WorldWideScience

Sample records for water development appropriations

  1. Guidebook for the Development of a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action for Solar Water Heaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Lütken, Søren E.; Sharma, Sudhir

    This guidebook provides an introduction to designing government-led interventions to scale up investment in solar water heater (SWH) markets, showing how these interventions can be packaged as Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAS). Reflecting the changing balance in global greenhouse...... gas emissions, NAMAs embody the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. In addition to developed countries’ commitments to make quantitative reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, developing countries are invited to contribute with voluntary actions that are ‘nationally appropriate...

  2. Energy and water development appropriations for 1994. Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session. Part 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Part 5 of the hearings for the Energy and Water Development Appropriations for 1994 contains budget hearings for the Department of Energy. Contained in this volume is the statement of the Secretary of Energy and budget proposals and justifications for Departmental Administration, Energy Research, Nuclear Energy and Commercial Waste Management, Solar and Renewables, and Power Marketing Administrations

  3. Energy and water development appropriations for 1999: Part 5. Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This is part 5 of the hearings before the subcommittee on energy and water development of the committee on appropriations. Included are statements from witnesses of the Secretary of Energy, departmental administration, energy research, renewable energy, nuclear energy, Power Marketing Administration, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  4. H.R. 2605: Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Appropriations are made for the following purposes: (1) Corps of Engineers for general investigations, construction, flood control, operation and maintenance, regulatory program, general expenses, revolving fund, and administrative provision; (2) Dept. of the Interior for the central Utah project, Bureau of Reclamation, water and related resources, Central Valley project restoration fund, California Bay-Delta restoration, and administrative provisions; (3) Dept. of Energy for energy supply, non-defense environmental management, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, science, nuclear waste disposal, and departmental administration; (4) Atomic Energy Defense activities for weapon activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense environmental management privatization, and defense nuclear waste disposal; (5) Power marketing administrations for Bonneville Power Administration fund, operation and maintenance of the Southeastern Power Administration, the Southwestern Power Administration, the Western Area Power Administration, Falcon and Amistad operating and maintenance fund, and salaries and expenses for FERC; (6) Independent agencies including Appalachian Regional Commission, Denali Commission, Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Inspector General, Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board, and the Tennessee Valley Authority fund. Certain appropriations are also rescinded.

  5. Water Purification, Distribution and Sewage Disposal. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979

    This document, designed to serve as a training manual for technical instructors and as a field resource reference for Peace Corps volunteers, consists of nine units. Unit topics focus on: (1) water supply sources; (2) water treatment; (3) planning water distribution systems; (4) characteristics of an adequate system; (5) construction techniques;…

  6. Energy and water development appropriations for 1986. Part 7. Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Part 7 of the hearing record covers three areas of the DOE appropriations: Atomic Energy Defense activities, power marketing administrations, and departmental administration. Representatives of DOE and the US Army reviewed the nuclear defense mission and activities under the defense and arms control programs. The administrators of the Alaska, Bonneville, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Power Administrations and a representative of the Conservation and Renewable Energy division described programs and budget requirements, as well as estimates of power demands for their regions. Administrative personnel described DOE procedures and explained the budget requests. Supporting documentation accompanies the testimony of the 16 witnesses

  7. Appropriate administrative structures in harnessing water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate administrative structures in harnessing water resources for sustainable growth in Nigeria. Lekan Oyebande. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42(1) 2006: 21-30. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Peace Corps Water/Sanitation Case Studies and Analyses. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Case Study CS-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Diana E., Comp.

    This document provides an overview of Peace Corps water and sanitation activities, five case studies (Thailand, Yemen, Paraguay, Sierra Leone, and Togo), programming guidelines, and training information. Each case study includes: (1) background information on the country's geography, population, and economics; (2) information on the country's…

  9. Technological transfer. 1. Appropriateness for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrie, T W

    1978-12-01

    Capital-intensive projects dominate the technology transferred to developing countries in spite of the need to serve a pool of unskilled labor and small capital reserves. Recent doubts about the appropriateness of large industrialization projects have questioned the social and economic benefits of this approach and led to an emphasis on innovative planning for the benefit of the urban and rural poor. This shift assumed that direct attacks on the roots of poverty will be more effective than the trickle-down approach, but development planners now see that technologies can be planned that are not limited to single groups. Official policies, often working against the adoption of appropriate technologies, must consider local needs and local resources. Farm equipment, for example, must minimize the need for skilled labor and maintenance. Planners for appropriate urban technology should emphasize local capability, but should also risk occasional failure in the effort to improve the efficiency of labor.

  10. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  11. Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    eight divisions that are further divided into 38 districts.2 This report provides an overview of the Corps water resource activities , including...rules associated with authorization and appropriation earmarks, individual Members often brought attention to similar activities for congressional...Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities Nicole T. Carter Specialist in Natural Resources Policy

  12. Energy and water development appropriations for Fiscal year 1986. Part 2. Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on H.R. 2959

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Part 2 of the hearing record covers testimony on H.R. 2959 by representatives of DOE and selected agencies within the department. The volume opens with an overview of DOE-sponsored water programs and budget justifications by Energy Secretary Herrington and supporting witnesses. Witnesses on subsequent days defended the budgets of the radioactive waste management programs, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the five federal power marketing administrations, the solar and renewable programs, the Office of Energy Research, and the atomic energy defense activities. Witnesses described research and development programs and responded to the questions of committee members concerning the fiscal year 1986 budget for DOE

  13. Rediscovering Enterprise: Developing Appropriate University Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Simon; Hegarty, Cecilia; Porter, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Entrepreneurship can refer to business start-up, but now sometimes has wider connotations. This paper aims to explore what entrepreneurship means for the promoters of entrepreneurship education and what might be appropriate for the students who consume it. Design/methodology/approach: The paper assesses the work of NICENT (The Northern…

  14. Education and Human Capital Development through Appropriate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    There is now growing awareness in both developed and developing countries of the ... catalysts to national development, which will impact positively on the country's ... increases in allocation might be misleading in passing judgement on the.

  15. Emotionally Handicapped Pupils: Developing Appropriate Educational Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. for Exceptional Children.

    The document is designed to assist local school systems as they plan, develop, and improve programs for emotionally handicapped students. Sections cover the following areas: definition of emotionally handicapped students; pre-planninq for emotionally handicapped programs; identification, referral, screening, assessment, and placement; service…

  16. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  17. Developing an environmentally appropriate, socially acceptable and gender-sensitive technology for safe-water supply to households in arsenic affected areas in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, N.

    2010-01-01

    To confront the arsenic crisis in Bangladesh, several options for a safe water supply in the rural As-affected areas are available. Most of these options have shown a minimum scope to mitigate arsenic-related risks because of their poor performance and non-acceptability by the rural households. In

  18. Is the New Partnership for Africa's Development an Appropriate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is the African Union's socio-political and economic development programme, and one of its tasks is to accelerate African continental integration. The fundamental question is, however, whether it is the appropriate programme for this. Its success depends on the ...

  19. Developing appropriate criteria for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Surgery Using RAND Appropriateness Method (RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ostovar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Results of different studies show that a relatively large number of healthcare services offered are inappropriate or unnecessary. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a benign enlargement of the prostate gland. Clinical features of this disease are one of the most common problems encountered by elderly males. The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery. Materials & Methods: In this qualitative study which was conducted in 2008-9, in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, the RAN/UCLA method was used, which was designed in 1980 by the RAND institute and the University of California in Los Angeles. Regarding the stages of our method, scenarios and indications for benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery were chosen from the latest approved scientific resources and subsequently sent to urology specialists, who were chosen as members of the specialized panel. Panel members gave scores ranging from 1 to 9 to each indication and scenario based on scientific resources, clinical experiences and patient’s condition in two separate panel sessions. After compilation, the indications were finally grouped as appropriate, equivocal, and inappropriate so that they could be used to determine appropriateness of benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery in hospitals. In this study, the most suitable and most approved clinical guidelines related to benign prostatic hyperplasia, the Guidelines Evaluation and Research Appraisal (AGREE were used.The selected guidelines were used as scientific resources for choosing the indications of benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery. SPSS version 16 and kappa weighted value were used in analysis process of the study. Results: Out of 282 scenarios grouped as 9 conditions related to benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery, which were extracted from scientific sources, 73 cases (25.9% were considered as appropriate, 14 cases (5% as equivocal and 7 cases (2

  20. Development planning and appropriate technology: a dilemma and a proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, G.

    1981-03-01

    This paper examines the present system of project paper preparation and project planning used by the US Agency for International Development and many donor agencies. Three approaches for meeting the evident weaknesses of the system - a holistic approach to the planning problem, an operant-conditioning approach to implementation, and a process approach to planning and implementation - are presented and critiqued. On the basis of the critique, an approach grounded in a search for an approximately appropriate technology is supported; and a proposal for an appropriate-technology evaluation system which would analyze alternative technologies, deliver information to the field level, supply needed information on technologies and implementation, constrain donor planners, reduce lag time, incorporate evaluations into future planning, and reduce dependence upon planners is presented. 66 references.

  1. Development and appropriation of an integration policy for sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    2011-01-01

    the history and culture of the society in which it is created. Second, policy is seen as discourses that are articulated by specific institutions, and third, the anthropological perspective focuses on the ways in which policy is a applied and interpreted in practice. The first part of this article therefore...... explores Danish immigration history and the development of an integration policy that currently focuses on adaptation of the cultural values and norms of immigrants. The second part of this article looks at current state funds that aim to promote this kind of adaptation through sports. It becomes clear......-Danish ethnic background) appropriate these political assumptions....

  2. Technical rigidity and appropriate technology in less-developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, D J.C. [Univ. of Strathyclyde, England; McBain, N S; Solomon, R F

    1980-05-01

    The extent to which the use of capital-intensive methods in LDCs can properly be ascribed to the inherent rigidity of the factor proportions embodied in modern technology - rather than to distortions and aberrrations in the process of technology choice - is still a matter of considerable uncertainty after two decades of debate. In this study, an engineering-based index is developed to summarize the opportunities for, and barriers to, substitution of labor for capital in a wide range of industries. The index is used to compare the technology actually installed in manufacturing in Ghana, the Philippines, Turkey, and Malaysia with the feasible alternatives. The finding that opportunities for use of labor-intensive methods are to a large extent exploited is interpreted as casting doubt on the ability of even the most appropriate choice from currently feasible technologies to reduce unemployment significantly. 46 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  3. Developing a culturally appropriate mental health care service for Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoka, Matamua Iokapeta Sina; Tenari, Aliilelei; Sili, Tupou; Peteru, Latama; Tago, Pisaina; Blignault, Ilse

    2013-06-01

    Mental Health Care Services are part of the National Health Services for Samoa. Their function is to provide mental health care services to the population of Samoa, which numbers 180,000 people. However, like many other countries in the Pacific region, mental health is considered a low priority. The mental health budget allocation barely covers the operation of mental health care services. More broadly, there is a lack of political awareness about mental health care services and mental health rarely becomes an issue of deliberation in the political arena. This article outlines the recent development of mental health care services in Samoa, including the Mental Health Policy 2006 and Mental Health Act 2007. It tells the story of the successful integration of aiga (family) as an active partner in the provision of care, and the development of the Aiga model utilizing Samoan cultural values to promote culturally appropriate family-focused community mental health care for Samoa. Mental Health Care Services today encompass both clinical and family-focused community mental health care services. The work is largely nurse-led. Much has been achieved over the past 25 years. Increased recognition by government and increased resourcing are necessary to meet the future health care needs of the Samoan people. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. A review of hot climate concreting, and the appropriate procedures for ordinary jobsites in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella Nabil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot weather concreting involves some procedures to reduce negative effects caused principally by excessive water evaporation from the concrete surface. Potential problems for fresh concrete are: increased demand for water, increased the tendency the rate of slump loss corresponding to add water on job-site, an increased in execution rate, increased tendency for plastic shrinkage cracking and increased difficulty in controlling occluded air. Potential problems for hardened concrete may include: reduction of resistance at 28 days and long-term resulting of higher water demand and/or higher temperature of concrete, decreased durability resulting from cracking. Most developing countries have hot climate, ordinary jobsites in developing countries are characterised by reduced of human resources, equipment and infrastructures. This paper briefly reviews hot climate concreting procedures, especially the latest research in developing countries, and discusses the most appropriate in developing countries.

  5. Developing an Appropriate Goalball Unit for Secondary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Michael K.; Happel, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Goalball, a sport designed for those with visual impairments, is a competitive and recreational sport enjoyed by athletes around the world. Students with and without visual impairments can experience positive outcomes when teachers appropriately include a goalball unit as part of their inclusive secondary physical education curriculum. This…

  6. “Crossing over”: appropriate private sector principles, to operate more reliable public sector water services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Wall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Private sector institutions utilise many different business methods, some of which can selectively be adapted for use by organisations outside the private sector, to the benefit of their service delivery responsibilities. But the best of the appropriate practices from the private sector have often “not crossed over”. The Water Research Commission (WRC of South Africa, working in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, finds that the concept of franchising, so successfully used by the private sector to deliver many goods and services, if applied to water services operation and maintenance, could alleviate and address many challenges in the management of water services. At the same time, franchising could provide an ideal stimulus to support the development of local enterprises, all within the municipal service delivery environment. Franchisee water service providers, dependent for their livelihood on the success of their business, would have a strong incentive to perform, and would also enjoy the benefit of the franchisor’s expert guidance and quality assurance. Some areas for potential franchising include meter management, billing, plumbing, pressure management, sewer maintenance, and wastewater treatment processes. The help from the franchisor would be of particular value to water services authorities at a distance from the major urban centres. Few of these authorities can afford to employ competent qualified staff, and often non-compliance with the laid down performance standards is a direct consequence of this lack. Significant improvements would soon be seen if the generally under-qualified and under-resourced water services staff could have this ongoing support, mentoring and quality control — or if the authority could enter into partnerships with small local enterprises or NGOs which would, through franchising, enjoy the necessary ongoing support, mentoring and quality control, and would have

  7. CSR and Development: Is business appropriating global justice?

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Blowfield

    2004-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is being promoted as an approach to international development, but is also being criticized by development organizations. Michael Blowfield examines the evidence of CSR's supporters and critics, and argues that embedded within CSR is a particular interpretation of social justice that raises specific questions about how far we want business to shape the direction of international development. Development (2004) 47, 61–68. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1...

  8. Water and the human culture of appropriation: the Vaal River up to 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann W.N. Tempelhoff

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available There is discernable evidence of the human presence having historically appropriated the 1300 kilometer long Vaal River of South Africa as it extends itself from the Drakensberg Plateau into the arid Karoo region. This hard-working tributary of the Orange River, which was instrumental as a supply of water to the Witwatersrand, in the era of the region’s gold mines, has been used by humans in a variety of ways. First it was used as a route of communications, then as a borderline demarcating the territorial spaces of states and colonies. Later it was used for purposes of economic development. In the study the objective is to point towards the manner in which humans have influenced the river and its hinterland, particularly from the nineteenth century, up to the 1950s. The process of appropriation, it is argued, has had a different effect when humans laid claim to the river and its environment for social, economic and political purposes.

  9. Practical Poultry Raising. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kenneth M.

    This manual is designed to provide development workers with the information and tools needed to begin or to improve poultry production. Covered in the individual chapters are the following topics: the nature and scope of poultry production, assessment of local poultry selections, basic information about chickens, country chickens, poultry…

  10. Developing a Culturally Appropriate Depression Prevention Program: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardemil, Esteban V.; Kim, Saeromi; Davidson, Tatiana; Sarmiento, Ingrid A.; Ishikawa, Rachel Zack; Sanchez, Monica; Torres, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of the first author and his colleagues in the development and implementation of a depression prevention program that specifically targets Latina mothers. Building on the earlier papers that highlight the underutilization of mental health services by Latinos in general, this paper will make the case that the…

  11. On-Farm Reserach to Develop Technologies Appropriate to Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Byerlee, Derek; Biggs, Stephen; Collinson, Michael; Harrington, Larry; Winkelmann, Donald

    1981-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that technological change is a necessary although by no means sufficient condition for agricultural development. It is clear that despite the widespread diffusion of new wheat and rice varieties, many new technologies are not being widely used by farmers because they do not fit the particular circumstances of farmers for whom they are intended. This is despite the fact that considerable public expenditures are often made to provide the infrastructure such as credit a...

  12. H.R.2427: A bill making appropriations for energy and water development for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1992, and for other purposes, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, May 22, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Appropriations are provided for expenses necessary for the collection and study of basic information pertaining to river and harbor, flood control, and shore protection; for prosecuting work of flood control; for the preservation, operation, maintenance, and care of existing river and harbor, flood control, and related works; and for administration of laws pertaining to regulation of navigable waters and wetlands. Appropriations are detailed for the Department of Defense, Civil Department of the Army; Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Department of Energy for energy supply, research and development activities, general science and research activities, nuclear waste disposal fund, isotope production and distribution program fund, atomic energy defense activities, power marketing administrations, and minority participation in the superconducting super collider. Additional appropriations are described for the following agencies: Appalachian Regional Commission, Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Delaware River Basin Commission, Interstate Commission of the Potomac River Basin, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board, Susquehanna River Basin Commission, and Tennessee Valley Authority

  13. Is HINARI appropriate for medical students in the developing world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Essen, Caleb; Cartledge, Peter; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Manirakiza, Achille

    2012-04-01

    The Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI), which arose in response to medical literature needs in developing countries, gives online access to scientific information to a variety of institutions throughout the world. This is a great resource; however, little research has been performed on the effectiveness and usefulness of HINARI, specifically to medical schools. Our study sought to find out whether the textbooks (e-books) available on HINARI could form a virtual library that would cover the curriculum of a medical school. After categorising and reviewing the medically relevant e-books on HINARI, we found that they were insufficient in providing adequate subject material relevant to medical school curricula from Rwanda, the United Kingdom and the United States. This literature gap could be closed by additional medical textbooks being made available from contributing publishers. An increase of only 14% in HINARI e-book resources would provide material for the entire medical school curriculum. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Appropriate technology for rural India - solar decontamination of water for emergency settings and small communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gagandeep; Roy, Sheela; Balraj, Vinohar

    2006-09-01

    A commercial solar water heating system was evaluated for its effectiveness in decontaminating drinking water with a view to use in emergency situations. A total of 18 seeding experiments carried out over 6 months with 10(5) to 10(7)Escherichia coli/ml showed that the solar heater produced 125 l of bacteriologically safe water in 4 h when the ambient temperature was above 30 degrees C, with a holding time of at least 2 h. The solar water heating system is inexpensive, easy to transport and set up and could provide safer drinking water for 50 people a day. It would be effective in the decrease and prevention of waterborne disease in emergency situations, and is appropriate for use in small communities.

  15. “Crossing over”: appropriate private sector principles, to operate more reliable public sector water services

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Wall

    2008-01-01

    Private sector institutions utilise many different business methods, some of which can selectively be adapted for use by organisations outside the private sector, to the benefit of their service delivery responsibilities. But the best of the appropriate practices from the private sector have often “not crossed over”. The Water Research Commission (WRC) of South Africa, working in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), finds that the concept of franch...

  16. Towards a more appropriate water based extraction for the assessment of organic contaminant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, Zachary A.; Reid, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    This study correlated extractabilities of 37 d aged phenanthrene residues in four dissimilar soils with the fraction that was available for earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) accumulation and microorganism (Pseudomonas sp.) mineralisation. Extractability was determined using two established techniques, namely (1) a water based extraction using CO 2 equilibrated water and (2) an aqueous based hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction. Results showed no relationship between earthworm accumulation and phenanthrene extractability using either HPCD (r 2 =0.07; slope=-4.76; n=5) or the water based extraction (r 2 =0.31; slope=-5.34; n=5). Earthworm accumulation was overestimated by both techniques. In contrast, the fraction of phenanthrene extractable using both the HPCD technique and the water based extraction correlated strongly with microbial mineralisation. However, the slopes of these linear relationships were 0.48 (r 2 =0.96; n=10), and 0.99 (r 2 =0.88; n=10) for the water based extraction and HPCD, respectively. Thus, the HPCD extraction provided values that were numerically close to the mineralisation values, whilst the water based extraction values were approximately half the mineralisation values. It is submitted that HPCD extraction provided an appropriate method of assessing the fraction of contaminant available for microbial mineralisation in these dissimilar soils. - No significant difference was found between microbially mineralised phenanthrene and extractability using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in four dissimilar soils; the water-only extraction removed half of this fraction

  17. “Crossing over”: appropriate private sector principles, to operate more reliable public sector water services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available an ideal stimulus to support the development of local enterprises, all within the municipal service delivery environment. Franchisee water service providers, dependent for their livelihood on the success of their business, would have a strong incentive...

  18. A reliable and valid index was developed to measure appropriate psychotropic drug use in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, K.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Smalbrugge, M.; Nelissen-Vrancken, M.H.J.M.; Wetzels, R.B.; Smeets, C.H.W.; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop an index derived from the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) items that is suited for clinical studies evaluating appropriateness of psychotropic drug use (PDU) for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in patients with dementia in nursing homes and to

  19. California Water Resources Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    of disposing of waterborne wastes, includ- trol, navigation, salinity control, water supply, tidelands ing reclamation and reuse where appropriate...studies for Wilson and Wildwood Creeks streams in the South Coastal Basins have been com- Keys Canyon pleted: Moose Canyon Agua Hedionda Creek Otay...resulted from the De- cember 1966 flood. channel and conduit sections pass the reduced flows through Palm Springs and part of the Agua Caliente As a

  20. Culturally appropriate organization of water and sewerage projects built through public private partnerships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Kaminsky

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the pursuit of socially sustainable water and sanitation infrastructure for all people by discovering statistically robust relationships between Hofstede's dimensions of cross-cultural comparison and the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. This analysis, which represents 973 projects distributed across 24 low- and middle-income nations, uses a World Bank dataset describing high capital cost water and sewerage projects funded through private investment. The results show that cultural dimensions explain variation in the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. These results provide empirical evidence that strategies for water and sewerage project organization are not culturally neutral. The data show, for example, that highly individualistic contexts are more likely to select competitive contract award types and to depend on user fees to provide the primary project revenue stream post-construction. By selecting more locally appropriate ways to organize projects, project stakeholders will be better able to pursue the construction of socially sustainable water and sewerage infrastructure.

  1. Culturally appropriate organization of water and sewerage projects built through public private partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Jessica A

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to the pursuit of socially sustainable water and sanitation infrastructure for all people by discovering statistically robust relationships between Hofstede's dimensions of cross-cultural comparison and the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. This analysis, which represents 973 projects distributed across 24 low- and middle-income nations, uses a World Bank dataset describing high capital cost water and sewerage projects funded through private investment. The results show that cultural dimensions explain variation in the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. These results provide empirical evidence that strategies for water and sewerage project organization are not culturally neutral. The data show, for example, that highly individualistic contexts are more likely to select competitive contract award types and to depend on user fees to provide the primary project revenue stream post-construction. By selecting more locally appropriate ways to organize projects, project stakeholders will be better able to pursue the construction of socially sustainable water and sewerage infrastructure.

  2. Stakeholder involvement in development and implementation of appropriate emergency preparedness routines in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duranova, T.

    2009-01-01

    The presentation presents the process of stakeholder involvement in development and implementation of appropriate emergency preparedness routines in Slovakia in last five years. The presentation gives detailed information on used practices and real process taken place in Slovakia

  3. Are We Appropriately Developing Leaders to Fight and Lead in the Future Full Spectrum of Conflict?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pricone, Bob

    2002-01-01

    The thesis of this SRP is to examine whether we are appropriately training and developing our junior leaders to serve and lead in the future full spectrum environment and organizations, both Interim and Objective...

  4. Estimating an appropriate sampling frequency for monitoring ground water well contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckfield, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 1,500 ground water wells at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are sampled quarterly to monitor contamination by radionuclides and other hazardous constituents from nearby waste sites. Some 10,000 water samples were collected in 1993 at a laboratory analysis cost of $10,000,000. No widely accepted statistical method has been developed, to date, for estimating a technically defensible ground water sampling frequency consistent and compliant with federal regulations. Such a method is presented here based on the concept of statistical independence among successively measured contaminant concentrations in time

  5. Adoption, adaptation, and abandonment: Appropriation of science education professional development learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Max L.

    Understanding factors that impact teacher utilization of learning from professional development is critical in order maximize the educational and financial investment in teacher professional learning. This study used a multicase mixed quantitative and qualitative methodology to investigate the factors that influence teacher adoption, adaption, or abandonment of learning from science teacher professional development. The theoretical framework of activity theory was identified as a useful way to investigate the phenomenon of teacher appropriation of pedagogical practices from professional development. This framework has the capacity to account for a multitude of elements in the context of a learning experience. In this study educational appropriation is understood through a continuum of how an educator acquires and implements both practical and conceptual aspects of learning from professional development within localized context. The variability associated with instructional changes made from professional development drives this inquiry to search for better understandings of the appropriation of pedagogical practices. Purposeful sampling was used to identify two participants from a group of eighth-grade science teachers engaged in professional development designed to investigate how cyber-enabled technologies might enhance instruction and learning in integrated science classrooms. The data from this investigation add to the literature of appropriation of instructional practices by connecting eight factors that influence conceptual and practical tools with the development of ownership of pedagogical practices in the appropriation hierarchy. Recommendations are shared with professional development developers, providers, and participants in anticipation that future science teaching experiences might be informed by findings from this study.

  6. Application of an electrochemical chlorine-generation system combined with solar energy as appropriate technology for water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jusol; Park, Chan Gyu; Yoon, Jeyong

    2013-02-01

    Affordable water disinfection is key to reducing the waterborne disease experienced worldwide where resources are limited. A simple electrochemical system that can generate chlorine as a disinfectant from the electrolysis of sodium chloride is an appropriate technology to produce clean water, particularly if driven by solar energy. This study examined the affordability of an electrochemical chlorine generation system using solar energy and developed the necessary design information for its implementation. A two-electrode batch reactor, equipped with commercial IrO(2)-coated electrodes and a solar panel (approximate area 0.2 m(2)), was used to produce chlorine from a 35g/L solution of NaCl. Within 1 h, sufficient chlorine (0.8 g) was generated to produce clean drinking water for about 80 people for 1 day (target microorganism: Escherichia coli; daily drinking water requirement: 2 L per person; chlorine demand: 4 mg/L; solar power: 650 W/m(2) in Seoul, Korea. Small household batteries were demonstrated to be a suitable alternative power source when there is insufficient solar irradiation. Using a 1 m(2) solar panel, the reactor would take only 15 min in Seoul, Korea, or 7 min in the tropics (solar power 1300 W/m(2)), to generate 1 g of chlorine. The solar-powered electrochemical chlorine generation system for which design information is provided here is a simple and affordable way to produce chlorine with which to convert contaminated water into clean drinking water.

  7. Water banking, conjunctive administration, and drought: The interaction of water markets and prior appropriation in southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanchari; Cobourn, Kelly M.; Elbakidze, Levan

    2014-08-01

    Despite recognition of the potential economic benefits and increasing interest in developing marketing instruments, water markets have remained thin and slow to evolve due to high transactions costs, third party effects, and the persistence of historical institutions for water allocation. Water banks are a marketing instrument that can address these obstacles to trade, allowing irrigators within a region to exchange water in order to mitigate the short-term effects of drought. Water banks coexist with the institutions governing water allocation, which implies that rule changes, such as adoption of a system of conjunctive surface water-groundwater administration, carry implications for the economic impacts of banking. This paper assesses and compares the welfare and distributional outcomes for irrigators in the Eastern Snake River Plain of Idaho under a suite of water management and drought scenarios. We find that water banking can offset irrigators' profit losses during drought, but that its ability to do so depends on whether it facilitates trade across groundwater and surface water users. With conjunctive administration, a bank allowing trade by source realizes 22.23% of the maximum potential efficiency gains from trade during a severe drought, while a bank that allows trade across sources realizes 93.47% of the maximum potential gains. During drought, conjunctive administration redistributes welfare from groundwater to surface water producers, but banking across sources allows groundwater irrigators to recover 88.4% of the profits lost from drought at a cost of 2.2% of the profit earned by surface water irrigators.

  8. Water Saving for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  9. Department of Defense Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT and E): Appropriations Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-13

    Research Projects Agency website, accessed December 5, 2016, http://www.darpa.mil/about-us/mission. Appropriations Structure of Defense RDT&E...funding streams. Among the many other factors that may affect the effectiveness of the performance of RDT&E are: organizational structures and...Department of Defense Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E): Appropriations Structure John F. Sargent Jr. Specialist in

  10. A methodology to choose appropriate procurement standards in water and sewage projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezhman Kouravand

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been increasing trend on building appropriate model for supplier selection and a good supplier, indeed, is capable of providing better quality products, which could lead to increase the productivity of an organization. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find the effect of monitoring three different standards, namely, domestic, national and international standard on improving the quality of products in rural water and sewage projects. The proposed model of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some experts in a Water & Sewage firm located in city of Ahvaz, Iran. Using the Pearson correlation ratio, the study examines three hypotheses of the survey and the results indicate that there were poor relationship between carefully considering domestic, national and international standards and improvement on quality of products offered by various suppliers. In addition, job experience and type of employment also do not seem to have any meaningful effect on quality assessment of suppliers.

  11. Distribution (State Allotment) of Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Appropriation from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The ARRA appropriation for the DWSRF program is $2,000,000,000. DWSRF allotments are based on percentages derived from the 2003 Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs...

  12. Determination of appropriate exposure angles for the reverse water's view using a head phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Su; Lee, Keun Ohk [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Ho [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hong [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Early diagnosis for upper facial trauma is difficult by using the standard Water's view (S-Water's) in general radiograph due to overlapping of anatomical structures, the uncertainty of patient positioning, and specific patients with obese, pediatric, old, or high-risk. The purpose of this study was to analyze appropriate exposure angles through a comparison of two different protocols (S-Water's vs. reverse Water's view (R-Water's)) by using a head phantom. A head phantom and general radiograph with 75 kVp, 400 mA, 45 ms 18 mAs, and SID 100 cm. Images of R-Water's were obtained by different angles in the range of 0 degree to 50 degrees, which adjusted an angle at 1 degree interval in supine position. Survey elements were developed and three observers were evaluated with four elements including the maxillary sinus, zygomatic arch, petrous ridge, and image distortion. Statistical significant analysis were used the Krippendorff's alpha and Fleiss' kappa. The intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient for three observers were high with maxillary, 0.957 (0.903, 0.995); zygomatic arch, 0.939 (0.866, 0.987); petrous ridge, 0.972 (0.897, 1.000); and image distortion, 0.949 (0.830, 1.000). The high-quality image (HI) and perfect agreement (PA) for acquired exposure angles were high in range of the maxillary sinus (36 degrees – 44 degrees), zygomatic arch (33 degrees – 40 degrees), petrous ridge (32 degrees – 50 degrees), and image distortion (44 degrees– 50 degrees). Consequently, an appropriate exposure angles for the R-Water's view in the supine position for patients with facial trauma are in the from 36 degrees to 40 degrees in this phantom study. The results of this study will be helpful for the rapid diagnosis of facial fractures by simple radiography.

  13. Determination of appropriate exposure angles for the reverse water's view using a head phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Su; Lee, Keun Ohk; Choi, Jae Ho; Jung, Jae Hong

    2017-01-01

    Early diagnosis for upper facial trauma is difficult by using the standard Water's view (S-Water's) in general radiograph due to overlapping of anatomical structures, the uncertainty of patient positioning, and specific patients with obese, pediatric, old, or high-risk. The purpose of this study was to analyze appropriate exposure angles through a comparison of two different protocols (S-Water's vs. reverse Water's view (R-Water's)) by using a head phantom. A head phantom and general radiograph with 75 kVp, 400 mA, 45 ms 18 mAs, and SID 100 cm. Images of R-Water's were obtained by different angles in the range of 0 degree to 50 degrees, which adjusted an angle at 1 degree interval in supine position. Survey elements were developed and three observers were evaluated with four elements including the maxillary sinus, zygomatic arch, petrous ridge, and image distortion. Statistical significant analysis were used the Krippendorff's alpha and Fleiss' kappa. The intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient for three observers were high with maxillary, 0.957 (0.903, 0.995); zygomatic arch, 0.939 (0.866, 0.987); petrous ridge, 0.972 (0.897, 1.000); and image distortion, 0.949 (0.830, 1.000). The high-quality image (HI) and perfect agreement (PA) for acquired exposure angles were high in range of the maxillary sinus (36 degrees – 44 degrees), zygomatic arch (33 degrees – 40 degrees), petrous ridge (32 degrees – 50 degrees), and image distortion (44 degrees– 50 degrees). Consequently, an appropriate exposure angles for the R-Water's view in the supine position for patients with facial trauma are in the from 36 degrees to 40 degrees in this phantom study. The results of this study will be helpful for the rapid diagnosis of facial fractures by simple radiography

  14. NAMAs and the carbon market. Nationally appropriate mitigation actions of developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.; Hinostroza, M.

    2009-07-01

    The role of carbon markets in scaling up mitigation actions in developing countries in the post-2012 climate regime is the topic of Perspectives 2009: NAMAs and the Carbon Market - Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions of Developing Countries. The eight papers presented explore how mitigation actions in developing countries, in the context of sustainable development, may be supported by technology, finance and capacity development in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner. Key issues discussed are the pros and cons of market and non-market mechanisms in raising private and public finance, and the appropriate governance structures at the international and national levels. The aim of this publication is to present possible answers to these questions, with a specific focus on the role of existing and emerging carbon markets to finance NAMAs. (LN)

  15. On the Appropriateness of Incident Management Systems in Developing Countries: A Case from the UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Kamoun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic incidents are eliciting growing public concerns due to their devastating social, economical, and environmental impacts. The severity of these random events is particularly alarming in developing countries, where the situation is just worsening. Recently, Incident Management Systems (IMSs have been proposed as powerful tools to enhance the coordination and management of rescue operations during traffic accidents. However, most of the available commercial IMS solutions are designed for large metropolitan cities and within the contexts of developed nations. This paper explores the issues of appropriateness and customization of IMS solutions in developing countries through an exploratory inquiry consisting of a case study from the United Arab Emirates (UAE. The paper also explores the important issues related to managing the organizational changes that an IMS introduces to the operations of the command and control room. This contribution calls for the development of more comprehensive theoretical frameworks that can guide towards the implementation of appropriate IMS solutions in developing countries. Our research highlights the need for developing countries to acquire appropriate IMS solutions that are tailored to the local organizational work context in which these systems will be used. The experience reported herein can also inspire other public safety agencies in developing countries to consider the option of developing customized IMS solutions that best suit their needs.

  16. Review - Water resources development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, David K [Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    1970-05-15

    For the past 15 years the possibilities of employing nuclear explosives to develop and manage water resources for the benefit of man have been studied, Experimental and theoretical studies of many types have been undertaken. Numerous applications have been considered including site studies for particular projects. Attention has been given to the economics of specific applications, to hazards and safety problems, to legal limitations, to geologic and hydrologic considerations, and to effects on water quality. The net result of this effort has been the development of a large body of knowledge ready to be drawn upon wherever and whenever needed. Nuclear explosives are important tools for water resources development; they must be carefully selected so as to serve their intended purpose at minimum cost with few side effects. (author)

  17. Review - Water resources development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, David K.

    1970-01-01

    For the past 15 years the possibilities of employing nuclear explosives to develop and manage water resources for the benefit of man have been studied, Experimental and theoretical studies of many types have been undertaken. Numerous applications have been considered including site studies for particular projects. Attention has been given to the economics of specific applications, to hazards and safety problems, to legal limitations, to geologic and hydrologic considerations, and to effects on water quality. The net result of this effort has been the development of a large body of knowledge ready to be drawn upon wherever and whenever needed. Nuclear explosives are important tools for water resources development; they must be carefully selected so as to serve their intended purpose at minimum cost with few side effects. (author)

  18. Investigating Appropriate Financing Methods in Collaborative Projects of Water and Wastewater with AHP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vosoughi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A mix of public and private funding is employed worldwide to enable the construction of large public projects and even, in some cases, the work of public services. In this study, the selected methods of financing of participatory projects of water and water wastes were studied and prioritized. Questionnaires and comments of experts were used along with AHP decision-making and Expert Choice software. Different financing methods include: BOT and BOO and its types, the publication of bonds, foreign direct investment, the method of buyback, internal financing, current financing, development banks, Barter transactions, new tax resources and foreign financing. Results are shown and discussed and a final ranking is provided.

  19. Appropriate heat load ratio of generator for different types of air cooled lithium bromide–water double effect absorption chiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zeyu; Liu, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of heat load ratio of generator on the performance was analyzed. • The performance is sensitive to heat load ratio of generator. • The appropriate heat load ratio of generator for four systems was obtained. • The change of appropriate heat load ratio of generator for four systems was studied. - Abstract: The lower coefficient of performance and higher risk of crystallization in the higher surrounding temperature is the primary disadvantage of air cooled lithium bromide–water double effect absorption chiller. Since the coefficient of performance and risk of crystallization strongly depend on the heat load ratio of generator, the appropriate heat load ratio of generator can improve the performance as the surrounding temperature is higher. The paper mainly deals with the appropriate heat load ratio of generator of air cooled lithium bromide–water double effect absorption chiller. Four type systems named series, pre-parallel, rear parallel and reverse parallel flow configuration were considered. The corresponding parametric model was developed to analyze the comprehensive effect of heat load ratio of generator on the coefficient of performance and risk of crystallization. It was found that the coefficient of performance goes up linearly with the decrease of heat load ratio of generator. Simultaneously, the risk of crystallization also rises slowly at first but increases fast finally. Consequently, the appropriate heat load ratio of generator for the series and pre-parallel flow type systems is suggested to be 0.02 greater than the minimum heat load ratio of generator and that for the rear parallel and reverse parallel flow chillers should be 0.01 higher than the minimum heat load ratio of generator. Besides, the changes of minimum heat load ratio of generator for different type systems with the working condition were analyzed and compared. It was found that the minimum heat load ratio of generator goes up with the increase of

  20. Stakeholder involvement in development and design of appropriate emergency preparedness routines in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duranova, T.; Kusovska, Z.; Metke, E.; Sladek, V.; Sokolikova, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the process of stakeholder involvement in development and implementation of appropriate emergency preparedness routines in Slovakia in last five years. The paper presents the discussion of good practices, which made the work undertaken valuable and effective. The paper reflects the lessons learned during the course representing five years of stakeholder involvement effort. The paper gives detailed information on used practices and real process taken place in Slovakia. (authors)

  1. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small Potable Water Systems in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change...

  2. Developing Criteria for Lumbar Spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Using RAND Appropriateness Method (RAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshtkaran, Ali; Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi; Ostovar, Rahim; Salari, Hedayat; Farokhi, Majid Reza; Esfandiari, Atefeh; Yousefimanesh, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Studies show that a large proportion of healthcare offered may be inappropriate or unnecessary. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new and expensive diagnostic technology which has been increasingly used all over the world. Moreover, this trend has been more rapidly increasing in Iran. Low back pain is a common disorder all over the world and MRI technique is one of the several ways to assess its cause. The present study aims to develop scenarios for lumbar spine MRI. In the present study, the RAND Appropriateness Method (RAM) was used in order to reach consensus regarding developing scenarios for lumbar spine MRI. We generated scenarios from valid clinical guidelines as well as the experts’ opinion. The panel members included nine specialists from various medical specialties that had scored scenarios in two rounds, the first of which was without interaction, while the second one was with interaction. We extracted 97 scenarios for the lumbar spine MRI in the scenario extracting phase of the study and the panel members added 18 scenarios. After implementation of two rounds, the scenarios were categorized into three ranges. Sixty seven (58%) of the scenarios were considered as appropriate, 45 (39%) as uncertain, and three (2.6%) as inappropriate. RAM is useful for identifying stakeholder views in settings with limited resources. Since RAM has precise instructions for consensus developing, a large number of scenarios were considered as uncertain. Therefore, more research has to be conducted on the issue

  3. Wells Construction. Hand Dug and Hand Drilled. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Richard E.

    This manual is intended for use by development workers involved in the construction of wells to supply water to a local population for personal consumption. Discussed first are the basic points to consider when planning a well. Various aspects of constructing hand-dug wells are explained, including well design, supplies, the lowering and raising…

  4. TECHNIQUES FOR POTABLE WATER TREATMENT USING APPROPRIATE LOW COST NATURAL MATERIALS IN THE TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sila Onesmus Nzung’a

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of mechanical filtration and solar irradiation in water treatment was evaluated. Selected metals and non-metals ions before and after treatment were determined colorimetrically while turbidity was measured using a turbidimeter. pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO and temperature were measured using a portable universal multiline P4 WTW meter while total alkalinity was determined titrimetrically. The load of coliform bacteria contamination before and after treatment was determined by Millipore filtration method. Screening for the presence of pathogenic bacteria was carried out using standard methods. The levels of the properties before and after treatment were each compared with the recommended drinking water standards according to Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS and World Health Organization (WHO. The water was treated by being subjected to mechanical filtration and solar irradiation and changes in their physico-chemical properties and bacteriological load determined. The results obtained after treatment revealed that solar irradiation killed most of the pathogenic bacteria after exposure for eight hours but had no impact on the physico-chemical properties except nitrates (from 24.5 to 8.0 mg.L-1. Mechanical filtration reduced total coliforms and E. coli by 30 %. It also reduced the loads of Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, Fe, nitrate nitrogen and turbidity of the water treated to an almost potable state. Water treatment using a combination of mechanical filtration system and solar disinfection was found to be very effective in reducing the bacterial load.

  5. Developing a culturally appropriate branding for a social and emotional wellbeing intervention in an Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Robert J; Murray, Lesley; Hicks, Jolleen; Nicholas, Amberlee; Anwar-McHenry, Julia

    2018-02-22

    An initial consultation process to implement a culturally appropriate social and emotional wellbeing campaign in an Aboriginal community indicated that the fundamental principles of the Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion campaign were acceptable, but that a cultural adaptation of the branding should be sought. A competition was held inviting community members to design a brand logo for the campaign in their community. Local judges selected "winners" in various categories, and six of the submissions were selected for testing in the broader community via street intercept interviews. Respondents were asked which logo they liked best, their perceived meanings of the designs and the perceived appropriateness of the designs for a social and emotional wellbeing campaign. A convenience sample of N = 26 local Aboriginal people who lived and/or worked in Roebourne completed the questionnaire. There was a clear majority preference for logo "D," which communicated appropriate meanings of pride and strength in standing together, and reflected the underlying strengths and capacities of Aboriginal people which this project seeks to harness and support. The approach of using a logo competition to develop the campaign brand was highly successful and enabled further meaningful engagement with the community and other service providers in the town. The success of the competition process resulted from an emphasis on relationship building, listening to the local community and involving the community in decision-making. So what? By conforming to established, but not always adhered to, recommendations for community consultation, successful and more enduring outcomes are likely. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  6. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiusheng Kong

    Full Text Available Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC, β-actin (ClACT, and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5 as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1, a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology.

  7. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Liqiang; Cheng, Fei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC), β-actin (ClACT), and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5) as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND) was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1), a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology.

  8. Principles for the development of Aboriginal health interventions: culturally appropriate methods through systemic empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Elizabeth; Barnett, Leda

    2015-01-01

    To increase Aboriginal participation in mainstream health services, it is necessary to understand the factors that influence health service usage. This knowledge can contribute to the development of culturally appropriate health services that respect Aboriginal ways of being. We used a community-based participatory approach to examine the reasons for underutilization of health services by Aboriginal Australians. Based on three focus groups and 18 interviews with Aboriginal health professionals, leaders, and community members in rural, regional, and urban settings, we identified five factors that influenced usage, including (1) negative historical experiences, (2) cultural incompetence, (3) inappropriate communication, (4) a collective approach to health, and (5) a more holistic approach to health. Given that these factors have shaped negative Aboriginal responses to health interventions, they are likely to be principles by which more appropriate solutions are generated. Although intuitively sensible and well known, these principles remain poorly understood by non-Aboriginal health systems and even less well implemented. We have conceptualized these principles as the foundation of an empathic health system. Without empathy, health systems in Australia, and internationally, will continue to face the challenge of building effective services to improve the state of health for all minority populations.

  9. Appropriation System: water rights in the western United States; water pollution problems peculiar to the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worcester, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    The legal framework surrounding water rights acquisition and usage in the western United States and the steps which should be taken in analyzing potential sources of water are dealt with. Some of the applicable water pollution control laws and regulations are discussed briefly

  10. The rain water management model on an appropriate hilly area to fulfil the needs of cocoa farm during dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbi, M.; Darma, R.; Yamin, M.; Nurdin, M.; Rizal, M.

    2018-05-01

    Cocoa is an important commodity because 90% farmers involved, easily marketed, and potentially harvested along the year. However, cocoa productivity tended to decrease by an average of only 300 kg hectare-1 year-1 or away from the potential productivity of two tons. Water management was an alternative method to increase its productivity by harvesting rainwater on the hilly cocoa farm area and distributing the water based on the gravity law. The research objective was to describes how to manage rainwater at the hilly cocoa farm area, so that the water needs of cocoa farm were met during the dry season. The important implication of the management was the water availability that supports the cocoa cultivation during the year. This research used qualitative method with descriptive approach to explain the appropriate technical specification of infrastructure to support the rainwater management. This research generated several mathematical formulas to support rainwater management infrastructure. The implementation of an appropriate rainwater utilization management for cocoa farm will ensuring the availability of water during dry season, so the cocoa farm allowed to produce cacao fruit during the year.

  11. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2007-03-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2007. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1--carbon inventory advancements; Task 2--emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3--baseline method development; Task 4--third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5--new project feasibility studies; and Task 6--development of new project software screening tool.

  12. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-09-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  13. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Miguel Calmon

    2006-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  14. APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Patrick Gonzalez; Brad Kreps; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2003-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  15. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon

    2006-04-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  16. THE APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2002-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research projects is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  17. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Neil Sampson; Miguel Calmon

    2005-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  18. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Wilber Sabido; Ellen Hawes; Jenny Henman; Miguel Calmon; Michael Ebinger

    2004-07-10

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: remote sensing for carbon analysis; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  19. Appropriate school starting age: A focus on the cognitive and social development of a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahwish Ali Baber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The early years are the most important in the emotional, social, physical and cognitive development of a child.. A child’s early experiences have an immense impact on the development of his/ her physical, emotional and cognitive skills. Therefore, it is very important to understand the kind of environment children need in the early years for their healthy development and also to understand when it is appropriate to begin their schooling in order to optimize their social, cognitive and emotional well-being. It is observed that the number of formal pre-schools have increased drastically in the past few years. Children between the ages of one to five are attending these pre-schools. This paper attempts to look into the various researches conducted to find out how early childhood experiences affect children; how their emotional and cognitive development occurs; and most importantly, whether or not starting school at an age earlier than seven years, benefits their academic achievement in the long run. The findings of the various researches indicate that children in the early years need to spend time in free play rather than in structured and scheduled school environments. This will also help them in their future academic success. Thus, starting school earlier than seven years of age is not beneficial socially or academically in the long run.

  20. Classification of Global Land Development Phases by Forest and GDP Changes for Appropriate Land Management in the Mid-Latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholho Song

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To implement appropriate land management strategies, it is essential to identify past and current land cover and land use conditions. In addition, an assessment of land development phases (LDPs in a human-dominated landscape coupled with an analysis of the water-food-ecosystem (WFE nexus can deepen our understanding of sustainable land management. In this study, we proposed the concept of land development phases (LDPs by forest and GDP changes using previously-applied theoretical and empirical approaches. The positive relationship between GDP growth and forest stock changes was used to analyze the timing of forest stock changes as five-year averages, which were aggregated over 20 years to classify LDPs. In addition, forest area changes compared with GDP and GDP per capita changes were analyzed to identify LDPs. Based on two conceptual approaches, we suggested global land into three LDPs: degradation, restoration and sustainability. Using this approach, most of Europe, North America and northeast Asia were classified as sustainability phases, while Africa and Central Asia in the Mid-Latitude region appeared to have degradation or restoration phases. The LDPs described could be improved with further incorporation of solid data analysis and clear standards, but even at this stage, these LDP classifications suggest points for implementing appropriate land management. In addition, indices from comparative analysis of the LDPs with the WFE nexus can be connected with socio-economic global indices, such as the Global Hunger Index, the Food Production Index and the Climate Change Performance Index. The LDPs have the potential to facilitate appropriate land management strategies through integrating WFE nexus and ecosystem services; we propose future research that uses this integration for the Mid-Latitude region and worldwide.

  1. Appropriate strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halty, M

    1979-01-01

    Technology strategies are concerned with the production, distribution, and consumption of technology. Observation of less developed countries (LDCs) and international organizations shows that little attention is given to the development of a technology strategy. LDCs need to formulate a strategy of self-reliant technological development for the next decade. They should no longer be content to stand in a technologically dependent relationship to the developed countries. Such strategies must balance the ratio between investment in indigenous technologies and expenditure for foreign technology. The strategies change according to the level of industrialization achieved. The following considerations come into development of technology strategies: 1) determination of an appropriate balance among the accumulation, consumption, and distribution of technology; 2) the amount and level of government support; and 3) the balance between depth and breadth of technology to be encouraged.

  2. Identifying and selecting the most appropriate social media for the development of SCRM systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khoshheykal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, information technology is one of the main factors for change in modern societies. As the other components involved in the community, organizational customers have undergone changes to the extent that they are referred to as "social customers"; So, the inability to follow the desires needs and tastes pertaining to them which presents challenge for organizations using the previous tools, such as CRM. In fact, the emergence of the concept of SCRM in early 2009 is considered to be a response to such a requirement. However, regarding the variety of social media, the process for developing such systems seems more difficult to track. Hence, in the present study, we are seeking for the identification of the best social media to develop aforementioned systems, using the concept of multi-criteria decision making. To do this, survey data were collected from experts working in two areas, namely, marketing and informatics of Bank Melli Iran. Then, the collected data were analyzed. The results represented "social sites and networks" as the most appropriate media for the development of SCRM systems.

  3. The feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Rasika; Schultz, Tim

    2006-09-01

    Objectives  The objective of this review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence on the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries. Inclusion criteria  This review considered quantitative and qualitative research papers that addressed the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing developed countries' nursing curricula into developing countries. Papers of the highest level of evidence rating were given priority. Participants of interest were all levels of nursing staff, nursing students, healthcare consumers and healthcare administrators. Outcomes of interest that are relevant to the evaluation of undergraduate nursing curricula were considered in the review including cost-effectiveness, cultural relevancy, adaptability, consumer satisfaction and student satisfaction. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find both published and unpublished studies and papers, limited to the English language. An initial limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract, and of the index terms used to describe the article. A second extensive search was then undertaken using all identified key words and index terms. Finally, the reference list of all identified reports and articles was searched, the contents pages of a few relevant journals were hand searched and experts in the field were contacted to find any relevant studies missed from the first two searches. Methodological quality  Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (SUMARI) package. Results  A total of four papers, including one descriptive study and three textual papers, were included in the review. Because of the diverse nature of

  4. Introduction to the Special Issue: Water Grabbing? Focus on the (Re)appropriation of Finite Water Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, S.; Veldwisch, G.J.A.; Franco, J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent large-scale land acquisitions for agricultural production (including biofuels), popularly known as 'land grabbing', have attracted headline attention. Water as both a target and driver of this phenomenon has been largely ignored despite the interconnectedness of water and land. This special

  5. Developing a water market readiness assessment framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Loch, Adam; Crase, Lin; Young, Mike; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2017-09-01

    Water markets are increasingly proposed as a demand-management strategy to deal with water scarcity. Water trading arrangements, on their own, are not about setting bio-physical limits to water-use. Nevertheless, water trading that mitigates scarcity constraints can assist regulators of water resources to keep water-use within limits at the lowest possible cost, and may reduce the cost of restoring water system health. While theoretically attractive, many practitioners have, at best, only a limited understanding of the practical usefulness of markets and how they might be most appropriately deployed. Using lessons learned from jurisdictions around the world where water markets have been implemented, this study attempts to fill the existing water market development gap and provide an initial framework (the water market readiness assessment (WMRA)) to describe the policy and administrative conditions/reforms necessary to enable governments/jurisdictions to develop water trading arrangements that are efficient, equitable and within sustainable limits. Our proposed framework consists of three key steps: 1) an assessment of hydrological and institutional needs; 2) a market evaluation, including assessment of development and implementation issues; and 3) the monitoring, continuous/review and assessment of future needs; with a variety of questions needing assessment at each stage. We apply the framework to three examples: regions in Australia, the United States and Spain. These applications indicate that WMRA can provide key information for water planners to consider on the usefulness of water trading processes to better manage water scarcity; but further practical applications and tests of the framework are required to fully evaluate its effectiveness.

  6. Developing Water Sampling Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  7. World Water Day 2002: Water for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture consumes about 70 per cent of the world's available water but experts say that where there are competing demands for water use, and groundwater sources have been depleted, small farmers are the first to lose their supply. As a consequence farmers are displaced from their land and the landless, who help them, are made jobless. Environmental damage to wetlands and estuaries from upstream depletion, as well as an increase of water-borne disease, also occurs.There must be more emphasis towards increasing the efficiency of water management systems and increasing water productivity, getting more crops per drop, says the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Water stress leaves women the most vulnerable. Without a ready source of water they may have to walk for several hours every day to find it, or send their children to fetch it. Child nurturing and education suffer and the water available maybe unfit for human use. The U.N. estimates that 1.2 billion people lack access to safe water and about 2.5 billion are without access to proper sanitation. The absence of safe water translates into a tremendous burden of disease, linked to gastro-intestinal infection, making it a key water associated development issue, the World Health Organization (WHO) says. 'Access to sanitation facilities is a basic human right that safeguards health and human dignity,' said Sir Richard Jolly, Chair of the Geneva-based Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSCC). 'We know from experience that clean water alone leads only to minor health improvements. Sound hygiene behaviour must be recognized as a separate issue in its own right, with adequate sanitation and clean water as supporting components.' This year, water pollution, poor sanitation and water shortages will kill over 12 million people, said Klaus Toepfer, Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Millions more are in bad health and trapped in poverty, said Mr. Toepfer, much of

  8. Development or Deployment of 'Grid-Appropriate' Reactors for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D. T.

    2008-01-01

    The world energy demand is expected to nearly double by 2030, largely driven by rapidly increasing demand in the developing parts of the world. Many of the countries that will experience the greatest growth in energy demand have little or no current nuclear power experience and have significant constraints on the size and type of power plant that can be accommodated. Although a few reactor vendors are beginning to address this market need, most traditional vendors continue to offer only very large nuclear power plants with capacities exceeding 1500 MWe per unit. The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), which was initiated in the United States and now includes a partnership of 20 countries, seeks to facilitate the large-scale global growth in nuclear power. Within the GNEP program, the 'grid-appropriate' reactors (GAR) campaign has been initiated to coordinate and facilitate the development, demonstration, and deployment of reactor designs that are better suited for those countries that need or prefer smaller power plant capacities. The GNEP/GAR program addresses the full spectrum of issues for the deployment of new reactor designs to new nuclear power countries, including: reactor technology and engineering, licensing and regulatory impacts, and infrastructure needs (physical, workforce, and institutional). Initially, the program is focused on meeting the current global demand for small or medium-sized reactors using demonstrated technologies. The program will also address the development of new reactor technologies that will further enhance the safety, security, and proliferation resistance of future designs. International collaborations are being established to: (1) develop suitable requirements and criteria for GAR designs, (2) conduct R and D for longer-term reactor technologies and innovative designs, and (3) assisting new nuclear power countries in assessing their infrastructure needs. The status of these activities will be presented and future program

  9. A regulatory perspective on appropriate seismic loading stress criteria for advanced light water reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terao, D.

    1995-01-01

    In the foregoing sections, the author has discussed the NRC staff's perspective on the evolving seismic design criteria for piping systems. He also addressed the need for developing seismic loading stress criteria and provided several recommendations and considerations for ensuring piping functional capability, pressure integrity, and structural integrity. Overall, the general consensus in the NRC staff is that in the past several years, many initiatives have been developed and implemented by the industry and the NRC staff to reduce the excessive conservatisms that might have existed in nuclear piping system design criteria. The regulations, regulatory guides, and Standard Review Plan have been (or are currently in the process of being) revised to reflect these initiatives in an effort to produce requirements and guidelines that will continue to result in a safe and practical design of piping systems. However, further proposals to reduce margins are continually being submitted to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the NRC for review and approval. Improvements to the piping seismic design criteria are always encouraged, but there is a point at which the benefits might be outweighed by drawbacks. Because of this rapidly evolving situation the need exists for the industry and the NRC staff to develop a course of action to ensure that piping seismic design criteria for future ALWR plants will result in piping system designs that provide adequate safety margins and practical designs at a reasonable cost

  10. Philosophy for water development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Hendricks, E.L.

    1961-01-01

    There is probably no one in this room who has not had an experience analogous to the one I here describe. You sat at the dinner table next to a nice lady who impressed you with her breadth of interest in community affairs. She said to you "Oh, you work in the field of water resources. That certainly is a major problem facing the United States, isn't it? You know, we have had long discussions about this matter in a club to which I belong. We have made a considerable study of this matter and all of us are convinced that a key element in the survival of America is to find a solution to our water problem."You know," she said, "there are certainly a lot of different kinds of organizations mixing up in the field of water. They all seem to be running off in different directions. It seems to me that one of the things we need most is a national water policy. Don't you think so?”I know how you answered the question. You must have about got started on a discussion of some of the complications when the conversation turned to the question of how long did it take you to get home in that last big snow. So, in effect, you continue to talk about the water problem even if merely as you exchange pleasantries about the day's weather. But then you went home and you thought some more about what the nice lady said and you asked yourself "well, now, truly how do we solve the Nation's water problem? What has a national water policy to do with a solution of this problem?" In the next few minutes I wish to exchange with you some of our thoughts on this matter.

  11. Development of a water quality index based on a European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This index has advantages over pre-existing indices by reflecting the appropriateness of water for specific use, e.g. drinking water supply rather than general supply, and has been developed by studying the supranational standard, i.e. the European Community Standard. Three classification schemes for water quality are ...

  12. Locally Appropriate Energy Strategies for the Developing World: A focus on Clean Energy Opportunities in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Rebekah Grace

    This dissertation focuses on an integration of energy modeling tools to explore energy transition pathways for emerging economies. The spate of growth in the global South has led to a global energy transition, evidenced in part by a surge in the development of large scale energy infrastructure projects for the provision of reliable electricity service. The rational of energy security and exigency often usher these large scale projects through to implementation with minimal analysis of costs: social and environmental impact, ecological risk, or opportunity costs of alternative energy transition pathways foregone. Furthermore, development of energy infrastructure is inherently characterized by the involvement of a number of state and non-state actors, with varying interests, objectives and access to authority. Being woven through and into social institutions necessarily impacts the design, control and functionality of infrastructure. In this dissertation I therefore conceptualize energy infrastructure as lying at the intersection, or nexus, of people, the environment and energy security. I argue that energy infrastructure plans and policy should, and can, be informed by each of these fields of influence in order to appropriately satisfy local development needs. This case study explores the socio-techno-environmental context of contemporary mega-dam development in northern Borneo. I describe the key actors of an ongoing mega-dam debate and the constellation of their interaction. This highlights the role that information may play in public discourse and lends insight into how inertia in the established system may stymie technological evolution. I then use a combination of power system simulation, ecological modeling and spatial analysis to analyze the potential for, and costs and tradeoffs of, future energy scenarios. In this way I demonstrate reproducible methods that can support energy infrastructure decision making by directly addressing data limitation barriers. I

  13. On the appropriateness of public participation in Integrated Water Resources Management: some grounded insights from the Levant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ker Rault, P.A.; Jeffrey, P.

    2008-01-01

    Although public participation in the service of Integrated Water Resources Management had aroused much attention as a practice, little is known about stakeholders’ understandings of and expectations towards the process. Using a grounded approach we develop an interpretive methodological framework

  14. Produced Water Treatment Using Geothermal Energy from Oil and Gas Wells: An Appropriateness of Decommissioned Wells Index (ADWI) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaghadi, A.; Rifai, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of harnessing geothermal energy from retrofitted oil and gas decommissioned wells to power desalination units and overcome the produced water treatment energy barrier. Previous studies using heat transfer models have indicated that well depth, geothermal gradient, formation heat conductivity, and produced water salt levels were the most important constraints that affect the achievable volume of treated water. Thus, the challenge of identifying which wells would be best suited for retrofit as geothermal wells was addressed by defining an Appropriateness of Decommissioned Wells Index (ADWI) using a 25 km x 25 km grid over Texas. Heat transfer modeling combined with fuzzy logic methodology were used to estimate the ADWI at each grid cell using the scale of Very Poor, Poor, Average, Good and Excellent. Values for each of the four constraints were extracted from existing databases and were used to select 20 representative values that covered the full range of the data. A heat transfer model was run for all the 160,000 possible combination scenarios and the results were regressed to estimate weighting coefficients that indicate the relative effect of well depth, geothermal gradient, heat conductivity, and produced water salt levels on the volume of treated water in Texas. The results indicated that wells located in cells with ADWI of "Average", "Good" or "Excellent" can potentially deliver 35,000, 106,000, or 240,000 L/day of treated water, respectively. Almost 98% of the cells in the Granite Wash, 97% in Eagle Ford Shale, 90% in Haynesville Shale, 79% in Permian Basin, and 78% in Barnett Shale were identified as better than "Average" locations; whereas, south of the Eagle Ford, southwestern Permian Basin, and the center of Granite Wash were "Excellent". Importantly, most of the locations with better than "Average" ADWI are within drought prone agricultural regions that would benefit from this resilient source of clean water.

  15. Water Loss Management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools and methods for water loss control. Water loss management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries provide a decision support toolbox (appropriate tools and methodologies) for assessing, quantif...

  16. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May schools operate a language development program... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development program...

  17. Development of Oral Flexible Tablet (OFT) Formulation for Pediatric and Geriatric Patients: a Novel Age-Appropriate Formulation Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Prabagaran; Kandasamy, Ruckmani

    2017-08-01

    Development of palatable formulations for pediatric and geriatric patients involves various challenges. However, an innovative development with beneficial characteristics of marketed formulations in a single formulation platform was attempted. The goal of this research was to develop solid oral flexible tablets (OFTs) as a platform for pediatrics and geriatrics as oral delivery is the most convenient and widely used mode of drug administration. For this purpose, a flexible tablet formulation using cetirizine hydrochloride as model stability labile class 1 and 3 drug as per the Biopharmaceutical Classification System was developed. Betadex, Eudragit E100, and polacrilex resin were evaluated as taste masking agents. Development work focused on excipient selection, formulation processing, characterization methods, stability, and palatability testing. Formulation with a cetirizine-to-polacrilex ratio of 1:2 to 1:3 showed robust physical strength with friability of 0.1% (w/w), rapid in vitro dispersion within 30 s in 2-6 ml of water, and 0.2% of total organic and elemental impurities. Polacrilex resin formulation shows immediate drug release within 30 min in gastric media, better taste masking, and acceptable stability. Hence, it is concluded that ion exchange resins can be appropriately used to develop taste-masked, rapidly dispersible, and stable tablet formulations with tailored drug release suitable for pediatrics and geriatrics. Flexible formulations can be consumed as swallowable, orally disintegrating, chewable, and as dispersible tablets. Flexibility in dose administration would improve compliance in pediatrics and geriatrics. This drug development approach using ion exchange resins can be a platform for formulating solid oral flexible drug products with low to medium doses.

  18. Instructed Concept Appropriation and L2 Pragmatic Development in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.; Henery, Ashlie

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the integration of concept-based pragmatics instruction, grounded in Vygotskian sociocultural psychology, in an intact second-semester French class (n = 13) over the course of an academic term. Our focus is on learners' appropriation of the concepts of self-presentation, social distance, and power with respect…

  19. Harnessing Intellectual Property for Development: Some Thoughts on an Appropriate Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Bongiwe Ncube

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers how an appropriate theoretical framework for Intellectual Property may be constructed. Such a framework would be the lens through which contested IP issues may be resolved and upon which national IP policy and legislation might be based. The paper begins by highlighting the inherent tensions in IP, which are caused by the various stakeholder interests that this body of law seeks to balance, and by the cross-cutting nature of IP. It contends that in order to more equitably balance the contesting rights of the creators and users, IP rights should be formulated and enforced so as to meet societal goals or serve public interest, be responsive to the economic environment, and take cognisance of the human rights claims of both creators and users. National socio-economic goals should inform such a framework in a way that ensures that IP is used as a means to achieve these goals and is not perceived as an end. This will require nuances in policy and legislation that meet the country's needs. In particular, as a developing country South Africa would do well to exploit available flexibilities in the various international IP agreements by which it is bound. Due regard also ought to be had to the users' need for affordable access to IP-protected goods in order that they may exercise the right to work and access to knowledge, as provided for by ss 22 and 16 of the Constitution respectively. Similarly, creators ought to be given due recognition, together with reasonable reward and remuneration for their efforts. This will be achieved through the creation of an IP system that provides protection that is compatible with the nature of the good being protected and the manner in which the creative process unfolds. Such protection should rely on registration systems are efficient, simplified and affordable. The accompanying enforcement system should be equally accessible, although the costs of enforcement would depend on the forum used to

  20. A Review of the Appropriateness of Existing Micro- and Meso-level Models of Athlete Development within Equestrian Sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to use a case study approach to review the appropriateness of existing micro- and meso-level models of athlete development within the sport specific context of equestrianism. At a micro-level the Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model was chosen. At a meso-level, the

  1. Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

    2009-01-07

    environmental benefits. In the first phase we worked in the U.S., Brazil, Belize, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile to develop and refine specific carbon inventory methods, pioneering a new remote-sensing method for cost-effectively measuring and monitoring terrestrial carbon sequestration and system for developing carbon baselines for both avoided deforestation and afforestation/reforestation projects. We evaluated the costs and carbon benefits of a number of specific terrestrial carbon sequestration activities throughout the U.S., including reforestation of abandoned mined lands in southwest Virginia, grassland restoration in Arizona and Indiana, and reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. The most cost-effective U.S. terrestrial sequestration opportunity we found through these studies was reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. In Phase II we conducted a more systematic assessment and comparison of several different measurement and monitoring approaches in the Northern Cascades of California, and a broad 11-state Northeast regional assessment, rather than pre-selected and targeted, analysis of terrestrial sequestration costs and benefits. Work was carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA. Partners include the Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, The Sampson Group, Programme for Belize, Society for Wildlife Conservation (SPVS), Universidad Austral de Chile, Michael Lefsky, Colorado State University, UC Berkeley, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, ProNaturaleza, Ohio State University, Stephen F. Austin University, Geographical Modeling Services, Inc., WestWater, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Century Ecosystem Services, Mirant Corporation, General Motors, American Electric Power, Salt River Project, Applied Energy Systems, KeySpan, NiSource, and PSEG. This project, 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration', has resulted in over 50 presentations and

  2. Managing Water supply in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P. P.

    2001-05-01

    If the estimates are correct that, in the large urban areas of the developing world 30 percent of the population lack access to safe water supply and 50 percent lack access to adequate sanitation, then we are currently faced with 510 million urban residents without access to domestic water and 850 million without access to sanitation. Looking to the year 2020, we will face an additional 1,900 million in need of water and sanitation services. The provision of water services to these billions of people over the next two decades is one of the greatest challenges facing the nations of the world. In addition to future supplies, major problems exist with the management of existing systems where water losses can account for a significant fraction of the water supplied. The entire governance of the water sector and the management of particular systems raise serious questions about the application of the best technologies and the appropriate economic incentive systems. The paper outlines a few feasible technical and economic solutions.

  3. Development of a clinical static and dynamic standing balance measurement tool appropriate for use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Carolyn A; Cassidy, J David; Klassen, Terry P; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Rowe, Brian B

    2005-06-01

    There is a need in sports medicine for a static and dynamic standing balance measure to quantify balance ability in adolescents. The purposes of this study were to determine the test-retest reliability of timed static (eyes open) and dynamic (eyes open and eyes closed) unipedal balance measurements and to examine factors associated with balance. Adolescents (n=123) were randomly selected from 10 Calgary high schools. This study used a repeated-measures design. One rater measured unipedal standing balance, including timed eyes-closed static (ECS), eyes-open dynamic (EOD), and eyes-closed dynamic (ECD) balance at baseline and 1 week later. Dynamic balance was measured on a foam surface. Reliability was examined using both intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland and Altman statistical techniques. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine other potentially influencing factors. Based on ICCs, test-retest reliability was adequate for ECS, EOD, and ECD balance (ICC=.69, .59, and .46, respectively). The results of Bland and Altman methods, however, suggest that caution is required in interpreting reliability based on ICCs alone. Although both ECS balance and ECD balance appear to demonstrate adequate test-retest reliability by ICC, Bland and Altman methods of agreement demonstrate sufficient reliability for ECD balance only. Thirty percent of the subjects reached the 180-second maximum on EOD balance, suggesting that this test is not appropriate for use in this population. Balance ability (ECS and ECD) was better in adolescents with no past history of lower-extremity injury. Timed ECD balance is an appropriate and reliable clinical measurement for use in adolescents and is influenced by previous injury.

  4. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of technologies for waste treatment and recycling (Development of technologies for appropriate treatment of air bags); 2000 nendo haikibutsu recycle kanren gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Air bag tekisei shori gijutsu no kaihatsu nado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A centralized treatment process respecting environmental protection and safety for unused air bags aboard disused automobiles is developed. In concrete terms, a heating facility owned by Daicel Chemical Industries, Ltd., is used, which includes an apparatus for examining exhaust gas dioxins and an exhaust gas treatment apparatus and, with this facility, studies are made for appropriately treating waste gas and waste water to be generated when air bag modules undergo centralized heating. Endeavors in fiscal 2000 center about (1) the development of waste gas treatment technologies, (2) development of waste water treatment technologies, (3) chemical analysis of waste water sludge, dusts and air bag residues, and (4) the study of appropriate treatment of non-azide air bag modules. As to the development of exhaust gas treatment technology, it was proved that the exhaust gas treatment system consisting of secondary incineration furnace, exhaust gas cooling tower and bag filter worked effectively. (NEDO)

  5. 00 Düvel - Developing an appropriate approach fo South Af…

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    This paper, based on a project aimed at developing and implementing a new ... The request by any country to have an extension model developed must be ... Positive results were, for example, found with the outsourcing of management, but it.

  6. Effects of Improvement on Selective Attention: Developing Appropriate Somatosensory Video Game Interventions for Institutional-Dwelling Elderly with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Ti; Chiang, I-Tsun; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chang, Maiga

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop appropriate somatosensory video game interventions on enhancing selective attention of institutional-dwelling elderly with disabilities. Fifty-eight participants aged 65[approximately]92 were recruited and divided into four groups, 4-week and 8-week experimental and two control groups, for evaluating the…

  7. Collaboration between a US Academic Institution and International Ministry of Health to develop a culturally appropriate palliative care navigation curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ritabelle; Riklon, Sheldon; Langidrik, Justina R; Williams, Shellie N; Kabua, Neiar

    2014-12-01

    Implementation lessons: (1) The development and testing of a culturally appropriate palliative care navigation curriculum for countries facing high cancer and non-communicable diseases burden requires collaboration with the local Ministry of Health. (2) Lay volunteers from non-governmental and faith-based organizations are potential candidates to provide patient navigation services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Quality: An Analysis of its Appropriateness Using Unit Root and Cointegration Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Muñoz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis suggests the existence of an inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental degradation and income. Several economists assume that the environmental impacts occurred during the first stages of the development process will be reverted as a result of economic growth. Yet Perman and Stern (2003 have argued that the econometric methods used in the earlier analysis of the EKC are inappropriate, given the time properties of the series. This article examines the appropriateness of the EKC for a panel of 46 countries and 21 periods by implementing individual and panel tests for unit roots and cointegration. An error correction model is also estimated. The results do not support evidence of a common EKC for the countries analyzed.

  9. Supply of appropriate nuclear technology for the developing world: small power reactors for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising-Goodman, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the supply of small nuclear power plants (200 to 500 MWe electrical generating capacity) available on today's market, including the pre-fabricated designs of the United Kingdom's Rolls Royce Ltd and the French Alsthom-Atlantique Company. Also, the Russian VVER-440 conventionally built light-water reactor design is reviewed, including information on the Soviet Union's plans for expansion of its reactor-building capacity. A section of the paper also explores the characteristics of LDC electricity grids, reviewing methods available for incorporating larger plants into smaller grids as the Israelis are planning. Future trends in reactor supply and effects on proliferation rates are also discussed, reviewing the potential of the Indian 220 MWe pressurised heavy-water reactor, South Korean and Jananese potential for reactor exports in the Far East, and the Argentine-Brazilian nuclear programme in Latin America. This study suggests that small reactor designs for electrical power production and other applications, such as seawater desalination, can be made economical relative to diesel technology if traditional scaling laws can be altered by adopting and standardising a pre-fabricated nuclear power plant design. Also, economy can be gained if sufficient attention is concentrated on the design, construction and operating experience of suitably sized conventionally built reactor systems. (author)

  10. Application Development Methodology Appropriateness: An Exploratory Case Study Bridging the Gap between Framework Characteristics and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence H., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed experiences of twenty software developers. The research showed that all software development methodologies are distinct from each other. While some, such as waterfall, focus on traditional, plan-driven approaches that allow software requirements and design to evolve; others facilitate ambiguity and uncertainty by…

  11. Development of an intervention to improve appropriate polypharmacy in older people in primary care using a theory-based method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathal A. Cadogan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is advocated that interventions to improve clinical practice should be developed using a systematic approach and intervention development methods should be reported. However, previous interventions aimed at ensuring that older people receive appropriate polypharmacy have lacked details on their development. This study formed part of a multiphase research project which aimed to develop an intervention to improve appropriate polypharmacy in older people in primary care. Methods The target behaviours for the intervention were prescribing and dispensing of appropriate polypharmacy to older patients by general practitioners (GPs and community pharmacists. Intervention development followed a systematic approach, including previous mapping of behaviour change techniques (BCTs to key domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework that were perceived by GPs and pharmacists to influence the target behaviours. Draft interventions were developed to operationalise selected BCTs through team discussion. Selection of an intervention for feasibility testing was guided by a subset of the APEASE (Affordability, Practicability, Effectiveness/cost-effectiveness, Acceptability, Side-effects/safety, Equity criteria. Results Three draft interventions comprising selected BCTs were developed, targeting patients, pharmacists and GPs, respectively. Following assessment of each intervention using a subset of the APEASE criteria (affordability, practicability, acceptability, the GP-targeted intervention was selected for feasibility testing. This intervention will involve a demonstration of the behaviour and will be delivered as an online video. The video demonstrating how GPs can prescribe appropriate polypharmacy during a typical consultation with an older patient will also demonstrate salience of consequences (feedback emphasising the positive outcomes of performing the behaviour. Action plans and prompts/cues will be used as complementary

  12. Beyond Nature Appropriation: Towards Post-development Conservation in the Maya Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Jose E Martinez-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of biosphere reserves in Mexico was followed by alternative livelihood conservation/development projects to integrate indigenous groups into Western style conservation under the idea of sustainable development and participation. In this paper, I discuss the outcomes of two forest wildlife management projects in one Maya community along the Sian Ka′an Biosphere Reserve in the state of Quintana Roo. Both projects ultimately failed and the community mobilised and expelled the N...

  13. Comparison of Hospital standards with ISO principles and presentation appropriate model of Hospital standard development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahram Delgoshai

    2005-02-01

    Conclusion: Writing method of evaluation items in »B hand out« has significant difference with what is done in ISO audit. Research findings showed that in spite of leaping that »B hand out« developing had in national. There are serious lacks in hospital compelete evaluaton so that consider a hospitals system, means and content beacause of lack of enough experiment in standard development based on ISO principles.

  14. Modeling of the CIGRE Low Voltage Test Distribution Network and the Development of Appropriate Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    The fluctuating nature of some of the Distributed Generation (DG) sources can cause power quality related problems like power frequency oscillations, voltage fluctuations etc. In future, the DG penetration is expected to increase and hence this requires some control actions to deal with the power...... controller. The control system is tested in the distribution test network set up by CIGRE. The new approach of the PV controller is done in such a way that it can control AC and DC voltage of the PV converter during dynamic conditions. The battery controller is also developed in such a way that it can...... quality issues. The main focus of this paper is on development of controllers for a distribution system with different DG’s and especially development of a Photovoltaic (PV) controller using a Static Compensator (STATCOM) controller and on modeling of a Battery Storage System (BSS) also based on a STATCOM...

  15. Appropriateness of Recommended Agricultural Water-Management Technologies as Perceived by the Personnel of Research and Extension System: A Study in the Eastern Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Souvik; Verma, H. N.; Chandra, Dinesh; Nanda, P.

    2005-01-01

    The key to agricultural development in the eastern region of India, where problems of excess water and water scarcity coexist, is the scientific management of water resources with the adoption of recommended water-management technologies. A vast networking of infrastructure for the development and dissemination of water-management technologies…

  16. Appropriateness of Probit-9 in development of quarantine treatments for timber and timber commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus Schortemeyer; Ken Thomas; Robert A. Haack; Adnan Uzunovic; Kelli Hoover; Jack A. Simpson; Cheryl A. Grgurinovic

    2011-01-01

    Following the increasing international phasing out of methyl bromide for quarantine purposes, the development of alternative treatments for timber pests becomes imperative. The international accreditation of new quarantine treatments requires verification standards that give confidence in the effectiveness of a treatment. Probit-9 mortality is a standard for treatment...

  17. The Influence of Developmentally Appropriate Practice on Children's Cognitive Development: A Qualitative Metasynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher P.; Lan, Yi-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Background: As policymakers and advocates across the United States look to early childhood educators to improve children's cognitive development so they enter elementary school ready to learn, debates have emerged over what types of practices these educators should be engaged in to achieve this goal. Historically, the field of early childhood…

  18. Seeking Learning Outcomes Appropriate for "Education for Sustainable Development" and for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Kerry; Harraway, John; Lovelock, Brent; Mirosa, Miranda; Skeaff, Sheila; Slooten, Liz; Strack, Mick; Furnari, Mary; Jowett, Tim; Deaker, Lynley

    2015-01-01

    This article shares and extends research-based developments at the University of Otago, New Zealand, that seek to explore how students' worldviews change as they experience higher education with us. We emphasise that sustainability attributes may be described in terms of knowledge, skills and competencies but that these are underpinned by…

  19. Beyond Nature Appropriation: Towards Post-development Conservation in the Maya Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E Martinez-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of biosphere reserves in Mexico was followed by alternative livelihood conservation/development projects to integrate indigenous groups into Western style conservation under the idea of sustainable development and participation. In this paper, I discuss the outcomes of two forest wildlife management projects in one Maya community along the Sian Ka′an Biosphere Reserve in the state of Quintana Roo. Both projects ultimately failed and the community mobilised and expelled the NGO from the community. I argue that the failure of these projects involved two dynamics: 1 lack of coherence between the objectives of state agencies, conservation NGOs, and the local community; and 2 unequal ethnic relations, reproducing relations of colonial inequality and dictating how indigenous groups can participate in managing a territory for conservation. If collaboration and local participation are key in conservation management programs, these case studies suggest that greater institutional accountability and community autonomy are needed to make the practice of conservation more democratic and participatory. The expulsion of the NGO as a conservation and development broker also opened the space for, and possibilities of, post-development conservation practice that challenges the normalising expectations of Western biodiversity conservation.

  20. Using a Corpus-Informed Pedagogical Intervention to Develop Language Awareness toward Appropriate Lexicogrammatical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julieta; Yuldashev, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    The corpus-informed pedagogical intervention described in this article was developed for an advanced English as a Second Language (ESL) course designed for prospective International Teaching Assistants (ITAs) and implemented over the course of two class periods. Its primary goal was to offer students opportunities to gain language awareness of…

  1. 00 Düvel - Developing an appropriate approach fo South Af…

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    This paper, based on a project aimed at developing and implementing a new extension model for South Africa, has a ... Professor and Director, South African Institute for Agricultural, University of Pretoria,. 0002 Pretoria, South ... improvement in the effectiveness and efficiency of extension delivery; in fact indications are that.

  2. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action: Understanding the MRV framework for developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Sudhir

    The objective of the publication is to enhance the knowledge of the policymakers and decision makers in developing countries on MRV systems,including requirement of operationalizing such a system. The paper is also aimed at increasing the understanding of MRV aspects among sectoral experts and de...

  3. Electron synchrotron as the most appropriate investment into research and development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozubek, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1a (2008), s11-s12 ISSN 1211-5894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : electron Synchrotron * research and development * structural funds of EU Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  4. Sustaining area-based initiatives by developing appropriate ‘anchors’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Roy, Parama; Leonardsen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    and an empirical examination of three different cases from an ABI in Copenhagen, the paper highlights why and how particular models of ‘anchors’ develop in specific local contexts. We conclude by emphasizing the value of the lens of social capital, particularly, in the ABIs’ strategic efforts towards ‘anchoring’....

  5. Developing Appropriate Workforce Skills for Australia's Emerging Digital Economy: Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekara, Victor; Molla, Alemayehu; Snell, Darryn; Karanasios, Stan; Thomas, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    This working paper is the first publication coming out of a project investigating the role of vocational education and training (VET) in developing digital skills in the Australian workforce, using two sectors as case studies--Transport and Logistics, and Public Safety and Correctional Services. The study employs a mixed method approach, combining…

  6. Developing an appropriate digital hearing aid for low-resource countries: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israsena, P; Isaradisaikul, S; Noymai, A; Boonyanukul, S; Hemakom, A; Chinnarat, C; Navacharoen, N; Lekagul, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the development process and discusses the key findings which resulted from our multidisciplinary research team's effort to develop an alternative digital hearing suitable for low-resource countries such as Thailand. A cost-effective, fully programmable digital hearing aid, with its specifications benchmarking against WHO's recommendations, was systematically designed, engineered, and tested. Clinically it had undergone a full clinical trial that employed the outcome measurement protocol adopted from the APHAB, the first time implemented in Thai language. Results indicated that using the hearing aid improves user's satisfaction in terms of ease of communication, background noises, and reverberation, with clear benefit after 3 and 6 months, confirming its efficacy. In terms of engineering, the hearing aid also proved to be robust, passing all the designated tests. As the technology has successfully been transferred to a local company for the production phase, we also discuss other challenges that may arise before the device can be introduced into the market.

  7. Private Appropriation, Public Dissemination and Commercial Product Development in Genomics (DOE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca S. Eisenberg

    2003-03-19

    With DOE funding, I have conducted research on the topic of patents and technology transfer in the Human Genome Project since 1994. My research has proceeded along the following tracks: (1) research and monitoring of legal developments relating to (a) the patenting of DNA sequences and (b) the role of patents in technology transfer; (2) investigating and monitoring the strategies of different institutions in the public and private sector that are involved in DNA sequencing with respect to patenting and disseminating sequence information; (3) investigating and monitoring the impact of these strategies on those who use sequence information in research and product development. I have published commentary as my research proceeds in a variety of forums directed at scientists, lawyers, and science policy-makers.

  8. Hes1 is required for appropriate morphogenesis and differentiation during mouse thyroid gland development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Carre

    Full Text Available Notch signalling plays an important role in endocrine development, through its target gene Hes1. Hes1, a bHLH transcriptional repressor, influences progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Recently, Hes1 was shown to be expressed in the thyroid and regulate expression of the sodium iodide symporter (Nis. To investigate the role of Hes1 for thyroid development, we studied thyroid morphology and function in mice lacking Hes1. During normal mouse thyroid development, Hes1 was detected from E9.5 onwards in the median anlage, and at E11.5 in the ultimobranchial bodies. Hes1(-/- mouse embryos had a significantly lower number of Nkx2-1-positive progenitor cells (p<0.05 at E9.5 and at E11.5. Moreover, Hes1(-/- mouse embryos showed a significantly smaller total thyroid surface area (-40 to -60% compared to wild type mice at all study time points (E9.5-E16.5. In both Hes1(-/- and wild type mouse embryos, most Nkx2-1-positive thyroid cells expressed the cell cycle inhibitor p57 at E9.5 in correlation with low proliferation index. In Hes1(-/- mouse embryos, fusion of the median anlage with the ultimobranchial bodies was delayed by 3 days (E16.5 vs. E13.5 in wild type mice. After fusion of thyroid anlages, hypoplastic Hes1(-/- thyroids revealed a significantly decreased labelling area for T4 (-78% and calcitonin (-65% normalized to Nkx2-1 positive cells. Decreased T4-synthesis might be due to reduced Nis labelling area (-69%. These findings suggest a dual role of Hes1 during thyroid development: first, control of the number of both thyrocyte and C-cell progenitors, via a p57-independent mechanism; second, adequate differentiation and endocrine function of thyrocytes and C-cells.

  9. Development Instruments Through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA in Appropriate Intensity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Saptono

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to develop the valid and reliable measurement instruments of entrepreneurship intention in vocational secondary school students. Multi stage random sampling was used as the technique to determine sample (300 respondents. The research method used research and development with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Result of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA at the second order with robust maximum likelihood method shows that valid and reliable instrument with the acquisition value of loading factor is more than 0.5 (> 0,5 and a significance value of t is more than 1,96 (> 1,96. Reliability test results shows that the value of the combined construct reliability (CR of 0.97and a variance value extract (VE to 0.52 is greater than the limit of acceptance CR ≥ 0.70 and VE ≥ 0.50. The conclusion of the measurement instruments of entrepreneurship intention with three dimensions and 31 items met the standards of validity and reliability in accordance with the instrument development process.

  10. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  11. Appropriate flow forecasting for reservoir operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Xiaohua

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study presented in this thesis is to develop and apply a methodology to determine the appropriate model application by including the water management objective explicitly, and to demonstrate its benefits.

  12. Development and Evaluation of an Ontology for Guiding Appropriate Antibiotic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, E. Yoko; Kuperman, Gilad J.; Cimino, James J.; Bakken, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To develop and apply formal ontology creation methods to the domain of antimicrobial prescribing and to formally evaluate the resulting ontology through intrinsic and extrinsic evaluation studies. Methods We extended existing ontology development methods to create the ontology and implemented the ontology using Protégé-OWL. Correctness of the ontology was assessed using a set of ontology design principles and domain expert review via the laddering technique. We created three artifacts to support the extrinsic evaluation (set of prescribing rules, alerts and an ontology-driven alert module, and a patient database) and evaluated the usefulness of the ontology for performing knowledge management tasks to maintain the ontology and for generating alerts to guide antibiotic prescribing. Results The ontology includes 199 classes, 10 properties, and 1,636 description logic restrictions. Twenty-three Semantic Web Rule Language rules were written to generate three prescribing alerts: 1) antibiotic-microorganism mismatch alert; 2) medication-allergy alert; and 3) non-recommended empiric antibiotic therapy alert. The evaluation studies confirmed the correctness of the ontology, usefulness of the ontology for representing and maintaining antimicrobial treatment knowledge rules, and usefulness of the ontology for generating alerts to provide feedback to clinicians during antibiotic prescribing. Conclusions This study contributes to the understanding of ontology development and evaluation methods and addresses one knowledge gap related to using ontologies as a clinical decision support system component—a need for formal ontology evaluation methods to measure their quality from the perspective of their intrinsic characteristics and their usefulness for specific tasks. PMID:22019377

  13. Hes1 Is Required for Appropriate Morphogenesis and Differentiation during Mouse Thyroid Gland Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carre, Aurore; Rachdi, Latif; Tron, Elodie; Richard, Bénédicte; Castanet, Mireille; Schlumberger, Martin; Bidart, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Notch signalling plays an important role in endocrine development, through its target gene Hes1. Hes1, a bHLH transcriptional repressor, influences progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Recently, Hes1 was shown to be expressed in the thyroid and regulate expression of the sodium iodide symporter (Nis). To investigate the role of Hes1 for thyroid development, we studied thyroid morphology and function in mice lacking Hes1. During normal mouse thyroid development, Hes1 was detected from E9.5 onwards in the median anlage, and at E11.5 in the ultimobranchial bodies. Hes1 −/− mouse embryos had a significantly lower number of Nkx2-1-positive progenitor cells (p<0.05) at E9.5 and at E11.5. Moreover, Hes1 −/− mouse embryos showed a significantly smaller total thyroid surface area (−40 to −60%) compared to wild type mice at all study time points (E9.5−E16.5). In both Hes1 −/− and wild type mouse embryos, most Nkx2-1-positive thyroid cells expressed the cell cycle inhibitor p57 at E9.5 in correlation with low proliferation index. In Hes1 −/− mouse embryos, fusion of the median anlage with the ultimobranchial bodies was delayed by 3 days (E16.5 vs. E13.5 in wild type mice). After fusion of thyroid anlages, hypoplastic Hes1 −/− thyroids revealed a significantly decreased labelling area for T4 (−78%) and calcitonin (−65%) normalized to Nkx2-1 positive cells. Decreased T4-synthesis might be due to reduced Nis labelling area (−69%). These findings suggest a dual role of Hes1 during thyroid development: first, control of the number of both thyrocyte and C-cell progenitors, via a p57-independent mechanism; second, adequate differentiation and endocrine function of thyrocytes and C-cells. PMID:21364918

  14. Appropriate and sustainable wastewater management in developing countries by the use of constructed wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Koottatep, Thammarat; Fryd, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Constructed wetland systems for wastewater management may have great potential in developing countries as robust and decentralized solution. A case study from Koh Phi Phi island in Thailand where a constructed wetland systems was established after the destructions by the tsunami in 2004...... is described. The project includes a wastewater collection system for the main business area of the island, a pumping station, a multistage constructed wetland system, and a system for reuse of treated wastewater. The wastewater is treated to meet the Thai effluent standards for total suspended solids......, the system is only partly a success, mainly because no key-person or key-authority took responsibility for managing the system....

  15. Developing an appropriate staff mix for anticoagulation clinics: functional job analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Desta A.; Shan, Xiaojun; Chung, Sung H.; Khasawneh, Mohammad T.; Lukesh, William; Park, Angela; Rose, Adam

    2018-05-01

    Anticoagulation clinics (ACCs) are specialty clinics that manage patients with blood clotting problems. Since labor costs usually account for a substantial portion of a healthcare organization's budget, optimizing the number and types of staff required was often the focus, especially for ACCs, where labor-intensive staff-patient interactions occur. A significant portion of tasks performed by clinical pharmacists might be completed by clinical pharmacist technicians, which are less-expensive resources. While nurse staffing models for a hospital inpatient unit are well established, these models are not readily applicable to staffing ACCs. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a framework for determining the right staff mix of clinical pharmacists and clinical pharmacy technicians that increases the efficiency of care delivery process and improves the productivity of ACC staff. A framework is developed and applied to build a semi-automated full-time equivalent (FTE) calculator and compare various staffing scenarios using a simulation model. The FTE calculator provides the right staff mix for a given staff utilization target. Data collected from the ACCs at VA Boston Healthcare System is used to illustrate the FTE calculator and the simulation model. The result of the simulation model can be used by ACC managers to easily determine the number of FTEs of clinical pharmacists and clinical pharmacy technicians required to reach the target utilization and the corresponding staffing cost.

  16. More appropriate disease control policies for the developing world : policy and trade issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Mariner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Investment in disease control should be targeted to critical points that provide the greatest benefit to the livelihoods of livestock-dependent stakeholders. Risk-based targeting should balance the impacts of diseases against the feasibility of their control. This requires sensitive and specific surveillance systems that provide representative overviews of the animal health situation for accurate assessment of disease impact and transmission patterns. Assessment of impact should include household and market effects. The key in surveillance is involving livestock owners using active methods that ensure their disease priorities are addressed. Epidemiological targeting of interventions to critical points in disease transmission cycles should be done to obtain maximal disease reduction. Interventions should be delivered in full partnership with both private and community-based stakeholders to assure high uptake and sustainability. In developing countries, approaches such as participatory disease surveillance and community-based animal health programs have been effective and comply with international animal health standards.

  17. Developing theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing in 4 Asian American populations, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth A; Taylor, Victoria M; Nguyen, Tung T; Stewart, Susan L; Burke, Nancy J; Chen, Moon S

    2014-05-01

    Hepatitis B infection is 5 to 12 times more common among Asian Americans than in the general US population and is the leading cause of liver disease and liver cancer among Asians. The purpose of this article is to describe the step-by-step approach that we followed in community-based participatory research projects in 4 Asian American groups, conducted from 2006 through 2011 in California and Washington state to develop theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing. We provide examples to illustrate how intervention messages addressing identical theoretical constructs of the Health Behavior Framework were modified to be culturally appropriate for each community. Intervention approaches included mass media in the Vietnamese community, small-group educational sessions at churches in the Korean community, and home visits by lay health workers in the Hmong and Cambodian communities. Use of the Health Behavior Framework allowed a systematic approach to intervention development across populations, resulting in 4 different culturally appropriate interventions that addressed the same set of theoretical constructs. The development of theory-based health promotion interventions for different populations will advance our understanding of which constructs are critical to modify specific health behaviors.

  18. CPD Appropriations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The datasets are the full-year allocations for HUD's Office of Community Planning and Development (CPD) formula programs: Community Development Block Grants (CDBG);...

  19. Development and validation of Australian aphasia rehabilitation best practice statements using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Emma; Thomas, Emma; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Miranda; Togher, Leanne; Nickels, Lyndsey; Hersh, Deborah; Godecke, Erin; O'Halloran, Robyn; Lamont, Sue; O'Connor, Claire; Clarke, Kim

    2015-07-02

    To develop and validate a national set of best practice statements for use in post-stroke aphasia rehabilitation. Literature review and statement validation using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RAM). A national Community of Practice of over 250 speech pathologists, researchers, consumers and policymakers developed a framework consisting of eight areas of care in aphasia rehabilitation. This framework provided the structure for the development of a care pathway containing aphasia rehabilitation best practice statements. Nine speech pathologists with expertise in aphasia rehabilitation participated in two rounds of RAND/UCLA appropriateness ratings of the statements. Panellists consisted of researchers, service managers, clinicians and policymakers. Statements that achieved a high level of agreement and an overall median score of 7-9 on a nine-point scale were rated as 'appropriate'. 74 best practice statements were extracted from the literature and rated across eight areas of care (eg, receiving the right referrals, providing intervention). At the end of Round 1, 71 of the 74 statements were rated as appropriate, no statements were rated as inappropriate, and three statements were rated as uncertain. All 74 statements were then rated again in the face-to-face second round. 16 statements were added through splitting existing items or adding new statements. Seven statements were deleted leaving 83 statements. Agreement was reached for 82 of the final 83 statements. This national set of 82 best practice statements across eight care areas for the rehabilitation of people with aphasia is the first to be validated by an expert panel. These statements form a crucial component of the Australian Aphasia Rehabilitation Pathway (AARP) (http://www.aphasiapathway.com.au) and provide the basis for more consistent implementation of evidence-based practice in stroke rehabilitation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  20. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who

  1. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Kathryn J; Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Williams-Tchen, Aj

    2014-01-28

    It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37-41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members' satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who are developing mental illnesses or are in a

  2. Tracking Water-Use in Colorado's Energy Exploration and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halamka, T. A.; Ge, S.

    2017-12-01

    By the year 2050 Colorado's population is projected to nearly double, posing many important questions about the stresses that Colorado's water resources will experience. Growing in tandem with Colorado's population is the state's energy exploration and development industry. As water demands increase across the state, the energy exploration and development industry must adapt to and prepare for future difficulties surrounding the legal acquisition of water. The goal of this study is to map out the potential sources of water within the state of Colorado that are being purchased, or will be eligible for purchase, for unconventional subsurface energy extraction. The background of this study includes an overview of the intertwined relationship between water, the energy industry, and the Colorado economy. The project also aims to determine the original purpose of legally appropriated water that is used in Colorado's energy exploration and development. Is the water primarily being purchased or leased from the agricultural sector? Is the water mostly surface water or groundwater? In order to answer these questions, we accessed data from numerous water reporting agencies and examined legal methods of acquisition of water for use in the energy industry. Using these data, we assess the future water quantity available to the energy industry. Knowledge and foresight on the origins of the water used by the energy industry will allow for better and strategic planning of water resources and how the industry will respond to statewide water-related stresses.

  3. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  4. Development of a clinician reputation metric to identify appropriate problem-medication pairs in a crowdsourced knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allison B; Wright, Adam; Rogith, Deevakar; Fathiamini, Safa; Ottenbacher, Allison J; Sittig, Dean F

    2014-04-01

    Correlation of data within electronic health records is necessary for implementation of various clinical decision support functions, including patient summarization. A key type of correlation is linking medications to clinical problems; while some databases of problem-medication links are available, they are not robust and depend on problems and medications being encoded in particular terminologies. Crowdsourcing represents one approach to generating robust knowledge bases across a variety of terminologies, but more sophisticated approaches are necessary to improve accuracy and reduce manual data review requirements. We sought to develop and evaluate a clinician reputation metric to facilitate the identification of appropriate problem-medication pairs through crowdsourcing without requiring extensive manual review. We retrieved medications from our clinical data warehouse that had been prescribed and manually linked to one or more problems by clinicians during e-prescribing between June 1, 2010 and May 31, 2011. We identified measures likely to be associated with the percentage of accurate problem-medication links made by clinicians. Using logistic regression, we created a metric for identifying clinicians who had made greater than or equal to 95% appropriate links. We evaluated the accuracy of the approach by comparing links made by those physicians identified as having appropriate links to a previously manually validated subset of problem-medication pairs. Of 867 clinicians who asserted a total of 237,748 problem-medication links during the study period, 125 had a reputation metric that predicted the percentage of appropriate links greater than or equal to 95%. These clinicians asserted a total of 2464 linked problem-medication pairs (983 distinct pairs). Compared to a previously validated set of problem-medication pairs, the reputation metric achieved a specificity of 99.5% and marginally improved the sensitivity of previously described knowledge bases. A

  5. Development of a Culturally Appropriate Bilingual Electronic App About Hepatitis B for Indigenous Australians: Towards Shared Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jane; Bukulatjpi, Sarah; Sharma, Suresh; Caldwell, Luci; Johnston, Vanessa; Davis, Joshua Saul

    2015-06-10

    Hepatitis B is endemic in Indigenous communities in Northern Australia; however, there is a lack of culturally appropriate educational tools. Health care workers and educators in this setting have voiced a desire for visual, interactive tools in local languages. Mobile phones are increasingly used and available in remote Indigenous communities. In this context, we identified the need for a tablet-based health education app about hepatitis B, developed in partnership with an Australian remote Indigenous community. To develop a culturally appropriate bilingual app about hepatitis B for Indigenous Australians in Arnhem Land using a participatory action research (PAR) framework. This project was a partnership between the Menzies School of Health Research, Miwatj Aboriginal Health Corporation, Royal Darwin Hospital Liver Clinic, and Dreamedia Darwin. We have previously published a qualitative study that identified major knowledge gaps about hepatitis B in this community, and suggested that a tablet-based app would be an appropriate and popular tool to improve this knowledge. The process of developing the app was based on PAR principles, particularly ongoing consultation, evaluation, and discussion with the community throughout each iterative cycle. Stages included development of the storyboard, the translation process (forward translation and backtranslation), prelaunch community review, launch and initial community evaluation, and finally, wider launch and evaluation at a viral hepatitis conference. We produced an app called "Hep B Story" for use with iPad, iPhone, Android tablets, and mobile phones or personal computers. The app is culturally appropriate, audiovisual, interactive, and users can choose either English or Yolŋu Matha (the most common language in East Arnhem Land) as their preferred language. The initial evaluation demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in Hep B-related knowledge for 2 of 3 questions (P=.01 and .02, respectively) and

  6. Development and validation of Australian aphasia rehabilitation best practice statements using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Emma; Thomas, Emma; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Miranda; Togher, Leanne; Nickels, Lyndsey; Hersh, Deborah; Godecke, Erin; O'Halloran, Robyn; Lamont, Sue; O'Connor, Claire; Clarke, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate a national set of best practice statements for use in post-stroke aphasia rehabilitation. Design Literature review and statement validation using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RAM). Participants A national Community of Practice of over 250 speech pathologists, researchers, consumers and policymakers developed a framework consisting of eight areas of care in aphasia rehabilitation. This framework provided the structure for the development of a care pathway containing aphasia rehabilitation best practice statements. Nine speech pathologists with expertise in aphasia rehabilitation participated in two rounds of RAND/UCLA appropriateness ratings of the statements. Panellists consisted of researchers, service managers, clinicians and policymakers. Main outcome measures Statements that achieved a high level of agreement and an overall median score of 7–9 on a nine-point scale were rated as ‘appropriate’. Results 74 best practice statements were extracted from the literature and rated across eight areas of care (eg, receiving the right referrals, providing intervention). At the end of Round 1, 71 of the 74 statements were rated as appropriate, no statements were rated as inappropriate, and three statements were rated as uncertain. All 74 statements were then rated again in the face-to-face second round. 16 statements were added through splitting existing items or adding new statements. Seven statements were deleted leaving 83 statements. Agreement was reached for 82 of the final 83 statements. Conclusions This national set of 82 best practice statements across eight care areas for the rehabilitation of people with aphasia is the first to be validated by an expert panel. These statements form a crucial component of the Australian Aphasia Rehabilitation Pathway (AARP) (http://www.aphasiapathway.com.au) and provide the basis for more consistent implementation of evidence-based practice in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:26137883

  7. Development of the ELEX process for water detritiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Meynendonckx, L.; Parmentier, C.; Goossens, W.R.A.; Baetsle, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    The ELEX process which appears to be very suitable for the detritiation of CTR cooling water and wastewater, is based on the electrolysis of water and the catalytic exchange of tritium between hydrogen and water. The exchange is carried out in a simple countercurrent packed-bed reactor and it is promoted by a proprietary hydrophobic catalysts. After a study of the single constituent steps with a.o. the development of an appropriate hydrophobic catalyst, the integrated ELEX process was successfully demonstrated by detritiating more than 1000 dm 3 water in a 0.18 dm 3 h -1 bench-scale installation. (author)

  8. The appropriation and dismembering of development intervention : policy, discourse and practice in the field of rural development in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Mongbo, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This book concerns a Community Development Programme which provides a vehicle for a theoretical discussion of the reproduction of the discourse and practice of development intervention in general, and the concept of rural development as a field of social interaction in particular. The actions on which the theoretical discussion is based took place in various settings: in ministry offices, within the development intervention institution (the CARDER) and at village level. The Community...

  9. Developing spatial inequalities in carbon appropriation: a sociological analysis of changing local emissions across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, James R; Clement, Matthew Thomas

    2015-05-01

    This study examines an overlooked dynamic in sociological research on greenhouse gas emissions: how local areas appropriate the global carbon cycle for use and exchange purposes as they develop. Drawing on theories of place and space, we hypothesize that development differentially drives and spatially decouples use- and exchange-oriented emissions at the local level. To test our hypotheses, we integrate longitudinal, county-level data on residential and industrial emissions from the Vulcan Project with demographic, economic and environmental data from the U.S. Census Bureau and National Land Change Database. Results from spatial regression models with two-way fixed-effects indicate that alongside innovations and efficiencies capable of reducing environmentally harmful effects of development comes a spatial disarticulation between carbon-intensive production and consumption within as well as across societies. Implications for existing theory, methods and policy are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The appropriation and dismembering of development intervention : policy, discourse and practice in the field of rural development in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mongbo, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This book concerns a Community Development Programme which provides a vehicle for a theoretical discussion of the reproduction of the discourse and practice of development intervention in general, and the concept of rural development as a field of social interaction in particular. The

  11. [Potential of cooperative learning in project development : Relevance of cooperative participation procedure for the further development of generation-appropriate accomodation in structurally weak rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Gerd; Frankenberg, Olga; Sommer, Ralf-Rüdiger; Jost, Annemarie

    2017-04-01

    A joint initiative of existing senior care organizations, the municipality of Meyenburg and the state of Brandenburg was further developed by affiliation of an institute of the Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (ABV) in cooperation with members of the architecture and social work departments in 2014. A cooperative process between different players was central to create an appropriate structure of services for this region. Cooperative projects are necessary to establish new forms of generation-appropriate living and care concepts in rural areas. Cooperative learning methods are needed to develop new forms of generation-appropriate living and care concepts in rural areas, which take the diversity of elderly people, the rural context, intergenerational residential arrangements and affordable accommodation that meets the requirements of the social security system into account. Furthermore, the project had to reflect the recent developments of the German care insurance. The article describes the participatory methods, the coordination process and the resulting concept.

  12. Scaling-up Strategy as an Appropriate Approach for Sustainable New Town Development? Lessons from Wujin, Changzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available China has achieved rapid urbanization and unprecedented economic booming over the past three decades. Numerous cities and towns dreamed of cloning the miracles of Shenzhen and Pudong, Shanghai, in terms of their international development. However, inappropriate development strategies have meant that the majority of fast expanding urban suburbs or newly developed towns suffer a high ratio of vacant dwellings in real estate markets and a massive loss of farmland. The frequent exposure of these empty cities to mass media or the public has urged urban governments to impose fiscal austerity. These unexpected and negative consequences of urban development have explicit conflicts with sustainability. This paper aims to provide a political economy view of these unsustainable outcomes of new development. To achieve this, the processes and agendas of new city or town planning in Wujin District, Changzhou City, are analyzed and evaluated from the perspective of scale theory. Extensive interviews conducted with local politicians at different levels, planners, real estate agents and local residents facilitate the interpretation of these processes and agendas. It is argued that the legends of Shenzhen and Pudong, Shanghai originate from a modified neoliberal capitalism intervention at the right time and place, with which other peer cities are not comparable. It is concluded that the scaling-up strategy is not appropriate for the local new town development of Wujin, which has led to unsustainable outcomes—empty cities and towns—and created important lessons for the sustainable development of Chinese cities.

  13. Open source 3D printers: an appropriate technology for building low cost optics labs for the developing communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwamuri, J.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2017-08-01

    The recent introduction of RepRap (self-replicating rapid prototyper) 3-D printers and the resultant open source technological improvements have resulted in affordable 3-D printing, enabling low-cost distributed manufacturing for individuals. This development and others such as the rise of open source-appropriate technology (OSAT) and solar powered 3-D printing are moving 3-D printing from an industry based technology to one that could be used in the developing world for sustainable development. In this paper, we explore some specific technological improvements and how distributed manufacturing with open-source 3-D printing can be used to provide open-source 3-D printable optics components for developing world communities through the ability to print less expensive and customized products. This paper presents an open-source low cost optical equipment library which enables relatively easily adapted customizable designs with the potential of changing the way optics is taught in resource constraint communities. The study shows that this method of scientific hardware development has a potential to enables a much broader audience to participate in optical experimentation both as research and teaching platforms. Conclusions on the technical viability of 3-D printing to assist in development and recommendations on how developing communities can fully exploit this technology to improve the learning of optics through hands-on methods have been outlined.

  14. Constrained Appropriations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildermuth, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    cultures of media consumption which unify and divide Brazil's (urban) youth, attention is also given to an  understanding of the relationship between young people and media, as developed in concrete attempts to increase the cultural competences of young, ‘disprivileged' media consumers. The contribution......  A discussion of the contingent character of young Brazilian's media culture is the focus of my contribution's theoretical approach. Thus, while giving recognition to young people's active agency in the creation of media-centred lifestyles and youth cultures, I will seek to demonstrate...

  15. Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2006-06-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

  16. Water footprint characteristic of less developed water-rich regions: Case of Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yiying; Dong, Huijuan; Geng, Yong; Zhong, Shaozhuo; Tian, Xu; Yu, Yanhong; Chen, Yihui; Moss, Dana Avery

    2018-03-30

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization pose pressure on water resources in China. Virtual water trade proves to be an increasingly useful tool in water stress alleviation for water-scarce regions, while bringing opportunities and challenges for less developed water-rich regions. In this study, Yunnan, a typical province in southwest China, was selected as the case study area to explore its potential in socio-economic development in the context of water sustainability. Both input-output analysis and structural decomposition analysis on Yunnan's water footprint for the period of 2002-2012 were performed at not only an aggregated level but also a sectoral level. Results show that although the virtual water content of all economic sectors decreased due to technological progress, Yunnan's total water footprint still increased as a result of economic scale expansion. From the sectoral perspective, sectors with large water footprints include construction sector, agriculture sector, food manufacturing & processing sector, and service sector, while metal products sector and food manufacturing & processing sector were the major virtual water exporters, and textile & clothing sector and construction sector were the major importers. Based on local conditions, policy suggestions were proposed, including economic structure and efficiency optimization, technology promotion and appropriate virtual water trade scheme. This study provides valuable insights for regions facing "resource curse" by exploring potential socio-economic progress while ensuring water security. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Crop coefficient approaches based on fixed estimates of leaf resistance are not appropriate for estimating water use of citrus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, NJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available necessitates the use of water use models. The FAO-56 procedure is a simple, convenient and reproducible method, but as canopy cover and height vary greatly among different orchards, crop coefficients may not be readily transferrable from one orchard to another...

  18. Development Smart Water Aquaponics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contributes to the modeling aquaculture. The paper main objectives are to identify an analysis smart water aquaponics. The purpose is to add more value to end aquaponics products. Aquaculture production depends on physical, chemical and biological qualities of pond water to a greater extent. The successful pond management requires an understanding of water quality. Intensification of pond makes the water quality undesirable with a number of water quality parameters. The objective of this model is to test and predicts plant and fish growth and net ammonium and nitrate concentrations in water in an aquaponic system. This is done by comparing the model outputs with measurements under controlled conditions in order to assess the accuracy of the tool to simulate nutrient concentrations in water and fish and plant biomass production of the system.

  19. Identifying the appropriate time for deep brain stimulation to achieve spatial memory improvement on the Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jihyeon; Chang, Won Seok; Chang, Jin Woo

    2017-03-07

    The possibility of using deep brain stimulation (DBS) for memory enhancement has recently been reported, but the precise underlying mechanisms of its effects remain unknown. Our previous study suggested that spatial memory improvement by medial septum (MS)-DBS may be associated with cholinergic regulation and neurogenesis. However, the affected stage of memory could not be distinguished because the stimulation was delivered during the execution of all memory processes. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the stage of memory affected by MS-DBS. Rats were administered 192 IgG-saporin to lesion cholinergic neurons. Stimulation was delivered at different times in different groups of rats: 5 days before the Morris water maze test (pre-stimulation), 5 days during the training phase of the Morris water maze test (training-stimulation), and 2 h before the Morris water maze probe test (probe-stimulation). A fourth group of rats was lesioned but received no stimulation. These four groups were compared with a normal (control) group. The most effective memory restoration occurred in the pre-stimulation group. Moreover, the pre-stimulation group exhibited better recall of the platform position than the other stimulation groups. An increase in the level of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was observed in the pre-stimulation group; this increase was maintained for 1 week. However, acetylcholinesterase activity in the pre-stimulation group was not significantly different from the lesion group. Memory impairment due to cholinergic denervation can be improved by DBS. The improvement is significantly correlated with the up-regulation of BDNF expression and neurogenesis. Based on the results of this study, the use of MS-DBS during the early stage of disease may restore spatial memory impairment.

  20. The development of a theory-based intervention to promote appropriate disclosure of a diagnosis of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamford Claire

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development and description of interventions to change professional practice are often limited by the lack of an explicit theoretical and empirical basis. We set out to develop an intervention to promote appropriate disclosure of a diagnosis of dementia based on theoretical and empirical work. Methods We identified three key disclosure behaviours: finding out what the patient already knows or suspects about their diagnosis; using the actual words 'dementia' or 'Alzheimer's disease' when talking to the patient; and exploring what the diagnosis means to the patient. We conducted a questionnaire survey of older peoples' mental health teams (MHTs based upon theoretical constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT and used the findings to identify factors that predicted mental health professionals' intentions to perform each behaviour. We selected behaviour change techniques likely to alter these factors. Results The change techniques selected were: persuasive communication to target subjective norm; behavioural modelling and graded tasks to target self-efficacy; persuasive communication to target attitude towards the use of explicit terminology when talking to the patient; and behavioural modelling by MHTs to target perceived behavioural control for finding out what the patient already knows or suspects and exploring what the diagnosis means to the patient. We operationalised these behaviour change techniques using an interactive 'pen and paper' intervention designed to increase intentions to perform the three target behaviours. Conclusion It is feasible to develop an intervention to change professional behaviour based upon theoretical models, empirical data and evidence based behaviour change techniques. The next step is to evaluate the effect of such an intervention on behavioural intention. We argue that this approach to development and reporting of interventions will contribute to

  1. Regulation Development for Drinking Water Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explain what process and information underlies regulations including how the Safe Drinking Water Act applies to regulation development i.e. how does the drinking water law translate into regulations.

  2. MULTIPLE-PURPOSE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of cost allocations to various functions of .... approach of water resources development the most attractive and benefitial .... project plus a share of the "joint cost" which are the ... Pricing and Repayments American Water Re- sources ...

  3. Determining an appropriate method for the purpose of land allocation for ecotourism development (case study: Taleghan County, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliani, H; Kafaky, S Babaie; Saffari, A; Monavari, S M

    2016-11-01

    Appropriate management and planning of suitable areas for the development of ecotourism activities can play an important role in ensuring proper use of the environment. Due to the complexity of nature, applying different tools and models-particularly multi-criteria methods-can be useful in order to achieve these goals. In this study, to indicate suitable areas (land allocation) for ecotourism activities in Taleghan county, weighted linear combination (WLC) using geographical information system (GIS), fuzzy logic, and analytical network process (ANP) were used. To compare the applicability of each of these methods in achieving the goal, the results were compared with the previous model presented by Makhdoum. The results showed that the WLC and ANP methods are more efficient than the Makhdoum model in allocating lands for recreational areas and ecotourism purposes since concomitant use of fuzzy logic and ANP for ranking and weighing the criteria provides us with more flexible and logical conditions. Furthermore, the mentioned method makes it possible to involve ecological, economic, and social criteria simultaneously in the evaluation process in order to allocate land for ecotourism purposes.

  4. Dental Age Estimation (DAE): Data management for tooth development stages including the third molar. Appropriate censoring of Stage H, the final stage of tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Graham J; McDonald, Fraser; Andiappan, Manoharan; Lucas, Victoria S

    2015-11-01

    The final stage of dental development of third molars is usually helpful to indicate whether or not a subject is aged over 18 years. A complexity is that the final stage of development is unlimited in its upper border. Investigators usually select an inappropriate upper age limit or censor point for this tooth development stage. The literature was searched for appropriate data sets for dental age estimation and those that provided the count (n), the mean (x¯), and the standard deviation (sd) for each of the tooth development stages. The Demirjian G and Demirjian H were used for this study. Upper and lower limits of the Stage G and Stage H data were calculated limiting the data to plus or minus three standard deviations from the mean. The upper border of Stage H was limited by appropriate censoring at the maximum value for Stage G. The maximum age at attainment from published data, for Stage H, ranged from 22.60 years to 34.50 years. These data were explored to demonstrate how censoring provides an estimate for the correct maximum age for the final stage of Stage H as 21.64 years for UK Caucasians. This study shows that confining the data array of individual tooth developments stages to ± 3sd provides a reliable and logical way of censoring the data for tooth development stages with a Normal distribution of data. For Stage H this is inappropriate as it is unbounded in its upper limit. The use of a censored data array for Stage H using Percentile values is appropriate. This increases the reliability of using third molar Stage H alone to determine whether or not an individual is over 18 years old. For Stage H, individual ancestral groups should be censored using the same technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Ground-water development and problems in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1954-01-01

    The development of groundwater for irrigation in Idaho, as most of you know, has proceeded at phenomenal rate since the Second World War. In the period 1907 to 1944 inclusive only about 328 valid permits and licenses to appropriate ground water were issued by the state. thereafter 28 permits became valid in 1945, 83 in 1946, and 121 in 1947. Sine 1947 permits and licenses have been issued at the rate of more than 400 a year.  

  6. Synthesis of (E-2-Styrylchromones and Flavones by Base-Catalyzed Cyclodehydration of the Appropriate β-Diketones Using Water as Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Pinto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A low cost, safe, clean and environmentally benign base-catalyzed cyclodehydration of appropriate β-diketones affording (E-2-styrylchromones and flavones in good yields is disclosed. Water was used as solvent and the reactions were heated using classical and microwave heating methods, under open and closed vessel conditions. β-Diketones having electron-donating and withdrawing substituents were used to evaluate the reaction scope. The reaction products were isolated in high purity by simple filtration and recrystallization from ethanol, when using 800 mg of the starting diketone under classical reflux heating conditions.

  7. Sustainable Development of Africa's Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Narenda P. Sharma

    1996-01-01

    This study, African water resources: challenges and opportunities for sustainable management propose a long-term strategy for water resource management, emphasizing the socially sustainable development imperatives for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The message of this strategy is one of optimism - the groundwork already exists for the sustainable management of Africa's water resources. The stra...

  8. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  9. Development of specific water quality index for water supply in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Prakirake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the specific water quality index for assessing water quality in terms of water supply (WSI usage has been developed by using Delphi technique and its application in Thai rivers is proposed. The thirteen parameters including turbidity, DO, pH, NO3-N, TDS, FCB, Fe, color, BOD, Mn, NH3-N, hardness, and total PO4-P are employed for the estimation of water quality. The sub-index transformation curves are established for each variable to assess the variation in water quality level. An appropriate function to aggregate overall sub-indices was weighted Solway function that provided reasonableresults for reducing ambiguous and eclipsing effects for high and slightly polluted samples. The developed WSI couldbe applied to measure water quality into 5 levels - very good (85-100; good (80-<85; average (65-<80; poor (40-<65and very poor (<40. The proposed WSI could be used for evaluating water quality in terms of water supply. In addition, it could be used for analyzing long-term trait analysis and comparing water quality among different reaches of rivers or between different watersheds.

  10. Choosing the Right Words: The Development of Guidelines for the Selection of the "Appropriate" Crisis-Response Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, W. Timothy

    1995-01-01

    States that although crisis management has evolved rapidly in the past decade, the symbolic aspect of crisis management has been ignored. Indicates little research has been done to examine the effects of crisis-response strategies to see how they shape public opinion. Presents a list of guidelines for appropriate use of a given strategy (based on…

  11. Key Factors for the Development of a Culturally Appropriate Interactive Multimedia Informative Program for Aboriginal Health Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Faeka; Soar, Jeffrey; Wang, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to create and evaluate a model for a culturally appropriate, interactive, multimedia and informative health program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers that aims to improve the capacity to independently control their learning within an attractive learning environment. The research also aims to provide…

  12. Spatial patterns of development drive water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. M. Sanchez; J. W. Smith; A. Terando; G. Sun; R. K. Meentemeyer

    2018-01-01

    Water availability is becoming more uncertain as human populations grow, cities expand into rural regions and the climate changes. In this study, we examine the functional relationship between water use and the spatial patterns of developed land across the rapidly growing region of the southeastern United States. We quantified the spatial pattern of developed land...

  13. Water and development -the Pakistan case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinz, D.

    2005-01-01

    Water is needed in all aspects of life'. All five functions of water: subsistence, commercial, environmental, ecological and cultural functions, have to be taken into due consideration when taking decisions in any fields of 'development'. There will be no real, sustainable development without the three pillars: (1) justice within our own generation, (2) justice to future generations and (3) justice to nature. Some four trends can be identified for the 21st century which have a major impact on water use: (1) population growth, (2) urbanization, (3) global climate change and (4) economic growth and globalization. These four trends will bring about a steadily increasing water demand. Water has a key role not only in agriculture, energy, health and ecosystems, but also in combating poverty. On the other hand, poverty precludes people of thinking of tomorrow and planning for a sustainable future. Those who will suffer most in future will be the poorest people and the single greatest impact of water scarcity will be on the food supplies for the poor. A stable economic, social and environmental friendly development is feasible only with adequate water supply and therefore all instruments of water demand and supply management have to be used. In regard to water availability, Pakistan is a country of extremes, in space as well as in time and it is already facing the water crisis. This growing crisis in form of lack of adequate and affordable supplies of good quality water does affect agricultural production, industry, but causes health and sanitation problems, too. There is no doubt that socio-economic development is unthinkable without significant progress in water management, including water supply to cities and improved sanitation. There is a need for better, integrated resource management, giving water conservation the key role it deserves. (author)

  14. Spatial Patterns of Development Drive Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, G. M.; Smith, J. W.; Terando, A.; Sun, G.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2018-03-01

    Water availability is becoming more uncertain as human populations grow, cities expand into rural regions and the climate changes. In this study, we examine the functional relationship between water use and the spatial patterns of developed land across the rapidly growing region of the southeastern United States. We quantified the spatial pattern of developed land within census tract boundaries, including multiple metrics of density and configuration. Through non-spatial and spatial regression approaches we examined relationships and spatial dependencies between the spatial pattern metrics, socio-economic and environmental variables and two water use variables: a) domestic water use, and b) total development-related water use (a combination of public supply, domestic self-supply and industrial self-supply). Metrics describing the spatial patterns of development had the highest measure of relative importance (accounting for 53% of model's explanatory power), explaining significantly more variance in water use compared to socio-economic or environmental variables commonly used to estimate water use. Integrating metrics characterizing the spatial pattern of development into water use models is likely to increase their utility and could facilitate water-efficient land use planning.

  15. The appropriateness of the systematic framework to develop diagnosis procedures of nuclear power plants-an experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2006-01-01

    It has been well recognized that a diagnosis procedure that allows operators to successfully identify the nature of an on-going event is inevitable for an effective and appropriate recovery. Unfortunately, studies for a framework that can suggest a unified and consistent process in constructing a serviceable diagnosis procedure seem to be scant. Thus, Park et al. have suggested a systematic framework that can be used to construct a useful diagnosis procedure. In addition, the diagnosis procedure that is currently in use at the reference nuclear power plant (NPP) is reformed in order to demonstrate the appropriateness of the suggested framework. However, the necessity of a well-designed experiment is proposed to confirm the appropriateness of the suggested framework. In this regard, in this study, an experiment is conducted using a full-scope simulator of the reference NPP. From the experiment, two sets of operators' diagnosis performance data are collected, and then they are compared to investigate the change of an operator's diagnosis performance with respect to two types of diagnosis procedures. As a result, it is shown that an operator's diagnosis performance is improved when the revised diagnosis procedure is used. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that the suggested framework is useful in constructing an effective diagnosis procedure

  16. The need for (further) development of water treatment processes against the background of the European water outline regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, S.; Boerke, P.; Abo-Rady, M.; Engelmann, U.; Felix, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the German state of Sachsen, large areas have been contaminated by coal, lignite and uranium mining. Pollutants like sulfate, chloride, heavy metals and radionuclides are emitted into groundwater and surface water. Regeneration of the water according to the European Water Directive (EG-WRRL) can be achieved only by (further) development of passive water treatment methods. This means that pollutants, seepage mechanisms and experience so far must be revisited. Exemplary technologies are presented which are low-cost, sustainable and appropriate for the conditions prevailing in Sachsen. Areas that require further investigation are defined, and it is shown how the European water standards may be achieved. (orig.)

  17. Pakistan's Water Challenges: A Human Development Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shezad (Shafqat); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper gives an overview of the human and social dimensions of Pakistan’s water policies to provide the basis for water-related policy interventions that contribute to the country’s human development, with special attention being given to the concerns of women and the

  18. MULTIPLE-PURPOSE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of cost allocations to various functions of the multiple-purpose development and calls for giving ... An appraisal of water resource must consider surface as well as ground water supplies in terms of location, .... as such a very satisfactory method of cost allocation that would be equally applicable to all projects and.

  19. Spatial patterns of development drive water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, G.M.; Smith, J.W.; Terando, Adam J.; Sun, G.; Meentemeyer, R.K.

    2018-01-01

    Water availability is becoming more uncertain as human populations grow, cities expand into rural regions and the climate changes. In this study, we examine the functional relationship between water use and the spatial patterns of developed land across the rapidly growing region of the southeastern United States. We quantified the spatial pattern of developed land within census tract boundaries, including multiple metrics of density and configuration. Through non‐spatial and spatial regression approaches we examined relationships and spatial dependencies between the spatial pattern metrics, socio‐economic and environmental variables and two water use variables: a) domestic water use, and b) total development‐related water use (a combination of public supply, domestic self‐supply and industrial self‐supply). Metrics describing the spatial patterns of development had the highest measure of relative importance (accounting for 53% of model's explanatory power), explaining significantly more variance in water use compared to socio‐economic or environmental variables commonly used to estimate water use. Integrating metrics characterizing the spatial pattern of development into water use models is likely to increase their utility and could facilitate water‐efficient land use planning.

  20. Facing the water barrier | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A world "water crisis" is poised to deliver its most devastating blow to the Middle ... across the region is needed to deepen knowledge, develop research tools, and ... issues as privatization, wastewater reuse, and participatory management.

  1. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Megan; Caylor, Kelly

    2014-05-01

    A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit `infrastructure sharing' across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tends to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.

  2. Shale Gas Development and Drinking Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elaine; Ma, Lala

    2017-05-01

    The extent of environmental externalities associated with shale gas development (SGD) is important for welfare considerations and, to date, remains uncertain (Mason, Muehlenbachs, and Olmstead 2015; Hausman and Kellogg 2015). This paper takes a first step to address this gap in the literature. Our study examines whether shale gas development systematically impacts public drinking water quality in Pennsylvania, an area that has been an important part of the recent shale gas boom. We create a novel dataset from several unique sources of data that allows us to relate SGD to public drinking water quality through a gas well's proximity to community water system (CWS) groundwater source intake areas.1 We employ a difference-in-differences strategy that compares, for a given CWS, water quality after an increase in the number of drilled well pads to background levels of water quality in the geographic area as measured by the impact of more distant well pads. Our main estimate finds that drilling an additional well pad within 1 km of groundwater intake locations increases shale gas-related contaminants by 1.5–2.7 percent, on average. These results are striking considering that our data are based on water sampling measurements taken after municipal treatment, and suggest that the health impacts of SGD 1 A CWS is defined as the subset of public water systems that supplies water to the same population year-round. through water contamination remains an open question.

  3. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit "infrastructure sharing" across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tend to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.

  4. Preserving Food by Drying. A Math/Science Teaching Manual. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual No. M-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Cynthia; And Others

    This manual presents a design for teaching science principles and mathematics concepts through a sequence of activities concentrating on weather, solar food dryers, and nutrition. Part I focuses on the effect of solar energy on air and water, examining the concepts of evaporation, condensation, radiation, conduction, and convection. These concepts…

  5. Energy and water development appropriations for 1987. Part 9. Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Part nine of the hearing record covers testimony pertaining to activities of DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Seven witnesses from DOE, including representatives of the Richland and Savannah River facilities, testified on the safety of US reactors in response to concerns about the Chernobyl accident. At issue was whether US research or power reactors are vulnerable to a similar kind of accident. Witnesses noted DOE's safety record, its recent reviews of oversight procedures, and modifications to correct possible weaknesses in those procedures. Technical safety appraisals at Savannah River were made earlier than originally planned, and other studies will be conducted to ensure that design and engineering will minimize the possibility of an accident. NRC Commissioners and regulators testified at the second day of hearings to describe its efforts to understand what happened at Chernobyl and to outline the differences between the Soviet and US reactors

  6. Energy and water development appropriations for 1987. Part 6. Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Part 6 of the record covers testimony on the budgets and spending needs of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, DOE departmental administration, Power Marketing Administration, and atomic energy defense activities. The latter included testimony from those involved in the Naval Nuclear Propulsion and other nuclear materials and defense programs. Officials of each of the agencies or departments reviewed their budgets in terms of their performance as well as their contribution to the deficit-reducing effort. Documentation supplements each portion of the hearing record

  7. Water for development. World Water 2002 points to mounting challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickwood, P.

    2002-01-01

    A looming crisis that overshadows nearly two-thirds of the Earth's population is drawing closer because of continued human mismanagement of water, population growth and changing weather patterns. In a joint statement, United Nations organizations drew attention to problems on the occasion of World Water Day 22 March 2002, for which the IAEA was the lead coordinating agency. By 2025, if present consumption patterns continue, about five billion people will be living in areas where it will be difficult or impossible to meet all their needs for fresh water. Half of them will face severe shortages. The UN organizations said that the implications will be extreme for the people most affected, who are among the world's poorest, limiting their ability to grow crops, which they need to survive, heightening disease and threatening States' national security. In the UN Millennium Declaration world leaders made a commitment to halve the number of people without access to safe and affordable water. In his World Water Day address, the UN Secretary General reported that, increasingly, countries with expertise in the management of watersheds and flood-plains, or with experience in efficient irrigation, are sharing the knowledge with others. The IAEA is among UN agencies offering a wide array of responses to the crisis, providing Member States with skills to apply isotope hydrology, to better manage groundwater. The technique permits reliable and rapid mapping of underground water sources so that they can be used safely without being exhausted. The IAEA also fosters the development of desalination to turn salt water into sweet water

  8. A novel two-stage evaluation system based on a Group-G1 approach to identify appropriate emergency treatment technology schemes in sudden water source pollution accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Hu, Qi; You, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Sudden water source pollution resulting from hazardous materials has gradually become a major threat to the safety of the urban water supply. Over the past years, various treatment techniques have been proposed for the removal of the pollutants to minimize the threat of such pollutions. Given the diversity of techniques available, the current challenge is how to scientifically select the most desirable alternative for different threat degrees. Therefore, a novel two-stage evaluation system was developed based on a circulation-correction improved Group-G1 method to determine the optimal emergency treatment technology scheme, considering the areas of contaminant elimination in both drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, the threat degree caused by the pollution was predicted using a threat evaluation index system and was subdivided into four levels. Then, a technique evaluation index system containing four sets of criteria weights was constructed in stage 2 to obtain the optimum treatment schemes corresponding to the different threat levels. The applicability of the established evaluation system was tested by a practical cadmium-contaminated accident that occurred in 2012. The results show this system capable of facilitating scientific analysis in the evaluation and selection of emergency treatment technologies for drinking water source security.

  9. Guidelines for Management Consulting Programs for Small-Scale Enterprise. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Gary L.

    This manual is designed to assist management consultants in working with small-scale entrepreneurs in developing countries. Addressed in an overview of the small-scale enterprise (SSE) are: the role of the SSE in third world development, problems of SSEs, and target firms. The second chapter deals with various forms of management assistance to…

  10. Development of a Portable Water Quality Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán COMINA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A portable water analyzer based on a voltammetric electronic tongue has been developed. The system uses an electrochemical cell with two working electrodes as sensors, a computer controlled potentiostat, and software based on multivariate data analysis for pattern recognition. The system is suitable to differentiate laboratory made and real in-situ river water samples contaminated with different amounts of Escherichia coli. This bacteria is not only one of the main indicators for water quality, but also a main concern for public health, affecting especially people living in high-burden, resource-limiting settings.

  11. An overview of water disinfection in developing countries and the potential for solar thermal water pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Thomas, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    This study originated within the Solar Buildings Program at the U.S. Department of Energy. Its goal is to assess the potential for solar thermal water disinfection in developing countries. In order to assess solar thermal potential, the alternatives must be clearly understood and compared. The objectives of the study are to: (a) characterize the developing world disinfection needs and market; (b) identify competing technologies, both traditional and emerging; (c) analyze and characterize solar thermal pasteurization; (d) compare technologies on cost-effectiveness and appropriateness; and (e) identify research opportunities. Natural consequences of the study beyond these objectives include a broad knowledge of water disinfection problems and technologies, introduction of solar thermal pasteurization technologies to a broad audience, and general identification of disinfection opportunities for renewable technologies.

  12. Appropriate Technology as Indian Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    Describes the mounting enthusiasm of Indian communities for appropriate technology as an inexpensive means of providing much needed energy and job opportunities. Describes the development of several appropriate technology projects, and the goals and activities of groups involved in utilizing low scale solar technology for economic development on…

  13. Technology development for indigenous water lubricated bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limaye, P.K.; Soni, N.L.; Agrawal, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Water Lubricated Bearings (WLB) are used in various mechanisms of fuel handling systems of PHWRs and AHWR. Availability and random failures of these bearings was a major factor in refuelling operations. Indigenous development of these bearings was taken up and 7 types of antifriction bearings in various sizes (totaling 37 variants) for PHWR, AHWR and Dhruva applications were successfully developed. This paper deals with various aspects of WLB development. (author)

  14. Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

  15. Guiding Biliteracy Development: Appropriating Cross-Linguistic and Conceptual Knowledge to Sustain Second-Language Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Huerta, Mary Esther

    2012-01-01

    To examine the second-language reading development of 45 fourth-grade Latino bilinguals, a sequential mixed methods study was conducted in two phases (Creswell, 2009). The quantitative data collected in the first phase generated an index of the group's reading performance based on two grade-level assessments, a state-mandated standardized reading…

  16. English/Spanish Glossary of Health and Nutrition Terms. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint Series R-54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This glossary was developed to aid English-speaking health workers in Guatemala in translating health and nutrition terms from English to Spanish. Because Guatemala is renowned for its extensive vocabulary of "modismos", or slang, a column has been added to facilitate adaptation of the glossary to regional variations. The terms in the…

  17. Culturally Appropriate Photonovel Development and Process Evaluation for Hepatitis B Prevention in Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese American Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Yoon, Hyeyeon; Chen, Lu; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans have disproportionately high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States and yet have low hepatitis B screening and vaccination rates. We developed three photonovels specifically designed for Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans and evaluated their cultural relevance and effectiveness in increasing…

  18. Soils, Crops and Fertilizer Use. A What, How and Why Guide. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, David

    This manual, prepared for use by Peace Corps volunteers in developing countries, has been designed as an on-the-job reference for soil management and fertilizer use at the small farmer level. It provides information on yield-boosting techniques, especially in the areas of soil conservation, organic and chemical fertilizer use, and the safe and…

  19. Development of microcontroller based water flow measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Muhammad Miftahul; Surachman, Arif; Fathonah, Indra Wahyudin; Billah, Muhammad Aziz; Khairurrijal, Mahfudz, Hernawan; Rimawan, Ririn; Lestari, Slamet

    2015-04-01

    A digital instrument for measuring water flow was developed using an AT89S52 microcontroller, DS1302 real time clock (RTC), and EEPROM for an external memory. The sensor used for probing the current was a propeller that will rotate if immersed in a water flow. After rotating one rotation, the sensor sends one pulse and the number of pulses are counted for a certain time of counting. The measurement data, i.e. the number of pulses per unit time, are converted into water flow velocity (m/s) through a mathematical formula. The microcontroller counts the pulse sent by the sensor and the number of counted pulses are stored into the EEPROM memory. The time interval for counting is provided by the RTC and can be set by the operator. The instrument was tested under various time intervals ranging from 10 to 40 seconds and several standard propellers owned by Experimental Station for Hydraulic Structure and Geotechnics (BHGK), Research Institute for Water Resources (Pusair). Using the same propellers and water flows, it was shown that water flow velocities obtained from the developed digital instrument and those found by the provided analog one are almost similar.

  20. Knowledge-based Economy, an Appropriate Response to Organizational Change Pressures, with a View to Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela Lazar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development of organizations within knowledge-based economy, in which knowledge represents the main priority, should focus on finding solutions for the intelligent management of the limited resources, especially through organizational change and its constant assessment as a long-term impact solution. The transition of organizations to the principles of knowledge-based economy involves a major change in organizational culture. The dynamism and complexity of the new type of society, which implies a higher and more diverse level of training, together with a continuous superior training of the workforce, increasing investment in research and development and, not least, a growing volume and a diversification of information, all these represent, chained together, an element of well-being for the future generations. The introductory section summarizes the concept of sustainability and places the development of companies and economies they aggregate, in a contemporary context of organizational change pressures, on the principles of the knowledge-based economy as the only resource, virtually inexhaustible in the long-term, and which leads to a sustainable development. There follows a methodological section, consisting in the instrumental description of the method of work and in reference to the database, thus providing the theoretical and practical foundation for the confrontation between the sustainable development index (SDI in Romania and in the European Union (EU. The results and discussion section of the paper includes a confrontation between the sustainable development of Romania and that of the European Union, drawing on the SDI for each case. This statistical tool was calculated starting from the values of several statistical indicators (available in EUROSTAT statistics, issued from four information subsystems (an economic one, a social one and an environment one as major subsystems of sustainable development, to which was added

  1. Grazing and Rangeland Development for Livestock Production. A Handbook for Volunteers. Agriculture Technology for Developing Countries. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Howard B.; And Others

    This handbook, developed for training Peace Corps volunteers, reviews the basic principles that underlie sound grazing land management and indicates the application of these principles for livestock production in the tropics and subtropics. The handbook is made up of three technical series bulletins. The first bulletin covers management of…

  2. A simple and cost-effective method, as an appropriate alternative for visible spectrophotometry: development of a dopamine biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, Abdolkarim; Khajehzadeh, Abdolreza; Ghaffarinejad, Ali

    2009-08-01

    In this study, a new, simple, fast and inexpensive method as an alternative to visible spectrophotometry is developed. In this method the cells containing the sample solution were scanned with a scanner, then the color of each cell was analyzed with software written in visual basic (VB 6) media to red, green and blue values. The cells were built by creating holes in the Plexiglas sheet. The dimensions of identical cells were examined by Cr (III) solution with known concentrations. The validity of this new method was studied by determination of dopamine (DA) without using any other reagent. The parameters which affect the system were optimized. The comparison between the current and traditional UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods was studied and the results revealed similar trends in both methods. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of dopamine in serum and urine without using any pretreatment. Finally comparing the results obtained in the developed method showed that microwave irradiation of the solution can decrease the experimental time, increase sensitivity and improve the limit of detection.

  3. Validation of Tuba1a as Appropriate Internal Control for Normalization of Gene Expression Analysis during Mouse Lung Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Mehta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The expression ratio between the analysed gene and an internal control gene is the most widely used normalization method for quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR expression analysis. The ideal reference gene for a specific experiment is the one whose expression is not affected by the different experimental conditions tested. In this study, we validate the applicability of five commonly used reference genes during different stages of mouse lung development. The stability of expression of five different reference genes (Tuba1a, Actb Gapdh, Rn18S and Hist4h4 was calculated within five experimental groups using the statistical algorithm of geNorm software. Overall, Tuba1a showed the least variability in expression among the different stages of lung development, while Hist4h4 and Rn18S showed the maximum variability in their expression. Expression analysis of two lung specific markers, surfactant protein C (SftpC and Clara cell-specific 10 kDA protein (Scgb1a1, normalized to each of the five reference genes tested here, confirmed our results and showed that incorrect reference gene choice can lead to artefacts. Moreover, a combination of two internal controls for normalization of expression analysis during lung development will increase the accuracy and reliability of results.

  4. Development and validation of hospital information system-generated indicators of the appropriateness of oral anticoagulant prescriptions in hospitalised adults: the PACHA study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Monéger, Aurélie; Thiessard, Frantz; Jouhet, Vianney; Noize, Pernelle; Berdaï, Driss; Kret, Marion; Sitta, Rémi; Salmi, Louis-Rachid; Saillour-Glénisson, Florence

    2017-08-31

    The appropriateness of oral anticoagulant prescriptions is a major challenge to improve quality and safety of care. As indicators of the appropriateness of oral anticoagulant prescriptions are lacking, the aim of the study is to develop and validate a panel of such indicators, in hospitalised adults, from the hospital information system of two university hospitals in France. The study will be carried out in four steps: (1) a literature review to identify indicators of the appropriateness of oral anticoagulant prescriptions and their conditions of appropriateness; (2) a Delphi consensus method to assess the potential utility and operational implementation of the selected indicators; (3) techniques of medical data search to implement indicators from the hospital information system and; (4) a cross-sectional study to assess the ability of indicators to detect inappropriate oral anticoagulant prescriptions, performance of medical data search techniques for tracking or retrieving information and the ability of tools to be transferred into other institutions. The fourth step will include up to 80 patient hospital stays for each indicator, depending on the prevalence of inappropriate prescriptions estimated in interim analyses. This work addresses the current lack of quality indicators of the appropriateness of oral anticoagulant prescriptions. We aim to develop and validate such indicators for integrating them into hospital clinical practice, as part of a structured approach to improve quality and safety of care. As each hospital information system is different, we will propose tools transferable to other healthcare institutions to allow an automated construction of these indicators. The PACHA study protocol was approved by institutional review boards and ethics committees (CPP Sud-Ouest et Outre Mer III-DC 2016/119; CPP Ile-de-France II-CDW_2016_0014). Clinical Trial.gov registration: NCT02898090. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  5. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K K; Kim, D H; Weon, D Y; Yoon, S W; Song, H R [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  6. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  7. OPTIONS FOR USE OF APPROPRIATE ANTICOAGULANT THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH THERMAL INJURY WITH A HIGH RISK OF THROMBOEMBOLIC COMPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATED WITH RECURRENT INTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Patients with major thermal injury require anticoagulant therapy during almost the whole period of the burn disease, forcing the physician to balance constantly between the risk of possible bleeding associated with surgical treatment and the risk of thrombosis development in patients demonstrating a number of factors predisposing to the development of VTС. We report a clinical case of appropriate anticoagulant therapy using the new oral anticoagulants in a patient with a high risk of VTС development and recurrent bleeding from the tumor of the ascending colon. 

  8. Child development assessment tools in low-income and middle-income countries: how can we use them more appropriately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanathan, Saraswathy; Wills, Bridget; Gladstone, Melissa

    2015-05-01

    Global emphasis has shifted beyond reducing child survival rates to improving health and developmental trajectories in childhood. Optimum early childhood experience is believed to allow children to benefit fully from educational opportunities resulting in improved human capital. Investment in early childhood initiatives in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) is increasing. These initiatives use early childhood developmental assessment tools (CDATs) as outcome measures. CDATs are also key measures in the evaluation of programmatic health initiatives in LMICs, influencing public health policy. Interpretation of CDAT outcomes requires understanding of their structure and psychometric properties. This article reviews the structure and main methods of CDAT development with specific considerations when applied in LMICs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Development of an unsteady wake theory appropriate for aeroelastic analyses of rotors in hover and forward flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research is the development of an unsteady aerodynamic model for rotors such that it can be used in conventional aeroelastic analysis (e.g., eigenvalue determination and control system design). For this to happen, the model must be in a state-space formulation such that the states of the flow can be defined, calculated and identified as part of the analysis. The fluid mechanics of the problem is given by a closed-form inversion of an acceleration potential. The result is a set of first-order differential equations in time for the unknown flow coefficients. These equations are hierarchical in the sense that they may be truncated at any number of radial or azimuthal terms.

  10. CareTrack Kids—part 1. Assessing the appropriateness of healthcare delivered to Australian children: study protocol for clinical indicator development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Louise K; Hooper, Tamara D; Hibbert, Peter D; White, Les; Mealing, Nicole; Jaffe, Adam; Cowell, Christopher T; Runciman, William B; Goldstein, Stan; Hallahan, Andrew R; Wakefield, John G; Murphy, Elisabeth; Lau, Annie; Wheaton, Gavin; Williams, Helena M; Hughes, Clifford; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the widespread availability of clinical guidelines, considerable gaps remain between the care that is recommended (appropriate care) and the care provided. This protocol describes a research methodology to develop clinical indicators for appropriate care for common paediatric conditions. Methods and analysis We will identify conditions amenable to population-level appropriateness of care research and develop clinical indicators for each condition. Candidate conditions have been identified from published research; burden of disease, prevalence and frequency of presentation data; and quality of care priority lists. Clinical indicators will be developed through searches of national and international guidelines, and formatted with explicit criteria for inclusion, exclusion, time frame and setting. Experts will review the indicators using a wiki-based approach and modified Delphi process. A formative evaluation of the wiki process will be undertaken. Ethics and dissemination Human Research Ethics Committee approvals have been received from Sydney Children's Hospital Network, Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, and the Women's and Children's Health Network (South Australia). Applications are under review with Macquarie University and the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. We will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and offer national and international presentations. PMID:25854976

  11. Dissolution rate enhancement of the poorly water-soluble drug Tibolone using PVP, SiO2, and their nanocomposites as appropriate drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Sofia; Bikiaris, Dimitrios

    2009-09-01

    Creation of immediate release formulations for the poorly water-soluble drug Tibolone through the use of solid dispersions (SDs). SD systems of Tibolone (Tibo) with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), fumed SiO(2) nanoparticles, and their corresponding ternary systems (PVP/SiO(2)/Tibo) were prepared and studied in order to produce formulations with enhanced drug dissolution rates. The prepared SDs were characterized by the use of differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffractometry techniques. Also dissolution experiments were performed. From the results it was concluded that PVP as well as SiO(2) can be used as appropriate carriers for the amorphization of Tibo, even when the drug is used at high concentrations (20-30%, w/w). This is due to the evolved interactions taking place between the drug and the used carriers, as was verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. At higher concentrations the drug was recrystallized. Similar are the observations on the ternary PVP/SiO(2)/Tibo SDs. The dissolution profiles of the drug in PVP/Tibo and SiO(2)/Tibo SDs are directly dependent on the physical state of the drug. Immediately release rates are observed in SD with low drug concentrations, in which Tibo was in amorphous state. However, these release profiles are drastically changed in the ternary PVP/SiO(2)/Tibo SDs. An immediate release profile is observed for low drug concentrations and an almost sustained release as the concentration of Tibo increases. This is due to the weak interactions that take place between PVP and SiO(2), which result in alterations of the characteristics of the carrier (PVP/SiO(2) nanocomposites). Immediate release formulation was created for Tibolone as well as new nanocomposite matrices of PVP/SiO((2)), which drastically change the release profile of the drug to a sustained delivery.

  12. Developments in nuclear power plant water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruzetti, K.; Wood, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the changing role of water chemistry in current operation of nuclear power plants. Water chemistry was sometimes perceived as the cause of materials problems, such as denting in PWR steam generators and intergranular stress corrosion cracking in BWRs. However, starting in the last decade, new chemistry options have been introduced to mitigate stress corrosion cracking and reduce fuel performance concerns. In BWRs and PWRs alike, water chemistry has evolved to successfully mitigate many problems as they have developed. The increasing complexity of the chemistry alternatives, coupled with the pressures to increase output and reduce costs, have demonstrated the need for new approaches to managing plant chemistry, which are addressed in the final part of this paper. (orig.)

  13. Development of Water Resources Drought Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B. P. T.; Chen, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    Signs of impending drought are often vague and result from hydrologic uncertainty. Because of this, determining the appropriate time to enforce water supply restrictions is difficult. This study proposes a drought early warning index (DEWI) that can help water resource managers to anticipate droughts so that preparations can be made to mitigate the impact of water shortages. This study employs the expected-deficit-rate of normal water supply conditions as the drought early warning index. An annual-use-reservoir-based water supply system in southern Taiwan was selected as the case study. The water supply simulation was based on reservoir storage at the evaluation time and the reservoir inflow series to cope with the actual water supply process until the end of the hydrologic year. A variety of deficits could be realized during different hydrologic years of records and assumptions of initial reservoir storage. These deficits are illustrated using the Average Shortage Rate (ASR) and the value of the ASR, namely the DEWI. The ASR is divided into 5 levels according to 5 deficit-tolerance combinations of each kind of annual demand. A linear regression model and a Neuro-Fuzzy Computing Technique model were employed to estimate the DEWI using selected factors deduced from supply-demand traits and available information, including: rainfall, reservoir inflow and storage data. The chosen methods mentioned above are used to explain a significant index is useful for both model development and decision making. Tests in the Tsengwen-Wushantou reservoir system showed this DEWI to perform very well in adopting the proper mitigation policy at the end of the wet season.

  14. Managing water pressure for water savings in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... effort into providing customers with a reliable level of service, often via poor water ... budgets. There are many factors contributing to water losses in water .... given relationship does not reflect the impact of pressure on.

  15. ACR appropriateness criteria jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Tasneem; Couto, Corey A; Rosen, Max P; Baker, Mark E; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Fidler, Jeff L; Greene, Frederick L; Hindman, Nicole M; Katz, Douglas S; Kaur, Harmeet; Miller, Frank H; Qayyum, Aliya; Small, William C; Sudakoff, Gary S; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yarmish, Gail M; Yee, Judy

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental consideration in the workup of a jaundiced patient is the pretest probability of mechanical obstruction. Ultrasound is the first-line modality to exclude biliary tract obstruction. When mechanical obstruction is present, additional imaging with CT or MRI can clarify etiology, define level of obstruction, stage disease, and guide intervention. When mechanical obstruction is absent, additional imaging can evaluate liver parenchyma for fat and iron deposition and help direct biopsy in cases where underlying parenchymal disease or mass is found. Imaging techniques are reviewed for the following clinical scenarios: (1) the patient with painful jaundice, (2) the patient with painless jaundice, and (3) the patient with a nonmechanical cause for jaundice. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanotechnology for potable water and general consumption in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hillie, T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available that affect people in developing and developed countries. The challenges outlined are; poor governance, water scarcity, sanitation and climate change. Nanotechnology is sufficiently advanced to help provide potable water and water for general assumption...

  17. Isotope techniques in water resources development 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Water resources are scarce in many parts of the world. Often, the only water resource is groundwater. Overuse usually invites a rapid decline in groundwater resources which are recharged insufficiently, or not at all, by prevailing climatic conditions. These and other problems currently encountered in hydrology and associated environmental fields have prompted an increasing demand for the utilization of isotope methods. Such methods have been recognized as being indispensable for solving problems such as the identification of pollution sources, characterization of palaeowater resources, evaluation of recharge and evaporative discharge under arid and semi-arid conditions, reconstruction of past climates, study of the interrelationships between surface and groundwater, dating of groundwater and validation of contaminant transport models. Moreover, in combination with other hydrogeological and geochemical methods, isotope techniques can provide useful hydrological information, such as data on the origin, replenishment and dynamics of groundwater. It was against this background that the International Atomic Energy Agency, in co-operation with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences, organized this symposium on the Use of Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development, which took place in Vienna from 11 to 15 March 1991. The main themes of the symposium were the use of isotope techniques in solving practical problems of water resources assessment and development, particularly with respect to groundwater protection, and in studying environmental problems related to water, including palaeohydrological and palaeoclimatological problems. A substantial part of the oral presentations was concerned with the present state and trends in groundwater dating, and with some methodological aspects. These proceedings contain the papers of 37 oral and the extended synopses of 47 poster

  18. Selection of appropriate medial branch of the optic tract by fibres of ventral retinal origin during development and in regeneration: an autoradiographic study in Xenopus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straznicky, C.; Gaze, R.M.; Horder, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of the branches of the optic tract has been studied with the use of [ 3 H] -proline autoradiography, during development and during regeneration of the optic nerve in Xenopus with one compound ventral (VV) eye made by the embryonic fusion of two ventral eye fragments. The formation of the optic pathway was abnormal in that the lateral branch failed to develop, suggesting that fibres from a VV retina selectively entered the tectum via the medial branch during development. Three months after section of the optic nerve of a VV eye, regenerated fibres were present both in the contralateral and ipsilateral tecta. On the ipsilateral side regenerated fibres entered the tectum via the medial branch only. Retinal fibres entered the contralateral tectum through both branches in some animals and through the medial branch only in others. It is concluded that mechanical factors alone are insufficient to explain the phenomenon of selection of the appropriate medial branch fibres of ventral retinal origin either during development or in regeneration. Some form of fibre-substrate interaction seems to be necessary; and this ability of fibres from a VV eye to take the path appropriate for ventral retina argues strongly that the VV eye is not a regulated system in terms of cell specificities. 8author)

  19. Development trends in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelstroem, L.; Simon, M.

    1988-01-01

    The present market for new nuclear power plants is weak, but is expected to pick up again, which is why great efforts are being made to further develop the light water reactor line for future applications. There is both a potential and a need for further improvement, for instance with respect to even higher cost efficiency, a simplified operating permit procedure, shorter construction periods, and increased operational flexibility to meet rising demands in load following behavior and in better cycle data of fuel elements. However, also public acceptance must not be forgotten when deciding about the line to be followed in the development of LWR technology. (orig.) [de

  20. Household water treatment and the millennium development goals: keeping the focus on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F

    2010-10-01

    Waterborne diseases such as diarrhea are a major killer in low-income settings, particularly of young children. For those without access to safe drinking water, household water treatment, such as boiling, chlorinating, and filtering water in the home, when combined with safe storage (HWTS) can significantly improve water quality and prevent disease, thereby contributing to the child survival and other health priorities encompassed within the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). There is uncertainly, however, about whether HWTS should count toward the MDG water target, which promotes "sustainable access to safe drinking water". This paper reviews the relevant research and concludes that it should not. Although HWTS can significantly improve water quality, it does not improve water quantity and access-key aspects of the MDG water target that are essential for optimal improvements in health and development. A policy that excludes HWTS from the MDG water target will discourage governments from diverting scarce public resources from comprehensive and long-term improvements in water supplies. At the same time, the health-oriented MDGs provide a sufficient case for scaling up effective and appropriate HWTS among target populations. Moreover, a health-based strategy for HWTS will help ensure that promotion of the intervention is driven by measurable improvements in outcomes rather than inputs, thus encouraging advances in both hardware and programmatic delivery that will make HWTS more effective, appropriate, and accessible to vulnerable populations.

  1. Mental health first aid for Indigenous Australians: using Delphi consensus studies to develop guidelines for culturally appropriate responses to mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Claire M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic minority groups are under-represented in mental health care services because of barriers such as poor mental health literacy. In 2007, the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA program implemented a cultural adaptation of its first aid course to improve the capacity of Indigenous Australians to recognise and respond to mental health issues within their own communities. It became apparent that the content of this training would be improved by the development of best practice guidelines. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal mental health, participated in six independent Delphi studies investigating depression, psychosis, suicidal thoughts and behaviours, deliberate self-injury, trauma and loss, and cultural considerations. The panel varied in size across the studies, from 20-24 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about possible first aid actions via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the survey content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥ 90% of panellists as essential or important. Each study developed one guideline from the outcomes of three Delphi questionnaire rounds. At the end of the six Delphi studies, participants were asked to give feedback on the value of the project and their participation experience. Results From a total of 1,016 statements shown to the panel of experts, 536 statements were endorsed (94 for depression, 151 for psychosis, 52 for suicidal thoughts and behaviours, 53 for deliberate self-injury, 155 for trauma and loss, and 31 for cultural considerations. The methodology and the guidelines themselves were found to be useful

  2. A study of elementary teachers' conceptions of nature of science and their beliefs about the developmental appropriateness and importance of nature of science throughout a professional development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibelli, Elif

    This qualitative study aimed to explore the changes in elementary science teachers' conceptions of nature of science (NOS) and their beliefs about the developmental appropriateness and importance of NOS after participating in an academic, year-long professional development program (PDP) as well as the factors facilitating these changes. The PDP consisted of two phases. In the first phase, the participants received NOS training designed with an explicit-reflective instructional approach. In the second phase, the participants implemented several NOS training activities in their classrooms. Four elementary science teachers who volunteered and completed all components of the PDP (i.e., the NOS training and the NOS teaching) comprised the participants of the present study. A multiple-embedded case study design was employed to explore the changes in the elementary science teachers' conceptions of NOS and their beliefs about the developmental appropriateness and importance of NOS. The study data were collected from multiple sources. The primary data sources included (a) Views of Nature of Science Elementary School Version 2 (VNOS-D2) questionnaire (Lederman & Khishfe, 2002), (b) Ideas about Science for Early Elementary (K-4) Students questionnaire (Sweeney, 2010), and (c) follow-up semi-structured interviews. The secondary data sources included videotaping of meetings with teachers, reflective field notes, and artifacts produced by teachers and their students. Data were analyzed using Yin's (1994, 2003) analytic tactics of pattern matching, explanation building, and cross-case synthesis. The findings of the study revealed that the elementary science teachers showed gradual, but substantial changes in their conceptions, and beliefs about the developmental appropriateness and importance of the NOS aspects over the course of participation in the PDP. Moreover, the participants identified nine components in the PDP that facilitated these changes in their conceptions, and

  3. 90Nb: potential radionuclide for application in immuno-PET. Development of appropriate production strategy and first in vivo evaluation of 90Nb-labeled monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radchenko, Valery

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a modern and highly effective tool for the detection and treatment of oncological disease. Molecular imaging based on radiotracers includes single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which provide non-invasive tumor visualization on nano- and picomolar level, respectively. Currently, many novel tracers for more precise discovery of small tumors and metastases have been introduced and are under investigation. Many of them are protein-based biomolecules which nature herself produces as antigens for the eradication of tumor cells. Antibodies and antibody fragments play an important role in tumor diagnostics and treatment. PET imaging with antibodies and antibody fragments is called immuno-PET. The main issue that needs to be addressed is that appropriate radiotracers with half-lives related to the half-lives of biomolecules are needed. The development of novel radiotracers is a multistep, complicated task. This task includes the evaluation of production, separation and labeling strategy for chosen radionuclide. Finally, the biomolecule-radionuclide complex should be stable in time. An equally important factor is the economic suitability of the production strategy, which will lead to a key decision for future application of the developed radionuclide. In recent work, 90 Nb has been proposed as a potential candidate for application in immuno-PET. Its half-life of 14.6 hours is suitable for application with antibody fragments and some intact antibodies. 90 Nb has a relatively high positron branching of 53% and an optimal energy of β + emission of 0.35 MeV that can provide high quality of imaging with low dose of used radionuclide. First proof-of-principle studies have shown that 90 Nb: (i) can be produced in sufficient amount and purity by proton bombardment of natural zirconium target (ii) can be isolated from target material with appropriate radiochemical purity (iii) may be used for labeling of monoclonal

  4. The development of an observational screening tool to assess safe, effective and appropriate walking aid use in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzen, Abby; Finlayson, Marcia; Carolan-Laing, Leanne; Nacionales, Arthur Junn; Walker, Christie; O'Connor, Josephine; Asano, Miho; Coote, Susan

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify potential items for an observational screening tool to assess safe, effective and appropriate walking aid use among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Such a tool is needed because of the association between fall risk and mobility aid use in this population. Four individuals with MS were videotaped using a one or two straight canes, crutches or a rollator in different settings. Seventeen health care professionals from Canada, Ireland and the United States were recruited, and viewed the videos, and were then interviewed about the use of the devices by the individuals in the videos. Interview questions addressed safety, effectiveness and appropriateness of the device in the setting. Data were analyzed qualitatively. Coding consistency across raters was evaluated and confirmed. Nineteen codes were identified as possible items for the screening tool. The most frequent issues raised regardless of setting and device were "device used for duration/abandoned", "appropriate device", "balance and stability", "device technique", "environmental modification" and "hands free." With the identification of a number of potential tool items, researchers can now move forward with the development of the tool. This will involve consultation with both healthcare professionals and people with MS. Implications for rehabilitation Falls among people with multiple sclerosis are associated with mobility device use and use of multiple devices is associated with greater falls risk. The ability to assess for safe, effective and efficient use of walking aids is therefore important, no tools currently exist for this purpose. The codes arising from this study will be used to develop a screening tool for safe, effective and efficient walking aid use with the aim of reducing falls risk.

  5. [Achievements of an educational strategy promoting participation in the development of clinical aptitude and critical reading in cardiology residents, linked to appropriate use of research reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Sánchez, Jesús Salvador; Leyva-González, Félix Arturo; Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    To search the reach of educative strategy promoting the participation, to estimate the development of clinical aptitude and critical reading attaching the appropriate use of clinic research in cardiology residents. Prospective study. The instrument of clinical aptitude was constructed with five cases and 170 items and the instrument of critical reading was developed with five summaries of articles of clinical research in cardiology by 120 items. The strategy was performed with activities one a week during six months by two hours per class, in the period: March and September, 2005. Reading guides were delivered to the participants a week before that included a clinical case and clinic research of cardiology. During the activities in class we were promoting the participation and discussion. Both measuring instruments were performed in the first (initial measuring) and final session (final measuring). Non parametric test were used because the variable of the subjects were not normal distribution and the scale was ordinal. The reliability coefficient in both instruments with the Kuder-Richardson was 0.90 and 0.85 respectively. After educative strategy was observed a significant advance in the global calcifications, such as in critical reading and in clinical aptitude (p = 0.001 and 0.5 respectively). Analyzing in an independent manner the components of critical reading we found significant advancement in the indicators interpretation and judgment. In clinical aptitude we found significant progress in the indicators: the suitable use of paraclinics resources, the appropriate use of therapeutics measurement and iatropatogenic decisions for omission. The educative strategy promoting the participation, permitted to get a change in the clinical aptitude and critical reading attaching the appropriate use of sources of investigation in cardiology residents.

  6. Water Development: A Philosophical and Ethical Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D.

    2015-12-01

    As one reviewer said about John McPhee's Encounters With the Archdruid:"So the real issues relate to what is natural? How should lands be used? What role do humans have in using, caring for, being part of the land and can we do so responsibly?" This quote applies equally to more than just land development -- it applies to water project too. Although Marc Reisner wrote Cadillac Desert in 1986, the lessons it presents about water development are current today. Not much has changed really in the past three decades. People still live in arid places where, perhaps, they should not live. Engineers still redesign nature to meet human needs, only to find out later that there are unintended consequences. About the only thing that has changed is that today the Bureau of Reclamation and other agencies do not spend megabucks to construct huge water projects. And, insignificant by comparison, some restoration and dam removal projects have begun on a limited scale. We developed an exercise, based on selected chapters from Reisner's book and a video derived from the book, to help students develop critical thinking and ethical reasoning skills. As we did so, we realized that there was much more that could be included. The ethical dilemmas associated with water development and related engineering projects are many. So, now, the original exercise has been expanded to 7 units. The original five units are based on Cadillac Desert. The sixth is based on a recent great documentary film, DamNation. The last unit is inspired by a terrific chapter from John McPhee's 1971 book Encounters with the Archdruid. The format is that student read articles and book chapters and then write responses to questions designed to get them to reflect on what they read. So, the exercises may be assigned as homework, but for the most value there must be some significant group discussions. If all units are used, this provides several weeks of homework for students, but instructors may cherry pick the units

  7. Development of advanced PEM water electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Deschamps; C Etievant; C Puyenchet; V Fateev; S Grigoriev; A Kalinnikov; V Porembsky; P Millet

    2006-01-01

    Concerning the production of electrolytic hydrogen, the goal of present R and D is to develop advanced hydrogen generator based on proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers. PEM-based water electrolysis offers a number of advantages, such as ecological safety, high gas purity (more than 99.99% for hydrogen), the possibility of producing compressed gases (up to 200 bar) for direct pressurized storage without additional power inputs, etc. PEM electrolysers are considered as rather attractive devices to accelerate the transition to the hydrogen economy and develop a hydrogen infrastructure network (for example for the development of re-filling stations for cars, using electric power stations at night hours and renewable energy sources). The work presented here result from a cooperation between Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology Institute (HEPTI) of Russian Research Center (RRC) 'Kurchatov Institute', Universite Paris - Sud XI and Compagnie d'Etudes des Technologies de l'Hydrogene. This project is supported by the Commission of the European Communities within the frame of the 6. Framework Programme (GenHyPEM, STREP no 019802). (authors)

  8. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  9. Appropriability, services and reputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    The appropriability regime (Teece 1986) that innovating service firms face is generally weaker than what firms in manufacturing sectors face. An important means to appropriate benefits from innovation that service firms can use is their reputation. This conceptual paper offers insights into how a

  10. Water Management in Islam | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... In the Middle East and North Africa, water is rapidly becoming the key ... including water demand management, wastewater reuse, and fair pricing. ... the most promising water management policies, adds to our knowledge of ...

  11. Addressing Disparities in Low Back Pain Care by Developing Culturally Appropriate Information for Aboriginal Australians: "My Back on Track, My Future".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ivan B; Ryder, Kim; Coffin, Juli; Green, Charmaine; Dalgety, Eric; Scott, Brian; Straker, Leon M; Smith, Anne J; O'Sullivan, Peter B

    2017-11-01

    Addressing disparities in low back pain care (LBP) is an important yet largely unaddressed issue. One avenue to addressing disparities, recommended by clinical guidelines, is to ensure that LBP information is culturally appropriate. Our objectives were, first, to develop LBP information that was culturally appropriate for Aboriginal Australians living in a rural area and, second, to compare this to traditional information. The overall information development process was guided by a "cultural security" framework and included partnerships between Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal investigators, a synthesis of research evidence, and participation of a project steering group consisting of local Aboriginal people. LBP information (entitled My Back on Track, My Future [MBOT]) was developed as five short audio-visual scenarios, filmed using Aboriginal community actors. A qualitative randomized crossover design compared MBOT with an evidence-based standard (the Back Book [BB]). Twenty Aboriginal adults participated. Qualitatively we ascertained which information participants' preferred and why, perceptions about each resource, and LBP management. Thirteen participants preferred MBOT, four the BB, two both, and one neither. Participants valued seeing "Aboriginal faces," language that was understandable, the visual format, and seeing Aboriginal people undertaking positive changes in MBOT. In contrast, many participants found the language and format of the BB a barrier. Participants who preferred the BB were more comfortable with written information and appreciated the detailed content. The MBOT information was more preferred and addressed important barriers to care, providing support for use in practice. Similar processes are needed to develop pain information for other cultural groups, particularly those underserved by existing approaches to care. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Light-water reactor research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    This report on the national program of research and development on light water reactors is the second of two reports requested in 1982 by W. Kenneth Davis, Deputy Secretary of the Department of Energy. A first report, published in September 1983, treated the needs for safety-related R and D. In this second report, the Energy Research Advisory Board finds that, although many light water reactors are providing reliable and economic electricity, it appears unlikely that U.S. utilities will order additional reactors until the currently unacceptable economic risk, created by the regulatory climate and uncertain demand, is reduced. Thus it is unlikely that the private sector alone will fund major LWR design improvements. However, nuclear power will continue on its current course of expansion overseas. DOE participation is vitally needed to support the national interest in LWR technology. The report outlines R and D needs for a program to improve the safety, reliability, and economics of the present generation of plants; to develop evolutionary improved designs to be ready when needed; and to explore innovative longer-term concepts for deployment after the year 2000. The respective roles of government and the private sector are discussed

  13. Sustainable development of water resources, water supply and environmental sanitation.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Austin, LM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available and be capable of destroying or isolating pathogens. A need exists for documentary evidence to support various claims about different storage periods for ensuring pathogen die-off and safe handling of biosolids (Peasy 2000). Handling of faecal material... in Water and Environmental Health, Task no. 324. [Online] http://www/lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/well-studies/full-reports-pdf/task0324.pdf WHO (2001). Water quality, guidelines, standards and health: Assessment of risk and risk management for water...

  14. Effective water influx control in gas reservoir development: Problems and countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Feng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the diversity of geological characteristics and the complexity of percolation rules, many problems are found ineffective water influx control in gas reservoir development. The problems mainly focus on how to understand water influx rules, to establish appropriate countermeasures, and to ensure the effectiveness of technical measures. It is hard to obtain a complete applicable understanding through the isolated analysis of an individual gas reservoir due to many factors such as actual gas reservoir development phase, research work, pertinence and timeliness of measures, and so on. Over the past four decades, the exploration, practicing and tracking research have been conducted on water control in gas reservoir development in the Sichuan Basin, and a series of comprehensive water control technologies were developed integrating advanced concepts, successful experiences, specific theories and mature technologies. Though the development of most water-drive gas reservoirs was significantly improved, water control effects were quite different. Based on this background, from the perspective of the early-phase requirements of water influx control, the influencing factors of a water influx activity, the dynamic analysis method of water influx performance, the optimizing strategy of a water control, and the water control experience of typical gas reservoirs, this paper analyzed the key problems of water control, evaluated the influencing factors of water control effect, explored the practical water control strategies, and proposed that it should be inappropriate to apply the previous water control technological model to actual work but the pertinence should be improved according to actual circumstances. The research results in the paper provide technical reference for the optimization of water-invasion gas reservoir development.

  15. Are fecal indicator bacteria appropriate measures of recreational water risks in the tropics: A cohort study of beach goers in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulating recreational water exposure to pathogens within the tropics is a major public health and economic concern. Although numerous epidemiological studies estimating the risk to recreational marine water exposure have been oonducted since the 1950s, few studies have been don...

  16. USDA's national institute of food and agriculture (NIFA): engaging knowledge and technology, incentives and policies to promote appropriate decision making in the management of water and watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Dobrowolski

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture, across the value chain, is the greatest consumptive user of water resources in the United States and around the world. Perhaps the greatest challenge facing agricultural producers will be increased agricultural production to meet rising demand in the face of limited water resources.

  17. Libertarianism and Original Appropriation

    OpenAIRE

    Dominiak, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of the structure of libertarian theory of justice. It tries to present a map of the main concepts and principles of this theory and to investigate its possible justifications. It explains such fundamental concepts as original appropriation, homesteading, labour theory of property or first possession theory of original appropriation. The article shows merits and drawbacks of alternative libertarian principles of justice in first acquisition and proposes a ...

  18. The impact of stroke aphasia on health and well-being and appropriate nursing interventions: an exploration using the Theory of Human Scale Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Juliana; McKeever, Margo

    2014-02-01

    This paper considers the impact of aphasia on health and well-being and provides suggestions for appropriate nursing interventions. Background.  Effective communication is essential to holistic care and positive outcomes for individuals affected by aphasia. When verbal communication is absent, nurses fail to adequately use alternative strategies so that the standard of nurse/patient communication is frequently poor. This is a discursive paper which reviews relevant literature and uses the Theory of Human Scale Development as a framework for discussion. The Theory of Human Scale Development is introduced. This theory emphasises that quality of life depends as much upon self-actualisation and relation building as on physical health. The theory is used within the discussion to highlight the significance of communication to quality of life and how its loss has profound psychological and social consequences. Aphasia results in 'loss of self'. The situation is exacerbated by inadequate healthcare communication strategies. Suggestions are offered regarding more appropriate strategies. Efficacy of family input is considered; nursing competence regarding language practice therapies is discussed, and the 'quest approach' is explored. Aphasia has a negative impact on relationships by denying access to support networks, which results in isolation. The individual's predicament is worsened by negative nursing responses. Positive nursing strategies, which alleviate effects of aphasia on individuals' social health, are investigated. Concept analysis and self-awareness exercises as methods of enhancing compassion skills are explored. The social model of disability is discussed to highlight the benefits to individuals of environmental adaptations. The social benefits of aphasia-group affiliation are discussed. The paper concludes by emphasising that fundamental human needs involve social and psychological as well as physical aspects. Nursing interventions must address all needs to

  19. Appropriate drinking water treatment processes for organic micropollutants removal based on experimental and model studies - A multi-criteria analysis study

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Lattemann, Sabine; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of organic micropollutants (OMPs), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in potable water is of great environmental and public health concern. OMPs are included in the priority list of contaminants in United States EPA

  20. Defining and delivering appropriate technology for sustainable access to safe drinking water in un- and under-serviced rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maposa, Sibonginkosi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiences and lessons from the Accelerating Sustainable Water Services Delivery (ASWSD) initiative that is currently being implemented in South Africa. The initiative is being spearheaded by the Department of Science...

  1. District-level hospital trauma care audit filters: Delphi technique for defining context-appropriate indicators for quality improvement initiative evaluation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Barclay T; Gyedu, Adam; Quansah, Robert; Addo, Wilfred Larbi; Afoko, Akis; Agbenorku, Pius; Amponsah-Manu, Forster; Ankomah, James; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer; Baffoe, Peter; Debrah, Sam; Donkor, Peter; Dorvlo, Theodor; Japiong, Kennedy; Kushner, Adam L; Morna, Martin; Ofosu, Anthony; Oppong-Nketia, Victor; Tabiri, Stephen; Mock, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Prospective clinical audit of trauma care improves outcomes for the injured in high-income countries (HICs). However, equivalent, context-appropriate audit filters for use in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) district-level hospitals have not been well established. We aimed to develop context-appropriate trauma care audit filters for district-level hospitals in Ghana, was well as other LMICs more broadly. Consensus on trauma care audit filters was built between twenty panellists using a Delphi technique with four anonymous, iterative surveys designed to elicit: (i) trauma care processes to be measured; (ii) important features of audit filters for the district-level hospital setting; and (iii) potentially useful filters. Filters were ranked on a scale from 0 to 10 (10 being very useful). Consensus was measured with average percent majority opinion (APMO) cut-off rate. Target consensus was defined a priori as: a median rank of ≥9 for each filter and an APMO cut-off rate of ≥0.8. Panellists agreed on trauma care processes to target (e.g. triage, phases of trauma assessment, early referral if needed) and specific features of filters for district-level hospital use (e.g. simplicity, unassuming of resource capacity). APMO cut-off rate increased successively: Round 1--0.58; Round 2--0.66; Round 3--0.76; and Round 4--0.82. After Round 4, target consensus on 22 trauma care and referral-specific filters was reached. Example filters include: triage--vital signs are recorded within 15 min of arrival (must include breathing assessment, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation if available); circulation--a large bore IV was placed within 15 min of patient arrival; referral--if referral is activated, the referring clinician and receiving facility communicate by phone or radio prior to transfer. This study proposes trauma care audit filters appropriate for LMIC district-level hospitals. Given the successes of similar filters in HICs and obstetric care filters in LMICs

  2. Recent developments in water purification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.C.

    2000-01-01

    Water is source of life. More than 70% surface of earth is covered with water. Water is extensively used in industries for various purposes like cooling, rinsing, steam generation and as process fluid etc. Water as found in nature cannot be used directly in industries since it contains various types of impurities which can affect smooth operation of equipment/plants. Quality of water requirement for industry greatly differs from the quality requirement for domestic use. Some industrial plant such as nuclear and thermal power plants, pharmaceutical plants and electronic industries require water of quality approaching that of ultra pure water. To get water of required quality from available natural resources, selection of proper treatment methods and control of necessary water conditioning procedures are essential analysis of water for different types of impurities involving various analytical techniques is also of great importance to select proper processes for its purification. In this talk, a survey of various types of impurities present in water from different sources, their harmful effects and general methods than can be used for removal of these impurities are detailed. Various methods of removing suspended and colloidal impurities, organic and gaseous impurities from water are also described

  3. Unconventional oil and gas development and its stresses on water resources in the context of Water-Energy-Food Nexus: The case of Weld County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, P. D.; Waskom, R.; Boone, K.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas resources in Colorado started to rapidly increase since the early 2000's. The recent oil price plunge resulted in a decline of well starts' rate in the US, but in Weld County, Colorado, it is currently at the 2013-levels. The additional water demand, despite its insignificant percentage in overall state's demand (0.1% in 2012), it competes with traditional ones, since Colorado's water is almost fully appropriated. Presently, the state has 53,597 active producing oil and gas wells. More than 40% of these are located in Weld County, which happens also to be one of top food production U.S. counties. The competition for land and water resources between the energy and agricultural sectors in water stressed areas, like the western U.S., is further intensified if recycle and reuse practices are not preferred to water disposal by the energy industry. Satisfying the multiple objectives of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in order to achieve sustainable economic development requires balanced management of these resources. Identifying pressures on key areas that food and energy sectors are competing for water, is essential for prudent water management and developing appropriate policies. Weld County, as a water stressed and fossil fuel producing area, was selected for investigating current stresses on local water resources alongside with future climatic and water demand scenarios for exploring probable long-term effects.

  4. Appropriering, system, bogobjekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Thomas Hvid

    og en afpersonaliseringens poetik bliver konstrueret og typologiseret ud fra et heterogent og spredt tekstmateriale. En poetik, der er kendetegnet af en vidtdreven afmytologisering og afpersonalisering af kunstnerrollen og værket. I kapitel 2, Appropriering, analyseres approprieringsteknikker som...... værker af Bjørn Nørgaard, Hans-Jørgen Nielsen, Henning Christiansen, Vagn Steen og Per Kirkeby (i kap. 2, 3 og 4) analyseres eksempler på appropriering, systemer og bogobjekter. Afpersonalisering er som strategi ikke en homogen metode, men derimod en heterogen og individuel praksis, der spænder fra...

  5. Crowding as appropriation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to address the relation between crowds andpublic space as a question of appropriation. With the newliberal constitutions in Europe, several phenomena of crowdingemerge in major cities, of which Copenhagen is taken as anexample. By focusing on the crowd as an agglomeration...... ofbodies, it is assessed how the agency of the crowd works on animmediate level and in its more lasting effects on urban space.The notion of appropriation is related to the crowd’s claim,formal and informal, as resulting from a negotiation of this,mostly public, space, and articulated in empirical cases...

  6. Appropriation of Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette Leonhardt; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the use of cognitive mapping for eliciting users' sensemaking during information system (IS) appropriation. Despite the potential usefulness of sensemaking, few studies in IS research use it as a theoretical lens to address IS appropriation. A possible reason for this may...... be that sensemaking does not easily lend itself to be used in practice. We introduce cognitive mapping as a way to elicit users' sensemaking and illustrate its value by reporting on findings from an empirical study of the introduction of an Electronic Patient Record (EPR) system. The contribution of the paper...

  7. Narrative self-appropriation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Allan

    2017-01-01

    is profoundly saturated by an alienness regarding the person’s own affects and responses. However, the balance of familiarity and alienness is not static, but can be cultivated through e.g. psychotherapy. Following this line of thought, I present the idea that narrativising experiences can play an important...... role in processes of appropriating such embodied self-alienness. Importantly, the notion of narrative used is that of a scalar conception of narrativity as a variable quality of experience that comes in degrees. From this perspective, narrative appropriation is a process of gradually attributing...

  8. Development of Culturally Appropriate Support Strategies to Increase Uptake of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Among Russian- and Chinese-Speaking Smokers in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Erin C; Sacks, Rachel; Farley, Shannon M; Thihalolipavan, Sayone

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 80,000 New York City smokers are Chinese or Russian speakers. To increase utilization of smoking cessation services among these populations, the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene developed linguistically and culturally tailored outreach strategies to promote and enhance its annual Nicotine Patch and Gum Program. In 2010, online web applications in Chinese and Russian were introduced. In 2011, input was sought from the community to develop Russian-language radio and newspaper ads, and a Russian-speaking liaison provided phone-assisted online enrollment support. In 2012, Chinese newspaper ads were introduced, and a Cantonese- and Mandarin-speaking liaison was hired to provide enrollment support. In 2010, 51 Russian speakers and 40 Chinese speakers enrolled in the program via web application. In 2011, 510 Russian speakers applied via the web application, with 463 assisted by the Russian-speaking liaison; forty-four Chinese speakers applied online. In 2012, 394 Russian speakers applied via the web application; 363 were assisted by the Russian-speaking liaison. Eighty-five Chinese smokers applied online via the web application; seventy were assisted by the Chinese-speaking liaison. Following the implementation of culturally tailored cessation support interventions, ethnic Russian smokers' uptake of cessation support increased tenfold, while Chinese smokers' uptake doubled. Although linguistically appropriate resources are an essential foundation for reaching immigrant communities with high smoking rates, devising culturally tailored strategies to increase quit rates is critical to programmatic success.

  9. Analysis the Appropriate using Standard Costing Applying in Land Cost Component of Real Estate Development Activities: A Case Study of PT Subur Agung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfrida Yanti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Standard cost is generally used by manufacturing business, which direct material, labor, and factory overhead are cleared allocated. On real estate business in this case PT Subur Agung use standard cost based on three costs, raw land, land improvement and interest expense categories instead of direct material, direct labor and overhead. Developer use these cost to predict the project cost and estimate the pre-selling price, in accordance with the cost estimation classification matrix, the variance range is in the expected accuracy rate by testing the variance percentage between standard cost and actual cost. The additional similar projects in PT Subur Agung also follow the same scope. All these evidences have proved the appropriate using standard costing in land cost component of real estate development activities but how it applies this article will analyze in this particular project with using descriptive and exploratory method. The analysis started by knowing the conceptual situation of PT Subur Agung and the data was presented in tables and calculation with detail explanation. 

  10. Special Appropriation Act Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is sometimes directed to provide funding to a specific entity for study, purpose, or activity.This information will be of interest to a community or other entity that has been identified in one of EPA's appropriations acts to receive such funding.

  11. Choosing Appropriate Business Models

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note provides guidance on considerations in the selection of an appropriate business model through which to conduct an agricultural investment. Agricultural investments have a wide range of impacts, positive and negative. The choice of business model is one, but by no means the only, determining factor of the financial success of the investment, as well as its socioeconomic and enviro...

  12. Protocol for development and validation of a context-appropriate tool for assessing organisational readiness for change in primary health clinics in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke-Sumner, Carrie; Sorsdahl, Katherine; Lombard, Carl; Petersen-Williams, Petal; Myers, Bronwyn

    2018-04-09

    A large treatment gap for common mental disorders (such as depression) exists in South Africa. Comorbidity with other chronic diseases, including HIV and diseases of lifestyle, is an increasing public health concern globally. Currently, primary health facilities as points of care for those with chronic disease provide limited services for common mental disorders. Assessing organisational readiness for change (ORC) towards adopting health innovations (such as mental health services) using contextually appropriate measures is needed to facilitate implementation of these services. This study aims to investigate the validity of the Texas Christian University Organisational Readiness for Change (TCU-ORC) scale in the South African context. Subsequently, we will develop a shortened version of this scale. This study is nested within Project MIND, a multiyear randomised controlled trial that is testing two different approaches for integrating counselling for common mental disorders into chronic disease care. Although the modified, contextually appropriate ORC measure resulting from the proposed study will be developed in the context of integrating mental health into primary healthcare services, the potential for the tool to be generalised to further understanding barriers to any change being implemented in primary care settings is high. We will establish internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficients), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) and construct validity of the long-form TCU-ORC questionnaire. Survey data will be collected from 288 clinical, management and operational staff from 24 primary health facilities where the Project MIND trial is implemented. A modified Delphi approach will assess the content validity of the TCU-ORC items and identify areas for potential adaptation and item reduction. Ethical approval has been granted by the South African Medical Research Council (Protocol ID EC004-2-2015, amendment of 20 August 2017). Results

  13. Water infrastructure for human and economic development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available quality as it gives rise to waterborne diseases such as cholera, bacterial infections, heavy metal accumulation and endocrine disrupting substances; and ? Poor quality irrigation water has a ripple effect ? for example, health inspectors may have... to reject export fruit because of bacterial contamination or bioaccumulation of heavy metals. Economic growth implies industrialisation and urbanisation, which will result in further deterioration of our water resources. The National Water Resource...

  14. Sustainable Development Impacts of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: An integrated approach to assessment of co-benefits based on experience with the Clean Development Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    to assess the SD impacts of NAMAs. This paper argues for a new integrated approach to asses NAMAs' SD impacts that consists of SD indicators, procedures for stakeholder involvement and safeguards against negative impacts. The argument is based on a review of experience with the CDM’s contribution to SD......, particularly how a combined process and results approach known from the CDM SD Tool can be applied to develop a strong approach for SD assessment of NAMAs based on a comparison of similarities and differences between NAMAs and CDM. Five elements of a new approach towards assessment of NAMAs SD impacts...... are suggested based on emerging approaches and methodologies for monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of greenhouse gas reductions and SD impacts of NAMAs....

  15. DianaHealth.com, an On-Line Database Containing Appraisals of the Clinical Value and Appropriateness of Healthcare Interventions: Database Development and Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfill, Xavier; Osorio, Dimelza; Solà, Ivan; Pijoan, Jose Ignacio; Balasso, Valentina; Quintana, Maria Jesús; Puig, Teresa; Bolibar, Ignasi; Urrútia, Gerard; Zamora, Javier; Emparanza, José Ignacio; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Ferreira-González, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    To describe the development of a novel on-line database aimed to serve as a source of information concerning healthcare interventions appraised for their clinical value and appropriateness by several initiatives worldwide, and to present a retrospective analysis of the appraisals already included in the database. Database development and a retrospective analysis. The database DianaHealth.com is already on-line and it is regularly updated, independent, open access and available in English and Spanish. Initiatives are identified in medical news, in article references, and by contacting experts in the field. We include appraisals in the form of clinical recommendations, expert analyses, conclusions from systematic reviews, and original research that label any health care intervention as low-value or inappropriate. We obtain the information necessary to classify the appraisals according to type of intervention, specialties involved, publication year, authoring initiative, and key words. The database is accessible through a search engine which retrieves a list of appraisals and a link to the website where they were published. DianaHealth.com also provides a brief description of the initiatives and a section where users can report new appraisals or suggest new initiatives. From January 2014 to July 2015, the on-line database included 2940 appraisals from 22 initiatives: eleven campaigns gathering clinical recommendations from scientific societies, five sets of conclusions from literature review, three sets of recommendations from guidelines, two collections of articles on low clinical value in medical journals, and an initiative of our own. We have developed an open access on-line database of appraisals about healthcare interventions considered of low clinical value or inappropriate. DianaHealth.com could help physicians and other stakeholders make better decisions concerning patient care and healthcare systems sustainability. Future efforts should be focused on

  16. DianaHealth.com, an On-Line Database Containing Appraisals of the Clinical Value and Appropriateness of Healthcare Interventions: Database Development and Retrospective Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Bonfill

    Full Text Available To describe the development of a novel on-line database aimed to serve as a source of information concerning healthcare interventions appraised for their clinical value and appropriateness by several initiatives worldwide, and to present a retrospective analysis of the appraisals already included in the database.Database development and a retrospective analysis. The database DianaHealth.com is already on-line and it is regularly updated, independent, open access and available in English and Spanish. Initiatives are identified in medical news, in article references, and by contacting experts in the field. We include appraisals in the form of clinical recommendations, expert analyses, conclusions from systematic reviews, and original research that label any health care intervention as low-value or inappropriate. We obtain the information necessary to classify the appraisals according to type of intervention, specialties involved, publication year, authoring initiative, and key words. The database is accessible through a search engine which retrieves a list of appraisals and a link to the website where they were published. DianaHealth.com also provides a brief description of the initiatives and a section where users can report new appraisals or suggest new initiatives. From January 2014 to July 2015, the on-line database included 2940 appraisals from 22 initiatives: eleven campaigns gathering clinical recommendations from scientific societies, five sets of conclusions from literature review, three sets of recommendations from guidelines, two collections of articles on low clinical value in medical journals, and an initiative of our own.We have developed an open access on-line database of appraisals about healthcare interventions considered of low clinical value or inappropriate. DianaHealth.com could help physicians and other stakeholders make better decisions concerning patient care and healthcare systems sustainability. Future efforts should be

  17. Potential of Nanotechnology based water treatment solutions for the improvement of drinking water supplies in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Joydeep; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades explosive population growth in the world has led to water scarcity across the globe putting additional pressure already scarce ground water resources and is pushing scientists and researchers to come up with new alternatives to monitor and treat water for use by mankind and for food security. Nearly 4 billion people around the world are known to lack access to clean water supply. Systematic water quality data is important for the assessment of health risks as well as for developing appropriate and affordable technologies for waste and drinking water treatments, and long-term decision making policy against water quality management. Traditional water treatment technologies are generally chemical-intensive processes requiring extremely large infrastructural support thus limiting their effective applications in developing nations which creates an artificial barrier to the application of technological solutions for the provision of clean water. Nanotechnology-based systems are in retrospect, smaller, energy and resource efficient. Economic impact assessment of the implementation of nanotechnology in water treatment and studies on cost-effectiveness and environmental and social impacts is of key importance prior to its wide spread acceptance. Government agencies and inter-governmental bodies driving research and development activities need to measure the effective potential of nanotechnology as a solution to global water challenges in order to effectively engage in fiscal, economic and social issues at national and international levels for different types of source waters with new national and international initiatives on nanotechnology and water need to be launched. Environmental pollution and industrialization in global scale is further leading to pollution of available water sources and thus hygienically friendly purification technologies are the need of the hour. Thus cost-effective treatment of pollutants for the transformation of hazardous

  18. Developing a methodological framework for estimating water productivity indicators in water scarce regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Fullerton, T. M.; Walke, A.; Collins, T.; Mubako, G.; Walker, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    Water productivity is an area of growing interest in assessing the impact of human economic activities on water resources, especially in arid regions. Indicators of water productivity can assist water users in evaluating sectoral water use efficiency, identifying sources of pressure on water resources, and in supporting water allocation rationale under scarcity conditions. This case study for the water-scarce Middle Rio Grande River Basin aims to develop an environmental-economic accounting approach for water use in arid river basins through a methodological framework that relates water use to human economic activities impacting regional water resources. Water uses are coupled to economic transactions, and the complex but mutual relations between various water using sectors estimated. A comparison is made between the calculated water productivity indicators and representative cost/price per unit volume of water for the main water use sectors. Although it contributes very little to regional economic output, preliminary results confirm that Irrigation is among the sectors with the largest direct water use intensities. High economic value and low water use intensity economic sectors in the study region include Manufacturing, Mining, and Steam Electric Power. Water accounting challenges revealed by the study include differences in water management regimes between jurisdictions, and little understanding of the impact of major economic activities on the interaction between surface and groundwater systems in this region. A more comprehensive assessment would require the incorporation of environmental and social sustainability indicators to the calculated water productivity indicators.

  19. An enquiry on appropriate selection of polymers for preparation of polymeric nanosorbents and nanofiltration/ultrafiltration membranes for hormone micropollutants removal from water effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansary, Milad Asgarpour; Mellat, Mostafa; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Fasihi-Ramandi, Mahdi; Kamali, Mehdi; Taheri, Ramezan Ali

    2017-02-01

    To analyze polymeric nanosorbents and nanofiltration/ultrafiltration membranes for hormone micropollutants removal from water effluents, here an in-through investigation on the suitability and compatibility of various polymers has been carried out. For this work, estradiol, estrone, testosterone, progesterone, estriol, mestranol, and ethinylestradiol were considered. A total number of 452 polymers were analyzed and initially screened using Hansen solubility parameters. The identified good pairs of hormones and polymers then were examined to obtain the equilibrium capacity of hormones removal from water effluents using a modified Flory-Huggins model. A distribution coefficient was defined as the ratio of hormones in water effluent phase and polymer phase. For removal of mestranol, estradiol and ethinylestradiol, no compatible polymer was identified based on initial screening of collected database. Three compatible polymers were identified for estriol. For progesterone, a wide variety of polymers was identified as good matching of polar, dispersion and hydrogen forces contributions can be observed for these pairs. For estrone, only two polymers can be proposed due to the mismatch observed between polar, dispersion and hydrogen forces contributions of other polymers and this hormone. The phase calculations showed that not all the identified good pairs could be used for practical separation applications. The domain of applicability of each good pair was investigated and potential polymers for practical micropollutants removal together with their removal capacity were represented in terms of phase envelops. The theoretical approach follows fundamental chemical thermodynamic equations and then can be simply applied for any system of interest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reconsidering 'appropriate technology': the effects of operating conditions on the bacterial removal performance of two household drinking-water filter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Jill [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Murcott, Susan [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ezzati, Majid [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    2007-04-01

    We examined the performance of two household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems, the Danvor plastic biosand filter and the Potters for Peace Filtron ceramic filter, under ideal as well as modified operating conditions using systematic and comparable measurements. The operating variables for the biosand filter were (i) pause times between filtration runs (ii) water-dosing volumes and (iii) the effluent volume at which a filtered water sample was collected. For the ceramic filter we examined overflow filtration versus standard filtration. We used the bacterial indicators of total coliforms and Escherichia coli to quantify microbiological removal. With the biosand filter, a 12 h pause time had significantly higher total coliform removal than a 36 h pause time at the 20 l collection point (79.1% versus 73.7%; p < 0.01) and borderline significance at the 10 l collection point (81.0% versus 78.3%; p = 0.07). High-volume filtration (20 l) had significantly lower total coliform removal efficacy than low-volume (10 l) filtration at the 10 l collection point (81.0% versus 84.2%; p = 0.03). We observed a decreasing trend in total coliform removal by sample collection volume with the highest removal efficacy at the 5 l sample collection point (versus at the 10 and 20 l collection points). Using the ceramic filter, mean total coliform and E. coli removal were significantly lower (p < 0.01) in overflow filtration than in standard filtration. The findings indicate that operating conditions can reduce the effectiveness of the systems in a field-based setting and increase environmental risk exposure.

  1. Reconsidering 'appropriate technology': the effects of operating conditions on the bacterial removal performance of two household drinking-water filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, Jill; Murcott, Susan; Ezzati, Majid

    2007-01-01

    We examined the performance of two household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems, the Danvor plastic biosand filter and the Potters for Peace Filtron ceramic filter, under ideal as well as modified operating conditions using systematic and comparable measurements. The operating variables for the biosand filter were (i) pause times between filtration runs (ii) water-dosing volumes and (iii) the effluent volume at which a filtered water sample was collected. For the ceramic filter we examined overflow filtration versus standard filtration. We used the bacterial indicators of total coliforms and Escherichia coli to quantify microbiological removal. With the biosand filter, a 12 h pause time had significantly higher total coliform removal than a 36 h pause time at the 20 l collection point (79.1% versus 73.7%; p < 0.01) and borderline significance at the 10 l collection point (81.0% versus 78.3%; p = 0.07). High-volume filtration (20 l) had significantly lower total coliform removal efficacy than low-volume (10 l) filtration at the 10 l collection point (81.0% versus 84.2%; p = 0.03). We observed a decreasing trend in total coliform removal by sample collection volume with the highest removal efficacy at the 5 l sample collection point (versus at the 10 and 20 l collection points). Using the ceramic filter, mean total coliform and E. coli removal were significantly lower (p < 0.01) in overflow filtration than in standard filtration. The findings indicate that operating conditions can reduce the effectiveness of the systems in a field-based setting and increase environmental risk exposure

  2. Workspace appropriation and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PAVALACHE-ILIE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This literature synthesis presents a short history of the evolution of the concepts of space appropriation and place attachment, highlighting the difficulty of their operationalisation from a cultural point of view. The next subject brought into discussion is the relation between the affective dimension of the connection between a person and the work place and the behaviours which are prone to insure the proper functioning of organizations, such as the organizational civism and the organizational commitment.

  3. The development of water quality methods within ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of water quality methods within ecological Reserve ... Water Act (NWA, No 36 of 1998), the ecological Reserve is defined as the quality and quantity ... provide ecologically important flow-related habitat, or geomorphological ...

  4. Water Loss Management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  5. Water Loss Management : Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  6. Effect of type of water supply on water quality in a developing community in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to provide water to developing communities in South Africa have resulted in various types of water supplies being used. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used. Source (communal...

  7. Development of an economical model to determine an appropriate feed-in tariff for grid-connected solar PV electricity in all states of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Australia is a country with a vast amount of natural resources including sun and wind. Australia lies between latitude of 10-45 S and longitude of 112-152 E, with a daily solar exposure of between less than 3 MJ/(m 2 day) in winter and more than 30 MJ/(m 2 day) in summer. Global solar radiation in Australia varies between minimum of 3285 MJ/(m 2 year) in Hobart to 8760 MJ/(m 2 year) in Northern Territory. As a result of this wide range of radiation level there will be a big difference between costs of solar PV electricity in different locations. A study we have recently conducted on the solar PV electricity price in all states of Australia. For this purpose we have developed an economical model and a computer simulation to determine the accurate unit price of grid-connected roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity in A$/kWh for all state of Australia. The benefit of this computer simulation is that we can accurately determine the most appropriate feed-in tariff of grid-connected solar PV energy system. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of this study. A further objective of this paper is to present the details of the unit price of solar PV electricity in the state of Victoria in each month and then to compare with electricity price from conventional power systems, which is currently applied to this state. The state Victoria is located south of Australia and in terms of sun radiation is second lowest compared with the other Australian states. The computer simulation developed for this study makes it possible to determine the cost of grid-connected solar PV electricity at any location in any country based on availability of average daily solar exposure of each month as well as economical factors of the country. (author)

  8. Securing water quality and quantity: Research and development perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available : ? economic growth & development ? human & environmental needs ? meeting international obligations ? energy needs (strategic water users) ? ensuring availability and allocation (all other users) ? CSIR 2012 Slide 3 Background ? SA 30th driest country... and quantity: Research and development perspective 4th Biennial Conference Harrison Pienaar 10 October 2012 Presentation outline ? Introduction and background to water in South Africa ? Transboundary water resource aspects ? Water related challenges...

  9. The development of water services and their interaction with water resources in European and Brazilian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraqué, B.; Formiga Johnsson, R. M.; Nogueira de Paiva Britto, A. L.

    2008-08-01

    The extension and complexity of large cities creates "urban water" and a related issue: public water services, including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and storm water control, had previously become a policy sector separate from water resource allocation issues thanks to water transport and treatment technologies. Large metropolitan areas today cannot take nature for granted anymore, and they need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water services in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, placing the technological developments in their geographic, socio-economic and political contexts. Our frame is to follow the successive contributions of civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm allowed to mobilise water in and out of the city, and up the hills or the floors; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitary engineering paradigm, water treatment gave more freedom to cities to take water from rivers closer to them, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; lastly, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  10. The development of water services and their interaction with water resources in European and Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barraqué

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The extension and complexity of large cities creates "urban water" and a related issue: public water services, including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and storm water control, had previously become a policy sector separate from water resource allocation issues thanks to water transport and treatment technologies. Large metropolitan areas today cannot take nature for granted anymore, and they need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water services in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, placing the technological developments in their geographic, socio-economic and political contexts. Our frame is to follow the successive contributions of civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm allowed to mobilise water in and out of the city, and up the hills or the floors; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitary engineering paradigm, water treatment gave more freedom to cities to take water from rivers closer to them, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; lastly, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  11. Model development of a participatory Bayesian network for coupling ecosystem services into integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei; Lei, Jiaqiang; Zeng, Fanjiang; Mao, Donglei; Zhang, Zhiwei

    2017-11-01

    There is an increasing consensus on the importance of coupling ecosystem services (ES) into integrated water resource management (IWRM), due to a wide range of benefits to human from the ES. This paper proposes an ES-based IWRM framework within which a participatory Bayesian network (BN) model is developed to assist with the coupling between ES and IWRM. The framework includes three steps: identifying water-related services of ecosystems; analysis of the tradeoff and synergy among users of water; and ES-based IWRM implementation using the participatory BN model. We present the development, evaluation and application of the participatory BN model with the involvement of four participant groups (stakeholders, water manager, water management experts, and research team) in Qira oasis area, Northwest China. As a typical catchment-scale region, the Qira oasis area is facing severe water competition between the demands of human activities and natural ecosystems. Results demonstrate that the BN model developed provides effective integration of ES into a quantitative IWMR framework via public negotiation and feedback. The network results, sensitivity evaluation, and management scenarios are broadly accepted by the participant groups. The intervention scenarios from the model conclude that any water management measure remains unable to sustain the ecosystem health in water-related ES. Greater cooperation among the stakeholders is highly necessary for dealing with such water conflicts. In particular, a proportion of the agricultural water saved through improving water-use efficiency should be transferred to natural ecosystems via water trade. The BN model developed is appropriate for areas throughout the world in which there is intense competition for water between human activities and ecosystems.

  12. Water, Politics and Development: Framing a Political Sociology of Water Resources Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.P.; Bhat, A.; Cleaver, F.; Meinzen-Dick, R.; Molle, F.; Neef, A.; Subramanian, S.; Wester, P.

    2008-01-01

    EDITORIAL PREAMBLE: The first issue of Water Alternatives presents a set of papers that investigates the inherently political nature of water resources management. A Water, Politics and Development initiative was started at ZEF (Center for Development Research, Bonn, Germany) in 2004/2005 in the

  13. Chemical water shutoff profile research status and development trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L. T.

    2017-08-01

    Excess water production is now a common problem encountered in almost every water flooding mature oilfield. The exploitation of oil field is faced with great challenge because of the decrease of oil field production. For the development of high water cut rare the status quo chemical water shutoff profile control technology is an important solution to solve this problem. Oilfield chemical water shutoff has important application prospects. This paper analyzes the water shutoff profile control and water shutoff profile control agent currently oilfield applications, moreover the use and development of blocking agent profile technology is to improve reservoir recovery and propose solutions. With the constant increase in water cut, profile technology should be simple, efficient, practical and profile control agent of development should be economic, environmental, and long period

  14. Appropriate drinking water treatment processes for organic micropollutants removal based on experimental and model studies - A multi-criteria analysis study

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam

    2013-01-01

    The presence of organic micropollutants (OMPs), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in potable water is of great environmental and public health concern. OMPs are included in the priority list of contaminants in United States EPA and European framework directives. Advanced treatment processes such as reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ozonation and adsorption are the usual industry-recommended processes for OMPs removal, however, natural systems, e.g., riverbank filtration and constructed wetlands, are also potentially efficient options for OMPs removal. In this study, a decision support system (DSS) based on multi-criteria analysis (MCA) was created to compare processes for OMPs removal under various criteria. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA), a transparent and reliable procedure, was adopted. Models were built for both experimental and predicted percent-removals for a range of OMPs reflecting different physicochemical properties. The experimental percent-removals for several processes (riverbank filtration (RBF), ozonation, advanced oxidation, adsorption, reverse osmosis, and nanofiltration) were considered. The predicted percent-removals were taken from validated quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models. Analytical methods to detect OMPs in water are very laborious, thus a modeling approach such as QSAR is an attractive option.A survey among two groups of participants including academics (PhD students and post-doctoral research associates) and industry (managers and operators) representatives was conducted to assign weights for the following criteria: treatability, costs, technical considerations, sustainability and time. The process rankings varied depending on the contaminant species and personal preferences (weights). The results indicated that RBF and oxidation were preferable over adsorption and membranes processes. The results also suggest that the use of a hybrid treatment process, e.g., combining a natural system with an

  15. Recent developments in high pressure water technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.A.; Johnson, T.

    1992-01-01

    High Pressure Water Jetting has advanced rapidly in the last decade to a point where the field is splitting into specialised areas. This has left the end user or client in the dark as to whether water jetting will work and if so what equipment is best suited to their particular application. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of:-1. The way water is delivered to the surface and the parameters which control the concentration of energy available on impact. 2. The factors governing application driven selection of equipment. 3. The effects to technical advances in pumps and delivery systems on equipment selection with reference to their to their application to concrete removal and nuclear decontamination. (Author)

  16. Development of a culturally appropriate computer-delivered tailored Internet-based health literacy intervention for Spanish-dominant Hispanics living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Robin J; Caballero, Joshua; Ownby, Raymond L; Kane, Michael N

    2014-11-30

    Low health literacy is associated with poor medication adherence in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which can lead to poor health outcomes. As linguistic minorities, Spanish-dominant Hispanics (SDH) face challenges such as difficulties in obtaining and understanding accurate information about HIV and its treatment. Traditional health educational methods (e.g., pamphlets, talking) may not be as effective as delivering through alternate venues. Technology-based health information interventions have the potential for being readily available on desktop computers or over the Internet. The purpose of this research was to adapt a theoretically-based computer application (initially developed for English-speaking HIV-positive persons) that will provide linguistically and culturally appropriate tailored health education to Spanish-dominant Hispanics with HIV (HIV + SDH). A mixed methods approach using quantitative and qualitative interviews with 25 HIV + SDH and 5 key informants guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral (IMB) Skills model was used to investigate cultural factors influencing medication adherence in HIV + SDH. We used a triangulation approach to identify major themes within cultural contexts relevant to understanding factors related to motivation to adhere to treatment. From this data we adapted an automated computer-based health literacy intervention to be delivered in Spanish. Culture-specific motivational factors for treatment adherence in HIV + SDH persons that emerged from the data were stigma, familismo (family), mood, and social support. Using this data, we developed a culturally and linguistically adapted a tailored intervention that provides information about HIV infection, treatment, and medication related problem solving skills (proven effective in English-speaking populations) that can be delivered using touch-screen computers, tablets, and smartphones to be tested in a future study. Using a theoretically

  17. Water, job creation, industrial development and the implementation of sustainable development goals in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simalabwi, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available , 2017 Pretoria, South Africa Water, Jobs, Industrial development and implementation of SDGs in Africa www.gwp.org October 2017 2/19 Outline 1. Introduction: industry and its linkages with resources, other devts., society) 2. Some initiatives.....GWP Africa and AU collaboration Water, Jobs, Industrial development and implementation of SDGs in Africa www.gwp.org October 2017 8/19 Water SDG Investment and Financing Water, Climate and Development Integrated Urban Water Management...

  18. Sustainable development of water resources in Pakistan and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, A.S.; Bashir, M.A

    2005-01-01

    Irrigation water represents an essential input for sustaining agricultural growth in Pakistan's arid to semi arid climate. While the surface water availability for irrigation has been more or less stagnant for the last three decades, the ground water utilization also appears to have touched the peak in most of the sweet aquifers. In the present state of inaction for the water resources development, the overall water availability is in fact declining due to progressive sedimentation of the existing storages and gradual lowering of water table in fresh ground water areas. The paper discusses major water resources concerns that threaten the sustainability of Pakistan's irrigated agriculture. The paper identifies overall water scarcity, high degree of temporal variability in river flows, lack of balancing storages and declining capacity of existing storages due to natural sedimentation as the serious concerns. Over exploitation of ground water and water quality concerns also seems to be emerging threats for environmentally sustainable irrigated agriculture in this country. The salt-water intrusion and increase in soil and ground water salinity are indicators of over exploitation of ground water for irrigation. The continuous use of poor quality ground water for irrigation is considered as one of the major causes of salinity in the area of irrigated agriculture. Indiscriminate pumping of the marginal and saline ground water can add to the root zone salinity and ultimately reduce the crop yields. The paper presents various management options for development and efficient utilization of water resources for environment friendly sustainable development of irrigated agriculture in Pakistan. These include construction of additional storage, modernization of irrigation system and effective conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources. The better soil and water management practices, saline agriculture, use of biotechnology and genetic engineering can further increase

  19. Determining the water use of rambutan and longkong during phenological development by heat-pulse method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdoodee, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The water use of two species of tropical fruit trees: rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum and longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff. were investigated by heat-pulse method. The sapflow rate of both species were determined during phenological development. An experiment was established at Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla Province. Characteristics of sapwood in each species and optimum depth for probe implanting on the trunk were investigated. During the measurement period, diurnal changes of photon flux density, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance were recorded. It was found that sapwood of rambutan and longkong were homogeneous. An appropriate probe depth to implant on the trunk was 25 mm from bark. It was found that diurnal changes of sapflow rates of each species varied with the changes of radiation, leaf water potential and stomata conductance. The results of measurement showed that water use decreased at pre-flowering stage, and fruit maturity stage. In rambutan, water use increased during vegetative growth stage followed by flowering stage. The marked increase of water use in rambutan was during fruit development. In longkong, water use increased at the flowering stage followed by vegetative growth stage, and the peak of water use was during fruit development.

  20. Investigating water meter performance in developing countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High levels of water losses in distribution systems are the main challenge that water utilities in developing countries currently face. The water meter is an essential tool for both the utility and the customers to measure and monitor consumption. When metering is inefficient and coupled with low tariffs, the financial ...

  1. Impact of development and urbanization on variation of water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial and temporal variations of the physico-chemical water quality parameters, microfauna and micro-flora composition of the Nima Creek in Accra vividly illustrate the environmental problems associated with water bodies in a community where development and urbanization are in progress. Monthly water and ...

  2. Measuring global water security towards sustainable development goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Gain, A.K.; Giupponi, C.

    2016-01-01

    Water plays an important role in underpinning equitable, stable and productive societies and ecosystems. Hence, United Nations recognized ensuring water security as one (Goal 6) of the seventeen sustainable development goals(SDGs). Many international river basins are likely to experience ‘low water

  3. Development and Testing of Infrared Water Current Meter | Ezenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuous monitoring of the river flow is essential for assessing water availability. River flow velocity is crucial to simulate discharge hydrographs of water in the hydrological system.This study developed a digital water current meter with infrared. The infrared current meter was tested using Ebonyi River at Obollo-Etiti and ...

  4. Divining Jordan's desert waters | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... in the area have a long history of being water-conservers, and the idea of using the ... Dr Abu-Jaber examined is covered by an ancient, volcanic rock called basalt. ... When a desert cloudburst drops rain on the area, the raindrops quickly roll ...

  5. Nutritional value of locally produced foods and potential for developing age-appropriate complementary foods for children under 2 years of age in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Kodio, Joseph; Iknane, Akory Ag; Sodjinou, Roger

    2010-09-01

    Promotion of dietary diversity using locally available nutritious foods is an effective approach in low-income areas to improve the quality of young children's diet and, hence, their growth and development. To identify the nutritional values of locally acceptable, feasible, affordable, and sustainable foods and develop a number of recipes that could be used to complement effectively nutrient intakes provided through breastfeeding to children 6 to 23 months of age in Bandiagara, Mali. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain lists of all locally available foods during village assembly meetings and identify the food basket of households and child feeding practices during interviews with mothers and fathers. The nutritional values of the foods were estimated, and the Malian food composition table was used to identify the combinations that would result in the most nutritious recipes. Breastfeeding was widely practiced, but the rate of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life was extremely low (7%). The practice of early introduction of water and complementary foods was a problem. Forty recipes for improved dishes, including puddings, drinks and juices, purees, salads, and soups, were proposed. The nutritional values of the 10 most nutritious of these recipes, the types and quantities of the ingredients, and the method of preparation of each recipe are described. Locally produced indigenous foods in rural Mali were used to develop energy- and nutrient-dense complementary foods for children. Further research is needed to test the short- and long-term effects of consuming these dishes on the nutritional status of children 6 to 23 months of age in Mali.

  6. From safe yield to sustainable development of water resources - The Kansas experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of water sustainability issues from the hydrologic perspective. It shows that safe yield is a flawed concept and that sustainability is an idea that is broadly used but perhaps not well understood. In general, the sustainable yield of an aquifer must be considerably less than recharge if adequate amounts of water are to be available to sustain both the quantity and quality of streams, springs, wetlands, and ground-water-dependent ecosystems. To ensure sustainability, it is imperative that water limits be established based on hydrologic principles of mass balance. To establish water-use policies and planning horizons, the transition curves of aquifer systems from ground-water storage depletion to induced recharge of surface water need to be developed. Present-day numerical models are capable of generating such transition curves. Several idealized examples of aquifer systems show how this could be done. Because of the complexity of natural systems and the uncertainties in characterizing them, the current philosophy underlying sustainable management of water resources is based on the interconnected systems approach and on adaptive management. Examples of water-resources management from Kansas illustrate some of these concepts in a real-world setting. Some of the hallmarks of Kansas water management are the formation of local ground-water management districts, the adoption of minimum streamflow standards, the use of modified safe-yield policies in some districts, the implementation of integrated resource planning by the City of Wichita, and the subbasin water-resources management program in potential problem areas. These are all appropriate steps toward sustainable development. The Kansas examples show that local decision-making is the best way to fully account for local variability in water management. However, it is imperative that public education and involvement be encouraged, so that system complexities and constraints are better

  7. Water Poverty and Rural Development: Evidence from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Matshe, Innocent; Moyo-Maposa, Sibonginkosi; Zikhali, Precious

    2013-01-01

    Using household data from the 2009 General Household Survey, this paper examines the role of natural resource scarcity in rural development in South Africa, with a particular focus on water scarcity. It seeks to examine whether there is a direct link between household water and economic poverty of rural households, with households’ total monthly income used as an indicator of economic poverty. An adaptation of a comprehensive water poverty index, which considers water access, quality, use, ...

  8. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  9. Development of water resources management in Iraq and its obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq witnessed recently a considerable development in the field of water resources management to go along with developed countries. Latest technology has been introduced in hydrology monitoring. Many stations for water measuring and monitoring have been constructed beside many irrigation and drainage canals in order to reach an optimum irrigation system. A special emphasis has been put on the role of nuclear techniques in enhancing the water resources management development. These techniques will provide the perfect opportunity for investing water and drained quantities and determining pollution resources to insure the sustainability of the agricultural sector without threatening the development processes. This development encounters the lack of knowledge of technology applied in the field of the use of peaceful atomic energy and nuclear technologies, which are essential in sustaining the momentum in the management of water resources, despite the entry of the latest developed devices and technologies in measurements and monitoring. (author)

  10. Water Resources Development in Minnesota 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Mississippi River Comprehensive Elk River, Mississippi River ..................... 43 Master Plan .............................. 20 Epr Roau, Mississippi...Mississippi River has in- water resource projects, and receiving more than 600 million creased steadily since the advent of the 9-foot channel in 1935 ...and increased from about Minneapolis, Completed Project - 11 0,(XX) tons in 1935 to a peak of 3,177,355 tons in 1975. Traffic Commercial Navigation

  11. Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Concept Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    subsea pipeline leaks , or the leaking of oil from tanks after a damaged vessel has sunk to the bottom. Oil arriving at the surface of the water may...i Classification | CG-926 RDC | author | audience | month year Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Concept Development Distribution...Center. June 2016 Report No. CG-D-03-16 Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Concept Development ii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC

  12. Water Resources of Israel: Trackrecord of the Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai S. Orlovsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Israel is a country in the Near East consisting for 95% of the arid regions in which 60% of the territory are covered by the Negev Desert. Therefore, the water resources are scant here and formed mostly by atmospheric precipitations. In the period from 1989 to 2005 the average precipitations were 6 billion cu. m, of which 60–70% were evaporated soon after rainfalls, at least 5% run down by rivers into the sea (mostly in winter and the remaining 25% of precipitations infiltrated into soil from where the greater part of water got into the sea with ground waters. In Israel there are two groups of water resources: surface and underground. Israel is not rich in surface waters. The natural reservoir of surface fresh water is the Kinneret Lake in the northeast of the country. It gets water from the Jordan River and its tributaries. The average annual amount of available water of this lake is around 370 million cu. m, which accounts for one-third of the country’s water needs and still higher share of the drinking water needs. The greater part of fresh waters (37% of water supply of Israel as of 2011 in this country is supplied from ground water sources. Owing to insufficiency of available natural resources, unevenness of precipitations by years and seasons and with the growth of the population and economic development the issues of provision with the quality drinking water of the population as well as agriculture and industry, rehabilitation of natural environment cause permanently growing concern. In view of the water shortage untiring efforts have been taken to improve the irrigation efficiency and to reduce water use by improving the efficacy of irrigation techniques and application of advanced system management approaches. Among the water saving technologies applied in Israel there are: drop irrigation, advanced filtration, up to date methods of water leak detection from networks, rainwater collection and processing systems. At the same time

  13. Santa Lucia River basin. Development of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to orient the development of water resources of the Santa Lucia River basin to maximum benefit in accordance with the priorities established by Government in relation to the National Development Plans

  14. Development of datamining software for the city water supply company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlinskaya, O. G.; Boiko, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    The article considers issues of datamining software development for city water supply enterprises. Main stages of OLAP and datamining systems development are proposed. The system will allow water supply companies analyse accumulated data. Accordingly, improving the quality of data analysis would improve the manageability of the company and help to make the right managerial decisions by executives of various levels.

  15. Water Education: An e-learning platform for water-related competence development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Arvin, Erik; Ucendo, Inmaculada Maria Buendia

    2011-01-01

    The Danish water sector is in dire need for competence development to accommodate the changes in Danish water governance (decentralisation,privatisation and larger entities) and the implementation of relevant EuropeanUnion (EU) directives. In parallel, the number of international students enrolled......, DTUEnvironment has created an e-learning platform called Water Education (WatEdu) scheduled to be operational in 2011....

  16. Fifty years of solid-phase extraction in water analysis--historical development and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, I

    2000-07-14

    The use of an appropriate sample handling technique is a must in an analysis of organic micropollutants in water. The efforts to use a solid phase for the recovery of analytes from a water matrix prior to their detection have a long history. Since the first experimental trials using activated carbon filters that were performed 50 years ago, solid-phase extraction (SPE) has become an established sample preparation technique. The initial experimental applications of SPE resulted in widespread use of this technique in current water analysis and also to adoption of SPE into standardized analytical methods. During the decades of its evolution, chromatographers became aware of the advantages of SPE and, despite many innovations that appeared in the last decade, new SPE developments are still expected in the future. A brief overview of 50 years of the history of the use of SPE in organic trace analysis of water is given in presented paper.

  17. Development of reactor water level sensor for extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K; Ogasawara, T [Sukegawa Electric Co., Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Shibata, Akira; Nakamura, Jinichi; Saito, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    In the Fukushima accident, measurement failure of water level was one of the most important factors which caused serious situation. The differential pressure type water level indicators are widely used in various place of nuclear power plant but after the accident of TMI-2, the need of other reliable method has been required. The BICOTH type and the TRICOTH type water level indicator for light water power reactors had been developed for in-pile water level indicator but currently those are not adopted to nuclear power plant. In this study, the development of new type water level indicator composed of thermocouple and heater is described. Demonstration test and characteristic evaluation of the water level indicator were performed and we had obtained satisfactory results. (author)

  18. Estimation of paddy water temperature during crop development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno, H.G.S.; Horie, T.

    1996-01-01

    The crop meristem is in direct contact with paddy water during crop's vegetative stage. Ambient air temperature becomes an important factor in crop development only when internodes elongate sufficiently for the meristem to rise above the water surface. This does not occur until after panicle initiation. Crop growth at vegetative stage is affected more by water temperature than the most commonly measured air temperature. During transplanting in 1992 dry season, the maximum paddy water temperature was 10 deg C higher than the maximum air temperature. For rice crop models, the development of a submodel to estimate water temperature is important to account the effect of paddy water temperature on plant growth. Paddy water temperature is estimated from mean air temperature, solar radiation, and crop canopy. The parameters of the model were derived using the simplex method on data from the 1993 wet- and dry-season field experiments at IRRI

  19. The Community Water Model (CWATM) / Development of a community driven global water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Peter; Satoh, Yusuke; Greve, Peter; Kahil, Taher; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    With a growing population and economic development, it is expected that water demands will increase significantly in the future, especially in developing regions. At the same time, climate change is expected to alter spatial patterns of hydrological cycle and will have global, regional and local impacts on water availability. Thus, it is important to assess water supply, water demand and environmental needs over time to identify the populations and locations that will be most affected by these changes linked to water scarcity, droughts and floods. The Community Water Model (CWATM) will be designed for this purpose in that it includes an accounting of how future water demands will evolve in response to socioeconomic change and how water availability will change in response to climate. CWATM represents one of the new key elements of IIASA's Water program. It has been developed to work flexibly at both global and regional level at different spatial resolutions. The model is open source and community-driven to promote our work amongst the wider water community worldwide and is flexible enough linking to further planned developments such as water quality and hydro-economic modules. CWATM will be a basis to develop a next-generation global hydro-economic modeling framework that represents the economic trade-offs among different water management options over a basin looking at water supply infrastructure and demand managements. The integrated modeling framework will consider water demand from agriculture, domestic, energy, industry and environment, investment needs to alleviate future water scarcity, and will provide a portfolio of economically optimal solutions for achieving future water management options under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) for example. In addition, it will be able to track the energy requirements associated with the water supply system e.g., pumping, desalination and interbasin transfer to realize the linkage with the water-energy economy. In

  20. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  1. Robust Water Supply Infrastructure Development Pathways: What, When and Where Matters the Most? (INVITED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Patrick; Zeff, Harrison; Characklis, Gregory

    2017-04-01

    Water supply adaptation frameworks that seek robustness must adaptively trigger actions that are contextually appropriate to emerging system observations and avoid long term high regret lock-ins. As an example, emerging water scarcity concerns in southeastern United States are associated with several deeply uncertain factors, including rapid population growth, limited coordination across adjacent municipalities and the increasing risks for sustained regional droughts. Managing these uncertainties will require that regional water utilities identify regionally coordinated, scarcity-mitigating infrastructure development pathways that trigger time appropriate actions. Mistakes can lead to water shortages, overbuilt stranded assets and possibly financial failures. This presentation uses the Research Triangle area of North Carolina to illustrate the key concerns and challenges that emerged when helping Raleigh, Durham, Cary and Chapel Hill develop their long term water supply infrastructure pathways through 2060. This example shows how the region's water utilities' long term infrastructure pathways are strongly shaped by their short term conservation policies (i.e., reacting to evolving demands) and their ability to consider regional water transfers (i.e., reacting to supply imbalances). Cooperatively developed, shared investments across the four municipalities expand their capacity to use short term transfers to better manage severe droughts with fewer investments in irreversible infrastructure options. Cooperative pathways are also important for avoiding regional robustness conflicts, where one party benefits strongly at the expense of one or more the others. A significant innovation of this work is the exploitation of weekly and annual dynamic risk-of-failure action triggers that exploit evolving feedbacks between co-evolving human demands and regional supplies. These dynamic action triggers provide high levels of adaptivity, tailor actions to their specific context

  2. Low-cost failure sensor design and development for water pipeline distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K; Widdop, P D; Day, A J; Wood, A S; Mounce, S R; Machell, J

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a new sensor which is low cost to manufacture and install and is reliable in operation with sufficient accuracy, resolution and repeatability for use in newly developed systems for pipeline monitoring and leakage detection. To provide an appropriate signal, the concept of a "failure" sensor is introduced, in which the output is not necessarily proportional to the input, but is unmistakably affected when an unusual event occurs. The design of this failure sensor is based on the water opacity which can be indicative of an unusual event in a water distribution network. The laboratory work and field trials necessary to design and prove out this type of failure sensor are described here. It is concluded that a low-cost failure sensor of this type has good potential for use in a comprehensive water monitoring and management system based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN).

  3. People, Land and Water: Participatory Development Communication ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... ... and offers insights and lessons from research and experience in the field. ... 2000), and Involving the Community: A Guide to Participatory Development ... IDRC is now accepting applications for this year's Trees and People: ...

  4. Water Jet 2013 - Research, Development, Applications. Proceedings of the Conference on Water Jetting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Sitek, Libor

    2013-01-01

    Water Jet 2013 - Research, Development, Applications is the third international meeting of researchers, manufacturers, end-users, and all those interested in the technology of high-speed water jetting organized by the Department of material disintegration of the Institute of Geonics of the ASCR Ostrava. It provides a basis not only for exchange knowledge, ideas, information and experiences in areas of research, development and applications of water jets, as well as stimulating discussio...

  5. Appropriate complexity landscape modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Passalacqua, Paola; Getz, Wayne M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Liang, Man

    Advances in computing technology, new and ongoing restoration initiatives, concerns about climate change's effects, and the increasing interdisciplinarity of research have encouraged the development of landscape-scale mechanistic models of coupled ecological-geophysical systems. However,

  6. Development of the Next Generation Type Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Tachihara, Satoru; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Ueoka, Terumi; Soejima, Fujito; Teranishi, Hiromitsu

    According to NASA, an astronaut living on the International Space Station (ISS) requires approximately 7 kg of water per day. This includes 2 kg of drinking water as well as sanitary fresh water for hand washing, gargling, etc. This water is carried to the space station from the earth, so when more people are staying on the space station, or staying for a longer period of time, the cost of transporting water increases. Accordingly, water is a valuable commodity, and restrictions are applied to such activities as brushing teeth, washing hair, and washing clothes. The life of an astronaut in space is not necessarily a healthy one. JAXA has experience in the research of water recovery systems. Today, utilizing knowledge learned through experiences living on the space station and space shuttles, and taking advantage of the development of new materials for device construction, it is possible to construct a new water recovery system. Therefore, JAXA and New Medican Tech Corporation (NMT) have created a system for collaborative development. Based on the technologies of both companies, we are proceeding to develop the next generation of water recovery devices in order to contribute to safe, comfortable, and healthy daily life for astronauts in space. The goal of this development is to achieve a water purification system based on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that can perform the following functions. • Preprocessing that removes ammonia and breaks down organic matter contained in urine. • Post-processing that adds minerals and sterilizes the water. • Online TOC measurement for monitoring water quality. • Functions for measuring harmful substances. The RO membrane is an ultra-low-pressure type membrane with a 0.0001 micron (0.1 nanometer) pore size and an operating pressure of 0.4 to 0.6 MPa. During processing with the RO membrane, nearly all of the minerals contained in the cleaned water are removed, resulting in water that is near the quality of deionized water

  7. Maximising the clinical use of exercise gaseous exchange testing in children with repaired cyanotic congenital heart defects: the development of an appropriate test strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, A; Leung, M

    2000-04-01

    Implicit in deciding upon an exercise test strategy to elucidate cardiopulmonary function in children with congenital heart disease are appropriate application of gas exchange techniques and the significance of the data collected to the specific congenital heart disorder. Post-operative cardiopulmonary responses to exercise in cyanotic disorders are complex and, despite a large body of extant literature in paediatric patients, there has been much difficulty in achieving quality and consistency of data. Maximal oxygen uptake is widely recognised as the best single indicator of cardiopulmonary function and has therefore been the focus of most clinical exercise tests in children. Many children with various heart anomalies are able to exercise to maximum without adverse symptoms, and it is essential that test termination is based on the same criteria for these children. Choosing appropriate, valid indicators of maximum in children with congenital heart disease is beset by difficulties. Such maximal intensity exercise testing procedures have been challenged on the grounds that they do not give a good indication of cardiopulmonary function that is relevant to real life situations. Furthermore, they are prone to much interindividual variability and error in the definition of maximal exertion. Alternative strategies have been proposed which focus upon dynamic submaximal and kinetic cardiopulmonary responses, which are thought to be less dependent on maximal voluntary effort and more suited to the daily activity patterns of children. These methods are also not without problems. Variability in anaerobic threshold measurements and controversy regarding its physiological meaning have been debated. It is recommended that an appropriate cardiopulmonary exercise gas exchange test strategy, which provides clinically useful information for children with cyanotic congenital heart disease, should include both maximal and submaximal data. The inclusion of oxygen uptake kinetics and

  8. The coordinated development of China' s inland water transport%The coordinated development of China' s inland water transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Aimin; Tian Feng; Haasis H.D; Mao Lang; Cai Jia

    2012-01-01

    The coordinated development is the core of sustainable development and the hot issue of international research. Inland water transport (IWT) is an important part of the water resources exploiting system and comprehensive transport system under socio-economic context of river basin, and also the country' s sustainable development priorities to achieve resource-conserving and environment-friendly strategy. Based on the coordinated development content, the paper combined Germany' s successful development experience, explored the elements and problem of the coordinated development of IWT system of China' s national economic strategy and basin economy, water resourse system, comprehensive transport system, and system itself, and their countermeasures and suggestions, in order to facilitate rapid and coordinated development of China' s inland water transport.

  9. Developing the remote sensing-based water environmental model for monitoring alpine river water environment over Plateau cold zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Wang, S.; Yang, Q.; Shen, M.; Chen, G.

    2017-12-01

    Alpine river water environment on the Plateau (such as Tibetan Plateau, China) is a key indicator for water security and environmental security in China. Due to the complex terrain and various surface eco-environment, it is a very difficult to monitor the water environment over the complex land surface of the plateau. The increasing availability of remote sensing techniques with appropriate spatiotemporal resolutions, broad coverage and low costs allows for effective monitoring river water environment on the Plateau, particularly in remote and inaccessible areas where are lack of in situ observations. In this study, we propose a remote sense-based monitoring model by using multi-platform remote sensing data for monitoring alpine river environment. In this study some parameterization methodologies based on satellite remote sensing data and field observations have been proposed for monitoring the water environmental parameters (including chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), water turbidity (WT) or water clarity (SD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total organic carbon (TOC)) over the china's southwest highland rivers, such as the Brahmaputra. First, because most sensors do not collect multiple observations of a target in a single pass, data from multiple orbits or acquisition times may be used, and varying atmospheric and irradiance effects must be reconciled. So based on various types of satellite data, at first we developed the techniques of multi-sensor data correction, atmospheric correction. Second, we also built the inversion spectral database derived from long-term remote sensing data and field sampling data. Then we have studied and developed a high-precision inversion model over the southwest highland river backed by inversion spectral database through using the techniques of multi-sensor remote sensing information optimization and collaboration. Third, take the middle reaches of the Brahmaputra river as the study area, we validated the key

  10. Water supply development and tariffs in Tanzania: From free water policy towards cost recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashauri, Damas A.; Katko, Tapio S.

    1993-01-01

    The article describes the historical development of water tariff policy in Tanzania from the colonial times to present. After gaining independence, the country introduced “free” water policy in its rural areas. Criticism against this policy was expressed already in the 1970s, but it was not until the late 1980s that change became unavoidable. All the while urban water tariffs continued to decline in real terms. In rural and periurban areas of Tanzania consumers often have to pay substantial amounts of money for water to resellers and vendors since the public utilities are unable to provide operative service. Besides, only a part of the water bills are actually collected. Now that the free water supply policy has been officially abandoned, the development of water tariffs and the institutions in general are a great challenge for the country.

  11. Water: The conveyor belt for sustainable livelihoods and economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapani, Benjamin; Meck, Maideyi; Makurira, Hodson; Magole, Lapologang; Mashauri, Damas; mazvimavi, Dominic; Mul, Marloes

    2016-04-01

    The theme for the 2014 symposium focused on the contribution of integrated water resources management (IWRM) to socio-economic development. A number of papers presented various methods that could be used to enable society to access clean water; sanitation and provision of water for rainfed and irrigation based agriculture and aquaculture. Water is the engine of development, that drives both money generating ventures as well as activities which cannot be assigned exact monetary value, but are essential for the social and economic well being of communities. It is now accepted that in order to produce most products, the contribution of water has to be factored in; from manufacturing to mining. The role that water plays in the has a much higher economic value than most people realize.

  12. Advanced treatment and reuse system developed for oilfield process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Kevin

    2011-01-15

    An innovative plant to treat oilfield produced wastewater is being constructed in Trinidad and Tobago following recent regulations and industrial water supply challenges. The 4,100m3/day treatment system, developed by Golder Associates, will produce water for industrial reuse and effluent that meets new regulations. The treatment stages include: oil-water separation by gravity, equalization with a two-day capacity basin, dissolved air flotation, cooling, biotreatment/settling with immobilized cell bioreactors (ICB) technology, prefiltration/reverse osmosis and effluent storage/transfer. This advanced system will provide several important benefits including the elimination of inland discharge of minimally-treated water and the reduction of environmental and public health concerns. In addition, it will provide a new source of industrial water, resulting in a decrease in demand for fresh water. The success of this plant could lead to additional facilities in other oil field locations, expanding economic and environmental benefits of water reuse.

  13. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  14. Development of electromagnetic filtration in the feed water circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic filtration in the feed water circuit of the steam generators in nuclear power plants is efficient towards insoluble corrosion products. The principle of electromagnetic filtration is shortly recalled and the results of corresponding development work are summarized. The magnitude of water volumes to be treated on the two priviledged parts of the circuit are estimated. These parts are on the feed water tank level and on the blow-down of the steam generator. The practical applications are discussed [fr

  15. Effects of suburban development on runoff generation and water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Sillanpää, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization leads to changes in natural catchment characteristics by increasing the imper-vious coverage and drainage efficiency, which enhance flooding, erosion and water quality problems in the receiving waters. Year-round monitoring of catchment-scale hydrological and water quality variables is needed to produce data resources for the development of urban drainage design principles for various management purposes in cold climate. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the impacts of ur...

  16. Development of sustainable water treatment technology using scientifically based calculated indexes of source water quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Трякина

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes selection process of sustainable technological process flow chart for water treatment procedure developed on scientifically based calculated indexes of quality indicators for water supplied to water treatment facilities. In accordance with the previously calculated values of the indicators of the source water quality, the main purification facilities are selected. A more sustainable flow chart for the modern water quality of the Seversky Donets-Donbass channel is a two-stage filtering with contact prefilters and high-rate filters. The article proposes a set of measures to reduce such an indicator of water quality as permanganate oxidation. The most suitable for these purposes is sorption purification using granular activated carbon for water filtering. The increased water hardness is also quite topical. The method of ion exchange on sodium cation filters was chosen to reduce the water hardness. We also evaluated the reagents for decontamination of water. As a result, sodium hypochlorite is selected for treatment of water, which has several advantages over chlorine and retains the necessary aftereffect, unlike ozone. A technological flow chart with two-stage purification on contact prefilters and two-layer high-rate filters (granular activated carbon - quartz sand with disinfection of sodium hypochlorite and softening of a part of water on sodium-cation exchangers filters is proposed. This technological flow chart of purification with any fluctuations in the quality of the source water is able to provide purified water that meets the requirements of the current sanitary-hygienic standards. In accordance with the developed flow chart, guidelines and activities for the reconstruction of the existing Makeevka Filtering Station were identified. The recommended flow chart uses more compact and less costly facilities, as well as additional measures to reduce those water quality indicators, the values of which previously were in

  17. Barriers and Solutions to Smart Water Grid Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, So-Min; Choi, Gye-Woon; Lee, Ho-Sun

    2016-03-01

    This limited review of smart water grid (SWG) development, challenges, and solutions provides an initial assessment of early attempts at operating SWGs. Though the cost and adoption issues are critical, potential benefits of SWGs such as efficient water conservation and distribution sustain the development of SWGs around the world. The review finds that the keys to success are the new regulations concerning data access and ownership to solve problems of security and privacy; consumer literacy to accept and use SWGs; active private sector involvement to coordinate SWG development; government-funded pilot projects and trial centers; and integration with sustainable water management.

  18. Guidelines to Develop Efficient Photocatalysts for Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.

    2016-04-03

    Photocatalytic overall water splitting is the only viable solar-to-fuel conversion technology. The research discloses an investigation process wherein by dissecting the photocatalytic water splitting device, electrocatalysts, and semiconductor photocatalysts can be independently studied, developed and optimized. The assumption of perfect catalysts leads to the realization that semiconductors are the limiting factor in photocatalysis. This dissertation presents a guideline for efficient photocatalysis using semiconductor particles developed from idealized theoretical simulations. No perfect catalysts exist; then the discussion focus on the development of efficient non-noble metal electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution from water reduction. Tungsten carbide (WC) is selective for the catalysis of hydrogen without the introduction of the reverse reaction of water formation, which is critical to achieving photocatalytic overall water splitting as demonstrated in this work. Finally, photoelectrochemistry is used to characterize thoroughly Cu-based p-type semiconductors with potential for large-scale manufacture. Artificial photosynthesis may be achieved by following the recommendations herein presented.

  19. River Basin Water Assessment and Balance in fast developing areas in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van Chin; Ranzi, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Uneven precipitation in space and time together with mismanagement and lack of knowledge about quantity and quality of water resources, have caused water shortages for water supply to large cities and irrigation areas in many regions of Viet Nam in the dry season. The rainy season (from June to October) counts for 80% of the total annual rainfall, while the water volume of dry season (from November to May of the following year) accounts for 20% only. Lack of sufficient water volumes occurs in some areas where the pressure of a fast increasing population (1.3% per year on average in the last decade in Viet Nam), intensive agricultural and industrial uses is one of the major problems facing sustainable development. For those areas an accurate water assessment and balance at the riverbasin scale is needed to manage the exploitation and appropriate use of water resources and plan future development. The paper describes the preliminary phase of the pilot development of the river basin water balance for the Day River Basin in the Red River delta in Viet Nam. The Day river basin includes a 7,897 km² area in the south-western part of the Red River in Viet Nam. The total population in the Day river basin exceeds 8 millions inhabitants, including the Hanoi capital, Nam Dinh and other large towns. Agricultural land covered 390,294 ha in 2000 and this area is going to be increased by 14,000 ha in 2010 due to land reclamation and expansion toward the sea. Agricultural uses exploit about 90% of surface water resources in the Day river basin but have to compete with industrial and civil needs in the recent years. At the background of the brief characterization of the Day River Basin, we concentrate on the application of a water balance model integrated by an assessment of water quality after consumptive uses for civil, agricultural and industrial needs to assist water management in the basin. In addition, future development scenarios are taken into account, considering less

  20. Developing the Water Supply System for Travel to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Fisher, John W.; Delzeit, Lance D.; Flynn, Michael T.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    What water supply method should be used on a trip to Mars? Two alternate approaches are using fuel cell and stored water, as was done for short missions such as Apollo and the Space Shuttle, or recycling most of the water, as on long missions including the International Space Station (ISS). Stored water is inexpensive for brief missions but its launch mass and cost become very large for long missions. Recycling systems have much lower total mass and cost for long missions, but they have high development cost and are more expensive to operate than storage. A Mars transit mission would have an intermediate duration of about 450 days out and back. Since Mars transit is about ten times longer than a brief mission but probably less than one-tenth as long as ISS, it is not clear if stored or recycled water would be best. Recycling system design is complicated because water is used for different purposes, drinking, food preparation, washing, and flushing the urinal, and because wastewater has different forms, humidity condensate, dirty wash water, and urine and flush water. The uses have different requirements and the wastewater resources have different contaminants and processing requirements. The most cost-effective water supply system may recycle some wastewater sources and also provide safety reserve water from storage. Different water supply technologies are compared using mass, cost, reliability, and other factors.

  1. Development of solid water-equivalent radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finke, E.; Greupner, H.; Groche, K.; Rittwag, R.; Geske, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the development of solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials. These certified reference materials were prepared for the beta fission nuclides 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 137 Cs, 147 Pm and 204 Tl. Comparative measurements of liquid and solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials are discussed. (author)

  2. Method Development and Monitoring of Cyanotoxins in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes method development of two ambient water LC/MS/MS methods for microcystins, cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a. Ruggedness of the methods will be demonstrated by evaluation of quality control samples derived from various water bodies across the country.

  3. Research and Development Roadmap for Water Heating Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Gagne, Claire [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Lutz, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2011-10-01

    Although water heating is an important energy end-use in residential and commercial buildings, efficiency improvements in recent years have been relatively modest. However, significant advancements related to higher efficiency equipment, as well as improved distribution systems, are now viable. DOE support for water heating research, development and demonstration (RD&D) could provide the impetus for commercialization of these advancements.

  4. The development of a municipal water conservation and demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation of water conservation and water demand management ... and the municipalities do not have the necessary financial, technical and institutional capacity to support such a ... The methodology for this study was developed as part of the ... Study' for the Vaal River system (DWAF, 2006; DWAF, 2009).

  5. Development of Water Quality Modeling in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes historical trends in water quality model development in the United States, reviews current efforts, and projects promising future directions. Water quality modeling has a relatively long history in the United States. While its origins lie in the work...

  6. Water Reclamation Technology Development at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pickering, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Who We Are: A staff of approximately 14 BS, MS, and PhD-Level Engineers and Scientists with experience in Aerospace, Civil, Environmental, and Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry, Physical Science and Water Pollution Microbiology. Our Primary Objective: To develop the next generation water recovery system technologies that will support NASA's long duration missions beyond low-earth orbit.

  7. Soil Conservation Techniques for Hillside Farms. A Guide for Peace Corps Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Reprint Series No. R-62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Carl

    This guide provides agricultural extensionists with basic information that will help them design plans for the conservation of soils and the management of water runoff in specific agricultural plots. It is based on experiences with small hillside farms in Honduras and takes into account the resources and constraints commonly encountered there.…

  8. Cultivo y Manejo de Estanques Pesqueros de Agua Fresca (Freshwater Fish Pond Culture and Management). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-1D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroff, Marilyn; Druben, Laurel, Ed.

    This is the Spanish translation of a "how-to" manual, designed as a working and teaching tool for extension agents as they establish and/or maintain local fish pond operations. The manual presents information to facilitate technology transfer and to provide a clear guide for warm water fish pond construction and management. Major topic…

  9. Development of high conversion boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Mochida, Takaaki; Uchikawa, Sadao.

    1988-01-01

    It is expected that the period of LWRs being the main source of electric power supply becomes long, therefore, the development of next generation LWRs placing emphasis on the effective utilization of uranium resources and the improvement of economical efficiency is necessary. In this paper, as the next generation BWRs subsequent to ABWRs, the concept of the core of high conversion type BWRs is reported, in which emphasis is placed on the saving of natural uranium resources by raising the rate of conversion to plutonium. This core is that of realizing the high rate of conversion by utilizing the void in the core, which is the feature of BWRs, and the case of making the change of the core structure relatively small by using cross type control rods and the case of changing the core structure for further heightening the rate of conversion and making control rods into cluster type are described. In order to meet the demand like this, Hitachi Ltd. has engaged in the development of the concept of the core of next generation LWRs. In the high conversion type BWRs, there is not large change in the reactor system and turbine system from the current BWRs. The features and the concept of the core of high conversion type BWRs are described. (Kako, I.)

  10. Academic appropriation and Impact Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson López López

    2012-06-01

    margin in that range.2. Use and contrast diverse indicators provided by the different information systems (ISI-SCOPUS, for example. In this sense, an indicator that normalises citations with regards to area and citation sources is a more informative indicator ofthe impact dynamics for that knowledge. 3. Every reading of the indicators must take into account the journal’s history, the amount of contents, and specially the amount of contents included in databases; the journal’s place of origin; whether the journal is edited by a transnational company or a university; the journal’s region of the world; andwhether or not it is open access, amongst others.It is clear that a simplistic reading of indicators is not enough to account for a journal’s content incidence dynamics; nevertheless, the complexity of information systems and the indicators available to us today can account for things we could not account for previously.Evidently, most knowledge-producing communities aim to, and not naively, have an influence on the communication and appropriation of other researchers. But this appropriation is not the only way, and communication pieces allow us today to develop different channels in order to have an influence on these communities, in many ways.A very interesting impact would be, for example, the one that results from the use of academic communities in training, both undergraduate and postgraduate, or professional communities that operate in the applied settings. These influences are surely not translated into citation indicators, but, for example, in the uses made by curricula, or the uses made by professionals of academic contents in their daily practices. Hence, these indicators are harder to find, assess and gather, despite being important in order to account for other academicappropriations.Wilson López LopezEditor

  11. Development of water chemistry diagnosis system for BWR primary loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Asakura, Yamato; Sakagami, Masaharu; Uchida, Shunsuke; Ohsumi, Katsumi.

    1988-01-01

    The prototype of a water chemistry diagnosis system for BWR primary loop has been developed. Its purposes are improvement of water chemistry control and reduction of the work burden on plant chemistry personnel. It has three main features as follows. (1) Intensifying the observation of water chemistry conditions by variable sampling intervals based on the on-line measured data. (2) Early detection of water chemistry data trends using a second order regression curve which is calculated from the measured data, and then searching the cause of anomaly if anything (3) Diagnosis of Fe concentration in feedwater using model simulations, in order to lower the radiation level in the primary system. (author)

  12. Regulation of water resources for sustaining global future socioeconomic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; SHI, H.; Sivakumar, B.

    2016-12-01

    With population projections indicating continued growth during this century, socio-economic problems (e.g., water, food, and energy shortages) will be most likely to occur, especially if proper planning, development, and management strategies are not adopted. In the present study, firstly, we explore the vital role of dams in promoting economic growth through analyzing the relationship between dams and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at both global and national scales. Secondly, we analyze the current situation of global water scarcity based on the data representing water resources availability, dam development, and the level of economic development. Third, with comprehensive consideration of population growth as the major driving force, water resources availability as the basic supporting factor, and topography as the important constraint, this study addresses the question of dam development in the future and predicts the locations of future dams around the world.

  13. development of an automated batch-process solar water disinfection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This work presents the development of an automated batch-process water disinfection system ... Locally sourced materials in addition to an Arduinomicro processor were used to control ..... As already mentioned in section 3.1.1, a statistical.

  14. Managed groundwater development for water-supply security in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    security in Sub-Saharan Africa: Investment priorities ... 2010, together with a review of some developments in western Africa and insights from parts of Asia and Latin America. ...... and the Global Water Partnership (Ania Grobicki and Aurelie.

  15. Physicochemical properties of macrogol ointment and emulsion ointment blend developed for regulation of water absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Kazuya; Sanagawa, Akimasa; Sobajima, Yu; Fujii, Satoshi

    2011-10-31

    Pressure ulcers can form with excess pressure and shearing stress on skin tissue. Because pressure ulcer is often accompanies by exudates, selection of appropriate topical emulsion ointment is difficult. Blended ointments consisting of emulsion base and water-soluble base are clinically used for adjustment of wound moist environment. Because regulating the amount of wound exudates can enhance treatment efficacy, two new blended ointments were developed. LY-SL blended ointment consisted of lysozyme hydrochloride water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion (LY-cream) and sulfadiazine macrogol (polyethylene glycol) ointment (SL-pasta). TR-SL blended ointment consisted of tretinoin tocoferil oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion (TR-cream) and SL-pasta (TR-SL). LY-SL and TR-SL were applied to Franz diffusion cell with cellulose membranes for the evaluation of water absorption characteristics at 32 °C. Water absorption rate constants (mg/cm(2)/min(0.5)) were 12.5, 16.3 and 34.6 for LY-cream, TR-cream and SL-pasta, respectively. Water absorption rate constants for LY-SL and TR-SL (SL-pasta 70%) exhibited intermediate values of 21.2 and 27.2, as compared to each ointment alone, respectively. Because amount of water absorbed was linearly related to square root of time, it was suggested that water-absorbable macrogol was surrounded by oily ingredients forming matrix structure. This diffusion-limited structure may regulate water absorption capacity. This is the first report of physicochemical properties of macrogol ointment and emulsion ointment blend developed for regulation of water absorption. The blended ointment can properly regulate amount of exudates in wounds and may be useful for treatment of pressure ulcers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring Global Water Security Towards Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gain, Animesh K.; Giupponi, Carlo; Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Water plays an important role in underpinning equitable, stable and productive societies and ecosystems. Hence, United Nations recognized ensuring water security as one (Goal 6) of the seventeen sustainable development goals (SDGs). Many international river basins are likely to experience 'low water security' over the coming decades. Water security is rooted not only in the physical availability of freshwater resources relative to water demand, but also on social and economic factors (e.g. sound water planning and management approaches, institutional capacity to provide water services, sustainable economic policies). Until recently, advanced tools and methods are available for the assessment of water scarcity. However, quantitative and integrated-physical and socio-economic-approaches for spatial analysis of water security at global level are not available yet. In this study, we present a spatial multi-criteria analysis framework to provide a global assessment of water security. The selected indicators are based on Goal 6 of SDGs. The term 'security' is conceptualized as a function of 'availability', 'accessibility to services', 'safety and quality', and 'management'. The proposed global water security index (GWSI) is calculated by aggregating indicator values on a pixel-by-pixel basis, using the ordered weighted average method, which allows for the exploration of the sensitivity of final maps to different attitudes of hypothetical policy makers. Our assessment suggests that countries of Africa, South Asia and Middle East experience very low water security. Other areas of high water scarcity, such as some parts of United States, Australia and Southern Europe, show better GWSI values, due to good performance of management, safety and quality, and accessibility. The GWSI maps show the areas of the world in which integrated strategies are needed to achieve water related targets of the SDGs particularly in the African and Asian continents.

  17. Measuring global water security towards sustainable development goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gain, Animesh K.; Giupponi, Carlo; Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-12-01

    Water plays an important role in underpinning equitable, stable and productive societies and ecosystems. Hence, United Nations recognized ensuring water security as one (Goal 6) of the seventeen sustainable development goals (SDGs). Many international river basins are likely to experience ‘low water security’ over the coming decades. Water security is rooted not only in the physical availability of freshwater resources relative to water demand, but also on social and economic factors (e.g. sound water planning and management approaches, institutional capacity to provide water services, sustainable economic policies). Until recently, advanced tools and methods are available for the assessment of water scarcity. However, quantitative and integrated—physical and socio-economic—approaches for spatial analysis of water security at global level are not available yet. In this study, we present a spatial multi-criteria analysis framework to provide a global assessment of water security. The selected indicators are based on Goal 6 of SDGs. The term ‘security’ is conceptualized as a function of ‘availability’, ‘accessibility to services’, ‘safety and quality’, and ‘management’. The proposed global water security index (GWSI) is calculated by aggregating indicator values on a pixel-by-pixel basis, using the ordered weighted average method, which allows for the exploration of the sensitivity of final maps to different attitudes of hypothetical policy makers. Our assessment suggests that countries of Africa, South Asia and Middle East experience very low water security. Other areas of high water scarcity, such as some parts of United States, Australia and Southern Europe, show better GWSI values, due to good performance of management, safety and quality, and accessibility. The GWSI maps show the areas of the world in which integrated strategies are needed to achieve water related targets of the SDGs particularly in the African and Asian continents.

  18. Development Project of Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, K.; Shiga, S.; Moriya, K.; Oka, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Takahashi, H.

    2002-01-01

    A Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor (SCPR) development project (Feb. 2001- Mar. 2005) is being performed by a joint team consisting of Japanese universities and nuclear venders with a national fund. The main objective of this project is to provide technical information essential to demonstration of SCPR technologies through concentrating three sub-themes: 'plant conceptual design', 'thermohydraulics', and 'material and water chemistry'. The target of the 'plant conceptual design sub-theme' is simplify the whole plant systems compared with the conventional LWRs while achieving high thermal efficiency of more than 40 % without sacrificing the level of safety. Under the 'thermohydraulics sub-theme', heat transfer characteristics of supercritical-water as a coolant of the SCPR are examined experimentally and analytically focusing on 'heat transfer deterioration'. The experiments are being performed using fron-22 for water at a fossil boiler test facility. The experimental results are being incorporated in LWR analytical tools together with an extended steam/R22 table. Under the 'material and water chemistry sub-theme', material candidates for fuel claddings and internals of the SCPR are being screened mainly through mechanical tests, corrosion tests, and simulated irradiation tests under the SCPR condition considering water chemistry. In particular, stress corrosion cracking sensitivity is being investigated as well as uniform corrosion and swelling characteristics. Influences of water chemistry on the corrosion product characteristics are also being examined to find preferable water condition as well as to develop rational water chemistry controlling methods. (authors)

  19. Development of a fast-water field guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    There are several manuals for oil spill response, but few have information on fast-water conditions. Between 1992 and 1997, approximately 58 per cent of all the oil spilled by volume in the United States happened in waterways with currents exceeding one knot, and the Coast Guard recognized the absence of standard terminology that could be used for fast-water responses. For that reason, an initiative was undertaken to create a document that addresses only fast-water issues. The resulting field guide can be used for training or responding to spills in fast-water. The user must rely on other manuals for issues on toxicity and shoreline cleanup as well as local contingency and site safety plans. The fast-water guide allows on-scene commanders and area supervisors the ability to define techniques and terminology for the responders in the field. It is particularly useful for Coast Guard Marine Safety Units when working with Coast Guard operational units during an emergency response. The current version of the guide that is under review by the working group contains 9 chapters and 9 appendices. The guide includes a decision-matrix that identifies various fat-water scenarios and provides recommended strategies. It then links to other sections of the document that contain details about the necessary equipment configurations. Photographs are provided to reinforce the concepts. The guide includes a checklist of the issues that must be addressed in any spill, such as weather and nature of the spill with some fast water issues added. Links to appropriate Internet sites are also included in the guide. Information within the guide can be condensed to one sheet for use in the field. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

  20. Modeling resource basis for social and economic development strategies: Water resource case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosolapova, Natalia A.; Matveeva, Ludmila G.; Nikitaeva, Anastasia Y.; Molapisi, Lesego

    2017-10-01

    The article substantiates that the effectiveness of implementing socio-economic development strategies is to a large extent determined by the adequate provision of basic resources. The key role of water resources in economic strategic development is empirically illustrated. The article demonstrates the practicability of strategic management of water resources based on the principle of a combination of river basin management approaches and the consideration of regional development strategies. The Game Theory technique was used to develop economic and mathematical tools for supporting decision-making in meeting the needs of regional consumers under water balance deficit conditions. The choice of methods was determined from two positions: the methods should allow for the possibility of multi-variant solutions for the selection of optimal options for the distribution of limited water resources between different consumers; the methods should be orientated on the maximum possible harmonization of multidirectional and multi-scale interests of the subjects in the water management system of the different regions (including the state) in order to achieve a balance. The approbation of developing a toolkit for the example of the regions located in the Don and Kuban river basins resulted in the appropriate selection of priority regions for the allocation of water resources in terms of strategic management as well as the determination of measures of ensuring the sustainable use of the river basins under consideration. The proposed tools can be used for coordinating decisions on the water supply of regional economic systems with actual and projected indicators of socio-economic development of the respective regions for a strategic perspective.

  1. Development of light water reactors and subjects for hereafter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Yoshio

    1995-01-01

    As for light water reactors, the structure is relatively simple, and the power plants of large capacity can be realized easily, therefore, they have been used for long period as main nuclear reactors. During that period, the accumulation of experiences on the design, manufacture, operation, maintenance and regulation of light water has become enormous, and in Japan, the social base for maintaining and developing light water reactor technologies has been prepared sufficiently. If the nuclear power generation using seawater uranium is considered, the utilization of uranium for light water reactor technologies can become the method of producing the own energy for Japan. As the factors that threaten the social base of light water reactor technologies, there are a the lowering of the desire to promote light water reactors, the effect of secular deterioration, the price rise of uranium resources, the effect of plutonium accumulation, the effect of the circumstances in developing countries and the sure recruiting of engineers. The construction and the principle of working of light water reactors and the development of light water reactors hereafter, for example, the improvement on small scale and the addition of new technology resulting in cost reduction and the lowering of the quality requirement for engineers, the improvement of core design, the countermeasures by design to serious accidents and others are described. (K.I.)

  2. Water, food and markets : household-level impact of irrigation water policies and institutions in northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.

    2013-01-01

    Water is increasingly becoming a limiting factor for sustainable economic growth and development, particularly in developing countries. Besides technical innovations, water institution reforms may contribute to improving water allocation decisions. Appropriately designed water

  3. Deep and shallow water effects on developing preschoolers' aquatic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Aldo M; Marinho, Daniel A; Rocha, Helena; Silva, António J; Barbosa, Tiago M; Ferreira, Sandra S; Martins, Marta

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess deep and shallow water teaching methods in swimming lessons for preschool children and identify variations in the basic aquatic skills acquired. The study sample included 32 swimming instructors (16 from deep water programs and 16 from shallow water programs) and 98 preschool children (50 from deep water swimming pool and 48 from shallow water swimming pool). The children were also studied regarding their previous experience in swimming (6, 12 and 18 months or practice). Chi-Square test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the teaching methodology. A discriminant analysis was conducted with Λ wilk's method to predict under what conditions students are better or worse (aquatic competence). Results suggest that regardless of the non-significant variations found in teaching methods, the water depth can affect aquatic skill acquisition - shallow water lessons seem to impose greater water competence particularly after 6 months of practice. The discriminant function revealed a significant association between groups and all predictors for 6 months of swimming practice (pdeep and shallow water programs for preschoolers is not significantly different. However, shallow water lessons could be preferable for the development of basic aquatic skills.

  4. Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Joaquín Suárez López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmental approaches to the administrations, for instance, in the management of urban drainage and sewerage systems. The practical expression of this whole cluster interactions is beginning to take shape in several countries, with the definition of Low Impact Development and Water Sensitivity Urban Design concepts. Intends to integrate this new strategic approach under the name: “Water Sensitive Urban Development” (WSUD. With WSUD approach, the current urban water systems (originally conceived under the traditional concept of urban water cycle can be transformed, conceptual and physically, for an integrated management of the urban water system in new models of sustainable urban development. A WSUD implementing new approach to the management of pollution associated with stormwater in the urban water system is also presented, including advances in environmental regulations and incorporation of several techniques in Spain.

  5. Appropriate technology for solar energy system aiming water heating for human bath in houses of rural areas; Tecnologia apropriada para sistema de energia solar visando aquecimento de agua para o banho humano em moradias do meio rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispoli, Italo Alberto Gatica [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo], e-mail: gatica@dglnet.com.br; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The Brazilian land receives a great amount of solar radiation all over the year, therefore, because both the culture and practical aspects, Brazilians use in a non-moderate way the electricity to boil the water for human bath in the rural homes, in the lower income residences even at part of the medium class homes. That happens due to the very low price of an electrical shower, about US$ 6,5. In fact, that way of heating water is largely used because, besides the very low electrical shower price, it is not necessary to install a complete hot water both hydraulic and electrical building systems, but just both single hydraulic pipes and electrical devices. On the other hands, at rural regions where the electricity does not achieve the rural people uses firewood in order to get hot water for human bath. At the rural places the use of electrical showers has meaning an increase in the electrical transformers powers, heavier electrical transmission rural lines, with greater prices and, at the urban zones, the use of electrical showers in the lower social classes has contributed to a more expressive electrical load at the nacional electrical system load peck, between 5:30 to 8:30 a.m. The public administration, mostly, does not take into account both social, economic and environmental costs in order to think about the electricity offer. The solar heating systems, generally used in Brazil, conserves the same reservoirs used in France at 1880. Therefore, this paper presents some technical subsidies applied to rural homes, even to lower income people's homes aiming to stimulate the Brazilian public authorities to make a public police to facilitate both the industrialization and dissemination of solar heating systems, appropriate to the rural area, with lower costs, compounded by good technology equipment, with guarantee of lasting and quality. (author)

  6. Contabilidad para la Micro Empresa. Manual de Ensenanza (Accounting for the Microbusiness: A Teaching Manual). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint No. R-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan, Michael W.

    This manual, the Spanish translation of a guide on accounting for microbusinesses, is designed as a tool for development workers to use in teaching the MICRON accounting system to persons in developing areas. (Developed by a Peace Corps volunteer in Colombia, MICRON is a simplified accounting system that is intended for use in small businesses.)…

  7. Development of an appropriate resource information system to support agricultural management at farm enterprise level : a prototype design for a decision support system in Moghan Agro-industrial Complex, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharifi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis describes development of and experimentation with a prototype of an appropriate resource information system that improves decision making processes in farm management The system includes a geographic information system with a powerful process model that forms a decision support

  8. IAEA activities in technology development for advanced water-cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, Poong Eil; Kupitz, Juergen; Cleveland, John; Lyon, Robert; Park, Je Won

    2003-01-01

    As part of its Nuclear Power Programme, the IAEA conducts activities that support international information exchange, co-operative research and technology assessments and advancements with the goal of improving the reliability, safety and economics of advanced water-cooled nuclear power plants. These activities are conducted based on the advice, and with the support, of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Groups on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs). Assessments of projected electricity generation costs for new nuclear plants have shown that design organizations are challenged to develop advanced designs with lower capital costs and short construction times, and sizes, including not only large evolutionary plants but also small and medium size plants, appropriate to grid capacity and owner financial investment capability. To achieve competitive costs, both proven means and new approaches should be implemented. The IAEA conducts activities in technology development that support achievement of improved economics of water-cooled nuclear power plants (NPPs). These include fostering information sharing and cooperative research in thermo-hydraulics code validation; examination of natural circulation phenomena, modelling and the reliability of passive systems that utilize natural circulation; establishment of a thermo-physical properties data base; improved inspection and diagnostic techniques for pressure tubes of HWRs; and collection and balanced reporting from recent construction and commissioning experiences with evolutionary water-cooled NPPs. The IAEA also periodically publishes Status Reports on global development of advanced designs. (author)

  9. Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Unauthorized FY 2015 Appropriations: Not Available Organ Donation and Recovery Improvement ActP.L. 108-216 Reimbursement of travel and subsistence...FY 2013 Appropriation Authorized: Indefinite Unauthorized FY 2015 Appropriations: Not Available Capital investment grants to support intercity ...priority rail corridor projects necessary to reduce congestion or facilitate ridership growth in intercity rail passenger transportation * FY 2013

  10. Capacity factor analysis for evaluating water and sanitation infrastructure choices for developing communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabid, Ali; Louis, Garrick E

    2015-09-15

    40% of the world's population lacks access to adequate supplies of water and sanitation services to sustain human health. In fact, more than 780 million people lack access to safe water supplies and about 2.5 billion people lack access to basic sanitation. Appropriate technology for water supply and sanitation (Watsan) systems is critical for sustained access to these services. Current approaches for the selection of Watsan technologies in developing communities have a high failure rate. It is estimated that 30%-60% of Watsan installed infrastructures in developing countries are not operating. Inappropriate technology is a common explanation for the high rate of failure of Watsan infrastructure, particularly in lower-income communities (Palaniappan et al., 2008). This paper presents the capacity factor analysis (CFA) model, for the assessment of a community's capacity to manage and sustain access to water supply and sanitation services. The CFA model is used for the assessment of a community's capacity to operate, and maintain a municipal sanitation service (MSS) such as, drinking water supply, wastewater and sewage treatment, and management of solid waste. The assessment of the community's capacity is based on seven capacity factors that have been identified as playing a key role in the sustainability of municipal sanitation services in developing communities (Louis, 2002). These capacity factors and their constituents are defined for each municipal sanitation service. Benchmarks and international standards for the constituents of the CFs are used to assess the capacity factors. The assessment of the community's capacity factors leads to determine the overall community capacity level (CCL) to manage a MSS. The CCL can then be used to assist the community in the selection of appropriate Watsan technologies for their MSS needs. The selection is done from Watsan technologies that require a capacity level to operate them that matches the assessed CCL of the

  11. Economic considerations for deep water Gulf of Mexico development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.; O'Sullivan, J.; Bayazitoglu, Y.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the economic drivers behind deep water development in the Gulf of Mexico. Capital costs are also examined versus water depth and required system. Cost categories are compared. The cost analysis was carried out by using the SEAPLAN computer program. The program is an expert system that identifies, conceptually defines, and economically compares technically feasible approaches for developing offshore oil and gas fields. The program's sizing logic and cost data base create physical and cost descriptions of systems representative of developments being planned in the deep water GOM. The examination was done separately for oil and gas developments. The material presented here is for only oil, it serves as a useful framework for viewing development economics and technology trends

  12. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across

  13. Democratisation of Water and Sanitation Governance by Means of Socio-Technical Innovation. Assessment of Appropriate Water and Sanitation Technologies in Vulnerable Communities in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (In Portuguese)

    OpenAIRE

    Britto, Ana Lucia; Maiello, Antonella; Quintslr, Suyá

    2015-01-01

    Final Report from the UE funded Project DESAFIO (Democratisation of Water and Sanitation Governance by Means of Socio-Technical Innovation), 2013-2015. www.desafioglobal.org. Published as WATERLAT-GOBACIT Working Papers, Vol. 2, No 8 (http://waterlat.org/WPapers/WPSPIDES28.pdf).

  14. Irrigation water quality as indicator of sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković Slaviša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable rural development more and more depends on the efficient usage of water resources. Most often, at least in one part of the year, the rain is not sufficient for plant growth and rain plant production significantly depends on the yearly precipitation variation. The increase and stability of the agricultural production is possible in the irrigation conditions. The most part (around 70% of the global water resources is used for food production. Irrigation water quality indicator is used to show if the available water resources have the required quality for application in agriculture. Irrigation is characterised by the complex water-plant-soil relationship, and in that eco-system the man as the end user of the irrigated fields occupies a very important place. That explains the difficulties in producing one universal classification of irrigation water quality. The paper analyses numerous water quality classifications from the aspect of the applicability on the quantifying of this indicator. The adopted classification should possess understandable, qualified and internationally comparable indicator. Thus, local classifications (Neigebauer, Miljkovic cannot be used for this indicator. United Nation Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO and US Salinity Laboratory (USSL classifications are used for the evaluation of the irrigation water quality throughout the world. FAO classification gives the complex picture of the usability of the irrigation water from the point of its influence on the soil and the plants. However, the scope of the analyses is not often suited to the needs of that classification, which makes it difficult to apply. The conclusion is that the USSL (US Salinity Laboratory classification is best suited to this range of chemical water analyses. The evaluation of the irrigation water quality indicator in the Juzna Morava river basin, upstream from the Toplica river estuary is given in this paper. Based on the obtained

  15. Developing a Water Quality Index (WQI) for an Irrigation Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Mora-Orozco, Celia; Flores-Lopez, Hugo; Rubio-Arias, Hector; Chavez-Duran, Alvaro; Ochoa-Rivero, Jesus

    2017-04-29

    Pollution levels have been increasing in water ecosystems worldwide. A water quality index (WQI) is an available tool to approximate the quality of water and facilitate the work of decision-makers by grouping and analyzing numerous parameters with a single numerical classification system. The objective of this study was to develop a WQI for a dam used for irrigation of about 5000 ha of agricultural land. The dam, La Vega, is located in Teuchitlan, Jalisco, Mexico. Seven sites were selected for water sampling and samples were collected in March, June, July, September, and December 2014 in an initial effort to develop a WQI for the dam. The WQI methodology, which was recommended by the Mexican National Water Commission (CNA), was used. The parameters employed to calculate the WQI were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), alkalinity (Alk), total phosphorous (TP), Cl - , NO₃, SO₄, Ca, Mg, K, B, As, Cu, and Zn. No significant differences in WQI values were found among the seven sampling sites along the dam. However, seasonal differences in WQI were noted. In March and June, water quality was categorized as poor. By July and September, water quality was classified as medium to good. Quality then decreased, and by December water quality was classified as medium to poor. In conclusion, water treatment must be applied before waters from La Vega dam reservoir can be used for irrigation or other purposes. It is recommended that the water quality at La Vega dam is continually monitored for several years in order to confirm the findings of this short-term study.

  16. Developing and implementing institutional controls for ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.M.; Cooper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE has initiated its Ground Water Project as the second phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project authorized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). In the Ground Water Project, the DOE must reduce risk from ground water contaminated by uranium mill processing activities at 24 inactive processing sites by meeting the US EPA standards. The UMTRCA also requires consistency with federal statutes such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The use of institutional controls to reduce risk from contaminated ground water is one element of compliance with standards and the protection of public health and the environment. Institutional controls are active or passive measures that reduce exposure to risks by preventing intrusion or restricting direct access to an area, or restricting access to the contamination through secondary means. Because of inconsistent regulations and multi-party authorities for ground water management, the key to selecting and implementing effective institutional controls lies with developing a consensus between the parties responsible for ground water remediation; those with authority to implement, monitor, and maintain institutional controls; and those facing the risks from contaminated ground water. These parties must develop a consensus for an institutional control program that meets minimum regulatory requirements and protects public health and the environment. Developing consensus and implementing a successful institutional controls program was achieved by the DOE during the cleanup of uranium mill tailings. An effective institutional controls program can also be developed to protect against risks from contaminated ground water. Consensus building and information transmission are the critical elements of an institutional control program that protects human health and the environment from risks associated with ground water contamination

  17. Subscale Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental heat rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional heat rejection is through the use of phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent heat of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed heat exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water based PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-based PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.

  18. Special Issue on Distance Education and Development, Guest Editor Editorial -- Low Cost Distance Education Strategies: the use of appropriate information and communication technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hülsmann

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The argument for distance education (including e-learning in developing countries could be imagined as a “triple jump.” Each leap of the triple jump consists of a theorem and a corollary applying it to developing countries.Theorem 1: Education is good for development. Corollary: The demand for education is especially high in the developing world. Traditional education cannot cope with its size and is, in many cases, not the most cost-effective allocation of resources.Theorem 2: Distance education can help. Corollary: Distance education is able to deal with large numbers more cost-effectively than traditional education, and has proved to do so also in developing countries.Theorem 3: E-learning is extending the capabilities of traditional distance education. Corollary: Given the emerging global information infrastructure, there are a number of cases where e-learning can enhance the capabilities of distance education in the developing world.Many distance educators would readily subscribe to theorems of leaps 1 and 2 of the triple jump, but argue that the argument collapses at leap 3, especially when it comes to the corollary suggesting that ICT-based distance education could be relevant in the developing world. This paper takes the role of the “devil’s advocate”1 , and will try to cast some doubt on the first two theorems, while intending to strengthen the third leap theorem, the least established argument of the three.

  19. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  20. Isotope techniques in water resources development and management. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 10th International Symposium on Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development and Management was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in co-operation with UNESCO, WMO and International Association of Hydrological Sciences and was held at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, during 10-14 May 1999. The symposium provided an international forum for assessing the status and recent advances in isotope applications to water resources and an exchange of information on the following main themes: processes at the interface between the atmosphere and hydrosphere; investigations in surface waters and groundwaters: their origin, dynamics, interrelations; problems and techniques for investigating sedimentation; water resources issues: pollution, source and transport of contaminants, salinization, water-rock interaction and processes in geothermal systems; isotope data interpretation and evaluation methodologies: modelling approaches. The proceedings contain the 46 papers presented and extended synopses of poster presentations; each of them was indexed individually

  1. Monitoring Water Targets in the Post-2015 Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Water Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) provides a comprehensive approach to developing water services in a way that ensures social equity, health, well-being and sustainability for all. In particular, the water goal includes targets related to sanitation, wastewater, water quality, water efficiency, integrated water management and ecosystems (details to be finalized in September 2015). As part of its implementation, methods to monitor target indicators must be developed. National governments will be responsible for reporting on progress toward these targets using national data sets and possibly information from global data sets that applies to their countries. Oversight of this process through the use of global data sets is desirable for encouraging the use of standardized information for comparison purposes. Disparities in monitoring due to very sparse data networks in some countries can be addressed by using geospatially consistent data products from space-based remote sensing. However, to fully exploit these data, capabilities will be needed to downscale information, to interpolate and assimilate data both in time and space, and to integrate these data with socio-economic data sets, model outputs and survey data in a geographical information system framework. Citizen data and other non-standard data types may also supplement national data systems. A comprehensive and integrated analysis and dissemination system is needed to enable the important contributions that satellites could make to achieving Water SDG targets. This presentation will outline the progress made in assessing the needs for information to track progress on the Water SDG, options for meeting these needs using existing data infrastructure, and pathways for expanding the role of Earth observations in SDG monitoring. It will also discuss the potential roles of Future Earth's Sustainable Water Futures Programme (SWFP) and the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) in coordinating these efforts.

  2. Pakistan's water resources development and the global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, M.; Sufi, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan's economy is dependent on irrigated agriculture. About 80% of agriculture is irrigated. It contributes 30% of GDP. Agriculture provides 55% job opportunities. This sector provides 60% of country's exports. The development of agriculture will prosper and up-lift 70% of the total population that is annually growing by 3%. The total area of Pakistan is 197.7 MA (79.6 Mha). Out of which about 103.2 MA (41.77 Mha) comprises of rugged mountains, narrow valleys and foot hills, the remaining area of 93.5 MA (37.83 Mha) consists about 54.6 MA (22.1 Mha) is currently cultivated. Remaining 22.5 MA (9.1 Mha) is lying barren lacking water for irrigation. The total surface water availability is 154.5 MAF. Population density is the highest in the canal irrigated areas in the north east of Indus Plains. The increasing population and the associated social, technical and economic activities all depend, directly or indirectly, on the exploitation of water-as a resource. The total surface water availability is 154.5 MAF. Presently water diverted at canal heads is 106 MAF. In Vision 2025 Programme WAPDA has identified to build water sector and hydropower projects such as: i) Water Sector Projects (Gomal Zam, Mirani, Raised Mangla, Satpara. Kurram Tangi Dams and Greater Thai, Kachhi and Rainee Canals) and ii) Hydropower Projects (Jinnah Barrage, Allai Khwar, Khan Khwar, Duber Khwar, Golen Gole, Neelum Jhelum and Low Head Hydropower Project). Besides the above some more projects are under various stages of planning i.e.; (i) Basha Diamer Dam Project - Feasibility Detailed Design and Tenders, (ii) Akhori Dam Project - Feasibility, (iii) Sehwan Barrage - Feasibility. (iv) Chashma Right Bank Canal Lift Scheme Feasibility and Design, (v) Bunji Hydropower Project Pre-feasibility, (vi) Dasu Hydropower Project - Pre-feasibility and Skardu Dam - Prefeasibility. While, keeping in view the planning and development activities regarding water sector and hydropower projects, the country will

  3. Development of an Integrated Water and Wind Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, D. C.; Ascough, J. C.; Wagner, L. E.; Geter, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Prediction technologies for soil erosion by the forces of wind or water have largely been developed independently from one another, especially within the United States. Much of this has been due to the initial creation of equations and models which were empirical in nature (i.e., Universal Soil Loss Equation, Wind Erosion Equation) and based upon separate water erosion or wind erosion plot and field measurements. Additionally, institutional organizations in place typically divided research efforts and funding to unique wind or water erosion research and modeling projects. However, during the past 20 years computer technologies and erosion modeling have progressed to the point where it is now possible to merge physical process-based computer simulation models into an integrated water and wind erosion prediction system. In a physically- based model, many of the processes which must be simulated for wind and water erosion computations are the same, e.g., climate, water balance, runoff, plant growth, etc. Model components which specifically deal with the wind or water detachment, transport and deposition processes are those that must differ, as well as any necessary parameterization of input variables (e.g., adjusted soil erodibilities, critical shear stresses, etc.) for those components. This presentation describes current efforts towards development of a combined wind and water erosion model, based in part upon technologies present in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) and the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) models. Initial efforts during the past two years have resulted in modular modeling components that allow for prediction of infiltration, surface runoff, and water erosion at a hillslope scale within an Object Modeling System. Additional components currently in development include wind detachment at a single field point, continuous water balance, and unified plant growth. Challenges in this project are many, and include adequate field

  4. Development test procedure High Pressure Water Jet System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Development testing will be performed on the water jet cleaning fixture to determine the most effective arrangement of water jet nozzles to remove contamination from the surfaces of canisters and other debris. The following debris may be stained with dye to simulate surface contaminates: Mark O, Mark I, and Mark II Fuel Storage Canisters (both stainless steel and aluminum), pipe of various size, (steel, stainless, carbon steel and aluminum). Carbon steel and stainless steel plate, channel, angle, I-beam and other surfaces, specifically based on the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) inventory and observations of debris within the basin. Test procedure for developmental testing of High Pressure Water Jet System

  5. Development of solid water-equivalent radioactive certified reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finke, E.; Greupner, H.; Groche, K.; Rittwag, R. (Office for Standardization, Metrology and Quality Control (ASMW), Berlin (Germany, F.R.)); Geske, G. (Jena Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the development of solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials. These certified reference materials were prepared for the beta fission nuclides {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 147}Pm and {sup 204}Tl. Comparative measurements of liquid and solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials are discussed. (author).

  6. Enhancing water security in a rapidly developing shale gas region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Holding

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Initiatives and tools enhancing water security in the region include strategic partnerships and stakeholder collaborations, policy and regulation development, and data collection and distribution efforts. The contributions and limitations of each of these are discussed. A vulnerability mapping framework is presented which addresses data gaps and provides a tool for decision-making surrounding risk to water quality from various hazards. An example vulnerability assessment was conducted for wastewater transport along pipeline and trucking corridors.

  7. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  8. Scenario Development for Water Resources Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S.; Mahmoud, M.; Liu, Y.; Hartman, H.; Wagener, T.; Gupta, H.

    2006-12-01

    The main objective of scenario development for water resources is to inform policy-makers about the implications of various policies to inform decision-making. Although there have been a number of studies conducted in the relatively-new and recent field of scenario analysis and development, very few of those have been explicitly applied to water resource issues. More evident is the absence of an established formal approach to develop and apply scenarios. Scenario development is a process that evaluates possible future states of the world by examining several feasible scenarios. A scenario is a projection of various physical and socioeconomic conditions that describe change from the current state to a future state. In this paper, a general framework for scenario development with special emphasis on applications to water resources is considered. The process comprises several progressive and reiterative phases: scenario definition, scenario construction, scenario analysis, scenario assessment, and risk management. Several characteristics of scenarios that are important in describing scenarios are also taken into account; these include scenario types, scenario themes, scenario likelihoods and scenario categories. A hindrance to the adoption of a unified framework for scenario development is inconsistency in the terminology used by scenario developers. To address this problem, we propose a consistent terminology of basic and frequent terms. Outreach for this formal approach is partially maintained through an interactive community website that seeks to educate potential scenario developers about the scenario development process, share and exchange information and resources on scenarios to foster a multidisciplinary community of scenario developers, and establish a unified framework for scenario development with regards to terminology and guidelines. The website provides information on scenario development, current scenario-related activities, key water resources scenario

  9. Interactions of energy technology development and new energy exploitation with water technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2011-01-01

    Interactions of energy policies with water technology development in China are investigated using a hybrid input-output model and scenario analysis. The implementation of energy policies and water technology development can produce co-benefits for each other. Water saving potential of energy technology development is much larger than that of new energy exploitation. From the viewpoint of proportions of water saving co-benefits of energy policies, energy sectors benefit the most. From the viewpoint of proportions of energy saving and CO 2 mitigation co-benefits of water technology development, water sector benefits the most. Moreover, economic sectors are classified into four categories concerning co-benefits on water saving, energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. Sectors in categories 1 and 2 have big direct co-benefits. Thus, they can take additional responsibility for water and energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. If China implements life cycle materials management, sectors in category 3 can also take additional responsibility for water and energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. Sectors in category 4 have few co-benefits from both direct and accumulative perspectives. Thus, putting additional responsibility on sectors in category 4 might produce pressure for their economic development. -- Highlights: ► Energy policies and water technology development can produce co-benefits for each other. ► For proportions of water saving co-benefits of energy policies, energy sectors benefit the most. ► For proportions of energy saving and CO 2 mitigation co-benefits of water policy, water sector benefits the most. ► China’s economic sectors are classified into four categories for policy implementation at sector scale.

  10. Facebook as a Learning Tool? A Case Study on the Appropriation of Social Network Sites from Mobile Phones in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimmer, Christoph; Linxen, Sebastian; Grohbiel, Urs

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory research investigates how students and professionals use social network sites (SNSs) in the setting of developing and emerging countries. Data collection included focus groups consisting of medical students and faculty as well as the analysis of a Facebook site centred on medical and clinical topics. The findings show how users,…

  11. La Apaicultura de Pequena Escala (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Curtis

    This Spanish-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in Spanish-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

  12. Supporting Data Amended FY 1992/FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimate Submitted to Congress - January 1992. Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Army Appropriation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    dessert and snack items to increase acceptability and 31$,) UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AMENDED FY 1992/1993 BIENNIAL RDTE DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY Program...Planned Program: " (U) Finalize development of non-organic and non-polluting processing bids for extruded and molded energetic materials * (U

  13. University of Idaho Water of the West Initiative: Development of a sustainable, interdisciplinary water resources program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Fiedler, F.; Link, T.; Wilson, P.; Harris, C.; Tuller, M.; Johnson, G.; Kennedy, B.

    2006-12-01

    Recently, an interdisciplinary group of faculty from the University of Idaho was awarded a major internal grant for their project "Water of the West (WoW)" to launch an interdisciplinary Water Resources Graduate Education Program. This Water Resources program will facilitate research and education to influence both the scientific understanding of the resource and how it is managed, and advance the decision-making processes that are the means to address competing societal values. By educating students to integrate environmental sciences, socio-economic, and political issues, the WoW project advances the University's land grant mission to promote economic and social development in the state of Idaho. This will be accomplished through novel experiential interdisciplinary education activities; creation of interdisciplinary research efforts among water resources faculty; and focusing on urgent regional problems with an approach that will involve and provide information to local communities. The Water Resources Program will integrate physical and biological sciences, social science, law, policy and engineering to address problems associated with stewardship of our scarce water resources. As part of the WoW project, faculty will: (1) develop an integrative problem-solving framework; (2) develop activities to broaden WR education; (3) collaborate with the College of Law to offer a concurrent J.D. degree, (4) develop a virtual system of watersheds for teaching and research, and (5) attract graduate students for team-based education. The new program involves 50 faculty from six colleges and thirteen departments across the university. This university-wide initiative is strengthened by collaboration with the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute, and participation from off-campus Centers in Idaho Falls, Boise, Twin Falls, and Coeur d'Alene. We hope this presentation will attract university faculty, water resources professionals, and others for stimulating discussions on

  14. Need for appropriate formulations for children: the national institute of child health and human development-pediatric formulations initiative, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoia, George P; Taylor-Zapata, Perdita; Mattison, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The development and compounding of pharmacotherapeutic formulations that are suitable for infants and young children can be a challenging problem. This problem results from the lack of knowledge on the acceptability of different dosage forms and formulations in children in relation to age and developmental status, as well as the lack of reliable documentation of formulations used in pediatric clinical trials. As part of its mandate under the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act to improve pediatric therapeutics, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development has sponsored the Pediatric Formulation Initiative. The goal of this ongoing initiative is to address the issues and concnerns associated with pediatric therapeutics by convening groups of researchers and experts in pediatric formulations from academia, pharmaceutical companies, the National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  15. Descriptive Summaries of the Research Development Test & Evaluation. Army Appropriation FY 1984. Supporting Data FY 1984 Budget Estimate Submitted to Congress--February 1983. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    National Cancer institute. Performance decrements caused by ’urrent nerve agent antidotes were determined in animal models. Methods and com- pounds for...WA; and Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA. Thirty-three additional contractors with contracts totaling $1,735,883 Support thi effort . (U) PROJECTS...Developing, and Maintaini Unit Cohesion," and draft mama entitied "Marnen of Stress in Army Opentns" and "Soldier Performance In Continuous Operadons

  16. Descriptive Summaries of the Research Development Test & Evaluation Army Appropriation FY 1983. Supporting Data FY 1983, Budget Estimate Submitted to Congress February 1982, Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    research and development programs. Duplication of effort is avoided. The World Health Organization ( hHO ) serves as the de facto International clearinghouse...of buildings, mod-fired boilers , energy storage end distribution, energy conservation, and advanced heating and air conditioning systems. i. (U) WORK...effective and reliable alternate energy sources, particularly for use in small boilers /furnaces which cannot be conveniently converted to burning coal, must

  17. Managing urban water supplies in developing countries Climate change and water scarcity scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavamoorthy, Kala; Gorantiwar, Sunil D.; Pathirana, Assela

    Urban areas of developing countries are facing increasing water scarcity and it is possible that this problem may be further aggravated due to rapid changes in the hydro-environment at different scales, like those of climate and land-cover. Due to water scarcity and limitations to the development of new water resources, it is prudent to shift from the traditional 'supply based management' to a 'demand management' paradigm. Demand management focuses on measures that make better and more efficient use of limited supplies, often at a level significantly below standard service levels. This paper particularly focuses on the intermittent water supplies in the cities of developing countries. Intermittent water supplies need to be adopted due to water scarcity and if not planned properly, results in inequities in water deliveries to consumers and poor levels of service. It is therefore important to recognise these realities when designing and operating such networks. The standard tools available for design of water supply systems often assume a continuous, unlimited supply and the supplied water amount is limited only be the demand, making them unsuitable for designing intermittent supplies that are governed by severely limited water availability. This paper presents details of new guidelines developed for the design and control of intermittent water distribution systems in developing countries. These include a modified network analysis simulation coupled with an optimal design tool. The guidelines are driven by a modified set of design objectives to be met at least cost. These objectives are equity in supply and people driven levels of service (PDLS) expressed in terms of four design parameters namely, duration of the supply; timings of the supply; pressure at the outlet (or flow-rate at outlet); and others such as the type of connection required and the locations of connections (in particular for standpipes). All the four parameters are calculated using methods and

  18. Managing water supply systems using free-market economy approaches: A detailed review of the implications for developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikozho, C.; Kujinga, K.

    2017-08-01

    Decision makers in developing countries are often confronted by difficult choices regarding the selection and deployment of appropriate water supply governance regimes that sufficiently take into account national socio-economic and political realities. Indeed, scholars and practitioners alike continue to grapple with the need to create the optimum water supply and allocation decision-making space applicable to specific developing countries. In this paper, we review documented case studies from various parts of the world to explore the utility of free-market economics approaches in water supply governance. This is one of the major paradigms that have emerged in the face of enduring questions regarding how best to govern water supply systems in developing countries. In the paper, we postulate that increasing pressure on available natural resources may have already rendered obsolete some of the water supply governance regimes that have served human societies very well for many decades. Our main findings show that national and municipal water supply governance paradigms tend to change in tandem with emerging national development frameworks and priorities. While many developing countries have adopted water management and governance policy prescriptions from the international arena, national and local socio-economic and political realities ultimately determine what works and what does not work on the ground. We thus, conclude that the choice of what constitutes an appropriate water supply governance regime in context is never simple. Indeed, the majority of case studies reviewed in the paper tend to rely on a mix of market economics and developmental statism to make their water governance regimes more realistic and workable on the ground.

  19. Water Reuse and Soil Column Studies for Alternative Water Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) has developed a holistic water research program in order to identify engineering and management options for safe and expanded use ...

  20. Descriptive Summaries of the Research Development Test & Evaluation Army Appropriation FY 1983. Supporting Data FY 1983, Budget Estimate Submitted to Congress February 1982. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    government in support of the hational Command Authority ( NCA ) during and aftr a nuclear attack on the United States. C. (U) BASIS FOR FY 19b3 RITE...ratrif Tt 1i 1, 11Coinil nca t Iiror System I N rA:S) thlat must be Iritpropetalile with MRTT to Insure a viatili atnd Integrate pi rogrram...station on a cathode ray tube (CRT) sad will allow software-controlled time compression at the tracks made by moving targets. The E-SCAN development

  1. Development of a simplified urban water balance model (WABILA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, M; Langner, J; Uhl, M

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, water sensitive urban design (WSUD) has become more and more accepted. However, there is not any simple tool or option available to evaluate the influence of these measures on the local water balance. To counteract the impact of new settlements, planners focus on mitigating increases in runoff through installation of infiltration systems. This leads to an increasing non-natural groundwater recharge and decreased evapotranspiration. Simple software tools which evaluate or simulate the effect of WSUD on the local water balance are still needed. The authors developed a tool named WABILA (Wasserbilanz) that could support planners for optimal WSUD. WABILA is an easy-to-use planning tool that is based on simplified regression functions for established measures and land covers. Results show that WSUD has to be site-specific, based on climate conditions and the natural water balance.

  2. Waste water pilot plant research, development, and demonstration permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This permit application has been prepared to obtain a research, development, and demonstration permit to perform pilot-scale treatability testing on the 242-A Evaporator process condensate waste water effluent stream. It provides the management framework, and controls all the testing conducted in the waste water pilot plant using dangerous waste. It also provides a waste acceptance envelope (upper limits for selected constituents) and details the safety and environmental protection requirements for waste water pilot plant testing. This permit application describes the overall approach to testing and the various components or requirements that are common to all tests. This permit application has been prepared at a sufficient level of detail to establish permit conditions for all waste water pilot plant tests to be conducted

  3. Development of a diagnostic expert system for secondary water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganuma, S.; Ishikawa, S.; Kato, A.; Yamauchi, S.; Hattori, T.; Yoshikawa, T.; Miyamoto, S.

    1990-01-01

    Water chemistry control for the secondary side of the PWR plants is one of the most important tasks for maintaining the reliability of plant equipment and for extending the operating life of the plant. Water chemistry control should be maintained according to the plant chemist' considered judgement which is based on continual experienced observation. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) has been developing a comprehensive data management and diagnosis system, which continuously observes the secondary water chemistry data with on-line monitors, immediately diagnosing causes whenever any symptoms of abnormality are detected and does the necessary data management, in order to support plant staff to controll water chemistry. This system has the following three basic functions: data management, diagnosis and simulation. This paper presents the outline of the total system, and then describes in detail the procedure of diagnosis, the structure of the knowledge and its validation process

  4. Water resources and the development of human civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radic, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents available water resources in the world and the relation between socio-economic and natural systems throughout history of mankind. Some of the monuments of culture from the Iron Gate (hydro power constructions) region of the Danube river are described which illustrate old bond between man and water. The Danube river waters are of prime importance for Danubian counties and a change in people's treatment and relation to water is necessary at both national and international level. This implies application of long-term environmentally compatible economic strategies in accordance with bio-culture, which, at the bottom line, should lead to the concept of sustainable development. There is an interest in Yugoslavia for international co-operation with Danubian countries and vice versa, as well as the concern for environmental in the Yugoslavian part of the Danube basin, problems and means for management of pollution sources in the area. (author)

  5. Development of speed qualities of skilled water-polo players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrovsky M.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Swimming preparation of water-polo players is the basic factor of victory of command. There are a few variants of development of speed swimming preparation. The effective pedagogical mean of stimulation of speed qualities is brief exercises at the end of employments after long aerobic work. The purpose of work is an improvement of method of speed preparation of skilled water-polo players. 26 skilled water-polo players (MS -14 and KMS - 12 took part in an experiment in age from 21 to 32 years. The results of correction of structure of training employment are in-process presented in micro cycle. They are directed on the improvement of speed qualities of water-polo players.

  6. Appropriate Development of the Liver Treg Compartment Is Modulated by the Microbiota and Requires TGF-β and MyD88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Maria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neither the early postnatal development of the liver Treg compartment nor the factors that regulate its development has been characterized. We compared the early developmental patterns of Treg cell accumulation in murine liver, thymus, and spleen. A FoxP3EGFP reporter mouse was employed to identify Treg cells. Mononuclear cells were isolated from organs postnatally, stained for CD4, and examined by flow cytometry to enumerate FoxP3+CD4hi cells. To assess roles for TGF-β1, MyD88, and TLR2, gene-specific knockout pups were generated from heterozygous breeders. To test the role of commensal bacteria, pregnant dams were administered antibiotics during gestation and after parturition. The pattern of appearance of Treg cells differed in liver, spleen, and thymus. Notably, at 1-2 weeks, the frequency of CD4hi FoxP3+ T cells in liver exceeded that in spleen by 1.5- to 2-fold. The relative increase in liver Treg frequency was transient and was dependent upon TGF-β1 and MyD88, but not TLR2, and was abrogated by antibiotic treatment. A relative increase in liver Treg frequency occurs approximately 1-2 weeks after parturition that appears to be driven by colonization of the intestine with commensal bacteria and is mediated by a pathway that requires TGF-β1 and MyD88, but not TLR2.

  7. Need for appropriate formulations for children: the national institute of child health and human development-pediatric formulations initiative, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoia, George P; Taylor-Zapata, Perdita; Mattison, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The development and compounding of pharmacotherapeutic formulations that are suitable for infants and young children can be a challenging problem. This problem results from the lack of knowledge on the acceptability of different dosage forms and formulations to children in relation to age and developmental status, as well as the lack of reliable documentation of formulations used in pediatric clinical trials. As part of its mandate under the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act to improve pediatric therapeutics, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development has sponsored the Pediatric Formulations Initiative. The goal of this ongoing initiative is to address the issues and concerns associated with pediatric therapeutics by convening groups of researchers and experts in pediatric formulations from academia, pharmaceutical companies, the National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In this second part of a two-part article, the activities of the various groups that constitute the Pediatric Formulations Initiative are discussed, in addition the Initiative's future activities and plans are outlined.

  8. Modelling raw water quality: development of a drinking water management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübeck, Ch; van Berk, W; Bergmann, A

    2009-01-01

    Ensuring future drinking water supply requires a tough management of groundwater resources. However, recent practices of economic resource control often does not involve aspects of the hydrogeochemical and geohydraulical groundwater system. In respect of analysing the available quantity and quality of future raw water, an effective resource management requires a full understanding of the hydrogeochemical and geohydraulical processes within the aquifer. For example, the knowledge of raw water quality development within the time helps to work out strategies of water treatment as well as planning finance resources. On the other hand, the effectiveness of planed measurements reducing the infiltration of harmful substances such as nitrate can be checked and optimized by using hydrogeochemical modelling. Thus, within the framework of the InnoNet program funded by Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, a network of research institutes and water suppliers work in close cooperation developing a planning and management tool particularly oriented on water management problems. The tool involves an innovative material flux model that calculates the hydrogeochemical processes under consideration of the dynamics in agricultural land use. The program integrated graphical data evaluation is aligned on the needs of water suppliers.

  9. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel F. de Carvalho; Eliete N. Eduardo; Wilk S. de Almeida; Lucas A. F. Santos; Teodorico Alves Sobrinho

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L.) development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models...

  10. Water, Politics and Development: Framing a Political Sociology of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Mollinga

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The first issue of Water Alternatives presents a set of papers that investigates the inherently political nature of water resources management. A Water, Politics and Development initiative was started at ZEF (Center for Development Research, Bonn, Germany in 2004/2005 in the context of a national-level discussion on the role of social science in global (environmental change research. In April 2005 a roundtable workshop with this title was held at ZEF, sponsored by the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft/German Research Foundation and supported by the NKGCF (Nationales Komitee für Global Change Forschung/German National Committee on Global Change Research, aiming to design a research programme in the German context. In 2006 it was decided to design a publication project on a broader, European and international basis. The Irrigation and Water Engineering Group at Wageningen University, the Netherlands joined as a co-organiser and co-sponsor. The collection of papers published in this issue of Water Alternatives is one of the products of the publication project. As part of the initiative a session on Water, Politics and Development was organised at the Stockholm World Water Week in August 2007, where most of the papers in this collection were presented and discussed. Through this publication, the Water, Politics and Development initiative links up with other initiatives simultaneously ongoing, for instance the 'Water governance – challenging the consensus' project of the Bradford Centre for International Development at Bradford University, UK. At this point in time, the initiative has formulated its thrust as 'framing a political sociology of water resources management'. This, no doubt, is an ambitious project, methodologically, theoretically as well as practically. Through the compilation of this collection we have started to explore whether and how such an endeavour might make sense. The participants in the initiative think it does, are quite

  11. Using intervention mapping to develop a culturally appropriate intervention to prevent childhood obesity: the HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Natalie J; Sahota, Pinki; Sargent, Judith; Barber, Sally; Loach, Jackie; Louch, Gemma; Wright, John

    2013-12-28

    Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identification of desired outcomes and change objectives following identification of barriers to behaviour change mapped alongside psychological determinants (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy, intention); 3) Selection of theory-based methods and practical applications to address barriers to behaviour change (e.g., strategies for responsive feeding); 4) Design of the intervention by developing evidence-based interactive activities and resources (e.g., visual aids to show babies stomach size). The activities were integrated into an existing parenting programme; 5) Adoption and implementation: parenting practitioners were trained by healthcare professionals to deliver the programme within Children Centres. HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) is aimed at overweight and obese pregnant women (BMI > 25); consists of 12 × 2.5 hr. sessions (6 ante-natal from 24 weeks; 6 postnatal up to 9 months); it addresses mother's diet and physical activity, breast or bottle feeding, infant diet and parental feeding practices, and infant physical activity. We have demonstrated that IM is a feasible and helpful method for providing an evidence based and theoretical structure to a complex health behaviour change intervention. The next stage will be to assess the impact of the intervention on behaviour change and clinical factors associated with childhood obesity. The HAPPY programme is currently being tested as part of a randomised controlled feasibility trial.

  12. Development of soil water regime under spruce stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tužinský Ladislav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the water regime of soils under spruce ecosystems in relation to long-lasting humid and drought periods in the growing seasons 1991-2013. The dominant interval humidity in observing growing seasons is semiuvidic interval with soil moisture between hydro-limits maximal capillary capacity (MCC and point of diminished availability (PDA. Gravitationally seepage concentrated from accumulated winter season, water from melting snow and existing atmospheric precipitation occurs in the soil only at the beginning of the growing season. The supplies of soil water are significantly decreasing in the warm climate and precipitant deficient days. The greatest danger from drought threatens Norway spruce during the summer months and it depends on the duration of dry days, water supply at the beginning of the dry days, air temperature and the intensity of evapotranspiration. In the surface layers of the soil, with the maximum occurrence of active roots, the water in semiarid interval area between hydro-limits PDA and wilting point (WP decreases during the summer months. In the culminating phase occurs the drying to moisture state with capillary stationary and the insufficient supply of available water for the plants. Physiological weakening of Norway spruce caused by set of outlay components of the water balance is partially reduced by delivering of water by capillary action from deeper horizons. In extremely dry periods, soil moisture is decreasing also throughout the soil profile (0-100 cm into the bottom third of the variation margin hydro-limits MCC-PDA in the category of capillary less moving and for plants of low supply of usable water (60-90 mm. The issue of deteriorated health state of spruce ecosystems is considered to be actual. Changes and developments of hydropedological conditions which interfere the mountain forests represent the increasing danger of the drought for the spruce.

  13. Value Appropriation in Business Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J.; Geersbro, Jens

    2014-01-01

    value creation. Originality/value – To the authors’ knowledge, this paper represents the first attempt at reviewing the management literature on value appropriation in business exchange. The authors provide overview, details, comparisons, and frame a research agenda as a first step towards establishing......Purpose – Value appropriation is a central, yet neglected aspect in business exchange research. The purpose of the paper is to generate an overview of research on active value appropriation in business exchange and provide the foundation for further research into value appropriation, as well...... as some initial guidance for managers. Design/methodology/approach – Literatures investigating value appropriation were identified by the means of a systematic review of the overall management literature. Findings – The authors provide an overview and comparison of the literatures and find that they apply...

  14. Plants growing on contaminated and brownfield sites appropriate for use in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species. © 2010 SETAC.

  15. 18 CFR 367.2150 - Account 215, Appropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 215, Appropriated retained earnings. 367.2150 Section 367.2150 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... retained earnings. This account must include the amount of retained earnings that has been appropriated or...

  16. Soil Erosion and Surface Water Quality Impacts of Natural Gas Development in East Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew McBroom

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to greater demands for hydrocarbons and improvements in drilling technology, development of oil and natural gas in some regions of the United States has increased dramatically. A 1.4 ha natural gas well pad was constructed in an intermittent stream channel at the Alto Experimental Watersheds in East Texas, USA (F1, while another 1.1 ha well pad was offset about 15 m from a nearby intermittent stream (F2. V-notch weirs were constructed downstream of these well pads and stream sedimentation and water quality was measured. For the 2009 water year, about 11.76 cm, or almost 222% more runoff resulted from F1 than F2. Sediment yield was significantly greater at F1, with 13,972 kg ha−1 yr−1 versus 714 kg ha−1yr−1 at F2 on a per unit area disturbance basis for the 2009 water year. These losses were greater than was observed following forest clearcutting with best management practices (111–224 kg ha−1. Significantly greater nitrogen and phosphorus losses were measured at F1 than F2. While oil and gas development can degrade surface water quality, appropriate conservation practices like retaining streamside buffers can mitigate these impacts.

  17. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir; Kafarov, Vyatcheslav

    2013-01-01

    The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies...

  18. Development and utilization of spring water in small scale supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and utilization of spring water in small scale supply scheme for the Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, central Nigeria. Joseph Omada. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology 2005, Vol. 41(1): 131-135. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  19. Policies to Encourage the Development of Water Sanitation Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euverink, G.J.W.; Temmink, B.G.; Rozendal, R.A.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines innovations in water technology, policies to develop technologies that will contribute to a sustainalbe economy, and the introduction of the new concepts to society. We discuss our views on how wastewater treatment may be performed in the future in such a way that the WFD

  20. Introducing Commercial Finance into the Water Sector in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This guidance note provides an introduction to the role of commercial finance in the water and sanitation sector. Its aim is to help readers (development specialists) explore applications in their own countries. The note focuses primarily on commercial bank loans, and throughout the document the term commercial finance refers to commercial loans from domestic banks. However, much of the gu...

  1. Managing the Sick Child in the Era of Declining Malaria Transmission: Development of ALMANACH, an Electronic Algorithm for Appropriate Use of Antimicrobials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Rambaud-Althaus

    Full Text Available To review the available knowledge on epidemiology and diagnoses of acute infections in children aged 2 to 59 months in primary care setting and develop an electronic algorithm for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness to reach optimal clinical outcome and rational use of medicines.A structured literature review in Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Review (CDRS looked for available estimations of diseases prevalence in outpatients aged 2-59 months, and for available evidence on i accuracy of clinical predictors, and ii performance of point-of-care tests for targeted diseases. A new algorithm for the management of childhood illness (ALMANACH was designed based on evidence retrieved and results of a study on etiologies of fever in Tanzanian children outpatients.The major changes in ALMANACH compared to IMCI (2008 version are the following: i assessment of 10 danger signs, ii classification of non-severe children into febrile and non-febrile illness, the latter receiving no antibiotics, iii classification of pneumonia based on a respiratory rate threshold of 50 assessed twice for febrile children 12-59 months; iv malaria rapid diagnostic test performed for all febrile children. In the absence of identified source of fever at the end of the assessment, v urine dipstick performed for febrile children 2 years with abdominal tenderness; and lastly vii classification of 'likely viral infection' in case of negative results.This smartphone-run algorithm based on new evidence and two point-of-care tests should improve the quality of care of <5 year children and lead to more rational use of antimicrobials.

  2. Development of supercritical water reactors in Russia and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glebov, A.P.; Klushin, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    The results of Russian and foreign studies on the water-cooled high critical parameters reactors are analyzed. Developments on this subject are conducted in more than 15 countries. The advantages of WWER- SCP and characteristics of experimental reactor of WWER-SCP-30 are discussed. It is noted that priority task is to develop a reactor with thermal neutron spectrum with a subsequent transition to the reactor with a fast neutron spectrum [ru

  3. Clean water provision in rural areas of less developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roundy, R W

    1985-01-01

    The decade of the 1980s is declared as a time to solve global domestic water supply problems. By 1990 international goals include the provision of adequate quantities of clean water to every person on earth. Such goals are justified on the basis of human health, economic well being, political development and equity and public safety. Drawing upon observations from Ethiopia, Malaysia and Liberia, cases where attempts to provide domestic water to villagers and rural town dwellers are presented. In all cited cases attempts to provide safe water have failed or are in jeopardy. Conclusions drawn from these cases include acknowledgement that global goals will best be achieved by approaching local problems one-by-one and recognizing the technical, environmental and human constraints upon safe water provision interact differently from one site to another. To properly plan, implement and maintain safe water systems the current technical solutions must be combined with the contributions of social and environmental scientists on a case-by-case basis.

  4. Achieving Sustainable Development Goals from a Water Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anik Bhaduri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to meet human water needs only at local scales may cause negative environmental externality and stress on the water system at regional and global scales. Hence, assessing SDG targets requires a broad and in-depth knowledge of the global to local dynamics of water availability and use. Further, Interconnection and trade-offs between different SDG targets may lead to sub-optimal or even adverse outcome if the set of actions are not properly pre-designed considering such interlinkages. Thus scientific research and evidence have a role to play in facilitating the implementation of SDGs through assessments and policy engagement from global to local scales. The paper addresses some of these challenges related to implementation and monitoring the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals from a water perspective, based on the key findings of a conference organised in 2015 with the focus on three essential aspects of SDGs- indicators, interlinkages and implementation. The paper discusses that indicators should not be too simple but ultimately deliver sustainability measures. The paper finds that remote sensing and earth observation technologies can play a key role in supporting the monitoring of water targets. It also recognises that implementing SDGs is a societal process of development, and there is need to link how SDGs relate to public benefits and communicate this to the broader public.

  5. Development of analytical methods for iodine speciation in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Yuichi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Analytical methods for physicochemical speciation of iodine in fresh water samples were developed to elucidate its behavior in the environment. The methods combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). Freshwater samples were collected from Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake. After filtration through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter, iodine in the water samples was pre-concentrated with an ultra-filtration filter which had a cut-off size of 10 kDa. The fraction with molecular size over 10 kDa was concentrated to 100 times in the original water, and then introduced into the SEC-ICP-MS. Molecular size chromatograms of all river and lake water samples showed two peaks for iodine concentrations: 40 kDa and 20 kDa. The method for separately determining two valence states of inorganic iodine, I - and IO 3 - , was also developed using the CE-ICP-MS system and it was successfully applied to the fresh water samples. Analysis results of surface water samples in Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake indicated that the chemical form of inorganic iodine in all samples was IO 3 - . Additional lake water samples were collected from Lake O-ike-higashi in the Juni-ko area at Shirakami-Sanchi, which is a UNESCO natural world heritage. The lake has a strong thermocline during all seasons; its bottom layer is in a highly reductive state. Depth profiles of I - and IO 3 - clearly showed that I - was not detected in the surface layer, but it was predominant in the bottom layer, and vice versa for IO 3 - . As this separation method is rapid and sensitive, it will be widely used in the future. (author)

  6. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L. development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton and Philip. Based on the obtained results, the combination of effects between soil tillage system and corn development stages reduces soil and water losses. The contour tillage system promoted improvements in soil physical properties, favoring the reduction of erosion in 59.7% (water loss and 86.6% (soil loss at 75 days after planting, and the increase in the stable infiltration rate in 223.3%, compared with the exposed soil. Associated to soil cover, contour cultivation reduces soil and water losses, and the former is more influenced by management. Horton model is the most adequate to represent soil water infiltration rate under the evaluated conditions.

  7. The implications of economic development, climate change and European Water Policy on surface water quality threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Dąbrowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents historical background, up-to-date situation and future perspectives for the development of nutrient pollution threats to European surface water quality, as well as the evolution of the approach to water pollution. Utilized agricultural area in European countries is slightly diminishing, however the consumption of mineral fertilisers is steadily increasing. The consumption in Europe in the years 2015–2030 is projected to increase by 10%, and in the world by 20%. Both climate changes leading to the increase of temperature even of ca. 6°C (in comparison to the pre-industrial period and accelerated soil erosion due to high intensity rainfall cause increased productivity of water ecosystems. Those aspects have to be taken into consideration in water management. Due to legal regulations introduced in the last twenty years, wastewater treatment has been made more effective and population connected to wastewater treatment systems has increased. The improvement has been seen mainly in eastern and southern parts of Europe. After the implementation of Water Framework Directive theories regarding modern water management have been developed, with the aim to increase the ecosystem’s capacity and its resilience to climate changes and anthropopressure.

  8. Transboundary Water: Improving Methodologies and Developing Integrated Tools to Support Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimdavar, Raha; Wood, Danielle; Eylander, John; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Smith, Jane; Doorn, Brad; Green, David; Hummel, Corey; Moore, Thomas C.

    2018-01-01

    River basins for which transboundary coordination and governance is a factor are of concern to US national security, yet there is often a lack of sufficient data-driven information available at the needed time horizons to inform transboundary water decision-making for the intelligence, defense, and foreign policy communities. To address this need, a two-day workshop entitled Transboundary Water: Improving Methodologies and Developing Integrated Tools to Support Global Water Security was held in August 2017 in Maryland. The committee that organized and convened the workshop (the Organizing Committee) included representatives from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the US Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), and the US Air Force. The primary goal of the workshop was to advance knowledge on the current US Government and partners' technical information needs and gaps to support national security interests in relation to transboundary water. The workshop also aimed to identify avenues for greater communication and collaboration among the scientific, intelligence, defense, and foreign policy communities. The discussion around transboundary water was considered in the context of the greater global water challenges facing US national security.

  9. Development of Thresholds and Exceedance Probabilities for Influent Water Quality to Meet Drinking Water Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, K. L.; Samson, C.; Summers, R. S.; Balaji, R.

    2017-12-01

    Drinking water treatment utilities (DWTU) are tasked with the challenge of meeting disinfection and disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations to provide safe, reliable drinking water under changing climate and land surface characteristics. DBPs form in drinking water when disinfectants, commonly chlorine, react with organic matter as measured by total organic carbon (TOC), and physical removal of pathogen microorganisms are achieved by filtration and monitored by turbidity removal. Turbidity and TOC in influent waters to DWTUs are expected to increase due to variable climate and more frequent fires and droughts. Traditional methods for forecasting turbidity and TOC require catchment specific data (i.e. streamflow) and have difficulties predicting them under non-stationary climate. A modelling framework was developed to assist DWTUs with assessing their risk for future compliance with disinfection and DBP regulations under changing climate. A local polynomial method was developed to predict surface water TOC using climate data collected from NOAA, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the IRI Data Library, and historical TOC data from three DWTUs in diverse geographic locations. Characteristics from the DWTUs were used in the EPA Water Treatment Plant model to determine thresholds for influent TOC that resulted in DBP concentrations within compliance. Lastly, extreme value theory was used to predict probabilities of threshold exceedances under the current climate. Results from the utilities were used to produce a generalized TOC threshold approach that only requires water temperature and bromide concentration. The threshold exceedance model will be used to estimate probabilities of exceedances under projected climate scenarios. Initial results show that TOC can be forecasted using widely available data via statistical methods, where temperature, precipitation, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and NDVI with various lags were shown to be important

  10. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Sheila M.; Muehlenbachs, Lucija A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Chu, Ziyan; Krupnick, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Concern has been raised in the scientific literature about the environmental implications of extracting natural gas from deep shale formations, and published studies suggest that shale gas development may affect local groundwater quality. The potential for surface water quality degradation has been discussed in prior work, although no empirical analysis of this issue has been published. The potential for large-scale surface water quality degradation has affected regulatory approaches to shale gas development in some US states, despite the dearth of evidence. This paper conducts a large-scale examination of the extent to which shale gas development activities affect surface water quality. Focusing on the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of shale gas wells and the release of treated shale gas waste by permitted treatment facilities on observed downstream concentrations of chloride (Cl−) and total suspended solids (TSS), controlling for other factors. Results suggest that (i) the treatment of shale gas waste by treatment plants in a watershed raises downstream Cl− concentrations but not TSS concentrations, and (ii) the presence of shale gas wells in a watershed raises downstream TSS concentrations but not Cl− concentrations. These results can inform future voluntary measures taken by shale gas operators and policy approaches taken by regulators to protect surface water quality as the scale of this economically important activity increases. PMID:23479604

  11. Development of a static feed water electrolysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Lantz, J. B.; Hallick, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    A one person level oxygen generation subsystem was developed and production of the one person oxygen metabolic requirements, 0.82 kg, per day was demonstrated without the need for condenser/separators or electrolyte pumps. During 650 hours of shakedown, design verification, and endurance testing, cell voltages averaged 1.62 V at 206 mA/sq cm and at average operating temperature as low as 326 K, virtually corresponding to the state of the art performance previously established for single cells. This high efficiency and low waste heat generation prevented maintenance of the 339 K design temperature without supplemental heating. Improved water electrolysis cell frames were designed, new injection molds were fabricated, and a series of frames was molded. A modified three fluid pressure controller was developed and a static feed water electrolysis that requires no electrolyte in the static feed compartment was developed and successfully evaluated.

  12. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir; Kafarov, Vyatcheslav; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Mathiessen, Brian vad; Yan, Jinyue

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This special issue of contributions presented at the 6th SDEWES Conference. ► Buildings are becoming energy neutral. ► Process integration enables significant improvements of energy efficiency. ► The electrification of transport and measures to increase its efficiency are needed. ► Renewable energy is becoming more viable while being complicated to integrate. -- Abstract: The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water and environment systems and their many combinations.

  13. Development of next-generation light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Fumihiko; Yasuoka, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The Next-Generation Light Water Reactor Development Program, a national project in Japan, was inaugurated in April 2008. The primary objective of this program is to meet the need for the replacement of existing nuclear power plants in Japan after 2030. With the aim of setting a global standard design, the reactor to be developed offers greatly improved safety, reliability, and economic efficiency through several innovative technologies, including a reactor core system with uranium enrichment of 5 to 10%, a seismic isolation system, long-life materials, advanced water chemistry, innovative construction techniques, optimized passive and active safety systems, innovative digital technologies, and so on. In the first three years, a plant design concept with these innovative features is to be established and the effectiveness of the program will be reevaluated. The major part of the program will be completed in 2015. Toshiba is actively engaged in both design studies and technology development as a founding member of this program. (author)

  14. Development of alternative fuel for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, P.E.; Ferreira, R.A.N.; Ferraz, W.B.; Lameiras, F.S.; Santos, A.; Assis, G. de; Doerr, W.O.; Wehner, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of alternative fuel cycles in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) such as Th/U and Th/Pu cycles can permit a better utilization of uranium reserves without the necessity of developing new power reactor concepts. The development of the technology of alternative fuels for PWR is one of the objectives of the 'Program on Thorium Utilization in Pressurized Water Reactors' carried out jointly by Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (NUCLEBRAS), through its Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) and by German institutions, the Julich Nuclear Research Center (KFA), the Kraftwerk Union A.G. (KWU) and NUKEM GmbH. This paper summarizes the results so far obtained in the fuel technology. The development of a fabrication process for PWR fuel pellets from gel-microspheres is reported as well as the design, the specification, and the fabrication of prototype fuel rods for irradiation tests. (Author) [pt

  15. Hydrologic and Water Quality Model Development Using Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Bowen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A stormwater runoff model based on the Soil Conservation Service (SCS method and a finite-volume based water quality model have been developed to investigate the use of Simulink for use in teaching and research. Simulink, a MATLAB extension, is a graphically based model development environment for system modeling and simulation. Widely used for mechanical and electrical systems, Simulink has had less use for modeling of hydrologic systems. The watershed model is being considered for use in teaching graduate-level courses in hydrology and/or stormwater modeling. Simulink’s block (data process and arrow (data transfer object model, the copy and paste user interface, the large number of existing blocks, and the absence of computer code allows students to become model developers almost immediately. The visual depiction of systems, their component subsystems, and the flow of data through the systems are ideal attributes for hands-on teaching of hydrologic and mass balance processes to today’s computer-savvy visual learners. Model development with Simulink for research purposes is also investigated. A finite volume, multi-layer pond model using the water quality kinetics present in CE-QUAL-W2 has been developed using Simulink. The model is one of the first uses of Simulink for modeling eutrophication dynamics in stratified natural systems. The model structure and a test case are presented. One use of the model for teaching a graduate-level water quality modeling class is also described.

  16. Water for development. World Water Day 2002 - March 22. A summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    'Water for Development' was the theme of the World Water Day 2002, which the IAEA coordinated fro the United Nations system. The IAEA transfers cutting edge nuclear technologies to scientists in developing countries to help them find a way to improve efficiency of water use, to better understand climatic change, to turn salt water into fresh water, and to grow healthy crops in saline lands. A comprehensive understanding of a hydrological system is necessary for a sustainable resource development without adverse effects on the environment. Isotope techniques are effective tools fro fulfilling critical hydrologic information needs, e.g. the origin of groundwater, recharge, residence time, interconnections between water bodies, etc. The cost of such investigations is often relatively small in comparison to the cost of classical hydrological techniques, and in addition isotopes provide information that sometimes could not be obtained by other techniques. Stable and radioactive environmental isotopes have now been used for more than four decades to study hydrological systems and have proved particularly useful for understanding groundwater systems. Applications of isotopes in hydrology are based on the general concept of 'tracing', in which either intentionally introduced isotopes or naturally occurring (environmental) isotopes are employed. Environmental isotopes (either radioactive or stable) have a distinct advantage over injected (artificial) tracers in that they facilitate the study of various hydrological processes on a much larger temporal and spatial scale through their natural distribution in a hydrological system. Thus, environmental isotope methodologies are unique in regional studies of water resources to obtain time and space integrated characteristics of groundwater systems. The use of artificial tracers generally is effective fro site-specific, local applications.

  17. Water for development. World Water Day 2002 - March 22. A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    'Water for Development' was the theme of the World Water Day 2002, which the IAEA coordinated fro the United Nations system. The IAEA transfers cutting edge nuclear technologies to scientists in developing countries to help them find a way to improve efficiency of water use, to better understand climatic change, to turn salt water into fresh water, and to grow healthy crops in saline lands. A comprehensive understanding of a hydrological system is necessary for a sustainable resource development without adverse effects on the environment. Isotope techniques are effective tools fro fulfilling critical hydrologic information needs, e.g. the origin of groundwater, recharge, residence time, interconnections between water bodies, etc. The cost of such investigations is often relatively small in comparison to the cost of classical hydrological techniques, and in addition isotopes provide information that sometimes could not be obtained by other techniques. Stable and radioactive environmental isotopes have now been used for more than four decades to study hydrological systems and have proved particularly useful for understanding groundwater systems. Applications of isotopes in hydrology are based on the general concept of 'tracing', in which either intentionally introduced isotopes or naturally occurring (environmental) isotopes are employed. Environmental isotopes (either radioactive or stable) have a distinct advantage over injected (artificial) tracers in that they facilitate the study of various hydrological processes on a much larger temporal and spatial scale through their natural distribution in a hydrological system. Thus, environmental isotope methodologies are unique in regional studies of water resources to obtain time and space integrated characteristics of groundwater systems. The use of artificial tracers generally is effective fro site-specific, local applications

  18. Energy development and water options in the Yellowstone River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, R.; MacIntyre, D.D.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-08-01

    Using a mixed-integer programming model, the impacts of institutional constraints on the marginal capacity for energy development in the Yellowstone River Basin and consequent hydrologic changes were examined. Under average annual flow conditions, energy outputs in the Yellowstone Basin can increase roughly nine times by 1985 and 12 to 18 times by 2000. In contrast, water availability is limiting energy development in the Tongue and Powder River Basins in Wyoming. Variability in hydrologic regime causes model solutions to change drastically. If flows decrease to 80 and 60% of average annual levels, the energy production is decreased by 17 and 95%, respectively. If development strategies in the basin are followed on the basis of 80% average annual flows, the Buffalo Bill enlargement (271,300 acre-ft), Tongue River Modification (58,000 acre-ft), and the two reservoirs at Sweetgrass Creek (each 27,000 acre-ft) will be necessary, in addition to several small storage facilities, to best meet the instream flow needs in Montana and to deliver the waters apportioned by compact between Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, the results indicate that relaxing the instream flow requirements from recommended levels by 10% could increase regional energy output by 19% in 1985 and 35% in 2000. This model illustrates that modifications in institutional restrictions to achieve greater water mobility between users in a given state, as well as flexible practices for transferring water between states, can assist economic growth. Thus, the probability for restricted energy development at this juncture appears to be affected to a greater degree by institutional constraints than by water availability constraints.

  19. Appropriate roads for rural access

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available be reduced, the result remains environmentally unsustainable. Low cost but appropriate techniques for upgrading these roads cost-effectively to sealed standards have been implemented in many countries recently. These techniques optimize the use of local...

  20. Appropriate use of diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, P.E.S.; Cockshott, W.P.

    1984-11-16

    This article discusses ways in which more appropriate use can be made of roentgenography with a resulting decrease in radiation doses to the patient population. The authors recommend that fewer films be made and that traditional roentgenography be replaced with endoscopy, ultrasound, computerized tomography, or angiography where appropriate. They also recommend that medical schools and medical subspecialty groups study the World Health Organization document which provides indications for diagnostic imaging, the choice of procedure and the limitations of each.

  1. The moral appropriateness of shame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ally

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I explore the much neglected moral emotion of shame and consider the senses in which it may be regarded as morally appropriate. I argue that there is a connection between coming to terms with shame for those who feel ashamed, and judgments concerning its moral appropriateness. The elucidation of normative connections between shame, self-respect and autonomy implies the need to accept certain aspects of shame as regrettable yet, sometimes, as valuable.

  2. Development of Hydrogen Electrodes for Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjartansdóttir, Cecilía Kristín

    , production of electricity via fuel cells, fuel for internal combustion engines or gas turbines, or as a raw material for the production of synthetic fuels via Sabatier or Fischer - Tropsch process. In some situations it may be suitable to simply inject hydrogen into the existing natural gas based...... will be needed. Producing hydrogen via water electrolysis using surplus, low cost, power from renewables offers the possibility of increased production capacity and load management with no greenhouse emissions. Hydrogen is a valuable energy carrier, which is able to contribute to various forms of energy, such as...... infrastructure. Alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) is the current standard (stat of the art) for industrial large-scale water electrolysis systems. One of the main criteria for industrial AWE is efficient and durable electrodes. The aim of the present PhD study was to develop electrode materials for hydrogen...

  3. Water assessment for the Lower Colorado River region-emerging energy technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Water supply availability for two hypothetical levels of emerging energy technology development are assessed. The water and related land resources implications of such hypothetical developments are evaluated. Water requirement, the effects on water quality, costs of water supplies, costs of disposal of wastewaters, and the environmental, economic and social impacts are determined, providing information for the development of non-nuclear energy research.

  4. Developing index maps of water-harvest potential in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The food security problem in Africa is tied to the small farmer, whose subsistence farming relies heavily on rain-fed agriculture. A dry spell lasting two to three weeks can cause a significant yield reduction. A small-scale irrigation scheme from small-capacity ponds can alleviate this problem. This solution would require a water harvest mechanism at a farm level. In this study, we looked at the feasibility of implementing such a water harvest mechanism in drought prone parts of Africa. A water balance study was conducted at different watershed levels. Runoff (watershed yield) was estimated using the SCS curve number technique and satellite derived rainfall estimates (RFE). Watersheds were delineated from the Africa-wide HYDRO-1K digital elevation model (DEM) data set in a GIS environment. Annual runoff volumes that can potentially be stored in a pond during storm events were estimated as the product of the watershed area and runoff excess estimated from the SCS Curve Number method. Estimates were made for seepage and net evaporation losses. A series of water harvest index maps were developed based on a combination of factors that took into account the availability of runoff, evaporation losses, population density, and the required watershed size needed to fill a small storage reservoir that can be used to alleviate water stress during a crop growing season. This study presents Africa-wide water-harvest index maps that could be used for conducting feasibility studies at a regional scale in assessing the relative differences in runoff potential between regions for the possibility of using ponds as a water management tool. ?? 2004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  5. Optimal selection of annulus radius ratio to enhance heat transfer with minimum entropy generation in developing laminar forced convection of water-Al2O3 nanofluid flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siavashi Majid; Jamali Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Heat transfer and entropy generation of developing laminar forced convection flow of water-Al2O3 nanofluid in a concentric annulus with constant heat flux on the walls is investigated numerically. In order to determine entropy generation of fully developed flow, two approaches are employed and it is shown that only one of these methods can provide appropriate results for flow inside annuli. The effects of concentration of nanoparticles, Reynolds number and thermal boundaries on heat transfer enhancement and entropy generation of developing laminar flow inside annuli with different radius ratios and same cross sectional areas are studied. The results show that radius ratio is a very important decision parameter of an annular heat exchanger such that in each Re, there is an optimum radius ratio to maximize Nu and minimize entropy generation. Moreover, the effect of nanoparticles concentration on heat transfer enhancement and minimizing entropy generation is stronger at higher Reynolds.

  6. Thriving with water: Developments in amphibious architecture in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing awareness worldwide that traditional flood-mitigation strategies that attempt to control the flow of water only increase the likelihood of catastrophic consequences in the long run, when failure inevitably occurs after years of complacency and development behind flood barriers. Amphibious architecture is a non-defensive flood mitigation and climate change adaptation strategy that works in synchrony with a floodprone region’s natural cycles of flooding, allowing water to flow rather than creating an obstruction. Since the height to which an amphibious building rises is not necessarily fixed but adapts to the variable depth of flood water, amphibiation can accommodate rising sea levels and land subsidence as well. Amphibious retrofitting can provide measurable cost savings compared to other flood mitigation strategies, performing well in loss avoidance studies for both flood and wind damage. An amphibious approach to planning and construction recognizes the beneficial aspects of seasonal and occasional flooding, allowing us not merely to live with water, but to thrive with it. This paper reviews case studies of both existing and proposed amphibious buildings, with discussion of their systems and components. It also discusses the limitations of amphibious construction, some of the regulatory obstacles that have discouraged its development, and possible paths forward. The first International Conference on Amphibious Architecture, Design and Engineering, ICAADE 2015, was held in Bangkok, Thailand, in August 2015. The second, ICAADE 2017, will convene at the University of Waterloo in Canada in June 2017.

  7. The development of membrane based high purity oily water separators for use in Arctic waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, H.; Tremblay, A.Y. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Membrane Centre; Veinot, D.E. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    With increased exploration and industrial activity in the Canadian Arctic, interest in the Northwest Passage as a shipping route has also increased. The oily wastewater produced by ships must be treated prior to discharge, particularly in the sensitive Arctic environment where biodegradation of organics is very slow due to cold climatic conditions and low sunlight. As such, safe techniques are needed for the treatment of oily wastewater released from ships. However, bilge water is difficult to treat because it contains seawater, particulates, used oils and detergents. Membrane based oily water separators (OWS) are considered to be a key technology for the treatment of bilge water onboard ships. The issues that must be taken into account in the ship-born use of membrane based OWS include the proper treatment of the oily brine before discharge; the substantial reduction in volume that is required; the complexity of the technology; labour associated with the operation of the system due to filter changes and cleaning; and, system automation to simplify its operation. In this study, a membrane-based process for treating bilge water was developed to meet stringent discharge regulations for discharge in Arctic waters. Currently, this discharge limit is set at 0 ppm. A pilot scale membrane cascade system was designed and evaluated. Multilumen ceramic membranes were used in the first stage and Sepa{sup R} test cells were used in the second stage. Optimal membrane pore size was determined. The study investigated the separation of oil and grease using different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes. The study revealed that through proper membrane design, it is possible to remove oil and grease from bilge water to a level permitting its discharge to Arctic waters. However, it was recommended that low level aromatic diesel fuels be used in ships operating in Arctic waters since the presence of soluble aromatics in diesel fuel increases the technical difficulty of reaching

  8. Development of a water detritiation facility for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevezentsev, A.N.; Bell, A.C.; Brennan, P.D.; Hemmerich, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    A water detritiation facility, based on a world-wide adopted combined electrolysis catalytic exchange (CECE) process, for the JET active gas handling plant is described. A research and development programme is presented. The programme includes the testing of structured inert packing with an incorporated hydrophobic catalyst for increased throughput of a liquid phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) column, a vapour phase catalytic exchange (VPCE) process for reduction of tritium inventory in the alkali electrolyser and a column of high effectiveness for alkali retention

  9. Development of water radiocontamination monitor using a plastic scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, C.H. de; Madi Filho, T.; Hamada, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    An alpha, beta and gamma radiation water monitor was developed using a plastic scintillator detector with a sensitivity level of 15 bplastic scintillator detector with a sensitivity level of 15 Bq.L -1 and a counting efficiency of 25% for 131 I. It was proposed to be used in the radiation monitoring program of the research reactor swimming-pool of Sao Paulo. A simplified design and some properties of this monitor are presented. (author) [pt

  10. Importance of bottom-up approach in water management - sustainable development of catchment areas in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavic, M.; Cosic-Flajsig, G.; Petricec, M.; Blazevic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Association for preservation of Croatian waters and sea SLAP is a non-governmental organization (NGO) that gathers more than 150 scientist, hydrologist and civil engineers. SLAP has been established in 2006 and since then had organized many conferences and participated in projects dealing with water management. We have started our work developing plans to secure water supply to the 22 (21) villages in the rural parts of Dubrovnik (Pozega) area and trough the years we have accumulated knowledge and experience in dealing with stakeholders in hydrology and water management. Within this paper we will present importance of bottom-up approach to the stakeholders in water management in Croatia on two case studies: (1) Management of River Trebizat catchment area - irrigation of the Imotsko-Bekijsko rural parts; (2) Development of multipurpose water reservoirs at the River Orljava catchment area. Both projects were designed in the mid and late 1980's but due to the war were forgotten and on halt. River Trebizat meanders between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and acquires joint management by both countries. In 2010 and 2011 SLAP has organized conferences in both countries gathering all the relevant stakeholders from representatives of local and state governments, water management companies and development agencies to the scientist and interested NGO's. The conferences gave firm scientific background of the topic including presentation of all previous studies and measurements as well as model results but presented in manner appropriate to the stakeholders. The main result of the conference was contribution to the development of joint cross-border project sent to the EU Pre-Accession funds in December 2011 with the aim to strengthen capacities of both countries and prepare larger project dealing with management of the whole Trebizat catchment area to EU structural funds once Croatia enters EU in 2013. Similar approach was taken for the Orljava catchment in the northern

  11. WEB-GIS SOLUTIONS DEVELOPMENT FOR CITIZENS AND WATER COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Şercăianu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a web-GIS solution in which urban residents, from Buzau City, could be involved in decision-support process of water companies, in order to reduce water losses, by collecting information directly from citizens. In recent years, reducing material and economic losses, recorded in the entire municipal networks management process has become the main focus of public companies in Romania. Due to problems complexity that arise in collecting information from citizens and issues identified in urban areas, more analyzes were required related to web-GIS solutions used in areas such as local government, public utilities, environmental protection or financial management. Another important problem is the poor infrastructure development of spatial databases founded in public companies, and connection to web platforms. Developing the entire communication process between residents and municipal companies has required the use of concept "citizen-sensor" in the entire reporting process. Reported problems are related to water distribution networks with the possibility of covering the entire public utilities infrastructure.

  12. Web-Gis Solutions Development for Citizens and Water Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şercăianu, M.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the development of a web-GIS solution in which urban residents, from Buzau City, could be involved in decision-support process of water companies, in order to reduce water losses, by collecting information directly from citizens. In recent years, reducing material and economic losses, recorded in the entire municipal networks management process has become the main focus of public companies in Romania. Due to problems complexity that arise in collecting information from citizens and issues identified in urban areas, more analyzes were required related to web-GIS solutions used in areas such as local government, public utilities, environmental protection or financial management. Another important problem is the poor infrastructure development of spatial databases founded in public companies, and connection to web platforms. Developing the entire communication process between residents and municipal companies has required the use of concept "citizen-sensor" in the entire reporting process. Reported problems are related to water distribution networks with the possibility of covering the entire public utilities infrastructure.

  13. An integrated approach to scale up the market penetration of low carbon technologies in developing countries and water scarce regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michelle Angela

    Water scarcity is a global challenge that stifles social and economic growth. There is a growing concern to examine the water-energy nexus to understand the importance of applying energy and water interactions to technology. In developing countries there are many communities that live off-grid in remote region with no access to electricity or clean water. Additionally, there are developed countries that are located in regions with electricity but no access to clean water. Recent developments in renewable energy technology and energy policies have greatly reduced the costs of renewable energy making them more attractive and affordable. The purpose of this dissertation is to evaluate the main barriers to deploying renewables to non-Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (non-OECD) countries and member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This dissertation examines the potential of renewable desalination technology systems across emerging countries. The findings of this research can serve as the basis for investors interested in entering this market. The combined chapters seek to address potential problems regarding the costs, methods, and tools required for the implementation of the appropriate water purification technologies for off-grid, community scale infrastructures.

  14. Recommendations for small water reactor development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Peipei; Zhou Yun

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the history and features of Advanced Small Water Reactor (ASWR), and provides recommendations and strategies on ASWR research and development in China. The ASWR can be used in remote power grid and replaces mid/small size fossil plant economically, and thus can be an important part of energy saving and emission reduction policy. The safety and economy characteristics of ASWR are able to effectively expand nuclear energy market in emerging countries and developing countries. Therefore, ASWR should be considered as a critical part of China's nuclear technology and equipment export strategy. (authors)

  15. Development and evaluation of an ultrasonic ground water seepage meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, R J; Smith, C F; O'Rourke, D; Wong, T F

    2001-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge can influence significantly the near-shore transport and flux of chemicals into the oceans. Quantification of the sources and rates of such discharge requires a ground water seepage meter that provides continuous measurements at high resolution over an extended period of time. An ultrasonic flowmeter has been adapted for such measurements in the submarine environment. Connected to a steel collection funnel, the meter houses two piezoelectric transducers mounted at opposite ends of a cylindrical flow tube. By monitoring the perturbations of fluid flow on the propagation of sound waves inside the flow tube, the ultrasonic meter can measure both forward and reverse fluid flows in real time. Laboratory and field calibrations show that the ultrasonic meter can resolve ground water discharges on the order of 0.1 microm/sec, and it is sufficiently robust for deployment in the field for several days. Data from West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, New York, elucidate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of submarine ground water discharge and its interplay with tidal loading. A negative correlation between the discharge and tidal elevation was generally observed. A methodology was also developed whereby data for the sound velocity as a function of temperature can be used to infer the salinity and source of the submarine discharge. Independent measurements of electrical conductance were performed to validate this methodology.

  16. Water vapor differential absorption lidar development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, E. V.; Wilkerson, T. D.; Mcllrath, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system is described which has been developed for vertical range-resolved measurements of water vapor. The laser transmitter consists of a ruby-pumped dye laser, which is operated on a water vapor absorption line at 724.372 nm. Part of the ruby laser output is transmitted simultaneously with the dye laser output to determine atmospheric scattering and attenuation characteristics. The dye and ruby laser backscattered light is collected by a 0.5-m diam telescope, optically separated in the receiver package, and independently detected using photomultiplier tubes. Measurements of vertical water vapor concentration profiles using the DIAL system at night are discussed, and comparisons are made between the water vapor DIAL measurements and data obtained from locally launched rawinsondes. Agreement between these measurements was found to be within the uncertainty of the rawinsonde data to an altitude of 3 km. Theoretical simulations of this measurement were found to give reasonably accurate predictions of the random error of the DIAL measurements. Confidence in these calculations will permit the design of aircraft and Shuttle DIAL systems and experiments using simulation results as the basis for defining lidar system performance requirements

  17. Obtaining high quality water by reverse osmosis. A comparison of the appropriate systems to be applied depending on the quality of the input water; Osmosis inversa para obtener agua de alta calidad. Comparacion de propuestas de sistemas de aplicacion en funcion de la calidad del agua de entrada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujadas Nino, A.

    2004-07-01

    This article first takes a brief look at the historical development of reverse osmosis systems. It then used several actual examples to compare the water quality that can be obtained using osmosis membranes and ion exchange resin demineralisation systems. It concludes with a number of recommendations regarding the solutions to be adopted in order to obtain water of a specific quality depending on the quality of the available water. (Author) 6 refs.

  18. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Marcus M; Moussa, Marwan; Bykowski, Julie; Kirsch, Claudia F E; Aulino, Joseph M; Berger, Kevin L; Choudhri, Asim F; Fife, Terry D; Germano, Isabelle M; Kendi, A Tuba; Kim, Jeffrey H; Luttrull, Michael D; Nunez, Diego; Shah, Lubdha M; Sharma, Aseem; Shetty, Vilaas S; Symko, Sophia C; Cornelius, Rebecca S

    2017-11-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of an external source. It is a common symptom that can be related to hearing loss and other benign causes. However, tinnitus may be disabling and can be the only symptom in a patient with a central nervous system process disorder. History and physical examination are crucial first steps to determine the need for imaging. CT and MRI are useful in the setting of pulsatile tinnitus to evaluate for an underlying vascular anomaly or abnormality. If there is concomitant asymmetric hearing loss, neurologic deficit, or head trauma, imaging should be guided by those respective ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® documents, rather than the presence of tinnitus. Imaging is not usually appropriate in the evaluation of subjective, nonpulsatile tinnitus that does not localize to one ear. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Laser remote sensing of water vapor: Raman lidar development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Lapp, M.; Bisson, S.E.; Melfi, S.H.; Whiteman, D.N.; Ferrare, R.A.; Evans, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is the development of a critical design for a Raman lidar system optimized to match ARM Program needs for profiling atmospheric water vapor at CART sites. This work has emphasized the development of enhanced daytime capabilities using Raman lidar techniques. This abstract touches briefly on the main components of the research program, summarizing results of the efforts. A detailed Raman lidar instrument model has been developed to predict the daytime and nighttime performance capabilities of Raman lidar systems. The model simulates key characteristics of the lidar system, using realistic atmospheric profiles, modeled background sky radiance, and lidar system parameters based on current instrument capabilities. The model is used to guide development of lidar systems based on both the solar-blind concept and the narrowband, narrow field-of-view concept for daytime optimization

  20. Watered down : overcoming federal inaction on the impact of oil sands development to water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droitsch, D.

    2009-11-01

    The oil sands industry is having a negative impact on Canada's fresh water resources and aquatic ecosystems. Members of the Government of the Northwest Territories (NT) and experts from scientific, non-governmental, and First Nations groups have stated at federal hearings that the federal government must involve itself in the protection of Canada's water resources. This report discussed compelling testimony from recent federal hearings by the House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development.The federal government must establish enforceable standards for key toxic substances created by oil sands activity. A water-sharing agreement must be established between Alberta, NT, Saskatchewan, and First Nations governments. Other recommendations included the establishment of a peer-reviewed assessment of the health impacts of industrial oil sands development on First Nations communities; the establishment of cumulative effects assessment procedures; the identification and protection of listed species at risk; and the establishment of proactive measures designed to ensure that oil sands operators pay for the environmental damage caused to water resources. 94 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Safe drinking water production in rural areas: a comparison between developed and less developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotruvo, J A; Trevant, C

    2000-01-01

    At the fundamental level, there are remarkable parallels between developed and less developed countries in problems of providing safe drinking water in rural areas, but of course, they differ greatly in degree and in the opportunities for resolution. Small water supplies frequently encounter difficulty accessing sufficient quantities of drinking water for all domestic uses. If the water must be treated for safety reasons, then treatment facilities and trained operating personnel and finances are always in short supply. Ideally, each solution should be sustainable within its own cultural, political and economic context, and preferably with local personnel and financial resources. Otherwise, the water supply will be continuously dependent on outside resources and thus will not be able to control its destiny, and its future will be questionable. The history of success in this regard has been inconsistent, particularly in less developed but also in some developed countries. The traditional and ideal solution in developing countries has been central water treatment and a piped distribution network, however, results have had a mixed history primarily due to high initial costs and operation and maintenance, inadequate access to training, management and finance sufficient to support a fairly complex system for the long term. These complete systems are also slow to be implemented so waterborne disease continues in the interim. Thus, non-traditional, creative, cost-effective practical solutions that can be more rapidly implemented are needed. Some of these options could involve: small package central treatment coupled with non piped distribution, e.g. community supplied bottled water; decentralized treatment for the home using basic filtration and/or disinfection; higher levels of technology to deal with chemical contaminants e.g. natural fluoride or arsenic. These technological options coupled with training, technical support and other essential elements like community

  2. Economics of Renewable Energy for Water Desalination in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas R. Shouman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the economics of renewable energy- powered desalination, as applied to water supply for remote coastal and desert communities in developing countries. In this paper, the issue of integration of desalination technologies and renewable energy from specified sources is addressed. The features of Photovoltaic (PV system combined with reverse osmosis desalination technology, which represents the most commonly applied integration between renewable energy and desalination technology, are analyzed. Further, a case study for conceptual seawater reverse osmosis (SW-RO desalination plant with 1000 m3 /d capacity is presented, based on PV and conventional generators powered with fossil fuel to be installed in a remote coastal area in Egypt, as a typical developing country. The estimated water cost for desalination with PV/ SW-RO system is about $1.25 m3 , while ranging between $1.22-1.59 for SW-RO powered with conventional generator powered with fossil fuel. Analysis of the economical, technical and environmental factors depicts the merits of using large scale integrated PV/RO system as an economically feasible water supply relying upon a renewable energy source.

  3. Assessing water reservoirs management and development in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Castelletti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries water is a key renewable resource to complement carbon-emitting energy production and support food security in the face of demand pressure from fast-growing industrial production and urbanization. To cope with undergoing changes, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and adopting effective tools to analyze current and projected infrastructure potential and operation strategies. In this paper we use multi-objective deterministic and stochastic optimization to assess the current reservoir operation and planned capacity expansion in the Red River Basin (Northern Vietnam, and to evaluate the potential improvement by the adoption of a more sophisticated information system. To reach this goal we analyze the historical operation of the major controllable infrastructure in the basin, the HoaBinh reservoir on the Da River, explore re-operation options corresponding to different tradeoffs among the three main objectives (hydropower production, flood control and water supply, using multi-objective optimization techniques, namely Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm. Finally, we assess the structural system potential and the need for capacity expansion by application of Deterministic Dynamic Programming. Results show that the current operation can only be relatively improved by advanced optimization techniques, while investment should be put into enlarging the system storage capacity and exploiting additional information to inform the operation.

  4. Military Construction: FY2017 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Appropriations Act (H.R. 4974, S. 2806, H.R. 2577, H.R. 5325) Committee Markup (H.R. 4974, S. 2806) House Report H.R. 4974 House Passage H.R...List (UPL), has had the UPL extracted to indicate the budget authority not requested by the President:  Active Components (Army, Navy and Marine

  5. Analysing inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeynaz, C.; Carmona Moreno, C.; Céspedes Lorente, J. J.

    2012-10-01

    The "Integrated Water Resources Management" principle was formally laid down at the International Conference on Water and Sustainable development in Dublin 1992. One of the main results of this conference is that improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS), being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation). These sectors influence or are influenced by the access to WSS. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) has developed a new database (WatSan4Dev database) containing 42 indicators (called variables in this paper) from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data in developing countries. This paper describes the development of the WatSan4Dev dataset, the statistical processes needed to improve the data quality, and finally, the analysis to verify the database coherence is presented. Based on 25 relevant variables, the relationships between variables are described and organised into five factors (HDP - Human Development against Poverty, AP - Human Activity Pressure on water resources, WR - Water Resources, ODA - Official Development Aid, CEC - Country Environmental Concern). Linear regression methods are used to identify key variables having influence on water supply and sanitation. First analysis indicates that the informal urbanisation development is an important factor negatively influencing the percentage of the population having access to WSS. Health, and in particular children's health, benefits from the improvement of WSS. Irrigation is also enhancing Water Supply service thanks to multi-purpose infrastructure. Five country profiles are also created to deeper understand and synthetize the amount of information gathered. This new

  6. Analysing inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dondeynaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The "Integrated Water Resources Management" principle was formally laid down at the International Conference on Water and Sustainable development in Dublin 1992. One of the main results of this conference is that improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS, being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation. These sectors influence or are influenced by the access to WSS. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission (EC has developed a new database (WatSan4Dev database containing 42 indicators (called variables in this paper from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data in developing countries. This paper describes the development of the WatSan4Dev dataset, the statistical processes needed to improve the data quality, and finally, the analysis to verify the database coherence is presented. Based on 25 relevant variables, the relationships between variables are described and organised into five factors (HDP – Human Development against Poverty, AP – Human Activity Pressure on water resources, WR – Water Resources, ODA – Official Development Aid, CEC – Country Environmental Concern. Linear regression methods are used to identify key variables having influence on water supply and sanitation. First analysis indicates that the informal urbanisation development is an important factor negatively influencing the percentage of the population having access to WSS. Health, and in particular children's health, benefits from the improvement of WSS. Irrigation is also enhancing Water Supply service thanks to multi-purpose infrastructure. Five country profiles are also created to deeper understand and synthetize the amount of information gathered

  7. Perspectives on Conceptualizing Developmentally Appropriate Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvério Marques, Sara; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Deardorff, Julianna; Constantine, Norman A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite recognition of the importance of a developmentally appropriate approach to sexuality education, there is little direct guidance on how to do this. This study employed in-depth interviews with experienced sexuality educators and developers of sexuality education materials to identify how this concept is understood and applied in the field.…

  8. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action: Understanding NAMA Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Sudhir; Desgain, Denis DR

    There is no internationally defined or agreed Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action(NAMA) cycle, as was the case, for example, with the Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) project cycle. However, there are some common steps that NAMA identification, formulation, and implementation will all go...

  9. Static Feed Water Electrolysis Subsystem Testing and Component Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszenski, E. P.; Schubert, F. H.; Burke, K. A.

    1983-01-01

    A program was carried out to develop and test advanced electrochemical cells/modules and critical electromechanical components for a static feed (alkaline electrolyte) water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem. The accomplishments were refurbishment of a previously developed subsystem and successful demonstration for a total of 2980 hours of normal operation; achievement of sustained one-person level oxygen generation performance with state-of-the-art cell voltages averaging 1.61 V at 191 ASF for an operating temperature of 128F (equivalent to 1.51V when normalized to 180F); endurance testing and demonstration of reliable performance of the three-fluid pressure controller for 8650 hours; design and development of a fluid control assembly for this subsystem and demonstration of its performance; development and demonstration at the single cell and module levels of a unitized core composite cell that provides expanded differential pressure tolerance capability; fabrication and evaluation of a feed water electrolyte elimination five-cell module; and successful demonstration of an electrolysis module pressurization technique that can be used in place of nitrogen gas during the standby mode of operation to maintain system pressure and differential pressures.

  10. Field development. Concept selection in deep water environment offshore Angola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenot, A.; Berger, J.C.; Limet, N. [TotalFinaElf, la Defense 6, Rosa-Lirio Project Group, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2002-10-01

    The significant oil discoveries made at the end of the 90's in the deep water environment offshore the coast of Angola, has led to a considerable amount of development activities. The first field in production was the turnkey development of the Kuito field on the Block 14 operated by Chevron. More recently the Girassol field has been put successfully in production on the Block 17, operated by TotalFinaElf. Both developments are making use of sub-sea wells connected to a moored dedicated FPSO. On the western side of the Girassol field, several discoveries have been made. They are known as the Rosa Lirio pole, from the names of two of the main channels. Values for water depth are in the same range than on Girassol (1300- 1400 m). A project group has been established in 1999 to evaluate the development of these discoveries. The purpose of this paper is to present the conceptual work which as been carried out, and in particular to show that even if many different concepts have been evaluated, the final choice has been also to make use of sub-sea trees. (authors)

  11. New water guidelines developed to battle nuclear corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses methods of preventing degradation of nuclear steam generators due to a combination of impurities and corrosion products in the secondary system. Explains that tube and support-plate corrosion has been the main concern, manifesting itself primarily in the recirculating units used in PWR systems. Points out that the battle against corrosion is closely linked to control of ionic impurities, alkalinity, oxidants, and sludge-copper and iron corrosion products, primarily-in condensate and feedwater systems. Examines a set of secondary-water-chemistry guidelines developed by the Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG). Presents diagram showing changes at Salem 1 to arrest corrosion, including condenser retubing, addition of condensate polisher and recirculation loop. Table indicates how preventive measures at Salem 1, affected secondary-water chemistry

  12. Contribution of the Land and Water Development Division of FAO to soil and water conservation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, F.I.

    1980-01-01

    The Land and Water Development Division of FAO has played an active role in promoting soil conservation measures. It has provided advice and expert assistance to many countries and is involved in more than fifty field programmes related to soil conservation. It conducts seminars, workshops, and training courses and provides fellowships for individuals. Technical and education material has been published. Maps have been developed showing the present degradation and risk of degradation in Africa and methodology used in assessment of soil degradation is outlined. (author)

  13. Water and Urban Development. Zapopan Jal. MÉXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, R. M., Sr.; Rosas-Elguera, J.; Pena, L. E.; Lucia, G. I.

    2016-12-01

    Recently there is a need to make a land management project for the metropolitan area of Guadalajara (GDL), the objective is the momentum of an "orderly growth" however there are a number of problems associated with urban growth, one of which is the provision of Water. There is not an adequate exploration of our resources, nor an adequate record of the minimum parameters that can be measured in the case of groundwater, such as the level of infiltration and extraction volume. The extraction is carried out in the northwest of the GDL (currently the area is more urban development), is approximately greater than 658 l / s (SIAPA 2016), beyond the capacity of natural recharge since precipitation of an average of 850 mm. Besides which currently anthropically waterproof. There is a record of more than 40 existing in this sector of the GDL wells, wells and springs are not accounted for, the production areas varies from 14.45 to 180.55 m depth In the study area (approximately 80km2), there are urban uses, industries, airports, agricultural areas in transition to residential areas and a protected natural area. cracks have already appeared in different years and places, some authors propose that are associated with geological structures and others say it is by massive extraction of water. Mitigation measures or water injection wells to recharge aquifers is poor, not considered as a priority for the territorial urban planning element. Which leads to a significant lowering of the aquifers that is up to 67.2 m in a span of two years in some cases. Some urban developments with golf course, contribute significantly to the purification of waste water and recharge of aquifers for irrigation they do, what should force by the state or municipality to issue a series of fiscal stimulus.

  14. How to quantify sustainable development: a risk-based approach to water quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarang, Amin; Vahedi, Arman; Shamsai, Abolfazl

    2008-02-01

    Since the term was coined in the Brundtland report in 1987, the issue of sustainable development has been challenged in terms of quantification. Different policy options may lend themselves more or less to the underlying principles of sustainability, but no analytical tools are available for a more in-depth assessment of the degree of sustainability. Overall, there are two major schools of thought employing the sustainability concept in managerial decisions: those of measuring and those of monitoring. Measurement of relative sustainability is the key issue in bridging the gap between theory and practice of sustainability of water resources systems. The objective of this study is to develop a practical tool for quantifying and assessing the degree of relative sustainability of water quality systems based on risk-based indicators, including reliability, resilience, and vulnerability. Current work on the Karoun River, the largest river in Iran, has included the development of an integrated model consisting of two main parts: a water quality simulation subroutine to evaluate Dissolved Oxygen Biological Oxygen Demand (DO-BOD) response, and an estimation of risk-based indicators subroutine via the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). We also developed a simple waste load allocation model via Least Cost and Uniform Treatment approaches in order to consider the optimal point of pollutants control costs given a desired reliability value which addresses DO in two different targets. The Risk-based approach developed herein, particularly via the FORM technique, appears to be an appropriately efficient tool for estimating the relative sustainability. Moreover, our results in the Karoun system indicate that significant changes in sustainability values are possible through dedicating money for treatment and strict pollution controls while simultaneously requiring a technical advance along change in current attitudes for environment protection.

  15. Development of an Airborne Micropulse Water Vapor DIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrir, A. R.; Ismail, S.

    2012-12-01

    Water vapor plays a key role in many atmospheric processes affecting both weather and climate. Airborne measurements of tropospheric water vapor profiles have been a longstanding observational need to not only the active remote sensing community but also to the meteorological, weather forecasting, and climate/radiation science communities. Microscale measurements of tropospheric water vapor are important for enhancing near term meteorological forecasting capabilities while mesoscale and synopticscale measurements can lead to an enhanced understanding of the complex coupled feedback mechanisms between water vapor, temperature, aerosols, and clouds. To realize tropospheric measurements of water vapor profiles over the microscale-synopticscale areas of meteorological interest, a compact and cost effective airborne micropulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is being investigated using newly emerging semiconductor based laser technology. Ground based micropulse DIAL (MPD) measurements of tropospheric water vapor and aerosol profiles up to 6 km and 15 km, respectively, have been previously demonstrated using an all semiconductor based laser transmitter. The DIAL transmitter utilizes a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration where two semiconductor seed lasers are used to seed a single pass traveling wave tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA), producing up to 7μJ pulse energies over a 1 μs pulse duration at a 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Intercomparisons between the ground based instrument measurements and radiosonde profiles demonstrating the MPD performance under varying atmospheric conditions will be presented. Work is currently ongoing to expand upon the ground based MPD concept and to develop a compact and cost effective system capable of deployment on a mid-low altitude aircraft such as the NASA Langley B200 King Air. Initial lab experiments show that a two-three fold increase in the laser energy compared to the ground

  16. River Water Pollution Status and Water Policy Scenario in Ethiopia: Raising Awareness for Better Implementation in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoke, Aymere; Beyene, Abebe; Kloos, Helmut; Goethals, Peter L. M.; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing levels of pollution in many tropical African countries, not much is known about the strength and weaknesses of policy and institutional frameworks to tackle pollution and ecological status of rivers and their impacts on the biota. We investigated the ecological status of four large river basins using physicochemical water quality parameters and bioindicators by collecting samples from forest, agriculture, and urban landscapes of the Nile, Omo-Gibe, Tekeze, and Awash River basins in Ethiopia. We also assessed the water policy scenario to evaluate its appropriateness to prevent and control pollution. To investigate the level of understanding and implementation of regulatory frameworks and policies related to water resources, we reviewed the policy documents and conducted in-depth interviews of the stakeholders. Physicochemical and biological data revealed that there is significant water quality deterioration at the impacted sites (agriculture, coffee processing, and urban landscapes) compared to reference sites (forested landscapes) in all four basins. The analysis of legal, policy, and institutional framework showed a lack of cooperation between stakeholders, lack of knowledge of the policy documents, absence of enforcement strategies, unavailability of appropriate working guidelines, and disconnected institutional setup at the grass root level to implement the set strategies as the major problems. In conclusion, river water pollution is a growing challenge and needs urgent action to implement intersectoral collaboration for water resource management that will eventually lead toward integrated watershed management. Revision of policy and increasing the awareness and participation of implementers are vital to improve ecological quality of rivers.

  17. River Water Pollution Status and Water Policy Scenario in Ethiopia: Raising Awareness for Better Implementation in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoke, Aymere; Beyene, Abebe; Kloos, Helmut; Goethals, Peter L M; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing levels of pollution in many tropical African countries, not much is known about the strength and weaknesses of policy and institutional frameworks to tackle pollution and ecological status of rivers and their impacts on the biota. We investigated the ecological status of four large river basins using physicochemical water quality parameters and bioindicators by collecting samples from forest, agriculture, and urban landscapes of the Nile, Omo-Gibe, Tekeze, and Awash River basins in Ethiopia. We also assessed the water policy scenario to evaluate its appropriateness to prevent and control pollution. To investigate the level of understanding and implementation of regulatory frameworks and policies related to water resources, we reviewed the policy documents and conducted in-depth interviews of the stakeholders. Physicochemical and biological data revealed that there is significant water quality deterioration at the impacted sites (agriculture, coffee processing, and urban landscapes) compared to reference sites (forested landscapes) in all four basins. The analysis of legal, policy, and institutional framework showed a lack of cooperation between stakeholders, lack of knowledge of the policy documents, absence of enforcement strategies, unavailability of appropriate working guidelines, and disconnected institutional setup at the grass root level to implement the set strategies as the major problems. In conclusion, river water pollution is a growing challenge and needs urgent action to implement intersectoral collaboration for water resource management that will eventually lead toward integrated watershed management. Revision of policy and increasing the awareness and participation of implementers are vital to improve ecological quality of rivers.

  18. Development of an interdisciplinary model cluster for tidal water environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Stephan; Winterscheid, Axel; Jens, Wyrwa; Hartmut, Hein; Birte, Hein; Stefan, Vollmer; Andreas, Schöl

    2013-04-01

    Global climate change has a high potential to influence both the persistence and the transport pathways of water masses and its constituents in tidal waters and estuaries. These processes are linked through dispersion processes, thus directly influencing the sediment and solid suspend matter budgets, and thus the river morphology. Furthermore, the hydrologic regime has an impact on the transport of nutrients, phytoplankton, suspended matter, and temperature that determine the oxygen content within water masses, which is a major parameter describing the water quality. This project aims at the implementation of a so-called (numerical) model cluster in tidal waters, which includes the model compartments hydrodynamics, morphology and ecology. For the implementation of this cluster it is required to continue with the integration of different models that work in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The model cluster is thus suggested to lead to a more precise knowledge of the feedback processes between the single interdisciplinary model compartments. In addition to field measurements this model cluster will provide a complementary scientific basis required to address a spectrum of research questions concerning the integral management of estuaries within the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG, Germany). This will in particular include aspects like sediment and water quality management as well as adaptation strategies to climate change. The core of the model cluster will consist of the 3D-hydrodynamic model Delft3D (Roelvink and van Banning, 1994), long-term hydrodynamics in the estuaries are simulated with the Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model HAMSOM (Backhaus, 1983; Hein et al., 2012). The simulation results will be compared with the unstructured grid based SELFE model (Zhang and Bapista, 2008). The additional coupling of the BfG-developed 1D-water quality model QSim (Kirchesch and Schöl, 1999; Hein et al., 2011) with the morphological/hydrodynamic models is an

  19. Developing an operational rangeland water requirement satisfaction index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Rowland, James

    2011-01-01

    Developing an operational water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI) for rangeland monitoring is an important goal of the famine early warning systems network. An operational WRSI has been developed for crop monitoring, but until recently a comparable WRSI for rangeland was not successful because of the extremely poor performance of the index when based on published crop coefficients (K c) for rangelands. To improve the rangeland WRSI, we developed a simple calibration technique that adjusts the K c values for rangeland monitoring using long-term rainfall distribution and reference evapotranspiration data. The premise for adjusting the K c values is based on the assumption that a viable rangeland should exhibit above-average WRSI (values >80%) during a normal year. The normal year was represented by a median dekadal rainfall distribution (satellite rainfall estimate from 1996 to 2006). Similarly, a long-term average for potential evapotranspiration was used as input to the famine early warning systems network WRSI model in combination with soil-water-holding capacity data. A dekadal rangeland WRSI has been operational for east and west Africa since 2005. User feedback has been encouraging, especially with regard to the end-of-season WRSI anomaly products that compare the index's performance to ‘normal’ years. Currently, rangeland WRSI products are generated on a dekadal basis and posted for free distribution on the US Geological Survey early warning website at http://earlywarning.usgs.gov/adds/

  20. Hydrologic analysis of the challenges facing water resources and sustainable development of Wadi Feiran basin, southern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayman A.; Diab, Maghawri S.

    2018-04-01

    Wadi Feiran basin is one of the most promising areas in southern Sinai (Egypt) for establishing new communities and for growth in agriculture, tourism, and industry. The present challenges against development include water runoff hazards (flash flooding), the increasing water demand, and water scarcity and contamination. These challenges could be mitigated by efficient use of runoff and rainwater through appropriate management, thereby promoting sustainable development. Strategies include the mitigation of runoff hazards and promoting the natural and artificial recharge of aquifers. This study uses a watershed modeling system, geographic information system, and classification scheme to predict the effects of various mitigation options on the basin's water resources. Rainwater-harvesting techniques could save more than 77% of the basin's runoff (by volume), which could be used for storage and aquifer recharge. A guide map is provided that shows possible locations for the proposed mitigation options in the study basin. Appropriate measures should be undertaken urgently: mitigation of groundwater contamination (including effective sewage effluent management); regular monitoring of the municipal, industrial and agricultural processes that release contaminants; rationalization and regulation of the application of agro-chemicals to farmland; and regular monitoring of contaminants in groundwater. Stringent regulations should be implemented to prevent wastewater disposal to the aquifers in the study area.

  1. Development of a pressurized bipolar alkaline water electrolyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves Junior, Newton Pimenta; Pinto, Edgar A. de Godoi Rodrigues; Silva, Ennio Peres da; Rapelli, Rubia; Pinto, Cristiano da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DFA/ IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada], Email: nevesjr@unicamp.br; Marin Neto, Antonio Jose; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Camargo, Joao Carlos; Ferreira, Paulo F.P. [Hydrogen Technology (HyTron), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Andre Luis [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the actual development status of a bipolar alkaline water electrolyzer with maximum production capacity of 1 m3/h of hydrogen and controlled by a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), which also interfaces the electrolytic system with operators and other equipment, such as gas storage tanks, fuel cells and photovoltaic panels. The project also includes the construction of an electrolysis test bench to record electrical parameters (cathode, anode, separator and electrolyte potentials), the amount of produced gases and gas quality determined by gas chromatography. (author)

  2. Domestic and overseas development of advanced boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatazawa, Mamoru; Fuchino, Satoshi; Nakada, Kotaro

    2010-01-01

    Since Toshiba delivered the world's first advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) to The Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. in 1996, we have been devoting continuous efforts to the construction and operational support of ABWR systems as major products. We are now promoting the construction of domestic and overseas ABWR systems along with the standardization of ABWRs. We are also engaged in the research and development of core technologies to support further promotion of ABWRs as a concurrent solution to the issues of global warming and energy security for individual countries. (author)

  3. Development of advanced boiling water reactor for medium capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuo Hisajima; Yutaka Asanuma

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a result of development of an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor for medium capacity. 1000 MWe was selected as the reference. The features of the current Advanced Boiling Water Reactors, such as a Reactor Internal Pump, a Fine Motion Control Rod Drive, a Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel, and three-divisionalized Emergency Core Cooling System are maintained. In addition, optimization for 1000 MWe has been investigated. Reduction in thermal power and application of the latest fuel reduced the number of fuel assemblies, Control Rods and Control Rod Drives, Reactor Internal Pumps, and Safety Relief Valves. The number of Main Steam lines was reduced from four to two. As for the engineered safety features, the Flammability Control System was removed. Special efforts were made to realize a compact Turbine Building, such as application of an in line Moisture Separator, reduction in the number of pumps in the Condensate and Feedwater System, and change from a Turbine-Driven Reactor Feedwater Pump to a Motor-Driven Reactor Feedwater Pump. 31% reduction in the volume of the Turbine Building is expected in comparison with the current Advanced Boiling Water Reactors. (authors)

  4. The Limits of Water Pricing in a Developing Country Metropolis: Empirical Lessons from an Industrial City of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir Ahmad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to question the effectiveness of water pricing as a means of consumer behavioural change in urban centres of the Global South by analysing the domestic usage for water in a major industrial city of Pakistan. Using survey data of 1100 households from Faisalabad city, we estimate the price and income elasticities of water demand. Instrumental variable methods are applied to overcome the endogeneity issues of water pricing. The findings reflect that price and income elasticities vary across different groups. Price elasticities range from −0.43 to −0.71, and income elasticities vary between 0.01 and 0.12. These findings suggest that pricing policies may have limited scope to drive households’ water consumption patterns. However, these empirics may suggest that policy makers should design an appropriate tariff structure to increase revenues that can be invested to further improve the existing water infrastructure. The study findings also suggest that non-pricing instruments, such as water saving campaigns, may be helpful in driving an efficient use of water in rapidly growing cities in the developing world.

  5. Developing Intelligent System Dynamic Management Instruments on Water-Food-Energy Nexus in Response to Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, W. P.; Chang, F. J.; Lur, H. S.; Fan, C. H.; Hu, M. C.; Huang, T. L.

    2016-12-01

    Water, food and energy are the most essential natural resources needed to sustain life. Water-Food-Energy Nexus (WFE Nexus) has nowadays caught global attention upon natural resources scarcity and their interdependency. In the past decades, Taiwan's integrative development has undergone drastic changes due to population growth, urbanization and excessive utilization of natural resources. The research intends to carry out interdisciplinary studies on WFE Nexus based on data collection and analysis as well as technology innovation, with a mission to develop a comprehensive solution to configure the synergistic utilization of WFE resources in an equal and secure manner for building intelligent dynamic green cities. This study aims to establish the WFE Nexus through interdisciplinary research. This study will probe the appropriate and secure resources distribution and coopetition relationship by applying and developing techniques of artificial intelligence, system dynamics, life cycle assessment, and synergy management under data mining, system analysis and scenario analysis. The issues of synergy effects, economic benefits and sustainable social development will be evaluated as well. First, we will apply the system dynamics to identify the interdependency indicators of WFE Nexus in response to urbanization and build the dynamic relationship among food production, irrigation water resource and energy consumption. Then, we conduct comparative studies of WFE Nexus between the urbanization and the un-urbanization area (basin) to provide a referential guide for optimal resource-policy nexus management. We expect to the proposed solutions can help achieve the main goals of the research, which is the promotion of human well-being and moving toward sustainable green economy and prosperous society.

  6. Development and Optimum Composition of Locally Developed Potable Water Treatment Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Oladele BABATOLA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current high level of energy cost and operational cost of membrane technologies and couple with difficulties in obtaining chemicals for potable water treatment give rooms for development of local substance and low cost adsorbents for water treatment. This paper presents a follow-up study on an earlier work in which some water treatment Tablets were produced and tested. The current work was directed at establishing the optimum composition of the tablets. Alum, calcium hypochlorite and lime were combined in proportion and made into pastes and tablets. Residual chlorine contents of the tablets were determined. The quality of stream water samples treated with the tablets was measured by chlorine content, pH and turbidity removal. It is concluded that the best composition is one part alum, two parts hypochlorite and three parts lime and this produced treated water pH of 7.8, chlorine residual of 5.0 mg/l and settled water turbidity 3.0 NTU. The product is aimed for use in rural communities to reduce rampaging death from water borne diseases.

  7. Arsenic removal methods for drinking water in the developing countries: technological developments and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Fayzul; Chowdhury, Shakhawat

    2017-11-01

    Arsenic pollution of drinking water is a concern, particularly in the developing countries. Removal of arsenic from drinking water is strongly recommended. Despite the availability of efficient technologies for arsenic removal, the small and rural communities in the developing countries are not capable of employing most of these technologies due to their high cost and technical complexity. There is a need for the "low-cost" and "easy to use" technologies to protect the humans in the arsenic affected developing countries. In this study, arsenic removal technologies were summarized and the low-cost technologies were reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of these technologies were identified and their scopes of applications and improvements were investigated. The costs were compared in context to the capacity of the low-income populations in the developing countries. Finally, future research directions were proposed to protect the low-income populations in the developing countries.

  8. Water poverty and rural development: Evidence from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matshe, I

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available link between household water and economic poverty of rural households, with households’ total monthly income used as an indicator of economic poverty. An adaptation of a comprehensive water poverty index, which considers water access, quality, use...

  9. Meeting the flow assurance challenges of deep water developments - from CAPEX development to field start up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, M.M.; Feasey, N.D. [National Aluminium Company Ltd. (Nalco), Cheshire (United Kingdom); Afonso, M.; Silva, D. [NALCO Brasil Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As oil accumulations in easily accessible locations around the world become less available developments in deeper water become a more common target for field development. Deep water projects, particularly sub sea development, present a host of challenges in terms of flow assurance and integrity. In this paper the focus will be on the chemical control of flow assurance challenges in hydrate control, scale control and wax/asphaltene control within deep water (>750 meter) developments. The opportunities for kinetic hydrate control vs. conventional thermodynamic hydrate control will be outlined with examples of where these technologies have been applied and the limitations that still exist. The development of scale control chemical formulations specifically for sub sea application and the challenges of monitoring such control programs will be highlighted with developments in real time and near real time monitoring. Organic deposit control (wax/asphaltene) will focus on the development of new chemicals that have higher activity but lower viscosity than currently used chemicals hence allowing deployment at colder temperatures and over longer distances. The factors that need to be taken into account when selecting chemicals for deep water application will be highlighted. Fluid viscosity, impact of hydrostatic head on injectivity, product stability at low temperature and interaction with other production chemicals will be reviewed as they pertain to effective flow assurance. This paper brings learning from other deep water basins with examples from the Gulf of Mexico, West Africa and Brazil, which will be used to highlight these challenges and some of the solutions currently available along with the technology gaps that exist. (author)

  10. Water quality index development using fuzzy logic: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality index development using fuzzy logic: A case study of the Karoon River of Iran. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Determination of the status of water quality of a river or any other water source is highly ...

  11. Development and design optimization of water hydraulic manipulator for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekaelaeinen, Teemu; Mattila, Jouni; Virvalo, Tapio

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes one of the research projects carried out in The Preparation of Remote Handling Engineers for ITER (PREFIT) program within the European Fusion Training Scheme (EFTS). This research project is focusing on the design and optimization of water hydraulic manipulators used to test several remote handling tasks of ITER at Divertor Test Platform 2 (DTP2), Tampere, Finland, and later in ITER. In this project, a water hydraulic manipulator designed and build by Department of Intelligent Hydraulics and Automation in Tampere University of Technology, Finland (TUT/IHA) is further optimized as a case study for a given manipulator requirement specification in order to illustrate and verify developed comprehensive design guidelines and performance metrics. Without meaningful manipulator performance parameters, the evaluation of alternative robot manipulators designs remains ad hoc at best. Therefore, more comprehensive design guidelines and performance metrics are needed for comparing and improving different existing manipulators versus task requirements or for comparing different digital prototypes at early design phase of manipulators. In this paper the description of the project, its background and developments are presented and discussed.

  12. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  13. Implementation of the national desalination and water purification technology roadmap : structuring and directing the development of water supply solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Kevin M.; Dorsey, Zachary; Miller, G. Wade; Brady, Patrick Vane; Mulligan, Conrad; Rayburn, Chris

    2006-06-01

    In the United States, economic growth increasingly requires that greater volumes of freshwater be made available for new users, yet supplies of freshwater are already allocated to existing users. Currently, water for new users is made available through re-allocation of xisting water supplies-for example, by cities purchasing agricultural water rights. Water may also be made available through conservation efforts and, in some locales, through the development of ''new'' water from non-traditional sources such as the oceans, deep aquifer rackish groundwater, and water reuse.

  14. Development of alarm handling methods for boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukiharu, Ohga; Hiroshi, Seki; Setsuo, Arita [Power and Industrial Systems R and D Div., Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    A method was developed to select important alarms in two steps: first, selection is based on the physical relationship between the alarms, and second, selection is according to the initial event. An approach combining a neural network and knowledge processing was proposed to identify the event rapidly. A prototype system was evaluated in the Kashiwazaki/Kariwa-4 Nuclear Power Plant during the startup test. The evaluation test confirmed that about 30% of the alarms are selected from among the many activated alarms. The second method, dealing with presentation, supports operators in their selection and confirmation of the required information for plant operation. The method selects and offers plant information in response to plant status changes and operators` demands. The selection procedure is based on the knowledge and data as structured by the plant functional structure; i.e. a means-ends abstraction hierarchy model. A prototype system was evaluated using a BWR simulator. The results showed that appropriate information items are automatically selected according to plant status changes and information on generated alarms is presented to operators together with the related trend graph and system diagram. Answers are generated in reply to the operators` demands and operators can confirm the generated alarms on each plant function, such as systems and components. 8 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs.

  15. Development of alarm handling methods for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohga Yukiharu; Seki Hiroshi; Arita Setsuo

    1997-01-01

    A method was developed to select important alarms in two steps: first, selection is based on the physical relationship between the alarms, and second, selection is according to the initial event. An approach combining a neural network and knowledge processing was proposed to identify the event rapidly. A prototype system was evaluated in the Kashiwazaki/Kariwa-4 Nuclear Power Plant during the startup test. The evaluation test confirmed that about 30% of the alarms are selected from among the many activated alarms. The second method, dealing with presentation, supports operators in their selection and confirmation of the required information for plant operation. The method selects and offers plant information in response to plant status changes and operators' demands. The selection procedure is based on the knowledge and data as structured by the plant functional structure; i.e. a means-ends abstraction hierarchy model. A prototype system was evaluated using a BWR simulator. The results showed that appropriate information items are automatically selected according to plant status changes and information on generated alarms is presented to operators together with the related trend graph and system diagram. Answers are generated in reply to the operators' demands and operators can confirm the generated alarms on each plant function, such as systems and components. 8 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Developing a Hygrometer for Water-Undersaturated Lherzolite Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, M. R.; Till, C. B.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of water on the composition of primitive mantle melts at arc volcanoes is a topic of wide interest and has been addressed in a number of previous experimental studies including Hirose & Kawamoto (1995), Gaetani & Grove (1998), Till et al. (2012) and Mitchell & Grove (2015). The current study builds upon the work by previous authors in an effort to develop a more robust hygrometer for primitive lherzolite melts at water-undersaturated conditions. The starting composition for this experimental study is a mixture of 75% primitive upper mantle and 25% primitive basalt (Baker et al., 1991) with a bulk H2O content of 2 wt. %. Experiments were performed at Arizona State University in the Experimental Petrology and Igneous processes Center (EPIC) from 1.2-1.6 GPa at 1150-1300 ºC for 2 days in a piston cylinder apparatus to reflect conditions relevant for arc melt equilibration (Till 2017). A double capsule design was used to prevent Fe and H2O loss with an inner Fe-presaturated Au80Pd20 capsule and an outer Au80Pd20 capsule. Run products were analyzed by electron microprobe and determined to be successful when they demonstrated 0-5% Fe-loss, olivine-melt KDs of 0.27-0.30, and minimal H2O loss. The water-undersaturated melt composition are in equilibrium with ol+opx+sp±cpx. Run products at 1.6 GPa do not contain cpx in the mineral assemblage over the studied temperature range. Observed melt compositions have SiO2 contents of 48-49 wt. % at 1.2 GPa and 46-49 wt.% at 1.6 GPa. Our experimental results suggest an enhanced effect of water on increasing the SiO2 content of the melt compared to previous studies on systems with similar water contents and anhydrous systems. Baker, et al., JGR 96, 21819-21842 (1991). Gaetani & Grove, CMP 131, 323-346 (1998). Hirose & Kawamoto, EPSL 133, 463-473 (1995). Mitchell & Grove, CMP 170, 13 (2015). Till, Am. Mineral, 102, 931-947 (2017). Till, et al., JGR 117 (2012).

  17. Development of Water Detritiation Process Using the Hydrophobic Platinum Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.H.; Paek, S.; Choi, H.J.; Kim, K.R.; Chung, H.; Yim, S.P.; Lee, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive emissions and occupational doses by tritium are mainly caused by tritiated water escaping from equipment in the nuclear industry. Improving the leak-tightness of equipment is effective in reducing emissions and internal dose but is not a long-term solution. Water detritiation was consider to be the most effective tritium control option since tritium is removed right from the source. The WTRF (Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility) is under construction now with the completion date of June, 2006 in Korea. It is designed to remove tritium from tritiated heavy water in each of the existing four Candu units at Wolsong site. We developed a hydrophobic platinum catalyst (Pt/SDBC catalyst) that would be used at the LPCE (Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange) column in the WTRF. The catalytic rate constants of the newly developed catalyst for the deuterium exchange reaction between water vapor and hydrogen gas were measured in a recycle reactor. The catalytic rate constants of the Pt/SDBC catalyst decreased with reaction time and were much greater than that required, 2.0 x 10 -4 mol (D 2 )/s/g(pellet) in the design of the WTRF. Tritium removal efficiency of the WTRF, which is important for a safe and reliable operation of the facility, depends on the design and operating variables. A theoretical model based on the design and operating variables of the LPCE process was set up, and the equations between the parameters were derived. Numerical calculation result from a computer program shows steep increase of the detritiation factor of the LPCE process with respect to temperature increase and mild increase with respect to pressure decrease. The other parametric study shows that the calculated detritiation factors increase as the catalyst efficiency, number of theoretical stages of hydrophilic packing, the detritiation factor of cryogenic distillation system and the total number of sections increase. We also proceeded with the experiments for the hydrogen isotopic exchange

  18. Development of emergency response plans for community water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    what to do if there is an emergency situation that may affect the water system. To assist water ... need to expand the water treatment system, a desire to improve the efficiency ..... notes on drinking-water, sanitation and hygiene in emergencies.

  19. The Development of a Roof Integrated Solar Hot Water System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, David F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Infrastructure and DER Dept.; Moss, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solar Technologies Dept.; Palomino, G. Ernest [Salt River Project (SRP), Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The Salt River Project (SRP), in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Energy Laboratories, Inc. (ELI), collaborated to develop, test, and evaluate an advanced solar water-heating product for new homes. SRP and SNL collaborated under a Department of Energy Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), with ELI as SRP's industry partner. The project has resulted in the design and development of the Roof Integrated Thermal Siphon (RITH) system, an innovative product that features complete roof integration, a storage tank in the back of the collector and below the roofline, easy installation by homebuilders, and a low installed cost. SRP's market research guided the design, and the laboratory tests conducted at SNL provided information used to refine the design of field test units and indicated that the RITH concept is viable. ELI provided design and construction expertise and is currently configured to manufacture the units. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent and available materials connected to the project including market research studies, the design features and development of the system, and the testing and evaluation conducted at SNL and at a model home test site in Phoenix, Arizona.

  20. Understanding and predicting climate variations in the Middle East for sustainable water resource management and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Rana

    Water issues are a source of tension between Israelis and Palestinians. In the and region of the Middle East, water supply is not just scarce but also uncertain: It is not uncommon for annual rainfall to be as little as 60% or as much as 125% of the multiannual average. This combination of scarcity and uncertainty exacerbates the already strained economy and the already tensed political situation. The uncertainty could be alleviated if it were possible to better forecast water availability. Such forecasting is key not only for water planning and management, but also for economic policy and for political decision making. Water forecasts at multiple time scales are necessary for crop choice, aquifer operation and investments in desalination infrastructure. The unequivocal warming of the climate system adds another level of uncertainty as global and regional water cycles change. This makes the prediction of water availability an even greater challenge. Understanding the impact of climate change on precipitation can provide the information necessary for appropriate risk assessment and water planning. Unfortunately, current global circulation models (GCMs) are only able to predict long term climatic evolution at large scales but not local rainfall. The statistics of local precipitation are traditionally predicted using historical rainfall data. Obviously these data cannot anticipate changes that result from climate change. It is therefore clear that integration of the global information about climate evolution and local historical data is needed to provide the much needed predictions of regional water availability. Currently, there is no theoretical or computational framework that enables such integration for this region. In this dissertation both a conceptual framework and a computational platform for such integration are introduced. In particular, suite of models that link forecasts of climatic evolution under different CO2 emissions scenarios to observed rainfall

  1. Leveraging Earth Observations to Improve Data Resolution and Tracking of Sustainable Development Goals in Water Resources and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Nusrat, F.; Hasan, M. A.; Fallatah, O.

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity affects more than 40 per cent of the world population and is projected to rise substantially, affecting safe water and sanitation access globally. The recently released WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) 2017 report on global water and sanitation access paints a grim picture across the planet; approximately 30% people worldwide, or 2.1 billion, still lack access to safe, readily available clean water, and 60% people worldwide, or 4.5 billion ppl, lack safely managed sanitation. Meanwhile, demand for water and competition for water resources are sharply rising amid growing uncertainty of climate change and its impacts on water resources. The United Nations Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for substantially increasing water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensuring sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, providing clean water and sanitation for all, increasing international cooperation over transboundary surface and groundwater resources (under Goal 6), as well as ending preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, and end the epidemics of neglected tropical and water-borne diseases (under Goal 3). Data availability in developing regions, especially at the appropriate resolution in both space and time, has been a recurring problem for various technological and institutional reasons. Earth observation techniques provide the most cost-effective and encompassing tool to monitor these regions, large transboundary river basins and aquifer systems, and water resources vulnerabilities to climate change around the globe. University of Rhode Island, with US and international collaborators, is using earth observations to develop tools to analyze, monitor and support decision-makers to track their progress towards SDGs with better data resolution and accuracy. Here, we provide case studies on 1) providing safe water and sanitation access South Asia through safe water

  2. Continued Water-Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott W.; Sheth, Rubik B.; Poynot, Joe; Giglio, Tony; Ungar, Gene K.

    2015-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demands. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HX's do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development two full-scale, Orion sized water-based PCM HX's were constructed by Mezzo Technologies. These HX's were designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation to a full-scale design. Design options considered included bladder restraint and clamping mechanisms, bladder manufacturing, tube patterns, fill/drain methods, manifold dimensions, weight optimization, and midplate designs. Two units, Units A and B, were constructed and differed only in their midplate design. Both units failed multiple times during testing. This report highlights learning outcomes from these tests and are applied to a final sub-scale PCM HX which is slated to be tested on the ISS in early 2017.

  3. Development of pre-startup equipment for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, Rajit; Borkar, S.P.; Dixit, M.Y.; Das, Debashis; Patil, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Light water reactor (LWR) core typically has high excess reactivity as compared to Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). Unlike PHWR, where online refueling is done, LWR is operated for a long period to achieve maximum fuel burn-up before refueling. Since the reactivity is always reducing with burn-up of the core, the positions of control rods at criticality are always changing in a single direction, i.e. away from the core. Therefore it is possible to start the LWR even if the nuclear instrumentation is not online, provided the criticality position of control rods is known for previous operation. However, for the very first startup, the criticality position of control rods is required to be determined. A special nuclear instrumentation system, called Pre-startup equipment (PSE) is developed using two numbers of in-core detectors along with the processing electronics. The PSE enables operators to determine the criticality position of control rods for the first startup at zero power. The same equipment can also be used during loading of fuel assemblies. This paper discusses the features and architecture of PSE, its individual circuit blocks and specifications. (author)

  4. Continued Water-Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott; Poynot, Joe

    2014-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development two full-scale, Orion sized water-based PCM HX's were constructed by Mezzo Technologies. These HX's were designed by applying prior research and experimentation to the full scale design. Design options considered included bladder restraint and clamping mechanisms, bladder manufacturing, tube patterns, fill/drain methods, manifold dimensions, weight optimization, and midplate designs. Design and construction of these HX's led to successful testing of both PCM HX's.

  5. Development of the water window imaging x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, R.B.; Shealy, D.L.; Baker, P.C.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Walker, A.B.C. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Water Window Imaging X-ray Microscopy which is currently being developed by a consortium from the Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Baker Consulting, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Stanford University. The high quality solar images achieved during the Stanford/MSFC/LLNL Rocket X-ray Spectroheliograph flight conclusively established that excellent imaging could be obtained with doubly reflecting multilayer optical systems. Theoretical studies carried out as part of the MSFC X-ray Microscopy Program, demonstrated that high quality, high resolution multilayer x-ray imaging microscopes could be achieved with spherical optics in the Schwarzschild configuration and with Aspherical optical systems. Advanced Flow Polishing methods have been used to fabricate substrates for multilayer optics. On hemlite grade Sapphire, the authors have achieved microscopy mirror substrates on concave and convex spherical surfaces with 0.5 Angstrom rms surface smoothness, as measured by the Zygo profilometer. In this paper the authors report on the current status of fabrication and testing of the optical and mechanical subsystems for the Water Window Imaging X-ray Microscope

  6. Water and Biofuels in 2030. Water impacts of French biofuel development at the 2030 time horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorne, D.; Bonnet, J.F.

    2009-09-01

    In 2006, French biofuel production occupied nearly 800,000 hectares, amounting to around 2.8% of agricultural land and supplying 1.8% of the country's total fuel supply. By 2020, each Member State of the European Union is required to source at least 10% of its national fuel consumption from renewable sources. One of the main goals of this requirement is to contribute to greenhouse gas reductions in the transport sector, all while conserving natural resources. Against this backdrop, diverse environmental issues are involved in the planning and development of these industries. Protecting water resources is a main concern for the French, especially when it comes to formulating agricultural strategy for any given territory. The goal of the present study is thus to propose a prospective assessment of the potential water impacts of different biofuel production scenarios in France through the year 2030. These scenarios, with their contrasting situations regarding agriculture, technology, and environmental priority, put forth a vision of possible futures in biofuel development. Their evaluation at the level of the Adour-Garonne and Seine-Normandy Basins has made it possible to produce comparative results, based on indicators quantified at this scale. (authors)

  7. Development status of a preprototype water electrolysis subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. B.; Erickson, A. C.

    1981-01-01

    A preprototype water electrolysis subsystem was designed and fabricated for NASA's advanced regenerative life support program. A solid polymer is used for the cell electrolyte. The electrolysis module has 12 cells that can generate 5.5 kg/day of oxygen for the metabolic requirements of three crewmembers, for cabin leakage, and for the oxygen and hydrogen required for carbon dioxide collection and reduction processes. The subsystem can be operated at a pressure between 276 and 2760 kN/sq m and in a continuous constant-current, cyclic, or standby mode. A microprocessor is used to aid in operating the subsystem. Sensors and controls provide fault detection and automatic shutdown. The results of development, demonstration, and parametric testing are presented. Modifications to enhance operation in an integrated and manned test are described. Prospective improvements for the electrolysis subsystem are discussed.

  8. Development and characterization of polymeric membranes for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresciani, Danusa; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Santos, Diego K.M.; Brioude, Michel M.; Jose, Nadia M.; Prado, Luis A.S.A.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports a development of polymeric membranes for water desalination by reverse osmosis. The polyester was synthesized by the reaction between glycerol, and dicarboxylic acids, and was coded PAF. Cellulose acetate/PAF blends containing 10% and 30% of polyester PAF blends were prepared using compression molding. The materials were characterized by DRX, DSC, TGA and SEM techniques. The results blends showed good thermal resistance and thermal events due to the individual components of the blends. The membranes exhibited a good performance in comparison to the neat cellulose acetate membrane. The addition of PAF in the polyester composition of the polymeric blends caused a significant increase of the salt retention of the studied samples. (author)

  9. Development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at higher temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkous, C.A. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This report describes efforts in developing new solid polymer electrolytes that will enable operation of proton exchange membrane electrolyzers at higher temperatures than are currently possible. Several ionomers have been prepared from polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyethersulfone (PES), and polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) by employing various sulfonation procedures. By controlling the extent of sulfonation, a range of proton conductivities could be achieved, whose upper limit actually exceeded that of commercially available perfluoralkyl sulfonates. Thermoconductimetric analysis of samples at various degrees of sulfonation showed an inverse relationship between conductivity and maximum operating temperature. This was attributed to the dual effect of adding sulfonate groups to the polymer: more acid groups produce more protons for increased conductivity, but they also increase water uptake, which mechanically weakens the membrane. This situation was exacerbated by the limited acidity of the aromatic sulfonic acids (pK{sub A} {approx} 2-3). The possibility of using partial fluorination to raise the acid dissociation constant is discussed.

  10. 75 FR 69698 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The ``Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans'' (Refuge...

  11. Hydraulic modeling development and application in water resources engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Francisco J.; Yang, Chih Ted; Wang, Lawrence K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of modeling has become widespread in water resources engineering and science to study rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal regions. For example, computer models are commonly used to forecast anthropogenic effects on the environment, and to help provide advanced mitigation measures against catastrophic events such as natural and dam-break floods. Linking hydraulic models to vegetation and habitat models has expanded their use in multidisciplinary applications to the riparian corridor. Implementation of these models in software packages on personal desktop computers has made them accessible to the general engineering community, and their use has been popularized by the need of minimal training due to intuitive graphical user interface front ends. Models are, however, complex and nontrivial, to the extent that even common terminology is sometimes ambiguous and often applied incorrectly. In fact, many efforts are currently under way in order to standardize terminology and offer guidelines for good practice, but none has yet reached unanimous acceptance. This chapter provides a view of the elements involved in modeling surface flows for the application in environmental water resources engineering. It presents the concepts and steps necessary for rational model development and use by starting with the exploration of the ideas involved in defining a model. Tangible form of those ideas is provided by the development of a mathematical and corresponding numerical hydraulic model, which is given with a substantial amount of detail. The issues of model deployment in a practical and productive work environment are also addressed. The chapter ends by presenting a few model applications highlighting the need for good quality control in model validation.

  12. Water developments and canids in two North American deserts: a test of the indirect effect of water hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas K Hall

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic modifications to landscapes intended to benefit wildlife may negatively influence wildlife communities. Anthropogenic provisioning of free water (water developments to enhance abundance and distribution of wildlife is a common management practice in arid regions where water is limiting. Despite the long-term and widespread use of water developments, little is known about how they influence native species. Water developments may negatively influence arid-adapted species (e.g., kit fox, Vulpes macrotis by enabling water-dependent competitors (e.g., coyote, Canis latrans to expand distribution in arid landscapes (i.e., indirect effect of water hypothesis. We tested the two predictions of the indirect effect of water hypothesis (i.e., coyotes will visit areas with free water more frequently and kit foxes will spatially and temporally avoid coyotes and evaluated relative use of free water by canids in the Great Basin and Mojave Deserts from 2010 to 2012. We established scent stations in areas with (wet and without (dry free water and monitored visitation by canids to these sites and visitation to water sources using infrared-triggered cameras. There was no difference in the proportions of visits to scent stations in wet or dry areas by coyotes or kit foxes at either study area. We did not detect spatial (no negative correlation between visits to scent stations or temporal (no difference between times when stations were visited segregation between coyotes and kit foxes. Visitation to water sources was not different for coyotes between study areas, but kit foxes visited water sources more in Mojave than Great Basin. Our results did not support the indirect effect of water hypothesis in the Great Basin or Mojave Deserts for these two canids.

  13. Modelling Inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries with Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeynaz, C.; Lopez-Puga, J.; Carmona-Moreno, C.

    2012-04-01

    Improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS), being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation). This inter-dependency has been recognised with the adoption of the "Integrated Water Resources Management" principles that push for the integration of these various dimensions involved in WSS delivery to ensure an efficient and sustainable management. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector in particular in developing countries where WSS still represent an important leverage for livelihood improvement. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has developed a coherent database (WatSan4Dev database) containing 29 indicators from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data focusing on developing countries (Celine et al, 2011 under publication). The aim of this work is to model the WatSan4Dev dataset using probabilistic models to identify the key variables influencing or being influenced by the water supply and sanitation access levels. Bayesian Network Models are suitable to map the conditional dependencies between variables and also allows ordering variables by level of influence on the dependent variable. Separated models have been built for water supply and for sanitation because of different behaviour. The models are validated if complying with statistical criteria but either with scientific knowledge and literature. A two steps approach has been adopted to build the structure of the model; Bayesian network is first built for each thematic cluster of variables (e.g governance, agricultural pressure, or human development) keeping a detailed level for interpretation later one. A global model is then built based on significant indicators of each cluster being previously modelled. The structure of the

  14. Guidelines to Develop Efficient Photocatalysts for Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic overall water splitting is the only viable solar-to-fuel conversion technology. The research discloses an investigation process wherein by dissecting the photocatalytic water splitting device, electrocatalysts, and semiconductor

  15. Water You Engineering? An Activity to Develop Water-Quality Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskowski, Jody; Todd, Carrie Davis

    2009-01-01

    Water is one of our most precious resources. However, for many in the United States, having fresh, safe drinking water is taken for granted, and due to this perceived lack of relevance, students may not fully appreciate the luxury of having safe running water--in the home. One approach to resolving water-quality issues in the United States may…

  16. Cultured Construction: Global Evidence of the Impact of National Values on Piped-to-Premises Water Infrastructure Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Jessica A

    2016-07-19

    In 2016, the global community undertook the Sustainable Development Goals. One of these goals seeks to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all people by the year 2030. In support of this undertaking, this paper seeks to discover the cultural work done by piped water infrastructure across 33 nations with developed and developing economies that have experienced change in the percentage of population served by piped-to-premises water infrastructure at the national level of analysis. To do so, I regressed the 1990-2012 change in piped-to-premises water infrastructure coverage against Hofstede's cultural dimensions, controlling for per capita GDP, the 1990 baseline level of coverage, percent urban population, overall 1990-2012 change in improved sanitation (all technologies), and per capita freshwater resources. Separate analyses were carried out for the urban, rural, and aggregate national contexts. Hofstede's dimensions provide a measure of cross-cultural difference; high or low scores are not in any way intended to represent better or worse but rather serve as a quantitative way to compare aggregate preferences for ways of being and doing. High scores in the cultural dimensions of Power Distance, Individualism-Collectivism, and Uncertainty Avoidance explain increased access to piped-to-premises water infrastructure in the rural context. Higher Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance scores are also statistically significant for increased coverage in the urban and national aggregate contexts. These results indicate that, as presently conceived, piped-to-premises water infrastructure fits best with spatial contexts that prefer hierarchy and centralized control. Furthermore, water infrastructure is understood to reduce uncertainty regarding the provision of individually valued benefits. The results of this analysis identify global trends that enable engineers and policy makers to design and manage more culturally appropriate

  17. Development of nuclear power with respect to water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plainer, J.

    1982-01-01

    Discussed are the siting of nuclear power plants, the cooling of nuclear power plants, the environmental impacts of radioactive wastes and the provision of drinking water for nuclear power plant personnel. A power plant with a maximum capacity of 4x1000 MW is envisaged for any selected site. The cooling concept is based on water recirculation and the use of cooling towers. The envisaged need of cooling water is 0.9 to 1.3 l/s per 1 MW of power; non-recoverable water consumption is estimated at 0.7 to 1.0 l/s per 1 MW of power. The discharge of tritiated water and sewage water into surface waters is regulated by laws and regulations issued by the government of the Czech Socialist Republic. However, value criteria have not been determined for assessing the toxicity of radioactive substances for aquatic organisms and for disturbing the self-cleaning ability of water courses. For solid radioactive waste disposal the water management authority may set conditions with regard to local water conditions. The drinking water supply must be designed with regard to local conditions. The drinking water need is planned within the range of 5 to 10 l/s, in peak hours at 10 to 30 l/s. (J.P.)

  18. Development of emergency response plans for community water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All water services systems, irrespective of size, location etc., should have emergency response plans (ERPs) to guide officials, stakeholders and consumers through emergencies, as part of managing risks in the water supply system. Emergencies in the water supply system may result from, among other causes, natural ...

  19. Priority water research questions for South Africa developed through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a collaborative process of identifying and prioritising current and future water research questions from a wide range of water specialists within South Africa. Over 1 600 questions were collected, reduced in number and prioritised by specialists working in water research and practice. A total of 59 ...

  20. The Development of Water Management Institutions and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... in Mutengene town in the Southwest Region of Cameroon has not yielded significant ... The analysis of water policy gaps is done in section 4; followed by conclusions and ... and water supply network in the city of Nkongsamba (CNAY, ..... cases are the Mutengene and the Kumbo water schemes/projects.