Sample records for water dependence interim

  1. Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule Documents (United States)

    The IESWTR balances the need for treatment with potential increases in disinfection by -products. The materials found on this page are intended to assist public water systems and state in the implementation of the IESWTR.

  2. AES Water Architecture Study Interim Results (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.


    The mission of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) is to develop advanced water recovery systems in order to enable NASA human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO). The primary objective of the AES WRP is to develop water recovery technologies critical to near term missions beyond LEO. The secondary objective is to continue to advance mid-readiness level technologies to support future NASA missions. An effort is being undertaken to establish the architecture for the AES Water Recovery System (WRS) that meets both near and long term objectives. The resultant architecture will be used to guide future technical planning, establish a baseline development roadmap for technology infusion, and establish baseline assumptions for integrated ground and on-orbit environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) definition. This study is being performed in three phases. Phase I of this study established the scope of the study through definition of the mission requirements and constraints, as well as indentifying all possible WRS configurations that meet the mission requirements. Phase II of this study focused on the near term space exploration objectives by establishing an ISS-derived reference schematic for long-duration (>180 day) in-space habitation. Phase III will focus on the long term space exploration objectives, trading the viable WRS configurations identified in Phase I to identify the ideal exploration WRS. The results of Phases I and II are discussed in this paper.

  3. 75 FR 8412 - Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing Ground Water Flow and Transport of... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing Ground Water Flow and Transport of... Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) DC/COL-ISG-014 (Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS...

  4. Correlates of Nine-Month Retention following Interim Buprenorphine-Naloxone Treatment in Opioid Dependence: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Håkansson


    Full Text Available Interim medication-only treatment has been suggested for the initiation of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT in opioid-dependent subjects, but this rarely has been studied using buprenorphine instead of methadone. Following a pilot trial assessing interim buprenorphine-naloxone treatment in order to facilitate transfer into OMT, we here aimed to study retention, and potential correlates of retention, in full-scale treatment. Thirty-six patients successfully referred from a waiting list through an interim treatment phase were followed for nine months in OMT. Baseline characteristics, as well as urine analyses during the interim phase and during full-scale OMT, were studied as potential correlates of retention. The nine-month retention in OMT was 83 percent (n=30. While interim-phase urine samples positive for benzodiazepines did not significantly predict dropout from full-scale OMT (p=0.09, urine samples positive for benzodiazepines within full-scale OMT were significantly associated with dropout (p<0.01, in contrast to other substances and baseline characteristics. Retention remained high through nine months in this pilot study sample of patients referred through buprenorphine-naloxone interim treatment, but use of benzodiazepines is problematic, and the present data suggest that it may be associated with treatment dropout.

  5. An interim reference model for the variability of the middle atmosphere water vapor distribution (United States)

    Remsberg, E. E.; Russell, J. M., III; Wu, C.-Y.


    A reference model for the middle atmosphere water vapor distribution for some latitudes and seasons was developed using two data sets. One is the seven months of Nimbus LIMS data obtained during November 1978 to May 1979 over the range 64 deg S - 84 deg N latitude and from about 100-mb to 1-mb altitude, and the other is represented by water vapor profiles from 0.2 mb to 0.01 mb in the mid-mesosphere, measured on ground at several fixed mid-latitude sites in the Northern Hemisphere, using microwave-emission techniques. This model provides an interim water vapor profile for the entire vertical range of the middle atmosphere, with accuracies of better than 25 percent. The daily variability of stratospheric water vapor profiles about the monthly mean is demonstrated, and information is provided on the longitudinal variability of LIMS water vapor profiles about the daily, weekly, and monthly zonal means.

  6. Performance of ERA-Interim wave data in the nearshore waters around India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Naseef, T.M.

    1    Author version: J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., vol.32(6); 2015; 1257-1269 Performance of ERA-Interim wave data in the nearshore waters around India Sanil Kumar V*, Muhammed Naseef T Ocean Engineering, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography... (Council of Scientific & Industrial Research), Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004 India *Corresponding author: Tel: 0091 832 2450 327 Fax: 0091 832 2450 602 Email: Abstract Bulk wave parameters such as wave height and wave period are required...

  7. GPS water vapor and its comparison with radiosonde and ERA-Interim data in Algeria (United States)

    Namaoui, Houaria; Kahlouche, Salem; Belbachir, Ahmed Hafid; Van Malderen, Roeland; Brenot, Hugues; Pottiaux, Eric


    Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using global positioning system (GPS) data has become an effective tool in meteorology, weather forecasting and climate research. This paper presents the estimation of precipitable water (PW) from GPS observations and meteorological data in Algeria, over three stations located at Algiers, Bechar and Tamanrasset. The objective of this study is to analyze the sensitivity of the GPS PW estimates for the three sites to the weighted mean temperature ( T m), obtained separately from two types of T m- T s regression [one general, and one developed specifically for Algeria ( T s stands for surface temperature)], and calculated directly from ERA-Interim data. The results show that the differences in T m are of the order of 18 K, producing differences of 2.01 mm in the final evaluation of PW. A good agreement is found between GPS-PW and PW calculated from radiosondes, with a small mean difference with Vaisala radiosondes. A comparison between GPS and ERA-Interim shows a large difference (4 mm) in the highlands region. This difference is possibly due to the topography. These first results are encouraging, in particular for meteorological applications in this region, with good hope to extend our dataset analysis to a more complete, nationwide coverage over Algeria.

  8. 78 FR 56752 - Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors... (United States)


    ... activities associated with review of applications for ESPs, design certifications, and COLs by the Office of... comment on, draft Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) ESP/COL-ISG-027, ``Interim Staff Guidance Specific..., early site permits (ESPs), and combined licenses (COLs). DATES: Submit comments by October 15, 2013...

  9. Low-cost safe water for the world: a practical interim solution. (United States)

    Reiff, F M; Roses, M; Venczel, L; Quick, R; Witt, V M


    A very large segment of the world's population is without a microbiologically safe water supply. It is estimated that in Latin America more than 40% of the population is utilizing water of dubious quality for human consumption. This figure is probably even higher in Africa and areas of southeast Asia. Water used for drinking and food preparation can be an important route of transmission for many of the most widespread and debilitating of the diseases that afflict humans. The cholera pandemic which struck Latin America in January 1991, and has become endemic in many of the countries, continues to exemplify the public health significance of contaminated drinking water. Ideally, this neglected segment of the world's population should be served with piped water systems that provide a continuous supply of microbiologically safe water, but this would require such enormous investments of financial and human resources that it is not reasonable to expect that it will be accomplished. Interim practical measures to assure microbiologically safe water are necessary. The public health intervention to accomplish this is described in this paper and has an annual per family cost of which ranges between $1.50 and $4. It consists of providing individual households with one or preferably two suitable water containers in which to disinfect and store the essential quantities of water that need to be free of pathogens, with the containers of a design that will preclude recontamination of the contents and enable the production and distribution of the water disinfectants to be managed at the local level. It includes the necessary component of public education, promotion and involvement to establish the sustainability of the measures as a community-based endeavor. Investigation and demonstration projects are being carried out in II countries to determine and perfect and appropriate intervention, and it has been proven that it is economically, technically and socially feasible to assure

  10. Water from (waste)water--the dependable water resource. (United States)

    Asano, Takashi


    Water reclamation and reuse provides a unique and viable opportunity to augment traditional water supplies. As a multi-disciplined and important element of water resources development and management, water reuse can help to close the loop between water supply and wastewater disposal. Effective water reuse requires integration of water and reclaimed water supply functions. The successful development of this dependable water resource depends upon close examination and synthesis of elements from infrastructure and facilities planning, wastewater treatment plant siting, treatment process reliability, economic and financial analyses, and water utility management. In this paper, fundamental concepts of water reuse are discussed including definitions, historical developments, the role of water recycling in the hydrologic cycle, categories of water reuse, water quality criteria and regulatory requirements, and technological innovations for the safe use of reclaimed water. The paper emphasizes the integration of this alternative water supply into water resources planning, and the emergence of modern water reclamation and reuse practices from wastewater to reclaimed water to repurified water.

  11. Experimental study on the carcinogenic effect of tritiated water (HTO) in mice. An interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoro, Kenjiro; Yamamoto, Osamu; Kamiya, Kenji; Fujii, Yoshiaki; Numoto, Michitaka; Kinomura, Aiko


    A large-scale study of the long-term carcinogenic effect of tritiated water (HTO) has been performed in mice. This is the interime report on the results as of May 8, 1986. A total of 391 seven-week-old (C57BL/6N x C3H/He) Fl mice were intraperitoneally given 1.0 Ci/0.2 ml of HTO (3.75, 7.5, 15, or 20 mCi/mouse), in either single or fractionated manner. The incidence of leukemia was approximately five times higher in the group receiving a fractionated administration of 20 mCi than that receiving the same amount in a single manner, as was the latent period shorter. The incidence of solid tumors, unlike leukemia, was evidently higher in the group receiving a single administration of 15 mCi than that receiving 3.75 mCi four times. The latent period also tended to be short in the former group. The groups with higher amounts of HTO had slightly higher incidence of multiple primaries. The ovary was the most common site of tumor. Expression of an oncogene, N-ras, was frequently observed in the case of leukemia, fibrosarcoma, and tumors of the thyroid, ovary, and lung. (Namekawa, K.).

  12. Contingency interim measure for the public water supply at Barnes, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division


    This document presents a conceptual design for a contingency interim measure (IM) for treatment of the public water supply system at Barnes, Kansas, should this become necessary. The aquifer that serves the public water supply system at Barnes has been affected by trace to low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and its degradation product, chloroform. Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne 2008a) have demonstrated that groundwater at the Barnes site is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride at concentrations exceeding the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) formerly operated a grain storage facility in Barnes, approximately 800 ft east-southeast of the public water supply wells. Carbon tetrachloride was used in the treatment of grain. Another potential source identified in an investigation conducted for the KDHE (PRC 1996) is the site of a former agriculture building owned by the local school district (USD 223). This building is located immediately east of well PWS3. The potential contingency IM options evaluated in this report include the treatment of groundwater at the public water supply wellheads and the provision of an alternate water supply via Washington County Rural Water District No.2 (RWD 2). This document was developed in accordance with KDHE Bureau of Environmental Remediation (BER) Policy No.BER-RS-029 (Revised) (KDHE 2006a), supplemented by guidance from the KDHE project manager. Upon the approval of this contingency IM conceptual design by the KDHE, the CCC/USDA will prepare a treatment system design document that will contain the following elements: (1) Description of the approved contingency IM treatment method; (2) Drawings and/or schematics provided by the contractor and/or manufacturer of the approved technology; (3) A

  13. Decadal variations in atmospheric water vapor time series estimated using GNSS, ERA-Interim, and synoptic data (United States)

    Alshawaf, Fadwa; Dick, Galina; Heise, Stefan; Balidakis, Kyriakos; Schmidt, Torsten; Wickert, Jens


    Ground-based GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) have efficiently been used since the 1990s as a meteorological observing system. Recently scientists used GNSS time series of precipitable water vapor (PWV) for climate research although they may not be sufficiently long. In this work, we compare the trend estimated from GNSS time series with that estimated from European Center for Medium-RangeWeather Forecasts Reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data and meteorological measurements.We aim at evaluating climate evolution in Central Europe by monitoring different atmospheric variables such as temperature and PWV. PWV time series were obtained by three methods: 1) estimated from ground-based GNSS observations using the method of precise point positioning, 2) inferred from ERA-Interim data, and 3) determined based on daily surface measurements of temperature and relative humidity. The other variables are available from surface meteorological stations or received from ERA-Interim. The PWV trend component estimated from GNSS data strongly correlates (>70%) with that estimated from the other data sets. The linear trend is estimated by straight line fitting over 30 years of seasonally-adjusted PWV time series obtained using the meteorological measurements. The results show a positive trend in the PWV time series with an increase of 0.2-0.7 mm/decade with a mean standard deviations of 0.016 mm/decade. In this paper, we present the results at three GNSS stations. The temporal increment of the PWV correlates with the temporal increase in the temperature levels.

  14. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.


    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Interim Guidance for the Sanitary Control and Surveillance of Field Water Supplies (United States)


    contract Campylobacteriosis are at risk of developing sepsis. In some cases, infection leads to Guillain - Barre syndrome which is a temporary paralysis...Microtox is a registered trademark of Strategic Diagnostics Inc., Newark, Delaware. Interim Guidance Pending Publication of TBMED 577 15 July

  16. Measurement station for interim inspections of Lightbridge metallic fuel rods at the Halden Boiling Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann C.


    Full Text Available Lightbridge Corporation has developed a new Uranium-Zirconium based metallic fuel. The fuel rods aremanufactured via a co-extrusion process, and are characterized by their multi-lobed (cruciform-shaped cross section. The fuel rods are also helically-twisted in the axial direction. Two experimental fuel assemblies, each containing four Lightbridge fuel rods, are scheduled to be irradiated in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR starting in 2018. In addition to on-line monitoring of fuel rod elongation and critical assembly conditions (e.g. power, flow rates, coolant temperatures, etc. during the irradiation, several key parameters of the fuel will be measured out-of-core during interim inspections. An inspection measurement station for use in the irradiated fuel handling compartment at the HBWR has therefore been developed for this purpose. The multi-lobed cladding cross section combined with the spiral shape of the Lightbridge metallic fuel rods requires a high-precision guiding system to ensure good position repeatability combined with low-friction guiding. The measurement station is equipped with a combination of instruments and equipment supplied from third-party vendors and instruments and equipment developed at Institute for Energy Technology (IFE. Two sets of floating linear voltage differential transformer (LVDT pairs are used to measure swelling and diameter changes between the lobes and the valleys over the length of the fuel rods. Eddy current probes are used to measure the thickness of oxide layers in the valleys and on the lobe tips and also to detect possible surface cracks/pores. The measurement station also accommodates gamma scans. Additionally, an eddy-current probe has been developed at IFE specifically to detect potential gaps or discontinuities in the bonding layer between the metallic fuel and the Zirconium alloy cladding. Potential gaps in the bonding layer will be hidden behind a 0.5-1.0 mm thick cladding wall. It has

  17. Measurement station for interim inspections of Lightbridge metallic fuel rods at the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (United States)

    Hartmann, C.; Totemeier, A.; Holcombe, S.; Liverud, J.; Limi, M.; Hansen, J. E.; Navestad, E. AB(; )


    Lightbridge Corporation has developed a new Uranium-Zirconium based metallic fuel. The fuel rods aremanufactured via a co-extrusion process, and are characterized by their multi-lobed (cruciform-shaped) cross section. The fuel rods are also helically-twisted in the axial direction. Two experimental fuel assemblies, each containing four Lightbridge fuel rods, are scheduled to be irradiated in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) starting in 2018. In addition to on-line monitoring of fuel rod elongation and critical assembly conditions (e.g. power, flow rates, coolant temperatures, etc.) during the irradiation, several key parameters of the fuel will be measured out-of-core during interim inspections. An inspection measurement station for use in the irradiated fuel handling compartment at the HBWR has therefore been developed for this purpose. The multi-lobed cladding cross section combined with the spiral shape of the Lightbridge metallic fuel rods requires a high-precision guiding system to ensure good position repeatability combined with low-friction guiding. The measurement station is equipped with a combination of instruments and equipment supplied from third-party vendors and instruments and equipment developed at Institute for Energy Technology (IFE). Two sets of floating linear voltage differential transformer (LVDT) pairs are used to measure swelling and diameter changes between the lobes and the valleys over the length of the fuel rods. Eddy current probes are used to measure the thickness of oxide layers in the valleys and on the lobe tips and also to detect possible surface cracks/pores. The measurement station also accommodates gamma scans. Additionally, an eddy-current probe has been developed at IFE specifically to detect potential gaps or discontinuities in the bonding layer between the metallic fuel and the Zirconium alloy cladding. Potential gaps in the bonding layer will be hidden behind a 0.5-1.0 mm thick cladding wall. It has therefore been

  18. An interim reference model for the middle atmosphere water vapor distribution (United States)

    Russell, J. M., III


    Nimbus 7 LIMS data are used to determine monthly and seasonal zonal mean reference stratospheric profiles over selected latitude bands, and other ground and airborne microwave data are combined with the LIMS data to construct an interim reference profile from the tropopause to 80 km for the midlatitude region averaged over the winter and spring periods. The present profiles indicate the presence of a hygropause near 50 mb pressure in the tropics, a relatively constant mixing ratio distribution with a height of 4.7-5 ppmv in the midlatitude and high latitude stratosphere, and a decrease in the midlatitude mesosphere to 1 ppmv at about 80 km.

  19. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, B.N.; Dudziak, S.


    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Performance and economic evaluation of the seahorse natural gas hot water heater conversion at Fort Stewart. Interim report, 1994 Summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, D.W.


    The federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE laboratories that participate in the New Technologies Demonstration Program, providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied under that program. This interim report provides the results of a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology-a hot water heater conversion system to convert electrically heated hot water tanks to natural gas fuel. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Stewart, a US Army base in Georgia, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were Gas Fired Products, developers of the technology; the Public Service Company of North Carolina; Atlanta Gas Light Company; the Army Corps of Engineers; Fort Stewart; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

  1. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence (United States)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  2. LMFBR large valve development. Task II. IHTS isolation valve internals water test. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, L.; Perschler, J.


    The purpose of this program was to perform proof-of-principle (POP) testing in water of a reduced bore rotating offset ball valve as required by AEC Contract No. AT(04-3)-1035. The water POP test article is shown on AMCO Drawing 16-E-4020, Sheets 1 through 4, dated 3-18-74. This report presents the water flow test results and the leakage results for one of the three seal designs.

  3. Biofilm formation and control in a simulated spacecraft water system - Interim results (United States)

    Schultz, John R.; Taylor, Robert D.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.; Brown, Harlan D.; Sauer, Richard L.


    The ability of iodine to control microbial contamination and biofilm formation in spacecraft water distribution systems is studied using two stainless steel water subsystems. One subsystem has an iodine level of 2.5 mg/L maintained by an iodinated ion-exchange resin. The other subsystem has no iodine added. Stainless steel coupons are removed from each system to monitor biofilm formation. Results from the first six months of operation indicate that 2.5 mg/L of iodine has limited the number of viable bacteria that can be recovered from the iodinated subsystem. Epifluorescence microscopy of the coupons taken from this subsystem, however, indicates some evidence of microbial colonization after 15 weeks of operation. Numerous bacteria have been continually removed from both the water samples and the coupons taken from the noniodinated subsystem after only 3 weeks of operation.

  4. Escherichia coli survival in waters: temperature dependence. (United States)

    Blaustein, R A; Pachepsky, Y; Hill, R L; Shelton, D R; Whelan, G


    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q₁₀ model. This suggestion was made 34 years ago based on 20 survival curves taken from published literature, but has not been revisited since then. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the accuracy of the Q₁₀ equation, utilizing data accumulated since 1978. We assembled a database of 450 E. coli survival datasets from 70 peer-reviewed papers. We then focused on the 170 curves taken from experiments that were performed in the laboratory under dark conditions to exclude the effects of sunlight and other field factors that could cause additional variability in results. All datasets were tabulated dependencies "log concentration vs. time." There were three major patterns of inactivation: about half of the datasets had a section of fast log-linear inactivation followed by a section of slow log-linear inactivation; about a quarter of the datasets had a lag period followed by log-linear inactivation; and the remaining quarter were approximately linear throughout. First-order inactivation rate constants were calculated from the linear sections of all survival curves and the data grouped by water sources, including waters of agricultural origin, pristine water sources, groundwater and wells, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, estuaries and seawater, and wastewater. Dependency of E. coli inactivation rates on temperature varied among the water sources. There was a significant difference in inactivation rate values at the reference temperature between rivers and agricultural waters, wastewaters and agricultural waters, rivers and lakes, and wastewater and lakes. At specific sites, the Q₁₀ equation was more accurate in rivers and coastal waters than in lakes making the value of

  5. 75 FR 27121 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent... (United States)


    ... Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent Coverage of Children to Age 26 Under the... and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent Coverage of Children to Age 26 Under the Patient... implementing the requirements for group health plans and health insurance issuers in the group and individual...

  6. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Interim Report summarizes the research and development activities of the Superconducting Super Collider project carried out from the completion of the Reference Designs Study (May 1984) to June 1985. It was prepared by the SSC Central Design Group in draft form on the occasion of the DOE Annual Review, June 19--21, 1985. Now largely organized by CDG Divisions, the bulk of each chapter documents the progress and accomplishments to date, while the final section(s) describe plans for future work. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides a basic brief description of the SSC, its physics justification, its origins, and the R&D organization set up to carry out the work. Chapter 2 gives a summary of the main results of the R&D program, the tasks assigned to the four magnet R&D centers, and an overview of the future plans. The reader wishing a quick look at the SSC Phase I effort can skim Chapter 1 and read Chapter 2. Subsequent chapters discuss in more detail the activities on accelerator physics, accelerator systems, magnets and cryostats, injector, detector R&D, conventional facilities, and project planning and management. The magnet chapter (5) documents in text and photographs the impressive progress in successful construction of many model magnets, the development of cryostats with low heat leaks, and the improvement in current-carrying capacity of superconducting strand. Chapter 9 contains the budgets and schedules of the COG Divisions, the overall R&D program, including the laboratories, and also preliminary projections for construction. Appendices provide information on the various panels, task forces and workshops held by the CDG in FY 1985, a bibliography of COG and Laboratory reports on SSC and SSC-related work, and on private industrial involvement in the project.

  7. Life depends upon two kinds of water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Wiggins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many well-documented biochemical processes lack a molecular mechanism. Examples are: how ATP hydrolysis and an enzyme contrive to perform work, such as active transport; how peptides are formed from amino acids and DNA from nucleotides; how proteases cleave peptide bonds, how bone mineralses; how enzymes distinguish between sodium and potassium; how chirality of biopolymers was established prebiotically. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: It is shown that involvement of water in all these processes is mandatory, but the water must be of the simplified configuration in which there are only two strengths of water-water hydrogen bonds, and in which these two types of water coexist as microdomains throughout the liquid temperature range. Since they have different strengths of hydrogen bonds, the microdomains differ in all their physical and chemical properties. Solutes partition asymmetrically, generating osmotic pressure gradients which must be compensated for or abolished. Displacement of the equilibrium between high and low density waters incurs a thermodynamic cost which limits solubility, depresses ionisation of water, drives protein folding and prevents high density water from boiling at its intrinsic boiling point which appears to be below 0 degrees C. Active processes in biochemistry take place in sequential partial reactions, most of which release small amounts of free energy as heat. This ensures that the system is never far from equilibrium so that efficiency is extremely high. Energy transduction is neither possible and nor necessary. Chirality was probably established in prebiotic clays which must have carried stable populations of high density and low density water domains. Bioactive enantiomorphs partition into low density water in which they polymerise spontaneously. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The simplified model of water has great explanatory power.

  8. The Intentional Interim (United States)

    Nugent, Patricia A.


    The author spent years in central-office administration, most recently in an interim position. Some interim administrators simply see themselves as placeholders until the real deal is hired, giving the organization the opportunity to coast. There are others who see themselves as change agents and cannot wait to undo or redo what their predecessor…

  9. Towards Sustainable Water Management in a Country that Faces Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: Jordan (United States)

    Schyns, J.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Schyns, M.


    Jordan faces a great variety of water-related challenges: domestic water resources are scarce and polluted; the sharing of transboundary waters has led to tensions and conflicts; and Jordan is extremely dependent of foreign water resources through trade. Therefore, sustainable water management in Jordan is a challenging task, which has not yet been accomplished. The objective of this study was to analyse Jordan's domestic water scarcity and pollution and the country's external water dependency, and subsequently review sustainable solutions that reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. We have estimated the green, blue and grey water footprint of five different sectors in Jordan: crop production, grazing, animal water supply, industrial production and domestic water supply. Next, we assessed the blue water scarcity ratio for the sum of surface- and groundwater and for groundwater separately, and calculated the water pollution level. Finally, we reviewed the sustainability of proposed solutions to Jordan's domestic water problems and external water dependency in literature, while involving the results and conclusions from our analysis. We have quantified that: even while taking into account the return flows, blue water scarcity in Jordan is severe; groundwater consumption is nearly double the sustainable yield; water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity; and Jordan's external virtual water dependency is 86%. Our review yields ten essential ingredients that a sustainable water management strategy for Jordan, that reduces the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency, should involve. With respect to these, Jordan's current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Especially, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption patterns of Jordan consumers. Moreover, exploitation of fossil groundwater should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful

  10. Advantages on dry interim storage for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rzyski, B.M. [IPEN/ CNEN-SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail:


    When the nuclear fuel lose its ability to efficiently create energy it is removed from the core reactor and moved to a storage unit waiting for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside concrete basins with water within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. Water cools the generated heat and shields radioactivity emissions. After some period of time in water basins the SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing installations, or still wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. In many SNF wet storage sites the capacity can be fulfilled very quickly. If so, additional area or other alternative storage system should be given. There are many options to provide capacity increase in the wet storage area, but dry storages are worldwide preferred since it reduces corrosion concerns. In the wet storage the temperature and water purity should be constantly controlled whereas in the dry storage the SNF stands protected in specially designed canisters. Dry interim storages are practical and approved in many countries especially that have the 'wait and see' philosophy (wait to see new technologies development). This paper shows the advantages of dry interim storages sites in comparison with the wet ones and the nowadays problems as terrorism. (Author)

  11. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management in Cazenovia Creek Watershed. (United States)


    maniculatus deermouse Peromyscus leveopus woodmouse Synaptomys cooperi lemming mouse Clethrionouys aperi red-backed mouse Microtus pennsulvanicus field...deposits contrast with the relatively uniform nature of the bedrock geology. Surficial geology exerts a strong influence on groundwater behavior in the study...2.48 Groundwater behavior in the unconsolidated deposits of the study area is extremely variable and has been documented by the New York State Water

  12. Liquid and ice water content in clouds and their variability with temperature in Africa based on ERA-Interim, JRA-55, MERRA and ISCCP (United States)

    Ntwali, Didier; Mugisha, Emmy; Vuguziga, Floribert; Kakpa, Didier


    This study presents seasonal vertical structure from 1000 to 100 hPa of liquid water content (LWC) and ice water content (IWC) and investigates their variability with temperature in Africa from climatological perspective. Both LWC and IWC may increase or decrease with temperature by season and by region. We compared vertical distribution of LWC and IWC from ERA-Interim, JRA-55 and MERRA reanalysis to the distribution of cloud types from ISCCP and we found that cloud type with highest liquid content is Stratocumulus (Sc) in JJA for both East of Africa (13.3 %) and West of Africa (19.3 %) while Cumulus (Cu) in MAM for both South of Africa (8.6 %) and North of Africa (13.5 %). Cirrus (Ci) is the most frequent cloud with ice with 24.6 % presence in East Africa, 20.4 % in West Africa, 7.2 % in North Africa during MAM and 21.3 % in South Africa during SON. The LWC exists below 400 hPa for both ERA-I and JRA-55, whereas below 200 hPa based on MERRA in all regions of Africa. The IWC exists above 600 hPa for both East and West Africa, above 800 hPa in South Africa and above 900 hPa in North Africa for both ERA-I and JRA-55, whereas above 500 hPa in both East and West of Africa, above 800 hPa in South of Africa and above 850 hPa in North of Africa based on MERRA. The ERA-I, JRA-55 and MERRA are in agreement in low and mid troposphere while in upper troposphere only ERA-I and JRA-55 are in agreement. The MERRA disagrees with ERA-I and JRA-55 in the upper troposphere. The difference of LWC and IWC seasonal vertical distribution in Africa is due to different climatic features between tropic regions and subtropic regions. All three reanalyses show the LWC and IWC between -22.7 and 1.6 °C over Africa. The coexistence temperature between LWC and IWC may be useful to estimate the temperature at which there are the supercooled liquid water and mixed clouds. The ERA-I and JRA-55 may be good proxies in precipitation and cloud monitoring in regions with a lack of in situ observations

  13. Medicare program; extension of the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals and the Medicare-dependent hospital (MDH) program under the hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for acute care hospitals for fiscal year 2014. Interim final rule with comment period. (United States)


    This interim final rule with comment period implements changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals and to the Medicare-dependent hospital (MDH) program under the hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for FY 2014 (through March 31, 2014) in accordance with sections 1105 and 1106, respectively, of the Pathway for SGR Reform Act of 2013.

  14. CMM Interim Check (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length. Unfortunately, several nonconformance reports have been generated to document the discovery of a certified machine found out of tolerance during a calibration closeout. In an effort to reduce risk to product quality two solutions were proposed – shorten the calibration cycle which could be costly, or perform an interim check to monitor the machine’s performance between cycles. The CMM interim check discussed makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge. This off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. Data was gathered, analyzed, and simulated from seven machines in seventeen different configurations to create statistical process control run charts for on-the-floor monitoring.

  15. The dependence of water potential in shoots of Picea abies on air and soil water status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sellin

    Full Text Available Where there is sufficient water storage in the soil the water potential (Ψx in shoots of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] is strongly governed by the vapour pressure deficit of the atmosphere, while the mean minimum values of Ψx usually do not drop below –1.5 MPa under meteorological conditions in Estonia. If the base water potential (Ψb is above –0.62 MPa, the principal factor causing water deficiency in shoots of P. abies may be either limited soil water reserves or atmospheric evaporative demand depending on the current level of the vapour pressure deficit. As the soil dries the stomatal control becomes more efficient in preventing water losses from the foliage, and the leaf water status, in turn, less sensitive to atmospheric demand. Under drought conditions, if Ψb falls below –0.62 MPa, the trees' water stress is mainly caused by low soil water availability. Further declines in the shoot water potential (below –1.5 MPa can be attributed primarily to further decreases in the soil water, i.e. to the static water stress.Key words. Hydrology (evapotranspiration · plant ecology · soil moisture.

  16. Interim storage study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, J.K.


    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  17. Mechanism of Concentration Dependence of Water Diffusivity in Polyacrylate Gels (United States)

    Mani, Sriramvignesh; Khabaz, Fardin; Khare, Rajesh

    Membrane based separation processes offer an energy efficient alternative to traditional distillation based separation processes. In this work, we focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of separation of dilute ethanol-water mixture using polyacrylate gels as pervaporation membranes. The diffusivities of the components in swollen gels exhibit concentration dependence. We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the correlation between the dynamics of solvent (water and ethanol) molecules, polymer dynamics and solvent structure in the swollen gel systems as a function of solvent concentration. Three different polyacrylate gels were studied: (1) poly n-butyl acrylate (PBA), (2) copolymer of butyl acrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate P(BA50-HEA50), and (3) poly 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (PHEA). Simulation results show that solvent concentration has a significant effect on local structure of the solvent molecules and chain dynamics; these factors (local structure and chain dynamics), in turn, affect the diffusivity of these molecules. At low concentration, solvent molecules are well dispersed in the gel matrix and form hydrogen bonds with the polymer. Solvent mobility is correlated with polymer mobility in this configuration and consequently water and ethanol molecules exhibit slower dynamics, this effect is especially significant in PHEA gel. At high solvent concentration, water molecules form large clusters in the system accompanied by enhancement in mobility of both the gel network and the solvent molecules.

  18. Rate dependence of dry, oil- or water-saturated chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Al-Alwan, A.

    The rate dependence of dry, oil- or water-saturated high-porosity outcrop chalk is investigated based on whether the fluid effect could be excluded from a governing material parameter, the b-factor. The b-factor is used in geotechnical engineering to establish the difference in evolution of load...... between stress-strain curves when applying different loading rates. The material investigated is outcrop chalk from Stevns, Southern part of Denmark, with a porosity of 43 to 44% and subjected to varying loading rates. The Biot critical frequency is a function of the fluid properties viscosity and density...

  19. Air-water partitioning of 222Rn and its dependence on water temperature and salinity. (United States)

    Schubert, Michael; Paschke, Albrecht; Lieberman, Eric; Burnett, William C


    Radon is useful as a tracer of certain geophysical processes in marine and aquatic environments. Recent applications include detection of groundwater discharges into surface waters and assessment of air/sea gas piston velocities. Much of the research performed in the past decade has relied on continuous measurements made in the field using a radon stripping unit connected to a radon-in-air detection system. This approach assumes that chemical equilibrium is attained between the water and gas phases and that the resulting air activity can be multiplied by a partition coefficient to obtain the corresponding radon-in-water activity. We report here the results of a series of laboratory experiments that describes the dependence of the partition coefficient upon both water temperature and salinity. Our results show that the temperature dependence for freshwater closely matches results that were previously available. The salinity effect, however, has largely been ignored and our results show that this can result in an overestimation of radon concentrations, especially in cooler, more saline waters. Related overestimates in typical situations range between 10 (warmer less saline waters) and 20% (cooler, more saline waters).

  20. Geometry-dependent atomic multipole models for the water molecule. (United States)

    Loboda, O; Millot, C


    Models of atomic electric multipoles for the water molecule have been optimized in order to reproduce the electric potential around the molecule computed by ab initio calculations at the coupled cluster level of theory with up to noniterative triple excitations in an augmented triple-zeta quality basis set. Different models of increasing complexity, from atomic charges up to models containing atomic charges, dipoles, and quadrupoles, have been obtained. The geometry dependence of these atomic multipole models has been investigated by changing bond lengths and HOH angle to generate 125 molecular structures (reduced to 75 symmetry-unique ones). For several models, the atomic multipole components have been fitted as a function of the geometry by a Taylor series of fourth order in monomer coordinate displacements.

  1. Preventive maintenance study : interim report. (United States)


    This interim report details the performance of 69 test sites treated with various preventive maintenance treatments. The maintenance treatments applied included crack sealing, full lane chip sealing, wheel path chip sealing, dig outs (mill and fill),...

  2. Mitigating the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency: the case of Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Joseph Franciscus; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Schyns, M.


    Jordan faces great internal water scarcity and pollution, conflict over trans-boundary waters, and strong dependency on external water resources through trade. This paper analyzes these issues and subsequently reviews options to reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. Based on

  3. Anomalous dependence of the heat capacity of supercooled water on pressure and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Stepanov


    Full Text Available In some papers, dependences of the isobaric heat capacity of water versus pressure and temperature were obtained. It is shown that these dependences contradict both the dependence of heat capacity on temperature for supercooled water, and an important thermodynamic equation for the dependence of heat capacity on pressure. A possible explanation for this contradiction is proposed.

  4. Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, Dan; Blake, John, I.


    This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.

  5. Study of pH-dependent drugs solubility in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pobudkowska A.


    Full Text Available The solubilities of five sparingly soluble drug-compounds in water have been measured at constant temperatures (298.1K and 310.1K by the classical saturation shake-flask method. All substances presented in this work are derivatives of anthranilic acid: flufenamic acid, (FLU, mefenamic acid, (MEF, niflumic acid, (NIF, diclofenac sodium, (DIC, and meclofenamic sodium, (MEC. All of them have anti-inflammatory action. Since the aqueous solubility of the ionized drug is significantly higher than the unionized, the experimental conditions that affect equilibrium solubility values such as composition of aqueous buffer have been examined. The Henderson-Hasselbalch (HH relationship has been used to predict the pH-dependent solubility profiles of chosen drugs at two temperatures. For this purpose the pKa values of the investigated drugs have been determined with Bates-Schwarzenbach spectrophotometric method at temperature 310.1 K. At temperature 298.1K these values were reported earlier. Similar values of pKa were obtained from the solubility measurements.

  6. Interim Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, S.; Goswami, S.; Berg, J.S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Souchlas, N.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Benedetto, E.; Fernandez-Martinez, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Martini, M.; Prior, G.; Ballett, P.; Pascoli, S.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Kopp, J.; Mokhov, N.; Morfin, J.; Neuffer, D.; Parke, S.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Blondel, A.; Dufour, F.; Laing, A.; Soler, F.J.P; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Dornan, P.; Eccleston, R.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Bogacz, A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Bhattacharya, S.; Majumdar, D.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Zisman, M.; Cline, D.; Stratakis, D.; Ding, X.; Coloma, P.; Donini, A.; Gavela, B.; Lopez Pavon, J.; Maltoni, M.; Bromberg, C.; Bonesini, M.; Hart, T.; Kudenko, Y.; Mondal, N.; Antusch, S.; Blennow, M.; Ota, T.; Abrams, R.J.; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Beard, K.B.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Roberts, T.J.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; Migliozzi, P.; Palladino, V.; de Gouvea, A.; Graves, V.B.; Kuno, Y.; Peltoniemi, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Witte, H.; Mezzetto, M.; Rigolin, S.; McDonald, K.T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.; Snopok, P.; Tortora, L.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J.R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, R.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Thomason, J.W.G.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Samulyak, R.; Mishra, S.R.; Petti, R.; Dracos, M.; Yasuda, O.; Agarwalla, S.K.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hernandez, P.; Li, T.; Martin-Albo, J.; Huber, P.; Back, J.; Barker, G.; Harrison, P.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.


    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was established by the community at the ninth "International Workshop on Neutrino Factories, super-beams, and beta- beams" which was held in Okayama in August 2007. The IDS-NF mandate is to deliver the Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility on the timescale of 2012/13. In addition, the mandate for the study [3] requires an Interim Design Report to be delivered midway through the project as a step on the way to the RDR. This document, the IDR, has two functions: it marks the point in the IDS-NF at which the emphasis turns to the engineering studies required to deliver the RDR and it documents baseline concepts for the accelerator complex, the neutrino detectors, and the instrumentation systems. The IDS-NF is, in essence, a site-independent study. Example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL, have been identified to allow site-specific issues to be addressed in the cost analysis that will be presented in the RDR. The choice of example sites shou...

  7. A review of proposed Glen Canyon Dam interim operating criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Tomasko, D.; Hayse, J.; Durham, L.


    Three sets of interim operating criteria for Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River have been proposed for the period of November 1991, to the completion of the record of decision for the Glen Canyon Dam environmental impact statement (about 1993). These criteria set specific limits on dam releases, including maximum and minimum flows, up-ramp and down-ramp rates, and maximum daily fluctuation. Under the proposed interim criteria, all of these parameters would be reduced relative to historical operating criteria to protect downstream natural resources, including sediment deposits, threatened and endangered fishes, trout, the aquatic food base, and riparian plant communities. The scientific bases of the three sets of proposed operating criteria are evaluated in the present report:(1) criteria proposed by the Research/Scientific Group, associated with the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES); (2) criteria proposed state and federal officials charged with managing downstream resources; and (3) test criteria imposed from July 1991, to November 1991. Data from Phase 1 of the GCES and other sources established that the targeted natural resources are affected by dam operations, but the specific interim criteria chosen were not supported by any existing studies. It is unlikely that irreversible changes to any of the resources would occur over the interim period if historical operating criteria remained in place. It is likely that adoption of any of the sets of proposed interim operating criteria would reduce the levels of sediment transport and erosion below Glen Canyon Dam; however, these interim criteria could result in some adverse effects, including the accumulation of debris at tributary mouths, a shift of new high-water-zone vegetation into more flood-prone areas, and further declines in vegetation in the old high water zone.

  8. Analysis of key thresholds leading to upstream dependencies in global transboundary water bodies (United States)

    Munia, Hafsa Ahmed; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti; Mirumachi, Naho; Wada, Yoshihide


    Transboundary water bodies supply 60% of global fresh water flow and are home to about 1/3 of the world's population; creating hydrological, social and economic interdependencies between countries. Trade-offs between water users are delimited by certain thresholds, that, when crossed, result in changes in system behavior, often related to undesirable impacts. A wide variety of thresholds are potentially related to water availability and scarcity. Scarcity can occur because of the country's own water use, and that is potentially intensified by upstream water use. In general, increased water scarcity escalates the reliance on shared water resources, which increases interdependencies between riparian states. In this paper the upstream dependencies of global transboundary river basins are examined at the scale of sub-basin areas. We aim to assess how upstream water withdrawals cause changes in the scarcity categories, such that crossing thresholds is interpreted in terms of downstream dependency on upstream water availability. The thresholds are defined for different types of water availability on which a sub-basin relies: - reliable local runoff (available even in a dry year), - less reliable local water (available in the wet year), - reliable dry year inflows from possible upstream area, and - less reliable wet year inflows from upstream. Possible upstream withdrawals reduce available water downstream, influencing the latter two water availabilities. Upstream dependencies have then been categorized by comparing a sub-basin's scarcity category across different water availability types. When population (or water consumption) grows, the sub-basin satisfies its needs using less reliable water. Thus, the factors affecting the type of water availability being used are different not only for each type of dependency category, but also possibly for every sub- basin. Our results show that, in the case of stress (impacts from high use of water), in 104 (12%) sub- basins out of

  9. 32 CFR 776.82 - Interim suspension. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim suspension. 776.82 Section 776.82... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.82 Interim suspension. (a) Where the Rules Counsel determines there is... interim suspension, pending completion of a professional responsibility investigation. The covered...

  10. 22 CFR 127.8 - Interim suspension. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim suspension. 127.8 Section 127.8 Foreign... Interim suspension. (a) The Managing Director of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls or the Director of the Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance is authorized to order the interim suspension of...

  11. Filled and empty states of carbon nanotubes in water: Dependence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have carried out a series of molecular dynamics simulations of water containing a narrow carbon nanotube as a solute to investigate the filling and emptying of the nanotube and also the modifications of the density and hydrogen bond distributions of water inside and also in the vicinity of the outer surfaces of the ...

  12. Dependency of water concentration on ethanolysis of trioleoylglycerol by lipases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piyatheerawong, W.; Iwasaki, Y; Xu, Xuebing


    ) exhibited both the highest product yield and the reaction rate at very low (less than 1 wt.%) free water concentration. Its catalytic activity did not drop even in dry state, i.e. in the system of dry CALB in dry ethanol (water concentration was ca. 0.1 wt.%). In contrast, other three immobilized lipases......The effects of water concentration on ethanolysis of trioleoylglycerol catalyzed by four different lipases were studied. The target product of the ethanolysis was 2-monooleoylglycerol (2-MO). Novozym 435 (a commercially available preparation of immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B, CALB...... tested (Rhizomucor miehei lipase, Burkholderia cepacia lipase and Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase) required larger amounts of free water (ca. 7-9 wt.%) for their best performance and exhibited no ethanolysis reaction at low free water concentrations. The CALB's anomalous behavior was also observed...

  13. Analysis of the diversity of water kefir microbiota by culture-dependent and -independent approaches


    Gulitz, Anna Jana


    Water kefir is a traditional fermented beverage based on a sucrose solution with different dried fruits. In this work the microbiome of water kefir and the dynamic of the water kefir consortium depending on the cultivation conditions was analyzed by culture-dependent and –independent methods. Microorganisms important for the water kefir grain formation and for the typical beverage characteristics were identified. The most abundant species were Lactobacillus nagelii, Lb. hordei, Leuconostoc me...

  14. Interim Report on Feasibility of Improving Recreation Access and Related Water and Land Management in the Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York. (United States)


    the lake and, due to the poor water quality of the canal, further degrades lake waters. In the early history of Delaware Park, the lake was a great...horseshoe pits. and tennis or badminton net posts should be Installed so that they cam be removed quickly to allow proper functioning of the floodway. 46/234

  15. Mitigating the Risk of Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: The Case of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep F. Schyns


    Full Text Available Jordan faces great internal water scarcity and pollution, conflict over trans-boundary waters, and strong dependency on external water resources through trade. This paper analyzes these issues and subsequently reviews options to reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. Based on estimates of water footprint, water availability, and virtual water trade, we find that groundwater consumption is nearly double the groundwater availability, water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity, and Jordan’s external virtual water import dependency is 86%. The review of response options yields 10 ingredients for a strategy for Jordan to mitigate the risks of extreme water scarcity and dependency. With respect to these ingredients, Jordan’s current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Actual implementation of the plans in the national water strategy (against existing oppositions would be a first step. However, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption pattern of Jordanian consumers. Moreover, unsustainable exploitation of the fossil Disi aquifer should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful consideration regarding the sustainability of their energy supply.

  16. Efficiency and temperature dependence of water removal by membrane dryers (United States)

    Leckrone, K. J.; Hayes, J. M.


    The vapor pressure of water in equilibrium with sorption sites within a Nafion membrane is given by log P(WN) = -3580/T + 10.01, where P(WN) is expressed in Torr and T is the membrane temperature, in kelvin. The efficiency of dryers based on selective permeation of water through Nafion can thus be enhanced by cooling the membrane. Residual water in effluents exceeds equilibrium levels if insufficient time is allowed for water to diffuse to the membrane surface as gas passes through the dryer. For tubular configurations, this limitation can be avoided if L > or = Fc(10(3.8)/120 pi D), where L is the length of the tubular membrane, in centimeters, Fc is the gas flow rate, in mL/ min, and D is the diffusion coefficient for water in the carrier gas at the operating temperature of the dryer, in cm2/s. An efficient dryer that at room temperature dries gas to a dew point of -61 degrees C is described; the same dryer maintained at 0 degrees C yields a dew point of -80 degrees C and removes water as effectively as Mg(ClO4)2 or a dry ice/acetone slush. The use of Nafion membranes to construct devices capable of delivering gas streams with low but precisely controlled humidities is discussed.

  17. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden (United States)

    Favalli, A.; Vo, D.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S. J.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.


    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)-Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity's behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  18. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, A., E-mail: [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vo, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grogan, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jansson, P. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Liljenfeldt, H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mozin, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Schwalbach, P. [European Commission, DG Energy, Euratom Safeguards Luxemburg, Luxemburg (Luxembourg); Sjöland, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Stockholm (Sweden); Tobin, S.J.; Trellue, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vaccaro, S. [European Commission, DG Energy, Euratom Safeguards Luxemburg, Luxemburg (Luxembourg)


    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)–Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute {sup 137}Cs count rate and the {sup 154}Eu/{sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs, {sup 106}Ru/{sup 137}Cs, and {sup 144}Ce/{sup 137}Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity’s behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  19. Surface-structure dependence of water-related adsorbates on platinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badan, C.


    Today, the energy sector is highly dependent on heterogeneous catalysis because a future solution to end our dependency on natural sources lies in generating hydrogen by splitting water. Several transition metals, such as Pt, are known to be good catalyst materials for water splitting reactions.

  20. Dependence of national consumption on unsustainable blue water footprints: A global overview (United States)

    Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.


    The water footprint of consumers in a country is generally partly in other countries. For example, 10% of the water footprint of Chinese consumers is outside China; in the US this is 20%, and in the UK even 75%. National consumption thus always depends, partly, on water resources outside the national territory. Earlier research has resulted in global water footprint maps for all countries in the world, showing for each country where in the world water resources are being consumed and polluted in relation to consumption within the country considered. Recent research shows at a high spatial and temporal resolution level in which catchments in the world, the blue water footprint exceeds the maximum sustainable blue water footprint. The current study overlays the global water footprint maps per country with the global map showing locations of unsustainable water use in order to estimate, per country, the dependence of national consumption on unsustainable water footprints. Countries are ranked according to their fraction of their water footprint that is unsustainable and an in-depth analysis of the implications of this dependence is carried out for the top-10 of the list. The in-depth analysis explores which commodities are behind the unsustainable parts of a country's water footprint, where these footprints are located and what options a country has to reduce its dependence on unsustainable water use.

  1. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract (United States)

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana


    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  2. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract. (United States)

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana


    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m ) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress.

  3. Water Balance Study of a Groundwater-dependent Oak Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓRICZ, Norbert


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (1 to estimate the water balance components of an oak standby calibrating a Hydrus 1-D model, (2 to determine the groundwater consumption by the water tablefluctuation method and (3 to compare the results of the modelling with a remote-sensing based estimation.Model simulation described the observed soil moisture and groundwater level relatively well, theroot mean square errors varied between 12.0 and 14.9% for the soil moisture measurements and 5.0%for the groundwater level. Groundwater consumption was estimated also by the water table fluctuationmethod, which provided slightly different groundwater consumption rates than estimated by theHydrus model simulation. The simulated evapotranspiration was compared with results of a remotesensingbased estimation using the surface temperature database of MODIS.According to the Hydrus model, the estimated evapotranspiration resulted from transpiration(73%, interception loss (23% and soil surface evaporation (4% in the two-year study period. Theproportion of groundwater consumption was 58% of the total transpiration. During the dry growingseason of 2007 the groundwater consumption was significant with 66% of the total transpiration.Water supply from groundwater was found to be less important in the wet growing season of 2008with 50%. The remote-sensing based estimation of evapotranspiration was about 4% lower than themodel based results of nearby comparable sites.

  4. Variation in the structure of a time-dependent SRS spectrum in microfiltered water (United States)

    Babenko, V. A.; Bunkin, N. F.; Sychev, A. A.


    The time-dependent stimulated Raman scattering of light in water subjected to structural transformation by track membrane microfiltration is investigated. It is shown that the probability of SRS at the frequency of the ice spectral component in the band of stretching OH vibrations of water molecules decreases as a result of water filtration.

  5. Are interim management statements redundant?


    Schleicher, T.; Walker, Martin


    In 2004 the Transparency Directive increased the reporting frequency by mandating the Interim Management Statement (IMS). However, only nine years later, the EU announced that it was making quarterly reporting voluntary again arguing that IMSs are redundant as they are unlikely to contain any additional information not already required by the Market Abuse Directive (MAD). The current paper tests this argument empirically. For that it collects data on trading statements from a post-MAD pre-IMS...

  6. Engineering report single-shell tank farms interim measures to limit infiltration through the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAASS, C.C.


    Identifies, evaluates and recommends interim measures for reducing or eliminating water sources and preferential pathways within the vadose zone of the single-shell tank farms. Features studied: surface water infiltration and leaking water lines that provide recharge moisture, and wells that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. An extensive data base, maps, recommended mitigations, and rough order of magnitude costs are included.

  7. Method of preparing nuclear wastes for tansportation and interim storage (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Galvin, Thomas M.


    Nuclear waste is formed into a substantially water-insoluble solid for temporary storage and transportation by mixing the calcined waste with at least 10 weight percent powdered anhydrous sodium silicate to form a mixture and subjecting the mixture to a high humidity environment for a period of time sufficient to form cementitious bonds by chemical reaction. The method is suitable for preparing an interim waste form from dried high level radioactive wastes.

  8. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  9. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)


    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  10. Moderate water stress affects tomato leaf water relations in dependence on the nitrogen supply


    Garcia, A.L.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Nicolas, N.; Martinez, V.


    The responses of water relations, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and growth parameters of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Royesta) plants to nitrogen fertilisation and drought were studied. The plants were subjected to a long-term, moderate and progressive water stress by adding 80 % of the water evapotranspirated by the plant the preceding day. Well-watered plants received 100 % of the water evapotranspirated. Two weeks before starting the drought period, the plants were fertilised wi...

  11. Discovering Tradeoffs, Vulnerabilities, and Dependencies within Water Resources Systems (United States)

    Reed, P. M.


    There is a growing recognition and interest in using emerging computational tools for discovering the tradeoffs that emerge across complex combinations infrastructure options, adaptive operations, and sign posts. As a field concerned with "deep uncertainties", it is logically consistent to include a more direct acknowledgement that our choices for dealing with computationally demanding simulations, advanced search algorithms, and sensitivity analysis tools are themselves subject to failures that could adversely bias our understanding of how systems' vulnerabilities change with proposed actions. Balancing simplicity versus complexity in our computational frameworks is nontrivial given that we are often exploring high impact irreversible decisions. It is not always clear that accepted models even encompass important failure modes. Moreover as they become more complex and computationally demanding the benefits and consequences of simplifications are often untested. This presentation discusses our efforts to address these challenges through our "many-objective robust decision making" (MORDM) framework for the design and management water resources systems. The MORDM framework has four core components: (1) elicited problem conception and formulation, (2) parallel many-objective search, (3) interactive visual analytics, and (4) negotiated selection of robust alternatives. Problem conception and formulation is the process of abstracting a practical design problem into a mathematical representation. We build on the emerging work in visual analytics to exploit interactive visualization of both the design space and the objective space in multiple heterogeneous linked views that permit exploration and discovery. Many-objective search produces tradeoff solutions from potentially competing problem formulations that can each consider up to ten conflicting objectives based on current computational search capabilities. Negotiated design selection uses interactive visualization

  12. Global (50°S–50°N) distribution of water vapor observed by COSMIC GPS RO: Comparison with GPS radiosonde, NCEP, ERA-Interim, and JRA-25 reanalysis data sets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kishore, P


    Full Text Available humidity values are higher than the model outputs. Among various model outputs, ERA-Interim data set show near realistic features to that observed by COSMIC GPS RO measurements. Large asymmetry in the specific humidity distribution is observed between...

  13. Temperature Dependence of Fraction of Frozen Water in Solutions of Glucose and its Oligomers, Dextrans, and Potato Starch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    PRADIPASENA, Pasawadee; TATTIAKUL, Jirarat; NAKAMURA, Keiko; MIYAWAKI, Osato


    Initial freezing point and freezable water fraction, as the two parameters to determine the temperature dependence of fraction of frozen water, were measured systematically for solutions of glucose...

  14. The burnup dependence of light water reactor spent fuel oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, B.D.


    Over the temperature range of interest for dry storage or for placement of spent fuel in a permanent repository under the conditions now being considered, UO{sub 2} is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxidation to higher oxides. The multiple valence states of uranium allow for the accommodation of interstitial oxygen atoms in the fuel matrix. A variety of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric phases is therefore possible as the fuel oxidizers from UO{sub 2} to higher oxides. The oxidation of UO{sub 2} has been studied extensively for over 40 years. It has been shown that spent fuel and unirradiated UO{sub 2} oxidize via different mechanisms and at different rates. The oxidation of LWR spent fuel from UO{sub 2} to UO{sub 2.4} was studied previously and is reasonably well understood. The study presented here was initiated to determine the mechanism and rate of oxidation from UO{sub 2.4} to higher oxides. During the early stages of this work, a large variability in the oxidation behavior of samples oxidized under nearly identical conditions was found. Based on previous work on the effect of dopants on UO{sub 2} oxidation and this initial variability, it was hypothesized that the substitution of fission product and actinide impurities for uranium atoms in the spent fuel matrix was the cause of the variable oxidation behavior. Since the impurity concentration is roughly proportional to the burnup of a specimen, the oxidation behavior of spent fuel was expected to be a function of both temperature and burnup. This report (1) summarizes the previous oxidation work for both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent fuel (Section 2.2) and presents the theoretical basis for the burnup (i.e., impurity concentration) dependence of the rate of oxidation (Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5), (2) describes the experimental approach (Section 3) and results (Section 4) for the current oxidation tests on spent fuel, and (3) establishes a simple model to determine the activation energies

  15. 19 CFR 356.18 - Interim sanctions. (United States)


    ... ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure... administrative law judge to impose such sanctions. (b) The administrative law judge may impose interim sanctions... interim sanctions are a reasonable means for protecting the rights of the Department, authorized agency of...

  16. Dependability and Survivability Evaluation of a Water Distribution Process with Arcade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, S.; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette


    Among others, drinking water belongs to the socalled critical infrastructures. To ensure that the water production meets current and future societal needs, a systematic and rigorous analysis is needed. In this paper, we report our ��?rst experience with dependability analysis of the last phase of a

  17. Size-Dependent Optical Properties of Dendronized Perylenediimide Nanoparticle Prepared by Laser Ablation in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yasukuni, Ryohei; Sliwa, Michel; Hofkens, Johan; De Schryver, Frans C.; Herrmann, Andreas; Mullen, Klaus; Asahi, Tsuyoshi

    Fluorescent nanoparticles of dendronized perylenediimide (DPDI) were fabricated by laser ablation in water. We succeeded in the preparation of colloidal nanoparticles of different sizes (150-400 nm) and examined their size-dependent optical absorption and fluorescence properties. The size-dependent

  18. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.


    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  19. Vet Centers. Interim final rule. (United States)


    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This interim final rule amends regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  20. Dependencies of Europe's economy on water resources outside its borders and its vulnerability to weather extremes (United States)

    Chico Zamanillo, Daniel; Chapagain, Ashok; Ercin, Ertug


    Europe's economy is dependent on water resources elsewhere in the world since many of the goods consumed in the EU are not produced domestically, but abroad. Reliance on food, energy and goods produced in regions outside of the EU may impose water related risks on different economic sectors within the EU due to vulnerability of water resources used in their production to hydrological extremes and climate change. IMPREX project addresses this economic dependency and water resources vulnerability to hydrological extremes and climate change under WP12 "Water Economy". This study presents the results of the first task of WP12, mapping current dependencies of European economy on water resources outside its borders and their vulnerability to drought and water scarcity. In our assessment, we have used water footprint, which is a measure of the appropriation of freshwater resources for human activities, and is comprised of three components - green (consumption of rainfall), blue (consumption of surface and groundwater) and grey (refers to water pollution). We first calculated virtual water import, the amount of water consumed in producing products imported to the EU, and we identified key products - those making up the largest virtual water inflows to the EU. After mapping the dependencies, we assessed water scarcity and drought severity in producing locations. Coupling this with the water footprint enabled us to map the EU's external water dependencies and to identify when and where vulnerabilities may lie, in terms of blue water scarcity and drought. Overall, external green water resources account for 41% of the total green water footprint of the EU's economy. Soybean, cocoa, coffee, oil palm, sunflower, maize and olives are identified as key products from the perspective of green virtual water import to the EU. Soybean is the crop with the largest virtual water import volume to the EU with imports coming from Argentina, Brazil and USA. Europe relies on soybean import to

  1. Moderate water stress affects tomato leaf water relations in dependence on the nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.L.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Nicolas, N.; Martinez, V.


    The responses of water relations, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and growth parameters of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Royesta) plants to nitrogen fertilisation and drought were studied. The plants were subjected to a long-term, moderate and progressive water stress by adding 80 % of the

  2. Hard Water and Soft Soap: Dependence of Soap Performance on Water Hardness (United States)

    Osorio, Viktoria K. L.; de Oliveira, Wanda; El Seoud, Omar A.; Cotton, Wyatt; Easdon, Jerry


    The demonstration of the performance of soap in different aqueous solutions, which is due to water hardness and soap formulation, is described. The demonstrations use safe, inexpensive reagents and simple glassware and equipment, introduce important everyday topics, stimulates the students to consider the wider consequences of water hardness and…

  3. Optimizing water depth for wetland-dependent wildlife could increase wetland restoration success, water efficiency, and water security (United States)

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Conway, Courtney J.


    Securing water for wetland restoration efforts will be increasingly difficult as human populations demand more water and climate change alters the hydrologic cycle. Minimizing water use at a restoration site could help justify water use to competing users, thereby increasing future water security. Moreover, optimizing water depth for focal species will increase habitat quality and the probability that the restoration is successful. We developed and validated spatial habitat models to optimize water depth within wetland restoration projects along the lower Colorado River intended to benefit California black rails (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus). We observed a 358% increase in the number of black rails detected in the year after manipulating water depth to maximize the amount of predicted black rail habitat in two wetlands. The number of black rail detections in our restoration sites was similar to those at our reference site. Implementing the optimal water depth in each wetland decreased water use while simultaneously increasing habitat suitability for the focal species. Our results also provide experimental confirmation of past descriptive accounts of black rail habitat preferences and provide explicit water depth recommendations for future wetland restoration efforts for this species of conservation concern; maintain surface water depths between saturated soil and 100 mm. Efforts to optimize water depth in restored wetlands around the world would likely increase the success of wetland restorations for the focal species while simultaneously minimizing and justifying water use.

  4. Succesvol interim-management : Meesterschap in een tijdelijke context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaveling, J.


    Als flexibele optie om het management van organisaties aan te vullen, past interim-management helemaal in deze tijd. Maar wat maakt een interim-managementopdracht succesvol? ‘Succesvol interim-management’ is een studie naar de succesfactoren van interim-management. In de literatuur worden

  5. Scoren met interim-management : De weg naar tevreden opdrachtgevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaveling, J.


    Tegenwoordig kijkt niemand in organisaties meer op van de aanwezigheid van interim-managers. Interim-management biedt dé flexibiliteit om het management van organisaties aan te vullen. Maar wat maakt interim-managementopdrachten succesvol? Daarover gaat 'Scoren met interim-management: de weg naar

  6. 46 CFR 309.101 - Amendment of interim binders. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment of interim binders. 309.101 Section 309.101... INSURANCE § 309.101 Amendment of interim binders. The interim binder for a vessel whose stated valuation is... after the attachment of the insurance under the interim binder to which such valuation applies...

  7. Using ERA-Interim reanalysis for creating datasets of energy-relevant climate variables (United States)

    Jones, Philip D.; Harpham, Colin; Troccoli, Alberto; Gschwind, Benoit; Ranchin, Thierry; Wald, Lucien; Goodess, Clare M.; Dorling, Stephen


    The construction of a bias-adjusted dataset of climate variables at the near surface using ERA-Interim reanalysis is presented. A number of different, variable-dependent, bias-adjustment approaches have been proposed. Here we modify the parameters of different distributions (depending on the variable), adjusting ERA-Interim based on gridded station or direct station observations. The variables are air temperature, dewpoint temperature, precipitation (daily only), solar radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity. These are available on either 3 or 6 h timescales over the period 1979-2016. The resulting bias-adjusted dataset is available through the Climate Data Store (CDS) of the Copernicus Climate Change Data Store (C3S) and can be accessed at present from The benefit of performing bias adjustment is demonstrated by comparing initial and bias-adjusted ERA-Interim data against gridded observational fields.

  8. Fast Water Transport in CNTs: length dependence and entrane/exit effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Jens Honore; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    , for the first time, that under imposed pressures of the order of 1 bar, water entry into the CNT cavity and exit from the CNT end, can occur only on pre-wetted membranes. We conduct large scale simulations for up to 500nm long CNTs and observe a previously unseen dependence of the flow enhancement rates......Superfast water transport in carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes has been reported in experimental studies. We use Molecular Dynamics simulations to elucidate the mechanisms of water entry, exit and transport in 2nm-diameter hydrophobic CNTs embedded in a hydrophilic membrane matrix. We demonstrate...

  9. Incident energy dependence of scattering behavior of water molecules on Si (100) and graphite surfaces (United States)

    Kihara, G.; Kotsubo, Y.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Kinefuchi, I.; Takagi, S.


    The interaction between water molecules and solid surfaces has a great impact on water vapor flows in nanostructures. We conduct molecular beam scattering experiments covering the incident energy range corresponding to the thermal energy at room temperature to investigate the scattering behavior of water molecules on silicon and graphite surfaces. The incident energy dependence of the scattering distributions exhibits opposite trends on these surfaces. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the difference is caused by the inertia effect of the incident molecules and the surface corrugations.

  10. Observed and simulated temperature dependence of the liquid water path of low clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Genio, A.D.; Wolf, A.B. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)


    Data being acquired at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site can be used to examine the factors determining the temperature dependence of cloud optical thickness. We focus on cloud liquid water and physical thickness variations which can be derived from existing ARM measurements.

  11. Statistical thermodynamics of fluids with orientation - dependent interactions : applications to water in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, N.A.M.


    The aim of the present study was to develop a lattice theory for systems, homogeneous as well as heterogeneous, containing molecules with orientation- dependent interactions such as water. It was soon recognised that the so-called Bragg-Williams mean-field approximation is not capable of

  12. pH dependence of sorption of Cd , Zn , Cu and Cr on crude water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 4, 2006 ... pH dependence of sorption of Cd. 2+. , Zn. 2+. , Cu. 2+ and Cr. 3+ on crude water and sodium chloride extracts of. Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera. Sajidu, S. M. I.1, Henry, E. M. T.2*, Persson, I.3, Masamba, W. R. L.1, Kayambazinthu, D.4. 1Department of Chemistry, Chancellor College, University ...

  13. A Study of the Concentration Dependent Water Diffusivity in Polymer using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (United States)

    Lee, Howon; Lu, Jiaxi; Georgiadis, John; Fang, Nicholas


    Hydrogel allows solvent molecules to migrate in and out of the polymer network, often in response to various environmental stimuli such as temperature and pH, resulting in significant volumetric change. Kinetics of penetrants in polymeric network determines time dependent behavior of hydrogel. However, swelling deformation resulting from the solvent uptake in turn significantly changes diffusivity of solvent, and this strong coupling makes it challenging to study dynamic behavior of hydrogels. Here we study concentration dependent diffusivity of water in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Projection micro-stereolithography is used to fabricate gel samples in which a gradient of water volume fraction occurs. In situ measurement using MRI provides quantitative relationship between diffusivity and volume fraction of water in the gel. This result will help better understand interstitial diffusion behavior of solvent in polymers, which has great implication in board areas such as soft matter mechanics, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  14. Fragmentation of Allylmethylsulfide by Chemical Ionization: Dependence on Humidity and Inhibiting Role of Water (United States)


    We report on a previously unknown reaction mechanism involving water in the fragmentation reaction following chemical ionization. This result stems from a study presented here on the humidity-dependent and energy-dependent endoergic fragmentation of allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) upon protonation in a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). The fragmentation pathways were studied with experimental (PTR-MS) and quantum chemical methods (polarizable continuum model (PCM), microhydration, studied at the MP2/6-311+G(3df,2p)//MP2/6-31G(d,p) level of theory). We report in detail on the energy profiles, reaction mechanisms, and proton affinities (G4MP2 calculations). In the discovered reaction mechanism, water reduces the fragmentation of protonated species in chemical ionization. It does so by direct interaction with the protonated species via covalent binding (C3H5+) or via association (AMS·H+). This stabilizes intermediate complexes and thus overall increases the activation energy for fragmentation. Water thereby acts as a reusable inhibitor (anticatalyst) in chemical ionization. Moreover, according to the quantum chemical (QC) results, when water is present in abundance it has the opposite effect and enhances fragmentation. The underlying reason is a concentration-dependent change in the reaction principle from active inhibition of fragmentation to solvation, which then enhances fragmentation. This amphoteric behavior of water is found for the fragmentation of C3H5+ to C3H3+, and similarly for the fragmentation of AMS·H+ to C3H5+. The results support humidity-dependent quantification efforts for PTR-MS and chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS). Moreover, the results should allow for a better understanding of ion-chemistry in the presence of water. PMID:23682687

  15. Methods Data Qualification Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Sam Alessi; Tami Grimmett; Leng Vang; Dave McGrath


    The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V&V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.

  16. Force-field dependence on the interfacial structure of oil-water interfaces (United States)

    Bresme, Fernando; Chacón, Enrique; Tarazona, Pedro


    We investigate the performance of different force-fields for alkanes, united (TraPPE) and all atom (OPLS-AA) models, and water (SPC/E and TIP4P-2005), in the prediction of the interfacial structure of alkane (n-octane, and n-dodecane)-water interfaces. We report an extensive comparison of the interfacial thermodynamic properties as well as the interfacial structure (translational and orientational). We use the recently introduced intrinsic sampling method, which removes the averaging effect of the interfacial capillary waves and provides a clear view of the interface structure. The alkane interfacial structure is sensitive to the environment, i.e. alkane-vapour or alkane-water interfaces, showing a stronger structure when it is in contact with the water phase. We find that this structure is fairly independent of the level of detail, full or united atom, employed to describe the alkane phase. The water surface properties show a small dependence on the water model. The dipole moment of the SPC/E model shows asymmetric fluctuations, with a tendency to point both towards the alkane and water phases. On the other hand the dipole moment of the TIP4P-2005 model shows a tendency to point towards the water phase only. Analysis of the intrinsic electrostatic field indicates that the surface water potential is confined to an interfacial region of about 8 Å. Overall we find that the intrinsic structure of alkane-water interfaces is a robust interfacial property, which is independent of the details of the force-field employed. Hence, it should provide a good reference to interpret experimental data.

  17. Isotopic mass-dependence of metal cation diffusion coefficients in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Richter, F.M.; Christensen, J.N.; Sposito, G.


    Isotope distributions in natural systems can be highly sensitive to the mass (m) dependence of solute diffusion coefficients (D) in liquid water. Isotope geochemistry studies routinely have assumed that this mass dependence either is negligible (as predicted by hydrodynamic theories) or follows a kinetic-theory-like inverse square root relationship (D {proportional_to} m{sup -0.5}). However, our recent experimental results and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that the mass dependence of D is intermediate between hydrodynamic and kinetic theory predictions (D {proportional_to} m{sup -{beta}} with 0 {<=} {beta} < 0.2 for Li{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, Mg{sup 2+}, and the noble gases). In this paper, we present new MD simulations and experimental results for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, and Ca{sup 2+} that confirm the generality of the inverse power-law relation D {proportional_to} m{sup -{beta}}. Our new findings allow us to develop a general description of the influence of solute valence and radius on the mass dependence of D for monatomic solutes in liquid water. This mass dependence decreases with solute radius and with the magnitude of solute valence. Molecular-scale analysis of our MD simulation results reveals that these trends derive from the exponent {beta} being smallest for those solutes whose motions are most strongly coupled to solvent hydrodynamic modes.

  18. Charge-Dependent Dynamics of Polyelectrolyte Dendrimer and Its Correlation with Invasive Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Li, Xin [ORNL; Liu, Emily [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Liu, Yun [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Porcar, L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL; Wu, Bin [ORNL; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Egami, T. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL; Diallo, Souleymane Omar [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)


    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to investigate the local dynamics of polyelectrolyte dendrimers dissolved in deuterium oxide (D2O) and its dependence on molecular charge. Enhanced segmental dy-namics upon increase in molecular charge is observed, consistent with quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements. A strong coupling between the intra-dendrimer local hydration level and segmental dynamics is also revealed. Compelling evidence shows these findings originate from the electrostatic interaction between the hydrocarbon components of dendrimer and invasive water. This combined study provides fundamental insight into the dynamics of charged polyelectrolytes and the solvating water molecules.

  19. Predictors of unsuccessful interim treatment outcomes of multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients. (United States)

    Atif, Muhammad; Bashir, Arslan; Ahmad, Nafees; Fatima, Razia Kaneez; Saba, Sehar; Scahill, Shane


    Interim treatment outcomes at 6-months for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment are among the most basic performance monitoring and key evaluation indicators in the Stop and End TB strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the interim treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients in Pakistan. This study was conducted at the Programmatic Management Unit for Drug-resistance TB (PMDT) site of the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP), Pakistan. It is located in the Chest Disease Unit (CDU) of the Bahawal Victoria Hospital (BVH), Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. Data was collected between April 1, 2014 and December 31, 2015. The medical records, Electronic Nominal Recording Reporting System (ENRS) data and MRD-TB notification forms of the MDR-TB patients registered at the PMDT site were reviewed to obtain data. For reporting and calculation of interim treatment outcomes, standardized WHO methodology was adopted. Simple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the possible association between the dependent variable (i.e. unsuccessful interim treatment outcome) and selected socio-demographic and clinical variables. A total of 100 drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) patients (all types) were registered during the study period. Out of these, 80 were MDR-TB patients for whom interim results were available. Out of the 80 MDR-TB cases, 48 (60%) were classified under the successful interim treatment outcome category. The remaining 40% had unsuccessful 6-month treatment outcomes and 12 (15%) patients died, while nine (11.3%) were lost to follow-up by six months. The final predictors of unsuccessful interim treatment outcomes were; being resistant to ofloxacin (AOR 3.23, 95% CI 0.96-10.89; p-value = 0.04), having above normal baseline serum creatinine levels (AOR 6.49, 95% CI 1.39-30.27; p-value = 0.02), and being culture positive at the second month of treatment (AOR 6.94, 95% CI 2-24.12; p-value = 0.01). Despite free

  20. Phytotoxic effects of fungicides, insecticides and nonpesticidal components on pepper depending on water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Vuković


    Full Text Available Modern agriculture relies on simultaneous application of fungicides, insecticides, fertilizers and adjuvants. The selection of compounds for tank-mixes has been rarely studied and it presents a risk in the application of pesticides but the quality of water should also be considered. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic effects of several fungicides, insecticides, a complex fertilizer, an adjuvant and their mixtures on pepper (Capsicum annuum L. as a test plant, depending on water quality. The effects of the pesticides: azoxystrobin (Quadris, 0.75 l/ha, mancozeb (Dithane M-70, 2.5 kg/ha, thiamethoxam (Actara 25-WG, 0.07 kg/ha and cypermethrin (Cipkord EC-20, 0.3 l/ha, a complex fertilizer (Mortonijc plus /hereinafter: M+/ 3kg/ha, an adjuvant (Sillwet 77-L, 0.1 l/ha and their mixtures, were assessed depending on the quality of water (well water – slightly alkaline, very hard and with high nitrite content; tap water – neutral and slightly hard; surface water – alkaline, slightly hard and with high content of nitrite and ammonia using a puncture method. The effects were assessed after seven days by measuring the diameter of chlorosis and/or necrosis around puncture sites, and were expressed in mm2. The significance of differences between treatments was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA (LSD 0.05 %. In the slightly alkaline and very hard well water, all spray liquids containing Dithane M-70 caused a significant increase in leaf chlorosis area (from 6.0 to 25.2 mm2, compared to the control and other treatments. In the neutral and slightly hard tap water, all spray liquids containing Dithane M-70 caused a significant increase in leaf chlorosis (5.3 to 7.9 mm2 compared to the control and the other spray liquids, although its phytotoxicity in that water was at a lower level than it was in well water. However, in the weakly alkaline and slightly hard surface water from the river Sava, Dithane M–70, Dithane M-70 + Actara WG-25, Dithane M

  1. Insecticidal Effects of Insecticide, Fungicide, Complex Fertilizer and Wetting Agent Combinations Depending on Water Hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Vuković


    Full Text Available Simultaneous occurrence of different harmful species in agricultural practice necessitates that different plant protection chemicals be applied at the same time (tank mix. Mix components differ in purpose, mode of action and/or formulation, while addition of nonpesticide components (complex fertilizers, adjuvants and wetting agents is widely practiced today. However, data concerning the effects of water quality used for preparation of working liquids on the biological effects of pesticides is still scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine insecticidal effects as depending on components used in mixes and water hardness. The effects of mixtures of thiametoxam (Actara 25-WG 0,07kg/ha with azoxystrobin (Quadris 0.75 l/ha, mancozeb (Dithane M-70 2.5 kg/ha, a complex fertilizer (Mortonijc plus 3 kg/ha and a wetting agent (Silwet L-77, depending on the components and water hardness(slightly hard (15.4 d° - tap water from Novi Sad, and very hard (34.7 d° - well water from Adica, a Novi Sad suburb, were determined in a bioassay based on adult mortality rate of the first generation of Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. The mixtures were applied by a flooding method. The trial was set up to include four replications. Insecticidal effects were determined 24 h and 48 h after exposure. Thiametoxam effectiveness 24 h and 48 h after application in slightly hard water was 100% when the insecticide was applied alone and in double and triple mixes with the fungicides, complex fertilizer and wetting agent, showing no dependency on mix components.The tested adult population of Colorado potato beetle demonstrated high susmceptibility to thiametoxam, while the other components had no impact in slightly hard water. In very hard water, 24 h after application, the insecticidal effect had the same level of significance to thiametoxam in double and triple mixes, with an exception of thiametoxam+mancozeb+Mortonijc plus and

  2. On shallow water waves in a medium with time-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy I. Abdel-Gawad


    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the progression of shallow water waves relevant to the variable coefficient Korteweg–de Vries (vcKdV equation. We investigated two kinds of cases: when the dispersion and nonlinearity coefficients are proportional, and when they are not linearly dependent. In the first case, it was shown that the progressive waves have some geometric structures as in the case of KdV equation with constant coefficients but the waves travel with time dependent speed. In the second case, the wave structure is maintained when the nonlinearity balances the dispersion. Otherwise, water waves collapse. The objectives of the study are to find a wide class of exact solutions by using the extended unified method and to present a new algorithm for treating the coupled nonlinear PDE’s.

  3. The mechanistic basis for storage-dependent age distributions of water discharged from an experimental hillslope (United States)

    Pangle, Luke A.; Kim, Minseok; Cardoso, Charlene; Lora, Marco; Meira Neto, Antonio A.; Volkmann, Till H. M.; Wang, Yadi; Troch, Peter A.; Harman, Ciaran J.


    Distributions of water transit times (TTDs), and related storage-selection (SAS) distributions, are spatially integrated metrics of hydrological transport within landscapes. Recent works confirm that the form of TTDs and SAS distributions should be considered time variant—possibly depending, in predictable ways, on the dynamic storage of water within the landscape. We report on a 28 day periodic-steady-state-tracer experiment performed on a model hillslope contained within a 1 m3 sloping lysimeter. Using experimental data, we calibrate physically based, spatially distributed flow and transport models, and use the calibrated models to generate time-variable SAS distributions, which are subsequently compared to those directly observed from the actual experiment. The objective is to use the spatially distributed estimates of storage and flux from the model to characterize how temporal variation in water storage influences temporal variation in flow path configurations, and resulting SAS distributions. The simulated SAS distributions mimicked well the shape of observed distributions, once the model domain reflected the spatial heterogeneity of the lysimeter soil. The spatially distributed flux vectors illustrate how the magnitude and directionality of water flux changes as the water table surface rises and falls, yielding greater contributions of younger water when the water table surface rises nearer to the soil surface. The illustrated mechanism is compliant with conclusions drawn from other recent studies and supports the notion of an inverse-storage effect, whereby the probability of younger water exiting the system increases with storage. This mechanism may be prevalent in hillslopes and headwater catchments where discharge dynamics are controlled by vertical fluctuations in the water table surface of an unconfined aquifer.

  4. Longitudinal shrinkage of compression wood in dependence on water content and cell wall structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Włoch


    Full Text Available Compression wood from branches of Pinus silvestris L. was examined. Wide differences were noted in longitudinal shrinkage of the wood when dried from water saturated state. A relation was found between shrinkage and cell wall thickness, particularly of layer S2, and the degree of callose accumulation in the wall. No dependence could be revealed between the shrinkage and the fibril angle in S2.

  5. Interim-Management: A paradox for leadership research?


    Bruns, Jürgen; Kabst, Rüdiger


    The study focuses on Interim-Management as a so far rarely discussed phenomenon of the flexible firm. Contradicting popular leadership perception, the authors argue that Interim-Management does not constitute a leadership paradox but can be explained by established organization theory. In particular, transaction cost economics as well as resource-based view help explain the utilization of Interim-Management. Furthermore, the authors show that Interim-Management constitutes a response to reduc...

  6. The relationships between leaf economics and hydraulic traits of woody plants depend on water availability. (United States)

    Yin, Qiulong; Wang, Lei; Lei, Maolin; Dang, Han; Quan, Jiaxin; Tian, Tingting; Chai, Yongfu; Yue, Ming


    Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are simultaneously involved in the process of trading water for CO 2 , but the relationships between these two suites of traits remain ambiguous. Recently, Li et al. (2015) reported that leaf economics and hydraulic traits were decoupled in five tropical-subtropical forests in China. We tested the hypothesis that the relationships between economics and hydraulic traits may depend on water availability. We analysed five leaf economics traits, four hydraulic traits and anatomical structures of 47 woody species on the Loess Plateau with poor water availability and compared those data with Li et al. (2015) obtained in tropical-subtropical regions with adequate water. The results showed that plants on the Loess Plateau tend to have higher leaf tissue density (TD), leaf nitrogen concentrations and venation density (VD) and lower stomatal guard cell length (SL) and maximum stomatal conductance to water vapour (g wmax ). VD showed positive correlations with leaf nitrogen concentrations, palisade tissue thickness (PT) and ratio of palisade tissue thickness to spongy tissue thickness (PT/ST). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a result opposite from those of tropical-subtropical regions: leaf economics and hydraulic traits were coupled on the Loess Plateau. A stable correlation between these two suites of traits may be more cost-effective on the Loess Plateau, where water availability is poor. The correlation of leaf economics and hydraulic traits may be a type of adaptation mechanism in arid conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Temperature dependence of the calibration factor of radon and radium determination in water samples by SSNTD

    CERN Document Server

    Hunyadi, I; Hakl, J; Baradacs, E; Dezso, Z


    The sensitivity of a sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra determination method of water samples by SSNTD was measured as a function of storage temperature during exposure. The method is based on an etched track type radon monitor, which is closed into a gas permeable foil and is immersed in the water sample. The sample is sealed in a glass vessel and stored for an exposure time of 10-30 days. The sensitivity increased more than a factor of two when the storage temperature was raised from 2 deg. C to 30 deg. C. Temperature dependence of the partition coefficient of radon between water and air provides explanation for this dependence. For practical radio- analytical application the temperature dependence of the calibration factor is given by fitting the sensitivity data obtained by measuring sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra standard solutions (in the activity concentration range of 0.1-48.5 kBq m sup - sup 3) at different storage temperatures.

  8. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L.A.


    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996.

  9. Transuranic storage and assay facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford


    The Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF) Interim Safety Basis document provides the authorization basis for the interim operation and restriction on interim operations for the TRUSAF. The TRUSAF ISB demonstrates that the TRUSAF can be operated safely, protecting the workers, the public, and the environment. The previous safety analysis document TRUSAF Hazards Identification and Evaluation (WHC 1987) is superseded by this document.

  10. Going beyond the standard line tension: Size-dependent contact angles of water nanodroplets (United States)

    Kanduč, Matej


    The dependence of the contact angle on the size of a nanoscopic droplet residing on a flat substrate is traditionally ascribed solely to line tension. Other contributions, stemming from the droplet geometry dependence of the surface tension and line tension, are typically ignored. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of water droplets of cylindrical morphology on surfaces of a wide range of polarities. In the cylindrical geometry, where the line tension is not operative directly, we find significant contact angle dependence on the droplet size. The effect is most pronounced on hydrophilic surfaces, with the contact angle increase of up to 1 0 ° with a decreasing droplet size. On hydrophobic surfaces, the trend is reversed and considerably weaker. Our analysis suggests that these effects can be attributed to the Tolman correction due to the curved water-vapor interface and to a generalized line tension that possesses a contact angle dependence. The latter is operative also in the cylindrical geometry and yields a comparable contribution to the contact angle as the line tension itself in case of spherical droplets.

  11. Measurement of the Time Dependence of Neutron Slowing-Down and Therma in Heavy Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, E.


    The behaviour of neutrons during their slowing-down and thermalization in heavy water has been followed on the time scale by measurements of the time-dependent rate of reaction between the flux and the three spectrum indicators indium, cadmium and gadolinium. The space dependence of the reaction rate curves has also been studied. The time-dependent density at 1.46 eV is well reproduced by a function, given by von Dardel, and a time for the maximum density of 7.1 {+-} 0.3 {mu}s has been obtained for this energy in deuterium gas in agreement with the theoretical value of 7.2 {mu}s. The spatial variation of this time is in accord with the calculations by Claesson. The slowing- down time to 0.2 eV has been found to be 16.3 {+-}2.4 {mu}s. The approach to the equilibrium spectrum takes place with a time constant of 33 {+-}4 {mu}s, and the equilibrium has been established after about 200 {mu}s. Comparison of the measured curves for cadmium and gadolinium with multigroup calculations of the time-dependent flux and reaction rate show the superiority of the scattering models for heavy water of Butler and of Brown and St. John over the mass 2 gas model. The experiment has been supplemented with Monte Carlo calculations of the slowing down time.

  12. EMCS Retrofit Analysis - Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Salsbury, T.I.; Bell, G.C.; Huang, Y.J.; Sezgen, A.O.; Mazzucchi, R.; Romberger, J.


    This report presents the interim results of analyses carried out in the Phillip Burton Federal Building in San Francisco from 1996 to 1998. The building is the site of a major demonstration of the BACnet communication protocol. The energy management and control systems (EMCS) in the building were retrofitted with BACnet compatible controllers in order to integrate certain existing systems on one common network. In this respect, the project has been a success. Interoperability of control equipment from different manufacturers has been demonstrated in a real world environment. Besides demonstrating interoperability, the retrofits carried out in the building were also intended to enhance control strategies and capabilities, and to produce energy savings. This report presents analyses of the energy usage of HVAC systems in the building, control performance, and the reaction of the building operators. The report does not present an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the BACnet protocol. A monitoring system was installed in the building that parallels many of the EMCS sensors and data were archived over a three-year period. The authors defined pre-retrofit and post-retrofit periods and analyzed the corresponding data to establish the changes in building performance resulting from the retrofit activities. The authors also used whole-building energy simulation (DOE-2) as a tool for evaluating the effect of the retrofit changes. The results of the simulation were compared with the monitored data. Changes in operator behavior were assessed qualitatively with questionnaires. The report summarizes the findings of the analyses and makes several recommendations as to how to achieve better performance. They maintain that the full potential of the EMCS and associated systems is not being realized. The reasons for this are discussed along with possible ways of addressing this problem. They also describe a number of new technologies that could benefit systems of the type

  13. CMM Interim Check Design of Experiments (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length and include a weekly interim check to reduce risk. The CMM interim check makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge which is an off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. As verification on the interim check process a design of experiments investigation was proposed to test a couple of key factors (location and inspector). The results from the two-factor factorial experiment proved that location influenced results more than the inspector or interaction.

  14. Design review report FFTF interim storage cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.L.


    Final Design Review Report for the FFTF Interim Storage Cask. The Interim Storage Cask (ISC) will be used for long term above ground dry storage of FFTF irradiated fuel in Core Component Containers (CCC)s. The CCC has been designed and will house assemblies that have been sodium washed in the IEM Cell. The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) will transfer a full CCC from the IEM Cell to the RSB Cask Loading Station where the ISC will be located to receive it. Once the loaded ISC has been sealed at the RSB Cask Loading Station, it will be transferred by facility crane to the DSWC Transporter. After the ISC has been transferred to the Interim Storage Area (ISA), which is yet to be designed, a mobile crane will be used to place the ISC in its final storage location.

  15. Groundwater–surface water interactions, vegetation dependencies and implications for water resources management in the semi-arid Hailiutu River catchment, China – a synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Wenninger, J.; Yang, Z.; Yin, L.; Huang, J.; Hou, L.; Wang, X.; Zhang, D.; Uhlenbrook, S.


    During the last decades, large-scale land use changes took place in the Hailiutu River catchment, a semi-arid area in northwest China. These changes had significant impacts on the water resources in the area. Insights into groundwater and surface water interactions and vegetation-water dependencies

  16. Curvature-dependent adsorption of water inside and outside armchair carbon nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Shulai; Schmidt, Burkhard; Paulus, Beate


    The curvature dependence of the physisorption properties of a water molecule inside and outside an armchair carbon nanotube (CNTs) is investigated by an incremental density-fitting local coupled cluster treatment with single and double excitations and perturbative triples (DF-LCCSD(T)) study. Our results show that a water molecule outside and inside (n, n) CNTs (n=4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10) is stabilized by electron correlation. The adsorption energy of water inside CNTs decreases quickly with the decrease of curvature (increase of radius) and the configuration with the oxygen pointing towards the CNT wall is the most stable one. However, when the water molecule is adsorbed outside the CNT, the adsorption energy varies only slightly with the curvature and the configuration with hydrogens pointing towards the CNT wall is the most stable one. We also use the DF-LCCSD(T) results to parametrize Lennard-Jones (LJ) force fields for the interaction of water both with the inner and outer sides of CNTs and with graphene repre...

  17. Water sensitivity in Zn4O-based MOFs is structure and history dependent. (United States)

    Guo, Ping; Dutta, Dhanadeep; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Gidley, David W; Matzger, Adam J


    Moisture can cause irreversible structural collapse in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) resulting in decreased internal surface areas and pore volumes. The details of such structural collapse with regard to pore size evolution during degradation are currently unknown due to a lack of suitable in situ probes of porosity. Here we acquire MOF porosity data under dynamic conditions by incorporating a flow-through system in tandem with positronium annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). From the decrease in porosity, we have observed an induction period for water degradation of some Zn4O-based MOFs that signals much greater stability than commonly believed to be possible. The sigmoidal trend in the degradation curve of unfunctionalized MOFs caused by water vapor has been established from the temporal component of pore size evolution as characterized by in situ PALS. IRMOF-3 is found to degrade at a lower relative humidity than MOF-5, a likely consequence of the amine groups in the structure, although, in contrast to MOF-5, residual porosity remains. The presence of an induction period, which itself depends on previous water exposure of the sample (history dependence), and sigmoidal temporal behavior of the moisture-induced degradation mechanism of MOFs was also verified using powder X-ray diffraction analysis and ex situ gas adsorption measurements. Our work provides insight into porosity evolution under application-relevant conditions as well as identifying chemical and structural characteristics influencing stability.

  18. Size-dependent photoacclimation of the phytoplankton community in temperate shelf waters (southern Bay of Biscay)

    KAUST Repository

    Álvarez, E


    © Inter-Research 2016. Shelf waters of the Cantabrian Sea (southern Bay of Biscay) are productive ecosystems with a marked seasonality. We present the results from 1 yr of monthly monitoring of the phytoplankton community together with an intensive sampling carried out in 2 contrasting scenarios during the summer and autumn in a mid-shelf area. Stratification was apparent on the shelf in summer, while the water column was comparatively well mixed in autumn. The size structure of the photoautotrophic community, from pico-to micro-phytoplankton, was tightly coupled with the meteo-climatic and hydrographical conditions. Over the short term, variations in the size structure and chlorophyll content of phytoplankton cells were related to changes in the physico-chemical environment, through changes in the availability of nutrients and light. Uncoupling between the dynamics of carbon biomass and chlorophyll resulted in chlorophyll to carbon ratios dependent on body size. The slope of the size dependence of chlorophyll content increased with increasing irradiance, reflecting different photoacclimation plasticity from pico-to micro-phytoplankton. The results have important implications for the productivity and the fate of biogenic carbon in this region, since the size dependence of photosynthetic rates is directly related to the size scaling of chlorophyll content.

  19. A Novel Experimental Technique to Monitor the Time-Dependent Water and Ions Uptake when Shale Interacts with Aqueous Solutions (United States)

    AL-Bazali, Talal


    The time-dependent water and ions uptake when shale interacts with aqueous solutions is quantified using a combination of immersion and gravimetric techniques. Results show that when shale interacts with salt solutions, water uptake into shale goes through three distinct stages; water movement out of shale (due to chemical osmosis), water movement into shale (due to diffusion osmosis) and stationary state (equilibrium stage). This work shows that chemical osmosis dominates water movement in early times while diffusion osmosis takes over later. In addition, it is shown that the amount of water movement due to chemical osmosis depends on the chemical potential gradient while the amount of water movement due to diffusion osmosis is highly related to the ionic concentration imbalance. In addition, the amount of ions uptake into shale at equilibrium is shown to depend on the type and concentration of salt solution. Furthermore, this work shows that potassium ion has a strengthening effect on shale while sodium and calcium ions have a weakening effect on shale. Results also show that the shale's compressive strength alteration is greatly influenced by the type and concentration of the salt solution. Furthermore, the shale's compressive strength alteration is shown to be time dependent and correlates very well with the time-dependent flux of water and ions. Finally, it is shown that chemical osmosis and diffusion osmosis take place simultaneously when shale interacts with water-based muds. The overall impact on shale stability is governed by the net water flow resulting from chemical osmosis and diffusion osmosis.

  20. An interim reference model for the variability of the middle atmosphere H2O vapor distribution (United States)

    Remsberg, E. E.; Russell, J. M., III; Wu, C. Y.


    Water vapor is an important minor constituent in the studies of the middle atmosphere for a variety of reasons, including its role as a source for active HO(y) chemicals and its use in analysis of transport processes. A number of in situ and remote techniques were employed in the determination of water vapor distributions. Two of the more complete data sets were used to develop an interim reference profile. First, there are the seven months of Nimbus 7 limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) data obtained during Nov. 1978 to May 1979 over the range 64S to 84N latitude and from about 100 to 1 mb in the mid-mesosphere at several fixed Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude sites. These two data sets were combined to give a mid-lattitude, interim reference water vapor profile for the entire vertical range of the middle atmosphere and with accuracies of better than 25 percent. The daily variability of stratospheric water vapor profiles about the monthly mean was also established from these data sets for selected months. Information is also provided on the longitudinal variability of LIMS water vapor profiles about the daily, weekly, and monthly zonal means. Generally, the interim reference water vapor profile and its variability are consistent with prevailing ideas about chemistry and transport.

  1. Climate change : we are at risk : interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, D.; Wiebe, J.


    Between November 2002 and May 2003 the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry travelled across Canada to hear the views of farmer organizations, rural associations, ecotourism groups and environmental organizations regarding concerns about climate change and the impact it may have on the agriculture and forestry sectors and rural communities. The Committee also examined potential adaptation strategies focusing on primary production, practices, technologies, ecosystems and other related areas. Farmers and forest operators are already facing changes in market conditions, domestic regulations, trade policies and technology. This interim report expressed the concerns of farmers and forest operators. It includes a review of the Saguenay flood of 1996, the Red River flood of 1997, the ice storm of 1998, and droughts since 1999. It also includes a discussion on climate change and its biophysical and economic effects on agriculture, forestry, water resources, rural communities, and Aboriginal communities. This interim report also briefly outlines the Kyoto Protocol, the emissions trading system, and the decarbonization of global energy systems. It emphasized the need for integrated research and government policies and programs that encourage adaptation to climate change. The final report will be released in October 2003 and will provide specific recommendations to ensure that Canada responds to the concerns of farmers and forest operators and to ensure continued prosperity in these sectors. refs., figs.

  2. Van interim-management naar tijdelijk leiderschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaveling, J.


    Het fenomeen interim-management, maar ook het tijdelijk inzetten van interne mensen op managementposities, neemt de laatste tijd een hoge vlucht. Welke voorwaarden zijn nodig om dit tot een succes te laten worden? En wat is de stand van zaken ervan in de praktijk?

  3. Interim Report - Grant AFOSR-85-0065. (United States)


    Option 065 Drafting Plotter 1 7475A 6 Pen Graphics Plotter Vendor: Imagen Corporation $ 11,266 1 Model 8/300 Laser Printer System, 512Kbytes memory 1... Imagen 8/300 Laser Printer 3 Interim Report Grant No. AFOSR-85-0065 was equivalent to the Versatec plotter for small plots and better for text output

  4. 24 CFR 7.44 - Interim relief. (United States)


    ... will result in the dismissal of the Department's appeal. (e) The Department may, by notice to the... conditional restoration of the employee to duty status in the position specified in the decision, pending the outcome of the Department appeal. The employee may decline the offer of interim relief. (b) Service under...

  5. Interim Guidelines Growing Longleaf Seedlings in Containers (United States)

    James P. Barnett; Mark J. Hainds; George A. Hernandez


    These interim guidelines are designed for producers and users of longleaf pine container stock. They are not meant to exclude any container product. The seedling specifications listed in the preferred category are attainable by the grower and will result in excellent field sur vival and early height growth.


    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  7. A Non-Traditional Interim Project. (United States)

    Brown, Diane; Ward, Dorothy


    Describes a project initiated by the Foreign Language Department of Birmingham-Southern College for their Interim term and discusses an interdisciplinary course focusing on Medieval Europe. The course included presentations on German and French language and literature, as well as lectures on the arts, philosophy, and family life of the period.…

  8. Path Dependencies and Institutional Bricolage in Post-Soviet Water Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniver Sehring


    Based on empirical findings, four variables through which the neopatrimonial context in both countries impacts water governance are identified: the decision-making process, the agricultural sector, the local governance institutions, and internal water-institutional linkages. A historical-institutionalist perspective shows how path dependencies limit reform effectiveness: institutionalised Soviet and pre-Soviet patterns of behaviour still shape actors’ responses to new challenges. Consequently, rules and organisations established formally by the state or international donor organisations are undermined by informal institutions. Yet, informal institutions are not only an obstacle to reform, but can also support it. They are not static but dynamic. This is elucidated with the concept of 'institutional bricolage', which explains how local actors recombine elements of different institutional logics and thereby change their meaning.

  9. Age-dependent effects of developmental lead exposure on performance in the Morris water maze. (United States)

    Jett, D A; Kuhlmann, A C; Farmer, S J; Guilarte, T R


    The neurobehavioral toxicity of developmental exposure to lead (Pb) was investigated by conducting tests of spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Female Long-Evans rats were exposed to 0 or 250 ppm Pb acetate in the diet beginning 10 days prior to breeding and continued throughout gestation and lactation. Pups were weaned onto the same diets as the dams at postnatal day 20 (PN20). Increased levels of Pb were detected in the hippocampus of the 250 ppm Pb acetate group relative to controls. The highest concentration of Pb measured in the hippocampus was at PN21 with decreasing levels at older ages. In the Morris Water Maze, a statistically significant (p water maze at any age. These initial studies indicate an impairment of performance in the swim task in PN21 rats exposed to Pb during development. The age-dependent effect of Pb in this learning paradigm is consistent with previous studies in experimental animals and with the observation that children are more susceptible to Pb-induced cognitive deficits than adults. The Morris water maze may be useful for studying the effects of Pb on learning and memory, and their neurochemical basis.

  10. Solvent-dependent properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) monolayers at the air-water interface. (United States)

    Zhu, Huie; Matsui, Jun; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Miyashita, Tokuji; Mitsuishi, Masaya


    The present work addresses the solvent-dependent properties of Langmuir films of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and amphiphilic poly(N-dodecylacrylamide) (pDDA) at different mixing ratios. After introducing pDDA nanosheets, PVDF Langmuir films obtain a tremendously enhanced modulus as well as high transfer ratios using the vertical dipping method caused by the support of the pDDA two-dimensional hydrogen bonding network. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) was used to investigate PVDF monolayers at the air-water interface in situ. Spreading from different solvents, the PVDF molecules take completely different aggregation states at the air-water interface. The PVDF molecules aggregate to become large domains when spread from N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). However, the volatile and low-polarity methylethyl ketone (MEK) made the PVDF molecules more dispersive on the water surface. This study also discovers a versatile crystallization control of PVDF homopolymer from complete β phase (NMP) to complete α phase (MEK) at the air-water interface, thereby eliciting useful information for further manipulation of film morphologies and film applications.

  11. Temperature-dependent transport mechanisms through PE-CVD coatings: comparison of oxygen and water vapour (United States)

    Kirchheim, D.; Wilski, S.; Jaritz, M.; Mitschker, F.; Gebhard, M.; Brochhagen, M.; Böke, M.; Benedikt, Jan; Awakowicz, P.; Devi, A.; Hopmann, Ch; Dahlmann, R.


    When it comes to thin coatings such as plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition or plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition coatings on substrates of polymeric material, existing models often describe transport through these thin coatings as mainly driven by transport through defects of different sizes. However, temperature-dependent measurements of permeation could not confirm this hypothesis and instead gaseous transport through these thin coatings was found to more likely to occur through the molecular structure. This paper correlates existing transport models with data from oxygen transmission experiments and puts recent investigations for water vapour transmission mechanisms into context for a better understanding of gaseous transport through thin coatings.

  12. Forsterite Carbonation in Wet-scCO2: Dependence on Adsorbed Water Concentration (United States)

    Loring, J.; Benezeth, P.; Qafoku, O.; Thompson, C.; Schaef, T.; Bonneville, A.; McGrail, P.; Felmy, A.; Rosso, K.


    Capturing and storing CO2 in basaltic formations is one of the most promising options for mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. These geologic reservoirs have high reactive potential for CO2-mineral trapping due to an abundance of divalent-cation containing silicates, such as forsterite (Mg2SiO4). Recent studies have shown that carbonation of these silicates under wet scCO2 conditions, e. g. encountered near a CO2 injection well, proceeds along a different pathway and is more effective than in CO2-saturated aqueous fluids. The presence of an adsorbed water film on the forsterite surface seems to be key to reactivity towards carbonation. In this study, we employed in situ high pressure IR spectroscopy to investigate the dependence of adsorbed water film thickness on forsterite carbonation chemistry. Post reaction ex situ SEM, TEM, TGA, XRD, and NMR measurements will also be discussed. Several IR titrations were performed of forsterite with water at 50 °C and 90 bar scCO2. Aliquots of water were titrated at 4-hour reaction-time increments. Once a desired total water concentration was reached, data were collected for about another 30 hours. One titration involved 10 additions, which corresponds to 6.8 monolayers of adsorbed water. Clearly, a carbonate was precipitating, and its spectral signature matched magnesite. Another titration involved 8 aliquots, or up to 4.4 monolayers of water. The integrated absorbance under the CO stretching bands of carbonate as a function of time after reaching 4.4 monolayers showed an increase and then a plateau. We are currently unsure of the identity of the carbonate that precipitated, but it could be an amorphous anhydrous phase or magnesite crystals with dimensions of only several nanometers. A third titration only involved 3 additions, or up to 1.6 monolayers of water. The integrated absorbance under the CO stretching bands of carbonate as a function of time after reaching 1.6 monolayers

  13. The temperature dependence of intermediate range oxygen-oxygen correlations in liquid water. (United States)

    Schlesinger, Daniel; Wikfeldt, K Thor; Skinner, Lawrie B; Benmore, Chris J; Nilsson, Anders; Pettersson, Lars G M


    We analyze the recent temperature dependent oxygen-oxygen pair-distribution functions from experimental high-precision x-ray diffraction data of bulk water by Skinner et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 214507 (2014)] with particular focus on the intermediate range where small, but significant, correlations are found out to 17 Å. The second peak in the pair-distribution function at 4.5 Å is connected to tetrahedral coordination and was shown by Skinner et al. to change behavior with temperature below the temperature of minimum isothermal compressibility. Here we show that this is associated also with a peak growing at 11 Å which strongly indicates a collective character of fluctuations leading to the enhanced compressibility at lower temperatures. We note that the peak at ∼13.2 Å exhibits a temperature dependence similar to that of the density with a maximum close to 277 K or 4 °C. We analyze simulations of the TIP4P/2005 water model in the same manner and find excellent agreement between simulations and experiment albeit with a temperature shift of ∼20 K.

  14. Annex D-200 Area Interim Storage Area Final Safety Analysis Report [FSAR] [Section 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area (200 Area ISA) at the Hanford Site provides for the interim storage of non-defense reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) housed in aboveground dry cask storage systems. The 200 Area ISA is a relatively simple facility consisting of a boundary fence with gates, perimeter lighting, and concrete and gravel pads on which to place the dry storage casks. The fence supports safeguards and security and establishes a radiation protection buffer zone. The 200 Area ISA is nominally 200,000 ft{sup 2} and is located west of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Interim storage at the 200 Area ISA is intended for a period of up to 40 years until the materials are shipped off-site to a disposal facility. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) does not address removal from storage or shipment from the 200 Area ISA. Three different SNF types contained in three different dry cask storage systems are to be stored at the 200 Area ISA, as follows: (1) Fast Flux Test Facility Fuel--Fifty-three interim storage casks (ISC), each holding a core component container (CCC), will be used to store the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF currently in the 400 Area. (2) Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA'--One Rad-Vault' container will store two DOT-6M3 containers and six NRF TRIGA casks currently stored in the 400 Area. (3) Commercial Light Water Reactor Fuel--Six International Standards Organization (ISO) containers, each holding a NAC-I cask4 with an inner commercial light water reactor (LWR) canister, will be used for commercial LWR SNF from the 300 Area. An aboveground dry cask storage location is necessary for the spent fuel because the current storage facilities are being shut down and deactivated. The spent fuel is being transferred to interim storage because there is no permanent repository storage currently available.

  15. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY10 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Field, Jim G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Danny L. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection has constructed interim surface barriers over a portion of the T and TY tank farms as part of the Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The interim surface barriers (hereafter referred to as the surface barriers or barriers) are designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the soil zones containing radioactive contaminants and minimize the movement of the contaminants. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barriers at reducing soil moisture. Solar-powered systems were installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations in the T (i.e., instrument Nests TA, TB, TC, and TD) and the TY (i.e., instrument Nests TYA and TYB) Farms beneath the barriers and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nests TA and TYA are placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serve as controls, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barriers. Nest TB provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests TC, TD, and TYB are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barriers.

  16. Glycol-Water Interactions and co-existing phases and Temperature Dependent Solubility. An Example Of Carbon-Hydrogen Chemistry In Water

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, Fredrick


    Recently there has been great interest in Glycol-Water chemistry and solubility and temperature dependent phase dynamics. The Glycol-Water biochemistry of interactions is present in plant biology and chemistry, is of great interest to chemical engineers and biochemists as it is a paradigm of Carbon-Hydrogen Water organic chemistry. There is an interest moreover in formulating a simpler theory and computation model for the Glycol-Water interaction and phase dynamics, that is not fully quantum mechanical yet has the high accuracy available from a fully quantum mechanical theory of phase transitions of fluids and Fermi systems. Along these lines of research interest we have derived a Lennard-Jones -like theory of interacting molecules-Water in a dissolved adducts of Glycol-Water system interacting by Hydrogen bonds whose validity is supported at the scale of interactions by other independent molecular dynamics investigations that utilize force fields dependent on their experimental fittings to the Lennard-Jones ...

  17. Scale dependent controls of stream water temperatures - interaction of advective and diffusive energy fluxes (United States)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Weiler, Markus


    Diurnal stream water temperature amplitudes (WTA) have a large impact on local ecohydrological conditions, e.g. aquatic habitat quality or biogeochemical cycling. Depending on discharge, streambed geomorphology, connectivity to the groundwater, hyporheic exchange flow and other local factors such as shading and climate conditions observable WTAs vary strongly from up- to downstream and can locally even exceed seasonal temperature variations. The main process which is responsible for the local expression of WTA is the energy balance which can be either dominated by advective energy fluxes (e. g. discharge and upwelling groundwater) or by diffusive energy fluxes (e. g. radiation, latent and sensible heat fluxes, heat exchange with the streambed). In recent years research has mainly focused on improving our knowledge how groundwater-surface water interaction, hyporheic exchange and shading processes influence locally observable WTA in smaller streams, while for larger streams or rivers WTA might even be non-observable throughout the year. Within this study we analyze the scaling behavior of advective and diffusive energy fluxes from small to large streams to better understand on which scales and under which conditions WTA might be dominated either by advective or diffusive energy fluxes and how groundwater - surface water interaction influences this relationship. For this purpose, we carried out a synthetic model study. Using published hydraulic geometry relations for different types of rivers, we apply a conceptual energy balance- and mixing model, which includes GW-SW interaction, discharges from 100 l/s up to 50 m3/s on length scales from 100 m up to 50 km. Simulated boundary conditions were constant discharges at the upstream boundary and constant and uniformly distributed exchange fluxes to the groundwater. Upstream water temperatures were 15 °C (WTA of 5 °C), while groundwater temperature was assumed to be cooler than the stream with 9°C. Net diffusive energy

  18. An investigation into environment dependent nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) exoskeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas, E-mail:


    The present investigation focuses on understanding the influence of change from wet to dry environment on nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp exoskeleton. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) based measurements suggest that the shrimp exoskeleton has Bouligand structure, a key characteristic of the crustaceans. As expected, wet samples are found to be softer than dry samples. Reduced modulus values of dry samples are found to be 24.90 ± 1.14 GPa as compared to the corresponding values of 3.79 ± 0.69 GPa in the case of wet samples. Hardness values are found to be 0.86 ± 0.06 GPa in the case of dry samples as compared to the corresponding values of 0.17 ± 0.02 GPa in the case of wet samples. In order to simulate the influence of underwater pressure on the exoskeleton strength, constant load creep experiments as a function of wet and dry environments are performed. The switch in deformation mechanism as a function of environment is explained based on the role played by water molecules in assisting interface slip and increased ductility of matrix material in wet environment in comparison to the dry environment. - Highlights: • Environment dependent (dry-wet) properties of shrimp exoskeleton are analyzed. • Mechanical properties are correlated with the structure and composition. • Presence of water leads to lower reduced modulus and hardness. • SEM images shows the Bouligand pattern based structure. • Creep-relaxation of polymer chains, interface slip is high in presence of water.

  19. Human Health Risk Assessment Applied to Rural Populations Dependent on Unregulated Drinking Water Sources: A Scoping Review. (United States)

    Ford, Lorelei; Bharadwaj, Lalita; McLeod, Lianne; Waldner, Cheryl


    Safe drinking water is a global challenge for rural populations dependent on unregulated water. A scoping review of research on human health risk assessments (HHRA) applied to this vulnerable population may be used to improve assessments applied by government and researchers. This review aims to summarize and describe the characteristics of HHRA methods, publications, and current literature gaps of HHRA studies on rural populations dependent on unregulated or unspecified drinking water. Peer-reviewed literature was systematically searched (January 2000 to May 2014) and identified at least one drinking water source as unregulated (21%) or unspecified (79%) in 100 studies. Only 7% of reviewed studies identified a rural community dependent on unregulated drinking water. Source water and hazards most frequently cited included groundwater (67%) and chemical water hazards (82%). Most HHRAs (86%) applied deterministic methods with 14% reporting probabilistic and stochastic methods. Publications increased over time with 57% set in Asia, and 47% of studies identified at least one literature gap in the areas of research, risk management, and community exposure. HHRAs applied to rural populations dependent on unregulated water are poorly represented in the literature even though almost half of the global population is rural.

  20. Groundwater–surface water interactions, vegetation dependencies and implications for water resources management in the semi-arid Hailiutu River catchment, China – a synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou


    Full Text Available During the last decades, large-scale land use changes took place in the Hailiutu River catchment, a semi-arid area in northwest China. These changes had significant impacts on the water resources in the area. Insights into groundwater and surface water interactions and vegetation-water dependencies help to understand these impacts and formulate sustainable water resources management policies. In this study, groundwater and surface water interactions were identified using the baseflow index at the catchment scale, and hydraulic and water temperature methods as well as event hydrograph separation techniques at the sub-catchment scale. The results show that almost 90% of the river discharge consists of groundwater. Vegetation dependencies on groundwater were analysed from the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and groundwater depth at the catchment scale and along an ecohydrogeological cross-section, and by measuring the sap flow of different plants, soil water contents and groundwater levels at different research sites. The results show that all vegetation types, i.e. trees (willow (Salix matsudana and poplar (Populus simonii, bushes (salix – Salix psammophila, and agricultural crops (maize – Zea mays, depend largely on groundwater as the source for transpiration. The comparative analysis indicates that maize crops use the largest amount of water, followed by poplar trees, salix bushes, and willow trees. For sustainable water use with the objective of satisfying the water demand for socio-economical development and to prevent desertification and ecological impacts on streams, more water-use-efficient crops such as sorghum, barley or millet should be promoted to reduce the consumptive water use. Willow trees should be used as wind-breaks in croplands and along roads, and drought-resistant and less water-use intensive plants (for instance native bushes should be used to vegetate sand dunes.

  1. Temperature dependence of stream aeration coefficients and the effect of water turbulence: a critical review. (United States)

    Demars, B O L; Manson, J R


    The gas transfer velocity (K(L)) and related gas transfer coefficient (k(2) = K(L)A/V, with A, area and V, volume) at the air-water interface are critical parameters in all gas flux studies such as green house gas emission, whole stream metabolism or industrial processes. So far, there is no theoretical model able to provide accurate estimation of gas transfer in streams. Hence, reaeration is often estimated with empirical equations. The gas transfer velocity need then to be corrected with a temperature coefficient θ = 1.0241. Yet several studies have long reported variation in θ with temperature and 'turbulence' of water (i.e. θ is not a constant). Here we re-investigate thoroughly a key theoretical model (Dobbins model) in detail after discovering important discrepancies. We then compare it with other theoretical models derived from a wide range of hydraulic behaviours (rigid to free continuous surface water, wave and waterfalls with bubbles). The results of the Dobbins model were found to hold, at least theoretically in the light of recent advances in hydraulics, although the more comprehensive results in this study highlighted a higher degree of complexity in θ's behaviour. According to the Dobbins model, the temperature coefficient θ, could vary from 1.005 to 1.042 within a temperature range of 0-35 °C and wide range of gas transfer velocities, i.e. 'turbulence' condition (0.005 turbulence', and only modest variability in θ with change in temperature. However, the other theoretical models did not have the same temperature coefficient θ (with 1.000 turbulence and bubble mediated gas transfer velocities suggested a lower temperature dependence for bubble (1.013turbulence (1.023turbulence on the temperature dependence of gas transfer at the air-water interface has still to be clarified, although many models simulate different flow conditions which may explain some of the observed discrepancies. We suggest that the temperature dependence curves produced by

  2. The Vibrio cholerae O139 O-antigen polysaccharide is essential for Ca2+-dependent biofilm development in sea water


    Kierek, Katharine; Watnick, Paula I.


    Vibrio cholerae is both an inhabitant of estuarine environments and the etiologic agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. Previous work has demonstrated that V. cholerae forms both an exopolysaccharide-dependent biofilm and a Ca2+-dependent biofilm. In this work, we demonstrate a role for the O-antigen polysaccharide of V. cholerae in Ca2+-dependent biofilm development in model and true sea water. Interestingly, V. cholerae biofilms, as well as the biofilms of several other Vibrio species, di...

  3. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. First and second quarters 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. This document contains the analytical groundwater sampling data for these eight wells for the first two quarters of 1996.

  4. Size dependence of volume and surface nucleation rates for homogeneous freezing of supercooled water droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kuhn


    Full Text Available The relative roles of volume and surface nucleation were investigated for the homogeneous freezing of pure water droplets. Experiments were carried out in a cryogenic laminar aerosol flow tube using supercooled water aerosols with maximum volume densities at radii between 1 and 3 μm. Temperature- and size-dependent values of volume- and surface-based homogeneous nucleation rates between 234.8 and 236.2 K were derived using a microphysical model and aerosol phase compositions and size distributions determined from infrared extinction measurements in the flow tube. The results show that the contribution from nucleation at the droplet surface increases with decreasing droplet radius and dominates over nucleation in the bulk droplet volume for droplets with radii smaller than approximately 5 μm. This is interpreted in terms of a lowered free energy of ice germ formation in the surface-based process. The implications of surface nucleation for the parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation in numerical models are considered.

  5. Coherent reverberation model based on adiabatic normal mode theory in a range dependent shallow water environment (United States)

    Li, Zhenglin; Zhang, Renhe; Li, Fenghua


    Ocean reverberation in shallow water is often the predominant background interference in active sonar applications. It is still an open problem in underwater acoustics. In recent years, an oscillation phenomenon of the reverberation intensity, due to the interference of the normal modes, has been observed in many experiments. A coherent reverberation theory has been developed and used to explain this oscillation phenomenon [F. Li et al., Journal of Sound and Vibration, 252(3), 457-468, 2002]. However, the published coherent reverberation theory is for the range independent environment. Following the derivations by F. Li and Ellis [D. D. Ellis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 97(5), 2804-2814, 1995], a general reverberation model based on the adiabatic normal mode theory in a range dependent shallow water environment is presented. From this theory the coherent or incoherent reverberation field caused by sediment inhomogeneity and surface roughness can be predicted. Observations of reverberation from the 2001 Asian Sea International Acoustic Experiment (ASIAEX) in the East China Sea are used to test the model. Model/data comparison shows that the coherent reverberation model can predict the experimental oscillation phenomenon of reverberation intensity and the vertical correlation of reverberation very well.

  6. Site-Dependent Environmental Impacts of Industrial Hydrogen Production by Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Christian Koj


    Full Text Available Industrial hydrogen production via alkaline water electrolysis (AEL is a mature hydrogen production method. One argument in favor of AEL when supplied with renewable energy is its environmental superiority against conventional fossil-based hydrogen production. However, today electricity from the national grid is widely utilized for industrial applications of AEL. Also, the ban on asbestos membranes led to a change in performance patterns, making a detailed assessment necessary. This study presents a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA using the GaBi software (version 6.115, thinkstep, Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Germany, revealing inventory data and environmental impacts for industrial hydrogen production by latest AELs (6 MW, Zirfon membranes in three different countries (Austria, Germany and Spain with corresponding grid mixes. The results confirm the dependence of most environmental effects from the operation phase and specifically the site-dependent electricity mix. Construction of system components and the replacement of cell stacks make a minor contribution. At present, considering the three countries, AEL can be operated in the most environmentally friendly fashion in Austria. Concerning the construction of AEL plants the materials nickel and polytetrafluoroethylene in particular, used for cell manufacturing, revealed significant contributions to the environmental burden.

  7. Surface wave climatology and its variability in the North Indian Ocean based on ERA-Interim reanalysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anoop, T.R.; Sanilkumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.; Johnson, G.

    generated in the ocean surface by the wind stress acting on water and this stress is directly proportional to the square of wind speed, the climatology of square of wind speed for the monsoon months from 1979 to 2012 is presented in Figure 6d. Figures 6a... and the introduction of a new scheme to parameterize unresolved bathymetry (Bidlot et al. 2007). A four-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme is used in ERA-Interim. Kumar et al. (2013) compared wind stress estimates from ERA-Interim against in...

  8. Terahertz-dependent evaluation of water content in high-water-cut crude oil using additive-manufactured samplers (United States)

    Guan, LiMei; Zhan, HongLei; Miao, XinYang; Zhu, Jing; Zhao, Kun


    The evaluation of water content in crude oil is of significance to petroleum exploration and transportation. Terahertz (THz) waves are sensitive to fluctuations in the dipole moment of water. However, due to the strong absorption of water in the THz range, it is difficult for the THz spectrum to determine high water content with the common sampler. In this research, micron-grade samplers for THz detection were designed and manufactured using additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Oil-water mixtures with water content from 1.8% to 90.6% were measured with the THz-TDS system using sample cells. In addition, a detailed analysis was performed of the relationships among THz parameters such as signal peak, time delay, and refractive index as well as absorption coefficient and high water content (>60%). Results suggest that the combination of THz spectroscopy and AM technique is effective for water content evaluation in crude oil and can be further applied in the petroleum industry.

  9. Investigation of the temperature dependence of water adsorption on silica-based stationary phases in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Bartó, Endre; Felinger, Attila; Jandera, Pavel


    In the present work, the adsorption of water was investigated in aqueous normal-phase liquid chromatography on Cogent Silica C and Cogent Phenyl hydride stationary phases at different temperatures by frontal analysis - using coulometric Karl Fischer titration - to compare the temperature dependence of adsorption of water from aqueous acetonitrile. The Cogent Silica-C and Cogent Phenyl Hydride columns have a silicon hydride surface (silica hydride) with less than 2% free silanol group; therefore, they do not have a strong association with water. The adsorption behavior of water on the mentioned stationary phases was modeled by Langmuir isotherm. The preferentially adsorbed water was expressed in terms of a hypothetical monomolecular water layer equivalent in the inner pores. The uptake of water slightly depends on the temperature. The adsorbed water may fill four to eight percent of the pore volume over the studied temperature range, which approximately corresponds to the equivalent of 0.24-0.68 water layer coverage of the adsorbent surface. The phenyl hydride stationary phase shows decreased water uptake in comparison to the Silica C stationary phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 1998 interim 242-A Evaporator tank system integrity assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.E.


    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) under contract to Lockheed-Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) for Waste Management Hanford (WMH), the 242-A Evaporator (facility) operations contractor for Fluor Daniel Hanford, and the US Department of Energy, the system owner. The contract specifies that FDNW perform an interim (5 year) integrity assessment of the facility and prepare a written IAR in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640. The WAC 173-303 defines a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility tank system as the ``dangerous waste storage or treatment tank and its ancillary equipment and containment.`` This integrity assessment evaluates the two tank systems at the facility: the evaporator vessel, C-A-1 (also called the vapor-liquid separator), and the condensate collection tank, TK-C-100. This IAR evaluates the 242-A facility tank systems up to, but not including, the last valve or flanged connection inside the facility perimeter. The initial integrity assessment performed on the facility evaluated certain subsystems not directly in contact with dangerous waste, such as the steam condensate and used raw water subsystems, to provide technical information. These subsystems were not evaluated in this IAR. The last major upgrade to the facility was project B-534. The facility modifications, as a result of project B-534, were evaluated in the 1993 facility interim integrity assessment. Since that time, the following upgrades have occurred in the facility: installation of a process condensate recycle system, and installation of a package steam boiler to provide steam for the facility. The package boiler is not within the scope of the facility TSD.

  11. Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crank, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)


    We investigated the effects of laser excitation wavelength on water-window emission lines of laser-produced boron-nitride plasmas. Plasmas are produced by focusing 1064 nm and harmonically generated 532 and 266 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser on BN target in vacuum. Soft x-ray emission lines in the water-window region are recorded using a grazing-incidence spectrograph. Filtered photodiodes are used to obtain complementary data for water-window emission intensity and angular dependence. Spectral emission intensity changes in nitrogen Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} are used to show how laser wavelength affects emission. Our results show that the relative intensity of spectral lines is laser wavelength dependent, with the ratio of Ly-{alpha} to He-{alpha} emission intensity decreasing as laser wavelength is shortened. Filtered photodiode measurements of angular dependence showed that 266 and 532 nm laser wavelengths produce uniform emission.

  12. Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas (United States)

    Crank, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A.


    We investigated the effects of laser excitation wavelength on water-window emission lines of laser-produced boron-nitride plasmas. Plasmas are produced by focusing 1064 nm and harmonically generated 532 and 266 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser on BN target in vacuum. Soft x-ray emission lines in the water-window region are recorded using a grazing-incidence spectrograph. Filtered photodiodes are used to obtain complementary data for water-window emission intensity and angular dependence. Spectral emission intensity changes in nitrogen Ly-α and He-α are used to show how laser wavelength affects emission. Our results show that the relative intensity of spectral lines is laser wavelength dependent, with the ratio of Ly-α to He-α emission intensity decreasing as laser wavelength is shortened. Filtered photodiode measurements of angular dependence showed that 266 and 532 nm laser wavelengths produce uniform emission.

  13. 47 CFR 51.715 - Interim transport and termination pricing. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim transport and termination pricing. 51.715 Section 51.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... Telecommunications Traffic § 51.715 Interim transport and termination pricing. (a) Upon request from a...

  14. 50 CFR 660.720 - Interim protection for sea turtles. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim protection for sea turtles. 660... Migratory Fisheries § 660.720 Interim protection for sea turtles. (a) Until the effective date of §§ 660.707... harvest of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) using longline gear deployed on the high seas of the Pacific Ocean...

  15. Decision on performing interim analysis for comparative clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyongsun Pak


    Full Text Available In randomized-controlled trials, interim analyses are often planned for possible early trial termination to claim superiority or futility of a new therapy. While unblinding is necessary to conduct the formal interim analysis in blinded studies, blinded data also have information about the potential treatment difference between the groups. We developed a blinded data monitoring tool that enables investigators to predict whether they observe such an unblinded interim analysis results that supports early termination of the trial. Investigators may skip some of the planned interim analyses if an early termination is unlikely. We specifically focused on blinded, randomized-controlled studies to compare binary endpoints of a new treatment with a control. Assuming one interim analysis is planned for early termination for superiority or futility, we conducted extensive simulation studies to assess the impact of the implementation of our tool on the size, power, expected number of interim analyses, and bias in the treatment effect. The numerical study showed the proposed monitoring tool does not affect size or power, but dramatically reduces the expected number of interim analyses when the effect of the treatment difference is small. The tool serves as a useful reference when interpreting the summary of the blinded data throughout the course of the trial, without losing integrity of the study. This tool could potentially save the study resources and budget by avoiding unnecessary interim analyses.

  16. General certification procedure of enterprises and interim job enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    Int. At. Energy Agency, Wien


    This procedure defines the certification global process of enterprises employing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities and interim job enterprises proposing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities. This certification proves the enterprises ability to satisfy the specification ''E'' of the CEFRI and the interim job enterprises to satisfy the specification ''I'' of the CEFRI. (A.L.B.)

  17. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim detergent gasoline program. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.141 Interim detergent gasoline... apply to: (i) All gasoline sold or transferred to a party who sells or transfers gasoline to the...

  18. 46 CFR 308.203 - Amount insured under interim binder. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount insured under interim binder. 308.203 Section 308.203 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.203 Amount insured under interim binder. The...

  19. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amounts insured under interim binder. 308.303 Section... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts... of the date of a casualty involving the subject vessel. Upon the attachment of this binder, the...

  20. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insured amounts under interim binder. 308.103 Section 308.103 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder. (a...

  1. Consumers' choice of drinking water: Is it dependent upon perceived quality, convenience, price and attitude? (United States)

    Wahid, Nabsiah Abdul; Cheng, Patrick Tan Foon; Abustan, Ismail; Nee, Goh Yen


    Tap water is one of the many sources of water that the public as consumers can choose for drinking. This study hypothesized that perceived quality, convenience, price and environmental attitude would determine consumers's choice of drinking water following the Attribution Theory as the underlying model. A survey was carried out on Malaysia's public at large. From 301 usable data, the PLS analysis revealed that only perceived quality, convenience and price attributed towards the public's choice of drinking water while attitude was not significant. The findings are beneficial for the water sector industry, particularly for drinking water operators, state governments, and alternative drinking water manufacturers like bottled water companies. The ability to identify factors for why consumers in the marketplace choose the source of their drinking water would enable the operators to plan and strategize tactics that can disseminate accurate knowledge about the product that can motivate marketability of drinking water in Malaysia.

  2. Pressure dependence of viscosity in supercooled water and a unified approach for thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies of water (United States)

    Singh, Lokendra P.; Issenmann, Bruno; Caupin, Frédéric


    The anomalous decrease of the viscosity of water with applied pressure has been known for over a century. It occurs concurrently with major structural changes: The second coordination shell around a molecule collapses onto the first shell. Viscosity is thus a macroscopic witness of the progressive breaking of the tetrahedral hydrogen bond network that makes water so peculiar. At low temperature, water at ambient pressure becomes more tetrahedral and the effect of pressure becomes stronger. However, surprisingly, no data are available for the viscosity of supercooled water under pressure, in which dramatic anomalies are expected based on interpolation between ambient pressure data for supercooled water and high pressure data for stable water. Here we report measurements with a time-of-flight viscometer down to 244K and up to 300MPa, revealing a reduction of viscosity by pressure by as much as 42%. Inspired by a previous attempt [Tanaka H (2000) J Chem Phys 112:799–809], we show that a remarkably simple extension of a two-state model [Holten V, Sengers JV, Anisimov MA (2014) J Phys Chem Ref Data 43:043101], initially developed to reproduce thermodynamic properties, is able to accurately describe dynamic properties (viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and rotational correlation time) as well. Our results support the idea that water is a mixture of a high density, “fragile” liquid, and a low density, “strong” liquid, the varying proportion of which explains the anomalies and fragile-to-strong crossover in water. PMID:28404733

  3. Interim land use planning for the Rocky Flat Sites a phased approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.; Marquez, W. [S.M. Stoller Corp., Boulder, CO (United States)


    A phased approach to interim land use planning for the Rocky Flats site should be based on the elimination of land disposition constraints, as land disposition in the central land use planning issue to be decided for the site now that its mission has changed. Land use planning for Rocky Flats must be considered interim until a formal land use decision is made by DOE and the stakeholders. The most significant land disposition constraints for Rocky Flats are waste, Special Nuclear Material (SNM), and contamination. Waste is a significant potential constraint as a result of limited waste treatment and storage capacity onsite, as well as the site`s current unavailability for waste disposal. SNM onsite imposes safeguards and security restrictions that represent significant potential constraints to land disposition. Contamination is a potentially significant constraint depending on the cleanup level selected for an area.

  4. Effect of myelin water exchange on DTI-derived parameters in diffusion MRI: Elucidation of TE dependence. (United States)

    Lin, Mu; He, Hongjian; Tong, Qiqi; Ding, Qiuping; Yan, Xu; Feiweier, Thorsten; Zhong, Jianhui


    Water exchange exists between different neuronal compartments of brain tissue but is often ignored in most diffusion models. The goal of the current study was to demonstrate the dependence of diffusion measurements on echo time (TE) in the human brain and to investigate the underlying effects of myelin water exchange. Five healthy subjects were examined with single-shot pulsed-gradient spin-echo echo-planar imaging with fixed duration (δ) and separation (Δ) of diffusion gradient pulses and a set of varying TEs. The effects of water exchange and intrinsic T2 difference in cellular environments were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. Both in vivo measurements and simulations showed that fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity (AD) had positive correlations with TE, while radial diffusivity (RD) showed a negative correlation, which is consistent with a previous study. The simulation results further indicated the sensitivity of TE dependence to the change of g-ratio. The exchange between myelin and intra/extra-axonal water pools often plays a non-negligible role in the observed TE dependence of diffusion parameters, which may accompany or alter the effect of intrinsic T2 in causing such dependence. The TE dependence may potentially serve as a biomarker for demyelination processes (e.g., in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease). Magn Reson Med 79:1650-1660, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Radon measurements in schools: an interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The report provides school officials, groups such as Parent-Teacher Associations, and other interested person with interim information on how to measure radon in schools and what to do if elevated levels are found. The first sections of the document contain facts about radon and the health risks associated with radon exposure. The next sections summarize what is known about radon in schools and provide guidance for conducting radon measurements. The last sections describe how to interpret the measurement results and suggest techniques that can be used to reduce radon concentrations if elevated levels are found.

  6. National NIF Diagnostic Program Interim Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, B


    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has the mission of supporting Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science research in high-energy-density plasmas. To execute those missions, the facility must provide diagnostic instrumentation capable of observing and resolving in time events and radiation emissions characteristic of the plasmas of interest. The diagnostic instrumentation must conform to high standards of operability and reliability within the NIF environment. These exacting standards, together with the facility mission of supporting a diverse user base, has led to the need for a central organization charged with delivering diagnostic capability to the NIF. The National NIF Diagnostics Program (NNDP) has been set up under the aegis of the NIF Director to provide that organization authority and accountability to the wide user community for NIF. The funds necessary to perform the work of developing diagnostics for NIF will be allocated from the National NIF Diagnostics Program to the participating laboratories and organizations. The participating laboratories and organizations will design, build, and commission the diagnostics for NIF. Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize NIF Core Diagnostics Systems and Cryogenic Target Handing Systems, on the planning and initiation of these efforts. The purpose of this document is to provide an interim project management plan describing the organizational structure and management processes currently in place for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems. Preparation of a Program Execution Plan for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems has been initiated and a current draft is provided as Attachment 1 to this document. The National NIF Diagnostics Program Interim Management Plan provides a summary of primary design criteria and functional requirements, current organizational structure, tracking and reporting procedures, and current planning estimates of project scope

  7. Evaluation of Cloud Physical Properties of ECMWF Analysis and Re-Analysis (ERA-40 and ERA Interim) against CERES Tropical Deep Convective Cloud Object Observations (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man


    This study presents an approach that converts the vertical profiles of grid-averaged cloud properties from large-scale models to probability density functions (pdfs) of subgrid-cell cloud physical properties measured at satellite footprints. Cloud physical and radiative properties, rather than just cloud and precipitation occurrences, of assimilated cloud systems by the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis (EOA) and ECMWF Re-Analyses (ERA-40 and ERA Interim) are validated against those obtained from Earth Observing System satellite cloud object data for January-August 1998 and March 2000 periods. These properties include ice water path (IWP), cloud-top height and temperature, cloud optical depth and solar and infrared radiative fluxes. Each cloud object, a contiguous region with similar cloud physical properties, is temporally and spatially matched with EOA and ERA-40 data. Results indicate that most pdfs of EOA and ERA-40 cloud physical and radiative properties agree with those of satellite observations of the tropical deep convective cloud-object type for the January-August 1998 period. There are, however, significant discrepancies in selected ranges of the cloud property pdfs such as the upper range of EOA cloud top height. A major discrepancy is that the dependence of the pdfs on the cloud object size for both EOA and ERA-40 is not as strong as in the observations. Modifications to the cloud parameterization in ECMWF that occurred in October 1999 eliminate the clouds near the tropopause but shift power of the pdf to lower cloud-top heights and greatly reduce the ranges of IWP and cloud optical depth pdfs. These features persist in ERA-40 due to the use of the same cloud parameterizations. The downgrade of data assimilation technique and the lack of snow water content information in ERA-40, not the coarser horizontal grid resolution, are also responsible for the disagreements with observed pdfs of cloud physical

  8. 50 CFR 259.30 - Application for Interim Capital Construction Fund Agreement (“Interim CCF Agreement”). (United States)


    ...) Date of construction, acquisition, or reconstruction, (vii) Fishery of operation (which in this section... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for Interim Capital Construction Fund Agreement (âInterim CCF Agreementâ). 259.30 Section 259.30 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...

  9. Spatial scale and seasonal dependence of land use impacts on riverine water quality in the Huai River basin, China. (United States)

    Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Xiang; Wu, Bi; Pan, Guoyan; Xu, Jing; Wu, Shaofei


    Land use pattern is an effective reflection of anthropic activities, which are primarily responsible for water quality deterioration. A detailed understanding of relationship between water quality and land use is critical for effective land use management to improve water quality. Linear mixed effects and multiple regression models were applied to water quality data collected from 2003 to 2010 from 36 stations in the Huai River basin together with topography and climate data, to characterize the land use impacts on water quality and their spatial scale and seasonal dependence. The results indicated that the influence of land use categories on specific water quality parameter was multiple and varied with spatial scales and seasons. Land use exhibited strongest association with dissolved oxygen (DO) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations at entire watershed scale and with total phosphorus (TP) and fluoride concentrations at finer scales. However, the spatial scale, at which land use exerted strongest influence on instream chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) levels, varied with seasons. In addition, land use composition was responsible for the seasonal pattern observed in contaminant concentrations. COD, NH3-N, and fluoride generally peaked during dry seasons in highly urbanized regions and during rainy seasons in less urbanized regions. High proportion of agricultural and rural areas was associated with high nutrient contamination risk during spring. The results highlight the spatial scale and seasonal dependence of land use impacts on water quality and can provide scientific basis for scale-specific land management and seasonal contamination control.

  10. Sensing the water content of honey from temperature-dependent electrical conductivity (United States)

    In order to predict water content in honey, electrical conductivity was measured on blossom honey types of milk-vetch, jujube and yellow-locust with water content of 18%-37% between 5-40ºC. Regression models of electrical conductivity were developed as functions of water content and temperature. The...

  11. SWSA 6 interim corrective measures environmental monitoring: FY 1990 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Spalding, B.P.


    This report presents the results and conclusions from a multifaceted monitoring effort associated with the high-density polyethylene caps installed in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as an interim corrective measure (ICM). The caps were installed between November 1988 and June 1989 to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for closure of those areas of SWSA 6 that had received RCRA-regulated wastes after November 1980. Three separate activities were undertaken to evaluate the performance of the caps: (1) wells were installed in trenches to be covered by the caps, and water levels in these intratrench wells were monitored periodically; (2) samples were taken of the leachate in the intratrench wells and were analyzed for a broad range of radiological and chemical contaminants; and (3) water levels in wells outside the trenches were monitored periodically. With the exception of the trench leachate sampling, each of these activities spanned the preconstruction, construction, and postconstruction periods. Findings of this study have important implications for the ongoing remedial investigation in SWSA 6 and for the design of other ICMs. 51 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Effects of morphine dependence on the performance of rats in reference and working versions of the water maze. (United States)

    Miladi Gorji, Hossein; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Fathollahi, Yaghoub


    Numerous studies have dealt with the role of opiate system in tasks aimed at measurement of cognitive behavior, but the role of morphine dependence on learning and memory is still controversial. In this study chronic exposure to morphine was employed to evaluate learning ability and spatial short-term memory (working memory) and long-term memory (reference memory) in the water maze task. Male albino rats were made dependent by chronic administration of morphine in drinking water that lasted at least 21 days. In Experiment 1, the performance of animals was evaluated in reference memory version of the water maze. Rats were submitted to a session of 6 trials for 6 consecutive days to find the submerged platform that was located in the center of a quadrant. Latency and traveled distance to find the platform were measured as indexes of learning. Memory retention was tested 24 h after the last training session in a probe trial (60 s) in which there was no platform and the time spent in each quadrant of the water maze was recorded. Results indicated that latency and traveled distance to find the platform were same in control and dependent rats during training days, but during the probe test morphine-dependent group spent significantly less time in the target quadrant. In Experiment 2, training on working memory version of the water maze task was started. Only two trials per day were given until the performance of animals was stabilized (at least 5 days). Final test was done at day 6. Acquisition-retention interval was 75 min. No significant differences were found on acquisition and retention trials between morphine and control groups. Our findings indicate that chronic exposure to morphine did not impair learning ability, but partially impaired retention of spatial long-term (reference) memory. Moreover, dependence on morphine did not affect either acquisition or retention of spatial short (working) memory.

  13. The pH Value of Fungicide, Insecticide and Mineral Fertilizer Mixtures Depending on Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Inđić


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effect of water quality on the pH value of fungicides, insecticides, mineral fertilizers and their mixtures. The fungicides propineb (Antracol WP-70 and mancozeb (Dithane M-70, insecticides pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic-50 and imidacloprid(Confidor 200-SL, several fertilizers (Ferticare I, Ferticare II, Ferticare III and Wuxal Super and their mixtures were analyzed for pH value under laboratory conditions using a potentiometric pH meter. Measurements were made directly after preparation or mixing with tap and well water and 24 hours later. Tap water exhibited a neutral reaction. A slightly alkaline reaction of well water was mostlikely due to high ammonium content. The suspensions of Antracol WP-70 exhibited slightly alkaline reactions with both water types during 24 hours. The spray liquids of Dithane M-70 mixed with tap or well water had neutral reaction after preparation and slightly alkaline reaction after 24 hours. The emulsions of Actellic-50 showed neutral reaction with both water types, followed by a pH increase in tap water after 24 hours. The solutions of Confidor200-SL had a slightly alkaline reaction after mixing and the pH value increased with both water types after 24 hours. It is therefore recommended to apply these insecticides directly after preparation. Mineral fertilizers considerably reduced pH values of the fungicide and insecticide components in double and triple mixtures, especially Ferticare nutrients which had a moderately acid reaction. Wuxal Super had a neutral reaction with both water types.The mixtures with well water increased pH values, which indicates that water pH does affect the pH value of the mixture. Both individual fertilizers and all mixtures (double and triple with Ferticare had pH values between 2.4 and 6, which allows their active liquids to be stored for 12 to 24 hours. The suspensions (Antracol WP-70, double and triple mixtures, emulsions (Actellic-50 and Actellic-50+Wuxal Super

  14. Study on interim storage system to utilize waste heat from spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aritomi, Masanori [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Kurokawa, Hideaki; Kamiyama, Yoshinori; Yamanaka, Tsuneyasu


    Spent fuels amounting to about 30 tons a year are generated by a 1,000MWe-class light water reactor (LWR). However, the whole amount of spent fuels generated by LWRs cannot be reprocessed. From the viewpoint of energy resources, it is believed in Japan that fast breeder reactors will be introduced as commercial power reactors in the future. In that time, it admits of no doubt that the spent fuel will be a valuable energy resource. It is, therefore, an urgent problem in Japan to establish interim storage systems of spent fuels for LWRs to continue smoothly in operation. In this work, the spent fuel is treated not as unwanted waste but as a heat source. At first, various kinds of interim storage systems of spent fuel are examined from the viewpoint of the utilization of the waste heat, and a pool storage system is dealt with. Next, the possibility of the utilization of the waste heat are examined. Finally, a concept of the interim storage plant, which supplies the heat to a green house where flowers with high value added such as orchids are cultivated, is proposed as a demonstration plant. (author)

  15. Holes in the Bathtub: Water Table Dependent Services and Threshold Behavior in an Economic Model of Groundwater Extraction (United States)

    Kirk-lawlor, N. E.; Edwards, E. C.


    In many groundwater systems, the height of the water table must be above certain thresholds for some types of surface flow to exist. Examples of flows that depend on water table elevation include groundwater baseflow to river systems, groundwater flow to wetland systems, and flow to springs. Meeting many of the goals of sustainable water resource management requires maintaining these flows at certain rates. Water resource management decisions invariably involve weighing tradeoffs between different possible usage regimes and the economic consequences of potential management choices are an important factor in these tradeoffs. Policies based on sustainability may have a social cost from forgoing present income. This loss of income may be worth bearing, but should be well understood and carefully considered. Traditionally, the economic theory of groundwater exploitation has relied on the assumption of a single-cell or "bathtub" aquifer model, which offers a simple means to examine complex interactions between water user and hydrologic system behavior. However, such a model assumes a closed system and does not allow for the simulation of groundwater outflows that depend on water table elevation (e.g. baseflow, springs, wetlands), even though those outflows have value. We modify the traditional single-cell aquifer model by allowing for outflows when the water table is above certain threshold elevations. These thresholds behave similarly to holes in a bathtub, where the outflow is a positive function of the height of the water table above the threshold and the outflow is lost when the water table drops below the threshold. We find important economic consequences to this representation of the groundwater system. The economic value of services provided by threshold-dependent outflows (including non-market value), such as ecosystem services, can be incorporated. The value of services provided by these flows may warrant maintaining the water table at higher levels than would

  16. Effects of trampling on morphological and mechanical traits of dryland shrub species do not depend on water availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu

    Full Text Available In semiarid drylands water shortage and trampling by large herbivores are two factors limiting plant growth and distribution. Trampling can strongly affect plant performance, but little is known about responses of morphological and mechanical traits of woody plants to trampling and their possible interaction with water availability. Seedlings of four shrubs (Caragana intermedia, Cynanchum komarovi, Hedysarum laeve and Hippophae rhamnoides common in the semiarid Mu Us Sandland were grown at 4% and 10% soil water content and exposed to either simulated trampling or not. Growth, morphological and mechanical traits were measured. Trampling decreased vertical height and increased basal diameter and stem resistance to bending and rupture (as indicated by the increased minimum bend and break force in all species. Increasing water availability increased biomass, stem length, basal diameter, leaf thickness and rigidity of stems in all species except C. komarovii. However, there were no interactive effects of trampling and water content on any of these traits among species except for minimum bend force and the ratio between stem resistance to rupture and bending. Overall shrub species have a high degree of trampling resistance by morphological and mechanical modifications, and the effects of trampling do not depend on water availability. However, the increasing water availability can also affect trade-off between stem strength and flexibility caused by trampling, which differs among species. Water plays an important role not only in growth but also in trampling adaptation in drylands.

  17. Relations between vegetation and water level in groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems (GWDTEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch Johansen, Ole; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus


    Indicator scores of moisture, pH and nutrients were calculated for each site. The water level correlates with the number of typical fen species of vascular plants, whereas bryophytes are closer connected to the stable water level conditions provided by groundwater seepage. The water level variability...... is proved to be a significant limiting factor for species diversity in wetlands, which should be considered along with the fertility in order to access the habitat quality. The study provides new insight in the water level preferences for GWDTEs which is highly needed in the management and assessment...

  18. Retention of long-term interim restorations with sodium fluoride enriched interim cement (United States)

    Strash, Carolyn

    Purpose: Interim fixed dental prostheses, or "provisional restorations", are fabricated to restore teeth when definitive prostheses are made indirectly. Patients undergoing extensive prosthodontic treatment frequently require provisionalization for several months or years. The ideal interim cement would retain the restoration for as long as needed and still allow for ease of removal. It would also avoid recurrent caries by preventing demineralization of tooth structure. This study aims to determine if adding sodium fluoride varnish to interim cement may assist in the retention of interim restorations. Materials and methods: stainless steel dies representing a crown preparation were fabricated. Provisional crowns were milled for the dies using CAD/CAM technology. Crowns were provisionally cemented onto the dies using TempBond NE and NexTemp provisional cements as well as a mixture of TempBond NE and Duraphat fluoride varnish. Samples were stored for 24h then tested or thermocycled for 2500 or 5000 cycles before being tested. Retentive strength of each cement was recorded using a universal testing machine. Results: TempBond NE and NexTemp cements performed similarly when tested after 24h. The addition of Duraphat significantly decreased the retention when added to TempBond NE. NexTemp cement had high variability in retention over all tested time periods. Thermocycling for 2500 and 5000 cycles significantly decreased the retention of all cements. Conclusions: The addition of Duraphat fluoride varnish significantly decreased the retention of TempBond NE and is therefore not recommended for clinical use. Thermocycling significantly reduced the retention of TempBond NE and NexTemp. This may suggest that use of these cements for three months, as simulated in this study, is not recommended.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH


    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  20. Maywood Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Maywood, New Jersey. [Maywood Interim Storage Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984 when congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a DOE program to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation-exposure; and total uranium, radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and thorium-230 concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment.

  1. The Vibrio cholerae O139 O-antigen polysaccharide is essential for Ca2+-dependent biofilm development in sea water. (United States)

    Kierek, Katharine; Watnick, Paula I


    Vibrio cholerae is both an inhabitant of estuarine environments and the etiologic agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. Previous work has demonstrated that V. cholerae forms both an exopolysaccharide-dependent biofilm and a Ca2+-dependent biofilm. In this work, we demonstrate a role for the O-antigen polysaccharide of V. cholerae in Ca2+-dependent biofilm development in model and true sea water. Interestingly, V. cholerae biofilms, as well as the biofilms of several other Vibrio species, disintegrate when Ca2+ is removed from the bathing medium, suggesting that Ca2+ is interacting directly with the O-antigen polysaccharide. In the Bay of Bengal, cholera incidence has been correlated with increased sea surface height. Because of the low altitude of this region, increases in sea surface height are likely to lead to transport of sea water, marine particulates, and marine biofilms into fresh water environments. Because fresh water is Ca2+-poor, our results suggest that one potential outcome of an increase is sea surface height is the dispersal of marine biofilms with an attendant increase in planktonic marine bacteria such as V. cholerae. Such a phenomenon may contribute to the correlation of increased sea surface height with cholera.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Ten dentine sections cut perpendicular to the dentinal tubules from human mature non-carious third molars, were freeze-dried and then rehydrated by immersion in water at four temperatures, 10, 25, 40 and 70-degrees-C. The uptake of water by the sections was assessed as a function of rehydration

  3. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration—Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.


    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank of the 241-T Tank Farm in 1973. Five tanks are assumed to have leaked in the TY Farm. Many of the contaminants from those leaks still reside within the vadose zone within the T and TY Tank Farms. The Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection seeks to minimize the movement of these contaminant plumes by placing interim barriers on the ground surface. Such barriers are expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plumes and moving them further. The soil water regime is monitored to determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barriers. Soil-water content and water pressure are monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. Four instrument nests were installed in the T Farm in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY2007; two nests were installed in the TY Farm in FY2010. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, and four heat-dissipation units. A meteorological station has been installed at the north side of the fence of the T Farm. This document summarizes the monitoring methods, the instrument calibration and installation, and the vadose zone monitoring plan for interim barriers in T farm and TY Farm.

  4. ORNL fusion power demonstration study: interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STeiner, D.; Bettis, E. S.; Huxford, T. J.


    The purpose of the ORNL Fusion Power Demonstration Study (Demo study) is to develop a plan for demonstrating, in this century, the commercial feasibility of fusion power based on the tokamak concept. The two-year study was initiated in FY 1976, and this interim report summarizes the results for FY 1976. Major results include: (1) the outline of a three-phase plan for demonstrating the commercial feasibility of tokamak fusion power in this century; (2) a parametric analysis of tokamak costs which provides the economic basis for the demonstration plan; and (3) a critical evaluation of the technological directions, design approaches, and plasma characteristics which serve as the technical basis for the demonstration plan.

  5. Natural tooth as an interim prosthesis. (United States)

    Dhariwal, Neha S; Gokhale, Niraj S; Patel, Punit; Hugar, Shivayogi M


    A traumatic injury to primary maxillary anterior tooth is one of the common causes for problems with the succedaneous tooth leading to it noneruption. A missing anterior tooth can be psychologically and socially damaging to the patient. Despite a wide range of treatment options available, sometimes, it is inevitable to save the natural tooth. This paper describes the immediate replacement of a right central incisor using a fiber-composite resin splint with the natural tooth crown as a pontic following surgical extraction of the dilacerated impacted permanent maxillary central incisor. The abutment teeth can be conserved with minimal or no preparation, thus keeping the technique reversible and can be completed at chair side thereby avoiding laboratory costs. It can be used as an interim measure until a definitive prosthesis can be fabricated as the growth is still incomplete.

  6. A neural network potential-energy surface for the water dimer based on environment-dependent atomic energies and charges (United States)

    Morawietz, Tobias; Sharma, Vikas; Behler, Jörg


    Understanding the unique properties of water still represents a significant challenge for theory and experiment. Computer simulations by molecular dynamics require a reliable description of the atomic interactions, and in recent decades countless water potentials have been reported in the literature. Still, most of these potentials contain significant approximations, for instance a frozen internal structure of the individual water monomers. Artificial neural networks (NNs) offer a promising way for the construction of very accurate potential-energy surfaces taking all degrees of freedom explicitly into account. These potentials are based on electronic structure calculations for representative configurations, which are then interpolated to a continuous energy surface that can be evaluated many orders of magnitude faster. We present a full-dimensional NN potential for the water dimer as a first step towards the construction of a NN potential for liquid water. This many-body potential is based on environment-dependent atomic energy contributions, and long-range electrostatic interactions are incorporated employing environment-dependent atomic charges. We show that the potential and derived properties like vibrational frequencies are in excellent agreement with the underlying reference density-functional theory calculations.

  7. The Time Needed to Implement the Blue Ribbon Commission Recommendation on Interim Storage - 13124

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voegele, Michael D. [Consultant, Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office, 7404 Oak Grove Ave, Las Vegas, NV 89117 (United States); Vieth, Donald [1154 Chelttenham Place, Maineville, OH 45039 (United States)


    legislation to the floor of the Senate, overcoming existing House support for Yucca Mountain; 3. Change the longstanding focus of Congress from disposal to storage; 4. Change the funding concepts embodied in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to allow the Nuclear Waste fund to be used to pay for interim storage; 5. Reverse the Congressional policy not to give states or tribes veto or consent authority, and to reserve to Congress the authority to override a state or tribal disapproval; 6. Promulgate interim storage facility siting regulations to reflect the new policies after such changes to policy and law; 7. Complete already underway changes to storage and transportation regulations, possibly incorporating changes to reflect changes to waste disposal law; 8. Promulgate new repository siting regulations if the interim storage facility is to support repository development; 9. Identify volunteer sites, negotiate agreements, and get Congressional approval for negotiated benefits packages; 10. Design, License and develop the interim storage facility. The time required to accomplish these ten items depends on many factors. The estimate developed assumes that certain of the items must be completed before other items are started; given past criticisms of the current program, such an assumption appears appropriate. Estimated times for completion of individual items are based on historical precedent. (authors)

  8. Interim Feed The Future Population Based Assessment of Cambodia (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This is the interim population based survey of Feed the Future in Cambodia for 2015. The data is split into survey modules. Modules A through C includes location...

  9. 13 CFR 120.890 - Source of interim financing. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Source of interim financing. 120.890 Section 120.890 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS... or professional construction manager.) ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  11. Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge : Interim Public Access Plan : 2000 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This interim plan covers public access for Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge. Sections include introduction, safety briefing protocols, entry procedure, types of...

  12. Interim research assessment 2003-2005 - Computer Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    This report primarily serves as a source of information for the 2007 Interim Research Assessment Committee for Computer Science at the three technical universities in the Netherlands. The report also provides information for others interested in our research activities.

  13. Students' interim literacies as a dynamic resource for teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... This article explores the notion of 'interim literacies'by drawing on data from a research project which used linguistic and intertextual analysis of first year student writing in economics to investigate the intersection of academic discourse and ...

  14. Intelligent cruise control field operational test : interim report (United States)


    This interim document reports on a cooperative agreement between NHTSA and UMTRI entitled Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) Field Operational Test (FOT). The overarching goal of the work is to characterize safety and comfort issues that are fundamenta...

  15. Fuel for cyclones: How the water vapor budget of a hurricane depends on its motion

    CERN Document Server

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Nefiodov, Andrei V; Chikunov, Alexander V; Sheil, Douglas; Nobre, Antonio D; Li, Bai-Lian


    Tropical cyclones are fueled by water vapor. Here we estimate the oceanic evaporation within an Atlantic hurricane to be less than one sixth of the total moisture flux precipitating over the same area. So how does the hurricane get the remaining water vapor? Our analysis of TRMM rainfall, MERRA atmospheric moisture and hurricane translation velocities suggests that access to water vapor relies on the hurricane's motion -- as it moves through the atmosphere, the hurricane consumes the water vapor it encounters. This depletion of atmospheric moisture by the hurricane leaves a "dry footprint" of suppressed rainfall in its wake. The thermodynamic efficiency of hurricanes -- defined as kinetic energy production divided by total latent heat release associated with the atmospheric moisture supply -- remains several times lower than Carnot efficiency even in the most intense hurricanes. Thus, maximum observed hurricane power cannot be explained by the thermodynamic Carnot limit.

  16. Monte Carlo thermodynamic and structural properties of the TIP4P water model: dependence on the computational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel Marques Cordeiro


    Full Text Available Classical Monte Carlo simulations were carried out on the NPT ensemble at 25°C and 1 atm, aiming to investigate the ability of the TIP4P water model [Jorgensen, Chandrasekhar, Madura, Impey and Klein; J. Chem. Phys., 79 (1983 926] to reproduce the newest structural picture of liquid water. The results were compared with recent neutron diffraction data [Soper; Bruni and Ricci; J. Chem. Phys., 106 (1997 247]. The influence of the computational conditions on the thermodynamic and structural results obtained with this model was also analyzed. The findings were compared with the original ones from Jorgensen et al [above-cited reference plus Mol. Phys., 56 (1985 1381]. It is notice that the thermodynamic results are dependent on the boundary conditions used, whereas the usual radial distribution functions g(O/O(r and g(O/H(r do not depend on them.

  17. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines.

  18. K basins interim remedial action health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAY, P.T.


    The K Basins Interim Remedial Action Health and Safety Plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as they apply to the CERCLA work that will take place at the K East and K West Basins. The provisions of this plan become effective on the date the US Environmental Protection Agency issues the Record of Decision for the K Basins Interim Remedial Action, currently planned in late August 1999.

  19. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration--Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Strickland, Christopher E.


    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank in 1973. Many of the contaminants from that leak still reside within the vadose zone beneath the T Tank Farm. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. seeks to minimize movement of this residual contaminant plume by placing an interim barrier on the surface. Such a barrier is expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plume and moving it further. A plan has been prepared to monitor and determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barrier. Soil water content and water pressure will be monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. In fiscal year 2006, two instrument nests were installed. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, four heat-dissipation units, and a drain gauge to measure soil water flux. A meteorological station has been installed outside of the fence. In fiscal year 2007, two additional instrument nests are planned to be installed beneath the proposed barrier.

  20. Correlation between nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual (water pipe smokers among Arab Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shahawy O


    Full Text Available Omar El-Shahawy,1 Linda Haddad2 1Department of Social and Behavioral Health, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; 2College of Nursing, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Background: Evidence suggests that dual cigarette and water pipe use is growing among minority groups, particularly among Arab Americans. Differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to smoking cessation among such dual smokers have not been previously examined in this population. We examined potential differences that might exist between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers (cigarette and water pipe pertaining to nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation among Arab Americans. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of self-identified Arab immigrant smokers (n=131 living in the Richmond, VA metropolitan area. Data were collected using four questionnaires: Demographic and Cultural Information questionnaire, Tobacco Use questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND questionnaire, and Barriers to Cessation questionnaire. We examined differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers of cigarettes and water pipe. Furthermore, we explored the correlations of these measures with select variables. Results: There was a significant difference in the FTND scores between the exclusive cigarette smokers (mean M=2.55, standard deviation [SD] =2.10 and dual smokers (M=3.71, SD =2.42; t(129 = (2.51, P=0.0066.There was also a significant difference in the Barriers to Cessation scores between exclusive cigarette smokers (M=38.47, SD =13.07 and dual smokers (M=45.21, SD =9.27; t(129 = (2.56, P=0.0058. Furthermore, there was a highly significant correlation among FTND scores, Barriers to Cessation scores, and past quit attempts among dual smokers. Conclusion: Water pipe tobacco smoking seems to be both adding to the dependence

  1. Temperature dependence of the infinite dilution activity coefficient and Henry's law constant of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water. (United States)

    Reza, Joel; Trejo, Arturo


    The water solubility of 9,10-dihydroanthracene was experimentally determined between 278.12 and 313.17 K. Determinations were carried out by an experimental procedure developed in our laboratory, which is a modification of the dynamic coupled column liquid chromatographic technique. The uncertainty of the experimental determinations ranged from +/- 0.50% to +/- 3.10%. These data, as well as the water solubility data of other five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) previously studied, were used to calculate the temperature dependence of the infinite dilution activity coefficient of 9,10-dihydroanthracene, anthracene, pyrene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, m-terphenyl, and guaiazulene in water. Molar excess enthalpies and entropies at infinite dilution, at 298.15 K, were also derived. The temperature dependence of the infinite dilution activity coefficients was used, together with literature values of the vapor pressures of supercooled liquid PAHs (p(B)(sc)), to estimate their Henry's law constants (HLC). Only HLC for anthracene, pyrene, and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene were calculated, since no p(B)(sc) data were available in the literature for 9,10-dihydroanthracene, m-terphenyl, and guaiazulene. From the observed temperature dependence of the Henry's law constants the enthalpy and entropy of the phase change from the dissolved phase to the gas phase were also derived for anthracene, pyrene, and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene.

  2. Substrate Dependence of the Freezing Dynamics of Supercooled Water Films: A High-Speed Optical Microscope Study. (United States)

    Pach, E; Rodriguez, L; Verdaguer, A


    The freezing of supercooled water films on different substrates was investigated using a high-speed camera coupled to an optical microscope, obtaining details of the freezing process not described in the literature before. We observed the two well known freezing stages (fast dendritic growth and slow freezing of the water liquid left after the dendritic growth), but we separated the process into different phenomena that were studied separately: two-dimensional dendrite growth on the substrate interface, vertical dendrite growth, formation and evolution of ice domains, trapping of air bubbles and freezing of the water film surface. We found all of these processes to be dependent on both the supercooling temperature and the substrate used. Ice dendrite (or ice front) growth during the first stage was found to be dependent on thermal properties of the substrate but could not be unequivocally related to them. Finally, for low supercooling, a direct relationship was observed between the morphology of the dendrites formed in the first stage, which depends on the substrate, and the roughness and the shape of the surface of the ice, when freezing of the film was completed. This opens the possibility of using surfaces and coatings to control ice morphology beyond anti-icing properties.

  3. Development of Extended Period Pressure-Dependent Demand Water Distribution Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judi, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mcpherson, Timothy N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has used modeling and simulation of water distribution systems for N-1 contingency analyses to assess criticality of water system assets. Critical components considered in these analyses include pumps, tanks, and supply sources, in addition to critical pipes or aqueducts. A contingency represents the complete removal of the asset from system operation. For each contingency, an extended period simulation (EPS) is run using EPANET. An EPS simulates water system behavior over a time period, typically at least 24 hours. It assesses the ability of a system to respond and recover from asset disruption through distributed storage in tanks throughout the system. Contingencies of concern are identified as those in which some portion of the water system has unmet delivery requirements. A delivery requirement is defined as an aggregation of water demands within a service area, similar to an electric power demand. The metric used to identify areas of unmet delivery requirement in these studies is a pressure threshold of 15 pounds per square inch (psi). This pressure threshold is used because it is below the required pressure for fire protection. Any location in the model with pressure that drops below this threshold at any time during an EPS is considered to have unmet service requirements and is used to determine cascading consequences. The outage area for a contingency is the aggregation of all service areas with a pressure below the threshold at any time during the EPS.

  4. Time and concentration dependency in the potentially affected fraction of species: the case of hydrogen peroxide treatment of ballast water. (United States)

    Smit, Mathijs G D; Ebbens, Eltjo; Jak, Robbert G; Huijbregtst, Mark A J


    Transport of large volumes of ballast water contributes greatly to invasions of species. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be used as a disinfectant to prevent the spread of exotic species via ballast water. Instead of using environmental risk assessment techniques for protecting a certain fraction of the species from being affected, the present study aimed to apply these techniques to define treatment regimes of H2O2 and effectively eliminate as many species as possible. Based on time-dependent dose-response curves for five marine species (Corophium volutator, Artemia salina, Brachionus plicatilis, Dunaliella teriolecta, and Skeletonema costatum), time-dependent species-sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were derived for different effect sizes. The present study showed that H2O2 can be used effectively to treat ballast water but that relatively high concentrations and long treatment durations are required to eliminate the vast majority of species in ballast water. The described toxicant effectiveness approach using SSDs also has other potential fields of application, including short-term application of biocides.

  5. Wayne Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Wayne, New Jersey. [Wayne Interim Storage Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document describes the envirormental monitoring program at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring of WISS and surrounding area began in 1984 when Congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. WISS is a National Priorities List site. The environmental monitoring program at WISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several nonradiological parameters are also measured in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency standards, DOE derived concentration guides, dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment.

  6. Strain-rate dependent fatigue behavior of 316LN stainless steel in high-temperature water (United States)

    Tan, Jibo; Wu, Xinqiang; Han, En-Hou; Ke, Wei; Wang, Xiang; Sun, Haitao


    Low cycle fatigue behavior of forged 316LN stainless steel was investigated in high-temperature water. It was found that the fatigue life of 316LN stainless steel decreased with decreasing strain rate from 0.4 to 0.004 %s-1 in 300 °C water. The stress amplitude increased with decreasing strain rate during fatigue tests, which was a typical characteristic of dynamic strain aging. The fatigue cracks mainly initiated at pits and slip bands. The interactive effect between dynamic strain aging and electrochemical factors on fatigue crack initiation is discussed.

  7. Evaluation of ERA-Interim precipitation data in complex terrain (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Bernhardt, Matthias; Schulz, Karsten


    Precipitation controls a large variety of environmental processes, which is an essential input parameter for land surface models e.g. in hydrology, ecology and climatology. However, rain gauge networks provides the necessary information, are commonly sparse in complex terrains, especially in high mountainous regions. Reanalysis products (e.g. ERA-40 and NCEP-NCAR) as surrogate data are increasing applied in the past years. Although they are improving forward, previous studies showed that these products should be objectively evaluated due to their various uncertainties. In this study, we evaluated the precipitation data from ERA-Interim, which is a latest reanalysis product developed by ECMWF. ERA-Interim daily total precipitation are compared with high resolution gridded observation dataset (E-OBS) at 0.25°×0.25° grids for the period 1979-2010 over central Alps (45.5-48°N, 6.25-11.5°E). Wet or dry day is defined using different threshold values (0.5mm, 1mm, 5mm, 10mm and 20mm). The correspondence ratio (CR) is applied for frequency comparison, which is the ratio of days when precipitation occurs in both ERA-Interim and E-OBS dataset. The result shows that ERA-Interim captures precipitation occurrence very well with a range of CR from 0.80 to 0.97 for 0.5mm to 20mm thresholds. However, the bias of intensity increases with rising thresholds. Mean absolute error (MAE) varies between 4.5 mm day-1 and 9.5 mm day-1 in wet days for whole area. In term of mean annual cycle, ERA-Interim almost has the same standard deviation of the interannual variability of daily precipitation with E-OBS, 1.0 mm day-1. Significant wet biases happened in ERA-Interim throughout warm season (May to August) and dry biases in cold season (November to February). The spatial distribution of mean annual daily precipitation shows that ERA-Interim significant underestimates precipitation intensity in high mountains and northern flank of Alpine chain from November to March while pronounced

  8. Spatial distribution of lion kills determined by the water dependency of prey species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.F.; Vis, M.J.P.; Knegt, de H.J.; Rowles, C.; Kohi, E.; Langevelde, van F.; Peel, M.J.S.; Pretorius, Y.; Skidmore, A.K.; Slotow, R.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.


    Predation risk from lions (Panthera leo) has been linked to habitat characteristics and availability and traits of prey. We separated the effects of vegetation density and the presence of drinking water by analyzing locations of lion kills in relation to rivers with dense vegetation, which offer

  9. Secretory Phospholipase A2 Hydrolysis Phospholipid Analogs is Dependent on Water Accessibility to the Active Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Møller, Martin S.; Jørgensen, Kent


    A new and unnatural type of phospholipids with the head group attached to the 2-position of the glycerol backbone has been synthesized and shown to be a good substrate for secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2). To investigate the unexpected sPLA2 activity, we have compared three different phospholip...... the correct position such that hydrolysis can occur is reduced for the unnatural lipids. The relative water count follows 1R > 2R > 3S. This is in good agreement with experimental data that indicate the same trend for sPLA2 activity:  1R > 2R > 3S....... mechanisms for the observed differences, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations to clarify on a structural level the substrate specificity of sPLA2 toward phospholipid analogues with their head groups in the 2-position of the glycerol backbone. We have studied the lipids above 1R, 2R, and 3S...... observed experimentally in sPLA2 activity might be caused by reduced access of water molecules to the active site. We have monitored the number of water molecules that enter the active site region for the different sPLA2−phospholipid complexes and found that the probability of a water molecule reaching...

  10. Determination of vibration frequency depending on abrasive mass flow rate during abrasive water jet cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hreha, P.; Radvanská, A.; Hloch, Sergej; Peržel, V.; Krolczyk, G.; Monková, K.


    Roč. 77, 1-4 (2014), s. 763-774 ISSN 0268-3768 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Abrasive water jet * Abrasive mass flow rate * Vibration Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.458, year: 2014

  11. Species-dependence of cyanobacteria removal efficiency by different drinking water treatment processes. (United States)

    Zamyadi, Arash; Dorner, Sarah; Sauvé, Sébastien; Ellis, Donald; Bolduc, Anouka; Bastien, Christian; Prévost, Michèle


    Accumulation and breakthrough of several potentially toxic cyanobacterial species within drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) have been reported recently. The objectives of this project were to test the efficiency of different treatment barriers in cyanobacterial removal. Upon observation of cyanobacterial blooms, intensive sampling was conducted inside a full scale DWTP at raw water, clarification, filtration and oxidation processes. Samples were taken for microscopic speciation/enumeration and microcystins analysis. Total cyanobacteria cell numbers exceeded World Health Organisation and local alert levels in raw water (6,90,000 cells/mL). Extensive accumulation of cyanobacteria species in sludge beds and filters, and interruption of treatment were observed. Aphanizomenon cells were poorly coagulated and they were not trapped efficiently in the sludge. It was also demonstrated that Aphanizomenon cells passed through and were not retained over the filter. However, Microcystis, Anabaena, and Pseudanabaena cells were adequately removed by clarification and filtration processes. The breakthrough of non toxic cyanobacterial cells into DWTPs could also result in severe treatment disruption leading to plant shutdown. Application of intervention threshold values restricted to raw water does not take into consideration the major long term accumulation of potentially toxic cells in the sludge and the risk of toxins release. Thus, a sampling regime inside the plant adapted to cyanobacterial occurrence and intensity is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Solitons of shallow-water models from energy-dependent spectral problems (United States)

    Haberlin, Jack; Lyons, Tony


    The current work investigates the soliton solutions of the Kaup-Boussinesq equation using the inverse scattering transform method. We outline the construction of the Riemann-Hilbert problem for a pair of energy-dependent spectral problems for the system, which we then use to construct the solution of this hydrodynamic system.

  13. The dependence of maize (Zea mays hybrids yielding potential on the water amounts reaching the soil surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresović Branka


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to observe the response of maize hybrids under rainfed and irrigation conditions of the soil in order to establish the dependence of yielding potential on the water amounts reaching the soil surface during the growing season. The four-replicate trail was set up according to the randomised complete-block design on chernozem. Pre-watering soil moisture was approximately 70% of field water capacity, and soil moisture was established thermogravimetrically. During the five-year studies, the following differences in yields could be as follows: 12.68 t ha-1 (ZP 341; 12.76 t ha-1 (ZP 434; 13.17 t ha-1 (ZP 578; 14.03 t ha-1 (ZP 684 and 13.75 t ha-1 (ZP 704 under conditions of 440 mm, 440 mm, 424 mm, 457 mm and 466 mm of water, respectively. The hybrid ZP 341, i.e. ZP 578 expressed the highest, i.e. the lowest tolerance in dry relative seasons, respectively. The reduction of the water amount for every 10 mm decreased the yield by 119.4 kg ha-1 (ZP 341, 156.7 kg ha-1 (ZP 434, 172.3 kg ha-1 (ZP 578, 148.9 kg ha-1 (ZP 684 and 151.1 kg ha-1 (ZP 704. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31037

  14. Temperature Dependence of Mineral Solubility in Water. Part I. Alkaline and Alkaline Earth Chlorides (United States)

    Krumgalz, B. S.


    A database of alkaline and alkaline earth chloride solubilities in water at various temperatures was created using data from more than 670 publications over about the last two centuries. Statistical critical evaluations of the created database were produced since there were enough independent data sources to justify such evaluations. The reliable experimental data were adequately described by polynomial expressions over various temperature ranges. Using the Pitzer approach for ionic activity and osmotic coefficients, the thermodynamic solubility products for the discussed minerals have been calculated at various temperature intervals and also represented by polynomial expressions. The solubility products calculated in the current study yield excellent agreement between the predicted and experimental mineral solubility values in natural waters over a wide range of temperature and ionic solution matrices.

  15. Confinement dependence of electro-catalysts for hydrogen evolution from water splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaela Lindgren


    Full Text Available Density functional theory is utilized to articulate a particular generic deconstruction of the electrode/electro-catalyst assembly for the cathode process during water splitting. A computational model was designed to determine how alloying elements control the fraction of H2 released during zirconium oxidation by water relative to the amount of hydrogen picked up by the corroding alloy. This model is utilized to determine the efficiencies of transition metals decorated with hydroxide interfaces in facilitating the electro-catalytic hydrogen evolution reaction. A computational strategy is developed to select an electro-catalyst for hydrogen evolution (HE, where the choice of a transition metal catalyst is guided by the confining environment. The latter may be recast into a nominal pressure experienced by the evolving H2 molecule. We arrived at a novel perspective on the uniqueness of oxide supported atomic Pt as a HE catalyst under ambient conditions.

  16. Range-Dependent Acoustic Propagation in Shallow Water with Elastic Bottom Effects (United States)


    water and sediments at the ocean bottom. The attenuation in near-bottom ocean sediments may be very high. It may be high enough that perturbation...for oceanic T-wave generation," Frank et al., has been published. This article documents the incorporation of seismic -like sources into the PE...contribution to this were supported by this grant. Finally the paper “Traveling wave modal attenuation and interaction with a transversely isotropic

  17. Synthesis and Size Dependent Reflectance Study of Water Soluble SnS Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Tilley


    Full Text Available Near-monodispersed water soluble SnS nanoparticles in the diameter range of 3–6 nm are synthesized by a facile, solution based one-step approach using ethanolamine ligands. The optimal amount of triethanolamine is investigated. The effect of further heat treatment on the size of these SnS nanoparticles is discussed. Diffuse reflectance study of SnS nanoparticles agrees with predictions from quantum confinement model.

  18. Phytotoxic effects of fungicides, insecticides and nonpesticidal components on pepper depending on water quality


    Slavica Vuković; Dušanka Inđić; Sonja Gvozdenac


    Modern agriculture relies on simultaneous application of fungicides, insecticides, fertilizers and adjuvants. The selection of compounds for tank-mixes has been rarely studied and it presents a risk in the application of pesticides but the quality of water should also be considered. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic effects of several fungicides, insecticides, a complex fertilizer, an adjuvant and their mixtures on pepper (Capsicum annuum L...

  19. Fuel for cyclones: The water vapor budget of a hurricane as dependent on its movement (United States)

    Makarieva, Anastassia M.; Gorshkov, Victor G.; Nefiodov, Andrei V.; Chikunov, Alexander V.; Sheil, Douglas; Nobre, Antonio Donato; Li, Bai-Lian


    Despite the dangers associated with tropical cyclones and their rainfall, the origin of the moisture in these storms, which include destructive hurricanes and typhoons, remains surprisingly uncertain. Existing studies have focused on the region 40-400 km from a cyclone's center. It is known that the rainfall within this area cannot be explained by local processes alone but requires imported moisture. Nonetheless, the dynamics of this imported moisture appears unknown. Here, considering a region up to three thousand kilometers from cyclone center, we analyze precipitation, atmospheric moisture and movement velocities for severe tropical cyclones - North Atlantic hurricanes. Our findings indicate that even over such large areas a hurricane's rainfall cannot be accounted for by concurrent evaporation. We propose instead that a hurricane consumes pre-existing atmospheric water vapor as it moves. The propagation velocity of the cyclone, i.e. the difference between its movement velocity and the mean velocity of the surrounding air (steering flow), determines the water vapor budget. Water vapor available to the hurricane through its movement makes the hurricane self-sufficient at about 700 km from the hurricane center obviating the need to concentrate moisture from greater distances. Such hurricanes leave a dry wake, whereby rainfall is suppressed by up to 40% compared to the local long-term mean. The inner radius of this dry footprint approximately coincides with the hurricane's radius of water self-sufficiency. We discuss how Carnot efficiency considerations do not constrain the power of such open systems. Our findings emphasize the incompletely understood role and importance of atmospheric moisture stocks and dynamics in the behavior of severe tropical cyclones.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Kaczmarski


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of plant coverage of the soil on the amount of water moving through the soil profile and the concentration of N-NO3, as well as the volume of load components taken out from the soil. The lysimeters were cover by the following plants: cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L. – non-fertilized, cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L. and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. – fertilized with doses 20 kg P, 50 kg K i 120 kg N·ha-1, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L. - fertilized by 20 kg P and 50 kg K·ha-1. The study was conducted in 2009–2011 in Nowosielce, Podkarpackie province. Two sub-periods were distinguished in the vegetation season. The first period included growth of plants in the first regrowth, and the second in the second one. During the experimental period the biggest amount of water moved through the soil profile in the control object, and the least in the object with the red clover. The greatest concentration of NO3-N was found in water seepage in the object with red clover. The largest load of NO3-N was stated in this object as well. It was two times bigger than the load in the control object, by 20% bigger than in the object with perennial ryegrass and by 8% bigger than in the object with fertilized cocksfoot.

  1. Very Tiny Rocks: Site-Specific, Size-Dependent Reaction Kinetics at Nanoparticle-Water Interfaces (United States)

    Rustad, J. R.


    One of the most fundamental challenges in geochemistry is to be able to understand the rates and mechanisms of elementary reactions that describe chemical processes occurring at mineral-water interfaces. One of the reasons for the primitive conceptual state of reaction kinetics in solid earth geochemistry is that it is very difficult to identify defensible elementary reactions where theoretical predictions can be made and the results can tested experimentally at the same length and time scale of the prediction. For example, the most fundamental predictor of complexation kinetics in aqueous solution is the characteristic water exchange rate, which are well known for the aquo ions and vary by 20 orders of magnitude even for simple trivalent ions. In contrast, for interfacial reactions, it was not even known whether water exchange rates were faster or slower than equivalent metal sites in solution, prohibiting any quantitive understanding of mineral reaction kinetics at the molecular level. Recent advances in synthesis and characterization of materials at nanometer length scales has been able to bridge the gap in scale, and nanometer-sized minerals have given us our first quantitative understanding of elementary reaction rates for fundamental processes involving water and hydroxide exchange reactions. I describe the results of molecular dynamics calculation and experimental measurement of the rates of water, hydroxide, and proton exchange reactions on nanoparticle surfaces. The calculations already show that transition state theory is completely inadequate to understand the rates of even the simplest elementary reactions. Furthermore, the mechanistic implications of rate parameters such as activation volume and activation enthalpy may be different in moving from aquo ions to interfaces. Is a molecular understanding of geochemical processes really needed? One might have asked a biologist at the turn of the century whether studying the structure of proteins would ever

  2. Potential-dependent water orientation on Pt(1 1 1) stepped surfaces from laser-pulsed experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Araez, Nuria [Instituto de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Climent, Victor [Instituto de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail:; Feliu, Juan M. [Instituto de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)


    Coulostatic potential transients induced by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation on Pt(1 1 1) stepped surfaces in perchloric acid solutions are analyzed here. The results provide unique information on the effect of the structure of the metal surface on the potential-dependent water reorientation at the electrified interphase. The most significant information is obtained from the sign and shape of the laser-induced transients. The existence of two potentials where the transient is zero can be related to the local properties of the surface, i.e. the existence of two local potentials of zero free charge, corresponding to the step and terrace sites. The dependency of these quantities with the step density is studied in detail. In addition, it is found that the presence of steps significantly slows down the coulostatic response at potentials in the double-layer region, which has been interpreted as a decrease in the velocity of water reorganization. The corresponding relaxation time is estimated and its dependency with the step density is also analyzed.

  3. Weak electrolyte dependence in the repulsion of colloids at an oil-water interface. (United States)

    Wirth, Christopher L; Furst, Eric M; Vermant, Jan


    The two-particle interaction between 3.1-μm-diameter polystyrene latex particles at a decane-water interface was measured with time-shared optical tweezers. The water subphase contained either 0.103 mM RbCl or 0.0342 mM MgCl2, which have hydrated cations of different size but identical anions. The choice of both the anion and the concentrations makes a comparison with published data on NaCl possible and also isolates the effect of the nature of the cation on the electrostatic interaction. The measured magnitude of the dipolar force and the relative changes as a function of electrolyte were in quantitative agreement with predictions from a recently published model that uses the Langevin-Poisson-Boltzmann equation including steric effects and the polarization saturation of the medium to predict the dipolar interaction (Frydel, D.; Oettel, M. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 4109-4118). These results support the hypothesis that a condensed layer of counterions contributes to the electrostatic interaction between colloidal particles at an oil-water interface. Although it has been suggested that the electrostatic interactions between particles at liquid interfaces could serve as a sensitive probe of the structural details of the electric double layer, both the model predictions and experimental measurements showed a maximum change of only ~25% in the magnitude of the interaction with a change in electrolyte under the conditions tested. The ability to resolve this small change was confounded by the heterogeneous nature of the interaction. Thus, despite the apparent importance of the choice of electrolyte, the subtlety of competing effects makes it unlikely that colloidal force measurements could be used to probe the fine structure of the electric double layer.

  4. Shrubland carbon sink depends upon winter water availability in the warm deserts of North America (United States)

    Biederman, Joel A.; Scott, Russell L.; John A. Arnone,; Jasoni, Richard L.; Litvak, Marcy E.; Moreo, Michael T.; Papuga, Shirley A.; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E.; Schreiner-McGraw, Adam P.; Vivoni, Enrique R.


    Global-scale studies suggest that dryland ecosystems dominate an increasing trend in the magnitude and interannual variability of the land CO2 sink. However, such model-based analyses are poorly constrained by measured CO2 exchange in open shrublands, which is the most common global land cover type, covering ∼14% of Earth’s surface. Here we evaluate how the amount and seasonal timing of water availability regulate CO2 exchange between shrublands and the atmosphere. We use eddy covariance data from six US sites across the three warm deserts of North America with observed ranges in annual precipitation of ∼100–400mm, annual temperatures of 13–18°C, and records of 2–8 years (33 site-years in total). The Chihuahuan, Sonoran and Mojave Deserts present gradients in both mean annual precipitation and its seasonal distribution between the wet-winter Mojave Desert and the wet-summer Chihuahuan Desert. We found that due to hydrologic losses during the wettest summers in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts, evapotranspiration (ET) was a better metric than precipitation of water available to drive dryland CO2 exchange. In contrast with recent synthesis studies across diverse dryland biomes, we found that NEP could not be directly predicted from ET due to wintertime decoupling of the relationship between ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP). Ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE=GEP/ET) did not differ between winter and summer. Carbon use efficiency (CUE=NEP/GEP), however, was greater in winter because Reco returned a smaller fraction of carbon to the atmosphere (23% of GEP) than in summer (77%). Combining the water-carbon relations found here with historical precipitation since 1980, we estimate that lower average winter precipitation during the 21st century reduced the net carbon sink of the three deserts by an average of 6.8TgC yr1. Our results highlight that winter precipitation is critical to the annual carbon balance of these

  5. Angle-dependent hard X-ray photoemission study of Nb hydride formation in high-pressure supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soda, Kazuo, E-mail: [Department of Quantum Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kondo, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Kanta; Kato, Masahiko [Department of Quantum Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Shiraki, Tatsuhito; Niwa, Ken; Kusaba, Keiji; Hasegawa, Masashi [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Xeniya, Kozina; Ikenaga, Eiji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Nb hydrides in 10-GPa supercritical water are studied by photoelectron spectroscopy. • The hydride components of the Nb 3d core-level spectra are increased with the depth. • The bulk valence-band spectrum shows a split band due to the Nb–H bond formation. • The hydrides are formed in the bulk and their surfaces are covered with Nb oxides. - Abstract: Nb hydrides formation in 10-GPa supercritical water has been investigated by angle-dependent micro-beam hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. In the Nb 3d core-level spectra, Nb hydride components are found in the slightly high binding energy side of the metallic components, and the oxide ones are observed even though little oxides are recognized in X-ray diffraction patterns. Obtained emission-angle dependence of the Nb 3d core-level spectra of Nb hydride specimens shows that the Nb hydride components increase with the emission angle decreased i.e. the sampling depth increased, while the oxide ones decrease. The bulk valence-band spectrum is obtained by decomposing the measured valence-band spectra into a bulk and surface components with use of the emission-angle dependence of the core-level and valence-band spectra; it consists of two bands. This implies the Nb–H chemical bond formation and Nb in an oxidation state, consistent with reported band structure calculations and the observed core-level chemical shifts. Thus it is confirmed by valence-band and core-level photoelectron spectroscopy that the Nb hydrides are formed inside the specimen, irrespective to the well-known high oxidation ability of supercritical water.

  6. Correction Technique for Raman Water Vapor Lidar Signal-Dependent Bias and Suitability for Water Wapor Trend Monitoring in the Upper Troposphere (United States)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Cadirola, M.; Venable, D.; Calhoun, M.; Miloshevich, L; Vermeesch, K.; Twigg, L.; Dirisu, A.; Hurst, D.; Hall, E.; hide


    The MOHAVE-2009 campaign brought together diverse instrumentation for measuring atmospheric water vapor. We report on the participation of the ALVICE (Atmospheric Laboratory for Validation, Interagency Collaboration and Education) mobile laboratory in the MOHAVE-2009 campaign. In appendices we also report on the performance of the corrected Vaisala RS92 radiosonde measurements during the campaign, on a new radiosonde based calibration algorithm that reduces the influence of atmospheric variability on the derived calibration constant, and on other results of the ALVICE deployment. The MOHAVE-2009 campaign permitted the Raman lidar systems participating to discover and address measurement biases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The ALVICE lidar system was found to possess a wet bias which was attributed to fluorescence of insect material that was deposited on the telescope early in the mission. Other sources of wet biases are discussed and data from other Raman lidar systems are investigated, revealing that wet biases in upper tropospheric (UT) and lower stratospheric (LS) water vapor measurements appear to be quite common in Raman lidar systems. Lower stratospheric climatology of water vapor is investigated both as a means to check for the existence of these wet biases in Raman lidar data and as a source of correction for the bias. A correction technique is derived and applied to the ALVICE lidar water vapor profiles. Good agreement is found between corrected ALVICE lidar measurments and those of RS92, frost point hygrometer and total column water. The correction is offered as a general method to both quality control Raman water vapor lidar data and to correct those data that have signal-dependent bias. The influence of the correction is shown to be small at regions in the upper troposphere where recent work indicates detection of trends in atmospheric water vapor may be most robust. The correction shown here holds promise for permitting useful upper

  7. Wavevector- and frequency-dependent shear viscosity of water: the modified collective mode approach and molecular dynamics calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The transverse momentum time autocorrelation functions and wavevector- and frequency-dependent shear viscosity are calculated for an interaction site model of water using a modified collective mode approach and molecular dynamics simulations. The modified mode approach is based on a formulation which consistently takes into account non-Markovian effects into the kinetic memory kernels. As is demonstrated by comparing the theory results with the molecular dynamics data, the entire frequency dependence of the shear viscosity can be reproduced quantitatively over the whole wavelength range in terms of six generalized collective modes employing the kinetic memory kernel in the non-Markovian approximation of the third order. It is also shown that the results corresponding to the exact atomic and abbreviated molecular descriptions may differ considerably. In the infinite wavevector regime the dynamic correlations are completely determined by a single free motion of the molecules.

  8. Spatial Dependence and Determinants of Dairy Farmers' Adoption of Best Management Practices for Water Protection in New Zealand (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Sharp, Basil


    This paper analyses spatial dependence and determinants of the New Zealand dairy farmers' adoption of best management practices to protect water quality. A Bayesian spatial durbin probit model is used to survey data collected from farmers in the Waikato region of New Zealand. The results show that farmers located near each other exhibit similar choice behaviour, indicating the importance of farmer interactions in adoption decisions. The results also address that information acquisition is the most important determinant of farmers' adoption of best management practices. Financial problems are considered a significant barrier to adopting best management practices. Overall, the existence of distance decay effect and spatial dependence in farmers' adoption decisions highlights the importance of accounting for spatial effects in farmers' decision-making, which emerges as crucial to the formulation of sustainable agriculture policy.

  9. Amide-induced phase separation of hexafluoroisopropanol-water mixtures depending on the hydrophobicity of amides. (United States)

    Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Wada, Hiroshi; Kawatoko, Chiemi; Shimomura, Takuya; Kanzaki, Ryo; Takeuchi, Munetaka


    Amide-induced phase separation of hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP)-water mixtures has been investigated to elucidate solvation properties of the mixtures by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), (1)H and (13)C NMR, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The amides included N-methylformamide (NMF), N-methylacetamide (NMA), and N-methylpropionamide (NMP). The phase diagrams of amide-HFIP-water ternary systems at 298 K showed that phase separation occurs in a closed-loop area of compositions as well as an N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) system previously reported. The phase separation area becomes wider as the hydrophobicity of amides increases in the order of NMF amides due to the hydrophobic interaction gives rise to phase separation of the mixtures. In contrast, the disruption of HFIP clusters causes the recovery of the homogeneity of the ternary systems. The present results showed that HFIP clusters are evolved with increasing amide content to the lower phase separation concentration in the same mechanism among the four amide systems. However, the disruption of HFIP clusters in the NMP and DMF systems with further increasing amide content to the upper phase separation concentration occurs in a different way from those in the NMF and NMA systems.

  10. Morphology-dependent water budgets and nutrient fluxes in arctic thaw ponds (United States)

    Koch, Joshua C.; Gurney, Kirsty; Wipfli, Mark S.


    Thaw ponds on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska are productive ecosystems, providing habitat and food resources for many fish and bird species. Permafrost in this region creates unique pond morphologies: deep troughs, shallow low-centred polygons (LCPs) and larger coalescent ponds. By monitoring seasonal trends in pond volume and chemistry, we evaluated whether pond morphology and size affect water temperature and desiccation, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fluxes. Evaporation was the largest early-summer water flux in all pond types. LCPs dried quickly and displayed high early-summer nutrient concentrations and losses. Troughs consistently received solute-rich subsurface inflows, which accounted for 12 to 42 per cent of their volume and may explain higher P in the troughs. N to P ratios increased and ammonium concentrations decreased with pond volume, suggesting that P and inorganic N availability may limit ecosystem productivity in older, larger ponds. Arctic summer temperatures will likely increase in the future, which may accelerate mid-summer desiccation. Given their morphology, troughs may remain wet, become warmer and derive greater nutrient loads from their thawing banks. Overall, seasonal- to decadal-scale warming may increase ecosystem productivity in troughs relative to other Arctic Coastal Plain ponds. 

  11. Distribution and Local Movement of Humpback Whales in Okinawan Waters Depend on Sex and Reproductive Status. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Nozomi; Okabe, Haruna; Kawazu, Isao; Higashi, Naoto; Kato, Keisuke; Miyahara, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Gen; Kato, Hidehiro; Uchida, Senzo


    The distribution and local movement patterns of humpback whales in waters off the west coast of Okinawa Island, southwest Japan, were investigated using line transect and photo-identification methodologies. Line transect surveys were conducted from 2011 to 2014 and photo-identification survey from 2006 to 2012. During the surveys, humpback whales aggregated in the areas around Ie and Kerama Islands, and tended to travel along the inshore coast of Okinawa Island when they move locally between those two sites. A total of 496 humpback whales of the known sex were photo-identified (322 males, 75 females and 99 females with a calf). Of these, 24.8% were confirmed moving locally between the sites of Ie and Kerama Islands within the same season. Frequency rates of the local movement for males, females and females with a calf were 41.9, 25.0, and 15.1%, respectively; the frequency of local movement for males was significantly higher than that for females and females with a calf. These results indicate that male humpback whales tend to move more actively between the local breeding sites as compared to females and females with a calf. We speculate that the males search for more opportunities to mate, whereas females with a calf tend to remain in the same areas to nurse their calves. These findings extend our knowledge of the habitat use and reproductive ecology of humpback whales in Okinawan waters, which remain poorly understood.

  12. A digital technique for fabricating implant-supported interim restorations in the esthetic zone. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Tan, Yao; Liu, Jianzhang; Tan, Jianguo


    A digital technique for fabricating an implant-supported interim restoration is presented. The labial cervical architecture of the natural tooth is captured before extraction and registered to form the emergence profile of the interim restoration. A well-contoured interim restoration is fabricated before surgery and connected to the immediately placed implant with a customized interim abutment. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Temperature Dependence of Soil Respiration Modulated by Thresholds in Soil Water Availability Across European Shrubland Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lellei-Kovács, Eszter; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; de Dato, Giovanbattista


    Soil respiration (SR) is a major component of the global carbon cycle and plays a fundamental role in ecosystem feedback to climate change. Empirical modelling is an essential tool for predicting ecosystem responses to environmental change, and also provides important data for calibrating...... the performance of SR models by including the interaction between soil moisture and soil temperature. We found that the best fit for the temperature functions depended on the site-specific climatic conditions. Including soil moisture, we identified thresholds in the three different response functions...... that improved the model fit in all cases. The direct soil moisture effect on SR, however, was weak at the annual time scale. We conclude that the exponential soil temperature function may only be a good predictor for SR in a narrow temperature range, and that extrapolating predictions for future climate based...

  14. Size Dependent Optical Nonlinearity and Optical Limiting Properties of Water Soluble CdSe Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju K. Augustine


    Full Text Available We present third-order optical nonlinear absorption in CdSe quantum dots (QDs with particle sizes in the range of 4.16–5.25 nm which has been evaluated by the Z-scan technique. At an excitation irradiance of 0.54 GW/cm2 the CdSe QDs exhibit reverse saturation indicating a clear nonlinear behavior. Nonlinearity increases with particle size in CdSe QDs within the range of our investigations which in turn depends on the optical band gap. The optical limiting threshold of the QDs varies from 0.35 GW/cm2 to 0.57 GW/cm2 which makes CdSe QDs a promising candidate for reverse-saturable absorption based devices at high laser intensities such as optical limiters.

  15. 75 FR 35510 - License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance Process, Revision 2 Notice of Availability (United States)


    ... COMMISSION License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance Process, Revision 2 Notice of Availability AGENCY: Nuclear... license renewal interim staff guidance (LR-ISG) process. This revision is entitled, ``License Renewal... Renewal Interim Staff Guidance Process, Revision 1'' (ML091950069) (the previous LR-ISG process). FOR...

  16. 78 FR 56750 - Interim Staff Guidance on Environmental Issues Associated With New Reactors (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Environmental Issues Associated With New Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear... Staff Guidance (ISG) ESP/COL-ISG-026, ``Interim Staff Guidance on Environmental Issues ] Associated with... Notice: Draft Interim Staff Guidance on Environmental Issues Associated with New Reactors. ML12326A742...

  17. 46 CFR 308.302 - Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions. 308... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.302 Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions. Upon acceptance of an application, an interim binder in form as set forth in § 308.3...

  18. 46 CFR 308.102 - Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions; fees. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions; fees... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.102 Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions; fees. Upon acceptance of an application, an interim binder in the form set forth...

  19. Density dependence of the entropy and the solvation shell structure in supercritical water via molecular dynamics simulation. (United States)

    Ma, Haibo


    We perform molecular dynamics simulations of supercritical water (SCW) with a wide range of densities along a near critical isotherm using the simple point charge extended (SPC/E) pair potential in order to study the entropy and the solvation shell structure around a central water molecule. It is shown that both the translational and orientational two-particle correlation entropy terms can serve as the metrics of the translational-orientational structural orders in water and it is revealed that the translational structural order is very sensitive to the density variation in the gas-like and liquid-like region, while the orientational structural order is much more dependent upon compression in the medium-density SCW region. The comparison of the magnitudes of the full thermodynamic excess entropy and two-particle correlation entropy confirms the recent findings that the many-body terms other than two-body ones also present significant and non-neglectable contributions to the full excess entropy for the highly anomalous fluids like water. The analysis of entropy terms as a function of intermolecular distance and the orientational distribution functions as well as the three-dimensional spatial distribution functions indicate that the structural order occurs only in a much more diffused first solvation shell due to the elongated hydrogen bonds under supercritical conditions. It is revealed that no obvious second or higher neighbor shells occur in SCW, in contrast with the feature of normal liquid water that the anomalous decrease of translational order upon compression occurs mainly in the second shell.

  20. Soil atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS regulated by diffusivity depending on water-filled pore space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Van Diest


    Full Text Available The exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS between soil and the atmosphere was investigated for three arable soils from Germany, China and Finland and one forest soil from Siberia for parameterization in the relation to ambient carbonyl sulfide (COS concentration, soil water content (WC and air temperature. All investigated soils acted as sinks for COS. A clear and distinct uptake optimum was found for the German, Chinese, Finnish and Siberian soils at 11.5%, 9%, 11.5%, and 9% soil WC, respectively, indicating that the soil WC acts as an important biological and physical parameter for characterizing the exchange of COS between soils and the atmosphere. Different optima of deposition velocities (Vd as observed for the Chinese, Finnish and Siberian boreal soil types in relation to their soil WC, aligned at 19% in relation to the water-filled pore space (WFPS, indicating the dominating role of gas diffusion. This interpretation was supported by the linear correlation between Vd and bulk density. We suggest that the uptake of COS depends on the diffusivity dominated by WFPS, a parameter depending on soil WC, soil structure and porosity of the soil.

  1. Evaluation of Shear Strength Threshold of Concern for Retrieval of Interim-Stored K-Basin Sludge in the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.


    K-Basin sludge will be recovered into the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and will be stored in the T Plant for interim storage (at least 10 years). Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show that high uranium content K Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has "paste" and "chunks" with shear strengths of approximately 3~5 kPa and 380 ~ 770 kPa, respectively. High uranium content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185°C, 10 h) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. After interim storage at T Plant, the sludge in the STSCs will be mobilized by water jets impinging the sludge. The objective of the evaluation was to determine the range of sludge shear strength for which there is high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from STSCs. The shear strength at which the sludge can be retrieved is defined as the "shear strength threshold of concern." If the sludge shear strength is greater than the value of the shear strength threshold of concern, a water-jet retrieval system will be unlikely to mobilize the sludge up to the container’s walls. The shear strength threshold of concern can be compared with the range of possible shear strengths of K-Basin stored sludge to determine if the current post interim-storage, water-jet retrieval method is adequate. Fourteen effective cleaning radius (ECR) models were reviewed, and their validity was examined by applying them to Hanford 241-SY-101 and 241-AZ-101 Tanks to reproduce the measured ECR produced by the mixer pumps. The validation test identified that the Powell-3 and Crowe-2 ECR models are more accurate than other ECR models reviewed. These ECR models were used to address a question as to whether the effective cleaning radius of a water jet is sufficient or if it can be readily expanded

  2. Electrodril System Field Test Program, interim phase. Final report, January--April 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Interim Phase between Phase 1 Testing and the Phase 2 Major Drilling System Test included more detailed analyses, some redesign, and additional field testing required to rectify three problems that surfaced during Phase 1 Testing: motor lower seal failures, excessive wear of bit shaft seal, and cable/connector failures. The Phase 1 Motor Lower Seal Failures were found to have been caused by failure to rigidly fix the Face Seal Stator and by having the Face Seal inversely designed into the motor system. Downhole testing with the seal inversely installed but with the stator rigidly fixed demonstrated that the seal performed satisfactorily. In all subsequent use of the motor, the seal should be configured as recommended by the manufacturer. Interim Phase Downhole Testing demonstrated that a properly refurbished bit shaft is capable of functioning satisfactorily in a drilling environment. Seal wear experienced during test indicates that these seals should be replaced periodically. The Interim Phase was used to provide extensive analysis into Phase 1 Cable/Connector Failures, evaluation of potential cable conductor insulation material, evaluation of stronger, more rigid material for fabricating the male connector body, and evaluation of ''Bondability'' of materials used in connector fabrication and cable insulation. These analyses and evaluations were used as inputs in the design, fabrication, and procurement cycle to yield a new replaceable Electrodril connector pair and armored cable with water blocked MS type connectors capable of accepting the replaceable Electrodril connectors. Repeated downhole matings were made during test. The cable and the replaceable male connector performed flawlessly. The internal conductor rings in the replaceable female connector gradually became oversize as the test progressed. Subsequent female connector rings will be fabricated using a harder, springier material to assure successful downhole mating even after

  3. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellin, Patrick (ed.)


    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses.

  4. The Dependence of Amyloid‐β Dynamics on Protein Force Fields and Water Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somavarapu, Arun Kumar; Kepp, Kasper Planeta


    We studied the dynamics of Aβ40, involved in Alzheimer's disease, by using 21 methods combined from Amber03, Amber99sb‐ILDN, Charmm27, Charmm22*, OPLS‐2001, OPLS‐2006, OPLS‐2008, Gromos96‐43a1, Gromos96‐53a6, Gromos96‐54a7, and the water models SPC, TIP3P, TIP4P. Major differences in the structural...... ensembles were systematized: Amber03, Charmm27, and Gromos96‐54a7 stabilize the helices; Gromos96‐43a1 and Gromos53a6 favor the β‐strands (with Charmm22* and Amber99sb‐ILDN in between), and OPLS produces unstructured ensembles. The accuracy of the NMR chemical shifts was in the order: Charmm22*>Amber99sb......‐ILDN>OPLS‐2008≈Gromos96‐43a1>Gromos96‐54a7≈OPLS‐2001>OPLS‐2006>Gromos96‐53a6>Charmm27>Amber03. The computed 3JHNHα‐coupling constants were sensitive to experiment type and Karplus parameterization. Overall, the ensembles of Charmm22* and Amber99sb‐ILDN provided the best agreement with experimental NMR...

  5. Shape Dependent Thermal Conductivity of TiO2-Deionized Water and Ethylene Glycol Dispersion. (United States)

    Pal, Bhupender; Mallick, Soumya Suddha; Pal, Bonamali


    This paper presents the importance of different shapes and crystal phases of TiO2 nanostructures such as TiO2 P-25 (70:30 anatase and rutile), as-prepared nanorods (pure anatase) and sodium titanate nanotubes (orthorhombic Na2Ti2O5 x H2O crystal) on the thermal conductivity of de-ionized water and ethylene glycol. It revealed that TiO2 nanorods (L x W = 81-134 nm x 8-13 nm and surface area = 79 m2 g(-1)) showed always higher thermal conductivity than porous nanotubes (L x W = 85-115 nm x 9-12 nm and surface area = 176 m2 g(-1)) and commercial TiO2 P-25 (30-55 nm surface area = 56 m2 g(-1)), which was explained by their differences in crystallinity, crystal phases, compactness, surface exposed atoms, surface area and much greater mean free path of longitudinal phonon vibrations along its lateral dimensions. The subsequent effect of sonication time from 5-10 h results into the breakdown of TiO2 nanorods cluster (42 to 28 nm) with the instantaneous increase in negative zeta potential values from -31 to -45 mV, respectively, seems to be an additional cause for enhancement in its thermal conductivity.

  6. Time dependent wettability of graphite upon ambient exposure: The role of water adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amadei, Carlo A.; Lai, Chia-Yun; Heskes, Daan; Chiesa, Matteo, E-mail: [Laboratory for Energy and NanoScience (LENS), Institute Center for Future Energy (iFES), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)


    We report the temporal evolution of the wettability of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) exposed to environmental conditions. Macroscopic wettability is investigated by static and dynamic contact angles (SCA and DCA) obtaining values comparable to the ones presented in the literature. SCA increases from ∼68° to ∼90° during the first hour of exposure after cleaving, whereas DCA is characterized by longer-scale (24 h) time evolution. We interpret these results in light of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicates that the evolution of the HOPG wettability is due to adsorption of molecules from the surrounding atmosphere. This hypothesis is further confirmed by nanoscopic observations obtained by atomic force microscope (AFM)-based force spectroscopy, which monitor the evolution of surface properties with a spatial resolution superior to macroscopic experiments. Moreover, we observe that the results of macro- and nanoscale measurements evolve in similar fashion with time and we propose a quantitative correlation between SCA and AFM measurements. Our results suggest that the cause of the transition in the wettability of HOPG is due to the adsorption of hydrocarbon contaminations and water molecules from the environment. This is corroborated by annealing the HOPG is vacuum conditions at 150°, allowing the desorption of molecules on the surface, and thus re-establishing the initial macro and nano surface properties. Our findings can be used in the interpretation of the wettability of more complicated systems derived from HOPG (i.e., graphene)

  7. A model of end-expiratory lung impedance dependency on total extracellular body water (United States)

    Suchomel, J.; Sobota, V.


    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an attractive method for clinical monitoring of patients during mechanical ventilation. This study evaluates lung impedance measurements using Dräger PulmoVista 500 EIT system on an animal model. Mechanically ventilated model was created. Vital signs were monitored as well as mechanical ventilation parameters. Extracellular fluid balance and blood volume were handled as follows: 30-40% of total blood volume were removed and returned back, 0.5 to 1 litre of Ringer's solution was injected afterwards. The quantity of injected fluids was recorded for each animal. During this process thoracic electrical impedance measurement was performed. Recorded data from PulmoVista 500 EIT system were analysed using the official Dräger EIT Data Analysis Tool. The dependency of end-expiratory lung impedance on the change of fluid balance was observed. The relation between end-expiratory (minimum impedance value) frames and changes of fluid balance is shown. Preliminary results strongly support the expectation that electrical impedance of thorax can be affected by total extracellular fluid change.

  8. Identifying the principal driving factors of water ecosystem dependence and the corresponding indicator species in a pilot City, China (United States)

    Zhao, C. S.; Shao, N. F.; Yang, S. T.; Xiang, H.; Lou, H. Z.; Sun, Y.; Yang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, X. Y.; Zhang, C. B.; Yu, Q.


    The world's aquatic ecosystems yield numerous vital services, which are essential to human existence but have deteriorated seriously in recent years. By studying the mechanisms of interaction between ecosystems and habitat processes, the constraining factors can be identified, and this knowledge can be used to improve the success rate of ecological restoration initiatives. At present, there is insufficient data on the link between hydrological, water quality factors and the changes in the structure of aquatic communities to allow any meaningful study of driving factors of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the typical monitoring stations were selected by fuzzy clustering analysis based on the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of water ecology in Jinan City, the first pilot city for the construction of civilized aquatic ecosystems in China. The dominant species identification model was used to identify the dominant species of the aquatic community. The driving effect of hydrological and water quality factors on dominant species was analyzed by Canonical Correspondence Analysis. Then, the principal factors of aquatic ecosystem dependence were selected. The results showed that there were 10 typical monitoring stations out of 59 monitoring sites, which were representative of aquatic ecosystems, 9 dominant fish species, and 20 dominant invertebrate species. The selection of factors for aquatic ecosystem dependence in Jinan were highly influenced by its regional conditions. Chemical environmental parameters influence the temporal and spatial variation of invertebrate much more than that of fish in Jinan City. However, the methodologies coupling typical monitoring stations selection, dominant species determination and driving factors identification were certified to be a cost-effective way, which can provide in-deep theoretical and technical directions for the restoration of aquatic ecosystems elsewhere.

  9. Molecular size-dependent abundance and composition of dissolved organic matter in river, lake and sea waters. (United States)

    Xu, Huacheng; Guo, Laodong


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous in natural waters. The ecological role and environmental fate of DOM are highly related to the chemical composition and size distribution. To evaluate size-dependent DOM quantity and quality, water samples were collected from river, lake, and coastal marine environments and size fractionated through a series of micro- and ultra-filtrations with different membranes having different pore-sizes/cutoffs, including 0.7, 0.4, and 0.2 μm and 100, 10, 3, and 1 kDa. Abundance of dissolved organic carbon, total carbohydrates, chromophoric and fluorescent components in the filtrates decreased consistently with decreasing filter/membrane cutoffs, but with a rapid decline when the filter cutoff reached 3 kDa, showing an evident size-dependent DOM abundance and composition. About 70% of carbohydrates and 90% of humic- and protein-like components were measured in the properties of DOM, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance, spectral slope, and biological and humification indices also varied significantly with membrane cutoffs. In addition, different ultrafiltration membranes with the same manufacture-rated cutoff also gave rise to different DOM retention efficiencies and thus different colloidal abundances and size spectra. Thus, the size-dependent DOM properties were related to both sample types and membranes used. Our results here provide not only baseline data for filter pore-size selection when exploring DOM ecological and environmental roles, but also new insights into better understanding the physical definition of DOM and its size continuum in quantity and quality in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temperature dependencies of Henry's law constants and octanol/water partition coefficients for key plant volatile monoterpenoids. (United States)

    Copolovici, Lucian O; Niinemets, Ulo


    To model the emission dynamics and changes in fractional composition of monoterpenoids from plant leaves, temperature dependencies of equilibrium coefficients must be known. Henry's law constants (H(pc), Pa m3 mol(-1) and octanol/water partition coefficients (K(OW), mol mol(-1)) were determined for 10 important plant monoterpenes at physiological temperature ranges (25-50 degrees C for H(pc) and 20-50 degrees C for K(OW)). A standard EPICS procedure was established to determine H(pc) and a shake flask method was used for the measurements of K(OW). The enthalpy of volatilization (deltaH(vol)) varied from 18.0 to 44.3 kJ mol(-1) among the monoterpenes, corresponding to a range of temperature-dependent increase in H(pc) between 1.3- and 1.8-fold per 10 degrees C rise in temperature. The enthalpy of water-octanol phase change varied from -11.0 to -23.8 kJ mol(-1), corresponding to a decrease of K(OW) between 1.15- and 1.32-fold per 10 degrees C increase in temperature. Correlations among physico-chemical characteristics of a wide range of monoterpenes were analyzed to seek the ways of derivation of H(pc) and K(OW) values from other monoterpene physico-chemical characteristics. H(pc) was strongly correlated with monoterpene saturated vapor pressure (P(v)), and for lipophilic monoterpenes, deltaH(vol) scaled positively with the enthalpy of vaporization that characterizes the temperature dependence of P(v) Thus, P(v) versus temperature relations may be employed to derive the temperature relations of H(pc) for these monoterpenes. These data collectively indicate that monoterpene differences in H(pc) and K(OW) temperature relations can importantly modify monoterpene emissions from and deposition on plant leaves.

  11. Target temperature dependence of contact angle of water for silica glasses irradiated by argon ions without mass-separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, Yoshio; Tanisawa, Kazuhiko; Ito, Katsutaka; Kawajiri, Kyoji [Saitama Inst. of Tech., Okabe (Japan); Nakao, Aiko; Iwaki, Masaya; Ogiso, Hisato; Nakano, Shizuka


    Target temperature dependence of the contact angle of pure water for silica glasses during argon ion irradiation is studied in order to reduce or suppress the adsorption of hydrocarbons on silica glasses accompanying to ion beam irradiation. Argon ions were irradiated with a straight type ion implanter SIT-100 with ion acceleration voltage of 80 kV and a quantity of electricity for ion irradiation of 0.1 to 20 mC/cm{sup 2}. The target temperature during ion irradiation is controlled by the temperature control of the circulating water through the target holder. Temperature of the circulating water is 3 to 57degC. The contact angle of silica glass irradiated with Ar ions is high as 70 - 80deg in case of 1 mC/cm{sup 2} irradiation at a temperature of about 40degC and low as 30 to 40deg at 3 to 31degC. Results of the quantitative analysis of the surface compositions by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that the carbon concentration at the glass surface is similar to that of the unirradiated glass in case of low target temperature. Consequently, the target temperature during the irradiation is found to be one of factors to reduce the hydrocarbon adsorption. (T.H.).

  12. In vitro adhesion of Acanthamoeba castellanii to soft contact lenses depends on water content and disinfection procedure. (United States)

    Reverey, Julia F; Fromme, Roland; Leippe, Matthias; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine


    To compare the potential of different soft contact lenses to be contaminated with Acanthamoeba castellanii as a function of material parameters and cleaning procedures. Different unworn soft hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses were incubated with human pathogenic A. castellanii. The adhesion of the acanthamoebae was investigated on the contact lenses and put into relation to their material parameters. The efficacy of a recommended contact lens cleaning procedure in reducing A. castellanii adhesion was investigated. We found that material parameters such as elastic modulus, silicone content, ionic properties and swelling do not influence the adhesion of acanthamoebae to soft contact lenses. A material parameter that influenced adhesion significantly was the water content of the lens. With increasing water content, the adhesion of acanthamoebae increased. By following the cleaning instructions of the manufacturer the contamination of the lenses with A. castellanii could be reduced to a minimum, as shown both on contact lenses and in control experiments. With this study we show that for the tested lenses, the adhesion of A. castellanii to contact lenses is independent of the silicone content of the lens, but depends nonlinearly on the water content of the lens. Furthermore, we demonstrate that applying proper lens cleaning procedures minimizes the risk of acanthamoebae adhesion to contact lenses. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microphysical explanation of the RH-dependent water affinity of biogenic organic aerosol and its importance for climate. (United States)

    Rastak, N; Pajunoja, A; Acosta Navarro, J C; Ma, J; Song, M; Partridge, D G; Kirkevåg, A; Leong, Y; Hu, W W; Taylor, N F; Lambe, A; Cerully, K; Bougiatioti, A; Liu, P; Krejci, R; Petäjä, T; Percival, C; Davidovits, P; Worsnop, D R; Ekman, A M L; Nenes, A; Martin, S; Jimenez, J L; Collins, D R; Topping, D O; Bertram, A K; Zuend, A; Virtanen, A; Riipinen, I


    A large fraction of atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) originates from natural emissions that are oxidized in the atmosphere to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Isoprene (IP) and monoterpenes (MT) are the most important precursors of SOA originating from forests. The climate impacts from OA are currently estimated through parameterizations of water uptake that drastically simplify the complexity of OA. We combine laboratory experiments, thermodynamic modeling, field observations, and climate modeling to (1) explain the molecular mechanisms behind RH-dependent SOA water-uptake with solubility and phase separation; (2) show that laboratory data on IP- and MT-SOA hygroscopicity are representative of ambient data with corresponding OA source profiles; and (3) demonstrate the sensitivity of the modeled aerosol climate effect to assumed OA water affinity. We conclude that the commonly used single-parameter hygroscopicity framework can introduce significant error when quantifying the climate effects of organic aerosol. The results highlight the need for better constraints on the overall global OA mass loadings and its molecular composition, including currently underexplored anthropogenic and marine OA sources.

  14. Water Channels Aquaporin 4 and -1 Expression in Subependymoma Depends on the Localization of the Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Noell

    Full Text Available We analyzed aquaporin 4 and -1 expression in subependymomas, benign and slow growing brain tumors WHO grade I. Ten subependymoma cases were investigated, five of the fossa inferior and five of the fossa superior.Using immunohistochemistry, we observed different aquaporin expression patterns depending on localization: aquaporin 4 and -1 were detected in infratentorial subependymomas in the entire tumor tissue. In contrast, supratentorial subependymomas revealed aquaporin 4 and -1 expression only in border areas of the tumor. PCR analyses however showed no difference in aquaporin 4 expression between all subependymomas independent of localization but at higher levels than in normal brain. In contrast, aquaporin 1 RNA levels were found to be higher only in infratentorial samples compared to supratentorial and normal brain samples. The reason for the different distribution pattern of aquaporin 4 in subependymomas still remains unclear. On the cellular level, aquaporin 4 was redistributed on the surface of the tumor cells, and in freeze fracture replicas no orthogonal arrays of particles were found. This was similar to our previous findings in malignant glioblastomas. From these studies, we know that extracellular matrix molecules within the tumor like agrin and its receptor alpha-dystroglycan are involved in forming orthogonal arrays of particles. In subependymomas neither agrin nor alpha-dystroglycan were detected around blood vessels.Taken together, we show in this study that in the benign subependymomas aquaporins 1 and 4 are dramatically redistributed and upregulated. We speculate that extracellular environments of infra- and supratentorial subependymomas are different and lead to different distribution patterns of aquaporin 4 and -1.

  15. In vitro water activity and pH dependence of mycelial growth and extracellular enzyme activities of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kredics, L; Manczinger, L; Antal, Z; Pénzes, Z; Szekeres, A; Kevei, F; Nagy, E


    .... Methods and Results:  Water activity and pH dependence of the linear mycelial growth of five examined Trichoderma strains belonging to three different species groups was examined on yeast extract and soil extract media...

  16. Expression and water calcium dependence of calcium transporter isoforms in zebrafish gill mitochondrion-rich cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shyh-Chi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freshwater fish absorb Ca2+ predominantly from ambient water, and more than 97% of Ca2+ uptake is achieved by active transport through gill mitochondrion-rich (MR cells. In the current model for Ca2+ uptake in gill MR cells, Ca2+ passively enters the cytosol via the epithelium Ca2+ channel (ECaC, and then is extruded into the plasma through the basolateral Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX and plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA. However, no convincing molecular or cellular evidence has been available to support the role of specific PMCA and/or NCX isoforms in this model. Zebrafish (Danio rerio is a good model for analyzing isoforms of a gene because of the plentiful genomic databases and expression sequence tag (EST data. Results Using a strategy of BLAST from the zebrafish genome database (Sanger Institute, 6 isoforms of PMCAs (PMCA1a, PMCA1b, PMCA2, PMCA3a, PMCA3b, and PMCA4 and 7 isoforms of NCXs (NCX1a, NCX1b, NCX2a, NCX2b, NCX3, NCX4a, and NCX4b were identified. In the reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis, 5 PMCAs and 2 NCXs were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues including gills. Triple fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry showed the colocalization of zecac, zpmca2, and zncx1b mRNAs in a portion of gill MR cells (using Na+-K+-ATPase as the marker, implying a subset of ionocytes specifically responsible for the transepithelial Ca2+ uptake in zebrafish gills. The gene expressions in gills of high- or low-Ca2+-acclimated zebrafish by quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that zecac was the only gene regulated in response to environmental Ca2+ levels, while zpmcas and zncxs remained steady. Conclusion The present study provides molecular evidence for the specific isoforms of Ca2+ transporters, zECaC, zPMCA2, and zNCX1b, supporting the current Ca2+ uptake model, in which ECaC may play a role as the major regulatory target for this mechanism during environmental challenge.

  17. Water (United States)

    ... Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  18. An Application of Planned Behavior Theory in Predicting Nicotine Dependence among Water pipe Consumer Women in Bushehr City in 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saeed Firoozabadi


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Today, water pipe smoking is widespread in the world that can lead to death of million individuals. This study aimed to determine the predictors of nicotine dependence among women water pipe consumers in Bushehr in 2013-2014. Methods: In this cross-sectional (descriptive and analytical study, 430 women water pipe smokers were selected via simple sampling and snowball methods. A structured interview was conducted on 20 women water pipe consumers in order to design a researcher-made questionnaire via appropriate statistical tests. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. Results: The overall mean and standard deviation scores for nicotine dependence were 36.73±13.57 and 40.71±12.63, respectively. The highest and the lowest score were related to nicotine dependence and perceived behavioral control, respectively. All constructs explained water pipe dependence behavior except instrumental attitude and subjective norm. In fact, self-efficacy and affective attitude were introduced as the strongest and the weakest predictors respectively. Conclusion: Regarding unfavorable status of nicotine dependence behavior among water pipe consumer women, intervention programs are recommended in order to enhance the self-efficacy in decreasing this behavior, decrease appropriate affection to water pipe and decrease descriptive norm among these women.

  19. Oil condition sensor. Interim report; Oelzustandssensor. Zwischenbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, S.; Jaegle, M. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Physikalische Messtechnik, Freiburg (Germany); Rademacher, S.; Schultheis, W. [BEDIA, Leinburg (Germany)


    In the summer of 2000 the Fraunhofer Institute for physical measuring technology was tasked by the FW with a study to evaluate various measurement principles for the development of oil condition sensors. In the frame of this study, four new sensor principles were proposed for the use in engine oil. Apart from an optical measurement method (online-ATR -spectroscopy) the measurement of sensitive material - in particular metal oxides and zeolites - within the engine oil as well as a method for the determination of electrode transition resistances, which falsify the measure values, were tested. The last method has been adapted from the field of microelectronics (TLM approach, transmission line model). In the frame of the current project ''Oil condition sensor'' the feasibility of these approaches is supposed to be tested. The plan is to construct sensors for these four measurement principles, to manufacture them and to carry out the measurements. A measurement stand was especially set-up to for the last purpose of this project, which allows adjusting the operating conditions within the engine in terms of pressure, flow and temperature course as realistic as possible. This interim report provides an overview of the results, which have been obtained so far. (orig.) [German] In einer von der FW in Auftrag gegebenen Studie wurde das Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Physikalische Messtechnik im Sommer 2000 beauftragt, verschiedene Messprinzipien fuer die Entwicklung eines Oelzustandssensors zu evaluieren. Als Ergebnis wurden im Rahmen dieser Studie vier fuer den Einsatz im Motoroel neuartige Sensorprinzipien vorgeschlagen. Neben einem optischen Messverfahren (online-ATR-Spektroskopie) waren dies die Vermessung sensitiver Materialien - insbesondere Metalloxide und Zeolithe - im Motoroel, sowie ein aus der Mikroelektronik adaptiertes Verfahren zur Bestimmung von messwertverfaelschenden Elektrodenuebergangswiderstaenden (TLM-Ansatz, Transmission-Line Model). Im

  20. Measurement of the Neutron Slowing-Down Time Distribution at 1.46 eV and its Space Dependence in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, E.


    The use of the time dependent reaction rate method for the measurement of neutron slowing-down time distributions in hydrogen has been analyzed and applied to the case of sloping down in water. Neutrons with energies of about 1 MeV were slowed down, and the time-dependent neutron density at 1.46 eV and its space dependence was measured with a time resolution of 0.042 {mu}s. The results confirm the well known theory for time-dependent slowing down in hydrogen. The space dependence of the distributions is well described by the P{sub 1}-calculations by Claesson.

  1. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period. (United States)


    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2016. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform(SGR) Act of 2013, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are addressing the update of the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2016.As an interim final rule with comment period, we are implementing the statutory extensions of the Medicare dependent,small rural hospital (MDH)Program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals under the IPPS.We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2016 and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014.In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals,PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare, including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR)Incentive Program. We also are updating policies relating to the

  2. Structure-Dependent Water-Induced Linear Reduction Model for Predicting Gas Diffusivity and Tortuosity in Repacked and Intact Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Per; Chamindu, T. K. K. Deepagoda; Hamamoto, S.


    but also on the local-scale variability of these. Different predictive models have been developed to estimate Dp in intact and repacked soil, but clear guidelines for model choice at a given soil state are lacking. In this study, the water-induced linear reduction (WLR) model for repacked soil is made...... air) in repacked soils containing between 0 and 54% clay. With Cm = 2.1, the SWLR model on average gave excellent predictions for 290 intact soils, performing well across soil depths, textures, and compactions (dry bulk densities). The SWLR model generally outperformed similar, simple Dp/Do models...... adaptive for different soil structure conditions (repacked, intact) by introducing a media complexity factor (Cm) in the dry media term of the model. With Cm = 1, the new structure-dependent WLR (SWLR) model accurately predicted soil-gas diffusivity (Dp/Do, where Do is the gas diffusion coefficient in free...

  3. Temperature-dependent deliquescence relative humidities and water activities using humidity controlled thermogravimetric analysis with application to malonic acid. (United States)

    Beyer, Keith D; Schroeder, Jason R; Kissinger, Jared A


    We utilize a new experimental technique, humidity-controlled thermogravimetric analysis (HTGA), to determine temperature-dependent deliquescence relative humidities (DRH) and to determine the equilibrium concentration of a solution at a given temperature and relative humidity. To that end, we have investigated the malonic acid/water system determining the DRH and concentration/RH relationship in the temperature range 303-278 K. Excellent agreement is found with literature values for the DRH of malonic acid as a function of temperature and for the concentration/RH relationship at several temperatures. Thus, we extend the DRH and concentration/RH relationship to a broader temperature range and are using the HTGA experiments to investigate other organic acids.

  4. Porous inorganic capsules in action: modelling transmembrane cation-transport parameter-dependence based on water as vehicle. (United States)

    Haupt, Erhard T K; Wontorra, Claudia; Rehder, Dieter; Müller, Achim


    Insight into basic principles of cation transport through "molecular channels", and especially details of the related fundamental H2O vehicle function, could be obtained via7Li NMR studies of the Li+ uptake/release processes by the unique porous nanocapsule [{(MoVI)MoVI5O21(H2O)6}12{MoV2O4(SO4)}30]72- which behaves as a semi-permeable inorganic membrane open for H2O and small cations; channel traffic as well as internal cavity distribution processes show a strong dependence on "environmental" effects such as exerted by solvent properties, the amount of water present, and competing complexing ligands, and end up in a complex equilibrium situation as in biological leak channels.

  5. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Maywood, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The environmental monitoring program, which began in 1984, was continued in 1989 at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in the Borough of Maywood and the Township of Rochelle Park, New Jersey. MISS is currently used for storage of soils contaminated with low-level radioactivity. MISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials are present. The monitoring program at MISS measures thoron and radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and thorium, uranium, and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. The radiation dose was calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual to verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess its potential effects on public health. This report presents the results of the environmental monitoring program conducted at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) during calendar year 1989. Environmental monitoring began at MISS in 1984. 19 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Interim Project Financing in the Nigerian Construction Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the 47 variables identified through a structured survey, that can adversely affect the construction industry in Nigeria, “the difficulties in securing credit for interim construction finance on reasonable terms”, is ranked as the 6th most important factor, while “client's unwillingness to pay for advance for mobilization and ...

  7. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.E.


    This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  8. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes--an interim analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Home, Philip D; Pocock, Stuart J; Beck-Nielsen, Henning


    BACKGROUND: A recent meta-analysis raised concern regarding an increased risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes associated with rosiglitazone treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted an unplanned interim analysis of a randomized, multicenter, open-label, non......BACKGROUND: A recent meta-analysis raised concern regarding an increased risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes associated with rosiglitazone treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted an unplanned interim analysis of a randomized, multicenter, open...... group). The primary end point was hospitalization or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: Because the mean follow-up was only 3.75 years, our interim analysis had limited statistical power to detect treatment differences. A total of 217 patients in the rosiglitazone group and 202 patients...... group and the control group regarding myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes or any cause. There were more patients with heart failure in the rosiglitazone group than in the control group (hazard ratio, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.57). CONCLUSIONS: Our interim findings from this ongoing...

  9. Evaluation of hardness and wear resistance of interim restorative materials. (United States)

    Savabi, Omid; Nejatidanesh, Farahnaz; Fathi, Mohamad Hossein; Navabi, Amir Arsalan; Savabi, Ghazal


    The interim restorative materials should have certain mechanical properties to withstand in oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hardness and wear resistance of interim restorative materials. Fifteen identical rectangular shape specimens with dimensions of 2 mm × 10 mm × 30 mm were made from 7 interim materials (TempSpan, Protemp 3 Garant, Revotek, Unifast LC, Tempron, Duralay, and Acropars). The Vickers hardness and abrasive wear of specimens were tested in dry conditions and after 1 week storage in artificial saliva. The depth of wear was measured using surface roughness inspection device. Data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between hardness and wear (α =0.05). TempSpan had the highest hardness. The wear resistance of TempSpan (in dry condition) and Revotek (after conditioning in artificial saliva) was significantly higher (P materials (P = 0.281, r = -0.31). Hardness and wear resistance of interim resins are material related rather than category specified.

  10. Single Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This project plan establishes the management framework for the conduct of the CHG Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organization structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  11. Density dependence of hydrogen bonding and the translational-orientational structural order in supercritical water: a molecular dynamics study. (United States)

    Ma, Haibo; Ma, Jing


    Molecular dynamics simulation have been performed with a wide range of densities along a near critical isotherm of supercritical water (SCW) in order to study the density dependence of the structure order and hydrogen bonding (HB). It is revealed that the translational structure order is nearly invariant while the orientational tetrahedral structure order is very sensitive to the bulk density under supercritical conditions. Meanwhile, some energetically unfavorable intermediate water dimer structures are found to appear under supercritical conditions due to the reduced energy difference and the enhanced energy fluctuation. As a consequence, a general geometrical criterion or the inclusion of a energy-based criterion instead of currently widely adopted pure r(OH)-based geometric criterion is suggested to be used in the HB statistics under supercritical conditions. It is found that the average HB number per H(2)O molecule (n(HB)) reduces with the decreasing SCW bulk density although a given pair of H(2)O molecules are shown to have a stronger ability to form a hydrogen bond under lower SCW bulk densities. Accordingly, the orientational tetrahedral structure order q decreases with the reducing bulk density under supercritical conditions. However, when the fluid is dilute with ρ ≤ 0.19ρ(c) (ρ(c) = 0.322 g/cm(3)), the energy fluctuation increases sharply and the short-range order is destroyed, signifying the supercritical fluid (SCF)-gas state transition. Accordingly, the orientational tetrahedral structure order q gets reversal around ρ = 0.19ρ(c) and approaches zero under very dilute conditions. The sensitivity of the orientational order to the density implies the microscopic origin of the significant dependence of SCF's physicochemical properties on the pressure.

  12. Water Oxidation by Ru-Polyoxometalate Catalysts: Overpotential Dependency on the Number and Charge of the Metal Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Piccinin


    Full Text Available Water oxidation is efficiently catalyzed by several Ru-based polyoxometalate (POM molecular catalysts differing in the number, local atomistic environment and oxidation state of the Ru sites. We employ density functional theory calculations to rationalize the dependency of the reaction overpotential on the main structural and electronic molecular properties. In particular, we compare the thermodynamics of the water oxidation cycle for single-site Ru-POM and multiple-site Ru4-POM complexes. For the Ru-POM case, we also investigate the reaction free energy as a function of the Ru oxidation state. We find that the overpotential of these molecular catalysts is primarily determined by the oxidation state of the metal center and is minimum for Ru(IV. In solution, the number of active sites is shown to play a minor role on the reaction energetics. The results are rationalized and discussed in terms of the local structure around the active sites and of the electrostatic screening due to the molecular structure or the solvent.

  13. Microphysical explanation of the RH‐dependent water affinity of biogenic organic aerosol and its importance for climate (United States)

    Rastak, N.; Pajunoja, A.; Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Ma, J.; Song, M.; Partridge, D. G.; Kirkevåg, A.; Leong, Y.; Hu, W. W.; Taylor, N. F.; Lambe, A.; Cerully, K.; Bougiatioti, A.; Liu, P.; Krejci, R.; Petäjä, T.; Percival, C.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Nenes, A.; Martin, S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Collins, D. R.; Topping, D.O.; Bertram, A. K.; Zuend, A.; Virtanen, A.


    Abstract A large fraction of atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) originates from natural emissions that are oxidized in the atmosphere to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Isoprene (IP) and monoterpenes (MT) are the most important precursors of SOA originating from forests. The climate impacts from OA are currently estimated through parameterizations of water uptake that drastically simplify the complexity of OA. We combine laboratory experiments, thermodynamic modeling, field observations, and climate modeling to (1) explain the molecular mechanisms behind RH‐dependent SOA water‐uptake with solubility and phase separation; (2) show that laboratory data on IP‐ and MT‐SOA hygroscopicity are representative of ambient data with corresponding OA source profiles; and (3) demonstrate the sensitivity of the modeled aerosol climate effect to assumed OA water affinity. We conclude that the commonly used single‐parameter hygroscopicity framework can introduce significant error when quantifying the climate effects of organic aerosol. The results highlight the need for better constraints on the overall global OA mass loadings and its molecular composition, including currently underexplored anthropogenic and marine OA sources. PMID:28781391

  14. Nuclear transfer and anisotropic motional spin phenomena: relaxation time temperature dependence studies of water adsorbed on silica gel. Part IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woessner, D.E.; Zimmerman, J.R.


    An experimental investigation of the temperature dependence of the nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation phenomena of water vapor adsorbed on silica gel is described. Two-component relaxation data are observed. With temperature increase, the longer T/sub 2/ value decreases while its fractional population increases. These data are shown to be consistent with nuclear transfers between two state environments possessing distinct relaxation characteristics. and a comparison with theory is made. Evidence of a change of surface characteristics is presented; for early experiments, two-component longitudinal relaxation occurs below a transition temperature; in later experiments, only one-component T/sub 1/ behavior is found. A theory for an anisotropic motional model for nuclear magnetic dipole-dipole relaxation on surfaces is presented. The motional model is random reorientation of the interproton vector about an axis normal to the surface that occurs much faster than the time dependence of the angle between the vector and this axis. The relaxation processes are thus related to multiple nuclear correlation times. Consequences of an anisotropic model agree with experimental observations. (auth)

  15. External magnetic field dependent light transmission and scattered speckle pattern in a magnetically polarizable oil-in-water nanoemulsion (United States)

    Brojabasi, Surajit; Lahiri, B. B.; Philip, John


    We study the magnetic field dependent light transmission and scattered speckle pattern in a magnetically polarizable oil-in-water emulsion of droplet diameter ~220 nm, where the direction of propagation of light is parallel to the direction of the external magnetic field. Up to a magnetic field of 50 Gauss, the nanoemulsion remains opaque due to intense Mie scattering. Above 50 Gauss, the transmitted light intensity increases with external magnetic field up to a critical field (BC). Further increase in the magnetic field leads to a reduction in the transmitted intensity. The BC shifts to a lower magnetic field with increasing volume fraction (ϕ) and follows a power law dependence with ϕ, indicating a disorder-order transition. The scattered light intensity at the lobe part is found to increase with external magnetic field. The analysis of the lobe part reveals that the speckle contrast increases with external magnetic field due to the coarsening of the linear chain-like aggregates formed along the direction of the external magnetic field. The angular speckle correlation coefficient is found to be symmetrical on either side of the transmitted bright spot and decays exponentially with measurement angles.

  16. External magnetic field dependent light transmission and scattered speckle pattern in a magnetically polarizable oil-in-water nanoemulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brojabasi, Surajit; Lahiri, B.B.; Philip, John, E-mail:


    We study the magnetic field dependent light transmission and scattered speckle pattern in a magnetically polarizable oil-in-water emulsion of droplet diameter ∼220 nm, where the direction of propagation of light is parallel to the direction of the external magnetic field. Up to a magnetic field of 50 Gauss, the nanoemulsion remains opaque due to intense Mie scattering. Above 50 Gauss, the transmitted light intensity increases with external magnetic field up to a critical field (B{sub C}). Further increase in the magnetic field leads to a reduction in the transmitted intensity. The B{sub C} shifts to a lower magnetic field with increasing volume fraction (ϕ) and follows a power law dependence with ϕ, indicating a disorder–order transition. The scattered light intensity at the lobe part is found to increase with external magnetic field. The analysis of the lobe part reveals that the speckle contrast increases with external magnetic field due to the coarsening of the linear chain-like aggregates formed along the direction of the external magnetic field. The angular speckle correlation coefficient is found to be symmetrical on either side of the transmitted bright spot and decays exponentially with measurement angles.

  17. Aanbevelingen voor succesvol interim-management : Welke handelen van de interim-manager leidt tot tevredenheid van zijn opdrachtgever?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaveling, J.; Muijen, van J.J.; Montfort, van K.


    Wat maakt de opdrachtgever van interim-managers tevreden? In de literatuur worden verschillende factoren genoemd en ook de betrokkenen zelf hebben er ideeën over, maar welk gedrag doet er nu werkelijk toe? Op basis van een empirisch onderzoek wordt deze vraag beantwoord. Een literatuurstudie vormt


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  19. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives. (JGB)

  20. The "shallow-waterness" of the wave climate in European coastal regions (United States)

    Håkon Christensen, Kai; Carrasco, Ana; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Breivik, Øyvind


    In contrast to deep water waves, shallow water waves are influenced by bottom topography, which has consequences for the propagation of wave energy as well as for the energy and momentum exchange between the waves and the mean flow. The ERA-Interim reanalysis is used to assess the fraction of wave energy associated with shallow water waves in coastal regions in Europe. We show maps of the distribution of this fraction as well as time series statistics from eight selected stations. There is a strong seasonal dependence and high values are typically associated with winter storms, indicating that shallow water wave effects can occasionally be important even in the deeper parts of the shelf seas otherwise dominated by deep water waves.

  1. Estimating trends in atmospheric water vapor and temperature time series over Germany (United States)

    Alshawaf, Fadwa; Balidakis, Kyriakos; Dick, Galina; Heise, Stefan; Wickert, Jens


    Ground-based GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) has efficiently been used since the 1990s as a meteorological observing system. Recently scientists have used GNSS time series of precipitable water vapor (PWV) for climate research. In this work, we compare the temporal trends estimated from GNSS time series with those estimated from European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data and meteorological measurements. We aim to evaluate climate evolution in Germany by monitoring different atmospheric variables such as temperature and PWV. PWV time series were obtained by three methods: (1) estimated from ground-based GNSS observations using the method of precise point positioning, (2) inferred from ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and (3) determined based on daily in situ measurements of temperature and relative humidity. The other relevant atmospheric parameters are available from surface measurements of meteorological stations or derived from ERA-Interim. The trends are estimated using two methods: the first applies least squares to deseasonalized time series and the second uses the Theil-Sen estimator. The trends estimated at 113 GNSS sites, with 10 to 19 years temporal coverage, vary between -1.5 and 2.3 mm decade-1 with standard deviations below 0.25 mm decade-1. These results were validated by estimating the trends from ERA-Interim data over the same time windows, which show similar values. These values of the trend depend on the length and the variations of the time series. Therefore, to give a mean value of the PWV trend over Germany, we estimated the trends using ERA-Interim spanning from 1991 to 2016 (26 years) at 227 synoptic stations over Germany. The ERA-Interim data show positive PWV trends of 0.33 ± 0.06 mm decade-1 with standard errors below 0.03 mm decade-1. The increment in PWV varies between 4.5 and 6.5 % per degree Celsius rise in temperature, which is comparable to the theoretical rate of the Clausius

  2. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage system components in dry interim storage. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.


    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom; organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel (clad with a zirconium alloy) in silos in Canada; and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel (clad with Zircaloy) in a metal storage cask in Germany. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from BWRs, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions. 110 refs., 22 figs., 28 tabs.

  3. Glycerolysis of sardine oil catalyzed by a water dependent lipase in different tert-alcohols as reaction medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solaesa, Á. G.


    Full Text Available The production of monoacylglycerol rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA via enzymatic glycerolysis of sardine oil in a homogeneous system was evaluated. Reactions were conducted in two different tert-alcohols. Based on the phase equilibrium data, the amount of solvent added to create a homogeneous system has been calculated and optimized. The immobilized lipase used in this work was Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei, a water dependent lipase. The amount of water added as well as other reaction parameters were studied to evaluate the optimum conditions for monoacylglycerol obtencion. An initial reactant mole ratio glycerol to sardine oil 3:1, 12 wt% of water based on glycerol content and 10 wt% of lipase loading (based on weight of reactants, achieved a MAG yield of around 70%, with nearly 28 wt% PUFA, with low free fatty acid content (lower than 18 wt%.En este trabajo se ha estudiado la producción de monoacilglicéridos, ricos en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (AGPI, mediante glicerolisis enzimática de aceite de sardina. La reacción se ha llevado a cabo en dos tert-alcoholes para conseguir de esta forma un medio homogéneo de reacción. La cantidad de disolvente añadida al medio de reacción se ha optimizado y calculado en base al equilibrio de fases de los componentes del sistema. La lipasa empleada como biocatalizador ha sido la enzima inmovilizada Lipozyme RM IM de Rhizomucor miehei, una lipasa dependiente de agua. Se ha estudiado el efecto de distintos parámetros cinéticos, así como de la cantidad de agua añadida al medio de reacción, en la producción de monoacilglicéridos. De los resultados obtenidos, se puede concluir que, para una relación molar inicial de reactantes glicerol:aceite de sardina de 3:1, un 12 % en peso de agua en base al glicerol y un 10 % en peso de lipasa, en base al peso de reactantes; se puede llegar a conseguir un rendimiento en monoacilglicéridos alrededor del 70 % en peso, con casi un 28 % en

  4. Variability of Iberian upwelling implied by ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. R. Alves


    Full Text Available The Regional Ocean Modeling System ocean model is used to simulate the decadal evolution of the regional waters in offshore Iberia in response to atmospheric fields given by ECMWF ERA-40 (1961–2001 and ERA-Interim (1989–2008 reanalyses. The simulated sea surface temperature (SST fields are verified against satellite AVHRR SST, and they are analysed to characterise the variability and trends of coastal upwelling in the region. Opposing trends in upwelling frequency are found at the northern limit, where upwelling has been decreasing in recent decades, and at its southern edge, where there is some evidence of increased upwelling. These results confirm previous observational studies and, more importantly, indicate that observed SST trends are not only due to changes in radiative or atmospheric heat fluxes alone but also due to changes in upwelling dynamics, suggesting that such a process may be relevant in climate change scenarios.

  5. Size-Dependent Photodynamic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Conjugate of Water Soluble Purpurin-18-N-Methyl-D-Glucamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byambajav Lkhagvadulam


    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (GNPs conjugates of water soluble ionic photosensitizer (PS, purpurin-18-N-methyl-D-glucamine (Pu-18-NMGA, were synthesized using various molar ratios between HAuCl4 and Pu-18-NMGA without adding any particular reducing agents and surfactants. The PS-GNPs conjugates showed long wavelength absorption of range 702–762 nm, and their different shapes and diameters depend on the molar ratios used in the synthesis. In vitro anticancer efficacy of the PS-GNPs conjugates was investigated by MTT assay against A549 cells, resulting in higher photodynamic activity than that of the free Pu-18-NMGA. Among the PS-GNPs conjugates, the GNPs conjugate from the molar ratio of 1 : 2 (Au(III: Pu-18-NMGA exhibits the highest photodynamic activity corresponding to bigger size (~60 nm of the GNPs conjugate which could efficiently transport the PS into the cells than that of smaller size of the GNPs conjugate.

  6. Zn(II)-concentration dependent Raman spectra in the dithizone complex on gold nanoparticle surfaces in environmental water samples (United States)

    Ly, Nguyen Hoang; Joo, Sang-Woo


    After the formation of dithizone with metal ion complexes, a selective Raman detection method for the Zn2+ ions in aqueous solutions was developed by observing the intensity change of the ring mode peaks at ∼1585 cm-1 on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). At high concentrations of Zn2+ ions, the conformation of the dithizone complex may have different orientations on AuNPs to yield the spectral changes at ca. ∼510 and ∼1585 cm-1. The concentration dependent spectra changes indicated that a detection limit would be in the submicromolar region of Zn2+ ions. The other ions of Mg2+, K+, Fe3+, Hg2+, Co2+, Fe2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Cr3+, NH4+, Cd2+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ at micromolar concentrations of 1 μM did not produce such spectral changes. The detection limit based on the Raman band intensities was estimated to be as low as 500 nM of Zn2+ ion in aqueous solutions. The three real samples of tap, river, and seawater were tested under the interference of the commonly existing interfering ions. Despite the presence of highly concentrated Na, Ca, Mg, and K, our interfacial spectroscopic methodology of Zn2+ determination could be applied in the environmental water samples.

  7. Interim report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on radioactive waste classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.C.; Cohen, J.J.


    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory assisted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the development of a radioactive waste classification system that will satisfy technical, environmental, and societal concerns. This is an interim report to the NRC on work accomplished to date. It describes a proposed waste-classification system that is based on the final disposition of waste material. The system consists of three classes of radioactive waste. The classification of any radioactive waste will depend primarily on its hazard potential. Other characteristics such as longevity (half-size) will be considered also. The levels of hazard that differentiate the three classes of radioactive waste will be determined by ongoing work. This report describes other work to be completed before a suitable radioactive waste-classificaion system is established.

  8. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)


    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  9. Interim report on the post irradiation examination of capsules 2 and 3 of the HFR-B1 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, B.F. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pott, G.; Schenk, W.; Schroeder, R.; Kuehlein, W.; Buecker, H.J.; Dahmen, H.; Landsgesell, K.; Nieveler, F. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)


    This is an interim report on the post irradiation examination (PIE) of capsules 2 and 3 of the HFR-B1 experiment The PIE has been conducted by the Forschungszentrum Juelich and is nearing completion. After disassembly of the capsules, the examination focused on capsule components including fuel compacts, inert compacts fired in different media, graphite cylinders of different grades, unbonded coated fuel particles and unfueled graphite; in addition, heating experiments with intermittent injections of water vapor were conducted using fuel compacts and the kernels of uranium oxycarbide. Measurement involved gamma scanning and counting, photography, metallography, dimensional and weight changes, burnup determination and fission product release.

  10. Radon Measurements in Schools: An Interim Report. (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation Programs.

    Radon-222 is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally in soil, rocks, underground water, and air. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other scientific organizations have identified an increased risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes. Schools in many…

  11. Evaluation of the Healthy Schools Program: Part I. Interim Progress


    Beam, Margaret; Ehrlich, Ginny; Donze Black, Jessica; Block, Audrey; Leviton, Laura C.


    Introduction Federal and state policies identify schools as a setting to prevent childhood obesity, but schools need better health-promoting strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate interim progress in schools receiving hands-on training from the Healthy Schools Program, the nation's largest school-based program aimed at preventing childhood obesity. The 4-year program targets schools with predominantly low-income, African American, or Hispanic students. Methods In 2010 we asse...

  12. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility interim operational safety requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Covey, L I


    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt and inspection of cesium and strontium capsules from private irradiators; decontamination of the capsules and equipment; surveillance of the stored capsules; and maintenance activities. Controls required for public safety, significant defense-in-depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines (EGs) are included.

  13. Interim data report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlund, Fredrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)


    This document is the interim data report in the project SR-Can. The purpose of the data report is to present input data, with uncertainty estimates, for the SR-Can assessment calculations. Besides input data, the report also describes the standardised procedures used when deriving the input data and the corresponding uncertainty estimates. However, in the present interim version of the report (written in the initial stage of the project when site characterisation has yet not been completed) the standardised procedures have not been possible to apply for most of the data and, in order to present a compilation of the data used in the assessment, much of the input data is presented without following the standardised procedures. This will however be changed for the final version of the SR-Can data report, in order to show the methodology that will be used in the final version one example of how input data will be presented is included (migration data for buffer) . The recommended input data for the assessment calculations are, for the interim version, mainly based on SR 97 Beberg data, these are merely presented without any background or uncertainty discussion (this is presented in the SR 97 data report)

  14. International validation study for interim PET in ABVD-treated, advanced-stage hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggi, Alberto; Gallamini, Andrea; Chauvie, Stephane


    in lymphoma. Accordingly, an international validation study was undertaken with the primary aim of validating the prognostic role of interim PET using the Deauville 5-point score to evaluate images and with the secondary aim of measuring concordance rates among reviewers using the same 5-point score......At present, there are no standard criteria that have been validated for interim PET reporting in lymphoma. In 2009, an international workshop attended by hematologists and nuclear medicine experts in Deauville, France, proposed to develop simple and reproducible rules for interim PET reporting....... This paper focuses on the criteria for interpretation of interim PET and on concordance rates....

  15. Observation of a strong inverse temperature dependence for the opacity of atmospheric water vapor in the mm continuum near 280 GHz (United States)

    Emmons, Louisa K.; De Zafra, Robert L.


    Results are presented of the field measurements of atmospheric opacity at 278 GHz (9.3/cm) conducted at the McMurdo Station (Antarctica) during the austral springs of 1986 and 1987, in conjunction with balloon measurements of water vapor profile and total column density, showing a strong inverse temperature dependence when normalized to precipitable water vapor. The value of measured opacity per mm of precipitable water vapor (PWV) is roughly two times greater at -35 C than at -10 C and three times greater than measurements at +25 C reported by Zammit and Ade (1981). Various theories proposed to explain excess absorption in continuum regions are reviewed.

  16. Community N and O isotope fractionation by sulfide-dependent denitrification and anammox in a stratified lacustrine water column (United States)

    Wenk, Christine B.; Zopfi, Jakob; Blees, Jan; Veronesi, Mauro; Niemann, Helge; Lehmann, Moritz F.


    We investigated the community nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotope effects of fixed N loss in the northern basin of Lake Lugano, where sulfide-dependent denitrification and anammox are the main drivers of suboxic N2 production. A decrease in nitrate (NO3-) concentration toward the redox transition zone (RTZ) at mid-water depth was paralleled by an increase in δ15N and δ18O from approximately 5‰ to >20‰ and from 0‰ to >10‰, respectively. Ammonium (NH4+) concentrations were highest in the near-bottom water and decreased toward the RTZ concomitant with an increase in δ15N-NH4+ from ∼7‰ to >15‰. A diffusion-reaction model yielded N and O isotope enrichment factors that are significantly smaller than isotope effects reported previously for microbial NO3- reduction and NH4+ oxidation (15εNO3 ≈ 10‰, 18εNO3 ≈ 7‰, and 15εNH4 ≈ 10-12‰). For the Lake Lugano north basin, we constrain the apparent under-expression of the N isotope effects to: (1) environmental conditions (e.g., substrate limitation, low cell specific N transformation rates), or (2) low process-specific (chemolithotrophic denitrification and anammox) isotope fractionation. Our results have confirmed the robust nature of the co-linearity between N and O isotope enrichment during microbial denitrification beyond its organotrophic mode. However, the ratio of 18O to 15N enrichment (18εNO3:15εNO3) associated with NO3- reduction in the RTZ was ∼0.89, which is lower than observed in marine environments and in most culture experiments. We propose that chemolithotrophic NO3- reduction in the Lake Lugano north basin was partly catalyzed by the periplasmic dissimilatory nitrate reductase (Nap) (rather than the membrane-bound dissimilatory Nar), which is known to express comparably low 18εNO3:15εNO3 ratios in the ambient NO3- pool. However, NO2- re-oxidation, e.g., during anammox or microaerobic nitrification, could have contributed to the lowered 18O to 15N enrichment ratios. Although

  17. The impact of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on greenhouse gas emission and nutrient mobilization depends on rooting and plant coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira-Junior, Ernandes Sobreira; Tang, Yingying; Berg, van den Sanne J.P.; Cardoso, Simone J.; Lamers, Leon P.M.; Kosten, Sarian


    Water hyacinth stands are known to affect both nutrient concentrations in the water and carbon exchange with the atmosphere. However, both enhanced and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been reported in relation to water hyacinth presence. This controversy may be explained by variation in

  18. Correcting atmospheric effects on InSAR with MERIS water vapour data and elevation-dependent interpolation model

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Z. W.


    The propagation delay when radar signals travel from the troposphere has been one of the major limitations for the applications of high precision repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). In this paper, we first present an elevation-dependent atmospheric correction model for Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR—the instrument aboard the ENVISAT satellite) interferograms with Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) integrated water vapour (IWV) data. Then, using four ASAR interferometric pairs over Southern California as examples, we conduct the atmospheric correction experiments with cloud-free MERIS IWV data. The results show that after the correction the rms differences between InSAR and GPS have reduced by 69.6 per cent, 29 per cent, 31.8 per cent and 23.3 per cent, respectively for the four selected interferograms, with an average improvement of 38.4 per cent. Most importantly, after the correction, six distinct deformation areas have been identified, that is, Long Beach–Santa Ana Basin, Pomona–Ontario, San Bernardino and Elsinore basin, with the deformation velocities along the radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction ranging from −20 mm yr−1 to −30 mm yr−1 and on average around −25 mm yr−1, and Santa Fe Springs and Wilmington, with a slightly low deformation rate of about −10 mm yr−1 along LOS. Finally, through the method of stacking, we generate a mean deformation velocity map of Los Angeles over a period of 5 yr. The deformation is quite consistent with the historical deformation of the area. Thus, using the cloud-free MERIS IWV data correcting synchronized ASAR interferograms can significantly reduce the atmospheric effects in the interferograms and further better capture the ground deformation and other geophysical signals.

  19. Is passive drag dependent on the interaction of kayak design and paddler weight in flat-water kayaking? (United States)

    Gomes, Beatriz B; Conceição, Filipe A V; Pendergast, David R; Sanders, Ross H; Vaz, Mário A P; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo


    Drag is one of the major factors that influences kayaking performance. To focus on the drag of the kayak's hull shape and the paddlers' weight per se, the passive drag (Dp) was measured on a flat-water sprint course for one paddler with added weights. Dp was measured by an electromechanical towing device using a load cell, at incremental and constant velocities from 2.78 to 5.56 m/s. Three kayaks of different sizes and shapes (Nelo® K1 Quattro-M, ML, and L) were used and the paddlers' body weight was adjusted with weights so the total paddler weight in the kayak was 65, 75, and 85 kg. The mean Dp increased by the power function of D = kv(n) (mean R(2) = .990; SD .006). The Dp went from 21.37 ± 1.29 N at 2.78 m/s to 89.32 ± 6.43 N at 5.56 m/s. For the two lighter weighted kayaks (65 and 75 kg), the lowest Dp was observed with different kayak sizes (M, ML, or L) depending on the target velocity. The manufacturers suggest that paddlers should select a kayak size according to their body weight to minimise drag; however, the results of this study suggest that target velocities, and thus competition distance should also be factored into kayak selection.

  20. Water (United States)

    ... environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Health effects of water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  1. Multispectral Fitting Validation of the Speed Dependent Voigt Profile at up to 1300K in Water Vapor with a Dual Frequency Comb Spectrometer (United States)

    Schroeder, Paul James; Cich, Matthew J.; Yang, Jinyu; Drouin, Brian; Rieker, Greg B.


    Using broadband, high resolution dual frequency comb spectroscopy, we test the power law temperature scaling relationship with Voigt, Rautian, and quadratic speed dependent Voigt profiles over a temperature range of 296-1300K for pure water vapor. The instrument covers the spectral range from 6800 cm^{-1} to 7200 cm^{-1} and samples the (101)-(000), (200)-(000), (021)-(000), (111)-(010), (210)-(010), and (031)-(010) vibrational bands of water. The data is sampled with a point spacing of 0.0033 cm^{-1} and absolute frequency accuracy of gas temperature within coal gasifiers and other high temperature systems. In order to extract water concentration and temperature, an extended range of lineshape parameters are needed. Lineshape parameters for pure and argon broadened water are obtained for 278 transitions using the multispectral fitting program Labfit, including self-broadening coefficients, power law temperature scaling exponents, and speed dependence coefficients. The extended temperature range of the data provides valuable insight into the application of the speed-dependence corrections of the line profiles, which are shown to have more reasonable line broadening temperature dependencies.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.; Vinson, D.; Iyer, N.; Fisher, D.


    Following discharge from research reactors, spent nuclear fuel may be stored 'wet' in water pools or basins, or it may be stored 'dry' in various configurations including non-sealed or sealed containers until retrieved for ultimate disposition. Interim safe storage practices are based on avoiding degradation to the fuel that would impact functions related to safety. Recommended practices including environmental controls with technical bases, are outlined for wet storage and dry storage of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based research reactor fuel. For wet storage, water quality must be maintained to minimize corrosion degradation of aluminum fuel. For dry storage, vented canister storage of aluminum fuel readily provides a safe storage configuration. For sealed dry storage, drying must be performed so as to minimize water that would cause additional corrosion and hydrogen generation. Consideration must also be given to the potential for radiolytically-generated hydrogen from the bound water in the attendant oxyhydroxides on aluminum fuel from reactor operation for dry storage systems.

  3. Interim storage of power reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and its potential application to SNF separations and closed fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Salomon, E-mail:


    Interim, centralized, engineered (dry cask) storage facilities for USA light water power reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) should be implemented to complement and to offer much needed flexibility while the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is funded to complete its evaluation of the Yucca Mountain License and to subject it to public hearings. The interim sites should use the credo reproduced in Table 1 [Bunn, M., 2001. Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Harvard University and University of Tokyo] and involve both the industry and government. The sites will help settle the 50 pending lawsuits against the government and the $11 billion of potential additional liabilities for SNF delay damages if Yucca Mountain does not being operation in 2020 [DOE, 2008a. Report to Congress on the Demonstration of the Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Decommissioned Nuclear Power Stations (December)]. Under the developing consensus to proceed with closed fuel cycles, it will be necessary to develop SNF separation facilities with stringent requirements upon separation processes and upon generation of only highly resistant waste forms. The location of such facilities at the interim storage sites would offer great benefits to those sites and assure their long term viability by returning them to their original status. The switch from once-through to closed fuel cycle will require extensive time and development work as illustrated in 'The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy' [DOE, 2005. The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles. DOE (September)]. A carefully crafted long term program, funded for at least 5 years, managed by a strong joint government-industry team, and subjected to regular independent reviews should be considered to assure the program stability and success. The new uncertainty about Yucca Mountain role raises two key issues: (a) what to do with the weapons and other high level government

  4. Water demand characteristics of shared water and sanitation facilities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of communal water and sanitation facilities has been mandated by the South African Government as an interim measure for informal settlement upgrading. These services form the first step in the upgrading process and are essential in meeting the basic needs of the community. The eThekwini municipality is ...

  5. Environmental survey of two interim dumpsites, Middle Atlantic Bight from 05 November 1973 to 10 November 1973 (NODC Accession 7501280) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A second oceanographic survey cruise was made to an interim municipal sludge dumpsite and initially to an interim dumpsite for the disposal of industrial acid waste...

  6. Energy, Water and Fish: Biodiversity Impacts of Energy-Sector Water Demand in the United States Depend on Efficiency and Policy Measures (United States)

    McDonald, Robert I.; Olden, Julian D.; Opperman, Jeffrey J.; Miller, William M.; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V.; Powell, Jimmie


    Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18–24%, going from 1,993,000–2,628,000 Mm3 in 2010 to 2,359,000–3,271,000 Mm3 in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700–46,400 Mm3 consumption in 2010 to 21,000–58,400 Mm3 consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27–36 m3GJ−1 (0.1–0.5 m3GJ−1 consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4–0.7 m3GJ−1 (0.2–0.3 m3GJ−1 consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm3 (20,300 Mm3 consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur in

  7. 78 FR 41125 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Permanent Implant Brachytherapy Medical Event Reporting (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Interim Enforcement Policy for Permanent Implant Brachytherapy Medical Event Reporting AGENCY...'s permanent implant brachytherapy program. This interim policy affects NRC licensees that are authorized to perform permanent implant brachytherapy. DATES: This policy revision is effective July 9, 2013...

  8. 42 CFR 417.572 - Budget and enrollment forecast and interim reports. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget and enrollment forecast and interim reports... forecast and interim reports. (a) Annual submittal. The HMO or CMP must submit an annual operating budget and enrollment forecast, in the form and detail required by CMS, at least 90 days before the beginning...

  9. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgard, K.C.


    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  10. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgard, K.C.


    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  11. 32 CFR 643.36 - Policy-Interim leasing of excess properties to facilitate economic readjustment. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Interim leasing of excess properties to facilitate economic readjustment. 643.36 Section 643.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.36 Policy—Interim leasing of excess...

  12. 76 FR 15028 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential... (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACTION: Interim policy... clarifying FAA policy concerning through-the-fence access to a federally-obligated airport from an adjacent...

  13. 46 CFR 308.202 - Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions. 308... binder; terms and conditions. Upon acceptance of an application, an interim binder in form as set forth... forth in § 308.207) to the same extent as if such application and policy were made a part of the binder...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel.

  15. 78 FR 72897 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Interim Product Reporting for Human Drug Compounding Outsourcing... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Interim Product Reporting for Human Drug Compounding Outsourcing Facilities Under Section 503B of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic... entitled ``Interim Product Reporting for Human Drug Compounding Outsourcing Facilities Under Section 503B...

  16. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps (United States)


    NASA has developed a set of 14 draft roadmaps to guide the development of space technologies under the leadership of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). Each of these roadmaps focuses on a particular technology area (TA). The roadmaps are intended to foster the development of advanced technologies and concepts that address NASA's needs and contribute to other aerospace and national needs. OCT requested that the National Research Council conduct a study to review the draft roadmaps, gather and assess relevant community input, and make recommendations and suggest priorities to inform NASA's decisions as it finalizes its roadmaps. The statement of task states that "based on the results of the community input and its own deliberations, the steering committee will prepare a brief interim report that addresses high-level issues associated with the roadmaps, such as the advisability of modifying the number or technical focus of the draft NASA roadmaps." This interim report, which does not include formal recommendations, addresses that one element of the study charge. NASA requested this interim report so that it would have the opportunity to make an early start in modifying the draft roadmaps based on feedback from the panels and steering committee. The final report will address all other tasks in the statement of task. In particular, the final report will include a prioritization of technologies, will describe in detail the prioritization process and criteria, and will include specific recommendations on a variety of topics, including many of the topics mentioned in this interim report. In developing both this interim report and the final report to come, the steering committee draws on the work of six study panels organized by technical area, loosely following the organization of the 14 roadmaps, as follows: A Panel 1: Propulsion and Power TA01 Launch Propulsion Systems TA02 In-Space Propulsion Technologies TA03 Space Power and Energy Storage Systems TA13

  17. ECALS: loading studies interim report July 2013 (United States)

    Klymus, Katy E.; Richter, Catherine A.; Chapman, Duane C.; Paukert, Craig P.


    Since the initial detection of Asian carp moving up the Mississippi Basin, the potential for invasion of the Great Lakes by Silver Carp and Bighead Carp has been a major concern to stakeholders. To combat this problem, sampling for environmental DNA (eDNA) is used to monitor the waterways near Lake Michigan. This monitoring area includes the Chicago Area Waterways System (CAWS) and the Des Plaines River. By sampling waters that may be inhabited by Asian carp, the extraction and amplification of carp DNA from the collected cellular debris is possible. This technique has been successfully used in several other contexts (Ficetola et al., 2008; Foote et al., 2008) and is believed to be a highly sensitive method for species detection (Dejean et al., 2012). Compared to traditional methods for surveying aquatic invasive species (fishing, rotenone application, and electrofishing), the increased sensitivity of this method could be a valuable asset. Early detection could lead to a more rapid response to the threat of a Great Lakes invasion by Asian carp.

  18. Water (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.


    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  19. Time and concentration dependency in the potentially affected fraction of species: the case of hydrogen peroxide treatment of ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Ebbens, E.; Jak, R.G.; Huijbregts, M.J.A.


    Transport of large volumes of ballast water contributes greatly to invasions of species. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be used as a disinfectant to prevent the spread of exotic species via ballast water. Instead of using environmental risk assessment techniques for protecting a certain fraction of

  20. Protecting the confidentiality of interim data: addressing current challenges. (United States)

    Fleming, Thomas R


    There is compelling evidence supporting the importance of maintaining confidentiality of interim data in clinical trials designed to reliably address the benefit-to-risk profile of interventions. While this is widely recognized, creative approaches are needed to achieve this in challenging settings where interim data are released for regulatory review and action, even though the trial would be continued to address its primary hypothesis. An illustration is the recently emerging setting of cardiovascular safety trials in type 2 diabetes mellitus. At the first stage of such trials, if large relative increases in cardiovascular major morbidity/mortality can be ruled out, data can be released solely for the purpose of allowing regulatory decision making about marketing approval. The trial is then continued in the post-marketing setting to address the primary hypothesis regarding whether smaller relative increases can be ruled out. Active rather than passive approaches are needed to protect the integrity of cardiovascular safety trials. Given the importance to trial integrity of maintaining confidentiality of interim data such as the estimated relative effect on cardiovascular risk, a Data Access Plan should be in place in these trials to ensure such data are not revealed to study participants and their caregivers, investigators involved in trial conduct, the sponsor's management team, and the public, until trial completion. A Performance Standards Document also should be developed to pre-specify targeted and minimally acceptable levels for recruitment rate, best real-world achievable adherence, avoidance of cross-ins, and retention rate. This document should specify creative approaches for achieving these targets, oversight procedures during trial conduct to monitor performance levels, and actions to be taken if emerging data indicate minimally acceptable levels are not being reached. In settings where meaningful breaches in confidentiality have occurred, such


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzedine Abbaci


    Full Text Available Accurate information on the thermodynamic properties of supercritical fluids is highly sought for the chemical technology, especially, supercritical extraction technology. The thermodynamic properties of fluids near the critical region are strongly affected by the presence of fluctuations and therefore, can not be described by conventional equation. We have investigated an interim formulation for the behavior of the thermodynamic properties of n-hexane in the vicinity of the critical region. For this reason we have used the so-called “crossover model” to describe the thermodynamic properties of n-hexane in a wide range of temperatures and densities around the critical point.

  2. Hospital clinicians' iPad use: an interim report. (United States)

    Witman, Lydia


    An increasing number of hospital libraries are supporting the use of tablet computers such as iPads for access to information resources. To date, this adoption of tablets is not supported by high-quality research evidence. This article provides an interim report on a formal study of clinicians' use of iPads in the hospital setting, currently being conducted at Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia. Other hospital librarians may wish to consider similar factors when beginning to support the use of tablet computers at their own institutions.

  3. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.


    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single- and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and its performance as early as possible in the project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  4. The development of an interim generalized gate logic software simulator (United States)

    Mcgough, J. G.; Nemeroff, S.


    A proof-of-concept computer program called IGGLOSS (Interim Generalized Gate Logic Software Simulator) was developed and is discussed. The simulator engine was designed to perform stochastic estimation of self test coverage (fault-detection latency times) of digital computers or systems. A major attribute of the IGGLOSS is its high-speed simulation: 9.5 x 1,000,000 gates/cpu sec for nonfaulted circuits and 4.4 x 1,000,000 gates/cpu sec for faulted circuits on a VAX 11/780 host computer.

  5. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.


    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  6. The PDF4LHC Working Group Interim Report

    CERN Document Server

    Alekhin, Sergey; Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Blumlein, Johannes; Botje, Michiel; Butterworth, Jon; Cerutti, Francesco; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; de Roeck, Albert; Del Debbio, Luigi; Feltesse, Joel; Forte, Stefano; Glazov, Alexander; Guffanti, Alberto; Gwenlan, Claire; Huston, Joey; Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro; Lai, Hung-Liang; Latorre, Jose I.; McNulty, Ronan; Nadolsky, Pavel; Olaf Moch, Sven; Pumplin, Jon; Radescu, Voica; Rojo, Juan; Sjostrand, Torbjorn; Stirling, W.J.; Stump, Daniel; Thorne, Robert S.; Ubiali, Maria; Vicini, Alessandro; Watt, Graeme; Yuan, C.-P.


    This document is intended as a study of benchmark cross sections at the LHC (at 7 TeV) at NLO using modern parton distribution functions currently available from the 6 PDF fitting groups that have participated in this exercise. It also contains a succinct user guide to the computation of PDFs, uncertainties and correlations using available PDF sets. A companion note, also submitted to the archive, provides an interim summary of the current recommendations of the PDF4LHC working group for the use of parton distribution functions and of PDF uncertainties at the LHC, for cross section and cross section uncertainty calculations.

  7. Time dependent, one-dimensional linearized moisture flow including water uptake by roots in the presence of a shallow water table

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomen, D.O.


    Solutions of the time dependent moisture flow equation with plantwater extraction are primariry obtained by numerical techniques. Analytical solutions are, by necessity, subject to more restrictive assurnptions, but are generally easy and inexpensive to evaluate. They provide exact answers for

  8. Composition dependent Stokes shift dynamics in binary mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with water and acetonitrile: quantitative comparison between theory and complete measurements. (United States)

    Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Biswas, Ranjit


    Here we predict, using a semimolecular theory, the Stokes shift dynamics of a dipolar solute in binary mixtures of an ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF4]), with water (H2O) and acetonitrile (CH3CN), and compare with the experimental results. The latter are from the recent measurements that combined broad-band fluorescence up-conversion (FLUPS) with time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) techniques and used coumarin 153 (C153) as a solute probe. Nine different compositions of ([Bmim][BF4] + H2O) and ([Bmim][BF4] + CH3CN) binary mixtures are considered for the extensive comparison between theory and experiments. Two separate model calculations have been performed using the available experimental frequency dependent dielectric function, ε(ω). These calculations semiquantitatively reproduce the experimentally observed (i) IL mole fraction dependence of dynamic Stokes shifts in these mixtures, (ii) composition dependence of average fast, slow, and solvation times, (iii) viscosity dependence of slow times, and (iv) the nonlinear dependence of average solvation times on experimental inverse conductivity. Variations of the calculated dynamics on water dipole moment values (gas phase or liquid phase) and sensitivity to different measurements of ε(ω) for ([Bmim][BF4] + H2O) mixtures are examined. In addition, the importance of the missing contribution to experimental ε(ω) from high frequency collective solvent intermolecular modes for generating the experimentally observed sub-picosecond solvation response in these (IL + polar solvent) binary mixtures has been explored.

  9. Water (United States)

    ... the tap as described). 3. In all situations, drink or cook only with water that comes out of the tap cold. Water that comes out of the tap warm or hot can contain much higher levels of lead. Boiling ...

  10. Translational diffusion of water and its dependence on temperature in charged and uncharged clays: A neutron scattering study. (United States)

    González Sánchez, Fátima; Jurányi, Fanni; Gimmi, Thomas; Van Loon, Luc; Unruh, Tobias; Diamond, Larryn W


    The water diffusion in four different, highly compacted clays [montmorillonite in the Na- and Ca-forms, illite in the Na- and Ca-forms, kaolinite, and pyrophyllite (bulk dry density rho(b)=1.85+/-0.05 gcm(3))] was studied at the atomic level by means of quasielastic neutron scattering. The experiments were performed on two time-of-flight spectrometers and at three different energy resolutions [FOCUS at SINQ, PSI (3.65 and 5.75 A), and TOFTOF at FRM II (10 A)] for reliable data analysis and at temperatures between 27 and 95 degrees C. Two different jump diffusion models were used to describe the translational motion. Both models describe the data equally well and give the following ranking of diffusion coefficients: Na-montmorilloniteclays had slightly larger diffusion coefficients than that of bulk water due to their hydrophobic surfaces. The time between jumps, tau(t), follows the sequence: Ca-montmorillonite>or=Na-montmorillonite>Ca-illite>Na-illite>or=kaolinite>pyrophyllite>or=water, in both jump diffusion models. For clays with a permanent layer charge (montmorillonite and illite) a reduction in the water content by a factor of 2 resulted in a decrease in the self-diffusion coefficients and an increase in the time between jumps as compared to the full saturation. The uncharged clay kaolinite exhibited no change in the water mobility between the two hydration states. The rotational relaxation time of water was affected by the charged clay surfaces, especially in the case of montmorillonite; the uncharged clays presented a waterlike behavior. The activation energies for translational diffusion were calculated from the Arrhenius law, which adequately describes the systems in the studied temperature range. Na- and Ca-montmorillonite (approximately 11-12 kJmol), Na-illite (approximately 13 kJmol), kaolinite and pyrophyllite (approximately 14 kJmol), and Ca-illite (approximately 15 kJmol) all had lower activation energies than bulk water (approximately 17 kJmol in

  11. Population data on calcium in drinking water and hip fracture: An association may depend on other minerals in water. A NOREPOS study. (United States)

    Dahl, Cecilie; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Tell, Grethe S; Forsén, Lisa; Flaten, Trond Peder; Hongve, Dag; Omsland, Tone Kristin; Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Aamodt, Geir


    The Norwegian population has among the highest hip fracture rates in the world. The incidence varies geographically, also within Norway. Calcium in drinking water has been found to be beneficially associated with bone health in some studies, but not in all. In most previous studies, other minerals in water have not been taken into account. Trace minerals, for which drinking water can be an important source and even fulfill the daily nutritional requirement, could act as effect-modifiers in the association between calcium and hip fracture risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between calcium in drinking water and hip fracture, and whether other water minerals modified this association. A survey of trace metals in 429 waterworks, supplying 64% of the population in Norway, was linked geographically to the home addresses of patients with incident hip fractures (1994-2000). Drinking water mineral concentrations were divided into "low" (below and equal waterworks average) and "high" (above waterworks average). Poisson regression models were fitted, and all incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were adjusted for age, geographic region, urbanization degree, type of water source, and pH of the water. Effect modifications were examined by stratification, and interactions between calcium and magnesium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese were tested both on the multiplicative and the additive scale. Analyses were stratified on gender. Among those supplied from the 429 waterworks (2,110,916 person-years in men and 2,397,217 person-years in women), 5433 men and 13,493 women aged 50-85 years suffered a hip fracture during 1994-2000. Compared to low calcium in drinking water, a high level was associated with a 15% lower hip fracture risk in men (IRR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.91) but no significant difference was found in women (IRR=0.98, 95%CI: 0.93-1.02). There was interaction between calcium and copper on hip fracture risk in men (p=0.051); the association

  12. Glass packages in interim storage; Les verres dans les stockages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.


    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO{sub 2}. The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ``source term`` models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs.

  13. Application of foams to the processing of fabrics. Interim report, October 1, 1977-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, M.W.


    The primary objective of this project is to reduce the energy requirements for finishing fabrics by drastically reducing the water required to wet process the fabrics. Since less water is used, less energy is consumed in the evaporation of water. This is accomplished by replacing much of the water with air, making a foam and using it as the application medium. In the first six months of the project the practicality of foam fabric finishing on a commercial basis had been established. Limited yardage of fabrics equivalent in performance to conventionally wet finished fabrics were processed. In these mill trials, a range of foam fabric finishes including softeners, hand builders, durable press and shrink-resistant types were applied to cotton sheeting, corduroy and polyester/cellulosic blends, etc. In all cases, substantial energy savings were realized. Since the issuance of the first and second interim reports, commercial practice of foam fabric finishing continues to grow with cumulative total estimated as approaching 200,000,000 yards. A number of companies are currently using foam fabric finishing as a commercial production process. Additionally, the pilot range has been used to demonstrate foam fabric finishing to over twenty companies. The range has been used to demonstrate the foam acid dyeing of nylon carpets to several companies in this specialized area of textile processing. Active work still continues with these companies since the foam dyeing of carpets involves only about 1/5 the water used in the normal continuous dyeing of carpets. At the time of writing two carpet companies are actively working to evaluate foam dyeing on a mill scale. (LCL)

  14. SWSA 6 interim corrective measures environmental monitoring: FY 1990 results. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Spalding, B.P.


    This report presents the results and conclusions from a multifaceted monitoring effort associated with the high-density polyethylene caps installed in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as an interim corrective measure (ICM). The caps were installed between November 1988 and June 1989 to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for closure of those areas of SWSA 6 that had received RCRA-regulated wastes after November 1980. Three separate activities were undertaken to evaluate the performance of the caps: (1) wells were installed in trenches to be covered by the caps, and water levels in these intratrench wells were monitored periodically; (2) samples were taken of the leachate in the intratrench wells and were analyzed for a broad range of radiological and chemical contaminants; and (3) water levels in wells outside the trenches were monitored periodically. With the exception of the trench leachate sampling, each of these activities spanned the preconstruction, construction, and postconstruction periods. Findings of this study have important implications for the ongoing remedial investigation in SWSA 6 and for the design of other ICMs. 51 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Time-Dependent Changes of Albumin Water Solutions After Irradiation by Electromagnetic Waves with Extremely High Radio Frequencies (United States)

    Shahinyan, Mariam A.; Mikaelyan, Marieta S.; Darbinyan, Meri R.; Vardevanyan, Poghos O.

    The effect of electromagnetic irradiation with extremely high radio frequencies on several parameters of albumin water-saline solutions has been studied and the changes invoked by this irradiation after long time of its effect were observed. It was shown that the electromagnetic irradiation with 51.8GHz frequency, which is resonant for water, is preserved up to 48h after which the system returns to the initial state. It was shown as well that albumin thermostability also enhances and it is preserved during 48h, after that the system tends to return to the initial state.

  16. Atmosphere-Ocean Ozone Exchange – A Global Modeling Study of Biogeochemical, Atmospheric and Water-Side Turbulence Dependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, L.N.; Helmig, D.; Fairall, C.W.; Hare, J.; Pozzer, A.


    The significance of the removal of tropospheric ozone by the oceans, covering ~2/3 of the Earth's surface, has only been addressed in a few studies involving water tank, aircraft, and tower flux measurements. On the basis of results from these few observations of the ozone dry deposition velocity

  17. Effects of Trampling on Morphological and Mechanical Traits of Dryland Shrub Species Do Not Depend on Water Availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Freitas, S.M.A.; Yu, F.H.; Dong, M.; Anten, N.P.R.; Werger, M.J.A.


    In semiarid drylands water shortage and trampling by large herbivores are two factors limiting plant growth and distribution. Trampling can strongly affect plant performance, but little is known about responses of morphological and mechanical traits of woody plants to trampling and their possible

  18. On the composition dependence of thermodynamic, dynamic and dielectric properties of water-methanol model mixtures. Molecular dynamics simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Galicia-Andrés


    Full Text Available We have investigated thermodynamic and dynamic properties as well as the dielectric constant of water-methanol model mixtures in the entire range of composition by using constant pressure molecular dynamics simulations at ambient conditions. The SPC/E and TIP4P/Ew water models are used in combination with the OPLS united atom modelling for methanol. Changes of the average number of hydrogen bonds between particles of different species and of the fractions of differently bonded molecules are put in correspondence with the behavior of excess mixing volume and enthalpy, of self-diffusion coefficients and rotational relaxation times. From the detailed analyses of the results obtained in this work, we conclude that an improvement of the description of an ample set of properties of water-methanol mixtures can possibly be reached, if a more sophisticated, carefully parameterized, e.g., all atom, model for methanol is used. Moreover, exploration of parametrization of the methanol force field, with simultaneous application of different combination rules for methanol-water cross interactions, is required.

  19. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrity Research and Development Survey for UKABWR Spent Fuel Interim Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mertyurek, Ugur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The objective of this report is to identify issues and support documentation and identify and detail existing research on spent fuel dry storage; provide information to support potential R&D for the UKABWR (United Kingdom Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) Spent Fuel Interim Storage (SFIS) Pre-Construction Safety Report; and support development of answers to questions developed by the regulator. Where there are gaps or insufficient data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has summarized the research planned to provide the necessary data along with the schedule for the research, if known. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants has historically been stored on site (wet) in spent fuel pools pending ultimate disposition. Nuclear power users (countries, utilities, vendors) are developing a suite of options and set of supporting analyses that will enable future informed choices about how best to manage these materials. As part of that effort, they are beginning to lay the groundwork for implementing longer-term interim storage of the SNF and the Greater Than Class C (CTCC) waste (dry). Deploying dry storage will require a number of technical issues to be addressed. For the past 4-5 years, ORNL has been supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in identifying these key technical issues, managing the collection of data to be used in issue resolution, and identifying gaps in the needed data. During this effort, ORNL subject matter experts (SMEs) have become expert in understanding what information is publicly available and what gaps in data remain. To ensure the safety of the spent fuel under normal and frequent conditions of wet and subsequent dry storage, intact fuel must be shown to: 1.Maintain fuel cladding integrity; 2.Maintain its geometry for cooling, shielding, and subcriticality; 3.Maintain retrievability, and damaged fuel with pinhole or hairline cracks must be shown not to degrade further. Where PWR (pressurized water reactor) information is

  20. Soil compaction effects on growth and root traits of tobacco depend on light, water regime and mechanical stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alameda, D.; Anten, N.P.R.; Villar, R.


    Soil compaction can strongly affect plant performance as many other stress factors. In nature, many combinations of different stress factors may be found. We expect that the effects of soil compaction may be different depending of the occurrence of other stress. This has not been fully investigated;

  1. Age of stratospheric air in the ERA-Interim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Diallo


    Full Text Available The Brewer-Dobson mean circulation and its variability are investigated in the ERA-Interim over the period 1989-2010 by using an off-line Lagrangian transport model driven by analysed winds and heating rates.

    At low and mid-latitudes, the mean age of air in the lower stratosphere is in good agreement with ages derived from aircraft, high altitude balloon and satellite observations of long-lived tracers. At high latitude and in the upper stratosphere, we find, however that the ERA-Interim ages exhibit an old bias, typically of one to two years.

    The age spectrum exhibits a long tail except in the low tropical stratosphere which is modulated by the annual cycle of the tropical upwelling. The distribution of ages and its variability is consistent with the existence of two separate branches, shallow and deep, of the Brewer-Dobson circulation. Both branches are modulated by the tropical upwelling and the shallow branch is also modulated by the subtropical barrier.

    The variability of the mean age is analysed through a decomposition in terms of annual cycle, QBO, ENSO and trend. The annual modulation is the dominating signal in the lower stratosphere and is maximum at latitudes greater than 50° in both hemispheres with oldest ages at the end of the winter. The phase of the annual modulation is also reversed between below and above 25 km. The maximum amplitude of the QBO modulation is of about 0.5 yr and is mostly concentrated within the tropics between 25 and 35 km. It lags the QBO wind at 30 unit{hPa} by about 8 months. The ENSO signal is small and limited to the lower northen stratosphere.

    The age trend over the 1989–2010 period, according to this ERA-Interim dataset, is significant and negative, of the order of −0.3 to −0.5 yr dec−1, within the lower stratosphere in the Southern Hemisphere and south of 40° N in the Northern Hemisphere below 25 km. The age trend is positive (of the order of 0

  2. Structural anomaly and dynamic heterogeneity in cycloether/water binary mixtures: Signatures from composition dependent dynamic fluorescence measurements and computer simulations. (United States)

    Indra, Sandipa; Guchhait, Biswajit; Biswas, Ranjit


    We have performed steady state UV-visible absorption and time-resolved fluorescence measurements and computer simulations to explore the cosolvent mole fraction induced changes in structural and dynamical properties of water/dioxane (Diox) and water/tetrahydrofuran (THF) binary mixtures. Diox is a quadrupolar solvent whereas THF is a dipolar one although both are cyclic molecules and represent cycloethers. The focus here is on whether these cycloethers can induce stiffening and transition of water H-bond network structure and, if they do, whether such structural modification differentiates the chemical nature (dipolar or quadrupolar) of the cosolvent molecules. Composition dependent measured fluorescence lifetimes and rotation times of a dissolved dipolar solute (Coumarin 153, C153) suggest cycloether mole-fraction (X(THF)/Diox) induced structural transition for both of these aqueous binary mixtures in the 0.1 ≤ X(THF)/Diox ≤ 0.2 regime with no specific dependence on the chemical nature. Interestingly, absorption measurements reveal stiffening of water H-bond structure in the presence of both the cycloethers at a nearly equal mole-fraction, X(THF)/Diox ∼ 0.05. Measurements near the critical solution temperature or concentration indicate no role for the solution criticality on the anomalous structural changes. Evidences for cycloether aggregation at very dilute concentrations have been found. Simulated radial distribution functions reflect abrupt changes in respective peak heights at those mixture compositions around which fluorescence measurements revealed structural transition. Simulated water coordination numbers (for a dissolved C153) and number of H-bonds also exhibit minima around these cosolvent concentrations. In addition, several dynamic heterogeneity parameters have been simulated for both the mixtures to explore the effects of structural transition and chemical nature of cosolvent on heterogeneous dynamics of these systems. Simulated four

  3. Sphagnum can 'filter' N deposition, but effects on the plant and pore water depend on the N form. (United States)

    Chiwa, Masaaki; Sheppard, Lucy J; Leith, Ian D; Leeson, Sarah R; Tang, Y Sim; Cape, J Neil


    The ability of Sphagnum moss to efficiently intercept atmospheric nitrogen (N) has been assumed to be vulnerable to increased N deposition. However, the proposed critical load (20kgNha(-1)yr(-1)) to exceed the capacity of the Sphagnum N filter has not been confirmed. A long-term (11years) and realistic N manipulation on Whim bog was used to study the N filter function of Sphagnum (Sphagnum capillifolium) in response to increased wet N deposition. On this ombrotrophic peatland where ambient deposition was 8kgNha(-1)yr(-1), an additional 8, 24, and 56kgNha(-1)yr(-1) of either ammonium (NH4(+)) or nitrate (NO3(-)) has been applied for 11years. Nutrient status of Sphagnum and pore water quality from the Sphagnum layer were assessed. The N filter function of Sphagnum was still active up to 32kgNha(-1)yr(-1) even after 11years. N saturation of Sphagnum and subsequent increases in dissolved inorganic N (DIN) concentration in pore water occurred only for 56kgNha(-1)yr(-1) of NH4(+) addition. These results indicate that the Sphagnum N filter is more resilient to wet N deposition than previously inferred. However, functionality will be more compromised when NH4(+) dominates wet deposition for high inputs (56kgNha(-1)yr(-1)). The N filter function in response to NO3(-) uptake increased the concentration of dissolved organic N (DON) and associated organic anions in pore water. NH4(+) uptake increased the concentration of base cations and hydrogen ions in pore water though ion exchange. The resilience of the Sphagnum N filter can explain the reported small magnitude of species change in the Whim bog ecosystem exposed to wet N deposition. However, changes in the leaching substances, arising from the assimilation of NO3(-) and NH4(+), may lead to species change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tidal-fluvial interaction in the Guadalquivir River Estuary: Spatial and frequency-dependent response of currents and water levels (United States)

    Losada, M. A.; Díez-Minguito, M.; Reyes-Merlo, M. Á.


    This paper presents a study on the tidal-fluvial interaction in the highly regulated Guadalquivir River Estuary (SW Spain), which is occasionally subjected to high discharge episodes that affect navigational conditions and increase flood risks. The study specifically focuses on the processes and controlling mechanisms of the nonstationary response of water levels and currents to high discharges. Measurements show a 60 day postdischarge amplification of tidal current and elevation amplitudes and a clockwise rotation of the tidal ellipse in the upper layers. A decrease of amplitudes and an anticlockwise rotation predominate near the bed. Such episodes significantly increase the tidal wave celerity, and especially at high and low water. These features are due to the suspended sediment stratification triggered by the discharge event. The increase in stratification restricts frictional influence to bottom layers, partially decoupling the overlying flow from the bottom. A nonstationary harmonic decomposition method, intended for identifying which nonlinear terms in the governing hydrodynamic equations control overtide and compound tide generation, shows that quadratic bottom stress contributes the most during high discharge periods. The consequence in the subtidal balance is that, during peak discharge and in the upper stretches, friction is largely balanced by the water level gradient, although the density gradient term becomes comparable to the friction term soon after peak discharge. Advection is also important to the force balance in the lower estuary. For both parts, to correctly explain subtidal dynamics, it is necessary to account for the time variability of the friction coefficient due to flow-sediment feedback.

  5. Stable water isotopologue ratios in fog and cloud droplets of liquid clouds are not size-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Spiegel


    Full Text Available In this work, we present the first observations of stable water isotopologue ratios in cloud droplets of different sizes collected simultaneously. We address the question whether the isotope ratio of droplets in a liquid cloud varies as a function of droplet size. Samples were collected from a ground intercepted cloud (= fog during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 campaign (HCCT-2010 using a three-stage Caltech Active Strand Cloud water Collector (CASCC. An instrument test revealed that no artificial isotopic fractionation occurs during sample collection with the CASCC. Furthermore, we could experimentally confirm the hypothesis that the δ values of cloud droplets of the relevant droplet sizes (μm-range were not significantly different and thus can be assumed to be in isotopic equilibrium immediately with the surrounding water vapor. However, during the dissolution period of the cloud, when the supersaturation inside the cloud decreased and the cloud began to clear, differences in isotope ratios of the different droplet sizes tended to be larger. This is likely to result from the cloud's heterogeneity, implying that larger and smaller cloud droplets have been collected at different moments in time, delivering isotope ratios from different collection times.

  6. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V


    Full Text Available , and of the remaining 2,5 percent, some 70 percent is frozen in the polar caps and around 30 percent is present as soil moisture or in underground aquifers. Less than 1 percent is thus accessible for direct use by humans, animals and plants. Consequently... be serviced with harvested water and/or grey water. Conserve and reuse cooling tower water by using efficient systems and strategies. Avoid ?once-through systems? commonly used for evaporation coolers, ice makers, hydraulic equipment, and air compressors...

  7. Advanced nuclear reactor public opinion project. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.


    This Interim Report summarizes the findings of our first twenty in-depth interviews in the Advanced Nuclear Reactor Public Opinion Project. We interviewed 6 industry trade association officials, 3 industry attorneys, 6 environmentalists/nuclear critics, 3 state officials, and 3 independent analysts. In addition, we have had numerous shorter discussions with various individuals concerned about nuclear power. The report is organized into the four categories proposed at our April, 1991, Advisory Group meeting: safety, cost-benefit analysis, science education, and communications. Within each category, some change of focus from that of the Advisory Group has been required, to reflect the findings of our interviews. This report limits itself to describing our findings. An accompanying memo draws some tentative conclusions.

  8. Veterans Employment Pay for Success Grant Program. Interim final rule. (United States)


    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is establishing a grant program (Veterans Employment Pay for Success (VEPFS)) under the authority of the U.S.C. to award grants to eligible entities to fund projects that are successful in accomplishing employment rehabilitation for Veterans with service-connected disabilities. VA will award grants on the basis of an eligible entity's proposed use of a Pay for Success (PFS) strategy to achieve goals. This interim final rule establishes regulations for awarding a VEPFS grant, including the general process for awarding the grant, criteria and parameters for evaluating grant applications, priorities related to the award of a grant, and general requirements and guidance for administering a VEPFS grant program.

  9. SNF Interim Storage Canister Corrosion and Surface Environment Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This progress report describes work being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. In order for SCC to occur, three criteria must be met. A corrosive environment must be present on the canister surface, the metal must susceptible to SCC, and sufficient tensile stress to support SCC must be present through the entire thickness of the canister wall. SNL is currently evaluating the potential for each of these criteria to be met.

  10. Health Resources Priority and Allocations System (HRPAS). Interim final rule. (United States)


    This interim final rule establishes standards and procedures by which the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) may require that certain contracts or orders that promote the national defense be given priority over other contracts or orders. This rule also sets new standards and procedures by which HHS may allocate materials, services, and facilities to promote the national defense. This rule will implement HHS's administration of priorities and allocations actions, and establish the Health Resources Priorities and Allocation System (HRPAS). The HRPAS will cover health resources pursuant to the authority under Section 101(c) of the Defense Production Act as delegated to HHS by Executive Order 13603. Priorities authorities (and other authorities delegated to the Secretary in E.O. 13603, but not covered by this regulation) may be re-delegated by the Secretary. The Secretary retains the authority for allocations.

  11. Experimental determination of the photon-energy dependent dose-to-water response of TLD600 and TLD700 (LiF:Mg,Ti) thermoluminescence detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwahofer, Andrea [Vivantes Clinic Neukoelln, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy; Feist, Harald [Munich Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; Georg, Holger [PTW Freiburg (Germany). Calibration Lab.; Haering, Peter; Schlegel, Wolfgang [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy


    The aim of this study has been the experimental determination of the energy dependent dose-to-water response of TLD600 and TLD700 thermoluminescent detectors (Harshaw) in X-ray beams with mean photon energies from about 20 to 200 keV in comparison with {sup 60}Co gamma rays and 6 MV X-rays. Experiments were carried out in collaboration with the German secondary standard laboratory PTW Freiburg. The energy dependent relative responses of TLD600 and TLD700 thermoluminescence detectors were determined at radiation qualities between 30 kV{sub p} and 280 kV{sub p}. The overall uncertainty of the measured values was characterized by standard deviations varying from 1.2 to 3%. The present results agree with previous studies on the energy dependent dose-to-water response of TLD100. As an application example, the results were used to measure doses associated with X-ray imaging in image-guided radiotherapy.

  12. Dependence of the Internal Structure on Water/Particle Volume Ratio in an Amphiphilic Janus Particle-Water-Oil Ternary System: From Micelle-like Clusters to Emulsions of Spherical Droplets. (United States)

    Noguchi, Tomohiro G; Iwashita, Yasutaka; Kimura, Yasuyuki


    Amphiphilic Janus particles (AJP), composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic hemispheres, are one of the simplest anisotropic colloids, and they exhibit higher surface activities than particles with homogeneous surface properties. Consequently, a ternary system of AJP, water, and oil can form extremely stable Pickering emulsions, with internal structures that depend on the Janus structure of the particles and the system composition. However, the detail of these structures has not been fully explored, especially for the composition range where the amount of the minority liquid phase and AJP are comparable, where one would expect the Janus characteristics to be directly reflected. In this study, we varied the volume ratio of the particles and the minority liquid phase, water, by 2 orders of magnitude around the comparable composition range, and observed the resultant structures at the resolution of the individual particle dimensions by optical microscopy. When the volume ratio of water is smaller than that of the Janus particles, capillary interactions between the hydrophilic hemispheres of the particles induce micelle-like clusters in which the hydrophilic sides of the particles face inward. With increasing water content, these clusters grow into a rodlike morphology. When the water volume exceeds that of the particles, the structure transforms into an emulsion state composed of spherical droplets, colloidosomes, because of the surface activity of particles at the liquid-liquid interface. Thus, we found that a change in volume fraction alters the mechanism of structure formation in the ternary system, and large resulting morphological changes in the self-assembled structures reflect the anisotropy of the particles. The self-assembly shows essential commonalities with that in microemulsions of surfactant molecules, however the AJP system is stabilized only kinetically. Analysis of the dependence of the emulsion droplet size on composition shows that almost all the

  13. The challenges facing the long term interim storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iracane, D. [CEA Sacaly, Dir. de la Simulation et des Outils Experimentaux-DSOE, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Marvy, A. [CEA Saclay, Dir. du Developpement et de l' Innovation Nucleares-DDIN, 91 - Gif Sur Yvette (France)


    In France electricity generation by means of commercial nuclear power plants has come to a point where it contributes to the national demand at a level of 80%. The safety performance of the production system has also reached a high level of both maturity and reliability taking advantage of the cumulative effect of a 30 years long learning experience and ever more stringent safety requirements. The policy to reprocess spent fuel has been overriding but no final decision has yet been made regarding the ultimate disposition of the waste streams. Although studies on deep geological disposal are ongoing, France is also looking at whether and under which conditions a long-term interim storage may provide an effective flexibility to the fuel cycle back-end. We discuss thereafter the needs and the paramount objectives of this latter R and D program. Results are being framed as potential guiding criteria for decision makers and various stakeholders. In first part, we propose a general analysis which emphasises that a long term interim storage is more than a classical nuclear facility because it explicitly requires long-lasting control and creates a burden for Society during many generations. Then, in second part, we offer an overview of the technical results from the R and D program as they stand at the time of writing. As an answer to the Government request, a strong emphasis has been put on this research for three years. Conclusion is an attempt to outline the societal context in which future decisions will have to be made. (author)

  14. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya


    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  15. Chickpea Genotypes Contrasting for Vigor and Canopy Conductance Also Differ in Their Dependence on Different Water Transport Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliamoorthy Sivasakthi


    Full Text Available Lower plant transpiration rate (TR under high vapor pressure deficit (VPD conditions and early plant vigor are proposed as major traits influencing the rate of crop water use and possibly the fitness of chickpea lines to specific terminal drought conditions—this being the major constraint limiting chickpea productivity. The physiological mechanisms underlying difference in TR under high VPD and vigor are still unresolved, and so is the link between vigor and TR. Lower TR is hypothesized to relate to hydraulic conductance differences. Experiments were conducted in both soil (Vertisol and hydroponic culture. The assessment of the TR response to increasing VPD showed that high vigor genotypes had TR restriction under high VPD, and this was confirmed in the early vigor parent and progeny genotype (ICC 4958 and RIL 211 having lower TR than the late vigor parent and progeny genotype (ICC 1882 and RIL 022. Inhibition of water transport pathways [apoplast and symplast (aquaporins] in intact plants led to a lower transpiration inhibition in the early vigor/low TR genotypes than in the late vigor/high TR genotypes. De-rooted shoot treatment with an aquaporin inhibitor led to a lower transpiration inhibition in the early vigor/low TR genotypes than in the late vigor/high TR genotypes. Early vigor genotypes had lower root hydraulic conductivity than late vigor/high TR genotypes. Under inhibited conditions (apoplast, symplast, root hydraulic conductivity was reduced more in the late vigor/high TR genotypes than in the early vigor/low TR genotypes. We interpret that early vigor/low TR genotypes have a lower involvement of aquaporins in water transport pathways and may also have a smaller apoplastic pathway than high TR genotypes, which could explain the transpiration restriction under high VPD and would be helpful to conserve soil water under high evaporative demand. These findings open an opportunity for breeding to tailor genotypes with different

  16. DQO Summary Report for 105-N/109-N Interim Safe Storage Project Waste Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Lee


    The DQO summary report provides the results of the DQO process completed for waste characterization activities for the 105-N/109-N Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project including decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities for six associated buildings.

  17. Basis for Interim Operation for the K-Reactor in Cold Standby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, B.


    The Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) document for K Reactor in Cold Standby and the L- and P-Reactor Disassembly Basins was prepared in accordance with the draft DOE standard for BIO preparation (dated October 26, 1993).

  18. Fabrication of an Implant-Supported Fixed Interim Prosthesis Using a Duplicate Denture: An Alternative Technique. (United States)

    Al-Thobity, Ahmad M


    The fabrication of an implant-supported fixed complete denture prosthesis involves multiple clinical and laboratory steps. One of the main steps is to provide the patient with an interim fixed prosthesis to evaluate the patient's esthetic and functional needs as well as to enhance the patient's psychology before proceeding to the definitive prosthesis. Different techniques for fabricating interim prostheses have been described in the literature. This report describes an alternative technique that uses a duplicate denture made of self-curing acrylic resin to fabricate an implant-supported fixed interim prosthesis. The interim prosthesis was later used as a blueprint for the definitive implant-supported hybrid prosthesis. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H.

  20. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : Interim Plan for Weekend Visitor Access (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an interim plan for weekend visitors designed to provide for the safety of visitors to the Rocky Mountain Arsenal during its remediation and transition to a...

  1. Interim report for defining brine and oil threats in the Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge [2002 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following interim report is a list of activities being performed in conjunction with the study of oil brine effects on crayfish in the Patoka River National...

  2. The Interim Implementation Plan Report in Support of the Information Sharing Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...). This interim report describes the 11 requirements stated in IRTPA and provides a road map for developing the comprehensive Implementation Plan for the ISE, which is expected to be submitted to the Congress in July 2006...


    Interim report resulting from a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between US EP A's Officeof Research and Development - National Risk Management Research Laboratory and a n ongoing field demonstrationof municipal waste landfills being operated as bioreact...

  4. Interim revision of the South African Mechanistic-Empirical pavement design method for flexible pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL


    Full Text Available an interim revision of the SAMDM recommending increased contact stress values at the tyre-pavement interface; updated unbound material characterisation parameters; effective stress analysis for unbound material; and revised damage models for estimating...

  5. Seawater Temperature and Wind Speed Dependences and Diurnal Variation of Ambient Noise at the Snapping Shrimp Colony in Shallow Water of Southern Sea of Korea (United States)

    Jung, Seom-Kyu; Choi, Bok Kyoung; Kim, Bong-Chae; Kim, Byoung-Nam; Kim, Seong Hyeon; Park, Yosup; Lee, Yong-Kuk


    The seawater temperature and wind dependences and diurnal variation of the ambient noise at the snapping shrimp colony in shallow water of the southern sea of Korea were investigated. The ambient noise levels are significantly affected by the snapping shrimp sound, when the bottom seawater temperature increases and the wind speed decreases. However, they are not exceptively almost affected by the snapping shrimp sound when the wind speed decreases at low seawater temperatures (shrimp sound in the morning and night time zones. This study shows that the activity of the snapping shrimp affecting the variation in ambient noise level in shallow water can be related to the wind speed as well as the seawater temperature. This study also shows that the snapping shrimp in diurnal activity can be more active in the morning and night time zones.

  6. Water-dependent interfacial transition zone in resin-modified glass-ionomer cement/dentin interfaces. (United States)

    Tay, F R; Sidhu, S K; Watson, T F; Pashley, D H


    The function of the interfacial transition zone (absorption layer) in resin-modified glass-ionomer cements bonded to deep dentin remains obscure. This study tested the hypotheses that the absorption layer is formed only in the presence of water derived from hydrated dentin and allows for better bonding of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements to dentin. Ten percent polyacrylic acid-conditioned, hydrated, and dehydrated deep dentin specimens were bonded with 2 resin-modified glass-ionomer cements and sealed with resins to prevent environmental water gain or loss. A non-particulate absorption layer was identified over hydrated dentin only, and was clearly discernible from the hybrid layer when bonded interfaces were examined with transmission electron microscopy. This layer was relatively more resistant to dehydration stresses, and remained intact over the dentin surface after tensile testing. The absorption layer mediates better bonding of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements to deep dentin, and functions as a stress-relieving layer to reduce stresses induced by desiccation and shrinkage.

  7. Controlled Synthesis of Water-Soluble NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ Nanoparticles with Surfactant Dependent Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Zhao


    Full Text Available Water-soluble NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ nanoparticles (NPs are successfully prepared by a solvothermal reaction using branched polyethylenimine (PEI with different chain lengths as the surfactants in a water/diethylene glycol (DEG mixed solution. It is shown that the size of NaYF4 NPs prepared with high molecular weight PEI (HPEI is smaller than that of the NPs prepared with low molecular weight (LPEI, while small-sized NPs exhibit more intense upconversion luminescence intensities than large-sized NPs in the same excitation power of 980 nm. It is found that HPEI is conducive to the formation of smaller NP with high crystallinity. Small-sized NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ NPs with intense upconversion luminescence and improved crystallinity were related to their growth process. A possible growth mechanism of the samples is proposed. The results of this study can provide new insights into the controlled synthesis of novel NPs.

  8. Solvent-dependent host guest complexation of two homologous merocyanines by a water-soluble calix[8]arene: Spectroscopic analysis and structural calculations (United States)

    Lodi, Andrea; Caselli, Monica; Casnati, Alessandro; Momicchioli, Fabio; Sansone, Francesco; Vanossi, Davide; Ponterini, Glauco


    The sulfonated calixarene I 8C 12 acts as a host for homologous merocyanines Mc1 and Mc2 in organic solvents, exhibiting neither selectivity towards the guest dyes nor solvent dependence of the complexation equilibria. In water, on the contrary, only the lower homologue, Mc1, is solubilized in the presence of the calixarene. A combination of UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic and photophysical analysis and MD structural simulation of the calixarene-dye complexes was employed to account for the observations, and suggests that a radical change in the complexation mode occurs upon moving from an organic to an aqueous environment.

  9. Will interim storage sites become ultimate storage sites?; Werden aus Zwischenlager Endlager?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, W.P. [ia GmbH - Wissensmanagement und Ingenieurleistungen, Muenchen (Germany)


    According to a Prognos study, the maximum interim storage capacity required in Germany in 2008 will be 4 - 5 million cubic metres. Interim storage is necessary because there are not sufficient options for disposal. The stored waste will be combusted, so that German incinerators will be capable of running at full capacity until 2013. From mere disposal systems, incinerators are rapidly becoming waste-to-energy systems that will make a contribution to power supply. (orig.)

  10. Online Monitoring Technical Basis and Analysis Framework for Emergency Diesel Generators - Interim Report for FY 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binh T. Pham; Nancy J. Lybeck; Vivek Agarwal


    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory is actively conducting research to develop and demonstrate online monitoring capabilities for active components in existing nuclear power plants. Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute are working jointly to implement a pilot project to apply these capabilities to emergency diesel generators and generator step-up transformers. The Electric Power Research Institute Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Software Suite will be used to implement monitoring in conjunction with utility partners: Braidwood Generating Station (owned by Exelon Corporation) for emergency diesel generators, and Shearon Harris Nuclear Generating Station (owned by Duke Energy Progress) for generator step-up transformers. This report presents monitoring techniques, fault signatures, and diagnostic and prognostic models for emergency diesel generators. Emergency diesel generators provide backup power to the nuclear power plant, allowing operation of essential equipment such as pumps in the emergency core coolant system during catastrophic events, including loss of offsite power. Technical experts from Braidwood are assisting Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Power Research Institute in identifying critical faults and defining fault signatures associated with each fault. The resulting diagnostic models will be implemented in the Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Software Suite and tested using data from Braidwood. Parallel research on generator step-up transformers was summarized in an interim report during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2012.

  11. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 9200 Latty Avenue, Hazelwood, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Hazelwood Interim storage Site (HISS) and surrounding area, provides the results for 1992, and discusses applicable environmental standards and requirements with which the results were compared. HISS is located in eastern Missouri in the City of Hazelwood (St. Louis County) and occupies approximately 2.2 ha (5.5 acres). Environmental monitoring of HISS began in 1984 when the site was assigned to the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act. DOE placed responsibility for HISS under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), which was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. In 1992 there were no environmental occurrences or unplanned contaminant releases as defined in DOE requirements and in the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III of CERCLA.

  12. Online Monitoring Technical Basis and Analysis Framework for Large Power Transformers; Interim Report for FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy J. Lybeck; Vivek Agarwal; Binh T. Pham; Heather D. Medema; Kirk Fitzgerald


    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is actively conducting research to develop and demonstrate online monitoring (OLM) capabilities for active components in existing Nuclear Power Plants. A pilot project is currently underway to apply OLM to Generator Step-Up Transformers (GSUs) and Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs). INL and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are working jointly to implement the pilot project. The EPRI Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Software Suite will be used to implement monitoring in conjunction with utility partners: the Shearon Harris Nuclear Generating Station (owned by Duke Energy for GSUs, and Braidwood Generating Station (owned by Exelon Corporation) for EDGs. This report presents monitoring techniques, fault signatures, and diagnostic and prognostic models for GSUs. GSUs are main transformers that are directly connected to generators, stepping up the voltage from the generator output voltage to the highest transmission voltages for supplying electricity to the transmission grid. Technical experts from Shearon Harris are assisting INL and EPRI in identifying critical faults and defining fault signatures associated with each fault. The resulting diagnostic models will be implemented in the FW-PHM Software Suite and tested using data from Shearon-Harris. Parallel research on EDGs is being conducted, and will be reported in an interim report during the first quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  13. Interim results from UO/sub 2/ fuel oxidation tests in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, T.K.; Gilbert, E.R.; Thornhill, C.K.; White, G.D.; Piepel, G.F.; Griffin, C.W.j


    An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to extend the characterization of spent fuel oxidation in air. To characterize oxidation behavior of irradiated UO/sub 2/, fuel oxidation tests were performed on declad light-water reactor spent fuel and nonirradited UO/sub 2/ pellets in the temperature range of 135 to 250/sup 0/C. These tests were designed to determine the important independent variables that might affect spent fuel oxidation behavior. The data from this program, when combined with the test results from other programs, will be used to develop recommended spent fuel dry-storage temperature limits in air. This report describes interim test results. The initial PNL investigations of nonirradiated and spent fuels identified the important testing variables as temperature, fuel burnup, radiolysis of the air, fuel microstructure, and moisture in the air. Based on these initial results, a more extensive statistically designed test matrix was developed to study the effects of temperature, burnup, and moisture on the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Oxidation tests were initiated using both boiling-water reactor and pressurized-water reactor fuels from several different reactors with burnups from 8 to 34 GWd/MTU. A 10/sup 5/ R/h gamma field was applied to the test ovens to simulate dry storage cask conditions. Nonirradiated fuel was included as a control. This report describes experimental results from the initial tests on both the spent and nonirradiated fuels and results to date on the tests in a 10/sup 5/ R/h gamma field. 33 refs., 51 figs., 6 tabs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kolich


    Full Text Available In order to accurately predict costs of the thousands of interim products that are assembled in shipyards, it is necessary to use skilled engineers to develop detailed Gantt charts for each interim product separately which takes many hours. It is helpful to develop a prediction tool to estimate the cost of interim products accurately and quickly without the need for skilled engineers. This will drive down shipyard costs and improve competitiveness. Data mining is used extensively for developing prediction models in other industries. Since ships consist of thousands of interim products, it is logical to develop a data mining methodology for a shipyard or any other manufacturing industry where interim products are produced. The methodology involves analysis of existing interim products and data collection. Pre-processing and principal component analysis is done to make the data “user-friendly” for later prediction processing and the development of both accurate and robust models. The support vector machine is demonstrated as the better model when there are a lower number of tuples. However as the number of tuples is increased to over 10000, then the artificial neural network model is recommended.

  15. Controversies on the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. (United States)

    Adams, Hugo J A; Kwee, Thomas C


    Hodgkin lymphoma, even in advanced-stage, is a highly curable malignancy, but treatment is associated with short-term toxicity and long-term side effects. Early predictive markers are required to identify those patients who do not require the full-length standard therapy (and thus qualify for therapy de-escalation) and those patients who will not be cured by standard therapy (and thus qualify for therapy escalation). Multiple trials have assessed the value of (18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) after a few cycles of chemotherapy (also known as 'interim FDG-PET') in predicting outcome in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. Furthermore, multiple interim FDG-PET-adapted trials, in which patients with positive interim FDG-PET scans are assigned to escalated therapies, and patients with negative interim FDG-PET scans are assigned to de-escalated therapies, have recently been published or are currently ongoing, with generally heterogeneous results. The present article reports the currently available evidence (and controversies) on the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with positive and negative interim FDG-PET findings following continuation of standard chemotherapy or escalated/de-escalated therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Salinity-dependent toxicity of water-dispersible, single-walled carbon nanotubes to Japanese medaka embryos. (United States)

    Kataoka, Chisato; Nakahara, Kousuke; Shimizu, Kaori; Kowase, Shinsuke; Nagasaka, Seiji; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Kashiwada, Shosaku


    To investigate the effects of salinity on the behavior and toxicity of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), which are chemical modified nanotube to increase dispersibility, medaka embryos were exposed to non-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (N-SWCNTs), water-dispersible, cationic, plastic-polymer-coated, single-walled carbon nanotubes (W-SWCNTs), or hydrophobic polyethylene glycol-functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG-SWCNTs) at different salinities, from freshwater to seawater. As reference nanomaterials, we tested dispersible chitin nanofiber (CNF), chitosan-chitin nanofiber (CCNF) and chitin nanocrystal (CNC, i.e. shortened CNF). Under freshwater conditions, with exposure to 10 mg l -1  W-SWCNTs, the yolk sacks of 57.8% of embryos shrank, and the remaining embryos had a reduced heart rate, eye diameter and hatching rate. Larvae had severe defects of the spinal cord, membranous fin and tail formation. These toxic effects increased with increasing salinity. Survival rates declined with increasing salinity and reached 0.0% in seawater. In scanning electron microscope images, W-SWCNTs, CNF, CCNF and CNC were adsorbed densely over the egg chorion surface; however, because of chitin's biologically harmless properties, only W-SWCNTs had toxic effects on the medaka eggs. No toxicity was observed from N-SWCNT and PEG-SWCNT exposure. We demonstrated that water dispersibility, surface chemistry, biomedical properties and salinity were important factors in assessing the aquatic toxicity of nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Light-water reactor accident classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washburn, B.W.


    The evolution of existing classifications and definitions of light-water reactor accidents is considered. Licensing practice and licensing trends are examined with respect to terms of art such as Class 8 and Class 9 accidents. Interim definitions, consistent with current licensing practice and the regulations, are proposed for these terms of art.

  18. Towards an extreme wind climatology for The Netherlands based on downscaling ERA-Interim with the HARMONIE-AROME high-resolution model (United States)

    Burgers, Gerrit; Baas, Peter; van den Brink, Henk


    A new wind climatology of the Netherlands is being developed by KNMI and Deltares, in support of the safety assessment of Water Defences. Based on model simulations that are validated by wind measurements, it will answer the need for a proper description of extreme storms. Since millions of people in the Netherlands live and work in areas protected from flooding by dikes, extreme winds in the Netherlands have been the object of intensive study. So far, these studies have been based on station observations and interpolation methods that account for differences in surface roughness. However, these methods face limitations when extrapolating from land locations to water. Also, the requirements on the wind climate have changed. Future assessments of Dutch Water Defences will consider not only the strength of a storm, but also its extension and characteristics in space and time. High-resolution models of sufficient quality can represent extreme winds and answer these requirements. The basis for our simulations is the ERA-Interim re-analysis of ECMWF for the period 1979-2012. ERA-Interim has a T255 resolution that is too coarse for our purposes. For down-scaling ERA-Interim to a resolution of 2.5km we use the HARMONIE-AROME model that has been developed by Météo France and the Aladin-Hirlam model consortium. We use an approach where short HARMONIE runs are initiated from ERA-Interim analysis fields. We discuss the choices we have made with regard to domain size and model spin-up time. Comparison with observations from a test set of 17 storms shows that the down-scaled wind fields adequately represent extreme wind fields over the Netherlands. In particular, we pay attention to the wind field near the coast, stability effects, and the formulation of the drag over water surfaces in the model. Once validation is complete, the model will be used to simulate all storms over The Netherlands in the period 1979-2012, and this data set will form the basis of the extreme wind

  19. Microleakage of Glass Ionomer-based Provisional Cement in CAD/CAM-Fabricated Interim Crowns: An in vitro Study. (United States)

    Farah, Ra'fat I; Al-Harethi, Naji


    The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the marginal microleakage of glass ionomer-based provisional cement with resin-based provisional cement and zinc oxide non-eugenol (ZONE) provisional cement in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-fabricated interim restorations. Fifteen intact human premolars were prepared in a standardized manner for complete coverage of crown restorations. Interim crowns for the prepared teeth were then fabricated using CAD/CAM, and the specimens were randomized into three groups of provisional cementing agents (n = 5 each): Glass ionomer-based provisional cement (GC Fuji TEMP LT™), bisphenol-A-glycidyldimethacrylate (Bis-GMA)/ triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resin-based cement (UltraTemp® REZ), and ZONE cement (TempBond NE). After 24 hours of storage in distilled water at 37°C, the specimens were thermocycled and then stored again for 24 hours in distilled water at room temperature. Next, the specimens were placed in freshly prepared 2% aqueous methylene blue dye for 24 hours and then embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin blocks and sectioned in buccolingual and mesiodistal directions to assess dye penetration using a stereomicroscope. The results were statistically analyzed using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Dunn's post hoc test with a Bonferroni correction test was used to compute multiple pairwise comparisons that identified differences among groups; the level of significance was set at p glass ionomer-based provisional cement and the ZONE cement. The provisional cementing agents exhibited different sealing abilities. The Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin-based provisional cement exhibited the most effective favorable sealing properties against dye penetration compared with the glass ionomer-based provisional cement and conventional ZONE cement. Newly introduced glass ionomer-based provisional cement proved to be inferior to resin-based provisional cement as far as marginal microleakage

  20. Highly luminescent water-soluble quaternary Zn–Ag–In–S quantum dots and their unique precursor S/In ratio-dependent spectral shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Dawei, E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Qu, Lingzhi [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Cheng, Zhiqiang [College of Resources and Environment, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118 (China); Achilefu, Samuel, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Gu, Yueqing, E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)


    Quaternary I–II–III–VI semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) containing less toxic elements are receiving increasing attention because of their promising applications in solar cells, light-emitting diode (LED), and biological labeling. Despite its advantages, the quaternary system is more complex than the binary and ternary analogues. This is reflected in the difficulty to control the size, size distribution, elemental composition, and optical properties of quaternary I–II–III–VI QDs, especially in aqueous medium. In this work, we have synthesized new aqueous quaternary Zn–Ag–In–S (ZAIS) QDs with tunable photoluminescence (PL) for the first time, giving the highest PL quantum yield (QY) of 30%, which is close to those of the conventional well-developed aqueous II–VI QDs. Most importantly, three unique spectral shifts depending on precursor S/In ratio were observed in this quaternary system. The spectral were characterized by diverse analytical methods to systematically establish distinct features of the quaternary nanomaterials. The results demonstrate the potential utility of this new water-soluble system in fundamental and applied researches with quaternary QDs. -- Highlights: • The synthesis of water-soluble quaternary Zn–Ag–In–S quantum dots. • The high photoluminescence quantum yield, 30%. • The three unique precursor S/In ratio-dependent spectral shifts.

  1. Particle-size dependence on metal(loid) distributions in mine wastes: Implications for water contamination and human exposure (United States)

    Kim, C.S.; Wilson, K.M.; Rytuba, J.J.


    The mining and processing of metal-bearing ores has resulted in contamination issues where waste materials from abandoned mines remain in piles of untreated and unconsolidated material, posing the potential for waterborne and airborne transport of toxic elements. This study presents a systematic method of particle size separation, mass distribution, and bulk chemical analysis for mine tailings and adjacent background soil samples from the Rand historic mining district, California, in order to assess particle size distribution and related trends in metal(loid) concentration as a function of particle size. Mine tailings produced through stamp milling and leaching processes were found to have both a narrower and finer particle size distribution than background samples, with significant fractions of particles available in a size range (???250 ??m) that could be incidentally ingested. In both tailings and background samples, the majority of trace metal(loid)s display an inverse relationship between concentration and particle size, resulting in higher proportions of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in finer-sized fractions which are more susceptible to both water- and wind-borne transport as well as ingestion and/or inhalation. Established regulatory screening levels for such elements may, therefore, significantly underestimate potential exposure risk if relying solely on bulk sample concentrations to guide remediation decisions. Correlations in elemental concentration trends (such as between As and Fe) indicate relationships between elements that may be relevant to their chemical speciation. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Water-extracted Perilla frutescens increases endometrial receptivity though leukemia inhibitory factor-dependent expression of integrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Yeong Kim


    Full Text Available The leaves and stems of Perilla frutescens var. acuta Kudo (PF have been used to prevent threatened abortion in traditional medicine in the East Asian countries. Because reduced receptivity of endometrium is a cause of abortion, we analyzed the action of PF on the endometrial receptivity. PF increased the level of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, a major cytokine regulating endometrial receptivity, and LIF receptor in human endometrial Ishikawa cells. The PF-induced LIF expression was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 pathways. Adhesion between Ishikawa cells and trophoblastic JAr cells stimulated by PF treatment was abolished by knock down of LIF expression or antagonism of LIFR. In addition, the expressions of integrin β3 and β5 were increased by PF treatment in Ishikawa cells. The PF-induced expression of integrin β3 and β5 was reduced with an LIFR antagonist. Neutralization of both integrins successfully blocked PF-stimulated adhesion of JAr cells and Ishikawa cells. These results suggest that PF enhanced the adhesion between Ishikawa cells and JAr cells by increasing the expression of integrin β3 and β5 via an LIF-dependent pathway. Given the importance of endometrial receptivity in successful pregnancy, PF can be a novel and effective candidate for improving pregnancy rate.

  3. Natural convection in square enclosures differentially heated at sides using alumina-water nanofluids with temperature-dependent physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianfrini Marta


    Full Text Available Laminar natural convection of Al2O3 + H2O nanofluids inside square cavities differentially heated at sides is studied numerically. A computational code based on the SIMPLE-C algorithm is used for the solution of the system of the mass, momentum and energy transfer governing equations. Assuming that the nanofluid behaves like a single-phase fluid, these equations are the same as those valid for a pure fluid, provided that the thermophysical properties appearing in them are the nanofluid effective properties. The thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of the nanofluid are calculated by means of a couple of empirical equations based on a wide variety of experimental data reported in the literature. The other effective properties are evaluated by the conventional mixing theory. Simulations are performed for different values of the nanoparticle volume fraction in the range 0-0.06, the diameter of the suspended nanoparticles in the range 25-100 nm, the temperature of the cooled sidewall in the range 293-313 K, the temperature of the heated sidewall in the range 298-343 K, and the Rayleigh number of the base fluid in the range 103-107. All computations are executed in the hypothesis of temperature-dependent effective properties. The main result obtained is the existence of an optimal particle loading for maximum heat transfer, that is found to increase as the size of the suspended nanoparticles is decreased, and the nanofluid average temperature is increased.

  4. Interim measure work plan/design for Agra, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division


    This Interim Measure Work Plan/Design (IMWP/D) is supplemental to the Argonne document Interim Measure Conceptual Design for Remediation of Source Area Contamination at Agra, Kansas. The IMWP/D includes information required by Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Policy BER-RS-029, Policy and Scope of Work for Interim Measures. Specific to Policy BER-RS-029 is the requirement for several documents that will ensure that an adequate amount and type of data are collected for implementation of the IMWP/D and that data quality and safe conditions are prevailed. Such information is included in the IMWP/D as follows: Appendix A: Data Acquisition Plan--Design Testing Requirements; Appendix B: Basis of Design; Appendix C: Permits; Appendix D: Quality Assurance Project Plan; Appendix E: Health and Safety Plan; and Appendix F: Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Schedule. The proposed remedial technology for this project is the installation of five large-diameter boreholes (LDBs) in a source area that has been identified on the property formerly used for grain storage by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The goal of the LDB technology is the remediation of the source area by removal of mass quantities of contaminated soil from the vadose zone and treatment of any remaining contaminated soils that are adjacent to the source area to achieve a carbon tetrachloride concentration below 200 {micro}g/kg. Secondary to the soil remediation is the remediation of groundwater at and adjacent to the source areas. The LDB technology serves the following purposes: (1) The physical removal of contaminated soil from the identified source area. (2) Replacement of less permeable native materials (silty clay, clayey silt, and silty sand) with more permeable materials to facilitate the capture of volatilized contaminants in the vertical borehole. (3) Removal of contaminants volatilized by air sparging (AS) and extracted from the

  5. Anticipating Central Asian Water Stress: Variation in River Flow Dependency on Melt Waters from Alpine to Plains in the Remote Tien Shan Range, Kyrgyzstan Using a Rapid Hydro Assessment Methodology (United States)

    Hill, A. F.; Wilson, A. M.; Williams, M. W.


    The future of mountain water resources in High Asia is of high interest to water managers, development organizations and policy makers given large populations downstream reliant on snow and ice sourced river flow. Together with historical and cultural divides among ex-Soviet republics, a lack of central water management following the Soviet break-up has led to water stress as trans-boundary waters weave through and along borders. New upstream hydropower development, a thirsty downstream agricultural sector and a shrinking Aral Sea has led to increasing tension in the region. Despite these pressures and in contrast to eastern High Asia's Himalayan basins (Ganges, Brahmaputra), little attention has been given to western High Asia draining the Pamir and Tien Shan ranges (Syr Darya and Amu Darya basins) to better understand the hydrology of this vast and remote area. Difficult access and challenging terrain exacerbate challenges to working in this remote mountain region. As part of the Contributions to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS) project, we asked how does river flow source water composition change over an alpine-to-plains domain of Kyrgyzstan's Naryn River in the Syr Darya basin? In addition, what may the future hold for river flow in Central Asia given the differing responses of snow and ice to climate changes? Utilizing a Rapid Hydrologic Assessment methodology including a suite of pre-field mapping techniques we collected in situ water chemistry data at targeted, remote mountain sites over 450km of the Naryn River over an elevation gradient from glacial headwaters to the lower lying areas - places where people, hydropower and agriculture utilize water. Chemical and isotope tracers were used to separate stream flow to understand relative dependency on melt waters as the river moves downstream from glaciers and snow covered areas. This case study demonstrates a technique to acquire field data over large scales in remote regions that facilitates

  6. Morphology-Dependent Properties of Cu/CeO2 Catalysts for the Water-Gas Shift Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibo Ren


    Full Text Available CeO2 nanooctahedrons, nanorods, and nanocubes were prepared by the hydrothermal method and were then used as supports of Cu-based catalysts for the water-gas shift (WGS reaction. The chemical and physical properties of these catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, N2 adsorption/desorption, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR and in situ diffuse reflectance infra-red fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS techniques. Characterization results indicate that the morphology of the CeO2 supports, originating from the selective exposure of different crystal planes, has a distinct impact on the dispersion of Cu and the catalytic properties. The nanooctahedron CeO2 catalyst (Cu-CeO2-O showed the best dispersion of Cu, the largest amount of moderate copper oxide, and the strongest Cu-support interaction. Consequently, the Cu-CeO2-O catalyst exhibited the highest CO conversion at the temperature range of 150–250 °C when compared with the nanocube and nanorod Cu-CeO2 catalysts. The optimized Cu content of the Cu-CeO2-O catalysts is 10 wt % and the CO conversion reaches 91.3% at 300 °C. A distinctive profile assigned to the evolution of different types of carbonate species was observed in the 1000–1800 cm−1 region of the in situ DRIFTS spectra and a particular type of carbonate species was identified as a potential key reaction intermediate at low temperature.

  7. Finding of no significant impact. Consolidation and interim storage of special nuclear material at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA -- 1060, for the consolidation, processing, and interim storage of Category I and II special nuclear material (SNM) in Building 371 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (hereinafter referred to as Rocky Flats or Site), Golden, Colorado. The scope of the EA included alternatives for interim storage including the no action alternative, the construction of a new facility for interim storage at Rocky Flats, and shipment to other DOE facilities for interim storage.

  8. Interim main report of the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Allan (ed.) [and others


    This document is an interim report on the safety assessment SR-Can (SR in the acronym stands for Safety Report and Can is short for canister). The final SR-Can report will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of the present interim report is to demonstrate the methodology for safety assessment so that it can be reviewed before it is used in a license application. The assessment relates to the KBS-3 disposal concept in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. Preliminary data from the Forsmark site, presently being investigated by SKB as one of the candidate for a KBS-3 repository are used to some extent as examples. However, the collected data are yet too sparse to allow an evaluation of safety for this site. An important aim of this report is to demonstrate the proper handling of requirements on the safety assessment in applicable regulations. Therefore, regulations issued by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority are duplicated in an Appendix. The principal acceptance criterion requires that 'the annual risk of harmful effects after closure does not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk'. 'Harmful effects' refer to cancer and hereditary effects. Following the introductory chapter 1, this report outlines the methodology for the SR-Can assessment in chapter 2, and presents in chapters 3, 4 and 5 the initial state of the system and the plans and methods for handling external influences and internal processes, respectively. Function indicators are introduced in chapter 6 and a preliminary evaluation of these is given in chapter 7. The material presented in the first seven chapters is utilised in the scenario selection

  9. Interim Consequence Management Guidance for a Wide-Area Biological Attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raber, Ellen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kirvel, Robert [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacQueen, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Love, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dombroski, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McGrann, Thomas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Richards, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Melius, Carl [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bunt, Thomas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, Wilthea [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Greenwalt, Robert [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miles, Robin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dillon, Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mancieri, Sav [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Harris, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Michalik, Richard [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wheeler, Richard [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoppes, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tucker, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krauter, Paula [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knowlton, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Lynn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Franco, Dave [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Einfeld, Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brockman, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Betty, Rita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration (IBRD) program is a collaborative, interagency effort co-chaired by the Department of Homeland Security and Department of Defense aimed at improving the nation‘s ability to respond to and recover from a large-scale, wide-area, domestic attack involving the release of an environmentally persistent biological warfare agent. The program is focused on understanding interactions between the civilian and military sectors, and in building mutual support to carry out such remediations. This Interim Consequence Management Guidance document provides guidance for decisionmakers in executing activities required to respond to and recover from a biological incident affecting a wide urban area insofar as information is currently available. The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis is discussed as the biological agent of primary concern because it is the most difficult of known bioterrorism agents to inactivate and is considered to be one of the key threat agents. Most other biological threat agents are much easier to remediate, and in many cases, inactivation would occur naturally within days as a result of environmental exposure; however, the framework and operational questions that need to be addressed are expected to remain the same. The guidance in this document is applicable to (1) enclosed facilities, such as commercial, residential, and continental U.S. military facilities; (2) semi-enclosed facilities, such as subways and public transit facilities; (3) outdoor areas (both localized and wide area), such as building exteriors, streets, parks, and other open spaces; (4) drinking water facilities; and (5) drinking water sources. This document follows an interagency framework [Planning Guidance for Recovery Following Biological Incidents (DHS and EPA 2009)]—which considered Raber et al. (2002) in its development—but takes the framework to a more operational level and provides guidance at key action and decision

  10. Exploring water radiolysis in proton cancer therapy: Time-dependent, non-adiabatic simulations of H+ + (H2O1-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin J Privett

    Full Text Available To elucidate microscopic details of proton cancer therapy (PCT, we apply the simplest-level electron nuclear dynamics (SLEND method to H+ + (H2O1-6 at ELab = 100 keV. These systems are computationally tractable prototypes to simulate water radiolysis reactions-i.e. the PCT processes that generate the DNA-damaging species against cancerous cells. To capture incipient bulk-water effects, ten (H2O1-6 isomers are considered, ranging from quasi-planar/multiplanar (H2O1-6 to "smallest-drop" prism and cage (H2O6 structures. SLEND is a time-dependent, variational, non-adiabatic and direct method that adopts a nuclear classical-mechanics description and an electronic single-determinantal wavefunction in the Thouless representation. Short-time SLEND/6-31G* (n = 1-6 and /6-31G** (n = 1-5 simulations render cluster-to-projectile 1-electron-transfer (1-ET total integral cross sections (ICSs and 1-ET probabilities. In absolute quantitative terms, SLEND/6-31G* 1-ET ICS compares satisfactorily with alternative experimental and theoretical results only available for n = 1 and exhibits almost the same accuracy of the best alternative theoretical result. SLEND/6-31G** overestimates 1-ET ICS for n = 1, but a comparable overestimation is also observed with another theoretical method. An investigation on H+ + H indicates that electron direct ionization (DI becomes significant with the large virtual-space quasi-continuum in large basis sets; thus, SLEND/6-31G** 1-ET ICS is overestimated by DI contributions. The solution to this problem is discussed. In relative quantitative terms, both SLEND/6-31* and /6-31G** 1-ET ICSs precisely fit into physically justified scaling formulae as a function of the cluster size; this indicates SLEND's suitability for predicting properties of water clusters with varying size. Long-time SLEND/6-31G* (n = 1-4 simulations predict the formation of the DNA-damaging radicals H, OH, O and H3O. While "smallest-drop" isomers are included, no

  11. Quantifying the impacts of land surface schemes and dynamic vegetation on the model dependency of projected changes in surface energy and water budgets (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Wang, Guiling; Chen, Haishan


    Assessing and quantifying the uncertainties in projected future changes of energy and water budgets over land surface are important steps toward improving our confidence in climate change projections. In this study, the contribution of land surface models to the inter-GCM variation of projected future changes in land surface energy and water fluxes are assessed based on output from 19 global climate models (GCMs) and offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) simulations driven by meteorological forcing from the 19 GCMs. Similar offline simulations using CLM4 with its dynamic vegetation submodel are also conducted to investigate how dynamic vegetation feedback, a process that is being added to more earth system models, may amplify or moderate the intermodel variations of projected future changes. Projected changes are quantified as the difference between the 2081-2100 period from the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) future experiment and the 1981-2000 period from the historical simulation. Under RCP8.5, projected changes in surface water and heat fluxes show a high degree of model dependency across the globe. Although precipitation is very likely to increase in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, a high degree of model-related uncertainty exists for evapotranspiration, soil water content, and surface runoff, suggesting discrepancy among land surface models (LSMs) in simulating the surface hydrological processes and snow-related processes. Large model-related uncertainties for the surface water budget also exist in the Tropics including southeastern South America and Central Africa. These uncertainties would be reduced in the hypothetical scenario of a single near-perfect land surface model being used across all GCMs, suggesting the potential to reduce uncertainties through the use of more consistent approaches toward land surface model development. Under such a scenario, the most significant reduction is likely to be seen in the

  12. Database and Interim Glass Property Models for Hanford HLW Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Vienna, John D.; Cooley, Scott K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Russell, Renee L.


    The purpose of this report is to provide a methodology for an increase in the efficiency and a decrease in the cost of vitrifying high-level waste (HLW) by optimizing HLW glass formulation. This methodology consists in collecting and generating a database of glass properties that determine HLW glass processability and acceptability and relating these properties to glass composition. The report explains how the property-composition models are developed, fitted to data, used for glass formulation optimization, and continuously updated in response to changes in HLW composition estimates and changes in glass processing technology. Further, the report reviews the glass property-composition literature data and presents their preliminary critical evaluation and screening. Finally the report provides interim property-composition models for melt viscosity, for liquidus temperature (with spinel and zircon primary crystalline phases), and for the product consistency test normalized releases of B, Na, and Li. Models were fitted to a subset of the screened database deemed most relevant for the current HLW composition region.

  13. DOUBLE TRACKS Test Site interim corrective action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The DOUBLE TRACKS site is located on Range 71 north of the Nellis Air Force Range, northwest of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). DOUBLE TRACKS was the first of four experiments that constituted Operation ROLLER COASTER. On May 15, 1963, weapons-grade plutonium and depleted uranium were dispersed using 54 kilograms of trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. The explosion occurred in the open, 0.3 m above the steel plate. No fission yield was detected from the test, and the total amount of plutonium deposited on the ground surface was estimated to be between 980 and 1,600 grams. The test device was composed primarily of uranium-238 and plutonium-239. The mass ratio of uranium to plutonium was 4.35. The objective of the corrective action is to reduce the potential risk to human health and the environment and to demonstrate technically viable and cost-effective excavation, transportation, and disposal. To achieve these objectives, Bechtel Nevada (BN) will remove soil with a total transuranic activity greater then 200 pCI/g, containerize the soil in ``supersacks,`` transport the filled ``supersacks`` to the NTS, and dispose of them in the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site. During this interim corrective action, BN will also conduct a limited demonstration of an alternative method for excavation of radioactive near-surface soil contamination.

  14. International Programs and Agreements in Geothermal Energy. An Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Fein, E.; Bye, J.


    This report contains the interim results of a study for the Division of Geothermal Energy on the Division's international programs and activities. The complete research program, which is scheduled to be finished i November 1978, will have the following elements: (1) an assessment of objectives that have motivated the formulation of international programs and an explanation of any changes in the evolution of those programs. These objectives will be assessed for their internal consistency, degree of governmental consensus, their practicality, the current status of their accomplishments, and the implications of their accomplishments for the role of DGE. (2) An assessment of organizational structures and teams, including the identity of key decisionmakers, the nature of the interagency process, procedures for generating nongovernmental support for international programs and the success of these procedures, and the effectiveness of the interface with foreign partners. (3) Assessment of results of international cooperative programs, which involve the development of an overall balance sheet of benefits and disbenefits attributed to each international program. (4) The formulation of future international cooperative programs based on the assessments described. These programs may involve the development of new exchanges, alteration or elimination of existing exchanges, and revisions in the management of exchanges by US government agencies.

  15. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.


    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  16. Inhibition of IgE-dependent Mouse Triphasic Cutaneous Reaction by a Boiling Water Fraction Separated from Mycelium of Phellinus linteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Inagaki


    Full Text Available Phellinus linteus, a mushroom, contains constituents that exhibit potent antitumor effects through activating immune cells. Recently, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of P. linteus extracts have also been implicated. In the present study, therefore, we separated the constituents of mycelium of P. linteus into five fractions—chloroform-soluble (CF, ethyl acetate-soluble (EA, methanol-soluble (AE, water-soluble (WA and boiling water-soluble (BW fractions—and examined their suppressive effects on the IgE-dependent mouse triphasic cutaneous reaction. The triphasic reaction was induced in the ear of BALB/c mice passively sensitized with anti-dinitrophenol IgE by painting with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene 24 h later. Ear swelling appeared triphasically with peak responses at 1 h, 24 h and 8 days after the challenge. ME, WA and BW given orally at a dose of 100 mg kg−1 significantly inhibited the first and second phase ear swelling, and BW also inhibited the third phase response. CF only inhibited the second phase. The inhibition by BW was the most potent and almost dose-dependent at doses of 30–300 mg kg−1. BW also inhibited vascular permeability increase caused by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and histamine, and ear swelling caused by tumor necrosis factor-α. In contrast, BW apparently potentiated the production of interleukin-4 and interferon-γ from anti-CD3-stimulated mouse splenocytes. These results indicate that BW derived from mycelium of P. linteus contains some constituents with anti-allergic as well as immunopotentiating properties.

  17. Fit of interim crowns fabricated using photopolymer-jetting 3D printing. (United States)

    Mai, Hang-Nga; Lee, Kyu-Bok; Lee, Du-Hyeong


    The fit of interim crowns fabricated using 3-dimensional (3D) printing is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the fit of interim crowns fabricated using photopolymer-jetting 3D printing and to compare it with that of milling and compression molding methods. Twelve study models were fabricated by making an impression of a metal master model of the mandibular first molar. On each study model, interim crowns (N=36) were fabricated using compression molding (molding group, n=12), milling (milling group, n=12), and 3D polymer-jetting methods. The crowns were prepared as follows: molding group, overimpression technique; milling group, a 5-axis dental milling machine; and polymer-jetting group using a 3D printer. The fit of interim crowns was evaluated in the proximal, marginal, internal axial, and internal occlusal regions by using the image-superimposition and silicone-replica techniques. The Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the results among groups (α=.05). Compared with the molding group, the milling and polymer-jetting groups showed more accurate results in the proximal and marginal regions (P3D printing significantly enhanced the fit of interim crowns, particularly in the occlusal region. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial community responses to 17 years of altered precipitation are seasonally dependent and coupled to co-varying effects of water content on vegetation and soil C (United States)

    Sorensen, Patrick O.; Germino, Matthew J.; Feris, Kevin P.


    Precipitation amount and seasonal timing determine the duration and distribution of water available for plant and microbial activity in the cold desert sagebrush steppe. In this study, we sought to determine if a sustained shift in the amount and timing of precipitation would affect soil microbial diversity, community composition, and soil carbon (C) storage. Field plots were irrigated (+200 mm) during the dormant or growing-season for 17 years. Microbial community responses were assessed over the course of a year at two depths (15–20 cm, 95–100 cm) by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), along with co-occurring changes in plant cover and edaphic properties. Bacterial richness, Shannon Weaver diversity, and composition in shallow soils (15–20 cm) as well as evenness in deep soils (95–100 cm) differed across irrigation treatments during July. Irrigation timing affected fungal community diversity and community composition during the dormant season and most strongly in deep soils (95–100 cm). Dormant-season irrigation increased the ratio of shrubs to forbs and reduced soil C in shallow soils by 16% relative to ambient conditions. It is unclear whether or not soil C will continue to decline with continued treatment application or if microbial adaptation could mitigate sustained soil C losses. Future changes in precipitation timing will affect soil microbes in a seasonally dependent manner and be coupled to co-varying effects of water content on vegetation and soil C.

  19. The metabolic response in fish to mildly elevated water temperature relates to species-dependent muscular concentrations of imidazole compounds and free amino acids. (United States)

    Geda, Fikremariam; Declercq, Annelies M; Remø, Sofie C; Waagbø, Rune; Lourenço, Marta; Janssens, Geert P J


    Fish species show distinct differences in their muscular concentrations of imidazoles and free amino acids (FAA). This study was conducted to investigate whether metabolic response to mildly elevated water temperature (MEWT) relates to species-dependent muscular concentrations of imidazoles and FAA. Thirteen carp and 17 Nile tilapia, housed one per aquarium, were randomly assigned to either acclimation (25°C) or MEWT (30°C) for 14 days. Main muscular concentrations were histidine (HIS; P0.05), (NAH+HIS)/TAU ratio was markedly higher in carp versus tilapia, and decreased with MEWT only in carp (Pacids in carp metabolism (Pacids (NEFA) in carp (P=0.001), the latter shows that carp, being a fatter fish, more readily mobilises fat than tilapia at MEWT, which coincides with more intensive muscular mobilization of imidazoles. This study demonstrates that fish species differ in their metabolic response to MEWT, which is associated with species-dependent changes in muscle imidazole to taurine ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chlorella induces stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production and its effects on instantaneous water use efficiency in Vicia faba. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels.

  1. 77 FR 75649 - Establishment of Interim Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the Carrizo Plain... (United States)


    ... and rare flora and wildlife species, and world class archaeological sites. Protecting these values... upon the date of publication. III. Discussion of Interim Final Supplementary Rules These interim final... replica weapons (such as paintball, airsoft, or war game apparatus) is prohibited on the Monument. The use...

  2. 49 CFR 1152.29 - Prospective use of rights-of-way for interim trail use and rail banking. (United States)


    ... use and rail banking. 1152.29 Section 1152.29 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Prospective use of rights-of-way for interim trail use and rail banking. (a) If any state, political... line proposed to be abandoned for interim trail use and rail banking pursuant to 16 U.S.C. 1247(d), it...

  3. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (United States)


    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with all...

  4. Planning and monitoring of placebo-controlled survival trials : comparison of the triangular test with usual interim analyses methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulot, JS; Cucherat, M; Charlesworth, A; Van Veldhuisen, DJ; Corvol, JC; Mallet, A; Boissel, JP; Hampton, J; Lechat, P

    Aims For ethical and economic reasons, interim analysis of phase III clinical trials is essential. This study was conducted to compare the efficiency of two interim analysis procedures, which could be used to allow early termination of a clinical trial. Methods We made a post hoc application of two

  5. 75 FR 34537 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... (United States)


    ... Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan Under the Patient Protection...-AB68 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Interim...

  6. 76 FR 60802 - Foreign-Trade Zone 77-Memphis, TN; Withdrawal of Request for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing... (United States)


    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 77--Memphis, TN; Withdrawal of Request for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; Flextronics Logistics USA, Inc., (Cell Phone/Mobile Handset Kitting). Memphis, TN..., requesting temporary/interim manufacturing authority on behalf of Flextronics Logistics USA, Inc. in Memphis...

  7. 78 FR 3039 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-06; Performing a... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-06; Performing a Tsunami, Surge, or Seiche Hazard Assessment AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Japan Lessons... Commission (NRC) is issuing the Final Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance (JLD...

  8. 76 FR 8383 - Office of New Reactors; Interim Staff Guidance on Impacts of Construction of New Nuclear Power... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Office of New Reactors; Interim Staff Guidance on Impacts of Construction of New Nuclear Power...: Solicitation of public comment. SUMMARY: The NRC staff is soliciting public comment on its proposed Interim...

  9. 76 FR 17159 - Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on Standard Review Plan, Section 17.4... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on Standard Review Plan, Section 17.4.... SUMMARY: The NRC staff is issuing its Final Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) DC/COL-ISG-018 (Agencywide...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The importance that each company must grant to the strategic sources of information generates our concern for analysis of the interim financial reporting. In every enterprise, there are doubts on the usefulness of interim financial reports, given the following elements: the necessary time for their preparation (relatively long, their restricted character and the resources necessary to establish them. Finding a common solution to these problems and, implicitly, increasing the interest for interim financial reporting, can help to increase the economic performance of the company, either by reducing the unnecessary costs related to time, or by increasing communication and transparency with third parties. An appropriate management can act early in the direction of counteracting the negative effects in their company or prevention of any commercial or production failures, the overall economic trends in that field and increasing productivity. Starting from these premises, we propose a research in order to capture the main aspects related to the mentioned issues.

  11. Evaluation of tuff as a medium for a nuclear waste repository: interim status report on the properties of tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, J.K.; Wolfsberg, K. (eds.)


    This report is the second in a series of summary briefings to the National Academy of Science`s (NAS) Committee on Radioactive Waste Management dealing with feasibility of disposal of heat-producing radioactive waste in silicic tuff. The interim status of studies of tuff properties determined on samples obtained from Yucca Mountain and Rainier Mesa (G-tunnel) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are discussed. In particular, progress is described on resolving issues identified during the first briefing to the NAS which include behavior of water in tuff when heated, the effect of the presence or absence of water and joints on the thermal/physical properties of tuff and the detailed/complex sorptive properties of highly altered and unaltered tuff. Initial correlations of thermal/physical and sorptive properties with the highly variable porosity and mineralogy are described. Three in-situ, at-depth field experiments, one nearly completed and two just getting underway are described. In particular, the current status of mineralogy and petrology, geochemistry, thermal and mechanical, radiation effects and water behavior studies are described. The goals and initial results of a Mine Design Working Group are discussed. Regional factors such as seismicity, volcanism and hydrology are not discussed.

  12. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1991--1992 interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.; Phelps, M.R.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.


    A catalytic gasification system operating in a pressurized water environment has been developed and refined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for over 12 years. Initial experiments were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. The combined use of alkali and metal catalysts was reported for gasification of biomass and its components at low temperatures (350{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C). From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous reactor system (CRS) testing were undertaken in the development of this system under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. A wide range of biomass feedstocks were tested, and the importance of the nickel metal catalyst was identified. Specific use of this process for treating food processing wastes was also studied. The concept application was further expanded to encompass cleanup of hazardous wastewater streams, and results were reported for batch reactor tests and continuous reactor tests. Ongoing work at PNL focuses on refining the catalyst and scaling the system to long-term industrial needs. The process is licensed as the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) to Onsite*Ofsite, Inc., of Duarte, California. This report is a follow-on to the 1989--90 interim report [Elliott et al. 1991], which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with a fixed-bed, continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The discussion here provides an overview of experiments on the wide range of potential feedstock materials conducted in a batch reactor; development of new catalyst materials; and tests performed in continuous-flow reactors at three scales. The appendices contain the history and background of the process development, as well as more detailed descriptions and results of the recent studies.

  13. Cloud water composition during HCCT-2010: Scavenging efficiencies, solute concentrations, and droplet size dependence of inorganic ions and dissolved organic carbon (United States)

    van Pinxteren, Dominik; Wadinga Fomba, Khanneh; Mertes, Stephan; Müller, Konrad; Spindler, Gerald; Schneider, Johannes; Lee, Taehyoung; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Herrmann, Hartmut


    differences and limitations of the approaches (such as outgassing of dissolved gases during residual particle sampling). Scavenging efficiencies (SEs) of aerosol constituents were 0.56-0.94, 0.79-0.99, 0.71-98, and 0.67-0.92 for SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and DOC respectively when calculated as event means with in-cloud data only. SEs estimated using data from an upwind site were substantially different in many cases, revealing the impact of gas-phase uptake (for volatile constituents) and mass losses across Mt. Schmücke likely due to physical processes such as droplet scavenging by trees and/or entrainment. Drop size-resolved cloud water concentrations of major ions SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ revealed two main profiles: decreasing concentrations with increasing droplet size and "U" shapes. In contrast, profiles of typical coarse particle mode minor ions were often increasing with increasing drop size, highlighting the importance of a species' particle concentration size distribution for the development of size-resolved solute concentration patterns. Concentration differences between droplet size classes were typically three-stage collector and somewhat more pronounced from the five-stage collector, while they were much larger for minor ions. Due to a better separation of droplet populations, the five-stage collector was capable of resolving some features of solute size dependencies not seen in the three-stage data, especially sharp concentration increases (up to a factor of 5-10) in the smallest droplets for many solutes.

  14. In vitro evaluation of the marginal integrity of CAD/CAM interim crowns. (United States)

    Kelvin Khng, Kwang Yong; Ettinger, Ronald L; Armstrong, Steven R; Lindquist, Terry; Gratton, David G; Qian, Fang


    The accuracy of interim crowns made with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems has not been well investigated. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal integrity of interim crowns made by CAD/CAM compared with that of conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) crowns. A dentoform mandibular left second premolar was prepared for a ceramic crown and scanned for the fabrication of 60 stereolithical resin dies, half of which were scanned to fabricate 15 Telio CAD-CEREC and 15 Paradigm MZ100-E4D-E4D crowns. Fifteen Caulk and 15 Jet interim crowns were made on the remaining resin dies. All crowns were cemented with Tempgrip under a 17.8-N load, thermocycled for 1000 cycles, placed in 0.5% acid fuschin for 24 hours, and embedded in epoxy resin before sectioning from the mid-buccal to mid-lingual surface. The marginal discrepancy was measured using a traveling microscope, and dye penetration was measured as a percentage of the overall length under the crown. The mean vertical marginal discrepancy of the conventionally made interim crowns was greater than for the CAD/CAM crowns (P=.006), while no difference was found for the horizontal component (P=.276). The mean vertical marginal discrepancy at the facial surface of the Caulk crowns was significantly greater than that of the other 3 types of interim crowns (Pcrowns was significantly larger than that of the other 3 types, with no difference at the lingual margins (P=.150). The mean percentage dye penetration for the Paradigm MZ100-E4D crowns was significantly greater and for Jet crowns significantly smaller than for the other 3 crowns (Pcrowns at the facial surface and with the horizontal marginal discrepancies of the Caulk interim crowns at the lingual surface (Pcrowns fabricated by CAD/CAM as compared with PMMA crowns; however, this difference was not observed for the horizontal component. The percentage dye penetration was correlated with vertical and horizontal

  15. 1988 Federal Interim Storage Fee study: A technical and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document is the latest in a series of reports that are published annually by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The information in this report, which was prepared by E.R. Johnson Associates, Inc., under subcontract to PNL, will be used by the DOE to establish a payment schedule for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel under the Federal Interim Storage (FIS) Program. The FIS Program was mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The information will be used to establish the schedule of charges for FIS services for the year commencing January 1, 1989. 13 refs.

  16. Early rehabilitation of facial defects using interim removable prostheses: A clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivekanandhan Ramkumar


    Full Text Available Surgical resection of neoplasms or malformations of the face may result in defects that are not amenable to immediate surgical reconstruction. Such defects can have a severe adverse effect on patient perceptions of body image and self-esteem. In these cases, the use of an interim removable facial prosthesis can offer a rapid alternative treatment solution. The patient may then resume social interactions more comfortably while permitting easy access to the facial defect to observe tissue healing while awaiting definitive rehabilitation. This article presents a case report describing the use of interim nasal prostheses to provide rapid patient rehabilitation of facial defects.

  17. On-site Interim Stores for Decommissioning Waste; Standort-Zwischenlager fuer Rueckbauabfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiser, H. [Wissenschaftlich - Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH (WTI), Juelich (Germany)


    Periods of interim storage of radioactive waste above ground perhaps up until 2040 must be bridged in case a repository will not be available in time. Ongoing operation of nuclear power plants and, especially, the increasing rate of decommissioning and demolition of power reactors add to the need to plan for the management of waste arising in operation and demolition. Most of the existing interim storage capacity has been earmarked for waste arising in plant operation. It will become necessary to create additional interim storage capacity in order to allow plants to be decommissioned and demolished speedily and, at the same time, make the necessary provisions for interim storage pending final storage. Government institutions and research centers (FZK, FZJ, VKTA, and EWN) created new storage capacity in recent years. The waste arising from decommissioning and demolition of the Hanau nuclear plants will also be emplaced in a new on-site interim store. At a number of sites where power reactors are going to be decommissioned and demolished, operators also are planning for new interim storage capacity for radioactive waste. An overview is given of the on-site interim stores newly built and the new interim stores currently in the planning phase on various sites where plants are to be dismantled. (orig.) [German] Fuer den Fall, dass ein Endlager nicht rechtzeitig zur Verfuegung steht, sind Zwischenlagerzeitraeume fuer die oberirdische Lagerung von radioaktiven Abfaellen u.U. bis 2040 zu ueberbruecken. Durch den laufenden Betrieb der Kernkraftwerke und insbesondere durch den jetzt verstaerkt einsetzenden Rueckbau der Leistungsreaktoren ergibt sich ein zusaetzlicher Planungszwang als Vorsorge fuer die Entsorgung der Betriebs- und Rueckbauabfaelle. Die bestehenden Zwischenlagerkapazitaeten sind weitgehend fuer die Aufnahme von Betriebsabfaellen verplant. Es wird zukuenftig notwendig werden, weitere Zwischenlagerkapazitaeten zu schaffen, damit ein zuegiger Rueckbau moeglich

  18. Interim Report: Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants Improved Binary Cycle Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Greg L. Mines


    As geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop are utilized for power generation, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. This is expected to be the case with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resources. These resources will likely require wells drilled to depths greater than encountered with hydrothermal resources, and will have the added costs for stimulation to create the subsurface reservoir. It is postulated that plants generating power from these resources will likely utilize the binary cycle technology where heat is rejected sensibly to the ambient. The consumptive use of a portion of the produced geothermal fluid for evaporative heat rejection in the conventional flash-steam conversion cycle is likely to preclude its use with EGS resources. This will be especially true in those areas where there is a high demand for finite supplies of water. Though they have no consumptive use of water, using air-cooling systems for heat rejection has disadvantages. These systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at the higher dry-bulb temperature), increased parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power generation on both a diurnal and annual basis (larger variation in the dry-bulb temperature). This is an interim report for the task ‘Air-Cooled Condensers in Next- Generation Conversion Systems’. The work performed was specifically aimed at a plant that uses commercially available binary cycle technologies with an EGS resource. Concepts were evaluated that have the potential to increase performance, lower cost, or mitigate the adverse effects of off-design operation. The impact on both cost and performance were determined for the concepts considered, and the scenarios identified where a particular concept is best suited. Most, but not all, of the concepts evaluated are associated with the rejection of heat. This report specifically addresses three of the concepts evaluated: the use of

  19. Fractionation of oil sands-process affected water using pH-dependent extractions: a study of dissociation constants for naphthenic acids species. (United States)

    Huang, Rongfu; Sun, Nian; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; McPhedran, Kerry N; Changalov, Mohamed; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed


    The fractionation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) via pH-dependent extractions was performed to quantitatively investigate naphthenic acids (NAs, CnH2n+ZO2) and oxidized NAs (Ox-NAs) species (CnH2n+ZO3 and CnH2n+ZO4) using ultra-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS). A mathematical model was also developed to estimate the dissociation constant pKa for NAs species, considering the liquid-liquid extraction process and the aqueous layer acid-base equilibrium. This model provides estimated dissociation constants for compounds in water samples based on fractionation extraction and relative quantification. Overall, the sum of O2-, O3-, and O4-NAs species accounted for 33.6% of total extracted organic matter. Accumulative extracted masses at different pHs revealed that every oxygen atom added to NAs increases the pKa (i.e., O2-NAs

  20. Analysis of the Impacts of Man-Made Features on the Stationarity and Dependence of Monthly Mean Maximum and Minimum Water Levels in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arkamose Assani


    Full Text Available Various manmade features (diversions, dredging, regulation, etc. have affected water levels in the Great Lakes and their outlets since the 19th century. The goal of this study is to analyze the impacts of such features on the stationarity and dependence between monthly mean maximum and minimum water levels in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River from 1919 to 2012. As far as stationarity is concerned, the Lombard method brought out shifts in mean and variance values of monthly mean water levels in Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River related to regulation of these waterbodies in the wake of the digging of the St. Lawrence Seaway in the mid-1950s. Water level shifts in the other lakes are linked to climate variability. As for the dependence between water levels, the copula method revealed a change in dependence mainly between Lakes Erie and Ontario following regulation of monthly mean maximum and minimum water levels in the latter. The impacts of manmade features primarily affected the temporal variability of monthly mean water levels in Lake Ontario.

  1. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MW) groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE proposes to install a small metal sheet pile dam to impound water around and over the BGC groundwater seepline. In addition, a drip irrigation system would be installed. Interim measures will also address the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from ''hot-spot'' regions associated with the Southwest Plume Area (SWPA). This action is taken as an interim measure for the MWMF in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to reduce the amount of tritium seeping from the BGC southwest groundwater plume. The proposed action of this EA is being planned and would be implemented concurrent with a groundwater corrective action program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On September 30, 1999, SCDHEC issued a modification to the SRS RCRA Part B permit that adds corrective action requirements for four plumes that are currently emanating from the BGC. One of those plumes is the southwest plume. The RCRA permit requires SRS to submit a corrective action plan (CAP) for the southwest plume by March 2000. The permit requires that the initial phase of the CAP prescribe a remedy that achieves a 70-percent reduction in the annual amount of tritium being released from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch, a nearby stream. Approval and actual implementation of the corrective measure in that CAP may take several years. As an interim measure, the actions described in this EA would manage the release of tritium from the southwest plume area until the final actions under the CAP can be implemented. This proposed action is expected to reduce the

  2. Conception, implementation and effect of the consumption-dependent billing of heating and hot-water costs; Konzept, Vollzug und Wirkung der verbrauchsabhaengigen Heiz- und Warmwasserkostenabrechnung (VHKA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, S.; Schwenkel, Ch.


    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the experience gained from the operation of the consumption-dependent billing of heating and hot-water costs (Verbrauchsabhaengigen Heiz- und Warmwasserkostenabrechnung, VHKA), a system introduced in Switzerland as one of the first energy-policy measures in the nineteen-eighties. The study examines the strategic possibilities of the VHKA within the framework of future efficiency strategies. Also, as an operative goal, the study takes a look at the acceptance of the VHKA and its effectiveness. In this way, an indication on how the instrument can be optimised can be obtained. The report consists of five chapters that look at the concept and implementation of the VHKA, its effect on the lessees of apartments and real estate owners and, finally, presents a cost-benefit analysis of the VHKA. The methods used in the study include the analysis of documents, personal and telephone interviews and the evaluation of billing data and other data collected.

  3. Experience collecting interim data on mortality: an example from the RALES study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulbertus Henri


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study (RALES randomized 822 patients to receive 25 mg spironolactone daily and 841 to receive placebo. The primary endpoint was death from all causes. Randomization began on March 24, 1995; recruitment was completed on December 31, 1996; follow-up was scheduled to continue through December 31, 1999. Evidence of a sizeable benefit on mortality emerged early in the RALES. The RALES data safety monitoring board (DSMB, which met semiannually throughout the trial, used a prespecified statistical guideline to recommend stopping for efficacy. At the DSMB's request, its meetings were preceded by an 'endpoint sweep', that is, a census of all participants to confirm their vital status. Methods We used computer simulation to evaluate the effect of the sweeps. Results The sweeps led to an estimated 5 to 8% increase in the number of reported deaths at the fourth and fifth interim analyses. The data crossed the statistical boundary at the fifth interim analysis. If investigators had reported all deaths within the protocol-required 24-h window, the DSMB might have recommended stopping after the fourth interim analysis. Discussion Although endpoint sweeps can cause practical problems at the clinical centers, sweeps are very useful if the intervals between patient visits or contact are long or if endpoints require adjudication by committee, reading center, or central laboratory. Conclusion We recommend that trials with interim analyses institute active reporting of the primary endpoints and endpoint sweeps.

  4. 75 FR 30372 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196 Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority ATC Logistics & Electronics... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 196 Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority ATC Logistics... Secretary of the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board filed an application submitted by the ATC Logistics...

  5. 76 FR 74834 - Interim Staff Guidance on Aging Management Program for Steam Generators (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Aging Management Program for Steam Generators AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Program for Steam Generators.'' This LR-ISG provides the NRC staff's evaluation of the suitability of using Revision 3 of the Nuclear Energy Institute's (NEI) document, NEI 97-06, ``Steam Generator Program...

  6. Used Fuel Logistics: Decades of Experience with transportation and Interim storage solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orban, G.; Shelton, C.


    Used fuel inventories are growing worldwide. While some countries have opted for a closed cycle with recycling, numerous countries must expand their interim storage solutions as implementation of permanent repositories is taking more time than foreseen. In both cases transportation capabilities will have to be developed. AREVA TN has an unparalleled expertise with transportation of used fuel. For more than 50 years AREVA TN has safely shipped more than 7,000 used fuel transport casks. The transportation model that was initially developed in the 1970s has been adapted and enhanced over the years to meet more restrictive regulatory requirements and evolving customer needs, and to address public concerns. The numerous “lessons learned” have offered data and guidance that have allowed for also efficient and consistent improvement over the decades. AREVA TN has also an extensive experience with interim dry storage solutions in many countries on-site but also is working with partners to developed consolidated interim storage facility. Both expertise with storage and transportation contribute to safe, secure and smooth continuity of the operations. This paper will describe decades of experience with a very successful transportation program as well as interim storage solutions. (Author)

  7. 41 CFR Appendix to Subchapter D - Temporary Regulations Federal Property Management Regulations; Interim Rule D-1 (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Temporary Regulations Federal Property Management Regulations; Interim Rule D-1 Appendix to Subchapter D Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS...

  8. 33 CFR 155.1025 - Operating restrictions and interim operating authorization. (United States)


    ... REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Tank Vessel Response Plans for Oil § 155.1025 Operating restrictions and interim... vessel may continue to handle, store, transport, transfer, or lighter oil for 2 years after the date of... handle, store, transport, transfer, or lighter oil if— (1) The Coast Guard determines that the response...

  9. 76 FR 540 - National Conference on Weights and Measures 2011 Interim Meeting (United States)


    .... Publication of this notice on the NCWM's behalf is undertaken as a public service. The meetings are open to... Publication 15 ``Interim Meeting Agenda'' which contains meeting agendas, registration forms and hotel reservation information at or on the Internet. The following are...

  10. Designing Their Own: Increasing Urban High School Teacher Capacity for Creating Interim Assessments (United States)

    Ado, Kathryn


    This case study analyzes and documents factors that affect teacher learning and instructional practices in connection to the design your own (DYO) interim or periodic assessment process at one newly developed high school in New York City. Examining these factors through Riggan and Nabors Olah's (2011) conceptual framework offers insights into the…

  11. 7 CFR 1710.109 - Reimbursement of general funds and interim financing. (United States)


    .... 1710.109 Section 1710.109 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... replace interim financing used to finance equipment and facilities that were included in an RUS-approved... of the facilities. (b) If procurement and/or construction of the equipment and facilities was...

  12. Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 11 Tank 21H Acceptance Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of verification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 11 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) for processing. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H and fulfills the requirements of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  13. The Phase-2 Upgrade of the CMS L1 Trigger Interim Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lourenco, Carlos


    This is a dummy version of the CMS Interim TDR devoted to the upgrade of the CMS L1 trigger in view of the HL-LHC running. The final document will be uploaded in a future occasion. This version is only meant to start the procedure and get the LHCC report number, so that we can conclude the preparation of the final document.

  14. The Phase-2 Upgrade of the CMS DAQ Interim Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lourenco, Carlos


    This is a draft version of the CMS Interim TDR devoted to the upgrade of the CMS DAQ in view of the HL-LHC running. The final document will be uploaded in a future occasion. This version is only meant to start the procedure and get the LHCC report number, so that we can conclude the preparation of the final document.

  15. Joint DOE/EPA Interim Policy Statement on Leasing Under the Hall Amendment (United States)

    This page contains a joint statement between the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy, providing interim policy on processing proposals for leasing DOE real property using the authority in 42 U.S.C. 7256, commonly referred to as the 'Hall Amendment.

  16. Cost Implications of an Interim Storage Facility in the Waste Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, Joshua J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joseph, III, Robert Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Rob L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petersen, Gordon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutt, Mark [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, Joe [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cotton, Thomas [Complex Systems Group, Bozeman, MT (United States)


    This report provides an evaluation of the cost implications of incorporating a consolidated interim storage facility (ISF) into the waste management system (WMS). Specifically, the impacts of the timing of opening an ISF relative to opening a repository were analyzed to understand the potential effects on total system costs.

  17. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... operating under such refiner's corporate, trade, or brand name or that of any of its marketing subsidiaries...

  18. Development of a road materials database: Interim Report: 1st draft

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jones, DJ


    Full Text Available The data required for a road materials database has been identified and a basic structure formulated. A set of Excel workbooks and associated worksheets has been developed as a foundation for the database and as an interim means of gathering test...

  19. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) network model for advanced satellite designs and experiments (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.; Hager, E. Paul


    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Network Model for Advanced Satellite Designs and Experiments describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top-down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ISDN modeling abstractions are added to permit the determination and performance for the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  20. 78 FR 10554 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality... (United States)


    ... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the California State... review by the Office of Management and Budget. This action is not subject to Executive Order 13211... Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final...

  1. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL).

  2. 78 FR 67442 - Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Interim Guidance (United States)


    ... transition to more independent system operation. This new approach is designed to gradually reduce the.... Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Programs The Interim Guidance explains that CMAQ eligibility is available to programs authorized in the bicycle and pedestrian programs governed by 23 CFR Part 652, with an...

  3. Individual shareholders’ understanding of the content of interim reports of South African listed retail companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan GI Oberholster


    Full Text Available A number of studies conducted, and reports published, by international and local accounting bodies have found that the proliferation of disclosures in financial reports has hampered users’ understanding of these reports. The reports by accounting bodies also indicate that these users prefer more concise financial reports. These findings, in conjunction with a dearth of recent questionnaire-based research on whether individual shareholders understand the content of financial reports, resulted in this study on whether individual shareholders understand the content of interim reports. The study provides empirical proof that a sound knowledge of business, accounting and economic matters is a prerequisite for understanding interim reports in the case of individual shareholders. The results of the study indicate that individual shareholders have a limited understanding of the content of interim reports as a whole, and that a good knowledge of business and economic matters and of accounting results in an improved understanding of the content of interim reports. In particular, specialisation in accounting in undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, professional qualifications, and work experience in the financial field improve the understanding of individual shareholders.

  4. 78 FR 37719 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management... (United States)


    ... approval of revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) portion of the... Quality Management District Proposed Contingency Measures for the 2007 PM 2.5 SIP'' (dated October 2011... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality...

  5. An Analysis of Interim Contractor Support Costs in the Weapon System Acquisition Process (United States)


    n o ti,,cj di Ju:;t if Iat i om _ By. Distribution/ Avallabilltiv Codes ai ind/or Dist Special V - rAF IT/GLM/LSM/89S- 16 AN ANALYSIS OF INTERIM...cited instances where General Custer relied on local blacksmiths to maintain the shoes on his horses. Also, he suspects that the boat George

  6. Engineering Task Plan for Hose In Hose Transfer Lines for the Interim Stabilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUNG, M.P.


    This document is the Engineering Task Plan for the engineering, design services, planning, project integration and management support for the design, modification, installation and testing of an over ground transfer (OGT) system to support the interim stabilization of nine tanks in the 241-S/SX Tank Farms.

  7. Engineering Task Plan for Hose In Hose Transfer Lines for the Interim Stabilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TORRES, T.D.


    The document is the Engineering Task Plan for the engineering, design services, planning, project integration and management support for the design, modification, installation and testing of an over ground transfer (OGT) system to support the interim stabilization of S/SX and U Tank Farms.

  8. Breaking the Cycle of Drug Abuse. 1993 Interim National Drug Control Strategy. (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This Interim Drug Strategy is intended to give a new sense of direction and to reinvigorate the nation's efforts against drug trafficking and abuse. The preface to the report lists eight new strategies that the Administration will implement: (1) make drug policy a cornerstone of domestic and social policy; (2) target pregnant women, children, and…

  9. 77 FR 4758 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, Nebraska, Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing... (United States)


    ... Manufacturing Authority, Novartis Consumer Health, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Product Manufacturing), Lincoln, NE An... Lincoln Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 59, requesting temporary/interim manufacturing (T/ IM... request to the FTZ Board for FTZ manufacturing authority beyond a two-year period, which may include...

  10. AACP Special Taskforce on Diversifying Our Investment in Human Capital Interim Update. (United States)

    White, Carla; Adams, Jennifer


    The 2015-2017 AACP Special Taskforce on Diversifying our Investment in Human Capital was appointed for a two-year term, therefore the interim update from the Taskforce. A full report will be provided in 2017 in the form of a white paper for academic pharmacy on diversifying our investment in human capital.

  11. Leadership Changes Announced At Equine Medical Center Fregin To Retire, White Interim Director


    Douglas, Jeffrey S.


    Nathaniel White has been named Interim Director of the Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center in Leesburg. White, who assumed leadership responsibilities for the equine clinical and research center on April 1, succeeds G. Frederick Fregin, the center's founding director.

  12. Safety evaluation for the interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geschke, G.R.


    This document provides the basis for interim stabilization of tank 241-C-103. The document covers the removal of the organic liquid layer and the aqueous supernatant from tank 241-C-103. Hazards are identified, consequences are calculated and controls to mitigate or prevent potential accidents are developed.

  13. 77 FR 15665 - Cellular Service, Including Changes in Licensing of Unserved Area; Interim Restrictions and... (United States)


    ....) II. Background 3. Brief History of Cellular Service Licensing. The Commission adopted initial rules... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1 and 22 Cellular Service, Including Changes in Licensing of Unserved Area; Interim Restrictions and Procedures for Cellular Service Applications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION...

  14. Interim Policy Options for Commercialization of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems. (United States)

    Bezdek, Roger

    This interim report reviews the major incentive policy options available to accelerate market penetration of solar heating and cooling (SHAC) systems. Feasible policy options designed to overcome existing barriers to commercial acceptance and market penetration are identified and evaluated. The report is divided into seven sections, each dealing…

  15. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: nutrition standards for all foods sold in school as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Interim final rule. (United States)


    This interim final rule amends the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations to establish nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Amendments made by Section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) require the Secretary to establish nutrition standards for such foods, consistent with the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and directs the Secretary to consider authoritative scientific recommendations for nutrition standards; existing school nutrition standards, including voluntary standards for beverages and snack foods; current State and local standards; the practical application of the nutrition standards; and special exemptions for infrequent school-sponsored fundraisers (other than fundraising through vending machines, school stores, snack bars, à la carte sales and any other exclusions determined by the Secretary). In addition, this interim final rule requires schools participating in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program to make potable water available to children at no charge in the place where lunches are served during the meal service, consistent with amendments made by section 203 of the HHFKA, and in the cafeteria during breakfast meal service. This interim final rule is expected to improve the health and well-being of the Nation's children, increase consumption of healthful foods during the school day, and create an environment that reinforces the development of healthy eating habits.

  16. Comparison of ERA-Interim/LAND and SMOS Level 3 Soil Moisture Products in the Jucar River Basin, Spain, for the period 2011-2013 (United States)

    Beneto-Valles, Pau; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Munoz-Sabater, Joaquin

    Soil moisture was identified as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2010 due to its importance in climate forecast and hydrological processes. Therefore, it is significant to carry out studies in order to enhance soil moisture measurements. In situ observations from the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) soil moisture network, to which a quality control has been applied using ECMWF operational and precipitation estimations over the zone, have been used to perform a local validation over the VAS SMOS reference pixel. ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Forecast) ERA-Interim/LAND Project global land-surface dataset offers improved soil moisture estimations thanks to its enhanced surface model. It has been applied to different world zones using a huge amount of in situ measurements and satellite observations. In this paper, we also use ERA-Interim/LAND products to show the variability of soil moisture in the Jucar River Basin area, in Spain, within the period from October 2011 to December 2013 and to be compared to SMOS level 3 soil moisture product for the same term. We distinguish three different periods in the comparison depending on the status of the SMOS products generation.

  17. Sustainable revitalization of brownfield lands – possibilities of interim utilization in the form of urban community gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adorján Anna


    Full Text Available Our PhD researches include brownfield revitalization,1 the application of the methods of interim utilizations on greeneries,2 and the formation background and potential of community gardens.3 We compared our systems of criteria in hope of extensive research conclusions. In order to trace the urban development possibilities in Budapest, we analysed brownfield revitalizations where the interim utilizations included allotment gardens, too. We concluded that such developments are likely to create environmental and social added value. Early results of the valorization process are important by themselves, but the perpetuation of interim land utilization holds even greater values.

  18. Obtaining high quality water by reverse osmosis. A comparison of the appropriate systems to be applied depending on the quality of the input water; Osmosis inversa para obtener agua de alta calidad. Comparacion de propuestas de sistemas de aplicacion en funcion de la calidad del agua de entrada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujadas Nino, A.


    This article first takes a brief look at the historical development of reverse osmosis systems. It then used several actual examples to compare the water quality that can be obtained using osmosis membranes and ion exchange resin demineralisation systems. It concludes with a number of recommendations regarding the solutions to be adopted in order to obtain water of a specific quality depending on the quality of the available water. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. Methods for the Determination of Bacteriological Contaminants in Drinking Water. Training Manual. (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Material on the membrane filter methods and the most probable number method for determining bacteriological contaminants listed in the interim primary drinking water regulations is presented. This course is for bacteriologists and technicians with little or no experience in bacteriological procedures required to monitor drinking water, though…

  20. Hippocampal-dependent spatial memory in the water maze is preserved in an experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Inostroza

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is a major concern in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. While different experimental models have been used to characterize TLE-related cognitive deficits, little is known on whether a particular deficit is more associated with the underlying brain injuries than with the epileptic condition per se. Here, we look at the relationship between the pattern of brain damage and spatial memory deficits in two chronic models of TLE (lithium-pilocarpine, LIP and kainic acid, KA from two different rat strains (Wistar and Sprague-Dawley using the Morris water maze and the elevated plus maze in combination with MRI imaging and post-morten neuronal immunostaining. We found fundamental differences between LIP- and KA-treated epileptic rats regarding spatial memory deficits and anxiety. LIP-treated animals from both strains showed significant impairment in the acquisition and retention of spatial memory, and were unable to learn a cued version of the task. In contrast, KA-treated rats were differently affected. Sprague-Dawley KA-treated rats learned less efficiently than Wistar KA-treated animals, which performed similar to control rats in the acquisition and in a probe trial testing for spatial memory. Different anxiety levels and the extension of brain lesions affecting the hippocampus and the amydgala concur with spatial memory deficits observed in epileptic rats. Hence, our results suggest that hippocampal-dependent spatial memory is not necessarily affected in TLE and that comorbidity between spatial deficits and anxiety is more related with the underlying brain lesions than with the epileptic condition per se.

  1. Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas (NPS, GRD, GRI, HOSP, HOSP digital map) adapted from the interim Arkansas Geological Survey DGM-HSR-003 by Johnson and Hanson (2011) (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer (.LYR)...

  2. 76 FR 59254 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution... (United States)


    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental...

  3. Interim characterization report for the 300 Area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Wallace, R.W.; Aaberg, R.L.; Airhart, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Cline, C.S.; Dennison, D.I.; Freshley, M.D.; Heller, P.R.


    This document contains information on the results of the Hazardous Waste Ground-Water Monitoring Compliance Program characterization studies of wastes disposed of in the 300 Area process trenches. The characterization of the 300 Area process trenches has been conducted as part of an effort initiated in June 1985, when a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented. The characterization effort is part of a regulatory ground-water monitoring compliance program for hazardous chemicals on the Hanford Site. The characterization work described in this document represents an expanded ground-water monitoring compliance effort, and incorporates or refers to previous studies useful in characterizing the 300 Area. This document is primarily a compendium of technical information on the 300 Area; therefore, data interpretations are limited to the most obvious conclusions. Final conclusions will not be presented until the analysis of data is completed in September 1989. 48 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management. Appendices. (United States)


    B17 Current Employment in the Buffalo Labor Area B-20 B18 Agricultural Earnings Projected Agricultural Earnings to 2030 B-21 B19 Agricultural Output...Orleans County. The political subdivisions of the watershed, in addition to clima - tological and hydrologic stations, are shown on Plate BI. Economic...York. Its highway network, large supply of skilled labor , access to raw materials, ample electric power, and ready access to markets in the northeast

  5. Pilot field testing of Arctic engine oil in army combat/tactical vehicles at Fort Carson, Colorado and Fort Lewis, West Virginia. Interim report January 1977-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosh, J.D.; Alvarez, R.A.; Butler, W.E.; Owens, E.C.; Bowen, T.C.


    Military lube orders for combat and tactical equipment specify use of a single-viscosity grade lubricant with the grade depending on seasonal or climatic conditions. The use of this oil results in seasonal oil changes, regardless of the condition of the oil. Also, standard issue oils do not offer sufficient lubricant and engine protection over a wide range of ambient temperatures. Pilot field testing was conducted at Fort Carson, CO and Fort Lewis, WA. The objective of the testing was to evaluate the capability of MIL-L-46167 (5) arctic oil (OEA) to provide an interim solution to the lubrication problems being encountered. In addition, the data derived from the test were to be used as a basis for developing multigrade engine oils for Army tactical and combat equipment and to gain supplemental information covering the use of OEA lubricant over expanded temperature ranges.

  6. Variations in the temperature and circulation of the atmosphere during the 11-year cycle of solar activity derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis data (United States)

    Gruzdev, A. N.


    Using the data of the ERA-Interim reanalysis, we have obtained estimates of changes in temperature, the geopotential and its large-scale zonal harmonics, wind velocity, and potential vorticity in the troposphere and stratosphere of the Northern and Southern hemispheres during the 11-year solar cycle. The estimates have been obtained using the method of multiple linear regression. Specific features of response of the indicated atmospheric parameters to the solar cycle have been revealed in particular regions of the atmosphere for a whole year and depending on the season. The results of the analysis indicate the existence of a reliable statistical relationship of large-scale dynamic and thermodynamic processes in the troposphere and stratosphere with the 11-year solar cycle.

  7. 400-MWe Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS). 1200-MWt Phase 2A interim studies. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Phase 2A interim studies of the Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) consisted of a number of separate task studies addressing the design concepts developed during the Phase 1 study reported in BAW--1445. The purpose of the interim studies was to better establish overall concept feasibility from both a hardware and economic standpoint, to make modification and additions to the design where appropriate, and to understand and reduce the technical risks in critical areas of the design. The work on these task studies included input from Barberton, Mt. Vernon, and the Alliance Research Center as well as United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C). The UE and C work was carried out under a separate DOE contract.

  8. Interim analysis: A rational approach of decision making in clinical trial. (United States)

    Kumar, Amal; Chakraborty, Bhaswat S


    Interim analysis of especially sizeable trials keeps the decision process free of conflict of interest while considering cost, resources, and meaningfulness of the project. Whenever necessary, such interim analysis can also call for potential termination or appropriate modification in sample size, study design, and even an early declaration of success. Given the extraordinary size and complexity today, this rational approach helps to analyze and predict the outcomes of a clinical trial that incorporate what is learned during the course of a study or a clinical development program. Such approach can also fill the gap by directing the resources toward relevant and optimized clinical trials between unmet medical needs and interventions being tested currently rather than fulfilling only business and profit goals.

  9. A phase II flexible screening design allowing for interim analysis and comparison with historical control. (United States)

    Wu, Wenting; Bot, Brian; Hu, Yan; Geyer, Susan M; Sargent, Daniel J


    Sargent and Goldberg [1] proposed a randomized phase II flexible screening design (SG design) which took multiple characteristics of candidate regimens into consideration in selecting a regimen for further phase III testing. In this paper, we extend the SG design by including provisions for an interim analysis and/or a comparison to a historical control. By including a comparison with a historical control, a modified SG design not only identifies a more promising treatment but also assures that the regimen has a clinically meaningful level of efficacy as compared to a historical control. By including an interim analysis, a modified SG design could reduce the number of patients exposed to inferior treatment regimens. When compared to the original SG design, the modified designs increase the sample size moderately, but expand the utility of the flexible screening design substantially. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Functions and requirements document for interim store solidified high-level and transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Fewell, M.A., Westinghouse Hanford


    The functions, requirements, interfaces, and architectures contained within the Functions and Requirements (F{ampersand}R) Document are based on the information currently contained within the TWRS Functions and Requirements database. The database also documents the set of technically defensible functions and requirements associated with the solidified waste interim storage mission.The F{ampersand}R Document provides a snapshot in time of the technical baseline for the project. The F{ampersand}R document is the product of functional analysis, requirements allocation and architectural structure definition. The technical baseline described in this document is traceable to the TWRS function, Interim Store Solidified Waste, and its related requirements, architecture, and interfaces.

  11. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, W.W.


    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations.

  12. Probabilistic Assessment Method of Turbojet Engine Impact on an Interim Dry Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomania, Belal; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper describes an analytical method of structural analysis for an interim storage facility subjected to aircraft jet engine based on a probabilistic approach. This method will be employed in the process of aircraft risk model for the interim storage facilities. The analytical formulation of the engine impact and the perforation to find the required thickness of concrete to protect the equipment inside the structure is an enormously complex impact phenomenon. Therefore, all the available formulas describing perforation phenomena are empirical and based on experimental data. In this paper, a method with sample results to determine the local failure probability of the facility's wall and the probable residual velocities after passed through the target by applying a probabilistic approach was proposed. Normal engine impact on the wall shield using applicable empirical formulas provides a best estimation of perforation depth and residual velocity with intent of producing conservative outcomes.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sidsel Maria Monrad; Villumsen, Morten


    are available in the systems, containing information on rehabilitation services rendered during interim stays. However, available data on the effect of the rehabilitation are currently unstructured in free-text, which impedes the assessment of rehabilitation effect and thereby the quality assurance. Objectives...... will provide information on the association between the rehabilitation provided during the interim stays, based on structured data from the records, and the rehabilitation effect based on the unstructured free-text from the rehabilitation records. Clinical implications: This study will provide novel...... with the rehabilitation services offered by Aalborg Municipality, Denmark [2]. However, user satisfaction solely may not re ect the actual rehabilitation effect. The effect of rehabilitation needs to be addressed in order to ensure high quality in the rehabilitation services offered. Currently, highly structured data...

  14. Debate heats up over potential Interim Nuclear Waste Repository, as studies of Yucca Mountain continue (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    With spent nuclear fuel piling up at power plants around the United States, and with a potential permanent nuclear waste repository at Nevada's Yucca Mountain not scheduled to accept waste until 11 years from now in the year 2010, the nuclear energy industry and many members of Congress have renewed their push to establish an interim repository at the adjacent Nevada Test Site of nuclear bombs.At a sometimes contentious March 12 hearing to consider the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1999 (House Resolution 45) that would require an interim facility to begin accepting waste in 2003, bill cosponsor Rep. Jim Barton (R-Tex.) told Energy Secretary Bill Richardson that he preferred that Congress and the Clinton Administration negotiate rather than fight over the measure.

  15. Development of a separate tank with an electrolysis-dependent bacteria controlling system for the long term storage of potable water. (United States)

    Ishizuka, Akinori; Tanji, Masataka; Hayashi, Nobuatsu; Wakabayashi, Akihiro; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Hotta, Kunimoto


    For the long term storage of tap water, we developed a separate type of tank (5 m3) equipped with an electrolysis system to control bacterial growth. The electrolysis conditions using 20A direct current and a water flow rate of 10 L/min were capable of producing available chlorine (AC) at the rate of 5-8mg/min and raising the AC level of the stored tap water by about 0.2 mg/kg within 20-30 min The electrolyzed tap water with 0.2 mg/kg AC showed a capability per ml of killing 10(5)-10(6) cfu of bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 15 sec. A 6-month trial operation of the storage system with an automatic electrolysis control to keep AC level ranging 0.2-0.4 mg/kg demonstrated that the system worked well for the stored tap water in suppressing bacterial growth as well as in keeping good potable quality with reference to the 46 parameters specified for Japanese tap water. Actually, the electrolysis treatment was administered intermittently with an interval of about two weeks. Thus we believe the developed system has good potential to secure a potable water supply not only in the occasion of emergencies but also in countries having problems in the supply of safe drinking water.

  16. Water transport by Na+-coupled cotransporters of glucose (SGLT1) and of iodide (NIS). The dependence of substrate size studied at high resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; Belhage, Bo; Zeuthen, Emil


    and osmosis at the membrane with diffusion in the cytoplasm. The combination of high resolution measurements and precise modelling showed that water transport across the membrane can be explained by cotransport of water in the membrane proteins and that intracellular unstirred layers effects are minute....

  17. 40 CFR 266.103 - Interim status standards for burners. (United States)


    ..., hazardous waste analysis for metals content must be sufficient for the owner or operator to determine if... major local newspaper of general circulation and send a copy of the notice to the appropriate units of...) Minimum scrubber blowdown from the system or maximum suspended solids content of scrubber water; and (C...

  18. Interim Heavy Airlift: Sea Base Processing of Logistics Gliders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thoms, Keith H


    ...) concept first proposed in NSWCDD/TR 06/52. The iHL concept proposes that existing aircraft "snatch pickup" a logistics glider from a Sea base helipad, flight deck, or nearby littoral water surface for aerial sustainment of the tactically...

  19. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study/Interim Response Actions (United States)


    more ground water intercept and treatment systems north of DNA . One candidate location for such a system Is the First Creek/Highway 2 area. Task 39...INVERTEBRATE POPULATION STUDIES--Population studies of earthworms, grasshoppers , and aquatic snails will be conducted at potential sites of contamination

  20. Solid rocket technology advancement for Space Tug and IUS applications. [Interim Upper Stage (United States)

    Ascher, W.; Bailey, R. L.; Behm, J. W.; Gin, W.


    Two-burn restartable solid propellant rocket motors for the kick stage (auxiliary stage) of the Shuttle Tug, or Interim Upper Stage, are described, with details on features and test results of the ignition and quench (thrust termination) systems and procedures, fabrication of propellant and insulation, explosion hazards of propellants, and comparative data on present and future motor design. These rocket motor systems are designed for upper stage augmentation of launch vehicles and possible service in Shuttle-launched outer planet spacecraft.

  1. Alternative Models for Individualized Armor Training. Part I. Interim Report: Review and Analysis of the Literature (United States)


    Research Note 80-1 LEYE Co ALTERNATIVE MODELS FOR INDIVIDUALIZED ARMOR TRAINING, PART I, INTERIM REPORT: REVIEW AND ANALYSIS OF THE LITERATURE...enough study time was permitted the learning margin between analy- tic ability groups could be altered considerably. This notion adds support to...learner characteris- * tics increases. benGrowing awareness of characteristic differences among learners has clearly bena force in the shifting of the

  2. 200 Area stack contamination. Interim report, August 2, 1948--October 11, 1948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapple, C.E.


    In connection with the problem of eliminating contamination of the atmosphere by the exhaust from the 221 Building ventilation air stacks, sand filters were previously recommended. Construction of a sand filter in West Area is about completed and construction of a filter in East Area is well underway. This report summarizes the status, technical findings, and comments and suggestions since the writer`s last Interim Report, dated August 6, 1948, was issued.

  3. Operations and Maintenance Concept Plan for the Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) Interim Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANIN, L.F.


    This O&M Concept looks at the future operations and maintenance of the IHLW/CSB interim storage facility. It defines the overall strategy, objectives, and functional requirements for the portion of the building to be utilized by Project W-464. The concept supports the tasks of safety basis planning, risk mitigation, alternative analysis, decision making, etc. and will be updated as required to support the evolving design.

  4. Design requirements document for project W-465, immobilized low activity waste interim storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A.


    The scope of this design requirements document is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity.

  5. Path Dependency


    Mark Setterfield


    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  6. Failsafe automation of Phase II clinical trial interim monitoring for stopping rules. (United States)

    Day, Roger S


    In Phase II clinical trials in cancer, preventing the treatment of patients on a study when current data demonstrate that the treatment is insufficiently active or too toxic has obvious benefits, both in protecting patients and in reducing sponsor costs. Considerable efforts have gone into experimental designs for Phase II clinical trials with flexible sample size, usually implemented by early stopping rules. The intended benefits will not ensue, however, if the design is not followed. Despite the best intentions, failures can occur for many reasons. The main goal is to develop an automated system for interim monitoring, as a backup system supplementing the protocol team, to ensure that patients are protected. A secondary goal is to stimulate timely recording of patient assessments. We developed key concepts and performance needs, then designed, implemented, and deployed a software solution embedded in the clinical trials database system. The system has been in place since October 2007. One clinical trial tripped the automated monitor, resulting in e-mails that initiated statistician/investigator review in timely fashion. Several essential contributing activities still require human intervention, institutional policy decisions, and institutional commitment of resources. We believe that implementing the concepts presented here will provide greater assurance that interim monitoring plans are followed and that patients are protected from inadequate response or excessive toxicity. This approach may also facilitate wider acceptance and quicker implementation of new interim monitoring algorithms.

  7. Interim Restorative Approach for the Management of Congenitally Missing Permanent Mandibular Incisors: Presentation of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Prakash


    Full Text Available Congenital missing of mandibular permanent incisors with retained primary incisors may jeopardize the esthetic appearance and psychological development of children, especially during the years of transition into adolescence. The retained primary teeth are necessary for the maintenance and normal development of alveolar bone, which in turn is essential for future definitive rehabilitation. In such situations, an interim restoration may be provided before any definitive treatment is given to comfort the young patient during this transition period. Interim restorations may include resin-modified additions to the existing teeth as well as more sophisticated restorations such as resin-retained bridge and removable partial dentures. However, this restoration differs for different clinical situations based on various factors such as age and patient compliance, and also consideration has to be given for the growth changes of the child. The aim of this present paper is to discuss the esthetic management of three cases with bilateral agenesis of permanent mandibular incisors and retained primary incisors with composite interim restoration.

  8. Lessons learned from the Siting Process of an Interim Storage Facility in Spain - 12024

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamolla, Meritxell Martell [MERIENCE Strategic Thinking, 08734 Olerdola, Barcelona (Spain)


    On 29 December 2009, the Spanish government launched a site selection process to host a centralised interim storage facility for spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. It was an unprecedented call for voluntarism among Spanish municipalities to site a controversial facility. Two nuclear municipalities, amongst a total of thirteen municipalities from five different regions, presented their candidatures to host the facility in their territories. For two years the government did not make a decision. Only in November 30, 2011, the new government elected on 20 November 2011 officially selected a non-nuclear municipality, Villar de Canas, for hosting this facility. This paper focuses on analysing the factors facilitating and hindering the siting of controversial facilities, in particular the interim storage facility in Spain. It demonstrates that involving all stakeholders in the decision-making process should not be underestimated. In the case of Spain, all regional governments where there were candidate municipalities willing to host the centralised interim storage facility, publicly opposed to the siting of the facility. (author)

  9. Report on the long-term interim storage of spent fuels and vitrified wastes; Gutachten zur Langzeitzwischenlagerung abgebrannter Brennelemente und verglaster Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Long-term interim storage for several hundred years is an option on the management of high-level radioactive wastes. The decision on final disposal is postponed. Worldwide the long-term interim storage is not part of the disposal concept - a geologic final repository is the ultimate aim. Using today's technology the interim storage over several hundred years is supposed to be uncritical. Aging management is the most important challenge - the renewal of the facilities would have to be expected. Possible social change and their impact on the interim storage problem has not been considered.

  10. Assessment of Hanford burial grounds and interim TRU storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.F.; Brown, D.J.; Isaacson, R.E.


    A review and assessment is made of the Hanford low level solid radioactive waste management sites and facilities. Site factors considered favorable for waste storage and disposal are (1) limited precipitation, (2) a high deficiency of moisture in the underlying sediments (3) great depth to water table, all of which minimize radionuclide migration by water transport, and (4) high sorbtive capacity of the sediments. Facilities are in place for 20 year retrievable storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes and for disposal of nontransuranic radioactive wastes. Auxiliary facilities and services (utilities, roads, fire protection, shops, etc.) are considered adequate. Support staffs such as engineering, radiation monitoring, personnel services, etc., are available and are shared with other operational programs. The site and associated facilities are considered well suited for solid radioactive waste storage operations. However, recommendations are made for study programs to improve containment, waste package storage life, land use economy, retrievability and security of TRU wastes.

  11. New insight into probe-location dependent polarity and hydration at lipid/water interfaces: comparison between gel- and fluid-phases of lipid bilayers. (United States)

    Singh, Moirangthem Kiran; Shweta, Him; Khan, Mohammad Firoz; Sen, Sobhan


    Environment polarity and hydration at lipid/water interfaces play important roles in membrane biology, which are investigated here using a new homologous series of 4-aminophthalimide-based fluorescent molecules (4AP-Cn; n = 2-10, 12) having different lipophilicities (octanol/water partition coefficient - log P). We show that 4AP-Cn molecules probe a peculiar stepwise polarity (E) profile at the lipid/water interface of the gel-phase (Lβ') DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer at room temperature, which was not anticipated in earlier studies. However, the same molecules probe only a subtle but continuous polarity change at the interface of water and the fluid-phase (Lα) DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer at room temperature. Fluorescence quenching experiments indicate that solutes with different log P values adsorb at different depths across DPPC/water and DOPC/water interfaces, which correlate with the polarity profiles observed at the interfaces. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on eight probe-lipid systems (four in each of the DPPC and DOPC bilayers - a total run of 2.6 μs) support experimental results, providing further information on the relative position and angle distributions as well as hydration of probes at the interfaces. Simulation results indicate that besides positions, probe orientations also play an important role in defining the local dielectric environment by controlling the probes' exposure to water at the interfaces especially of the gel-phase DPPC bilayer. The results suggest that 4AP-Cn probes are well suited for studying solvation properties at lipid/water interfaces of gel- and fluid-phases simultaneously.

  12. Time evolving multi-city dependencies and robustness tradeoffs for risk-based portfolios of conservation, transfers, and cooperative water supply infrastructure development pathways (United States)

    Trindade, B. C.; Reed, P. M.; Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.


    Water scarcity in historically water-rich regions such as the southeastern United States is becoming a more prevalent concern. It has been shown that cooperative short-term planning that relies on conservation and transfers of existing supplies amongst communities can be used by water utilities to mitigate the effects of water scarcity in the near future. However, in the longer term, infrastructure expansion is likely to be necessary to address imbalances between growing water demands and the available supply capacity. This study seeks to better diagnose and avoid candidate modes for system failure. Although it is becoming more common for water utilities to evaluate the robustness of their water supply, defined as the insensitivity of their systems to errors in deeply uncertain projections or assumptions, defining robustness is particularly challenging in multi-stakeholder regional contexts for decisions that encompass short management actions and long-term infrastructure planning. Planning and management decisions are highly interdependent and strongly shape how a region's infrastructure itself evolves. This research advances the concept of system robustness by making it evolve over time rather than static, so that it is applicable to an adaptive system and therefore more suited for use for combined short and long-term planning efforts. The test case for this research is the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, where the cities of Raleigh, Durham, Cary and Chapel Hill are experiencing rapid population growth and increasing concerns over drought. This study is facilitating their engagement in cooperative and robust regional water portfolio planning. The insights from this work have general merit for regions where adjacent municipalities can benefit from improving cooperative infrastructure investments and more efficient resource management strategies.

  13. Maywood Interim Storage Site: Annual site environmental report, Maywood, New Jersey, Calendar year 1986: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    During 1986, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in the Borough of Maywood and the Township of Rochelle Park, New Jersey. The MISS is presently used for the storage of low-level radioactively contaminated soils. The MISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). As part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act, remedial action and environmental monitoring programs are being conducted at this site and at vicinity properties by Bechtel National, Inc., Project Management Contractor for FUSRAP. The monitoring program at the MISS measures thoron and radon gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and thorium, uranium, and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/y) and to assess the potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in the report, the maximally exposed individual would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 1% of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/y. This exposure is less than the exposure a person would receive during a round-trip flight from New York to Los Angeles (due to greater amounts of cosmic radiation at higher altitudes). The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the MISS that would result from radioactive materials present at the site would be indistinguishable from the dose the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1986 monitoring show that the MISS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 16 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Enhanced arsenic removal from water by hierarchically porous CeO₂-ZrO₂ nanospheres: role of surface- and structure-dependent properties. (United States)

    Xu, Weihong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Guoping; Liu, Jinhuai; Yu, Hanqing; Huang, Xing-Jiu


    Arsenic contaminated natural water is commonly used as drinking water source in some districts of Asia. To meet the increasingly strict drinking water standards, exploration of efficient arsenic removal methods is highly desired. In this study, hierarchically porous CeO₂-ZrO₂ nanospheres were synthesized, and their suitability as arsenic sorbents was examined. The CeO₂-ZrO₂ hollow nanospheres showed an adsorption capacity of 27.1 and 9.2 mg g(-1) for As(V) and As(III), respectively, at an equilibrium arsenic concentration of 0.01 mg L(-1) (the standard for drinking water) under neutral conditions, indicating a high arsenic removal performance of the adsorbent at low arsenic concentrations. Such a great arsenic adsorption capacity was attributed to the high surface hydroxyl density and presence of hierarchically porous network in the hollow nanospheres. The analysis of Fourier transformed infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that the adsorption of arsenic on the CeO₂-ZrO₂ nanospheres was completed through the formation of a surface complex by substituting hydroxyl with arsenic species. In addition, the CeO₂-ZrO₂ nanospheres were able to remove over 97% arsenic in real underground water with initial arsenic concentration of 0.376 mg L(-1) to meet the guideline limit of arsenic in drinking water regulated by the World Health Organization without any pre-treatment and/or pH adjustment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Numerical study on the influence of entrapped air bubbles on the time-dependent pore pressure distribution in soils due to external changes in water level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausweger Georg M.


    Full Text Available In practical geotechnical engineering soils below the groundwater table are usually regarded as a two-phase medium, consisting of solids and water. The pore water is assumed to be incompressible. However, under certain conditions soils below the groundwater table may exhibit a liquid phase consisting of water and air. The air occurs in form of entrapped air bubbles and dissolved air. Such conditions are named quasi-saturated and the assumption of incompressibility is no longer justified. In addition the entrapped air bubbles influence the hydraulic conductivity of soils. These effects are usually neglected in standard problems of geotechnical engineering. However, sometimes it is required to include the pore fluid compressibility when modelling the hydraulic behaviour of soils in order to be able to explain certain phenomena observed in the field. This is for example true for fast fluctuating water levels in reservoirs. In order to study these phenomena, numerical investigations on the influence of the pore fluid compressibility on the pore water pressure changes in a soil layer beneath a reservoir with fast fluctuating water levels were performed. Preliminary results of this study are presented and it could be shown that numerical analysis and field data are in good agreement.

  16. Early interim {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Hodgkin's lymphoma: evaluation on 304 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Stefoni, Vittorio; Broccoli, Alessandro; Argnani, Lisa; Baccarani, Michele [University of Bologna, Institute of Hematology and Medical Oncology ' ' L. e A. Seragnoli' ' , Policlinico ' ' Sant' Orsola-Malpighi' ' , Bologna (Italy); Rigacci, Luigi; Puccini, Benedetta [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria ' ' Careggi' ' , Hematology Department, Florence (Italy); Castagnoli, Antonio [Ospedale ' ' Misericordia e Dolce' ' , Nuclear Medicine, Prato (Italy); Vaggelli, Luca [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria ' ' Careggi' ' , Nuclear Medicine, Florence (Italy); Zanoni, Lucia; Fanti, Stefano [Policlinico ' ' Sant' Orsola-Malpighi' ' , Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)


    The use of early (interim) PET restaging during first-line therapy of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in clinical practice has considerably increased because of its ability to provide early recognition of treatment failure allowing patients to be transferred to more intensive treatment regimens. Between June 1997 and June 2009, 304 patients with newly diagnosed HL (147 early stage and 157 advanced stage) were treated with the ABVD regimen at two Italian institutions. Patients underwent PET staging and restaging at baseline, after two cycles of therapy and at the end of the treatment. Of the 304 patients, 53 showed a positive interim PET scan and of these only 13 (24.5%) achieved continuous complete remission (CCR), whereas 251 patients showed a negative PET scan and of these 231 (92%) achieved CCR. Comparison between interim PET-positive and interim PET-negative patients indicated a significant association between PET findings and 9-year progression-free survival and 9-year overall survival, with a median follow-up of 31 months. Among the early-stage patients, 19 had a positive interim PET scan and only 4 (21%) achieved CCR; among the 128 patients with a negative interim PET scan, 122 (97.6%) achieved CCR. Among the advanced-stage patients, 34 showed a persistently positive PET scan with only 9 (26.4%) achieving CCR, whereas 123 showed a negative interim PET scan with 109 (88.6%) achieving CCR. Our results demonstrate the role of an early PET scan as a significant step forward in the management of patients with early-stage or advanced-stage HL. (orig.)

  17. Interim consensus guidelines on fossil plant cycle chemistry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschoff, A.F.; Lee, Y.H.; Sopocy, D.M.; Jonas, O.


    US utilities have been faced with a multitude of water and steam control limits disseminated by various groups and manufacturers. These have provided disparate goals for plant personnel and management in determining the operating limits for their plants. EPRI authorized the preparation of guidelines on fossil plant cycle chemistry as part of a research program, RP2712, with the goal to reduce forced outages and efficiency losses related to water chemistry, corrosion, and deposition. This report is a unified, specific, and comprehensive document that provides the guidance needed for effective and economical control of corrosion and deposition. Implementation of these Guidelines will help reduce forced outages caused by corrosion-induced failures and thereby increase unit availability. The Guidelines provide a set of target values and action levels for critical sample points throughout the water and steam cycle for drum boilers with phosphate treatment; for drum boilers with all-volatile treatment; and for once-through boilers. They are applicable to baseload and to cycling and peaking operation. Corrective actions to be taken when the Guidelines are exceeded are also discussed. More general guidelines are given on management responsibilities, layup, representative sampling, analytical methods, continuous instrumentation, data collection and management, and other considerations. The Guidelines and the results of the other phases of the EPRI Research Project 2712 should bring significant benefits to US utilities at a moderate cost. Modification of portions of the Guidelines to reflect actual, plant-specific design characteristics and local operating experience is recommended when appropriately justified. 118 refs., 88 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. A virus disease of sockeye salmon: Interim report (United States)

    Watson, S.W.; Guenther, R.W.; Rucker, R.R.


    Since 1951 a disease, usually occurring in late spring or early summer, has caused severe losses in 3- to 12-month-old fingerling sockeye salmon in hatcheries in the State of Washington. The disease is characterized by an explosive outbreak, mortality usually 80 percent or greater, and a residual spinal deformity in a small percentage of the surviving fish, and its specificity for the one species of salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. (The anadromous strain of this species is commonly known as sockeye, blueback, or red salmon, while the fresh-water strain is called kokanee or silver trout.) The etiological agent is believed to be a virus.

  19. EPRI interim consensus guidelines on fossil plant cycle chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopocy, D.M.; Aschoff, A.F.; Stauffer, C.C.; Jonas, O.


    The total cost of corrosion in the United States utility system has been estimated to be about $3.5 billion per year, withy the annual cost due to turbine corrosion alone estimated at approximately $600 million. The major corrosion problems of fossil units occur in boiler tubes, superheaters and reheaters, turbines, condensers, and feedwater heaters. Weld cracking of deaerator storage tanks is another recently identified problem that may be corrosion related. Corrosion failures are usually caused by a combination of ineffective control of water chemistry and deficiencies in design and material selection.

  20. On the composition dependence of the microscopic structure, thermodynamic, dynamic and dielectric properties of water-dimethyl formamide model mixtures. Molecular dynamics simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dominguez


    Full Text Available Isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to examine an ample set of properties of the model water-N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF mixture as a function of composition. The SPC-E and TIP4P-Ew water models together with two united atom models for DMF [Chalaris M., Samios J., J. Chem. Phys., 2000, 112, 8581; Cordeiro J., Int. J. Quantum Chem., 1997, 65, 709] were used. Our principal analyses concern the behaviour of structural properties in terms of radial distribution functions, and the number of hydrogen bonds between molecules of different species as well as thermodynamic properties. Namely, we explore the density, excess mixing molar volume and enthalpy, the heat capacity and excess mixing heat capacity. Finally, the self-diffusion coefficients of species and the dielectric constant of the system are discussed. In addition, surface tension of water-DMF mixtures has been calculated and analyzed.