral imagery were used to delineate the ET units within each major spring-discharge area. On the basis of the more accurate procedure that uses the vegetation index, ET-unit acreage for the Grapevine Springs discharge area totaled about 192 acres--of which 80 acres were moderate-density vegetation and 112 acres were high

  18. Assessment of the discharge regime and water budget of Belo Vrelo (source of the Tolišnica River, central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čokorilo-Ilić Marina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A sufficiently long spring discharge regime monitoring data set allows for a large number of analyses, to better understand the process of transformation of precipitation into a discharge hydrograph. It is also possible to determine dynamic groundwater volumes in a karst spring catchment area, the water budget equation parameters and the like. It should be noted that a sufficiently long data set is deemed to be a continuous spring discharge time series of more than 30 years. Such time series are rare in Serbia. They are generally much shorter (less than 15 years, and the respective catchment areas therefore fall into the “ungauged” category. In order to extend existing karst spring discharge time series, we developed a model whose outputs, apart from mean monthly spring discharges, include daily real evapotranspiration rates, catchment size and dynamic volume variation during the analytical period. So far the model has solely been used to assess the discharge regime and water budget of karst springs. The present paper aims to demonstrate that the model also yields good results in the case of springs that drain aquifers developed in marbles. Belo Vrelo (“White Spring”, source of the Tolišnica River, which drains marbles and marbleized limestones and dolomites of Čemerno Mountain, was selected for the present case study. [OI-176022

  19. 33 CFR 151.66 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage in the Great Lakes and other navigable waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; except that discharges are allowed at: (1) 4.75 miles off Big Sable Point Betsie, along established Lake... each loading or unloading operation, the record must describe: (i) The date of the operation; (ii... each discharge, the record must describe: (i) The date and time the discharge started, and the date and...

  20. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAT GRANDELLI, P.E.; GREG ROCHELEAU; JOHN HAMRICK, Ph.D.; MATT CHURCH, Ph.D.; BRIAN POWELL, Ph.D.

    2012-09-29

    This paper describes the modeling work by Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. to simulate the biochemical effects of of the nutrient-enhanced seawater plumes that are discharged by one or several 100 megawatt OTEC plants. The modeling is needed to properly design OTEC plants that can operate sustainably with acceptably low biological impact. In order to quantify the effect of discharge configuration and phytoplankton response, Makai Ocean Engineering implemented a biological and physical model for the waters surrounding O`ahu, Hawai`i, using the EPA-approved Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). Each EFDC grid cell was approximately 1 square kilometer by 20 meters deep, and used a time step of three hours. The biological model was set up to simulate the biochemical response for three classes of organisms: Picoplankton (< 2 um) such as prochlorococccus, nanoplankton (2-20 um), and microplankton (> 20 um) e.g., diatoms. The dynamic biological phytoplankton model was calibrated using chemical and biological data collected for the Hawaii Ocean Time Series (HOTS) project. Peer review of the biological modeling was performed. The physical oceanography model uses boundary conditions from a surrounding Hawai'i Regional Ocean Model, (ROM) operated by the University of Hawai`i and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. The ROM provided tides, basin scale circulation, mesoscale variability, and atmospheric forcing into the edges of the EFDC computational domain. This model is the most accurate and sophisticated Hawai'ian Regional Ocean Model presently available, assimilating real-time oceanographic observations, as well as model calibration based upon temperature, current and salinity data collected during 2010 near the simulated OTEC site. The ROM program manager peer-reviewed Makai's implementation of the ROM output into our EFDC model. The supporting oceanographic data was collected for a Naval Facilities Engineering Command / Makai project

  1. Low-voltage pulsed plasma discharges inside water using a bubble self-generating parallel plate electrode with a porous ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradia, Sonia; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2013-04-01

    Characteristics of pulsed bubbles discharges in water were investigated using parallel punched plate electrodes with a porous thin ceramic plate inserted between two metal plates. The micro-bubbles were generated just beneath the porous ceramic plate by flowing gas through it. The transition from spiky dielectric barrier discharges to pulsed glow discharges enables efficient bubble discharges at a relatively low voltage of 1.8 ˜ 4.0 kV of the 5 kHz square-waves with a pulse-width of about 750 ns. With 80% Ar and 20% O2 mixture gas at 4.0 kV, the 50 mg/l Indigo Carmine aqueous solution was efficiently decolorized within about 3 min.

  2. Characterization of Terrestrial Discharges into Coastal Waters with Thermal Imagery from a Hierarchical Monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ferrara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hierarchical use of remotely-sensed imagery from satellites, and then proximally-sensed imagery from helicopter sand drones, can provide a range of spatial and temporal coverage that supports water quality monitoring of complex pollution scenarios. Methods: The study used hierarchical satellite-, helicopter-, and drone-acquired thermal imagery of coastal plumes ranging from 3 to 300 m, near Naples, Italy, and captured temporally- and spatially-overlapping in situ samples to correlate thermal and water quality parameters in each plume and the seawater. Results: In situ sampling determined that between-plume salinity varied by 37%, chlorophyll-a varied by 356%, dissolved oxygen varied by 81%, and turbidity varied by 232%. The radiometric temperature, Trad, for the plume area of interest had a correlation of 0.81 with salinity, 0.74 with chlorophyll-a, 0.98 with dissolved oxygen, and −0.61 with turbidity. Conclusion: This study established hierarchical use of remote and proximal thermal imagery can provide monitoring of complex coastal areas.

  3. Tier 1 ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shreffler, D.K.; Thorn, R.M.; Walls, B.E.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99--662) authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) -- San Francisco District, to accommodate larger, deeper draft vessels in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors by deepening and widening the existing navigation channel, and providing turning basins and maneuvering areas in Oakland inner Harbor. The suitability of the resulting dredged material for disposal into ocean waters was subject to the procedures of the 1991 Testing Manual, Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal, known as the ``Green Book``. The Green Book provides a tiered approach for testing the suitability of dredged materials through chemical, physical, and biological evaluations. The first level of investigation, or Tier 1 evaluation, is used to determine whether a decision on LPC compliance can be made on the basis of readily available information. The Tier 1 report primarily summarizes existing information on sediment contamination and toxicity potential, identifies contaminants of concern, and determines the need for further testing. To assist the USACE in determining the suitability of dredged material from Oakland inner and Outer Harbors for ocean disposal, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory prepared this Tier 1 report based upon information and data provided by USACE. Because this Tier 1 report originated well after an LPC determination was made to require testing of project sediments in Tier 3, the primary purpose of this report was to identify contaminants of concern (if any) in that particular dredged material. In addition, this Tier 1 report summarizes available information on chemical, physical, and biological characterization of the sediments in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors.

  4. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: The Potential Impact of Bottom Water Discharge at Subsurface on Microphytoplankton in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Broise, D.; Giraud, M.; Garcon, V.; Boye, M.

    2016-02-01

    Mélanie Giraud1,2,3, Véronique Garçon3, Marie Boye11LEMAR - UMR 6539 Plouzané France, 2France Energies Marines Brest France, 3LEGOS/CNRS Toulouse -France Part of the solar energy can be harvested and used in different processes. Taking advantage of the natural temperature gradient between the surface and deep ocean, the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) process fulfills this goal. The IMPALA project (Impacts of artificial upwelling on microplankton) aims to study the potential environmental impacts of releasing, below the surface, deep seawater flowing out of a scheduled OTEC pilot plant offshore the Martinique Island in the Caribbean Sea. The OTEC installed off the Caribbean coast of Martinique is expected to pump approximately 100 000 m3/h of deep seawater for its functioning. The resulting impact of this cold nutrient-rich deep seawater discharge on the phytoplankton community of the nutrient depleted surface water is not fully understood. Therefore, a study was initiated before the installation of the pilot plant. The vertical and horizontal seawater plume dispersion of the deep seawater upwelling was described using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Field data allowed describing the expected chemical characteristics of the resulting mixed seawaters. The potential impact on the phytoplankton community was evaluated by in situ microcosm experiments. Two deep seawater ratio (2% and 10%) and two incubation depths (deep chlorophyll maximum and euphotic layer deep limit) were tested, showing a larger impact at the deep chlorophyll maximum and for the higher deep seawater concentration (10%). The microcosm enrichment by 10% of deep seawater induced a significant shift in the phytoplankton assemblage, supporting diatoms development, whereas the enrichment by 2% of deep seawater only showed a small shift in phytoplankton population. Experimental and modelling results were combined in order to identify the deep seawater discharge depth exhibiting the

  5. Elevational gradients in fish diversity in the Himalaya: water discharge is the key driver of distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P Bhatt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studying diversity and distribution patterns of species along elevational gradients and understanding drivers behind these patterns is central to macroecology and conservation biology. A number of studies on biogeographic gradients are available for terrestrial ecosystems, but freshwater ecosystems remain largely neglected. In particular, we know very little about the species richness gradients and their drivers in the Himalaya, a global biodiversity hotspot. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collated taxonomic and distribution data of fish species from 16 freshwater Himalayan rivers and carried out empirical studies on environmental drivers and fish diversity and distribution in the Teesta river (Eastern Himalaya. We examined patterns of fish species richness along the Himalayan elevational gradients (50-3800 m and sought to understand the drivers behind the emerging patterns. We used generalized linear models (GLM and generalized additive models (GAM to examine the richness patterns; GLM was used to investigate relationship between fish species richness and various environmental variables. Regression modelling involved stepwise procedures, including elimination of collinear variables, best model selection, based on the least Akaike's information criterion (AIC and the highest percentage of deviance explained (D(2. This maiden study on the Himalayan fishes revealed that total and non-endemic fish species richness monotonously decrease with increasing elevation, while endemics peaked around mid elevations (700-1500 m. The best explanatory model (synthetic model indicated that water discharge is the best predictor of fish species richness patterns in the Himalayan rivers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study, carried out along one of the longest bioclimatic elevation gradients of the world, lends support to Rapoport's elevational rule as opposed to mid domain effect hypothesis. We propose a species-discharge model and contradict

  6. Elevational gradients in fish diversity in the Himalaya: water discharge is the key driver of distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jay P; Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K

    2012-01-01

    Studying diversity and distribution patterns of species along elevational gradients and understanding drivers behind these patterns is central to macroecology and conservation biology. A number of studies on biogeographic gradients are available for terrestrial ecosystems, but freshwater ecosystems remain largely neglected. In particular, we know very little about the species richness gradients and their drivers in the Himalaya, a global biodiversity hotspot. We collated taxonomic and distribution data of fish species from 16 freshwater Himalayan rivers and carried out empirical studies on environmental drivers and fish diversity and distribution in the Teesta river (Eastern Himalaya). We examined patterns of fish species richness along the Himalayan elevational gradients (50-3800 m) and sought to understand the drivers behind the emerging patterns. We used generalized linear models (GLM) and generalized additive models (GAM) to examine the richness patterns; GLM was used to investigate relationship between fish species richness and various environmental variables. Regression modelling involved stepwise procedures, including elimination of collinear variables, best model selection, based on the least Akaike's information criterion (AIC) and the highest percentage of deviance explained (D(2)). This maiden study on the Himalayan fishes revealed that total and non-endemic fish species richness monotonously decrease with increasing elevation, while endemics peaked around mid elevations (700-1500 m). The best explanatory model (synthetic model) indicated that water discharge is the best predictor of fish species richness patterns in the Himalayan rivers. This study, carried out along one of the longest bioclimatic elevation gradients of the world, lends support to Rapoport's elevational rule as opposed to mid domain effect hypothesis. We propose a species-discharge model and contradict species-area model in predicting fish species richness. We suggest that drivers of

  7. Comparison of two approaches for determining ground-water discharge and pumpage in the lower Arkansas River Basin, Colorado, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Russell G.; Troutman, Brent M.; Edelmann, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    In March 1994, the Colorado Division of Water Resources (CDWR) adopted ?Rules Governing the Measurement of Tributary Ground Water Diversions Located in the Arkansas River Basin? (Office of the State Engineer, 1994); these initial rules were amended in February 1996 (Office of the State Engineer, 1996). The amended rules require users of wells that divert tributary ground water to annually report the water pumped monthly by each well. The rules allow a well owner to report the pumpage measured by a totalizing flowmeter (TFM) or pumpage determined from electrical power data and a power conversion coefficient (PCC) (Hurr and Litke, 1989).Opinions by representatives of the State of Kansas, presented before the Special Master hearing a court case [State of Kansas v. State of Colorado, No. 105 Original (1996)] concerning post-Compact well pumping, stated that the PCC approach does not provide the same level of accuracy and reliability as a TFM when used to determine pumpage. In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the CDWR, began a 2-year study to compare ground-water pumpage estimates made using the TFM and the PCC approaches. The study area was along the Arkansas River between Pueblo, Colorado, and the Colorado-Kansas State line (fig. 1).The two approaches for estimating ground-water discharge and pumpage were compared for more than 100 wells completed in the alluvial aquifer of the Arkansas River Basin. The TFM approach uses an inline flowmeter to directly measure instantaneous discharge and the total volume of water pumped at a well. The PCC approach uses electrical power consumption records and a power conversion coefficient to estimate the pumpage at ground-water wells.This executive summary describes the results of the comparison of the two approaches. Specifically, (1) the differences in instantaneous discharge measured with three portable flowmeters and measured with an inline TFM are evaluated, and the statistical differences in paired

  8. Assessing the potential impact of water-based drill cuttings on deep-water calcareous red algae using species specific impact categories and measured oceanographic and discharge data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilssen, Ingunn; dos Santos, Francisco; Coutinho, Ricardo; Gomes, Natalia; Cabral, Marcelo Montenegro; Eide, Ingvar; Figueiredo, Marcia A O; Johnsen, Geir; Johnsen, Ståle

    2015-12-01

    The potential impact of drill cuttings on the two deep water calcareous red algae Mesophyllum engelhartii and Lithothamnion sp. from the Peregrino oil field was assessed. Dispersion modelling of drill cuttings was performed for a two year period using measured oceanographic and discharge data with 24 h resolution. The model was also used to assess the impact on the two algae species using four species specific impact categories: No, minor, medium and severe impact. The corresponding intervals for photosynthetic efficiency (ΦPSIImax) and sediment coverage were obtained from exposure-response relationship for photosynthetic efficiency as function of sediment coverage for the two algae species. The temporal resolution enabled more accurate model predictions as short-term changes in discharges and environmental conditions could be detected. The assessment shows that there is a patchy risk for severe impact on the calcareous algae stretching across the transitional zone and into the calcareous algae bed at Peregrino. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of wastewater treatment plant discharges on microplastic concentrations in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estahbanati, Shirin; Fahrenfeld, N L

    2016-11-01

    The abundance of microplastic particles in the marine environment is well documented, but less is known about microplastics in the freshwater environment. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may not effectively remove microplastics allowing for their release to the freshwater environment. To investigate concentration of microplastic in fresh water and the impact of WWTP effluent, samples were collected upstream and downstream of four major municipal WWTPs on the Raritan River, NJ. Microplastics were categorized into three quantitative categories (500-2000 μm, 250-500 μm, 125-250 μm), and one semi-quantitative category (63-125 μm). Then, microplastics were classified as primary (manufactured in small size) or secondary (derived from larger plastics) based on morphology. The concentration of microplastics in the 125-250 and 250-500 μm size categories significantly increased downstream of WWTP. The smaller size classes, often not quantified in microplastic studies, were in high relative abundance across sampling sites. While primary microplastics significantly increased downstream of WWTP, secondary microplastic was the dominant type in the quantitative size categories (66-88%). A moderate correlation between microplastic and distance downstream was observed. These results have implications for understanding the fate and transport of microplastics in the freshwater environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Discharge, suspended sediment, and salinity in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and adjacent surface waters in South-Central Louisiana, 1997–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Perrien, Scott M.

    2015-10-19

    Discharge, suspended sediment, and salinity data collected between 1997 and 2008 indicate that the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) is an important distributary of river water and suspended sediments to coastal wetlands in south-central coastal Louisiana. Following natural hydraulic gradients, the GIWW passively distributes freshwater and suspended sediments from the Atchafalaya River to areas at least 30 to 50 miles west and east, respectively, of Morgan City. The magnitude and reach of the discharge in the GIWW increase as stage of the Wax Lake Outlet at Calumet and Lower Atchafalaya River (LAR) at Morgan City increase. The magnitude and duration of discharge vary from year to year depending on the flow regime of the Atchafalaya River. Annual discharge of water in the GIWW was greater during years when stage of the LAR remained anomalously high throughout the year, compared with average and peak flood years. During years when Atchafalaya River flow is low, Bayou Boeuf, a waterway draining the Verret subbasin, becomes a major source of water maintaining the eastward flow in the GIWW. The GIWW is the only means of getting river water to some parts of coastal Louisiana.

  11. Improved platelet compatiblity of water vapour glow discharge treated non-woven poly(ethylene terephthalate) leukocyte-reduction filters for different types of platelet concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostelijk, E. H.; Klomp, A. J.; Engbers, G. H.; Gouwerok, C. W.; Verhoeven, A. J.; van Aken, W. G.; Feijen, J.; de Korte, D.

    2001-01-01

    Non-woven poly[ethylene terephthalate] (NW-PET) filter fabric, usually used for leucocyte removal of red cells, was modified by water vapour glow discharge (WVGD) treatment to improve platelet compatibility. Modified filter material was evaluated with different kinds of platelet concentrates (PCs).

  12. Improved platelet compatibility of water vapour glow discharge treated non-woven poly(ethylene therephthalate) leukocyte-reduction filters of different types of platelet concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostelijk, E.H.; Klomp, A.J.A.; Klomp, A.J.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Gouwerok, C.W.N.; van Aken, W.G.; Verhoeven, A.J.; Feijen, Jan; de Korte, D.

    2001-01-01

    Non-woven poly[ethylene terephthalate] (NW-PET) filter fabric, usually used for leucocyte removal of red cells, was modified by water vapour glow discharge (WVGD) treatment to improve platelet compatibility. Modified filter material was evaluated with different kinds of platelet concentrates (PCs).

  13. Tidal River Elbe - a sediment budget for the grain size fraction of medium sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterscheid, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Human interventions have a historic and ongoing impact on estuarine sediment budgets across many estuaries worldwide. An early inference was the construction of embankments resulting in a constant loss of intertidal flats. Additionally, settlement activities and large scale land use changes in the upstream catchment areas had also an effect on sediment inflow rates. Today, the navigation channels in estuaries have been deepened for larger and more efficient vessels to reach a well-developed infrastructure of harbors and industrial areas often located far inland. In the past few years and just within the North-East Atlantic, the total annual amount of dredged sediments dumped at sea varied from 80 to 130 million tons (OSPAR Commission). In most estuaries across Europe the resulting human impact on the sediment fluxes and morphodynamics is significant. A good understanding of estuarine processes is essential for determining useful and meaningful measures to mitigate negative effects and to improve the current situation. Maintenance dredging and its environmental effects are therefore in the focus of public attention. Against this background, it is the aim of the presentation to identify and therefore to separate the particular effect that maintenance dredging has on sediment fluxes and budgets in the estuarine environment. Case study is the Tidal River Elbe in Germany, and here we set the focus on the grain size fraction of medium sand. In the past, river engineering measures forced the natural dynamics to form a concentrated stream flow along a fixed channel, except at a number of locations where side channels still exist. In addition to that, the main channel was deepened several times. The last deepening was in 1999/2000. The most significant deepening, however, took place from 1957 to 1962. Until then, an erosion-stable layer of marine clay (in German called "Klei") formed a flat bottom along most sections of the main channel. After removal of this layer of

  14. Heart bypass surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass - discharge; OPCAB - discharge; Beating heart surgery - discharge; Bypass surgery - heart - discharge; CABG - discharge; Coronary artery bypass graft - discharge; Coronary artery ...

  15. Electric spark discharges in water. Low-energy nuclear transmutations and light leptonic magnetic monopoles in an extended standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpf, Harald [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Theoretical Physics

    2017-11-01

    Light leptonic magnetic monopoles were predicted by Lochak [G. Lochak, Intern. J. Theor. Phys. 24, 1019 (1985).]. Experimental indications based on nuclear transmutations were announced by Urutskoiev et al. [L. I. Urutskoiev, V. I. Liksonov, V. G. Tsinoev, Ann. Fond. L. de Broglie 27, Nr.4, 791 (2002).] and Urutskoev [L. J. Urutskoev, Ann. Fond. L. de Broglie 29, 1149 (2004).]. A theoretical interpretation of these transmutations is proposed under the assumption that light leptonic magnetic monopoles are created during spark discharges in water. The latter should be excited neutrinos according to Lochak. This hypothesis enforces the introduction of an extended Standard Model described in previous papers. The most important results of this study are (i) that multiple proton captures are responsible for the variety of transmutations and that leptonic magnetic monopoles are involved in these processes (ii) that electromagnetic duality can be established for bound states of leptonic monopoles although massive monopoles are in general unstable (iii) that criteria for the emission of leptonic magnetic monopoles and for their catalytic effect on weak decays are set up and elaborated. The study can be considered as a contribution to the efforts of Urutskoiev and Lochak to understand the reasons for accidents in power plants.

  16. Electric Spark Discharges in Water. Low-energy Nuclear Transmutations and Light Leptonic Magnetic Monopoles in an Extended Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Harald

    2017-08-01

    Light leptonic magnetic monopoles were predicted by Lochak [G. Lochak, Intern. J. Theor. Phys. 24, 1019 (1985).]. Experimental indications based on nuclear transmutations were announced by Urutskoiev et al. [L. I. Urutskoiev, V. I. Liksonov, V. G. Tsinoev, Ann. Fond. L. de Broglie 27, Nr.4, 791 (2002).] and Urutskoev [L. J. Urutskoev, Ann. Fond. L. de Broglie 29, 1149 (2004).]. A theoretical interpretation of these transmutations is proposed under the assumption that light leptonic magnetic monopoles are created during spark discharges in water. The latter should be excited neutrinos according to Lochak. This hypothesis enforces the introduction of an extended Standard Model described in previous papers. The most important results of this study are (i) that multiple proton captures are responsible for the variety of transmutations and that leptonic magnetic monopoles are involved in these processes (ii) that electromagnetic duality can be established for bound states of leptonic monopoles although massive monopoles are in general unstable (iii) that criteria for the emission of leptonic magnetic monopoles and for their catalytic effect on weak decays are set up and elaborated. The study can be considered as a contribution to the efforts of Urutskoiev and Lochak to understand the reasons for accidents in power plants.

  17. Application of ICP-OES for evaluating energy extraction and production wastewater discharge impacts on surface waters in Western Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancras, Joseph Patrick; Norris, Gary A; Landis, Matthew S; Kovalcik, Kasey D; McGee, John K; Kamal, Ali S

    2015-10-01

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to quantify inorganic species in wastewater and river samples using a method based on EPA Method 200.7 rev4.4. A total of 53 emission lines from 30 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, V, and Zn) were investigated. Samples were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion using a mixture of 2% HNO3 and 0.5% HCl. Lower interferences and better detection characteristics resulted in selection of alternative wavelengths for Al, As, Sb, Mg, Mo, and Na. Radial view measurements offered accurate determinations of Al, Ba, K, Li, Na, and Sr in high-brine samples. Spike recovery studies and analyses of reference materials showed 80-105% recoveries for most analytes. This method was used to quantify species in samples with high to low brine concentrations with method detection limits a factor of 2 below the maximum contaminant limit concentrations of national drinking water standards. Elements B, Ca, K, Li, Mg, Na, and Sr were identified as potential tracers for the sources impacting PDWS intakes. Usability of the ICP-OES derived data for factor analytic model applications was also demonstrated. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The study of the influence of stabilizing devices on the pressure pulsations at the free discharge of water through the turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platonov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The free discharge through the turbine is applied in the course of construction of hydro power plant or in case of excessive water inflow during floods or emergency situations. The experimental and numerical investigation of flow-induced pressure pulsations in hydraulic turbine draft tube at free discharge was performed using a special setup for suppression of draft tube surge. Such special equipment in draft tube cone as fins and “spider”-like units was considered for reducing these pressure pulsations. The paper considers influence of these units on vortex structures and pressure pulsations in the draft tube in several regimes.

  19. Kinetics and dynamics of nanosecond streamer discharge in atmospheric-pressure gas bubble suspended in distilled water under saturated vapor pressure conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Ashish

    2016-09-08

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamer discharges generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description of the discharge kinetics. We find that the dynamic characteristics of the streamer discharge are different at low and high positive trigger voltages with the axial streamer evolution dominant for low voltages and a surface hugging mode favored for high voltages. We also find a substantial difference in initiation, transition and evolution stages of discharge for positive and negative trigger voltages with the volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel much more uniform for negative trigger voltages on account of the presence of multiple streamers. We observe that the presence of water vapor does not affect the breakdown voltage even for oversaturated conditions but significantly influences the composition of dominant species in the trail of the streamer as well as the flux of the dominant species on the bubble surface. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Kinetics and dynamics of nanosecond streamer discharge in atmospheric-pressure gas bubble suspended in distilled water under saturated vapor pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.; Cha, Min Suk

    2016-10-01

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamer discharges generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description of the discharge kinetics. We find that the dynamic characteristics of the streamer discharge are different at low and high positive trigger voltages with the axial streamer evolution dominant for low voltages and a surface hugging mode favored for high voltages. We also find a substantial difference in initiation, transition and evolution stages of discharge for positive and negative trigger voltages with the volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel much more uniform for negative trigger voltages on account of the presence of multiple streamers. We observe that the presence of water vapor does not affect the breakdown voltage even for oversaturated conditions but significantly influences the composition of dominant species in the trail of the streamer as well as the flux of the dominant species on the bubble surface.

  1. Bronchiolitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV bronchiolitis - discharge; Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis - discharge ... Your child has bronchiolitis , which causes swelling and mucus to build up in the smallest air passages of the lungs. In the hospital, ...

  2. Angina - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also learn how to take care of your heart disease . Diet and lifestyle Try to limit how much alcohol ... surgery - discharge Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge Heart disease - risk ... Review Date 8/2/2016 Updated by: Michael ...

  3. The role of passive sampling in monitoring the environmental impacts of produced water discharges from the Norwegian oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Oen, Amy M P; Cornelissen, Gerard; Jonker, Michiel T O; Waarum, Ivar-Kristian; Eek, Espen

    2016-10-15

    Stringent and periodic iteration of regulations related to the monitoring of chemical releases from the offshore oil and gas industry requires the use of ever changing, rapidly developing and technologically advancing techniques. Passive samplers play an important role in water column monitoring of produced water (PW) discharge to seawater under Norwegian regulation, where they are used to; i) measure aqueous concentrations of pollutants, ii) quantify the exposure of caged organisms and investigate PW dispersal, and iii) validate dispersal models. This article summarises current Norwegian water column monitoring practice and identifies research and methodological gaps for the use of passive samplers in monitoring. The main gaps are; i) the range of passive samplers used should be extended, ii) differences observed in absolute concentrations accumulated by passive samplers and organisms should be understood, and iii) the link between PW discharge concentrations and observed acute and sub-lethal ecotoxicological end points in organisms should be investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coplanar surface barrier discharge ignited in water vapor—a selective source of OH radicals proved by (TA)LIF measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházka, V.; Tučeková, Z.; Dvořák, P.; Kováčik, D.; Slavíček, P.; Zahoranová, A.; Voráč, J.

    2018-01-01

    Coplanar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was ignited in pure water vapor at atmospheric pressure in order to generate highly oxidizing plasma with one specific type of reactive radicals. In order to prevent water condensation the used plasma reactor was heated to 120 {}\\circ C. The composition of the radical species in the discharge was studied by methods based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and compared with analogous measurements realized in the same coplanar DBD ignited in air. Fast collisional processes and laser-surface interaction were taken into account during LIF data processing. It was found that coplanar DBD ignited in water vapor produces hydroxyl (OH) radicals with concentration in the order of 1020 m‑3, which is 10× higher than the value measured in discharge in humid air (40% relative humidity at 21 {}\\circ C). The concentration of atomic hydrogen radicals in the DBD ignited in water vapor was below the detection limit, which proves that the generation of oxidizing plasma with dominance of one specific type of reactive radicals was achieved. The temporal evolution, spatial distribution, power dependence and rotational temperature of the OH radicals was determined in the DBD ignited in both water vapor and air.

  5. Diffusion prediction of discharged warm water considering nearshore currents. Comparison between the predicted results by numerical simulation and the experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Wada, A. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1981-06-01

    When warm water is discharged into the surf zone of gently sloping coast facing open sea, the discharged warm water may be affected by breaking waves, and the complicated shape of the thermal diffusion range is shown. In order to predict the diffusion of discharged warm water with a numerical model in such case, it is necessary to reproduce a velocity vector field due to near-shore current, and to estimate correctly the advection term in a thermal diffusion equation. It is also important to estimate adequately the diffusion coefficient under the effect of near-shore current. In this report, the propriety of the numerical model used for this study is discussed. The characteristics of coastal current and waves in the sea region off Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., the numerical models for wave field and near-shore current, the prediction of the horizontal distribution of water temperature, and the comparison of the results of numerical simulation and experiment on the reproducibility of breaker line, the velocity vector field due to near-shore current, the range of water temperature rise and the diffusion range under the action of irregular waves are reported.

  6. Contribution of Priority PAHs and POPs to Ah Receptor-Mediated Activities in Sediment Samples from the River Elbe Estuary, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Jens C.; Keiter, Steffen; Faßbender, Christopher; Higley, Eric B.; Rocha, Paula Suares; Brinkmann, Markus; Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Manz, Werner; Wetzel, Markus A.; Braunbeck, Thomas; Giesy, John P.; Hecker, Markus; Hollert, Henner

    2013-01-01

    The estuary of the River Elbe between Hamburg and the North Sea (Germany) is a sink for contaminated sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM). One major concern is the effect of human activities on the hydrodynamics, particularly the intensive dredging activities in this area that may result in remobilization of sediment-bound pollutants. The aim of this study was to identify pollutants contributing to the toxicological risk associated with re-suspension of sediments in the Elbe Estuary by use of an effect-directed analysis that combines chemical and biological analyses in with specific fractionation techniques. Sediments were collected from sites along the Elbe Estuary and a site from a small harbor basin of the Elbe Estuary that is known to be polluted. The sixteen priority EPA-PAHs were quantified in organic extracts of sediments. In addition, dioxin equivalents of sediments were investigated by use of the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase assay with RTL-W1 cells and the Ah receptor-mediated luciferase transactivation assay with H4IIE-luc cells. Quantification of the 16 priority PAHs revealed that sediments were moderately contaminated at all of the sites in the Elbe River Estuary (Sediments contained relatively small concentrations of dioxin equivalents (Bio-TEQ) with concentrations ranging from 15.5 to 322 pg/g dw, which were significantly correlated with dioxin equivalents calculated based on toxicity reference values and concentrations of PAH. The concentration of Bio-TEQ at the reference site exceeded 200,000 pg/g dw. In a potency balance the 16 PAHs explained between 47 and 118% of the Bio-TEQ in the luciferase assay, which can be explained by the constant input of PAHs bound to SPM from the upper course of the Elbe River into its estuary. Successful identification of a significant portion of dioxin-like activity to priority PAHs in complex environmental samples such as sediments has rarely been reported. PMID:24146763

  7. Detection of Norovirus GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 in Shellfish, Marine Water and Underwater Sewage Discharges in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, G; Della Libera, S; Iaconelli, M; Proroga, Y T R; De Medici, D; Martella, V; Suffredini, E

    2017-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and the variants of genotype GII.4 are currently the predominant human strains. Recently, a novel variant of NoV GII.17 (GII.P17_GII.17 NoV), termed Kawasaki 2014, has been reported as the cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in Asia, replacing the pandemic strain GII.4 Sydney 2012. The GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 variant has also been reported sporadically in patients with gastroenteritis outside of Asia, including Italy. In this study, 384 shellfish samples were subjected to screening for human NoVs using real-time PCR and 259 (67.4%) tested positive for Genogroup II (GII) NoV. Of these, 52 samples, selected as representative of different areas and sampling dates, were further amplified by conventional PCR targeting the capsid gene, using broad-range primers. Forty shellfish samples were characterized by amplicon sequencing as GII.4 (n = 29), GII.2 (n = 4), GII.6 (n = 2), GII.12 (n = 2), and GII.17 (n = 3). Sixty-eight water samples (39 seawater samples from the corresponding shellfish production areas and 29 water samples from nearby underwater sewage discharge points) were also tested using the above broad-range assay: eight NoV-positive samples were characterized as GII.1 (n = 3), GII.2 (n = 1), GII.4 (n = 2), and GII.6 (n = 2). Based on full genome sequences available in public databases, a novel RT-PCR nested assay specific for GII.17 NoVs was designed and used to re-test the characterized shellfish (40) and water (8) samples. In this second screening, the RNA of GII.17 NoV was identified in 17 additional shellfish samples and in one water sample. Upon phylogenetic analysis, these GII.17 NoV isolates were closely related to the novel GII.17 Kawasaki 2014. Interestingly, our findings chronologically matched the emergence of the Kawasaki 2014 variant in the Italian population (early 2015), as reported by hospital-based NoV surveillance. These results, showing GII.17 No

  8. Optimization aspects of the new nELBE photo-neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwengner R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The nELBE beamline at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD provides intense neutron beams by stopping primary electrons in a liquid lead target, where neutrons are produced by bremsstrahlung photons via (γ,n reactions. With the aim to increase the neutron yield through the enhancement of the electron beam energy (from the current 40 MeV limit up to 50 MeV, as well as to minimize several sources of background that are presently affecting the measurements, a new neutron beam-line and a new, larger neutron experimental room have been designed. The optimization of the neutron/photon ratio, the minimization of the backscattered radiation from the walls and the possibility to have better experimental conditions are the main advantages of the new design. To optimize the beamline, extensive simulations with the particle interaction and transport code FLUKA have been performed. Starting from the primary electron beam, both the photon and neutron radiation fields have been fully characterized. To have a cross-check of the results, the calculated values of the neutron yields at different energies of the primary beam have been compared both with an independent simulation with the MCNP code and with analytical calculations, obtaining a very satisfactory agreement at the level of few percent. The evaluated radiation fields have been used to optimize the direction of the new neutron beamline, in order to minimize the photon flash contribution. A general overview of the new photo-neutron source, together with all the steps of the optimization study, is here presented and discussed.

  9. Facies changes in the Cenomanian (Cretaceous) of the northwestern Elbe Valley near Dresden (Saxony, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröger, Karl-Armin

    2017-03-01

    The Upper Cretaceous of the Elbe Valley in Saxony and the erosion outliers west of it mark an Upper Cretaceous NW-SE-running strait between the Westsudetic Island in the NE and the Mid-European Island to the west. This street connected the NW-German-Polish Basin in the north and the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (and adjacent regions of the Tethys) in the south. However, post-Cretaceous erosion north of Meißen removed any Upper Cretaceous deposits but erosion outliers at Siebenlehn and especially north of the Forest of Tharandt proof the presence of a marly through silty belt in this area. Three transgressions (base of uppermost Lower to Middle Cenomanian, base of Upper Cenomanian and base of the geslinianum Zone in the mid-Upper Cenomanian) have taken place. The sedimentation was influenced by the topography of the mentioned islands and by movements at structural lines in the Proterozoic and Palaeozoic basement. During the early Late Cenomanian, a marly-silty sedimentation (Mobschatz Formation) in the north existed besides sandy sedimentation in the south (Oberhäslich Formation). The transgression at the base of the geslinianum Zone caused the final submergence of island chains between Meißen, Dresden and Pirna, and a litho- and biofacies bound to cliffs and submarine swells formed. A silty-marly lithofacies, a mixed sandy-silty lithofacies (Dölzschen Formation) and a sandy lithofacies in the south (Sächsisches Elbsandsteingebirge) co-existed during the latest Cenomanian. The first mentioned biofacies yields a rich fauna mainly consisting of oysters, pectinids, rudists, and near-shore gastropods accompanied by echinids and, in some cliffs, teeth of sharks. The Pennrich fauna (Häntzschel 1933; Uhlig 1941) especially consists of the very common serpulids Pyrgopolon (P.) septemsulcata and Glomerula lombricus (formerly Hepteris septemsulcata and G. gordialis).

  10. Anticonvulsant efficacy of the low-affinity partial benzodiazepine receptor agonist ELB 138 in a dog seizure model and in epileptic dogs with spontaneously recurrent seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löscher, Wolfgang; Potschka, Heidrun; Rieck, Susanne; Tipold, Andrea; Rundfeldt, Chris

    2004-10-01

    Ataxia, sedation, amnesia, ethanol and barbiturate potentiation, loss of efficacy (tolerance), development of dependence, and the potential for drug abuse limit the clinical use of benzodiazepines (BZDs) for long-term treatment of epilepsy or anxiety. BZD ligands that are in current use act as full allosteric modulators of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels and, on long-term administration, trigger a functional uncoupling between the GABAA and BZD recognition sites. Partial allosteric modulators, which have a low intrinsic activity at the BZD recognition site of the GABAA receptor, might eventually overcome the limitations of full agonists such as diazepam (DZP). In the present study, the new low-affinity partial BZD-receptor agonist ELB 138 [former name AWD 131-138; 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-morpholino-imidazolin-2-one] was evaluated in a dog seizure model and in epileptic dogs with spontaneously recurrent seizures. ELB 138 was shown to increase potently the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold in dogs. Prolonged oral administration with twice-daily dosing of ELB 138 with either 5 or 40 mg/kg over a 5-week period was not associated with loss of anticonvulsant efficacy in the PTZ dog model. To study whether physical dependence developed during long-term treatment, the BZD antagonist flumazenil was injected after 5 weeks of treatment with ELB 138. Compared with prolonged treatment with DZP, only relatively mild abstinence symptoms were precipitated in dogs treated with ELB 138, particularly at the lower dosage (5 mg/kg, b.i.d.). In a prospective trial in dogs with newly diagnosed epilepsy, ELB 138 markedly reduced seizure frequency and severity without significant difference to standard treatments (phenobarbital or primidone) but was much better tolerated than the standard drugs. In dogs with chronic epilepsy, most dogs exhibited a reduction in seizure frequency and severity during add-on treatment with ELB 138. The data demonstrate that the

  11. Concentration-discharge patterns in a small urban headwater stream in a seasonally dry water-limited tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenzi, Willis; Chinyama, Shyleen R.; Togarepi, Sydney

    2017-07-01

    The simplicity of the hydrochemical stationarity concept renders it attractive for partitioning solutes between geogenic and anthropogenic sources. The current study used a small urban headwater stream in a seasonally dry environment to address two research questions: (1) What concentration (C)-discharge (Q) patterns exist in small urban headwater streams?; and (2) Do the C-Q patterns persist across C-Q metrics and temporal scales? Four C-Q metrics were tested: concentration-discharge (C-Q), concentration-cumulative discharge (C-ΣQ), load (L)-discharge (L-Q) and normalized concentration-normalized discharge (NC-NQ). C-Q and NC-NQ revealed discharge-invariant behaviour for Ca, two linear relationships with threshold-like transitions from negative to positive slopes for Mg, K and Na, and positive linear relationships for Fe, Pb and PO43-. The threshold-like transitions with distinct breakpoints were more apparent in C-ΣQ patterns for all solutes. These patterns are consistent with three hypotheses: (1) negative linear to zero slope relationships indicate dilution followed by discharge-invariant behaviour (Ca); (2) negative to positive linear relationships (Mg, K and Na) point to dilution followed by solute enrichment or flushing; and (3) positive to negative linear relationships (Pb, Fe and PO43-) suggest initial solute mobilization followed by dilution. The three dominant behaviours were robust across weekly, fortnightly and monthly timescales. Significant linear L-Q relationships were observed for all solutes, suggesting that loads can be predicted from discharge. Our findings suggest that C-Q relationships are highly dynamic, and multiple processes control streamflow hydrochemistry at different times depending on antecedent discharge. The application of multiple C-Q metrics provided additional insights not apparent by using a single metric. The insights are critical to understanding of catchment hydrology and conceptual representation of hydrochemical processes

  12. Cardiac catheterization - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - cardiac - discharge; Heart catheterization - discharge: Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization discharge; CAD - cardiac catheterization discharge; Coronary ...

  13. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge & Elimination System) Minor Dischargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States. The NPDES permit program regulates direct discharges from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities that discharge directly into surface waters. The NPDES permit program is part of the Permit Compliance System (PCS) which issues, records, tracks, and regulates point source discharge facilities. Individual homes that are connected to a municipal system, use a septic system, or do not have a surface discharge do not need an NPDES permit. Facilities in PCS are identified as either major or minor. Within the major/minor classification, facilities are grouped into municipals or non-municipals. In many cases, non-municipals are industrial facilities. This data layer contains Minor dischargers. Major municipal dischargers include all facilities with design flows of greater than one million gallons per day; minor dischargers are less that one million gallons per day. Essentially, a minor discharger does not meet the discharge criteria for a major. Since its introduction in 1972, the NPDES permit program is responsible for significant improvements to our Nation's water quality.

  14. Time-resolved processes in a pulsed electrical discharge in water generated with shock wave assistance in a plate-to-plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmashuk, V.

    2014-12-01

    Plate-to-plate geometry is not usually used for a discharge generation in water because of a low electric field that is insufficient for electrical breakdown between electrodes. In the present research, a new method of the generation of electrical discharge in water using plate electrodes is proposed. A high voltage pulse is applied to a pair of disc electrodes at a time when a shock wave is passing between them. This method allows for depositing a higher electrical energy than with the case of pin-to-pin electrodes (or pin-to-plate electrodes) without their destruction. This discharge initiation occurs in numerous cavitation bubbles generated by the shock wave. The discharge evolution was studied using a high-speed framing camera. Two interesting effects have been observed. Firstly, multiple streamers are incepted on a cathode, which is not typical for the symmetrical electrode configuration. Secondly, the plasma in the spark channel reveals not to be homogeneous. The dynamics of a vapour bubble generated by this spark were studied by a shadowgraph method. The bubble’s growth, collapse and rebound are discussed.

  15. Water emission inventory for the Federal Republic of Germany; Emissionsinventar Wasser fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Schempp, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuchs, S.; Scherer, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Luettgert, M. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Within the frame of this project, a concept for setting up exemplary emission inventories for water was put forward. An overview is given of the international activities on emission inventories and the status of national emission inventories. Based on the data situation in Germany, it was necessary to include both plant-specific, aggregated and calculated data of the point sources in the inventories. Due to their increasing significance, diffuse material emissions into water were also taken into account. Based on the conceptual work, exemplary emission inventories were compiled for nitrogen, phosphorous and adsorbable organic combined halides (AOX) as well as the heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc. These were evaluated according to the areas of origin (sectors) or the emission paths as well as according to the large river basins Danube, Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, North Sea and Baltic Sea. In addition, lists of the ten largest industrial direct dischargers were compiled. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurde ein Konzept fuer die Erstellung von beispielhaften Emissionsinventaren fuer Gewaesser erarbeitet. Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die internationalen Aktivitaeten zu Emissionsinventaren und den Stand beim Aufbau von nationalen Emissionsinventaren gegeben. Auf Grund der Datensituation in Deutschland war es erforderlich, dass sowohl anlagenspezifische als auch aggregierte sowie berechnete Daten der Punktquellen in die Inventare einbezogen wurden. Wegen ihrer zunehmenden Bedeutung werden die diffusen Stoffeintraege in die Gewaesser ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. Aufbauend auf den konzeptionellen Arbeiten wurden beispielhafte Emissionsinventare fuer Stickstoff, Phosphor und adsorbierbare organisch gebundene Halogene (AOX) sowie die Schwermetalle Arsen, Cadmium, Chrom, Kupfer, Quecksilber, Nickel, Blei und Zink zusammengestellt. Die Auswertung erfolgte sowohl nach den Herkunftsbereichen (Branchen) bzw. den

  16. Determination of dilution factors for discharge of aluminum-containing wastes by public water-supply treatment facilities into lakes and reservoirs in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Massey, Andrew J.; Brandt, Sara L.

    2011-09-16

    Dilution of aluminum discharged to reservoirs in filter-backwash effluents at water-treatment facilities in Massachusetts was investigated by a field study and computer simulation. Determination of dilution is needed so that permits for discharge ensure compliance with water-quality standards for aquatic life. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency chronic standard for aluminum, 87 micrograms per liter (μg/L), rather than the acute standard, 750 μg/L, was used in this investigation because the time scales of chronic exposure (days) more nearly match rates of change in reservoir concentrations than do the time scales of acute exposure (hours).Whereas dilution factors are routinely computed for effluents discharged to streams solely on the basis of flow of the effluent and flow of the receiving stream, dilution determination for effluents discharged to reservoirs is more complex because (1), compared to streams, additional water is available for dilution in reservoirs during low flows as a result of reservoir flushing and storage during higher flows, and (2) aluminum removal in reservoirs occurs by aluminum sedimentation during the residence time of water in the reservoir. Possible resuspension of settled aluminum was not considered in this investigation. An additional concern for setting discharge standards is the substantial concentration of aluminum that can be naturally present in ambient surface waters, usually in association with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which can bind aluminum and keep it in solution.A method for dilution determination was developed using a mass-balance equation for aluminum and considering sources of aluminum from groundwater, surface water, and filter-backwash effluents and losses caused by sedimentation, water withdrawal, and spill discharge from the reservoir. The method was applied to 13 reservoirs. Data on aluminum and DOC concentrations in reservoirs and influent water were collected during the fall of 2009. Complete

  17. Potential effects of existing and proposed groundwater withdrawals on water levels and natural groundwater discharge in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Brooks, Lynette E.

    2017-04-14

    Several U.S. Department of Interior (DOI) agencies are concerned about the cumulative effects of groundwater development on groundwater resources managed by, and other groundwater resources of interest to, these agencies in Snake Valley and surrounding areas. The new water uses that potentially concern the DOI agencies include 12 water-right applications filed in 2005, totaling approximately 8,864 acre-feet per year. To date, only one of these applications has been approved and partially developed. In addition, the DOI agencies are interested in the potential effects of three new water-right applications (UT 18-756, UT 18-758, and UT 18-759) and one water-right change application (UT a40687), which were the subject of a water-right hearing on April 19, 2016.This report presents a hydrogeologic analysis of areas in and around Snake Valley to assess potential effects of existing and future groundwater development on groundwater resources, specifically groundwater discharge sites, of interest to the DOI agencies. A previously developed steady-state numerical groundwater-flow model was modified to transient conditions with respect to well withdrawals and used to quantify drawdown and capture (withdrawals that result in depletion) of natural discharge from existing and proposed groundwater withdrawals. The original steady-state model simulates and was calibrated to 2009 conditions. To investigate the potential effects of existing and proposed groundwater withdrawals on the groundwater resources of interest to the DOI agencies, 10 withdrawal scenarios were simulated. All scenarios were simulated for periods of 5, 10, 15, 30, 55, and 105 years from the start of 2010; additionally, all scenarios were simulated to a new steady state to determine the ultimate long-term effects of the withdrawals. Capture maps were also constructed as part of this analysis. The simulations used to develop the capture maps test the response of the system, specifically the reduction of natural

  18. Fresh Water River discharges as observed by SMOS in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Estrella; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) are two peculiar regions in the Indian Ocean exhibiting a wide range of Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) values. In the BoB, the strong summer monsoon rainfall and the continental run-offs into these semi-enclosed basins result in an intense dilution of the surface seawater in the northern part of the Bay, thereby inducing some of the lowest SSS water masses found in the tropical belt. In the AS, because of the intense variability associated with the monsoon cycle, water mass structure in the upper layers of the AS shows enormous variability in the space and time. As such, the role of the salinity in these regions is crucial in the ocean dynamics of these regions. After more than 7 years in orbit, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission [1] continues to provide a series of salinity data that could be used to monitor the SSS variations in these climatically relevant regions, provided that systematic errors due to land contamination are reduced. Recently-developed algorithms for SSS retrieval [2] have improved the filtering criteria and the mitigation of the systematic bias, providing coherent SSS retrievals close to the land masses. In this work we have analyzed the SSS in 2-degree boxes located at the mouth of the main rivers in the BoB: Ganges-Brahmaputra, Irrawady, Mahanadi, Godovari; and in the AS: Indus. We have first tried to validate the SMOS salinity retrievals with in situ measurements. Since there is few available in situ data, we have also compared the climatological SSS behavior derived from SMOS with the ones provided by the World Ocean Atlas [3]. We have also compared the SMOS SSS data with historical data of discharges [4] and [5], ocean currents from the Ocean Surface Current Analyses Real-time (OSCAR) [6], Sea Surface Temperature from Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) [7],[8] and [9] and Chlorophyll data [10]. The conclusion of this work is that, when the proper

  19. Forecasting the Amount of Waste-Sewage Water Discharged into the Yangtze River Basin Based on the Optimal Fractional Order Grey Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuliang; Meng, Wei; Xie, Yufeng

    2017-12-23

    With the rapid development of the Yangtze River economic belt, the amount of waste-sewage water discharged into the Yangtze River basin increases sharply year by year, which has impeded the sustainable development of the Yangtze River basin. The water security along the Yangtze River basin is very important for China, It is something aboutwater security of roughly one-third of China's population and the sustainable development of the 19 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions among the Yangtze River basin. Therefore, a scientific prediction of the amount of waste-sewage water discharged into Yangtze River basin has a positive significance on sustainable development of industry belt along with Yangtze River basin. This paper builds the fractional DWSGM(1,1)(DWSGM(1,1) model is short for Discharge amount of Waste Sewage Grey Model for one order equation and one variable) model based on the fractional accumulating generation operator and fractional reducing operator, and calculates the optimal order of "r" by using particle swarm optimization(PSO)algorithm for solving the minimum average relative simulation error. Meanwhile, the simulation performance of DWSGM(1,1)model with the optimal fractional order is tested by comparing the simulation results of grey prediction models with different orders. Finally, the optimal fractional order DWSGM(1,1)grey model is applied to predict the amount of waste-sewage water discharged into the Yangtze River basin, and corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward through analyzing and comparing the prediction results. This paper has positive significance on enriching the fractional order modeling method of the grey system.

  20. The impact of major earthquakes and subsequent sewage discharges on the microbial quality of water and sediments in an urban river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, Megan L; Moriarty, Elaine M; Wood, David; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

    2014-07-01

    A series of large earthquakes struck the city of Christchurch, New Zealand in 2010-2011. Major damage sustained by the sewerage infrastructure required direct discharge of up to 38,000 m(3)/day of raw sewage into the Avon River of Christchurch for approximately six months. This allowed evaluation of the relationship between concentrations of indicator microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and F-RNA phage) and pathogens (Campylobacter, Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in recreational water and sediment both during and post-cessation of sewage discharges. Giardia was the pathogen found most frequently in river water and sediment, although Campylobacter was found at higher levels in water samples. E. coli levels in water above 550 CFU/100 mL were associated with increased likelihood of detection of Campylobacter, Giardia and Cryptosporidium, supporting the use of E. coli as a reliable indicator for public health risk. The strength of the correlation of microbial indicators with pathogen detection in water decreased in the following order: E. coli>F-RNA phage>C. perfringens. All the microorganisms assayed in this study could be recovered from sediments. C. perfringens was observed to accumulate in sediments, which may have confounded its usefulness as an indicator of fresh sewage discharge. F-RNA phage, however, did not appear to accumulate in sediment and in conjunction with E. coli, may have potential as an indicator of recent human sewage discharge in freshwater. There is evidence to support the low-level persistence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, but not Campylobacter, in river sediments after cessation of sewage discharges. In the event of disturbances of the sediment, it is highly probable that there could be re-mobilisation of microorganisms beyond the sediment-water exchange processes occurring under base flow conditions. Re-suspension events do, therefore, increase the potential risk to human health for those who participate in recreational

  1. Water withdrawals, wastewater discharge, and water consumption in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, 2005, and water-use trends, 1970-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.; Fanning, Julia L.

    2011-01-01

    The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin covers about 20,500 square miles that drains parts of Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. The basin extends from its headwaters northern Georgia to the Gulf of Mexico. Population in the basin was estimated to be 3.7 million in 2005, an increase of about 41 percent from the 1990 population of 2.6 million. In 2005, slightly more than 721,000 acres of crops were irrigated within the basin. In 2005, the total amount of water withdrawn in the ACF River Basin was about 1,990 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Of this, surface water accounted for 1,591 Mgal/d (80 percent) and groundwater accounted for 399 Mgal/d (20 percent). Surface water was the primary water source of withdrawals in the northern and central parts of the basin, and groundwater was the primary source in the southern part. The largest surface-water withdrawals was from Cobb County, Georgia (410 Mgal/d, mostly from the Chattahoochee River and Lake Alatoona), and the largest groundwater withdrawals was from Dougherty County, Georgia (38 Mgal/d, mostly from the Upper Floridan aquifer system).

  2. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge & Elimination System) Minor Dischargers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources...

  3. Tritium as a Tracer for the Discrimination of Water Bodies in the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerjürgens, Jens; Badewien, Thomas; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Zielinski, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Tritium (3H) in the atmosphere has declined to natural levels, after above ground nuclear weapon tests ended five decades ago. Currently tritium is present in the marine environment of the North Sea mainly due to liquid discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants (NRP) in La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) and different nuclear power plants (NPP) discharging their effluent to the English Channel or directly into the North Sea. This work deals with seawater samples collected in the German Bight in October 2014 onboard the research vessel Heincke that were analyzed for tritium activity concentration. The major research question of this study is the characterization of different water masses due to their tritium activity concentration. Tritium activity concentration in the coastal area is very high compared to samples taken in the central German Bight. Especially samples from the estuaries of the Elbe, Weser and Ems show high tritium activity concentrations. In correlation with salinity values, riverine freshwater masses were discriminated from oceanic influenced water masses. Activity concentrations from the coastal areas to the central bight are characterized by an exponentially decreasing gradient. It is shown that tritium can be utilized as a tracer for the discrimination of riverine freshwater from oceanic water masses.

  4. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L− 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L− 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L− 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L− 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L− 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L− 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  5. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle L; Focazio, Michael J; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L(-1) with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L(-1)). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L(-1)) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L(-1)). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L(-1)) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L(-1) total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged. © 2013.

  6. NIPPLE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  7. Subterranean Groundwater Discharge - A Transport Mechanism Linking Land and Water - What do we Know and What Should we Strive to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paytan, A.

    2008-12-01

    At any land-water interface water is exchanged between subterranean aquifers and surficial waters bodies such as lakes, rivers, seas and the coastal ocean. Various physical forcing mechanisms (density and pressure gradients, tides, waves, currents) induce groundwater-surface water mixing that result in a constant exchange of water (Moore 1990, Church, 1996). This exchange represents a transport mechanism that introduces land based components including nutrients, trace metals, bacteria and organic pollutants into surface waters and impacts groundwater and surface water biogeochemistry and ecosystems. Subterranean groundwater discharge into aquatic systems has been recognized as a significant source of freshwater, nutrients, bacteria, and other dissolved constituents (Ba, CH4, Fe, Mn, U, As, Cu, Hg) to various water bodies (Valiela et al., 1990; Cable et al., 1996; Moore, 1997; Shaw et al., 1998; Corbett et al., 1999, Krest et al., 2000; Kelley and Moran, 2002; Boehm et al., 2004; Charette and Buesseler, 2004; Charette et al., 2005; Charette and Sholkovitz, 2006; Paytan et al., 2006; Bone et al., 2006, 2007; Swarzenski and Baskaran, 2007; Bone et al., 2007). What are the sources of these constituents? What controlled their loading? How would these land-based inputs impact aquatic ecosystems? Can this data be used for designing best management plans associated with efforts of water quality preservation and wetlands reclamation and reconstruction? The current state of knowledge will be briefly summarized, some new data presented and future directions for research suggested.

  8. Mn/Ti-doped carbon xerogel for efficient catalysis of microcystin-LR degradation in the water surface discharge plasma reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qing; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng; Yang, Bin

    2015-11-01

    The novel catalysts of Mn/Ti-doped carbon xerogel (CX) were synthesized for efficient degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in the water surface discharge plasma reactor. The degradation efficiency of 79.7% was obtained in 6 min with 0.5 wt% Ti impregnation of CX, and it would be increased with higher amount of Ti. In particular, Mn-doped CX resulted in larger mesoporous particle diameter and higher porosity in the matrix, and thereby, the highest efficiency of 88.6% was achieved for CX-Ti-Mn. The possible degradation pathway of MC-LR was elucidated on the basis of the LC-MS analysis. It demonstrated that Adda chain was cleaved from the MC-LR cyclic peptide by OH radical attack after plasma discharge in the presence of catalysts, and the generated nontoxic products can be further easily degraded in the biological treatment. Therefore, Mn/Ti-doped carbon xerogel is promising as the catalyst for the improvement of MC-LR degradation in the water surface discharge plasma reactor.

  9. Ecological Status of Rivers and Streams in Saxony (Germany According to the Water Framework Directive and Prospects of Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Müller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Federal State of Saxony (Germany transposed the EU Water Framework Directive into state law, identifying 617 surface water bodies (rivers and streams for implementation of the water framework directive (WFD. Their ecological status was classified by biological quality elements (macrophytes and phytobenthos, benthic invertebrates and fish, and in large rivers, phytoplankton and specific synthetic and non-synthetic pollutants. Hydromorphological and physico-chemical quality elements were used to identify significant anthropogenic pressures, which surface water bodies are susceptible to, and to assess the effect of these pressures on the status of surface water bodies. In 2009, the data for classification of the ecological status and the main pressures and impacts on water bodies were published in the river basin management plans (RBMP of the Elbe and Oder rivers. To that date, only 23 (4% streams achieved an ecological status of “good”, while the rest failed to achieve the environmental objective. The two main reasons for the failure were significant alterations to the stream morphology (81% of all streams and nutrient enrichment (62% caused by point (industrial and municipal waste water treatment plants and non-point (surface run-off from arable fields, discharges from urban drainages and decentralized waste water treatment plants sources. It was anticipated that a further 55 streams would achieve the environmental objective by 2015, but the remaining 539 need extended deadlines.

  10. Dynamic assessment of the ecological risk of the discharge of produced water from oil and gas producing platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, C.C.; Reerink, H.G.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1991 the North Sea countries (UK, Netherlands, Norway and Denmark) have put a lot of effort in the development of a decision support system for the legislation of the use and discharge of offshore exploration, drilling and production chemicals. The heart of this so-called 'harmonised mandatory

  11. Research in Water Permeability of Poly(ethylene) Terephthalate Track Membranes Modified by Polymerization of Dimethylaniline under the Action of Direct Current Discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Kravets, L I; Drachev, A I

    2004-01-01

    The properties of poly(ethylene) terephthalate track membranes modified by polymerization of dimethylaniline in a discharge of direct current are investigated. The influence of conditions of plasma treatment on the basic characteristics of the membranes (pore size, wettability, surface charge, water permeability) is studied. It is shown that under the action of discharge, a polymeric layer is formed on the membrane surface that can swell in solutions with low pH values. It has been found that the degree of the swelling stipulated by the conformation transfer of macromolecules of the deposited polymeric layer depends upon the size of relative magnification of the mass of the membrane during its plasma treatment. It is also shown that the obtained membranes can reversibly react to changing the pH of solution and applied pressure.

  12. Experience with fermentation of grass and grass silage from extensively used grassland. Feasibility study on monofermentation of grass silage from contaminated sites - biomass from grasslands of the Elbe dyke foreland; Betriebserfahrungen mit der Vergaerung von Gras und Grassilagen von extensiv genutztem Gruenland. Machbarkeitsuntersuchung zur Monovergaerung von Grassilagen schadstoffkontaminierter Standorte am Beispiel der eingesetzten Biomasse von Gruenlandflaechen aus dem Deichvorland der Elbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuer, Hans-Juergen [Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen, Bezirksstelle Uelzen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This feasibility study was concluded in 2011; monofermentation of grass silage from contaminated sites of the Elbe dyke foreland was investigated. It was found that a biogas operated in monofermentation of grass silage from extensively used grasslands is technically and economically feasible in batch operation. It was also shown that the fermentation residue can be used as agricultural fertilizer, provided that it is first turned in a compost turning unit and then worked into the soil. In view of the high pollutant concentration of the soils in the Elbe dyke foreland, the results of the project give the agricultural businesses in the Elbe valley grasslands an alternative use of the land. [German] Die Machbarkeitsuntersuchung zur Monovergaerung von Grassilagen schadstoffkontaminierter Standorte am Beispiel der eingesetzten Biomasse von Gruenlandflaechen aus dem Deichvorland der Elbe wurde Anfang Mai 2011 abgeschlossen. Im Ergebnis wurde herausgearbeitet, dass sich eine Biogaslage im Monovergaerungsverfahren mit ausschliesslich nur Grassilagen von extensiv gefuehrten Gruenlandflaechen technisch und wirtschaftlich in einer Batch-Anlage betreiben laesst. Auch wurde der Nachweis gefuehrt, dass die Biomasse aus dem Deichvorland der Elbe als Gaerrest auf das Gruenland im Deichvorland unter Beruecksichtigung von naturschutzfachlichen Vorgaben und nach den Vorgaben der guten fachlichen Praxis beim Duengen zurueckgefuehrt werden kann. Vor einer Aufbringung auf dem Gruenland sollte der feste Gaerrest jedoch mit einem Kompost-Umsetzer aufbereitet werden. Nach dem Ausstreuen auf dem Gruenland ist der Gaerrest mit einer Wiesenschleppe einzureiben. Vor dem Hintergrund der hohen Schadstoffbelastung der Boeden im Deichvorland der Elbe, tragen die im Projekt erarbeiteten Ergebnisse dazu bei, den landwirtschaftlichen Betriebsleitern in der Elbtalaue eine alternative Nutzung zur bisherigen Lebensmittelproduktion unterbreiten zu koennen.

  13. Dissolved and particulate reactive nitrogen in the Elbe River/NW Europe: a 2-yr N-isotope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schlarbaum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rivers collect and transport reactive nitrogen to coastal seas as nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON, or particulate nitrogen. DON is an important component of reactive nitrogen in rivers and is suspected to contribute to coastal eutrophication, but little is known about seasonality of DON loads and turnover within rivers. We measured the concentrations and the isotope ratios 15N/14N of combined DON + NH4+15DON + NH4+, nitrate (δ15N − NO3 and particulate nitrogen (δ15PN in the non-tidal Elbe River (SE North Sea, NW Europe over a period of 2 yr (June 2005 to December 2007 at monthly resolution. Combined DON + NH4+ concentrations ranged from 22 to 75 μM and comprised nearly 23% of total dissolved nitrogen in the Elbe River in annual mean; PN and nitrate concentrations ranged from 11 to 127 μM, and 33 to 422 μM, respectively. Combined PN and DON + NH4+ concentrations were, to a first approximation, inversely correlated to nitrate concentrations. δ15DON + NH4+, which varied between from 0.8‰ to 11.5‰, changed in parallel to δ15PN (range 6 to 10‰, and both were anti-correlated to δ15N − NO3 (range 6 to 23‰. Seasonal patterns of DON + NH4+ concentrations and δ15DON + NH4+ diverge from those expected from biological DON + NH4+ production in the river alone and suggest that the elution of organic fertilisers significantly affects the DON + NH4+ pool in the Elbe River.

  14. Ear discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibiotic medicines, which are placed in the ear. Antibiotics may be given by mouth if a ruptured eardrum from an ear infection is causing the discharge. Alternative Names Drainage from the ear; Otorrhea; Ear bleeding; ...

  15. Osteomyelitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000297.htm Osteomyelitis - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have osteomyelitis , a bone infection caused by bacteria or other ...

  16. Sensitivity mapping for oil spill response at the estuaries of the rivers Eider, Elbe, Weser and Ems; Sensitivitaetskartierung zur Oelbekaempfung an den Unterlaeufen von Eider, Elbe, Weser und Ems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernem, K.H. van; Krasemann, H. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung; Fleischmann, J.; Krueger, D.; Luebbe, T.P.

    2007-07-01

    During this project the estuaries of the rivers Eider, Elbe, Weser and Ems, meeting the North Sea, were evaluated with respect to their vulnerability against oil accidents. Thus a corresponding intention concerning the ''Wadden Sea'' at the German North Sea Coast could be proceeded and completed (GKSS 2007/2). The assessment of different watersides shall provide decision support for oil spill response. Only comparatively near-natural areas of river banks were incorporated, with the basic evaluation of their importance for nature conservation as well as their oil spill sensitivity. Socioeconomic characteristics have not been evaluated, but some important properties are depicted on charts by symbols. The data used for the evaluation process cover the types of biotopes, tidal flats, nesting/non-nesting birds, rare plants as well as fishes, morphological conditions of watersides and official area-categories (i.e. protected natural area). Riverine and intertidal areas are fundamentally differentiated. With respect to seasonal aspects, the evaluation was established for three different times of the year. The result of the evaluation process is the classification of the individual watersides into 4 classes of priority (for oil spill response) and 8 classes of sensitivity. The priorityclasses are depicted by colours and the sensitivity-classes by numbers on sea-charts as topographic background (scale 1:25.000). The evaluation results are delayed on printed as well as GIS-based maps, connected to a data base. The amount of very sensitive areas is higher in the estuaries of the rivers Elbe and Eider compared to Ems and Weser and shows the highest values at all rivers during spring. The evaluation procedure is automated to a large extend by use of linked tables and a decision tree of if/then-functions. The underlying structure provides for a reliable transformation of new data into the corresponding evaluation during updating processes. (orig.)

  17. Validation of a CFD model simulating charge and discharge of a small heat storage test module based on a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2014-01-01

    for a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. The CFD calculated temperatures are compared to measured temperatures internally in the box to validate the CFD model. Four cases are investigated; heating the test module with the sodium acetate water mixture in solid phase from ambient temperature to 52˚C; heating...... the module starting with the salt water mixture in liquid phase from 72˚C to 95˚C; heating up the module from ambient temperature with the salt water mixture in solid phase, going through melting, ending in liquid phase at 78˚C/82˚C; and discharging the test module from liquid phase at 82˚C, going through...

  18. Water-quality, bed-sediment, and discharge data for the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet and adjacent waterways, southeastern Louisiana, August 2008 through December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Mize, Scott V.; Lovelace, John K.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet navigation channel (MRGO) was constructed in the early 1960s to provide a safer and shorter route between the Gulf of Mexico and the Port of New Orleans for deep-draft, ocean-going vessels and to promote the economic development of the Port of New Orleans. In 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers developed a plan to de-authorize the MRGO. The plan called for a rock barrier to be constructed across the MRGO near Bayou La Loutre. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Louisiana Coastal Area Science and Technology Program began a study to document the impacts of the rock barrier on water-quality and flow before, during, and after its construction. Water-quality, bed-sediment, and discharge data were collected in the MRGO and adjacent water bodies from August 2008 through December 2009.

  19. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1985-01-02 to 1985-03-19 (NCEI Accession 8500081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from January 2, 1985 to...

  20. Evaluation of Flood Forecast and Warning in Elbe river basin - Impact of Forecaster's Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhelka, Jan; Vlasak, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is responsible for flood forecasting and warning in the Czech Republic. To meet that issue CHMI operates hydrological forecasting systems and publish flow forecast in selected profiles. Flood forecast and warning is an output of system that links observation (flow and atmosphere), data processing, weather forecast (especially NWP's QPF), hydrological modeling and modeled outputs evaluation and interpretation by forecaster. Forecast users are interested in final output without separating uncertainties of separate steps of described process. Therefore an evaluation of final operational forecasts was done for profiles within Elbe river basin produced by AquaLog forecasting system during period 2002 to 2008. Effects of uncertainties of observation, data processing and especially meteorological forecasts were not accounted separately. Forecast of flood levels exceedance (peak over the threshold) during forecasting period was the main criterion as flow increase forecast is of the highest importance. Other evaluation criteria included peak flow and volume difference. In addition Nash-Sutcliffe was computed separately for each time step (1 to 48 h) of forecasting period to identify its change with the lead time. Textual flood warnings are issued for administrative regions to initiate flood protection actions in danger of flood. Flood warning hit rate was evaluated at regions level and national level. Evaluation found significant differences of model forecast skill between forecasting profiles, particularly less skill was evaluated at small headwater basins due to domination of QPF uncertainty in these basins. The average hit rate was 0.34 (miss rate = 0.33, false alarm rate = 0.32). However its explored spatial difference is likely to be influenced also by different fit of parameters sets (due to different basin characteristics) and importantly by different impact of human factor. Results suggest that the practice of interactive

  1. Pilot-scale study on the treatment of basal aquifer water using ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and evaporation/crystallization to achieve zero-liquid discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Basal aquifer water is deep groundwater found at the bottom of geological formations, underlying bitumen-saturated sands. Some of the concerns associated with basal aquifer water at the Athabasca oil sands are the high concentrations of hardness-causing compounds, alkalinity, and total dissolved solids. The objective of this pilot-scale study was to treat basal aquifer water to a quality suitable for its reuse in the production of synthetic oil. To achieve zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) conditions, the treatment train included chemical oxidation, polymeric ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), and evaporation-crystallization technologies. The results indicated that the UF unit was effective in removing solids, with UF filtrate turbidity averaging 2.0 NTU and silt density index averaging 0.9. Membrane autopsies indicated that iron was the primary foulant on the UF and RO membranes. Laboratory and pilot-scale tests on RO reject were conducted to determine the feasibility of ZLD crystallization. Due to the high amounts of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate in the RO reject, softening of the feed was required to avoid scaling in the evaporator. Crystals produced throughout the testing were mainly sodium chloride. The results of this study indicated that the ZLD approach was effective in both producing freshwater and minimizing brine discharges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Water-table and discharge changes associated with the 2016-2017 seismic sequence in central Italy: hydrogeological data and a conceptual model for fractured carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitta, Marco; Mastrorillo, Lucia; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Banzato, Francesca; Barberio, Marino Domenico; Billi, Andrea; Cambi, Costanza; De Luca, Gaetano; Di Carlo, Giuseppe; Di Curzio, Diego; Di Salvo, Cristina; Nanni, Torquato; Palpacelli, Stefano; Rusi, Sergio; Saroli, Michele; Tallini, Marco; Tazioli, Alberto; Valigi, Daniela; Vivalda, Paola; Doglioni, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    A seismic sequence in central Italy from August 2016 to January 2017 affected groundwater dynamics in fractured carbonate aquifers. Changes in spring discharge, water-table position, and streamflow were recorded for several months following nine Mw 5.0-6.5 seismic events. Data from 22 measurement sites, located within 100 km of the epicentral zones, were analyzed. The intensity of the induced changes were correlated with seismic magnitude and distance to epicenters. The additional post-seismic discharge from rivers and springs was found to be higher than 9 m3/s, totaling more than 0.1 km3 of groundwater release over 6 months. This huge and unexpected contribution increased streamflow in narrow mountainous valleys to previously unmeasured peak values. Analogously to the L'Aquila 2009 post-earthquake phenomenon, these hydrogeological changes might reflect an increase of bulk hydraulic conductivity at the aquifer scale, which would increase hydraulic heads in the discharge zones and lower them in some recharge areas. The observed changes may also be partly due to other mechanisms, such as shaking and/or squeezing effects related to intense subsidence in the core of the affected area, where effects had maximum extent, or breaching of hydraulic barriers.

  3. Development and demonstration of a water-window soft x-ray microscope using a Z-pinching capillary discharge source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, M. F.; Jancarek, Alexandr; Nevrkla, Michal; Duda, Martin Jakub; Pina, Ladislav

    2017-05-01

    The development and demonstration of a soft X-ray (SXR) microscope, based on a Z-pinching capillary discharge source has been realized. The Z-pinching plasma acts as a source of SXR radiation. A ceramic capacitor bank is pulsed charged up to 80 kV, and discharged through a pre- ionized nitrogen filled ceramic capillary. The discharge current has an amplitude of 25 kA. Working within the water-window spectral region (λ = 2.88 nm), corresponding to the 1s2-1s2p quantum transition of helium-like nitrogen (N5+), the microscope has a potential in exploiting the natural contrast existing between the K-absorption edges of carbon and oxygen as the main constituents of biological materials, and hence imaging them with high spatial resolution. The SXR microscope uses the grazing incidence ellipsoidal condenser mirror for the illumination, and the Fresnel zone plate optics for the imaging of samples onto a BI-CCD camera. The half- pitch spatial resolution of 100 nm [1] was achieved, as demonstrated by the knife-edge test. In order to enhance the photon-flux at the sample plane, a new scheme for focusing the radiation, from multiple capillary sources has been investigated. Details about the source, and the construction of the microscope are presented and discussed.

  4. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - ...

  5. Innovative Use of Cr(VI) Plume Depictions and Pump-and-Treat Capture Analysis to Estimate Risks of Contaminant Discharge to Surface Water at Hanford Reactor Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Chuck W.; Hanson, James P.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Tonkin, M.

    2015-01-14

    The Hanford Site nuclear reactor operations required large quantities of high-quality cooling water, which was treated with chemicals including sodium dichromate dihydrate for corrosion control. Cooling water leakage, as well as intentional discharge of cooling water to ground during upset conditions, produced extensive groundwater recharge mounds consisting largely of contaminated cooling water and resulted in wide distribution of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) contamination in the unconfined aquifer. The 2013 Cr(VI) groundwater plumes in the 100 Areas cover approximately 6 km2 (1500 acres), primarily in the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 groundwater operable units (OUs). The Columbia River is a groundwater discharge boundary; where the plumes are adjacent to the Columbia River there remains a potential to discharge Cr(VI) to the river at concentrations above water quality criteria. The pump-and-treat systems along the River Corridor are operating with two main goals: 1) protection of the Columbia River, and 2) recovery of contaminant mass. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the pump-and-treat systems was needed to determine if the Columbia River was protected from contamination, and also to determine where additional system modifications may be needed. In response to this need, a technique for assessing the river protection was developed which takes into consideration seasonal migration of the plume and hydraulic performance of the operating well fields. Groundwater contaminant plume maps are generated across the Hanford Site on an annual basis. The assessment technique overlays the annual plume and the capture efficiency maps for the various pump and treat systems. The river protection analysis technique was prepared for use at the Hanford site and is described in detail in M.J. Tonkin, 2013. Interpolated capture frequency maps, based on mapping dynamic water level observed in observation wells and derived water levels in the vicinity of extraction and injection wells

  6. Water discharge and sediment flux changes over the past decades in the Lower Mekong River: possible impacts of the Chinese dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. X. Lu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Mekong River has witnessed extremely low water levels over the past few years. There is speculation that the changes are a consequence of the construction and operation of the Chinese cascade dams in the upper part of the Mekong main stream, the Lancang River. Dam construction on upper streams can produce a series of induced effects downstream, particularly in terms of water, sediment, channel and ecological changes. Analyses of discharge and sediment flux at various gauging stations on the Lower Mekong River have indicated a disruption in water discharge, water fluctuations and sediment transport downstream of the first Chinese dam among the 8 cascades (i.e. the Manwan Dam, after its reservoir was infilled in 1992. Dry season flows showed a declining trend, and water level fluctuations in the dry season increased considerably in the post-dam (1993–2000 period. Monthly suspended sediment concentration (SSC has also decreased significantly in several gauging stations in the post-dam period. The estimation of sediment flux is challenging since the measurements of SSC were sporadic. Our estimation based on the available data indicated that the areas along the upper-middle and lowermost reaches of the Mekong River have experienced a decline in sediment flux, possibly due to sedimentation in the Manwan Dam. However, the decrease is only statistically significant at the nearest gauging station below the Dam (i.e. Chiang Saen. Areas located in the mid-length of the river show less sensitivity to the operation of the Manwan Dam, as sediment fluxes have remained stable or even increased in the post-dam period.

  7. Analysis of profitability of using a heat recovery system from grey water discharged from the shower (case study of Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordana, Sabina; Słys, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    The paper analyses the profitability of the use of Drain Water Heat Recovery units. An original simulation model was used for this purpose, and a detached residential building located in Poland was selected as the test facility. The conducted analysis proved that the type of the hot water heater has decisive influence on the profitability level of such an investment. Application of the abovementioned technology is particularly profitable, when water is heated with the use of an electrical device. When the energy source in the system is a gas water heater, the obtained calculation results are not as favourable, and the period of investment return in many cases exceeds the expected service life of these devices. Moreover, the analysis demonstrated that the potential energy savings, and thus also the financial savings, may be in both cases increased as a result of simultaneous intake of water from various water taps.

  8. Statistical prediction of seasonal discharge in Central Asia for water resources management: development of a generic (pre-)operational modeling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Baimaganbetov, Azamat; Kalashnikova, Olga; Gavrilenko, Nadejda; Abdykerimova, Zharkinay; Agalhanova, Marina; Gerlitz, Lars; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Gafurov, Abror

    2017-04-01

    The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien-Shan and Pamirs. During the summer months the snow and glacier melt dominated river discharge originating in the mountains provides the main water resource available for agricultural production, but also for storage in reservoirs for energy generation during the winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for a sustainable management and planning of water resources. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of all national hydro-meteorological services in the region. In order to support the operational seasonal forecast procedures of hydromet services, this study aims at the development of a generic tool for deriving statistical forecast models of seasonal river discharge. The generic model is kept as simple as possible in order to be driven by available hydrological and meteorological data, and be applicable for all catchments with their often limited data availability in the region. As snowmelt dominates summer runoff, the main meteorological predictors for the forecast models are monthly values of winter precipitation and temperature as recorded by climatological stations in the catchments. These data sets are accompanied by snow cover predictors derived from the operational ModSnow tool, which provides cloud free snow cover data for the selected catchments based on MODIS satellite images. In addition to the meteorological data antecedent streamflow is used as a predictor variable. This basic predictor set was further extended by multi-monthly means of the individual predictors, as well as composites of the predictors. Forecast models are derived based on these predictors as linear combinations of up to 3 or 4 predictors. A user selectable number of best models according to pre-defined performance criteria is extracted automatically by the developed model fitting algorithm, which includes a test

  9. Alteration of Water Pollution Level with the Seasonal Changes in Mean Daily Discharge in Three Main Rivers around Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study based on the physicochemical parameters and dissolved metals levels from three main rivers around Dhaka City, Bangladesh, was conducted in order to determine the present pollution status and their alteration trends with the seasonal change of discharge amount. The water samples were collected from the rivers Buriganga, Turag, and Shitalakkhya during both dry and monsoon seasons. Physicochemical analyses revealed that most of the water quality parameters exceeded the recommended levels set by the Department of Environment (DoE, Bangladesh, during both the dry and monsoon seasons. A very strong positive correlation was found between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD in all sampling points. Both BOD and COD values had a strong negative correlation with dissolved oxygen (DO in the Shitalakkhya River. Most of the dissolved metals concentrations in the water samples were similar. However, the concentrations of different physicochemical properties varied with the seasons. The dry season had significantly higher contamination loads, which were decreased during the monsoon season. Anthropogenic activities, as well as the variation in river water flow during different seasons were the main reasons for this high degree of water pollution.

  10. Water temperature and baseflow discharge of streams throughout the range of Rio Grande cutthroat trout in Colorado and New Mexico—2010 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Matthew P.; Todd, Andrew S.; Caldwell, Colleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This study characterized the thermal regime in a number of Colorado and New Mexico streams that contain populations of Rio Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis) and had no previous record of continual temperature records. When compared to Colorado’s water temperature criteria (Cold Tier 1), a portion of these populations appeared to be at risk from elevated stream temperatures, as indicated by exceedance of both acute (17–22 percent) and chronic (2–9 percent) water quality metrics. Summer water temperature profiles recorded at sites within current Rio Grande cutthroat trout habitat indicated that although the majority of currently occupied conservation streams have temperatures that fall well below these biologically based acute and chronic thermal thresholds, several sites may be at or approaching water temperatures considered stressful to cutthroat trout. Further, water temperatures should be considered in decisions regarding the current and future thermal suitability of potential Rio Grande cutthroat trout restoration sites. Additionally, baseflow discharge sampling indicated that a majority of the sampled stream segments containing Rio Grande cutthroat trout have flows less than 1.0 cubic feet per second (cfs) in both 2010 (74 percent) and 2011 (77 percent). The relative drought sensitivity of these low baseflow streams containing Rio Grande cutthroat trout could be further evaluated to assess their probable sustainability under possible future drought conditions.

  11. Effect of the spatial distribution of physical aquifer properties on modelled water table depth and stream discharge in a headwater catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gascuel-Odoux

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Water table depth and its dynamics on hillslopes are often poorly predicted despite they control both water transit time within the catchment and solute fluxes at the catchment outlet. This paper analyses how relaxing the assumption of lateral homogeneity of physical properties can improve simulations of water table depth and dynamics. Four different spatial models relating hydraulic conductivity to topography have been tested: a simple linear relationship, a linear relationship with two different topographic indexes, two Ks domains with a transitional area. The Hill-Vi model has been modified to test these hypotheses. The studied catchment (Kervidy-Naizin, Western France is underlain by schist crystalline bedrock. A shallow and perennial groundwater highly reactive to rainfall events mainly develops in the weathered saprolite layer. The results indicate that (1 discharge and the water table in the riparian zone are similarly predicted by the four models, (2 distinguishing two Ks domains constitutes the best model and slightly improves prediction of the water table upslope, and (3 including spatial variations in the other parameters such as porosity or rate of hydraulic conductivity decrease with depth does not improve the results. These results underline the necessity of better investigations of upslope areas in hillslope hydrology.

  12. Dynamic Attribution of Global Water Demand to Surface Water and Groundwater Resources: Effects of Abstractions and Return Flows on River Discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338038612; van Beek, L. P. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14749799X; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Bierkens, M. F. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794

    2014-01-01

    As human water demand is increasing worldwide, pressure on available water resources grows and their sustainable exploitation is at risk. To mimic changes in exploitation intensity and the connecting feedbacks between surface water and groundwater systems, a dynamic attribution of demand to water

  13. Optimization of waste water discharge and waste water cleaning on the basis of measurements of the organic pollutant load; Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und Abwasserreinigung durch Messung der organischen Abwasserbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeck, M. [Dr. Bruno Lange GmbH Berlin, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The spectral absorption coefficient (SAC) is a sum parameter for describing the organic pollutant load of waste water. It is based on a purely physical measuring technique and can be monitored continuously and directly in the medium by means of the described UV process probe. From this arise numerous opportunities for optimizing waste water discharge and cleaning. (orig.) [German] Der spektrale Absorptionskoeffizient (SAK) ist ein Summenparameter zur Beschreibung der organischen Abwasserbelastung. Er basiert auf einem rein physikalischen Messverfahren und kann mit der hier vorgestellten UV-Prozess-Sonde kontinuierlich und direkt im Medium erfasst werden. Daraus ergeben sich zahlreiche Moeglichkeiten zur Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und -reinigung. (orig.)

  14. Biodiesel wash-water reuse using microfiltration: toward zero-discharge strategy for cleaner and economized biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jaber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple but economically feasible refining method to treat and re-use biodiesel wash-water was developed. In detail, microfiltration (MF through depth-filtration configuration was used in different hybrid modules. Then, the treated wash-water was mixed with clean water at different ratios, re-used for biodiesel purification and water-washing efficiency was evaluated based on methyl ester purity analysis. The findings of the present study revealed that depth-filtration-based MF combined with sand filtration/activated carbon separation and 70% dilution rate with fresh water not only achieved standard-quality biodiesel product but also led to up to 15% less water consumption after two rounds of production operations. This would be translated into a considerable reduction in the total volume of fresh water used during the operation process and would also strengthen the environmental-friendly aspects of the biodiesel production process for wastewater generation was obviously cut by the same rate as well.

  15. SeaWiFs satellite data analysis of Black Sea water discharge pattern into the Aegean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, L

    2002-01-01

    Satellite data from the SeaWiFS sensor has been used to determine chlorophyll-a contents in the North Aegean Sea using SEADAS 3.3 software. The data is used to extract knowledge on water movements/flow phenomena using chlorophyll as a "tracer" but will also indicate water quality. More than 100 SeaWiFS scenes from 1998 up to 2001 have been analyzed in terms of hydrodynamic phenomena, mainly the transport and spreading pattern of Black Sea Water in the North Aegean Sea but also concerning the water quality and its seasonal and yearly variation at the mouth region of the Dardanelles. Some comparison with earlier studies using NOAA AVHRR thermal data and historical CZCS scenes is also made.

  16. The effects of precipitation, river discharge, land use and coastal circulation on water quality in coastal Maine

    OpenAIRE

    Charles E Tilburg; Jordan, Linda M.; Carlson, Amy E.; Zeeman, Stephan I.; Yund, Philip O.

    2015-01-01

    Faecal pollution in stormwater, wastewater and direct run-off can carry zoonotic pathogens to streams, rivers and the ocean, reduce water quality, and affect both recreational and commercial fishing areas of the coastal ocean. Typically, the closure of beaches and commercial fishing areas is governed by the testing for the presence of faecal bacteria, which requires an 18?24?h period for sample incubation. As water quality can change during this testing period, the need for accurate and timel...

  17. A Spatial Modeling Approach to Predicting the Secondary Spread of Invasive Species Due to Ballast Water Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Sieracki, Jennifer L.; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Ballast water in ships is an important contributor to the secondary spread of invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Here, we use a model previously created to determine the role ballast water management has played in the secondary spread of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) to identify the future spread of one current and two potential invasive species in the Great Lakes, the Eurasian Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), killer shrimp (Dikerogammarus villosus), and golden mussel (...

  18. Heavy metals, salts and organic residues in old solid urban waste landfills and surface waters in their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J; Hernández, A J

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the state of polluted soils in the main landfills of the Community of Madrid (central Spain), as part of a continuous assessment of the impacts of urban solid waste (USW) landfills that were capped with a layer of soil 20 years ago. Our analysis of this problem has been highly conditioned by the constant re-use of many of the USW landfills, since they have never been the target of any specific restoration plan. Our periodical analysis of cover soils and soils from discharge areas of the landfills indicates soil pollution has worsened over the years. Here, we examined heavy metal, salts, and organic compounds in soil and surface water samples taken from 15 landfills in the Madrid region. Impacts of the landfill soil covers on nematode and plant diversity were also evaluated. These analyses continue to reveal the presence of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd) in soils, and salts (sulphates, chlorides and nitrates) in soils and surface waters. In addition, non-agricultural organic compounds, mainly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, often appeared in very high concentrations, and high levels of insecticides such as gamma-HCH (lindane) were also detected in soils. Around 50% of the water samples collected showed chemical demand of oxygen (CDO) values in excess of 150 mg/l. Traces of phenolic compounds were detected in some landfills, some of which exhibited high levels of 2-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol. All these factors are conditioning both the revegetation of the landfill systems and the remediation of their slopes and terrestrial ecosystems arising in their discharge areas. This work updates the current situation and discusses risks for the health of the ecosystems, humans, domestic animals and wildlife living close to these landfills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relations between total phosphorus and orthophosphorus concentrations and rainfall, surface-water discharge, and groundwater levels in Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation, Florida, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, W. Scott; Sifuentes, Dorothy F.

    2018-02-06

    The Seminole Tribe of Florida (the Tribe) is partnering with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop a numeric phosphorus criterion for the 52,000-acre