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Sample records for water control board

  1. 33 CFR 223.1 - Mississippi River Water Control Management Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., responsibilities and authority of the Mississippi River Water Control Management Board. (b) Applicability. This... control management within the Mississippi River Basin. (c) Objectives. The objectives of the Board are: (1...) Composition. The Mississippi River Water Control Management Board is a continuing board consisting of the...

  2. Information Management System for the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, T. C.; Redmann, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made to establish the requirements for an integrated state-wide information management system for water quality control and water quality rights for the State of California. The data sources and end requirements were analyzed for the data collected and used by the numerous agencies, both State and Federal, as well as the nine Regional Boards under the jurisdiction of the State Board. The report details the data interfaces and outlines the system design. A program plan and statement of work for implementation of the project is included.

  3. Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, N.S.; Gummer, W.K.

    1982-02-01

    This paper has been prepared to provide an overview of the responsibilities and activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is designed to address questions that are often asked concerning the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board, its enabling legislation, licensing and compliance activities, federal-provincial relationships, international obligations, and communications with the public

  4. Clean Water Act Section 303(d) Water Quality Limited Segments, California, 2006, State Water Resources Control Board

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — 2006 303d List of Water Quality Limited Segments that: 1) Require Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLS), 2) Are being addressed by USEPA approved TMDLs 3) Are being...

  5. CONTROL ENGINEERING ON BOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei RADU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Control engineering embraces instrumentation, alarm systems, control of machinery and plant previously known under the misnomer of automation. Control engineering can be applied not only to propelling and auxiliary machinery but also to electrical installations, refrigeration, cargo handling (especially in tankers and deck machinery, e.g. Windlass control. Opinion still vary on such matters as the relative merits of pneumatic versus electronic system and whether the control center should be in the engine room or adjacent to the navigating bridge. Arguments against the exclusion of the engineer officer from close contact with the machinery are countered by the fact that electronic systems are based on changes other than those of human response. Automated ships (UMS operate closer to prescribed standards and therefore operate with greater efficiency. The closer control of machinery operating conditions, e.g. cooling water temperatures and pressures, permits machinery to be run at its optimum design conditions, making for fuel economy and reduced maintenance. Automation can carry out some tasks far more effectively than men. In other areas it is less effective. For example, the monitoring of machinery operating conditions such as the temperatures and pressures can be carried out by a solid state alarm scanning system at the rate of 400 channels/sec., giving a degree of surveillance which would be impossible by human observation. Conversely, the detection of noisy bearing, a leaky gland or cracked pipe is scarcely possible by automatic means. The balance between the possible and the necessary would be achieved in this case by combining automatic monitoring of all the likely fault conditions, with routine machinery space inspection say twice a day.

  6. Controlling electronics boards with PVSS

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobsson, Richard

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of implementing a control system for electronics boards in order to perform remote Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) programming, hardware configuration, register control, and monitoring, as well as interfacing it to an expert system. The paper presents an implementation, using the Distributed Information Management (DIM) package and the industrial SCADA system PVSS II from ETM, in which the access mechanisms to the board resources are completely generic and in which the device prescription and the handling of mapping between functional parameters and physical registers follow a common structure independent of the board type. The control system also incorporates mechanisms by which it may be controlled from a finite state machine based expert system. Finally the paper suggests an improvement in which the mapping between logical parameters and physical registers is represented by descriptors in the device description such that the translation can be handled by a common m...

  7. The Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doern, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    This study describes and assesses the regulatory and administrative processes and procedures of the Atomic Energy Control Board, the AECB. The Atomic Energy Control Act authorized the AECB to control atomic energy materials and equipment in the national interest and to participate in measures for the international control of atomic energy. The AECB is authorized to make regulations to control atomic energy materials and equipment and to make grants in support of atomic energy research. (author)

  8. The Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Certain aspects of the Atomic Energy Control Board's relationships with Cabinet, the Minister, Government officials, The licensees and the public are analyzed. The way some of the relationships would have been modified by the Nuclear Control and Administration Act proposed in 1977 is examined. (L.L.)

  9. Embedded controllers for local board-control

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, Niko; Mini, Giuseppe; Sannino, Mario; Guzik, Zbigniew; Jacobsson, Richard; Jost, Beat

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN has a large number of custom electronic boards performing high-speed data-processing. Like in any large experiment the control and monitoring of these crate-mounted boards must be integrated into the overall control-system. Traditionally this has been done by using buses like VME on the back-plane of the crates. LHCb has chosen to equip every board with an embedded micro-controller and connecting them in a large Local Area Network. The intelligence of these devices allows complex (soft) real-time control and monitoring, required for modern powerful FPGA driven electronics. Moreover each board has its own, isolated control access path, which increases the robustness of the entire system. The system is now in pre-production at several sites and will go into full production during next year. The hardware and software will be discussed and experiences from the R&D and pre-production will be reviewed, with an emphasis on advantages and difficulties of this approach to board-control.

  10. Water Capture Device Signal Integration Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Kathryn J.; Hartnett, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    I am a junior in electrical engineering at Arizona State University, and this is my second internship at Johnson Space Center. I am an intern in the Command and Data Handling Branch of Avionics Division (EV2), my previous internship was also in EV2. During my previous internship I was assigned to the Water Capture Device payload, where I designed a prototype circuit board for the electronics system of the payload. For this internship, I have come back to the Water Capture Device project to further the work on the electronics design I completed previously. The Water Capture Device is an experimental payload to test the functionality of two different phase separators aboard the International Space Station (ISS). A phase separator sits downstream of a condensing heat exchanger (CHX) and separates the water from the air particles for environmental control on the ISS. With changing CHX technology, new phase separators are required. The goal of the project is to develop a test bed for the two phase separators to determine the best solution.

  11. New trends in designing NPP control boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    A short analytical summary of the latest developments and future trends in designing NPP control boards is given. The designs of the Westinghause and the Hynkley-Point NPP control boards are described in detail. The essence of the advanced control board concept consists , firstly, in expanded use of computer-controlled displays for the sake of reducing the content of unimportant information presented to an operator, and, secondary, in better account of human possibilities to convert the NPP operation information into a more suitable form. An enlarged use of the direct digital reactor control utilizing microprocessors is expected. Besides, the employment of full-scale control board mock-ups and information desks as well as testing newly-developed control boards at computer reactor simulators are concluded to be used at all-growing rate [ru

  12. Controlling Electronics Boards with PVS

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    - Introduction - Control System Architecture - Device Description - FPGA Programming - Register Control - Data Subscription - Examples of Graphics User Interfaces - Parameter - Register Translation - Application on the LHCb Timing Fast Control System

  13. Control board and utility system for cell complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, G.L. de; Silva, A.C.; Souza, A.S.F. de; Souza, M.L.M. de; Rautenberg, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    To attend necessities of hot cells operation and process control for isotope production in IEN cyclotron (Brazilian-CNEN) a utility system, such as, electricity, water, vacuum, air, and gas, and control board was constructed, which advantages are presented. (M.C.K.)

  14. Program Baseline Change Control Board charter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this Charter is to establish the Program Baseline Change Control Board (PBCCB) for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program, and to describe its organization, responsibilities, and basic methods of operation. Guidance for implementing this Charter is provided by the OCRWM Baseline Management Plan (BMP) and OCRWM Program Baseline Change Control Procedure

  15. The advanced control board summary and adaptation of the emergency operation support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Mashio, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to further improve both reliability and operability of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), the advanced main control board and the Emergency Operation Support System (EOSS), which assists operators to monitor and make judgments during an emergency situation, have been developed. In this paper, the advanced control board summary and functions of the EOSS are described. (author)

  16. Atomic energy control board. History backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) is a regulatory agency set up by the Government of Canada under the Atomic Energy Control Act of 1946 to assist the Government in its efforts to make provision for the control and supervision of the development, application and use of atomic energy and to enable Canada to participate effectively in measures of international control of atomic energy. It is also responsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. An overview is presented of the AECB's evolution in chronological form, its major current activities, and some of the challenges expected in the next decade

  17. Water Science and Technology Board annual report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) during 1990, its eighth year of existence. It describes current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1991, and plans for the future. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the board community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. As such, the Board considers out-reach and communications of much importance.

  18. Water Science and Technology Board annual report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) during 1990, its eighth year of existence. It describes current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1991, and plans for the future. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the board community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. As such, the Board considers out-reach and communications of much importance.

  19. Development of FPGA-Based Control Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Jeong, See Chae; Choi, Woong Seock; Lee, Chang Jae; Jeong, Jin Kwon; Ha, Jae Hong [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    It is well known that existing nuclear power plant (NPP) control systems contain many components which are becoming obsolete at an increasing rate. Various studies have been conducted to address control system hardware obsolescence. Obsolete analog and digital control systems in non-nuclear power plants are commonly replaced with modern digital control systems, programmable logic controllers (PLC) and distributed control systems (DCS). Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are highlighted as an alternative means for obsolete control systems. FPGAs are advanced digital integrated circuits (ICs) that contain configurable (programmable) blocks of logic along with configurable interconnects between these blocks. Designers can configure (program) such devices to perform a tremendous variety of tasks. FPGAs have been evolved from the technology of Programmable Logic Device (PLD). Nowadays they can contain millions of logic gates by nanotechnology and so be used to implement extremely large and complex functions that previously could be realized only using Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This paper is to present the development of a FPGAbased control board performing user-defined control functions. An Actel ProASIC{sup plus} FPGA platform is implemented as the comparator of Plant Protection System (PPS). Functional simulation is implemented for the comparator.

  20. Independent directors’ board networks and controlling shareholders’ tunneling behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yunsen; Wang, Yutao; Lin, Le

    2014-01-01

    As one of the channels by which board directors build important relationships, board networks can affect the governance role of independent directors. Defining director board networks as their connections based on direct ties they establish when serving on at least one common board, this paper explores the role of the network centrality of independent directors in restraining tunneling behavior by controlling shareholders in the Chinese capital market. Our empirical evidence shows that tunnel...

  1. Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This annual report of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) summarizes the activities of the Board and its subgroups during 1988, its sixth year of existence. Included are descriptions of current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1989, and plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program operational features, and reports produced during the past several years. This annual report is intended to provide an introduction to the WSTB and summary of its program for the year.

  2. Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) and its subgroups during 1989, it seventh year of existence. It describes current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1990, and plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program operational features, and reports produced during the past several years. This annual report is an introduction to the WSTB and its program for the year. 4 figs.

  3. Controlling front-end electronics boards using commercial solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Beneyton, R; Jost, B; Schmeling, S

    2002-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated B-physics experiment under construction at CERN's large hadron collider (LHC) accelerator. This paper will describe the novel approach LHCb is taking toward controlling and monitoring of electronics boards. Instead of using the bus in a crate to exercise control over the boards, we use credit-card sized personal computers (CCPCs) connected via Ethernet to cheap control PCs. The CCPCs will provide a simple parallel, I2C, and JTAG buses toward the electronics board. Each board will be equipped with a CCPC and, hence, will be completely independently controlled. The advantages of this scheme versus the traditional bus-based scheme will be described. Also, the integration of the controls of the electronics boards into a commercial supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system will be shown. (5 refs).

  4. National Transportation Safety Board : weak internal control impaired financial accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-28

    The U. S. General Accounting Office (GAO) was asked to review the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) internal controls over selected types of fiscal year expenditures. They were asked to determine whether internal control weaknesses were a...

  5. Sampling and Control Circuit Board for an Inertial Measurement Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David T (Inventor); Powis, Richard T., Jr. (Inventor); Sands, Obed (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A circuit board that serves as a control and sampling interface to an inertial measurement unit ("IMU") is provided. The circuit board is also configured to interface with a local oscillator and an external trigger pulse. The circuit board is further configured to receive the external trigger pulse from an external source that time aligns the local oscillator and initiates sampling of the inertial measurement device for data at precise time intervals based on pulses from the local oscillator. The sampled data may be synchronized by the circuit board with other sensors of a navigation system via the trigger pulse.

  6. Atomic Energy Control Board vocabulary - preliminary edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolet, D [Public Works and Government Services Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Terminology and Documentation Directorate

    1995-09-01

    This preliminary edition was prepared at the Board`s request to help it establish a standardized terminology. It was produced by scanning the 99 French and English documents listed at the end of this Vocabulary. The documents include legislation concerning atomic energy and the transportation of radioactive materials, as well as the Board`s publications, such as the Consultative Documents, Regulatory Documents and Notices. The terms included from the following areas are: radiation protection, reactor technology, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive material packaging and transportation, radioactive waste management, uranium mines, and medical and industrial applications of radioelements. Also included are the titles of publications and the names of organizations and units. The vocabulary contains 2,589 concepts, sometimes accompanied by definitions, contexts or usage examples. Where terms have been standardized by the Canadian Committee for the Standardization of Nuclear Terminology, this has been indicated. Where possible, we have verified the terms using the TERMIUM, the Government of Canada Linguistic Data Bank. (author).

  7. Network on chip master control board for neutron acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Martinez, E.; Mary, T.; Mutti, P.; Ratel, J.; Rey, F.

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition master control board is designed to assemble the various acquisition modes in use at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL). The main goal is to make the card common for all the ILL's instruments in a simple, modular and open way, giving the possibility to add new functionalities in order to follow the evolving demand. It has been necessary to define a central element to provide synchronization to the rest of the units. The backbone of the proposed acquisition control system is the denominated master acquisition board. The master board consists on a VME64X configurable high density I/O connection carrier board based on the latest Xilinx Virtex-6T FPGA. The internal architecture of the FPGA is designed as a Network on Chip (NoC) approach. The complete system also includes a display board and n histogram modules for live display of the data from the detectors. (authors)

  8. Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    In 1982, the National Research Council chose to recognize the importance of water resource issues by establishing the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB). During the five years since its first meeting in November 1982, the WSTB has grown and matured. The WSTB has met 14 times to provide guidance and plan activities. Under the WSTB's direction, committees of experts have conducted approximately 30 studies on a broad array of topics, from dam safety to irrigation-induced water quality problems to ground water protection strategies. Studies have ranged in scope from the oversight of specific agency projects and programs to broader scientific reviews, such as a disciplinary assessment of the hydrologic sciences initiated in 1987. In all cases, studies have the general theme of ultimately improving the scientific and technological bases of programs of water management and environmental quality. This fifth annual report of the WSTB summarizes the Board's accomplishments during 1987, its current activities, and its plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program organizations, and the reports produced. The report should provide the reader with a basic understanding of the WSTB's interests, achievements, and capabilities. The WSTB welcomes inquiries and suggestions concerning its activities and will provide more detailed information on any aspects of its work to those interested.

  9. Atomic Energy Control Board vocabulary - preliminary edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolet, D.

    1995-09-01

    This preliminary edition was prepared at the Board's request to help it establish a standardized terminology. It was produced by scanning the 99 French and English documents listed at the end of this Vocabulary. The documents include legislation concerning atomic energy and the transportation of radioactive materials, as well as the Board's publications, such as the Consultative Documents, Regulatory Documents and Notices. The terms included from the following areas are: radiation protection, reactor technology, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive material packaging and transportation, radioactive waste management, uranium mines, and medical and industrial applications of radioelements. Also included are the titles of publications and the names of organizations and units. The vocabulary contains 2,589 concepts, sometimes accompanied by definitions, contexts or usage examples. Where terms have been standardized by the Canadian Committee for the Standardization of Nuclear Terminology, this has been indicated. Where possible, we have verified the terms using the TERMIUM, the Government of Canada Linguistic Data Bank. (author)

  10. FPGA based VME boards for Indus-2 timing control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulani, Nitin; Barpande, K.; Fatnani, P.; Sheth, Y.

    2009-01-01

    FPGA based two VME boards are developed and deployed recently for Indus-2 timing control system at RRCAT Indore. New FPGA based 5-channel programmable (Coarse-Fine) delay generator board has replaced three 2-channel coarse and one 4-channel fine existing delay generator boards. Introduction of this board has improved the fine delay resolution (to 0.5ns) as well as channel to channel jitter (to 0.8ns) of the system. It has also improved the coarse delay resolution from previous 33ns to 8ns with the possibility to work at divided Indus-2 RF clock. These improved parameters have resulted in better injection rate of beam. Old coincidence generator board is also replaced with FPGA based newly developed Coincidence clock generator VME board, which has resulted in successful controlled filling of beam (single, multi and 3-symmetrical bucket filling) in Indus-2. Three more existing boards will be replaced by single FPGA based delay generator card in near future. This paper presents the design, test results and features of new boards. (author)

  11. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1993-1994. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Alternatives for ground water cleanup; Managing wastewater in coastal urban areas; and, Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  12. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1992-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1992. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Managing wastewater in coastal urban areas; Ground water vulnerability assessment; Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment; and Opportunities in the hydrologic sciences. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  13. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1991. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Restoration of aquatic ecosystems - science, technologies and public policy; Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment; Opportunities in the hydrologic sciences; and Ground water models - scientific and regulatory applications. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  14. Water Science and Technology Board Annual Report 2001-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This annual report marks the twentieth anniversary of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) (1982-2002). The WSTB oversees studies of water issues. The principal products of studies are written reports. These reports cover a wide range of water resources issues of national concern. The following three recently issued reports illustrate the scope of the WSTB's studies: Envisioning the Agenda for Water Resources Research in the Twenty-first Century. The Missouri River Ecosystem: Exploring the Prospects for Recovery, and Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management. The WSTB generally meets three times each year where discussions are held on ongoing projects, strategic planning, and developing new initiatives. The meetings also foster communication within the water resources community. The annual report includes a discussion on current studies, completed studies 2001-2002, and future plans, as well as a listing of published reports (1983-2002).

  15. The Atomic Energy Control Board and the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.M.

    The Atomic Energy Control Board controls prescribed substances and nuclear facilities through a licensing system. It is only recently that this system has been applied to the uranium industry. There are four stages in the licensing procedure before a Mine-Mill Facility Operating Licence is issued: exploration requires an underground exploration permit; site approval is needed before the start of the development stage; development approval is required before the construction of the mill and waste management facilities and depends on the information in a preliminary safety report; the granting of a final operating licence occurs after the Board is satisfied with the final safety report, operating policies and principles, tailings management, and decommissioning plans. The Board has resource management policies designed to ensure that uranium reserves are available to meet Canada's needs. The administration of safeguards is also the Board's responsibility. (LL)

  16. The role and structure of the Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.

    1981-04-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is responsible for the control and supervision of the application and use of nuclear materials and the operation of nuclear facilities to ensure that the health and safety of people are protected and that the nuclear materials and equipment are used only in accordance with the government non-proliferation policy. Requirements for control and supervision are made into regulations subject to approval by the Governor in Council. They are applied through a comprehensive licensing system. The interpretation and implementation of the regulations are contained in a series of regulatory documents published from time to time by the Board. The functional organization of staff that assist the Board for the administration, the assessment and issuance of licenses, compliance and inspection, as well as for the management of the regulatory research program is described. (author) [fr

  17. LANDSAT-1 data as it has been applied for land use and water quality data by the Virginia State Water Control Board. 1: The state project. 2: Monitoring water quality from LANDSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, P. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT-1 imagery has been used for water quality and land use monitoring in and around the Swift Creek and Lake Chesdin Reservoirs in Virginia. This has proved useful by (1) helping determine valid reservoir sampling stations, (2) monitoring areas not accessible by land or water, (3) giving the State a viable means of measuring Secchi depth readings in these inaccessible areas, (4) giving an overview of trends in changing sedimentation loadings over a given time period and classifying these waters into various categories, (5) enabling the State to inventory all major lakes and reservoirs and computing their acreage, (6) monitoring land use changes in any specific area, (7) evaluating possible long-term environmental effects of nearby developments, and (8) monitoring and predicting population shifts with possible impact on water quality problems. The main problems in the long-term use of such imagery appear to be cost and lack of consistency due to cloud cover limitations.

  18. Ship board testing of a deoxygenation ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollin, Tracy; Quilez-Badia, Gemma; Josefsen, Kjell D; Gill, Margaret E; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Frid, Chris L J

    2007-08-01

    A ship board trial of a deoxygenation method for treating ballast water was carried out during a voyage from Southampton (United Kingdom) to Manzanillo (Panama). A nutrient solution added to two ballast tanks encouraged bacterial growth, resulting in a gradual change to an anoxic environment. Samples were taken from two treated tanks and two untreated tanks to assess changes in the abundance and viability of zooplankton, phytoplankton and bacteria. The work was carried out before the International Maritime Organization (IMO) standard was agreed so only a broad indication of whether the results achieved the standard was given. For the zooplankton, the standard would have been achieved within 5 or 7 days but the phytoplankton results were inconclusive. The biological efficacy was the result of the combination of several factors, including the treatment, pump damage and an increase in the water temperature during the voyage.

  19. Evaluating transit preferential measures : Priority lanes, boarding and control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, J.; Cats, O.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of bus service improvements such as bus lanes, allowing boarding through all doors and headway-based holding control ideally requires a simulation model that combines features of both classical analytical models and microscopic simulation. However, as the usage of such models has been

  20. Water Assessment as controlled informality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Judith van; Vlist, Maarten van der; Tatenhove, Jan van

    2011-01-01

    The expectations about the effectiveness of new developed policy instruments are usually very high. In the case of the introduction of Water Assessment in The Netherlands, the ambitious aim of the instrument was to connect the policy domains of spatial planning and water management. The instrument has been monitored continuously and was evaluated two times after the introduction in 2002, by civil servants of ministries, water boards, provinces and municipalities. By combining elements of rational and communicative planning approaches and introducing a three-layered model of power, it was possible to analyse WA as a form of controlled informality, which enables water managers to use the interplay of informal and formal practices strategically at different levels of power.

  1. Control system for ATLAS TileCal HVRemote boards

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)739751; The ATLAS collaboration; Gurriana, Luis; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Evans, Guiomar; Gomes, Agostinho; Maio, Amelia; Pinto Silva Rato, Catia Sofia; Almendra Sabino, Joao Maria; Soares Augusto, Jose

    2018-01-01

    One of the proposed solutions for upgrading the high voltage (HV) system of Tilecal, the ATLAS hadron calorimeter, consists in removing the HV regulation boards from the detector and deploying them in a low-radiation room where there is permanent access for maintenance. This option requires many ~100 m long HV cables but removes the requirement of radiation hard boards. That solution simplifies the control system of the HV regulation cards (called HVRemote). It consists of a Detector Control System (DCS) node linked to 256 HVRemote boards through a tree of Ethernet connections. Each HVRemote includes a smart Ethernet transceiver for converting data and commands from the DCS into serial peripheral interface (SPI) signals routed to SPI-capable devices in the HVRemote. The DCS connection to the transceiver and the control of some SPI-capable devices via Ethernet has been tested successfully. A test board (HVRemote-ctrl) with the interfacing sub-system of the HVRemote was fabricated. It is being tested through SP...

  2. Control System for ATLAS TileCal HVRemote boards

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)739751; The ATLAS collaboration; Gurriana, Luis; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Evans, Guiomar; Gomes, Agostinho; Maio, Amelia; Pinto Silva Rato, Catia Sofia; Almendra Sabino, Joao Maria; Augusto, Jose

    2017-01-01

    One of the proposed solutions for upgrading the high voltage (HV) system of TileCal, the ATLAS central hadron calorimeter, consists in removing the HV regulation boards from the detector and deploying them in a low-radiation room where there is permanent access for maintenance. This option requires many ∼100 m long HV cables but removes the requirement of radiation hard boards. This solution simplifies the control system of the HV regulation cards (called HVRemote). It consists of a Detector Control System (DCS) node linked to 256 HVRemote boards through a tree of Ethernet connections. Each HVRemote includes a smart Ethernet transceiver for converting data and commands from the DCS into serial peripheral interface (SPI) signals routed to SPI-capable devices in the HVRemote. The DCS connection to the transceiver and the control of some SPI-capable devices via Ethernet has been tested successfully. A test board (HVRemote-Ctrl) with the interfacing sub-system of the HVRemote was fabricated. It is being tested ...

  3. 76 FR 22100 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Drinking Water Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Science Advisory Board; Drinking Water Committee Augmented for the Review of the Effectiveness of Partial...: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the SAB... EPA Science Advisory Board can be found on the EPA Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  4. New drive and control concept of the paper-board machine at the board factory "Umka"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeftenić Borislav

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the reconstruction of the drives of a paper machine for the press and drying part of the machine during June, 2001, as well as the expansion of the paper machine with a "third coating" during July, 2002 at the board factory "Umka". The existing old drive of the press and the drying groups was realized as a 76 meter long line shaft drive. The coating section of the machine was realized with sectional drives with DC motors fed from thyristor converters. The concept of the new drive is based on standard squirrel cage induction motors, fed from frequency converters. The system is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The communication between the controller, frequency converters and control panels is realized with a profibus protocol. The Laboratory for Electric Drives, of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade, was contracted for the drive part of the reconstruction of the paper-board machine. The complete project, supervision of the work of the investor's own technical services and final commissioning of the drives were organized in such a way that the drives were changed during the planned periods for the repair of the machine.

  5. 40 CFR 62.7856 - Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Board. 62.7856 Section 62.7856 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board. (a) Identification of Plan. Albuquerque-Bernalillo... County Air Quality Control Board on November 9, 2005. (b) Identification of Sources. The plan applies to...

  6. Aquatic weed control within an integrated water management framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.

    1993-01-01

    Aquatic weed control, carried out by the water boards in the Netherlands, is required to maintain sufficient discharge capacity of the surface water system. Weed control affects the conditions of both surface water and groundwater. The physically based model MOGROW was developed to simulate

  7. The Atomic Energy Control Board's regulatory research and support program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of the Regulatory Research and Support Program is to augment and extend the capability of the Atomic Energy Control Board's (AECB) regulatory program beyond the capability of in-house resources. The overall objective of the program is to produce pertinent and independent scientific and other knowledge and expertise that will assist the AECB in making correct, timely and credible decisions on regulating the development, application and use of atomic energy. The objectives are achieved through contracted research, development, studies, consultant and other kinds of projects administered by the Research and Radiation Protection Branch (RRB) of the AECB

  8. The Consensus Process at the Water Science and Technology Board, National Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, W. S.

    2001-12-01

    Whereas the very birth of the U.S. Geological Survey arose from the recommendations of a National Academy of Sciences report, water science has not always had a prominent place at that institution. Prior to the 1980s, water issues were dealt with on an ad hoc basis by various boards related to science, engineering, and policy. With the birth of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) in 1982, a diversity of water-related issues are now handled under one roof. The "business" of the WSTB is to produce consensus reports on a spectrum of topics in water science. Some of the projects that the WSTB works on are self-generated. The majority are generated either by Congress, or by government agencies. The WSTB takes on several different kinds of studies. Some of these are designed to advance the science of hydrology itself. This category would include the report Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences, which helped to establish hydrologic science as something separate from applied hydrology in Congress, the White House, and agencies such as NSF. However, the majority of the board's consensus studies involve hydrology in the interests of improving the natural and human environment. For example, Water for the Future: The West Bank and Gaza Strip, Israel, and Jordan outlined consensus principles backed by scientists from all of these entities for sustaining freshwater resources of the region. Closer to home, but no less controversial, a WSTB committee recently reached consensus on improving the process by which states determine which water bodies are polluted enough to require clean-up, and develop Total Maximum Daily Loads for these pollutants. Another committee recently sorted through the scientific bases for using natural attenuation for various contaminants in ground water and soil. And an ongoing committee is trying to help the South Florida scientific community to determine the best strategies for restoring the Everglades to some semblance of its former self

  9. Quality control and quality assurance of micromegas readout boards for the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    CERN Document Server

    Nanda, Amit

    2016-01-01

    The resistive anode boards of the Micromegas detectors for ATLAS NSW upgrade, will be produced in industries. The anode boards will be thoroughly evaluated at CERN following a detailed quality control and quality assurance (QA/QC) procedure. The report describes thoroughly the procedures and the design of a small QC tool for easier measurements of electrical properties of the readout boards.

  10. The Water Resources Board: England and Wales’ Venture into National Water Resources Planning, 1964-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. McCulloch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An era of technocratic national planning of water resources is examined against the views of a leading liberal economist and critics, both contemporary and retrospective. Post Second World War Labour Governments in Britain failed to nationalise either land or water. As late as 1965, the idea of public ownership of all water supplies appeared in the Labour Party manifesto and a short-lived Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, 1964-1966, had amongst its duties the development of plans for reorganising the water supply industry under full public ownership. However, instead of pursuing such a politically dangerous takeover of the industry, in July 1964, a Water Resources Board (WRB, a special interest group dominated by engineers, was set up to advise on the development of water resources. In its first Annual Report (1965 WRB claimed its role as "the master planner of the water resources of England and Wales". The WRB had a great deal of influence and justified its national planning role by promoting large-scale supply schemes such as interbasin transfers of water, large reservoirs and regulated rivers. Feasibility studies were even carried out for building innovative, large storage reservoirs in tidal estuaries. Less progress was made on demand reduction. Yet the seeds of WRB’s demise were contained in its restricted terms of reference. The lack of any remit over water quality was a fatal handicap. Quantity and quality needed to be considered together. Privatisation of the water industry in 1989 led to a shift from national strategic planning by engineers to attempts to strengthen economic instruments to fit supply more closely to demand. Engineers have now been usurped as leaders in water resources management by economists and accountants. Yet climate change may demand a return to national strategic planning of engineered water supply, with greater democratic input.

  11. Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) system configuration control board (SCCB) operating procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the operating procedure for the System Configuration Control Board (SCCB) performed in support of the Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) system. This board will consist of representatives from Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Company Babcock and Wilcox Protec, Inc.; and Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. In accordance with agreements for the joint use of the Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Company calorimeters located in the Hanford Site Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Nondestructive Assay Laboratory, concurrence regarding changes to the WinCal system will be obtained from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Further, changes to the WinCal software will be communicated to Los Alamos National Laboratory

  12. Seismic qualification of nuclear control board by using base isolation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, T.; Tsujiuchi, N.; Fujita, T.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose is to adopt base isolation technique as a new approach for seismic qualification of nuclear control board. Basic concept of base isolation technique is expressed. Two dimensional linear motion mechanism with pre-tensioned coil springs and some dampers are included in the isolation device. Control board is regarded as a lamped mass system with inertia moment. Fundamental movement of this device and control board is calculated as a non-linear response problems. Fundamental analysis and numerical estimation, experimental investigation has been undertaken using an actual size control board. Sufficient agreement was recognized between experimental results and numerical estimation. (orig./HP)

  13. Evaluation Logic of Main Control Board Fire Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kilyoo; Lim, Ho Gon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The main control board (MCB) is defined as the collection of control panels inside the main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant (NPP). As the MCB has the control and instrumentation circuits of redundant trains for almost all plant systems, small fires within the control panels may be detrimental to the safe shutdown capability. A big fire affecting many panels in the MCB can cause a forced MCR abandonment of the operators as well as function failures or spurious operations of the control and instrumentation-related components. If the MCR cannot be habitable, a safe shutdown from outside the MCR can be achieved and maintained at an alternate shutdown panel electrically and physically independent from the MCR. Because the MCB consist of many electrical panels, it may have internal barriers between them to prevent a fire from spreading from its origin to neighboring locations. However, most MCBs of domestic NPPs do not have internal barriers within them. If the MCB cabinets are not separated by a double wall with an air gap, the fire propagation of an MCB panel fire cannot be ruled out. Recently, Joglar et al. proposed a new evaluation logic for the MCB panel fires and mentioned that an MCB fire can be divided into propagation and non-propagating fires for abandonment and non-abandonment fire scenarios. However, they did not present the details on the fire modeling approaches and probability formulas for the fire scenarios. In this paper, a decision tree for evaluating the risk of an MCB fire is proposed to systematically determine the fire scenarios in terms of the fire modeling approaches. This paper proposed a decision tree for evaluating the risk of an MCB fire to systematically determine the fire scenarios in terms of fire modeling approaches.

  14. Safety measures for the main control board replacement project at Ikata units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Nozomu; Tada, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    When Units 1 and 2 of the Ikata Power Station underwent replacement of their main control boards, control cabinets, and associated equipment, it was necessary to remove all the control boards, cabinets, and cables from the control building including from the main control room. This meant the loss of operation and monitoring functions in the main control room and functions of control cabinets. To maintain the operation and monitoring functions required under plant shutdown conditions, temporary operation and monitoring equipment (i.e., temporary main control board) was installed in the temporary main control room. The advance preparations included a trial switching from the permanent to the temporary main control board to identify and address potential problems in advance. When the replacement work was underway, a work schedule sheet posted in the temporary and the permanent control rooms was used to prevent human errors caused by operators’ recognition errors. Monitoring and control signals were switched from the old boards to the temporary boards and from the temporary boards to the new boards at appropriate timings to ensure plant safety during the replacement operation. (author)

  15. Water Pollution Control Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  16. Possibilities of utilization of water hyacinth for making water hyacinth-cement boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Portland cement when casted in the form of thin sheets, alone is too brittle and rigid to develop enough serviceable value. An additional fibrous material reinforces such a cement product and improves its tensile strength. The fibrous material forms a continuos phase in a cement base. The use of fibres as a reinforcing material has been known to man from the days of ancient civilisation when he first started making sunbaked mud bricks. It was found that if the mix contained fibrous material, the bricks became stronger on drying. Asbestos fibre is predominantly used in various asbestos cement products as a reinforcing material since it is fibrous, non-combustible and has sufficient tensile strength. When mixed with 10-20% asbestos fibres, the cement gives a strong material which is commonly available as corrugated or plain sheets used for building and other purposes. As a part of the project on utilization of water hyacinth, RRL, Jorhat, undertook investigations on the possibilities of making water hyacinth-cement sheets similar to asbestos-cement sheets. Another objective of this investigation was to develop a technology for making boards from water hyacinth and cement for rural housing and other purposes in a scale appropriate to the rural sector. Water hyacinth fibre has certain similarities with asbestos fibre. For example, both are polymers as well as fibrous. However, asbestos fibre is non-combustible whilst water hyacinth fibre is combustible. This of course does not pose any difficulty since the fibres remain in a cement matrix in the form of a sheet which is almost completely impervious. For the same reason the decomposition due to weathering and microbial action is also arrested. Crysotile asbestos, which is primarily used for making asbestos-cement sheets, makes fibres very rapidly in water as does pulp from water hyacinth. This characteristic of water hyacinth pulp is definitely a disadvantage in paper making in modern high speed machines but may be of

  17. BOARD-invited review : Quantifying water use in ruminant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legesse, G.; Ominski, K. H.; Beauchemin, K. A.; Pfister, S.; Martel, M.; McGeough, E. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Kroebel, R.; Cordeiro, M. R.C.; McAllister, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    The depletion of water resources, in terms of both quantity and quality, has become a major concern both locally and globally. Ruminants, in particular, are under increased public scrutiny due to their relatively high water use per unit of meat or milk produced. Estimating the water footprint of

  18. Modular space vehicle boards, control software, reprogramming, and failure recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; McCabe, Kevin; Delapp, Jerry; Prichard, Dean; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Stein, Paul; Michel, John; Tripp, Justin; Palmer, Joseph; Storms, Steven

    2017-09-12

    A space vehicle may have a modular board configuration that commonly uses some or all components and a common operating system for at least some of the boards. Each modular board may have its own dedicated processing, and processing loads may be distributed. The space vehicle may be reprogrammable, and may be launched without code that enables all functionality and/or components. Code errors may be detected and the space vehicle may be reset to a working code version to prevent system failure.

  19. Survivability of chilled water networks on board ships when using dincs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Fast reaction is required when a chilled water distribution network on board a naval ship is damaged. Without immediate isolation of the leakage area, all water supply is lost soon, with immense consequences for the ship’s operational state. The only solution for that is using an automated recovery

  20. Reactor water chemistry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station - 1 and 2 (TAPS) is a twin unit Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) built in 1960's and operating presently at 160MWe. TAPS -1 and 2 are one of the vintage reactors operating in the world and belongs to earlier generation of BWRs has completed 40 years of successful, commercial and safe operation. In 1980s, both the reactors were de-rated from 660MWth to 530MWth due to leaks in the Secondary Steam Generators (SSGs). In BWR the feed water acts as the primary coolant which dissipates the fission heat and thermalises the fast neutrons generated in the core due to nuclear fission reaction and under goes boiling in the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) to produce steam. Under the high reactor temperature and pressure, RPV and the primary system materials are highly susceptible to corrosion. In order to avoid local concentration of the chemicals in the RPV of BWR, chemical additives are not recommended for corrosion prevention of the system materials. So to prevent corrosion of the RPV and the primary system materials, corrosion resistant materials like stainless steel (of grade SS304, SS304L and SS316LN) is used as the structural material for most of the primary system components. In case of feed water system, main pipe lines are of carbon steel and the heater shell materials are of carbon steel lined with SS whereas the feed water heater tubes are of SS-304. In addition to the choice of materials, another equally important factor for corrosion prevention and corrosion mitigation of the system materials is maintaining highly pure water quality and strict water chemistry regime for both the feed water and the primary coolant, during operation and shutdown of the reactor. This also helps in controlled migration of corrosion product to and from the reactor core and to reduce radiation field build up across the primary system materials. Experience in this field over four decades added to the incorporation of modern techniques in detection of low

  1. Design, construction and quality control of resistive-Micromegas anode boards for the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuger, F.; Iengo, P.

    2018-02-01

    For the upcoming upgrade of the forward muon stations of the ATLAS detector, 1280m2 of Micromegas chambers have to be constructed. The industrialization of anode board production is an essential precondition. Design and construction methods of these boards have been optimized towards mass production. In parallel quality control procedures have been developed and established. The first set of large size Micromegas anode boards has finally been produced in industries and demonstrates the feasibility of the project on full-scale.

  2. A more functional arrangement of the boards for a control room of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemin, Yves.

    1975-02-01

    The attention of manufacturers of control and monitoring materials is attracted on the possible improvements to be effected in control board reading using a more rational arrangement of monitoring stations [fr

  3. Control And Monitoring Of Controller Area Network Based Motor And Sensor Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay Taşdelen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote control system also can use to provide the control of devices that are used in industrial environments nowadays. In this study, three experimental modules and one master module have been developed by using Arduino development board. These modules include sensors and motors. Experimental modules are controlled remotely through Android based application software, running on a smart phone. Bluetooth technology is used for this application. The connection between the experimental modules and master module are provided with Controller Area Network. In this way, the sensor and motor data are transmitted by serial communication.

  4. Design and construction of indigenously electronic boards for the automatic control of MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Nasri, M.

    2003-01-01

    Development, implementation, and manufacturing, indigenously, the first-of-a kind prototype of the electronic automatic control board of MSNR was made in this work. The new prototype includes some specific modifications that take into consideration the availability of electronic elements in the local market, the possibility to manufacture the control board indigenously, and the availability of such board as spare parts on reserve: The manufactured board has been tested (as cooled test) to check for functionality or malfunction before installation as part of the control and operating system. Later on, the board will be installed and tested as part of the above mentioned system to check whether it functions correctly under normal operating conditions (as hot test). (author)

  5. Atomic Energy Control Board and its role in the regulation of uranium and thorium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1980-05-01

    Laws governing the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), its structure and functions is described in the context of the Board's role in uranium and thorium mining. The licensing and compliance procedures are described as they pertain to the objectives of the AECB in protecting workers, the public and the environment during construction, operating and closure of uranium and thorium mining and milling facilities. (OT)

  6. WindoWorks: A flexible program for computerized testing of accelerator control system electronic circuit boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utterback, J.

    1993-09-01

    Since most accelerator control system circuit boards reside in a commercial bus architecture, such as CAMAC or VMEbus, a computerized test station is needed for exercising the boards. This test station is needed for the development of newly designed prototypes, for commissioning newly manufactured boards, for diagnosing boards which have failed in service, and for long term testing of boards with intermittent failure problems. WindoWorks was created to address these needs. It is a flexible program which runs on a PC compatible computer and uses a PC to bus crate interface. WindoWorks was designed to give the user a flexible way to test circuit boards. Each test is incapsulated into a window. By bringing up several different windows the user can run several different tests simultaneously. The windows are sizable, and moveable. They have data entry boxes so that the test can be customized to the users preference. The windows can be used in conjunction with each other in order to create supertests. There are several windows which are generic. They can be used to test basic functions on any VME (or CAMAC) board. There are other windows which have been created to test specific boards. New windows for testing specific boards can be easily created by a Pascal programmer using the WindoWorks framework

  7. A survey. Financial accounting and internal control functions pursued by hospital boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, T A

    1984-09-01

    Justification for a board committee's existence is its ability to devote time to issues judged to be important by the full board. This seems to have happened. Multiple committees pursue more functions than the other committee structures. Boards lacking an FA/IC committee pursue significantly fewer functions than their counterparts with committees. Substantial respondent agreement exists on those functions most and least frequently pursued, those perceived to be most and least important, and those perceived to be most and least effectively undertaken. Distinctions between committee structures and the full board, noted in the previous paragraph, hold true with respect to the importance of functions. All board structures identified reviewing the budget and comparing it to actual results as important. Committee structures are generally more inclined to address functions related to the work of the independent auditor and the effectiveness of the hospital's system and controls than are full board structures. Functions related to the internal auditor are pursued least frequently by all FA/IC board structures. The following suggestions are made to help boards pay adequate attention to and obtain objective information about the financial affairs of their hospitals. Those boards that do not have some form of an FA/IC committee should consider starting one. Evidence shows chief financial officers have been a moving force in establishing and strengthening such committees. Boards having a joint or single committee structure should consider upgrading their structure to either a single committee or multiple committees respectively. The complexity of the healthcare environment requires that more FA/IC functions be addressed by the board. The board or its FA/IC committee(s) should meet with their independent CPA's, fiscal intermediary auditors, and internal auditors. Where the hospital lacks an internal audit function a study should be undertaken to determine the feasibility of

  8. Effectiveness of a large mimic panel in an existing nuclear power plant central control board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Sasajima, Katsuhiro; Kawano, Ryutaro; Shibuya Shinya

    1999-01-01

    We conducted the analysis of the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators' behaviors under emergency conditions by using training simulators as a joint research project by Japanese BWR groups for twelve years. In the phase-IV of this project we executed two kinds of experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the interfaces. One was for evaluations of the interfaces such as CRTs with touch screen, a large mimic panel, and a hierarchical annunciator system introduced in the newly developed ABWR type central control board. The other was that we analyzed the operators' behaviors in emergency conditions by using the first generation BWR type central control board which was added new interfaces such as a large display screen and demarcation on the board to help operators to understand the plant. The demarcation is one of the visual interface improvements and its technique is that a line enclosing several components causes them to be perceived as a group.The result showed that both the large display panel Introduced in ABWR central control board and the large display screen in the existing BWR type central control board improved the performance of the NPP operators in the experiments. It was expected that introduction of the large mimic panel into the existing BWR type central control boards would improve operators' performance. However, in the case of actual installation of the large display board into the existing central control boards, there are spatial and hardware constraints. Therefore the size of lamps, lines connecting from symbols of the pumps or valves to the others' will have to be modified under these constraints. It is important to evaluate the displayed information on the large display board before actual installation. We made experiments to solve these problems by using TEPCO's research simulator which is added a large mimic panel. (author)

  9. Controllability of Surface Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riasi, M. Sadegh; Yeghiazarian, Lilit

    2017-12-01

    To sustainably manage water resources, we must understand how to control complex networked systems. In this paper, we study surface water networks from the perspective of structural controllability, a concept that integrates classical control theory with graph-theoretic formalism. We present structural controllability theory and compute four metrics: full and target controllability, control centrality and control profile (FTCP) that collectively determine the structural boundaries of the system's control space. We use these metrics to answer the following questions: How does the structure of a surface water network affect its controllability? How to efficiently control a preselected subset of the network? Which nodes have the highest control power? What types of topological structures dominate controllability? Finally, we demonstrate the structural controllability theory in the analysis of a wide range of surface water networks, such as tributary, deltaic, and braided river systems.

  10. Atomic Energy Control Board and its role in the regulation of uranium and thorium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zgola, M.B.

    1981-02-01

    This brief, presented to the Northwest Territories legislative hearings into uranium exploration, provides an overview of the jurisdictional role and regulatory philosophy of the Atomic Energy Control Board in uranium mining in Canada

  11. Requirements for Vertically Installed Runoff Control Boards for the “Paddy Field Dam” and Appropriate Orifice Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuki, Yoshikawa; Hideyuki, Koide; Shin-Ichi, Misawa

    While the “Paddy Field Dam” project has been recognized as an effective flood control measure, there are some cases in which the runoff control boards are vertically installed on the opening of the drainage boxes without careful consideration of the orifice shape and size. The important criteria for the runoff control boards to be satisfied are: 1. to maintain a sufficient peak runoff control function, 2. to avoid excessive ponding causing overflow, 3. to minimize the influence to the ordinary water management, and 4. to reserve sufficient orifice area to avoid blockage of the orifice with floating litters. The purpose of this study is to examine proper shapes and sizes of the orifice to satisfy the criteria for the vertically installed runoff control boards through experiments and simulations. Given the condition that the orifice has sufficient area to avoid overflow with 10 and 20 year return period rainfall event (criteria 2), the simulation results show that the orifice with horizontally wider shapes has advantages over the square or circular shapes in terms of the criteria 1 and 3. The disadvantage of the horizontally wider shapes is the blockage of the orifice with floating litters (criteria 4). In conclusion, we proposed to secure sufficient vertical distance to avoid this problem by setting a lower limit on the vertical distance and then determine the widest horizontal distance to optimize all the criteria. In addition, we have constructed the “Orifice Design Assist Tool” on the basis of the examinations in this study.

  12. 77 FR 58847 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... the causes, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of physical and mental diseases, and other... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with...

  13. 78 FR 29754 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... relating to the causes, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of physical and mental diseases, and... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with...

  14. Nuclear electronic equipment for control and monitoring boards. MCH/MENT Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquefort, H.

    1975-01-01

    The constitution of the group ''Materiel de Controle Homologue - Materiel Electronique Nucleaire pour Tableaux de controle et de commande'' is given. This group has to define, work out, and propose general and particular specifications related to reactor control-board instrumentation. These specifications are useful in France and abroad. Published documents are listed [fr

  15. A New Modular Control Board for Pulse-Jet Cleaning of Dust Collector Filter Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Carosso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a timing system modular control board to be used for pulse-jet cleaning of dust collector filter bags or pneumatic conveying systems. Many systems of this kind are already available on the market but only some of them have the ability to operate in full range alternating current power supplies. The presented versatile and innovative control board can control the electro valves, either the ones operating with alternating current and those in direct current (since they are both used in the industrial plants. For the same reason, the designed prototype system can be powered with different voltages, widening the number of potential industrial applications. The electronic board has as main advantage the ability to fully automate the cleaning cycle. It can drive many electro valves simultaneously since it is possible to connect more control boards together if needed. It also allows the user to separate the control section of the system from the section dedicated to the actuation of the electro valves. The electro valves can be controlled from a PC terminal via ethernet. The work describes the adopted solutions and the steps made for the design of the entire prototypal modular board, with particular focus on the innovative timing system.

  16. Final report to the Atomic Energy Control Board on project management capabilities using NAOP as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, P.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify practices of the Atomic Energy Control Board that support or detract from the implementation of collaborative cross-functional project management and to recommend ways and means of increasing the Board's ability to respond to projects. Ontario Hydro's Nuclear Asset Optimization Program (NAOP) and the Board's response to that program form the basis of a case study for the purposes of this report. Issues examined include: Whether the Board follows a logical project management framework when it addresses projects such as the NAOP; where the Board exhibits good practices in addressing project such as the NAOP; and where the Board needs to develop better practices

  17. Reactor water level control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utagawa, Kazuyuki.

    1993-01-01

    A device of the present invention can effectively control fluctuation of a reactor water level upon power change by reactor core flow rate control operation. That is, (1) a feedback control section calculates a feedwater flow rate control amount based on a deviation between a set value of a reactor water level and a reactor water level signal. (2) a feed forward control section forecasts steam flow rate change based on a reactor core flow rate signal or a signal determining the reactor core flow rate, to calculate a feedwater flow rate control amount which off sets the steam flow rate change. Then, the sum of the output signal from the process (1) and the output signal from the process (2) is determined as a final feedwater flow rate control signal. With such procedures, it is possible to forecast the steam flow rate change accompanying the reactor core flow rate control operation, thereby enabling to conduct preceding feedwater flow rate control operation which off sets the reactor water level fluctuation based on the steam flow rate change. Further, a reactor water level deviated from the forecast can be controlled by feedback control. Accordingly, reactor water level fluctuation upon power exchange due to the reactor core flow rate control operation can rapidly be suppressed. (I.S.)

  18. New control method of on-board ATP system of Shinkansen trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, N.; Watanabe, T. [Railway Technical Research Inst. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    We studied a new control method of the on-board automatic train protection (ATP) system for Shinkansen trains to shorten the operation time and not to degrade ride comfort at changes in deceleration of the train, while maintaining the safety and reliability of the present ATP signal system. We propose a new on-board pattern brake control system based on the present ATP data without changing the wayside equipment. By simulating the ATP braking of the proposed control method, we succeeded in shortening the operation time by 48 seconds per one station in comparison with the present ATP brake control system. This paper reports the concept of the system and simulation results of the on-board pattern. (orig.)

  19. Research of Control System and Fault Diagnosis of the Sound-absorbing Board Production Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Xiao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Programmable Logic Controller is the core of the control system of the sound- absorbing board production line and the design of fault diagnosis is an essential modules in the sound- absorbing board production line. The article discourses the application of PLC in the control system of the production line, and designs the methods of grading treatment and prevention of troubles, which makes use of PLC’S logic functions. The method has good expansibility, and has good guidance to the fault diagnosis in other automation equipments.

  20. Reactor water level control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Yohei.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the rapid response of the waterlevel control converting a reactor water level signal into a non-linear type, when the water level is near to a set value, to stabilize the water level reducting correlatively the reactor water level variation signal to stabilize greatly from the set value, and increasing the variation signal. Constitution: A main vapor flow quality transmitter detects the vapor flow generated in a reactor and introduced into a turbine. A feed water flow transmitter detects the quantity of a feed water flow from the turbine to the reactor, this detected value is sent to an addition operating apparatus. On the other hand, the power signal of the reactor water level transmitter is sent to the addition operating apparatus through a non-linear water level signal converter. The addition operation apparatus generates a signal for requesting the feed water flow quantity from both signals. Upon this occasion, the reactor water level signal converter makes small the reactor water level variation when the reactor level is close the set value, and when the water level deviates greatly from the set value, the reactor water level variation is made large thereby to improve the rapid response of the reactor coater level control. (Yoshino, Y.)

  1. Development of an ATCA IPMI Controller Mezzanine Board and its usage on an ATCA ROD Evaluator board for the ATLAS LAr upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    "DUMONT DAYOT, N; The ATLAS collaboration; "CAP, S; "DUMONT DAYOT, N; "FOURNIER, L; "LETENDRE, N; "PERROT, G; "Wingerter, I

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the LHC upgrades, a new Read-Out Driver (ROD) board for the ATLAS LAr calorimeter is being developed. xTCA (Advanced/Micro Telecom Computing Architecture) is becoming a standard in high energy physics and is a serious candidate for future readout systems. We will present our current developments to master ATCA and to integrate a large number of very high speed links (96 links/8.5 Gbps) on a ROD Evaluator ATCA board. To manage our ROD Evaluator, we have developed a versatile ATCA IPMI controller for ATCA boards which is FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) compliant.

  2. Water availability pollution and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Water has played a very important role in the development of human society. Resources of water have shaped the development of people and nations. Management of water gave the birth to innovations and technologies. Our complex metropolitan civilization and advanced technologies have generated new demands for water. Its importance to society and government has never diminished. The growing concern over resources availability and a rapid spread of water pollution, the link between water supply and water quality have become more apparent. The global management of water demands economy in use, restricted chemical and sanitation emissions, population control, discouragement of urbanization and water pollution awareness can greatly assist in averting the water holocaust that the world is expecting to face in the years to come. The scientific community in Pakistan is required to diagnose these problems in a systematic way to give advance warning of expected water scarcity, water pollution, water related land degradation, urban growth and population to assure the water cycle integrity of our world. (author)

  3. Water chemistry control at FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panigrahi, B.S.; Jambunathan, D.; Suresh Kumar, K.V.; Ramanathan, V.; Srinivasan, G.; Ramalingam, P.V.

    2008-01-01

    Condenser cooling and service water systems together serve as the cooling water system of Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). Palar river water serves as the make-up to the cooling water system. Initially, the service water system alone was commissioned in phases depending upon the arrival of auxiliary equipments at site. During this period, the water was not treated chemically and it also inadvertently remained stagnant for some time in some systems. Thereafter, a threshold chemical treatment was started. However, pin-hole leaks and reduced flow through the heat exchangers were observed and therefore chemical cleaning of headers was done and small diameter pipelines were replaced. Following this a full fledged chemistry control with proprietary formulations was initiated. Later the condenser cooling system was commissioned and the chemical treatment was reviewed. With adoption of improved monitoring methodology and treatment formulation satisfactory corrosion control (< 3 mpy) with minimum deposition problem in this system could be achieved. The primary coolant (primary sodium) of FBTR transfers the nuclear heat to the secondary coolant (secondary sodium) that in turn transfers heat to water in Once Through Steam Generator (OTSG) to generate superheated steam (480 deg C at 125 bar). Efficient water chemistry control plays the vital role in minimizing corrosion related failures of steam generator tubes and ensuring steam generator tube integrity. Therefore, the technical specifications of chemistry parameters of feed/steam water at FBTR are made very stringent to maintain the purity of water at the best attainable level. To meet this stringent feed water and steam quality specifications, online monitoring techniques have been employed in the steam/water circuit to get continuous information about the purity. These monitors have helped significantly in achieving the required feed water quality and running the steam generator for more than 25000 hours without any tube

  4. Development, application, and validation of a survey for infectious disease control practices at equine boarding facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Alanna T; Traub-Dargatz, Josie L; Hill, Ashley E; Kogan, Lori R; Morley, Paul S; Heird, James C

    2010-11-15

    To develop a questionnaire for self-assessment of biosecurity practices at equine boarding facilities and to evaluate infectious disease control practices in these facilities in Colorado. Cross-sectional study. 64 equine boarding facilities in Colorado. Survey questions were rated according to importance for prevention and containment of equine infectious diseases. Point values (range, 0 to 20) were assigned for possible responses, with greater values given for optimal infection control methods. Questionnaires were mailed to equine boarding facilities in Colorado advertised on the World Wide Web. Survey responses were compared with assessments made by a member of the research team during visits to 30 randomly selected facilities. Agreement among results was analyzed via a kappa test and rated as poor, fair, moderate, substantial, or nearly perfect. Survey responses were received for 64 of 163 (39%) equine boarding facilities. Scores ranged from 106 to 402 points (maximum possible score, 418). Most facilities received better scores for movement and housing of equids than for other sections of the survey. Respondents at 24 of 48 (50%) facilities that routinely received new equids reported isolation of new arrivals. Agreement between self-assessment by survey respondents and evaluation by a member of the research team was determined to be fair to substantial. Most equine boarding facilities have opportunities to improve measures for prevention or containment of contagious diseases (eg, isolation of newly arrived equids and use of written health management protocols). Most self-assessments of infection control practices were accurate.

  5. Analytical calculation of electrolyte water content of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for on-board modelling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Alessandro; Polverino, Pierpaolo; Pianese, Cesare

    2018-06-01

    This paper proposes an analytical model of the water content of the electrolyte of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell. The model is designed by accounting for several simplifying assumptions, which make the model suitable for on-board/online water management applications, while ensuring a good accuracy of the considered phenomena, with respect to advanced numerical solutions. The achieved analytical solution, expressing electrolyte water content, is compared with that obtained by means of a complex numerical approach, used to solve the same mathematical problem. The achieved results show that the mean error is below 5% for electrodes water content values ranging from 2 to 15 (given as boundary conditions), and it does not overcome 0.26% for electrodes water content above 5. These results prove the capability of the solution to correctly model electrolyte water content at any operating condition, aiming at embodiment into more complex frameworks (e.g., cell or stack models), related to fuel cell simulation, monitoring, control, diagnosis and prognosis.

  6. MARES: Navigation, Control and On-board Software

    OpenAIRE

    Aníbal Matos; Nuno Cruz

    2009-01-01

    MARES, or Modular Autonomous Robot for Environment Sampling, is a 1.5m long AUV, designed and built by the Ocean Systems Group. The vehicle can be programmed to follow predefined trajectories, while collecting relevant data with the onboard sensors. MARES can dive up to 100m deep, and unlike similar-sized systems, has vertical thrusters to allow for purely vertical motion in the water column. Forward velocity can be independently defined, from 0 to 2 m/s. Major application areas include pollu...

  7. A history of the Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, G.H.E.

    1980-07-01

    Topics covered include the pre-history of the AECB, its creation, early operations and evolution, its relations with nuclear research, the uranium industry, and the nuclear power industry, its involvement with transportation and safeguards, and some current problems. The focus is on the Atomic Energy Control Act and regulations derived from the act

  8. Contribution of Heavy Water Board in nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Contributed Paper IT-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, P.R.

    2014-01-01

    The three stage Indian nuclear power programme envisages use of closed nuclear fuel cycle and thorium utilization as its mainstay for long term energy security on sustainable basis. India is committed to realize this objective through the development and deployment of frontier technologies pertaining to all aspects of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Comprehensive indigenous capabilities have been developed in all aspects of nuclear power and associated fuel cycles. Heavy Water Board (HWB), with its abiding objective of fulfilling demand of heavy water for India's flourishing nuclear power program, is one of the frontrunner in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology. HWB is now engaged in wide spectrum of activities in various facets of fuel cycle covering all the three stages of Indian Nuclear Power Programme. HWB is contributing to Nuclear Fuel Cycle through large scale production and sustained supply of key input materials including heavy water, solvents for nuclear hydrometallurgy, 10 B enriched boron etc

  9. 77 FR 31018 - Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of... Violence or Sexual Violence Perpetration (R01), FOA CE12-003. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the..., discussion of competitive applications following initial review of applications received in response to FOA...

  10. 76 FR 28438 - Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... below concerns RFA CE10-004, the National Academic Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention... Violence Prevention (U01). Contact Person for More Information: Gwendolyn Haile Cattledge, PhD, M.S.E.H., F... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of...

  11. The Canadian public's awareness and perception of the Atomic Energy Control Board. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of the research is to measure how the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) stands with the Canadian public. The research examines the existing level of awareness and knowledge about the AECB and the image that people have about the Board. Another issue addressed in the research is the level of confusion within the public between the AECB and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The data in this report can also be used as a benchmark against which improvements can be measured from the AECB's communications programs and activities undertaken in the future

  12. A system level boundary scan controller board for VME applications [to CERN experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, N; Da Silva, J C

    2000-01-01

    This work is the result of a collaboration between INESC and LIP in the CMS experiment being conducted at CERN. The collaboration addresses the application of boundary scan test at system level namely the development of a VME boundary scan controller (BSC) board prototype and the corresponding software. This prototype uses the MTM bus existing in the VME64* backplane to apply the 1149.1 test vectors to a system composed of nineteen boards, called here units under test (UUTs). A top-down approach is used to describe our work. The paper begins with some insights about the experiment being conducted at CERN, proceed with system level considerations concerning our work and with some details about the BSC board. The results obtained so far and the proposed work is reviewed in the end of this contribution. (11 refs).

  13. Using an Augmented Wobble Board as a Game Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Yearly more than a million succumb to ankle injuries in the United States alone, and it is not uncommon that individuals who have suffered such injuries lack the motivation necessary in order to successfully complete the rehabilitation process. In this article we describe three design and evaluat......Yearly more than a million succumb to ankle injuries in the United States alone, and it is not uncommon that individuals who have suffered such injuries lack the motivation necessary in order to successfully complete the rehabilitation process. In this article we describe three design...... and evaluation of three prototypes intended to provide individuals in need of ankle rehabilitation with the necessary motivation. The prototypes leverage video games potential as a source of intrinsic motivation by allowing individuals to control a game by means of a wobble board—an instrument used for ankle...... training–and thereby allow them to perform the needed exercises while playing. The design of the first prototype is informed by specific ankle exercises and theory pertaining to gameplay as emotional experience. An expert evaluation indicated that the prototype facilitated correct ankle training...

  14. Water quality control system and water quality control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsumi, Sachio; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Uruma, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuya; Seki, Shuji

    1998-01-01

    In the water quality control system of the present invention, portions in contact with water comprise a metal material having a controlled content of iron or chromium, and the chromium content on the surface is increased than that of mother material in a state where compression stresses remain on the surface by mechanical polishing to form an uniform corrosion resistant coating film. In addition, equipments and/or pipelines to which a material controlling corrosion potential stably is applied on the surface are used. There are disposed a cleaning device made of a material less forming impurities, and detecting intrusion of impurities and removing them selectively depending on chemical species and/or a cleaning device for recovering drain from various kinds of equipment to feedwater, connecting a feedwater pipeline and a condensate pipeline and removing impurities and corrosion products. Then, water can be kept to neutral purified water, and the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen in water are controlled within an optimum range to suppress occurrence of corrosion products. (N.H.)

  15. ATCA/AXIe compatible board for fast control and data acquisition in nuclear fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, A.J.N.; Leong, C.; Bexiga, V.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Combo, A.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fortunato, J.; Correia, M.; Teixeira, J.P.; Teixeira, I.C.; Sousa, J.; Gonçalves, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► High performance board for fast control and data acquisition. ► Large IO channel number per board with galvanic isolation. ► Optimized for high reliability and availability. ► Targeted for nuclear fusion experiments with long duration discharges. ► To be used on the ITER Fast Plant System Controller prototype. - Abstract: An in-house development of an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) board for fast control and data acquisition, with Input/Output (IO) processing capability, is presented. The architecture, compatible with the ATCA (PICMG 3.4) and ATCA eXtensions for Instrumentation (AXIe) specifications, comprises a passive Rear Transition Module (RTM) for IO connectivity to ease hot-swap maintenance and simultaneously to increase cabling life cycle. The board complies with ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) guidelines for rear IO connectivity and redundancy, in order to provide high levels of reliability and availability to the control and data acquisition systems of nuclear fusion devices with long duration plasma discharges. Simultaneously digitized data from all Analog to Digital Converters (ADC) of the board can be filtered/decimated in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), decreasing data throughput, increasing resolution, and sent through Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Express to multi-core processors in the ATCA shelf hub slots. Concurrently the multi-core processors can update the board Digital to Analog Converters (DAC) in real-time. Full-duplex point-to-point communication links between all FPGAs, of peer boards inside the shelf, allow the implementation of distributed algorithms and Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. Support for several timing and synchronization solutions is also provided. Some key features are onboard ADC or DAC modules with galvanic isolation, Xilinx Virtex 6 FPGA, standard Dual Data Rate (DDR) 3 SODIMM memory, standard CompactFLASH memory card, Intelligent

  16. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  17. The control of water radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Graubey, A.

    1962-01-01

    This report presents the different apparatuses and devices used to control and adjust routine releases, to detect accidental pollutions, and to identify the origins of an increased radioactivity. The objective is to perform permanent and continuous sampling and measurement. Samplers and measurement devices (Geiger probes, resin-based integrators, dry aerosol radioactivity recorders and dry sample radioactivity recorders) are presented. Water control stations are presented: these stations are either fixed, or mobile or floating

  18. Careers in Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

  19. Control of vertical posture while standing on a sliding board and pushing an object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Chen, Bing; Liang, Jing-Nong; Aruin, Alexander S

    2018-03-01

    Voluntary pushing or translation perturbation of the support surface each induces a body perturbation that affects postural control. The objective of the study was to investigate anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments when pushing an object (that induces self-initiated perturbation) and standing on a sliding board (that induces translational perturbation). Thirteen healthy young participants were instructed to push a handle with both hands while standing on a sliding board that was either free to move in the anterior-posterior direction or stationary. Electromyographic activity (EMG) of trunk and lower extremity muscles, center of pressure (COP) displacements, and the forces exerted by the hand were recorded and analyzed during the APA and CPA phases. When the sliding board was free to move during pushing (translation perturbation), onsets of activity of ventral leg muscles and COP displacement were delayed as compared to pushing when standing on a stationary board. Moreover, magnitudes of shank muscle activity and the COP displacement were decreased. When pushing heavier weight, magnitudes of muscle activity, COP displacement, and pushing force increased. The magnitude of activity of the shank muscles during the APA and CPA phases in conditions with translational perturbation varied with the magnitude of the pushing weight. The outcome of the study suggests that the central nervous system prioritizes the pushing task while attenuates the source of additional perturbation induced by translation perturbation. These results could be used in the development of balance re-training paradigms involving pushing weight while standing on a sliding surface.

  20. Biofouling Control in Cooling Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Reg Bott

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of environmental engineering is the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Fossil fuel-fired power stations, for instance, represent a substantial contribution to this problem. Unless suitable steps are taken the accumulation of microbial deposits (biofouling on the cooling water side of the steam condensers can reduce their efficiency and in consequence, the overall efficiency of power production, with an attendant increase in fuel consumption and hence CO2 production. Biofouling control, therefore, is extremely important and can be exercised by chemical or physical techniques or a combination of both. The paper gives some examples of the effectiveness of different approaches to biofouling control.

  1. Instrumentation and control aging management: A focus on electronic parts and boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocombette, C.; Simon, G.; Favaro, P.; Naser, J.; Guffroy, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear power industry is currently facing increasing aging and obsolescence issues with original equipment installed for instrumentation, control, and safety system applications. One area that needs attention is the aging of electronic boards and components used in instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). In this context, EPRI has launched a project dedicated to NPP electronic component and board aging management. The goals of this project are: 1) to better understand the degradation mechanisms of I and C electronic systems; 2) to develop new methods to monitor prevalent mechanisms and forecast generic aging cases; and 3) to give guidelines for the aging management of I and C electronic systems. The ultimate objectives are: 1) to reduce the likelihood of losing plant availability due to a board or component failure; and 2) to reduce the global cost of maintenance by optimizing preventive maintenance tasks and the schedule for refurbishment or renewal. Degradation mechanisms of electronic boards in NPP - Aging mechanisms of electronic parts depend on technologies, manufacturing quality, and conditions of environment and operation. Aging of electronic parts is well documented in harsh environments (e.g., aerospace, military, or automotive industries data). However, only a small amount of data on electronic part failures in NPPs is available because the conditions are benign and the failure rates are supposed to be low. It is thus difficult to identify what will predominantly cause the aging of electronic systems after 20 or 30 years of operation. Usual causes are temperature, corrosion, temperature cycles, or extrinsic aggressions (Electrical Over Stress (EOS), Electro Static Discharges (ESD)). From field data and bibliographic analyses, we found that electrolytic capacitors, relays, potentiometers, power devices (thyristors, power transistors, etc.), optocouplers, on-board connectors, printed boards, integrated

  2. The Atomic Energy Control Board requirements for the radioisotope licensing of a radiopharmaceutical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, P.

    1980-01-01

    Items that must be addressed by an applicant for a radioisotope license in Canada are described. Site, design and operating conditions, safety assessment, organization, emergency procedures and operating policies and procedures must be described to the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), in support of any license application. All information submitted in support of the application is subject to AECB's policy on public access to that information. (OT)

  3. Closed to reason: time for accountability for the International Narcotic Control Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For more than two decades, the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB has tried to stop harm reduction and its HIV prevention programs. This posture is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of their responsibilities and of drug addiction itself – i.e. as a public health and clinical care matter made criminal by decree. A recent focal point for the Board's action has been rejecting the use of supervised injection facilities to reduce morbidity and mortality of drug injectors. They single out individual countries and attempt to bully them into rejecting such programs under the banner of the United Nations (falsely and in the name of international treaties. Their unrelenting and unjustified badgering of signatories to the international treaties that established the INCB is not only unjustified; it is an affront to one of the core purposes of the Board itself: to ensure adequate medical supplies and safe use of controlled substances. The INCB's ill-conceived obsession with intravenousaddiction as a crime flies in the face of the medical view and policies of the World Health Organization and the universally endorsed principles of the General Assembly of the United Nations. The latest target of the INCB is North America's only supervised injection facility, Insite, located in the inner city of Vancouver, Canada. Using the power of their office to meddle in matters of public health for individual nations is without medical, scientific or legal justification. But, most importantly, it is a matter of lifeand death for these most marginalized of citizens. The empirical evidence remains that a significant portion of the continued growth of the AIDS pandemic is due to injecting drug use, and the INCB's intrusion will inevitably result in additional deaths due to preventable HIV infections and drug overdoses. So we are very pleased to call to our readers' attention to a recent report produced by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the

  4. Regulating outdoor advertisement boards; employing spatial decision support system to control urban visual pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakil, K.; Hussnain, MQ; Tahir, A.; Naeem, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanaged placement, size, location, structure and contents of outdoor advertisement boards have resulted in severe urban visual pollution and deterioration of the socio-physical living environment in urban centres of Pakistan. As per the regulatory instruments, the approval decision for a new advertisement installation is supposed to be based on the locational density of existing boards and their proximity or remoteness to certain land- uses. In cities, where regulatory tools for the control of advertisement boards exist, responsible authorities are handicapped in effective implementation due to the absence of geospatial analysis capacity. This study presents the development of a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for regularization of advertisement boards in terms of their location and placement. The knowledge module of the proposed SDSS is based on provisions and restrictions prescribed in regulatory documents. While the user interface allows visualization and scenario evaluation to understand if the new board will affect existing linear density on a particular road and if it violates any buffer restrictions around a particular land use. Technically the structure of the proposed SDSS is a web-based solution which includes open geospatial tools such as OpenGeo Suite, GeoExt, PostgreSQL, and PHP. It uses three key data sets including road network, locations of existing billboards and building parcels with land use information to perform the analysis. Locational suitability has been calculated using pairwise comparison through analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and weighted linear combination (WLC). Our results indicate that open geospatial tools can be helpful in developing an SDSS which can assist solving space related iterative decision challenges on outdoor advertisements. Employing such a system will result in effective implementation of regulations resulting in visual harmony and aesthetic improvement in urban communities.

  5. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings....... The findings show that: (i) Board processes have a larger potential than demographic variables to explain board task performance; (ii) board task performance differs significantly between boards operating in different contexts; and (iii) national context moderates the relationships between board processes...... and board task performance....

  6. Multiple single-board-computer system for the KEK positron generator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Kazuo; Abe, Isamu; Enomoto, Atsushi; Otake, Yuji; Urano, Takao

    1986-01-01

    The KEK positron generator is controlled by means of a distributed microprocessor network. The control system is composed of three kinds of equipment: device controllers for the linac equipment, operation management stations and a communication network. Individual linac equipment has its own microprocessor-based controller. A multiple single board computer (SBC) system is used for communication control and for equipment surveillance; it has a database containing communication and linac equipment status information. The linac operation management that should be the most soft part in the control system, is separated from the multiple SBC system and is carried out by work-stations. The principle that every processor executes only one task is maintained throughout the control system. This made the software architecture very simple. (orig.)

  7. Control and data acquisition ATCA/AXIe board designed for high system availability and reliability of nuclear fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, A.J.N.; Leong, C.; Bexiga, V.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Combo, A.; Carvalho, B.B.; Carvalho, P.F.; Fortunato, J.; Santos, B.; Carvalho, P.; Correia, M.; Teixeira, J.P.; Teixeira, I.C.; Sousa, J.; Gonçalves, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and test of a control and data acquisition board designed to be integrated on systems demanding high availability and reliability, foreseen for future experiments like ITER or other long operation fusion devices. The Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard (PICMG 3.0 and 3.4) was selected for board implementation, which has support for the desired system robustness and performance. Some board features such as rear Input/Output (IO) signals connectivity (passive, copper tracks only), cable-less hot-swap maintenance, Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC) and redundancy on timing signals, communications links and power supplies are significant board improvements, relatively to previous control and data acquisition boards, allowing the development of more reliable system architectures. Moreover, the developed board is also compatible with the emerging ATCA eXtensions for Instrumentation (AXIe) specifications, which provides additional timing and synchronization signals on the backplane. ATCA full-mesh, multi-gigabit, full-duplex, point-to-point communication links between Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), of peer boards inside the shelf, allow the implementation of distributed algorithms and development of Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. Up to 48 analog input channels, simultaneously digitized (2 MSPS @ 18-bits), are filtered/decimated by the board FPGA and sent to the ATCA/AXIe host through Peripheral Component Interconnect express (PCIe) using Direct Memory Access (DMA). In real-time, the host can update up to 48 analog output channels (1 MSPS @ 18-bits), per board, through PCIe. Further board characteristics comprise analog IO channels with galvanic isolation and an optional signal chopper mode, for offset compensation over time on digital integration of magnetic signals. Board time synchronization is attained by means of the Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) time-code

  8. Applying systems engineering in the civil engineering industry : an analysis of systems engineering projects of a Dutch water board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R. S. (Robin); Vromen, R. M.(Rick); Boes, J. (Hans)

    2017-01-01

    The past decade, practice and literature have shown an increasing interest in Systems Engineering (SE) in the civil engineering industry. The aim of this study is to analyse to what extent SE is applied in six civil engineering SE projects of a Dutch water board. The projects were analysed using a

  9. Energy Research Advisory Board, Civilian Nuclear Power Panel: Subpanel 1 report, Light water reactor utilization and improvement: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested that the Office of Nuclear Energy prepare a strategic national plan that outlines the Department's role in the future development of civilian nuclear power and that the Energy Research Advisory Board establish an ad hoc panel to review and comment on this plan. The Energy Research Advisory Board formed a panel for this review and three subpanels were formed. One subpanel was formed to address the institutional issues surrounding nuclear power, one on research and development for advanced nuclear power plants and a third subpanel on light water reactor utilization and improvement. The subpanel on light water reactors held two meetings at which representatives of the DOE, the NRC, EPRI, industry and academic groups made presentations. This is the report of the subpanel on light water reactor utilization and improvement. This report presents the subpanel's assessment of initiatives which the Department of Energy should undertake in the national interest, to develop and support light water reactor technologies

  10. Generation of electricity and combustible gas by utilization of agricultural waste in Nara canal area water board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyo, P.; Memon, F.; Sohag, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Biomass in an important source of energy, however, it is not fully utilized in Sindh. The various types of biomass normally used for the generation of energy are extensively available in the province. These are forest debris and thinning; residue from wood products industry; agricultural waste; fast-growing trees and crops; wood and wood waste; animal manures and non-hazardous organic portion of municipal solid waste. Since agriculture is pre-dominant in Sindh, it has a large amount of agricultural waste available in most of the areas. Agriculture wastes like rice husk, wheat straw, cotton stalks, and sugarcane bagasse can be utilized to produce gas and afterwards electricity. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) has found that at most of the locations of Sindh, agricultural waste is available more than the energy requirements of that particular area. Biomass can also generate electricity (or heat) in one of the several processes, can be used in a piston driven engine, high efficiency gas turbine generator or a fuel cell to produce electricity. Biomass gasifies have gained attention for their efficiency, economy and environment-friendly. The Nara Canal Area Water Board is facing acute problem of electricity in the O and M of its drainage network and running of tube wells. The frequent breakdown and irregular supply of power is badly affecting in the management of drainage system and control of rising water-table, however, it is anticipated that the generation of electricity through biomass can address this acute problem and greatly help in controlling water logging and salinity in Sindh. (author)

  11. Low latency control board for LLRF system: SIMCON 3.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giergusiewicz, Wojciech; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Ignashin, Nikolay; Grecki, Mariusz; Makowski, Dariusz; Jezynski, Tomasz; Perkuszewski, Karol; Czuba, Krzysztof; Simrock, Stefan; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2005-09-01

    A new version of the SIMCON system is presented in this paper. The SIMCON stands for the microwave, resonant, superconductive accelerator cavity simulator and controller (embracing the hardware and software layers). The current version of the SIMCON is 3.1. which is a considerable step forward from the previous 8-channel version 3.0. which was released at the beginning of 2005 and was made operable in April. Many important upgrades were implemented in SIMCON 3.1. It is a stand-alone VME board (whereas SIMCON 3.0 was modular) based on the Virtex II Pro 30 chip with two embedded Power PCs and DSP blocks. It has Ethernet and multiple gigabit optical I/Os. The Simcon 3.1 board provides 10 ADC channels. The architecture idea and block diagrams of the PCB for SIMCON 3.1. are presented. Some of the applied novel technical solutions, Protel"R" views and schemes are shown. A number of initial conclusions were drawn from a few month experience with the development of this new board. The tables of predicted system parameters are quoted.

  12. Implementation of a program to recover the Atomic Energy Control Board's operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) has undertaken a preliminary study to examine the feasibility of recovering the costs of its regulatory activities in accordance with the Canadian federal government user-pay principle. This study has found that recovery of the AECB's entire budget of $25 million per year would not have a significant financial impact on its licensees. The AECB has prepared regulations and a fee schedule and carried out consultations with the nuclear industry and the public to determine the potential financial and economic impacts of this initiative

  13. Board Characteristics, Country of Origin, and the Decision to Participate in the CDP’s Water Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrazi Bakhtiar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the propensity of the world’s largest companies to participate in the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP water programme. Drawing upon stakeholder theory, we assess the influence of board characteristics and country of origin on the decision of 748 largest companies from 42 countries to respond to the 2015 CDP water programme. Based on the binary logistic regression, we found that companies which participated in the survey have boards dominated by the independent directors, no specific environmental committee, and were domiciled in countries which placed greater emphasis on the information needs of the shareholders. We also found the evidence of companies operating in high water intensive industries to be more inclined towards participating in the survey. The findings provide tentative evidence to support the arguments of stakeholder theory.

  14. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  15. Installation and testing of the 112 boards for the front-end electronics.

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Installation and testing of the 112 boards for the front-end electronics. 28 boards are interconnected to a TPC type Readout Controller Unit trought the horizontal bus strips. The blue tubes are for the circulating cooling water.

  16. Operational water management of Rijnland water system and pilot of ensemble forecasting system for flood control

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Rene

    2013-04-01

    The Rijnland water system is situated in the western part of the Netherlands, and is a low-lying area of which 90% is below sea-level. The area covers 1,100 square kilometres, where 1.3 million people live, work, travel and enjoy leisure. The District Water Control Board of Rijnland is responsible for flood defence, water quantity and quality management. This includes design and maintenance of flood defence structures, control of regulating structures for an adequate water level management, and waste water treatment. For water quantity management Rijnland uses, besides an online monitoring network for collecting water level and precipitation data, a real time control decision support system. This decision support system consists of deterministic hydro-meteorological forecasts with a 24-hr forecast horizon, coupled with a control module that provides optimal operation schedules for the storage basin pumping stations. The uncertainty of the rainfall forecast is not forwarded in the hydrological prediction. At this moment 65% of the pumping capacity of the storage basin pumping stations can be automatically controlled by the decision control system. Within 5 years, after renovation of two other pumping stations, the total capacity of 200 m3/s will be automatically controlled. In critical conditions there is a need of both a longer forecast horizon and a probabilistic forecast. Therefore ensemble precipitation forecasts of the ECMWF are already consulted off-line during dry-spells, and Rijnland is running a pilot operational system providing 10-day water level ensemble forecasts. The use of EPS during dry-spells and the findings of the pilot will be presented. Challenges and next steps towards on-line implementation of ensemble forecasts for risk-based operational management of the Rijnland water system will be discussed. An important element in that discussion is the question: will policy and decision makers, operator and citizens adapt this Anticipatory Water

  17. Risk assessment of main control board fire using fire dynamics simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il, E-mail: dikang@kaeri.re.kr [KAERI, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kilyoo; Jang, Seung-Cheol [KAERI, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seong Yeon [Chungnam National University, 79, Daehagro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A decision tree for evaluating the risk of a main control board (MCB) fire was proposed to systematically determine the MCB fire scenarios. • Fire simulations using fire dynamics simulator (FDS) were performed to estimate the time to MCR abandonment. • Non-propagating and propagating fire scenarios were considered for fire simulations. • The current study indicates that the quantification of the MCB fire risk should address the propagating fire and non-propagating fire scenarios if the MCB has no internal barriers between the panels. - Abstract: This paper presents the process and results of a risk assessment for a main control board (MCB) fire using fire dynamics simulator (FDS). A decision tree for evaluating the risk of a MCB fire was proposed to systematically determine the MCB fire scenarios, and fire simulations using FDS were performed to estimate the time to MCR abandonment. As a reference NPP for this study, Hanul unit 3 in Korea was selected and its core damage frequency (CDF) owing to the MCB fire was quantified. Two types of fire scenarios were considered for fire simulations: non-propagating fire scenarios occurring within a single MCB panel and propagating fire scenarios spreading from one control panel to the adjacent panels. Further, the fire scenarios were classified into fires with and without a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (HVACS). The fire simulation results showed that the major factor causing the MCR evacuation was the optical density irrelevant to the availability of the HVACS. The risk assessment results showed that the abandonment fire scenario risk was less than the non-abandonment fire scenario risk and the propagating fire scenario risk was greater than the non-propagating fire scenario risk.

  18. Risk assessment of main control board fire using fire dynamics simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kilyoo; Jang, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Seong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A decision tree for evaluating the risk of a main control board (MCB) fire was proposed to systematically determine the MCB fire scenarios. • Fire simulations using fire dynamics simulator (FDS) were performed to estimate the time to MCR abandonment. • Non-propagating and propagating fire scenarios were considered for fire simulations. • The current study indicates that the quantification of the MCB fire risk should address the propagating fire and non-propagating fire scenarios if the MCB has no internal barriers between the panels. - Abstract: This paper presents the process and results of a risk assessment for a main control board (MCB) fire using fire dynamics simulator (FDS). A decision tree for evaluating the risk of a MCB fire was proposed to systematically determine the MCB fire scenarios, and fire simulations using FDS were performed to estimate the time to MCR abandonment. As a reference NPP for this study, Hanul unit 3 in Korea was selected and its core damage frequency (CDF) owing to the MCB fire was quantified. Two types of fire scenarios were considered for fire simulations: non-propagating fire scenarios occurring within a single MCB panel and propagating fire scenarios spreading from one control panel to the adjacent panels. Further, the fire scenarios were classified into fires with and without a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (HVACS). The fire simulation results showed that the major factor causing the MCR evacuation was the optical density irrelevant to the availability of the HVACS. The risk assessment results showed that the abandonment fire scenario risk was less than the non-abandonment fire scenario risk and the propagating fire scenario risk was greater than the non-propagating fire scenario risk

  19. Alien invasive species and biological pollution of the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem[Great Lakes Water Quality Board : Report to the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The displacement of important native species in the Great Lakes is a result of an invasion by a succession of non indigenous aquatic species. These invasion also resulted in interference with the proper human water uses and cost billions of dollars. The problem was considered serious enough that the International Joint Commission asked the Great Lakes Water Quality Board in 1999 to review the regulations in place and make recommendations, if necessary, for the implementation of additional measures that could be considered to keep control over the introduction of alien invasive species. Escapes from aquaria, aquaculture, research and educational facilities, canal and diversion water flows, and release of live bait are all sources of this invasion. The effectiveness of alternative technologies to control the invasion was to be examined by the Board. Other efforts taking place to address the situation in the basin are being complemented by the publication of this report. It is considered that the most important source of alien invasive species (AIS) to the Great Lakes is the discharge of ballast water from shipping vessels coming from outside the United States and Canada. A major concern is the role played by vessels reporting no ballast on board (NOBOB) upon entering the basin. A number of recommendations were made concerning: (1) implementation and enforcement of the ballast water discharge standards agreed upon by both countries, (2) the evaluation of the effectiveness of alternative technologies to achieve ballast water discharge standards over the long term, combined with the use of chemical treatment while the evaluation is being performed, (3) the implementation of optimal management practices to control sediments in shipping vessels, (4) modifications to the design of shipping vessels, and (5) the monitoring and contingency plans in the event of a repeat scenario in the future. Composed of an equal number representatives from the United States and Canada, at

  20. On-Board Real-Time Optimization Control for Turbo-Fan Engine Life Extending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiangang; Zhang, Haibo; Miao, Lizhen; Sun, Fengyong

    2017-11-01

    A real-time optimization control method is proposed to extend turbo-fan engine service life. This real-time optimization control is based on an on-board engine mode, which is devised by a MRR-LSSVR (multi-input multi-output recursive reduced least squares support vector regression method). To solve the optimization problem, a FSQP (feasible sequential quadratic programming) algorithm is utilized. The thermal mechanical fatigue is taken into account during the optimization process. Furthermore, to describe the engine life decaying, a thermal mechanical fatigue model of engine acceleration process is established. The optimization objective function not only contains the sub-item which can get fast response of the engine, but also concludes the sub-item of the total mechanical strain range which has positive relationship to engine fatigue life. Finally, the simulations of the conventional optimization control which just consider engine acceleration performance or the proposed optimization method have been conducted. The simulations demonstrate that the time of the two control methods from idle to 99.5 % of the maximum power are equal. However, the engine life using the proposed optimization method could be surprisingly increased by 36.17 % compared with that using conventional optimization control.

  1. EVALUATING IMPLEMENTION OF GOVERNMENTAL PROVISION ON NO. 60 YEAR 2008 FOR GOVERNMENTAL INTERNAL CONTROL IN BOARD OF FINANCE AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL OF SOUTH SULAWESI

    OpenAIRE

    Mediaty

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate Governmental Internal Control System in Board of Finance and Development Control of South Sulawesi. Governmental Internal Control System is a management control of government in achieving purpose of the state with the issuance of Governmental Provision No. 60 year 2008. List of Governmental Internal Control Test consists of five parts in accordance with the Internal Control System elements are: Control Environment, Risk Assessment, Control Activitie...

  2. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.

  3. Development and validation process of the advanced main control board for next Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, M.; Ito, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Imase, M.; Okamoto, H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of main control room improvement is to reduce operator workload and potential human errors by offering a better working environment where operators can maximize their abilities. Japanese pressurized water reactor (PWR) utilities and Mitsubishi group have developed a touch -screen-based main control console (i.e. advanced main control room) the next generation PWRs to further improve the plant operability using a state of the art electronics technology. The advanced main control room consists of an operator console, a supervisor console and large display panels. The functional specifications were evaluated by utility operators using a prototype main control console connected to a plant simulator. (author)

  4. Water chemistry control in HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekita, Kenji; Furusawa, Takayuki; Emori, Koichi; Kuroha, Misao; Hayakawa, Masato; Ohuchi, Hiroshi; Ishii, Taro

    2008-08-01

    A carbon steel is used for the main material for the components and pipings of the pressurized water cooling system etc. that are the reactor cooling system of the HTTR. Water quality is managed by using the hydrazine in the coolant of the water cooling system to prevent corrosion of the components and deoxidize the coolant. Also, regular analysis is carried out for the confirmation of the water quality. The following results were obtained through the water quality analysis. (1) In the pressurized water cooling system, the coolant temperature rises higher due to the heat removal of the primary coolant. So, the ammonia was formed in the thermal decomposition of the hydrazine. The electric conductivity increased, while the concentration of the hydrazine decreased, there was no problem as the plan it. (2) Thermal decomposition of the hydrazine was not occurred in the auxiliary water cooling system and vessel cooling system because of the coolant temperature was low. (3) An indistinct procedure is clarified and procedure of water quality analysis was established in the HTTR. (4) It is assumed that the corrosion of the components in these water cooling system hardly occurred from measurement results of dissolved oxide and chloride ion. Thus, the water quality was managed enough. (author)

  5. Water pressure control device for control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hideyuki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To minimize the fluctuations in the reactor water level upon occurrence of abnormality by inputting the level signal of the reactor to an arithmetic unit for controlling the pressure of control rod drive water to thereby enable effective reactor level control. Constitution: Signal from a flow rate transmitter is inputted into an arithmetic unit to perform constant flow rate control upon normal operation. While on the other hand, if abnormality occurs such as feedwater pump trips, the arithmetic unit is switched from the constant flow rate control to the reactor water level control. Reactor water level signal is inputted into the arithmetic unit and the control valve is most suitably controlled, whereby water is fed from CST to the reactor by way of control rod drive water system to secure the reactor water level if feedwater to the reactor is interrupted by loss of coolants on the feedwater system. Since this enables to minimize the fluctuations in the reactor water level upon abnormality, the reactor water level can be controlled most suitably by the reactor water level signal. (Moriyama, K.)

  6. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  7. Water Assessment as controlled informality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.; Vlist, van der M.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The expectations about the effectiveness of new developed policy instruments are usually very high. In the case of the introduction of Water Assessment in The Netherlands, the ambitious aim of the instrument was to connect the policy domains of spatial planning and water management. The instrument

  8. Sensitivity Analysis on Fire Modeling of Main Control Board Fire Using Fire Dynamics Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, sensitivity analyses for an MCB fire were performed to identify the effects on the MCR forced abandonment time according to the changes of height and number for fire initiation places. Hanul Unit 3 NPP was selected as a reference plant for this study. In this study, sensitivity analyses for an MCB fire were performed to identify the effects on the MCR forced abandonment time according to the changes of height and number of fire initiation places. A main control board (MCB) fire can cause a forced main control room (MCR) abandonment of the operators as well as the function failures or spurious operations of the control and instrumentation-related components. If the MCR cannot be habitable, a safe shutdown from outside the MCR can be achieved and maintained at an alternate shutdown panel independent from the MCR. When the fire modeling for an electrical cabinet such as an MCB was performed, its many input parameters can affect the fire simulation results. This study results showed that the decrease in the height of fire ignition place and the use of single fire ignition place in fire modeling for the propagating fire shortened MCR abandonment time

  9. Sensitivity Analysis on Fire Modeling of Main Control Board Fire Using Fire Dynamics Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, sensitivity analyses for an MCB fire were performed to identify the effects on the MCR forced abandonment time according to the changes of height and number for fire initiation places. Hanul Unit 3 NPP was selected as a reference plant for this study. In this study, sensitivity analyses for an MCB fire were performed to identify the effects on the MCR forced abandonment time according to the changes of height and number of fire initiation places. A main control board (MCB) fire can cause a forced main control room (MCR) abandonment of the operators as well as the function failures or spurious operations of the control and instrumentation-related components. If the MCR cannot be habitable, a safe shutdown from outside the MCR can be achieved and maintained at an alternate shutdown panel independent from the MCR. When the fire modeling for an electrical cabinet such as an MCB was performed, its many input parameters can affect the fire simulation results. This study results showed that the decrease in the height of fire ignition place and the use of single fire ignition place in fire modeling for the propagating fire shortened MCR abandonment time.

  10. Quality control process improvement of flexible printed circuit board by FMEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasaephol, Siwaporn; Chutima, Parames

    2018-02-01

    This research focuses on the quality control process improvement of Flexible Printed Circuit Board (FPCB), centred around model 7-Flex, by using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) method to decrease proportion of defective finished goods that are found at the final inspection process. Due to a number of defective units that were found at the final inspection process, high scraps may be escaped to customers. The problem comes from poor quality control process which is not efficient enough to filter defective products from in-process because there is no In-Process Quality Control (IPQC) or sampling inspection in the process. Therefore, the quality control process has to be improved by setting inspection gates and IPCQs at critical processes in order to filter the defective products. The critical processes are analysed by the FMEA method. IPQC is used for detecting defective products and reducing chances of defective finished goods escaped to the customers. Reducing proportion of defective finished goods also decreases scrap cost because finished goods incur higher scrap cost than work in-process. Moreover, defective products that are found during process can reflect the abnormal processes; therefore, engineers and operators should timely solve the problems. Improved quality control was implemented for 7-Flex production lines from July 2017 to September 2017. The result shows decreasing of the average proportion of defective finished goods and the average of Customer Manufacturers Lot Reject Rate (%LRR of CMs) equal to 4.5% and 4.1% respectively. Furthermore, cost saving of this quality control process equals to 100K Baht.

  11. Implementation of the program of quality control of the system on-board imager of varian: initial assessment; Puesta en marcha del programa de control de calidad del sistema on-board imager de varian: evaluacion inicial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega Martin, I.; Ruiz Morales, C.; Lopez Sanchez, F.; Tobarra Gonzalez, B. M.

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to present evidence that are part of our quality control system on-board Imager of Varian, elaborated from recommendations and national and international protocols, as well as a first assessment of the results obtained to date. (Author)

  12. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  13. Implementation of the program of quality control of the system on-board imager of varian: initial assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Martin, I.; Ruiz Morales, C.; Lopez Sanchez, F.; Tobarra Gonzalez, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to present evidence that are part of our quality control system on-board Imager of Varian, elaborated from recommendations and national and international protocols, as well as a first assessment of the results obtained to date. (Author)

  14. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities Actively Correct Abnormal Standing Posture with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board through Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chu, Chiung-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board…

  15. MPC control of water supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunsgaard, Kenneth Marx Hoe; Ravn, Ole; Kallesoe, Carsten Skovmose

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the modelling and predictive control of a drinking water supply network with the aim of minimising the energy and economic cost. A model predictive controller, MPC, is applied to a nonlinear model of a drinking water network that follows certain constraints to maintain......, controlling the drinking water supply network with the MPC showed reduction of the energy and the economic cost of running the system. This has been achieved by minimising actuator control effort and by shifting the actuator use towards the night time, where energy prices are lower. Along with energy cost...... consumer pressure desire. A model predictive controller, MPC, is based on a simple model that models the main characteristics of a water distribution network, optimizes a desired cost minimisation, and keeps the system inside specified constraints. In comparison to a logic (on/off) control design...

  16. XMOS XC-2 Development Board for Mechanical Control and Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnot, Robert F.; Bowden, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The scanning microwave limb sounder (SMLS) will use technological improvements in low-noise mixers to provide precise data on the Earth s atmospheric composition with high spatial resolution. This project focuses on the design and implementation of a realtime control system needed for airborne engineering tests of the SMLS. The system must coordinate the actuation of optical components using four motors with encoder readback, while collecting synchronized telemetric data from a GPS receiver and 3-axis gyrometric system. A graphical user interface for testing the control system was also designed using Python. Although the system could have been implemented with an FPGA(fieldprogrammable gate array)-based setup, a processor development kit manufactured by XMOS was chosen. The XMOS architecture allows parallel execution of multiple tasks on separate threads, making it ideal for this application. It is easily programmed using XC (a subset of C). The necessary communication interfaces were implemented in software, including Ethernet, with significant cost and time reduction compared to an FPGA-based approach. A simple approach to control the chopper, calibration mirror, and gimbal for the airborne SMLS was needed. The XMOS board allows for multiple threads and real-time data acquisition. The XC-2 development kit is an attractive choice for synchronized, real-time, event-driven applications. The XMOS is based on the transputer microprocessor architecture developed for parallel computing, which is being revamped in this new platform. The XMOS device has multiple cores capable of running parallel applications on separate threads. The threads communicate with each other via user-defined channels capable of transmitting data within the device. XMOS provides a C-based development environment using XC, which eliminates the need for custom tool kits associated with FPGA programming. The XC-2 has four cores and necessary hardware for Ethernet I/O.

  17. Conceptual design of the X-IFU Instrument Control Unit on board the ESA Athena mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcione, L.; Ligori, S.; Capobianco, V.; Bonino, D.; Valenziano, L.; Guizzo, G. P.

    2016-07-01

    Athena is one of L-class missions selected in the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program for the science theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. The Athena model payload includes the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), an advanced actively shielded X-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer for high spectral resolution imaging, utilizing cooled Transition Edge Sensors. This paper describes the preliminary architecture of Instrument Control Unit (ICU), which is aimed at operating all XIFU's subsystems, as well as at implementing the main functional interfaces of the instrument with the S/C control unit. The ICU functions include the TC/TM management with S/C, science data formatting and transmission to S/C Mass Memory, housekeeping data handling, time distribution for synchronous operations and the management of the X-IFU components (i.e. CryoCoolers, Filter Wheel, Detector Readout Electronics Event Processor, Power Distribution Unit). ICU functions baseline implementation for the phase-A study foresees the usage of standard and Space-qualified components from the heritage of past and current space missions (e.g. Gaia, Euclid), which currently encompasses Leon2/Leon3 based CPU board and standard Space-qualified interfaces for the exchange commands and data between ICU and X-IFU subsystems. Alternative architecture, arranged around a powerful PowerPC-based CPU, is also briefly presented, with the aim of endowing the system with enhanced hardware resources and processing power capability, for the handling of control and science data processing tasks not defined yet at this stage of the mission study.

  18. Test and commissioning of the CARLOS control boards for the ALICE Silicon Drift Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, Bruno; Beolè, S; Coli, S; Costa, F; De Remigis, P; Falchieri, Davide; Gandolfi, Enzo; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Kral, J F; Masetti, Massimo; Mazza, G; Rashevsky, A; Riccati, Lodovico; Rivetti, A; Senyukov, S; Toscano, Letterio; Tosello, F; Wheadon, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the test strategy employed during the installation of the CARLOS end ladder boards developed for the Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) of ALICE. Each CARLOS board compresses the data provided by the front-end electronics of one SDD and sends them via an optical link of 800 Mbit/s to the data concentrator card (CARLOSrx) located in the counting room. The paper describes the integration of the CARLOS boards in the final SDD system, including its cooling and mechanical support, the power supply distribution and the optical interconnections. The results of the tests performed after each step of the installation sequence are reported.

  19. Biological control component [Management of water hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, K.L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Both chemical and biological control have been used with limited success for the management of water hyacinth in Fiji. In some cases heavy application of chemicals have been successful in completely killing limited areas of water hyacinth, but have resulted in the destruction of biological agents introduced to control the water hyacinth and high contamination of natural water supplies. It is proposed that under the direction of Mr S R Singh, the Senior Research Scientist (Entomology) of the Koronivia Research Station, Suva, Fiji, a collaborative programme with Dr Harley of Australia on chemical and biological control of water hyacinth be initiated. This programme would be fundamentally short-term with the prime objective being an investigation of levels of insect population following varying levels of application of chemical sprays. By comparison with control areas, observations would be made of both chemical damage and insect damage within the limited time span of the period

  20. Storm Water Control Management & Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Temple and Villanova universities collected monitoring and assessment data along the I-95 corridor to evaluate the performance of current stormwater control design and maintenance practices. An extensive inventory was developed that ranks plants in t...

  1. ONBORD (On-Board Navigation of Ballistic ORDnance): Gun-Launched Munitions Flight Controller

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... The electronics consist of a single 1.4-inch printed circuit board that includes the Texas Instruments TMS320F2812 digital signal processor whose microcontroller-like capabilities reduce the amount of peripheral circuitry necessary...

  2. Development of an ATCA IPMI controller mezzanine board to be used in the ATCA developments for the ATLAS Liquid Argon upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Letendre, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the LHC upgrade, we develop a new Read Out Driver (ROD) for the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) community. ATCA and μTCA (Advanced/Micro Telecom Computing Architecture) is becoming a standard in high energy physics and a strong candidate to be used for boards and crates. We work to master ATCA and to integrate a large number of high speed links (96 links at 8.5 Gbps) on a ROD evaluation ATCA board. A versatile ATCA IPMI controller for ATCA boards which is FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) compliant has been developed to control the ROD evaluation board.

  3. Water-controlled wealth of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-03-12

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations on the basis of calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-term sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water-rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects through (i) cooperative interactions among nations whereby water-rich countries maintain a tiny fraction of their food production available for export, (ii) changes in consumption patterns, and (iii) a positive feedback between demographic growth and technological innovations. We find that these strategies may indeed reduce the vulnerability of water-controlled societies.

  4. On board short-time high temperature heat treatment of ballast water: a field trial under operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilez-Badia, Gemma; McCollin, Tracy; Josefsen, Kjell D; Vourdachas, Anthony; Gill, Margaret E; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Frid, Chris L J

    2008-01-01

    A ballast water short-time high temperature heat treatment technique was applied on board a car-carrier during a voyage from Egypt to Belgium. Ballast water from three tanks was subjected for a few seconds to temperatures ranging from 55 degrees C to 80 degrees C. The water was heated using the vessel's heat exchanger steam and a second heat exchanger was used to pre-heat and cool down the water. The treatment was effective at causing mortality of bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) standard was not agreed before this study was carried out, but comparing our results gives a broad indication that the IMO standard would have been met in some of the tests for the zooplankton, in all the tests for the phytoplankton; and probably on most occasions for the bacteria. Passing the water through the pump increased the kill rate but increasing the temperature above 55 degrees C did not improve the heat treatment's efficacy.

  5. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  6. Water quality control program in experimental circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cegalla, Miriam A.

    1996-01-01

    The Water Quality Control Program of the Experimental Circuits visualizes studying the water chemistry of the cooling in the primary and secondary circuits, monitoring the corrosion of the systems and studying the mechanism of the corrosion products transport in the systems. (author)

  7. Magnetic compatibility of standard components for electrical installations: Computation of the background field and consequences on the design of the electrical distribution boards and control boards for the ITER Tokamak building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benfatto, I.; Bettini, P.; Cavinato, M.; Lorenzi, A. De; Hourtoule, J.; Serra, E.

    2005-01-01

    Inside the proposed Tokamak building, the ITER poloidal field magnet system would produce a stray magnetic field up to 70 mT. This is a very unusual environmental condition for electrical installation equipment and limited information is available on the magnetic compatibility of standard components for electrical distribution boards and control boards. Because this information is a necessary input for the design of the electrical installation inside the proposed ITER Tokamak building specific investigations have been carried out by the ITER European Participant Team. The paper reports on the computation of the background magnetic field map inside the ITER Tokamak building and the consequences on the design of the electrical installations of this building. The effects of the steel inside the building structure and the feasibility of magnetic shields for electrical distribution boards and control boards are also reported in the paper. The results of the test campaigns on the magnetic field compatibility of standard components for electrical distribution boards and control boards are reported in companion papers published in these proceedings

  8. An active balance board system with real-time control of stiffness and time-delay to assess mechanisms of postural stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruise, Denise R; Chagdes, James R; Liddy, Joshua J; Rietdyk, Shirley; Haddad, Jeffrey M; Zelaznik, Howard N; Raman, Arvind

    2017-07-26

    Increased time-delay in the neuromuscular system caused by neurological disorders, concussions, or advancing age is an important factor contributing to balance loss (Chagdes et al., 2013, 2016a,b). We present the design and fabrication of an active balance board system that allows for a systematic study of stiffness and time-delay induced instabilities in standing posture. Although current commercial balance boards allow for variable stiffness, they do not allow for manipulation of time-delay. Having two controllable parameters can more accurately determine the cause of balance deficiencies, and allows us to induce instabilities even in healthy populations. An inverted pendulum model of human posture on such an active balance board predicts that reduced board rotational stiffness destabilizes upright posture through board tipping, and limit cycle oscillations about the upright position emerge as feedback time-delay is increased. We validate these two mechanisms of instability on the designed balance board, showing that rotational stiffness and board time-delay induced the predicted postural instabilities in healthy, young adults. Although current commercial balance boards utilize control of rotational stiffness, real-time control of both stiffness and time-delay on an active balance board is a novel and innovative manipulation to reveal balance deficiencies and potentially improve individualized balance training by targeting multiple dimensions contributing to standing balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Return to Galileo? The Inquisition of the International Narcotic Control Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2008-05-07

    Nearly 400 years after Galileo Galilei of Florence was arraigned and convicted of suspected heresy by the ten member Congregation of the Holy Office (Inquisition), the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB) is similarly inserting itself into matters pertaining to innovations in healthcare and the public health response to addiction throughout the world. Like that earlier Inquisition of 1633 that convicted Galileo of heresy for holding that the sun is the centre of the universe with the earth revolving around it (in contradiction to church doctrine of the time) the INCB and its thirteen-member panel, now rails against any evidence out of sync with the established doctrine of the war on drugs--particularly those innovations in public health called harm reduction. The latest healthcare and harm reduction practices to attract the ire of the INCB Inquisition are elements of Canada's most effective and innovative measures to minimize the harms of drugs in Vancouver--supervised injection facilities and, recently, the potential establishment of supervised inhalation rooms--along with the long established practice of providing safer mouthpieces for pulmonary inhalation in British Columbia. This is particularly significant as it comes in the midst of a crucial battle between municipal and provincial authorities in BC with the federal government in Ottawa, which seems determined to undermine all the most effective HR programs that are the result of years of steady local and governmental support in Vancouver and now threatens to derail all these programs and spread doubt about their usefulness despite the overwhelmingly positive findings of serous research.

  10. Return to Galileo? The Inquisition of the International Narcotic Control Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nearly 400 years after Galileo Galilei of Florence was arraigned and convicted of suspected heresy by the ten member Congregation of the Holy Office (Inquisition, the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB is similarly inserting itself into matters pertaining to innovations in healthcare and the public health response to addiction throughout the world. Like that earlier Inquisition of 1633 that convicted Galileo of heresy for holding that the sun is the centre of the universe with the earth revolving around it (in contradiction to church doctrine of the time the INCB and its thirteen-member panel, now rails against any evidence out of sync with the established doctrine of the war on drugs – particularly those innovations in public health called harm reduction. The latest healthcare and harm reduction practices to attract the ire of the INCB Inquisition are elements of Canada's most effective and innovative measures to minimize the harms of drugs in Vancouver – supervised injection facilities and, recently, the potential establishment of supervised inhalation rooms – along with the long established practice of providing safer mouthpieces for pulmonary inhalation in British Columbia. This is particularly significant as it comes in the midst of a crucial battle between municipal and provincial authorities in BC with the federal government in Ottawa, which seems determined to undermine all the most effective HR programs that are the result of years of steady local and governmental support in Vancouver and now threatens to derail all these programs and spread doubt about their usefulness despite the overwhelmingly positive findings of serous research.

  11. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  12. Feed water control device in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Tetsuro.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent substantial fluctuations of the water level in a nuclear reactor and always keep a constant standard level under any operation condition. Constitution: When the causes for fluctuating the reactor water level is resulted, a certain amount of correction signal is added to a level deviation signal for the difference between the reactor standard level and the actual reactor water level to control the flow rate of the feed water pump depending on the addition signal. If reactor scram should occur, for instance, a level correction signal changing stepwise depending on a scram signal is outputted and added to the level deviation signal. As the result, the flow rate of feed water sent into the reactor just after the scram is increased, whereby the lowering in the reactor water level upon scram can be decreased as compared with the case where no such level compensation signal is inputted. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. An interface board for developing control loops in power electronics based on microcontrollers and DSPs Cores -Arduino /ChipKit /dsPIC /DSP /TI Piccolo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    and development environment. Moreover, the interface board can operate with open hardware Arduino-like boards such as the ChipKit Uno32. The paper also describes how to enhance the performance of a ChipKit Uno32 with a dsPIC obtaining a more suitable solution for power electronics. The basic blocks and interfaces...... of the boards are presented in detail as well as the board main specifications. The board operation has been tested with three core platforms: TI Piccolo controlSTICK, a Microchip dsPIC and a ChipKit Uno32 (Arduino-like platform). The board was used for generating test signals for characterizing 1200 V Si...

  14. A New Standing Posture Detector to Enable People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation by Changing Their Standing Posture through a Commercial Wii Balance Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture) and a Wii Balance Board with a newly developed standing posture detection program (i.e. a new software program turns a Wii Balance Board into a precise standing posture detector). The…

  15. The Disproportionate Erosion of Local Control: Urban School Boards, High-Stakes Accountability, and Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Tina M.

    2013-01-01

    This case study of an urban school board's experiences under high-stakes accountability demonstrates how the district leaders eschewed democratic governance processes in favor of autocratic behaviors. They possessed narrowly defined goals for teaching and learning that emphasized competitive, individualized means of achievement. Their decision…

  16. Strategy for Migration of Traditional to Hybrid Control Boards in a Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ulrich, Thomas Anthony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This strategy document describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of new digital control room elements in a legacy analog main control room (MCR). Information from previous planning and analysis work serves as the foundation for creating a human-machine interface (HMI) specification for distributed control systems (DCSs) to be implemented as part of nuclear power plant (NPP) modernization. This document reviews ways to take the HMSI specification and use it when migrating legacy displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then an integrated system validation (ISV) in the full-scope control room training simulator. Following successful demonstration of operator performance using the systems during the ISV, the new DCS is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the MCR. This document concludes with a sample project plan, including a 15-month timeline from DCS design through implementation. Included is a discussion of how the U.S. Department of Energy’s Human System Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) can be used to support design and V&V activities. This report completes a Level 4 (M4) milestone under the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program.

  17. A Dual Digital Signal Processor VME Board for Instrumentation and Control Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Dong; R. Flood; C. Hovater; J. Musson

    2001-01-01

    A Dual Digital Signal Processing VME Board is being developed for the CEBAF Beam Current Monitor system at Jefferson Lab. It is a versatile general-purpose digital signal processing board using an open architecture, which allows for adaptation to various applications. The base design uses two independent Texas Instrument (TI) TMS320C6711, which are 900 MFLOPS floating-point digital signal processors (DSP). Applications that require a fixed point DSP can be implemented by replacing the baseline DSP with the pin-for-pin compatible TMS320C6211. Both parallel and serial protocols have been implemented for communicating with off board devices. The initial implementation makes use of TI Multi-channel Serial protocol and VME bus protocol. Other communication protocols can be implemented by reprogramming the FPGA. Each DSP is equipped with FLASH PROM and SDRAM for program and data storage. Additionally, each DSP has 16 bits of digital I/O, two digital analog converters, and two analog to digital converters. Dual 160 pins mezzanine connectors provide expansion capability without design modifications. The mezzanine interface conforms to the TI Expansion Daughter Card Interface standard. The design can be manufactured with a reduced chip set without redesigning the printed circuit board. For example, it can be implemented as a single-channel DSP with no analog I/O. The board supports JTAG 1149 boundary scan to facilitate testing, debugging, and programming. It is fully programmable using software development tools such as TI Code Composer Studio and a JTAG emulator such as Spectrum Digital DS510PP-PLUS. Using these tools allows one program the flash memory and FPGA through the JTAG ports, thus eliminating the need for a separate ROM/FPGA programmer. This work supported by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER40150

  18. 78 FR 17643 - Greater Mississippi River Basin Water Management Board; Engineer Regulation No. 15-2-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... reorganized its command and control structure. This regulation revision reflects the current organizational structure and is aligned with water management activities during recent flood and drought events in the... inter- divisional coordination of water management activities within the Greater Mississippi River Basin...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging used for the evaluation of water presence in wood plastic composite boards exposed to exterior conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek Gnatowski; Rebecca Ibach; Mathew Leung; Grace Sun

    2014-01-01

    Two wood plastic composite (WPC) boards, one experimental and one commercial, were exposed to exterior conditions and evaluated non-destructively using a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit for moisture content (MC) and distribution. The experimental board was exposed in Vancouver, British Columbia, for more than 8 years, and the commercial board was exposed...

  20. Dosimetric control on board the MIR space station during the solar proton events of September-October 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benghin, V.V.; Petrov, V.M.; Chernykh, I.V.; Teltsov, M.V.; Shumshurov, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    A set of dosimetric units for the control of radiation doses to cosmonauts on board the MIR space station contains an active dosimeter R-16 and a personal display dosimeter IPD-2. During the powerful solar proton events (SPE) in September-October 1989, the readings of these devices were used for the control of the crew's radiation damage. Results of the dose measurements and analysis of the dynamics caused by some heliogeophysical factors are given. It is shown that the total doses from SPE registered by the dosimeters R-16 and IPD-2 were 3.6 x 10 -2 and 0.9 x 10 -2 Gy, respectively. (author)

  1. Description of how the Atomic Energy Control Board research and development program is administered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The Regulatory Research Program should be seen as augmenting and extending the capability of in-house resources. The overall objective of the research program is to produce pertinent and independent information that will assist the Board and its staff in making correct, timely and credible decisions on regulating atomic energy. Within the framework of the general objective, the specific objectives are: (i) to verify information, claims or analyses from licensees in support of licensing actions; (ii) to fill gaps in knowledge to enable the Board to contribute to the establishment of health and safety requirements or guidelines or to aid in arriving at licensing decisions; (iii) to stimulate licensees to do more work on certain topics relating to health, safety or security; (iv) to develop information on the regulatory process and the evaluation of the regulatory process; (v) to develop equipment or procedures to enhance health, safety or security in those cases where the industry is not competent or inclined to do so; and (vi) to enhance the competence of the Board and its credibility in the eyes of licensees and the public

  2. Notification: FY 2017 Update of Proposed Key Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses Confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan 5, 2017. The EPA OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2017 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  3. Recovery of copper and lead from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical water oxidation combined with electrokinetic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu Furong; Zhang Fushen

    2009-01-01

    An effective and benign process for copper and lead recovery from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) was developed. In the process, the PCBs was pre-treated in supercritical water, then subjected to electrokinetic (EK) process. Experimental results showed that supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process was strong enough to decompose the organic compounds of PCBs, and XRD spectra indicated that copper and lead were oxidized into CuO, Cu 2 O and β-PbO 2 in the process. The optimum SCWO treatment conditions were 60 min, 713 K, 30 MPa, and EK treatment time, constant current density were 11 h, 20 mA cm -2 , respectively. The recovery percentages of copper and lead under optimum SCWO + EK treatment conditions were around 84.2% and 89.4%, respectively. In the optimized EK treatment, 74% of Cu was recovered as a deposit on the cathode with a purity of 97.6%, while Pb was recovered as concentrated solutions in either anode (23.1%) or cathode (66.3%) compartments but little was deposited on the electrodes. It is believed that the process is effective and practical for Cu and Pb recovery from waste electric and electronic equipments.

  4. Water Pollution Control Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)

  5. Public Information for Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

  6. On fuzzy control of water desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titli, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Jamshidi, M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olafsson, F. [Institute of Technology, Norway (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    In this report we have chosen a sub-system of an MSF water desalination plant, the brine heater, for analysis, synthesis, and simulation. This system has been modelled and implemented on computer. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the top brine temperature control loop has been designed and implemented on the computer. The performance of the proposed FLC is compared with three other conventional control strategies: PID, cascade and disturbance rejection control. One major concern on FLC`s has been the lack of stability criteria. An up to-date survey of stability of fuzzy control systems is given. We have shown stability of the proposed FLC using the Sinusoidal Input Describing Functions (SIDF) method. The potential applications of fuzzy controllers for complex and large-scale systems through hierarchy of rule sets and hybridization with conventional approaches are also investigated. (authors)

  7. On fuzzy control of water desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titli, A [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Jamshidi, M [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olafsson, F [Institute of Technology, Norway (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    In this report we have chosen a sub-system of an MSF water desalination plant, the brine heater, for analysis, synthesis, and simulation. This system has been modelled and implemented on computer. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the top brine temperature control loop has been designed and implemented on the computer. The performance of the proposed FLC is compared with three other conventional control strategies: PID, cascade and disturbance rejection control. One major concern on FLC`s has been the lack of stability criteria. An up to-date survey of stability of fuzzy control systems is given. We have shown stability of the proposed FLC using the Sinusoidal Input Describing Functions (SIDF) method. The potential applications of fuzzy controllers for complex and large-scale systems through hierarchy of rule sets and hybridization with conventional approaches are also investigated. (authors)

  8. An Improved PID Algorithm Based on Insulin-on-Board Estimate for Blood Glucose Control with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruiqiang; Li, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Automated closed-loop insulin infusion therapy has been studied for many years. In closed-loop system, the control algorithm is the key technique of precise insulin infusion. The control algorithm needs to be designed and validated. In this paper, an improved PID algorithm based on insulin-on-board estimate is proposed and computer simulations are done using a combinational mathematical model of the dynamics of blood glucose-insulin regulation in the blood system. The simulation results demonstrate that the improved PID algorithm can perform well in different carbohydrate ingestion and different insulin sensitivity situations. Compared with the traditional PID algorithm, the control performance is improved obviously and hypoglycemia can be avoided. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm, in silico testing is done using the UVa/Padova virtual patient software.

  9. Radio-controlled boat for measuring water velocities and bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Andrej; Bezak, Nejc; Sečnik, Matej

    2016-04-01

    Radio-controlled boat named "Hi3" was designed and developed in order to facilitate water velocity and bathymetry measurements. The boat is equipped with the SonTek RiverSurveyor M9 instrument that is designed for measuring open channel hydraulics (discharge and bathymetry). Usually channel cross sections measurements are performed either from a bridge or from a vessel. However, these approaches have some limitations such as performing bathymetry measurements close to the hydropower plant turbine or downstream from a hydropower plant gate where bathymetry changes are often the most extreme. Therefore, the radio-controlled boat was designed, built and tested in order overcome these limitations. The boat is made from a surf board and two additional small balance support floats. Additional floats are used to improve stability in fast flowing and turbulent parts of rivers. The boat is powered by two electric motors, steering is achieved with changing the power applied to left and right motor. Furthermore, remotely controlled boat "Hi3" can be powered in two ways, either by a gasoline electric generator or by lithium batteries. Lithium batteries are lighter, quieter, but they operation time is shorter compared to an electrical generator. With the radio-controlled boat "Hi3" we can perform measurements in potentially dangerous areas such as under the lock gates at hydroelectric power plant or near the turbine outflow. Until today, the boat "Hi3" has driven more than 200 km in lakes and rivers, performing various water speed and bathymetry measurements. Moreover, in future development the boat "Hi3" will be upgraded in order to be able to perform measurements automatically. The future plans are to develop and implement the autopilot. With this approach the user will define the route that has to be driven by the boat and the boat will drive the pre-defined route automatically. This will be possible because of the very accurate differential GPS from the Sontek River

  10. Separation control with fluidic oscillators in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H.-J.; Woszidlo, R.; Nayeri, C. N.; Paschereit, C. O.

    2017-08-01

    The present study assesses the applicability of fluidic oscillators for separation control in water. The first part of this work evaluates the properties of the fluidic oscillators including frequency, cavitation effects, and exerted thrust. Derived from the governing internal dynamics, the oscillation frequency is found to scale directly with the jet's exit velocity and the size of the fluidic oscillator independent of the working fluid. Frequency data from various experiments collapse onto a single curve. The occurrence of cavitation is examined by visual inspection and hydrophone measurements. The oscillation frequency is not affected by cavitation because it does not occur inside the oscillators. The spectral information obtained with the hydrophone provide a reliable indicator for the onset of cavitation at the exit. The performance of the fluidic oscillators for separation control on a bluff body does not seem to be affected by the presence of cavitation. The thrust exerted by an array of fluidic oscillators with water as the working fluid is measured to be even larger than theoretically estimated values. The second part of the presented work compares the performance of fluidic oscillators for separation control in water with previous results in air. The array of fluidic oscillators is installed into the rear end of a bluff body model. The drag improvements based on force balance measurements agree well with previous wind tunnel experiments on the same model. The flow field is examined by pressure measurements and with particle image velocimetry. Similar performance and flow field characteristics are observed in both water and air.

  11. Reproducibility and validity of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board for measuring shoulder sensorimotor control in prone lying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshøj, Henrik; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Gam Bender Jørgensen, René

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: For the lower limbs, the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (NWBB) has been widely used to measure postural control. However, this has not been performed for upper limb measurements. Further, the NWBB has shown to produce more background noise with decreasing loads, which may be of concern...... when used for upper limb testing. The aim was to investigate reproducibility and validity of the NWBB. METHODS: A test-retest design was performed with 68 subjects completing three different prone lying, upper limb weight-bearing balance tasks on a NWBB: two-arms, eyes closed (1) one-arm, non...

  12. [A study on comparison of learning effects between a board game and a lecture about infection control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hitomi; Kishimoto, Keiko; Matsuda, Toshiyuki; Fukushima, Noriko

    2014-01-01

      In order to provide an opportunity for community pharmacists to actively learn about infection control, this study created learning materials through a board game format and verified characteristics of learning by determining and comparing evaluation according to viewpoint and motivational effects between a lecture and the game. To create the board game, we collected cases of infection from 30 community pharmacists. The game was created using collected and created case studies, and we held a workshop on infection control. Participants were assigned to a lecture (n=32) or game group (n=27) and completed a questionnaire before and after the workshop. The questionnaire included the evaluation according to viewpoint based on the ministry's curriculum guidelines and the motivational effect of Keller's ARCS motivation model. In the evaluation according to viewpoint, the lecture group scores were significantly higher on "knowledge and understanding" than the game group scores. In the comparison of the motivational effects, the game group was significantly higher in three out of the four items of the ARCS motivation model, "Attention", "Relevance", and "Satisfaction". These results indicate that learning through the game aroused the curiosity of the learners, increased the learning outcome, and maintained certain levels of motivation. In addition, the evaluation according to viewpoint showed that the lecture group understood the key concepts and knowledge regarding infection control, whereas there was a possibility that the game group required additional motivational factors for learning and maintaining motivation level.

  13. Design of a one-chip board microcontrol unit for active vibration control of a naval ship mounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok; Han, Young-Min; Nguyen, Vien-Quoc; Moon, Seok-Jun

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an experimental implementation of a user-tunable one-chip board microcontrol unit which is specifically designed for vibration control of the active mounting system for naval ships. The proposed mounting system consists of four active mounts supporting vibration-sensitive equipment. Each active mount constitutes a rubber element, an inertial mass and the piezostack actuator. It is designed for particular applications that require effective isolation performance against wide frequency ranges, such as naval ship equipment. After describing the configuration of the active mount, dynamic characteristics of the rubber element and the piezostack actuator are experimentally identified. Accordingly, the proposed mounting system is constructed and the governing equations of motion are formulated. In order to attenuate the unwanted vibrations transferred from the upper mass, a feedforward controller with fast Fourier algorithm is designed and experimentally realized using the one-chip microcontrol board which is specially made for this practical application. In order to evaluate the performance of the one-chip microcontrol unit, vibration control results of the proposed active mounting system are presented in the frequency domain. (technical note)

  14. Board of Directors or Supervisory Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the legal consequences of the choice now available to Danish public limited companies, which can now opt for a two-tier management structure, in which the management board undertakes both the day-to-day and the overall management, while a supervisory board exercises control...... over the management board, including its appointment and dismissal. The article considers which companies a two-tier structure may be relevant for, and reviews the consequences for the composition, election and functioning of the company organs....

  15. Development of an ATCA IPMI controller mezzanine board to be used in the ATCA developments for the ATLAS Liquid Argon upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont Dayot, N

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the LHC upgrades, a new Read-Out Driver (ROD) board for the ATLAS LAr calorimeter is being developed. xTCA (Advanced/Micro Telecom Computing Architecture) is becoming a standard in high energy physics and is a serious candidate for future readout systems. We will present our current developments to master ATCA and to integrate a large number of very high speed links (96 links/8.5 Gbps) on a ROD Evaluator ATCA board. To manage our ROD Evaluator, we have developed a versatile ATCA IPMI controller for ATCA boards which is FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) compliant.

  16. Development of an ATCA IPMI Controller Mezzanine Board to be used in the ATCA developments for the ATLAS Liquid Argon upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    "LETENDRE, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the LHC upgrades, a new Read-Out Driver (ROD) board for the ATLAS LAr calorimeter is being developed. xTCA (Advanced/Micro Telecom Computing Architecture) is becoming a standard in high energy physics and is a serious candidate for future readout systems. We will present our current developments to master ATCA and to integrate a large number of very high speed links (96 links/8.5 Gbps) on a ROD Evaluator ATCA board. To manage our ROD Evaluator, we have developed a versatile ATCA IPMI controller for ATCA boards which is FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) compliant.

  17. Corrosion control for open cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karweer, S.B.; Ramchandran, R.

    2000-01-01

    Frequent stoppage of water circulation due to shut down of the Detritiation Plant in Heavy Water Division, Trombay resulted in considerable algae growth. As polyphosphate is a nutrient to algae growth, studies were directed in the evaluation of a nonpolyphosphate formulation for controlling corrosion and scale formation of carbon-steel, copper and aluminium. A blend of HEDP, polyacrylate, zinc, and benzotriazole was used and the optimum condition was determined. In presence of 25 ppm kw-1002 [proprietary formulation, containing HEDP and polyacrylate], 10 ppm kw-201 [active ingredient benzotriazole] and 2 ppm zinc (as zinc sulphate), the corrosion rate of carbon-steel in Mumbai Municipal Corporation (MMC) water at pH 7.5 ± 0.1 for a period of 31 days was 10.4 x 10 -3 μm/h. When MMC water concentrated to half its original volume was used, the corrosion rate was still 9.74 x 10 -3 μm/h close to the original value without concentration. Hence, this formulation was used for controlling scale and corrosion. The results were satisfactory. (author)

  18. Deposit control in process cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to achieve efficient heat transfer in cooling water systems, it is essential to control the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Solubilities of scale forming salts, their growth into crystals, and the nature of the surfaces play important roles in the deposition phenomenon. Condensed phosphates, organic polymers and compounds like phosphates are effective in controlling deposition of scale forming salts. The surface active agents inhibit crystal growth and modify the crystals of the scale forming salts, and thus prevent deposition of dense, uniformly structured crystalline mass on the heat transfer surface. Understanding the mechanism of biofouling is essential to control it by surface active agents. Certain measures taken in the plant, such as back flushing, to control scaling, sometimes may not be effective and can be detrimental to the system itself. (author)

  19. Optimal replacement and inspection periods of safety and control boards in Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Jin Il

    1993-02-01

    In nuclear power plants, the safety and control systems are important for operating and maintaining safety of nuclear power plants. Due to the failure of the instrument and control devices of nuclear power plants caused by aging, nuclear power plants occasionally trip. Since the start of first commercial operation of Kori nuclear power plant (NPP) unit 1, the trips caused by instrument and control systems account for 28% of total trips of NPPs in Korea. Even a single trip of a nuclear power plant causes an extravagant economical loss and deteriorates public acceptance of nuclear power plants. Therefore, the replacement of the instrument and control devices with proper consideration of the aging effect is necessary in order to prevent the inadvertent trip. In this work we investigated the optimal replacement periods of the digital control computer's (DCC) and the programmable digital comparator's (PDC) electronic circuit boards of Wolsung nuclear power plant Unit 1. We first derived mathematical models which calculate optimal replacement periods for electronic circuit boards of digital control computer (DCC) and for those of the programmable digital comparator (PDC) in Wolsung NPP unit 1. And we analytically obtained the optimal replacement periods of electronic circuit boards by using these models. We compared these periods with the replacement periods currently used at Wolsung NPP Unit. The periods used at Wolsung is not based on mathematical analysis, but on empirical knowledge. As a consequence, the optimal replacement periods analytically obtained for the electronic circuit boards of DCC and those used in the field shown small difference : the optimal replacement periods analytically obtained for the electronic circuit boards of PDC are shorter than those used in the field in general. The engineered safeguards of Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1 contains redundant systems of 2-out-of-3 logic which are not operating under normal conditions but they are called

  20. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  1. Control of water chemistry in operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.

    1997-01-01

    Water chemistry plays a major role in fuel cladding corrosion and hydriding. Although a full understanding of all mechanisms involved in cladding corrosion does not exist, controlling the water chemistry has achieved quite some progress in recent years. As an example, in PWRs the activity transport is controlled by operating the coolant under higher pH-values (i.e. the ''modified'' B/Li-Chemistry). On the other hand, the lithium concentration is limited to a maximum value of 2 ppm in order to avoid an acceleration of the fuel cladding corrosion. In BWR plants, for example, the industry has learned on how to limit the copper concentration in the feedwater in order to limit CILC (Copper Induced Localized Corrosion) on the fuel cladding. However, economic pressures are leading to more rigorous operating conditions in power reactors. Fuel burnups are to be increased, higher efficiencies are to be achieved, by running at higher temperatures, plant lifetimes are to be extended. In summary, this paper will describe the state of the art in controlling water chemistry in operating reactors and it will give an outlook on potential problems that will arise when going to more severe operating conditions. (author). 3 figs, 6 tabs

  2. Control of water chemistry in operating reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riess, R [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Water chemistry plays a major role in fuel cladding corrosion and hydriding. Although a full understanding of all mechanisms involved in cladding corrosion does not exist, controlling the water chemistry has achieved quite some progress in recent years. As an example, in PWRs the activity transport is controlled by operating the coolant under higher pH-values (i.e. the ``modified`` B/Li-Chemistry). On the other hand, the lithium concentration is limited to a maximum value of 2 ppm in order to avoid an acceleration of the fuel cladding corrosion. In BWR plants, for example, the industry has learned on how to limit the copper concentration in the feedwater in order to limit CILC (Copper Induced Localized Corrosion) on the fuel cladding. However, economic pressures are leading to more rigorous operating conditions in power reactors. Fuel burnups are to be increased, higher efficiencies are to be achieved, by running at higher temperatures, plant lifetimes are to be extended. In summary, this paper will describe the state of the art in controlling water chemistry in operating reactors and it will give an outlook on potential problems that will arise when going to more severe operating conditions. (author). 3 figs, 6 tabs.

  3. Output control system in a boiling water atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadakane, Ken-ichiro.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a line in bypass relation with a water heater, a flow rate of said bypass being adjusted to thereby perform quick responsive sub-cool control of a core inlet. Structure: A steam line and a water line are disposed so as to feed water from the reactor core to the water heater via turbine and thence to the core. A line disposed in bypass relation with the water heater arranged in the water line includes a control valve for controlling water passing through the bypass line and a main control for sending a signal to said control valve, said main control receiving loads from the outside, whereby a control signal is transmitted to the control valve, causing water passing through the water heater and water line to the core to be bypassed, a period of time for supplying time to be reduced, and quick response to be enhanced. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Water pollution control technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This work is a compilation by members of the Committee for Studying Transfer of Environmental Technology on the expertise and technology developed by the members for controlling water pollution in Japan, together with consideration of issues concerning the transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries. The committee is composed of representatives for the Environment Agency, Japan, Osaka Prefectural Government, Osaka Municipal Government, and 25 companies such as manufacturers of environmental equipment. The document contains a total of 93 short papers grouped into sections on: industrial wastewater treatment; sewage treatment; right soil treatment; sludge treatment; and miscellaneous. One paper by the Kausai Electric Power Co., Inc., discusses waste water treatment systems in oil-fired thermal power plants; another describes an internally circulating fluidized bed boiler for cocombusting coal with industrial wastes.

  5. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP) for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mark; Ruedin, Pascal; Civardi, Chiara; Richter, Michael; Hach, André; Christen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water). The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin). The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA), the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%. PMID:26046652

  6. Disposing and recycling waste printed circuit boards: disconnecting, resource recovery, and pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbo; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-20

    Over the past decades, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered e-waste recycling activities. After a decade of effort, disassembly and raw materials recycling of environmentally friendly e-waste have been realized in specialized companies, in China, and law enforcement for illegal activities of e-waste recycling has also been made more and more strict. So up to now, the e-waste recycling in China should be developed toward more depth and refinement to promote industrial production of e-waste resource recovery. Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs), which are the most complex, hazardous, and valuable components of e-waste, are selected as one typical example in this article that reviews the status of related regulations and technologies of WPCBs recycling, then optimizes, and integrates the proper approaches in existence, while the bottlenecks in the WPCBs recycling system are analyzed, and some preliminary experiments of pinch technologies are also conducted. Finally, in order to provide directional guidance for future development of WPCBs recycling, some key points in the WPCBs recycling system are proposed to point towards a future trend in the e-waste recycling industry.

  7. Board game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    A board game comprises a board, a number of counters and two dice. The board is marked to provide a central area, representing the nucleus of an atom, and six or more annular rings extending concentrically around the central area, the rings being divided into 2,8,18,32,48 and 72 squares. Each ring represents an electron shell, and some of the squares are numbered, the number representing the atomic number of different elements. (author)

  8. Reproducibility and validity of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board for measuring shoulder sensorimotor control in prone lying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshoj, H; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Jørgensen, Rene Gam Bender; Søgaard, Karen

    2017-02-01

    For the lower limbs, the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (NWBB) has been widely used to measure postural control. However, this has not been performed for upper limb measurements. Further, the NWBB has shown to produce more background noise with decreasing loads, which may be of concern when used for upper limb testing. The aim was to investigate reproducibility and validity of the NWBB. A test-retest design was performed with 68 subjects completing three different prone lying, upper limb weight-bearing balance tasks on a NWBB: two-arms, eyes closed (1) one-arm, non-dominant/non-injured (2) and one-arm, dominant/injured (3). Each task was repeated three times over the course of two test sessions with a 30-min break in between. Further, the level of background noise from a NWBB was compared with a force platform through systematic loading of both boards with increasing deadweights ranging from 5 to 90kg. Test-retest reproducibility was high with ICCs ranging from 0.95 to 0.97 (95% CI 0.92 to 0.98). However, systematic bias and tendencies for funnel effects in the Bland Altman plots for both one-armed tests were present. The concurrent validity of the NWBB was low (CCC 0.17 (95% CI 0.12-0.22)) due to large differences between the NWBB and force platform in noise sensitivity at low deadweights (especially below 50kg). The NWBB prone lying, shoulder sensorimotor control test was highly reproducible. Though, concurrent validity of the NWBB was poor compared to a force platform. Further investigation of the impact of the background noise, especially at low loads, is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Design and Experimentation of a Control System Implemented on Raspberry Pi 3 Board for Photovoltaic Systems Using SEPIC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Boutouba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage regulation system is proposed for photovoltaic energy sources (PV, using Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter as a DC-DC converter to feed loads working with specific input voltage. The choose of SEPIC converter is due to the output voltage ripple of developed-type converters are usually small and can be lower than 2%, also it considered as a buck and boost converter and thereafter loads with lower or higher voltage could be powered. Matlab Simulink is used as environment to develop control strategies to guaranties a stable voltage at the loads terminals. Two algorithms are used to fulfill this role: A Conventional PID and PI-Fuzzy logic controller to generate the PWM signal for the SEPIC converter. Hence, to validate the work some real-time simulations are treated by implemented the control strategies on a low-cost control board: The Raspberry Pi 3 in order to manage the operation of system and collecting the simulation data. Also, and for verification purposes, several simulations were treated to verify the good behavior of the proposed system.

  10. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional automatic production flow control and pump pressure control of water supply systems are robust and simple: production flow is controlled based on the level in the clear water reservoir and pump pressure is controlled on a static set-point. Recently, more advanced computer-based control

  11. 78 FR 64505 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with... reviews progress toward injury prevention goals and provides evidence in injury prevention- related... matters, including the: (1) Review of extramural research concepts for funding opportunity announcements...

  12. Method of controlling power of a heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hiroyuki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To adjust a level of heavy water in a region of reflection body to control power in a heavy water reactor. Structure: The interior of a core tank filled with heavy water is divided by a partition into a core heavy water region and a reflection body region formed by surrounding the core heavy water region, and a level of heavy water within the reflection body region is adjusted to control power. Preferably, it is desirable to communicate the core heavy water region with the reflection body heavy water region at their lower portion, and gas pressure applied to an upper portion within at least one of said regions is adjusted to adjust the level of heavy water within the reflection body heavy water region. Thereby, the heavy water within the reflection body heavy water region may be introduced into the core region, thus requiring no tank which stores heavy water within the reflection body region. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Board effectiveness: Investigating payment asymmetry between board members and shareholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuchun Chi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Board members may well be responsible for dissension between themselves and shareholders since they are simultaneously the setters and receivers of both board remuneration and dividends. They may act out of their own personal interests at the expense of external shareholders. We investigate the impact of ownership structure, board structure and control deviation on payment asymmetry, where excessively high remuneration is paid to board members but considerably lower dividends are distributed to shareholders. We find strong evidence confirming that the smaller the shareholdings of board members and outside blockholders are, the more asymmetric the payments are. With controlling family members on the board and a higher percentage of seats held by independent board members, there is a slight reduction in the likelihood and severity of payment asymmetry. In addition, it is abundantly clear that the larger the board seat-control deviation is, the greater is the likelihood and severity of payment asymmetry. While prior research has primarily focused on board-manager agency issues, the board-shareholder perspective could be even more important in that it is the board that is the most directly delegated agent of shareholders, not the managers

  14. SIMCON 3.1. LLRF system control board measurements (for TESLA Test Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrasik, R.

    2006-03-01

    The SIMCON control systems for superconducting cavity resonators are described. These systems consist of analog and digital I/O systems, a clock system, an Ethernet link, optical input systems, a RS232 interface, a VME section with booting FPGA devices, and a Virtex2Pro section. The measurements of different parameters by this system are described. (HSI)

  15. Controlling maximum evaluation duration in on-line and on-board evolutionary robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atta-ul-Qayyum, A.; Nedev, D.G.; Haasdijk, E.W.

    2014-01-01

    On-line evolution of robot controllers allows robots to adapt while they perform their proper tasks. In our investigations, robots contain their own self-sufficient evolutionary algorithm (known as the encapsulated approach) where individual solutions are evaluated by means of a time sharing scheme:

  16. SIMCON 3.1. LLRF system control board measurements (for TESLA Test Facility)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrasik, R.

    2006-07-15

    The SIMCON control systems for superconducting cavity resonators are described. These systems consist of analog and digital I/O systems, a clock system, an Ethernet link, optical input systems, a RS232 interface, a VME section with booting FPGA devices, and a Virtex2Pro section. The measurements of different parameters by this system are described. (HSI)

  17. The place of human-factors in the work of the Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkow, B.

    1982-01-01

    The AECB do not effectively regulate human factors in nuclear power plants since they have no staff trained to do so. Two new positions are recommended and their activities are outlined. Special problems are identified in the certification of personnel, management information control, and in accommodating human factors to AECB style

  18. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  19. Water quality control device and water quality control method for reactor primary coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoichi; Ibe, Eishi; Watanabe, Atsushi.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is suitable for preventing defects due to corrosion of structural materials in a primary coolant system of a BWR type reactor. Namely, a concentration measuring means measures the concentration of oxidative ingredients contained in a reactor water. A reducing electrode is disposed along a reactor water flow channel in the primary coolant system and reduces the oxidative ingredients. A reducing counter electrode is disposed along the reactor water flow channel in the primary coolant system, and electrically connected to the reducing electrode. The reactor structural materials are used as a reference electrode providing a reference potential to the reducing electrode and the reducing counter electrode. A potential control means controls the potential of the reducing electrode relative to the reference potential based on the signals from the concentration measuring means. A stable reference potential in a region where an effective oxygen concentration is stable can be obtained irrespective of the change of operation conditions by using the reactor structural materials disposed to a boiling region in the reactor core as a reference electrode. As a result, the water quality can be controlled at high accuracy. (I.S.)

  20. Assisting People with Disabilities to Actively Improve Their Collaborative Physical Activities with Nintendo Wii Balance Boards by Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chen, Ling-Che; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2012-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology to modify the Nintendo Wii Balance Board functionality and used it to enable two people with developmental disabilities to actively perform physical activities. This study extended the latest research of the Wii Balance Board application to assess whether four people (two groups) with…

  1. WeaselBoard :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, John C.; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Berg, Michael J.; Van Houten, Jonathan Roger; Urrea, Jorge Mario; King, Michael Aaron; Clements, Abraham Anthony; Jacob, Joshua A.

    2013-10-01

    Critical infrastructures, such as electrical power plants and oil refineries, rely on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to control essential processes. State of the art security cannot detect attacks on PLCs at the hardware or firmware level. This renders critical infrastructure control systems vulnerable to costly and dangerous attacks. WeaselBoard is a PLC backplane analysis system that connects directly to the PLC backplane to capture backplane communications between modules. WeaselBoard forwards inter-module traffic to an external analysis system that detects changes to process control settings, sensor values, module configuration information, firmware updates, and process control program (logic) updates. WeaselBoard provides zero-day exploit detection for PLCs by detecting changes in the PLC and the process. This approach to PLC monitoring is protected under U.S. Patent Application 13/947,887.

  2. A study on the real-time reliability of on-board equipment of train control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Shiwei

    2018-05-01

    Real-time reliability evaluation is conducive to establishing a condition based maintenance system for the purpose of guaranteeing continuous train operation. According to the inherent characteristics of the on-board equipment, the connotation of reliability evaluation of on-board equipment is defined and the evaluation index of real-time reliability is provided in this paper. From the perspective of methodology and practical application, the real-time reliability of the on-board equipment is discussed in detail, and the method of evaluating the realtime reliability of on-board equipment at component level based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is proposed. In this method the performance degradation data is used directly to realize the accurate perception of the hidden state transition process of on-board equipment, which can achieve a better description of the real-time reliability of the equipment.

  3. TUEV (Technical Control Board) of Rhineland-Westphalia. Annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This annual report of the RW TUEV for 1986 mainly deals with the subject fields of safety engineering, power technology, and environmental protection. Information on tasks and organisation is followed by a more detailed survey of the activities in the subject fields: Steam and pressure technology; material testing; strength and manufacturing control; nuclear energy and radiation protection; pipelines and hazardous substances; environmental protection; mining engineering; electrical and power engineering; equipment safety; construction and conveying engineering; motor vehicle egineering; psychological and medical fields of work; occupational safety; data processing and process automation. The report concludes with the annual financial statements and a list of addresses of the main office and other departments. (HSCH) [de

  4. Decamp Clock Board Firmware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs

  5. Decamp Clock Board Firmware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.

    2007-09-27

    Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs.

  6. Control Board Digital Interface Input Devices – Touchscreen, Trackpad, or Mouse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Ronald L. Boring; Roger Lew

    2015-08-01

    The authors collaborated with a power utility to evaluate input devices for use in the human system interface (HSI) for a new digital Turbine Control System (TCS) at a nuclear power plant (NPP) undergoing a TCS upgrade. A standalone dynamic software simulation of the new digital TCS and a mobile kiosk were developed to conduct an input device study to evaluate operator preference and input device effectiveness. The TCS software presented the anticipated HSI for the TCS and mimicked (i.e., simulated) the turbine systems’ responses to operator commands. Twenty-four licensed operators from the two nuclear power units participated in the study. Three input devices were tested: a trackpad, mouse, and touchscreen. The subjective feedback from the survey indicates the operators preferred the touchscreen interface. The operators subjectively rated the touchscreen as the fastest and most comfortable input device given the range of tasks they performed during the study, but also noted a lack of accuracy for selecting small targets. The empirical data suggest the mouse input device provides the most consistent performance for screen navigation and manipulating on screen controls. The trackpad input device was both empirically and subjectively found to be the least effective and least desired input device.

  7. Agreement Between the Board of Control of Ferris State College, Big Rapids, Michigan and The Ferris Faculty Association - MEA-NEA 1973-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris State Coll., Big Rapids, MI.

    This agreement between the Board of Control of Ferris State College and the Ferris Faculty Association--MEA-NEA covers the period 1973-75. Sections of the agreement cover the basic contractual provisions, rights of the association, faculty rights, administrative responsibilities, promotions and transfers, teaching conditions, retrenchment,…

  8. A Standing Location Detector Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Simple Physical Activities with Nintendo Wii Balance Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform simple physical activities by controlling their favorite environmental stimulation using Nintendo Wii Balance Boards with a newly developed standing location detection program (SLDP, i.e., a new software program turning a Nintendo Wii Balance…

  9. Radio Frequency Based Water Level Monitor and Controller for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, the control unit of the prototype performs automatic switching control of on and off on a single phase centrifugal water pump, 220volts, 0.5hp motor via a motor driver circuit (relay). It also incorporates a buzzer that beeps briefly when water level hits 100%, thus causing the pump to be switched off but when water ...

  10. Status of the Instrument Control Unit for EPD on-board Solar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Prieto, Sebastián; Da Silva, Antonio; Rodriguez Polo, Oscar; Parra Espada, Pablo; Gutierrez Molina, Oscar; Fernandez Salgado, Javier

    Solar Orbiter is the next heliospheric mission sponsored by ESA. The launch is planned for 2017 and it will be as close as 0.28 AU from the Sun. One of the instruments for Solar Orbiter is the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) responsible for measuring energies from 2 keV to 200 MeV/n. EPD consists of four detectors, Electron Proton Telescope (EPT), High Energy Telescope (HET), SupraThermal Electrons, Ions, & Neutrals (STEIN), and Suprathermal Ion Spectrograph (SIS), plus the Instrument Control Unit called ICU. The Space Research Group of the University of Alcalá in Spain is the responsible for developing the ICU. In this work we present the development status of the ICU after the Critical Design Review. We also address the planned activities for the next year including the development of the Engineering and Qualification Model (EQM) and Flight Model (PM). Special focus is paid to the software and verification & validation activities.

  11. Power control device for heavy water moderated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Hidesuke; Masuda, Hiroyuki.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To improve self controllability of a nuclear power plant, as well as enable continuous power level control by a controlled flow of moderators in void pipes provided in a reactor core. Constitution: Hollow void pipes are provided in a reactor core to which a heavy water recycle loop for power control, a heavy water recycle pump for power control, a heavy water temperature regulator and a heavy water flow rate control valve for power control are connected in series to constitute a heavy water recycle loop for flowing heavy water moderators. The void ratio in each of the void pipes are calculated by a process computer to determine the flow rate and the temperature for the recycled heavy water. Based on the above calculation result, the heavy water temperature regulator is actuated by way of a temperature setter at the heavy water inlet and the heavy water flow rate is controlled by the actuation of the heavy water flow rate control valve. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. Application of fuzzy logic control system for reactor feed-water control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, T.; Nakajima, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The successful actual application of a fuzzy logic control system to the a nuclear Fugen nuclear power reactor is described. Fugen is a heavy-water moderated, light-water cooled reactor. The introduction of fuzzy logic control system has enabled operators to control the steam drum water level more effectively in comparison to a conventional proportional-integral (PI) control system

  13. The influence on the performance of operators along with the introduction of the advanced main control board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsuga, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an influence on the performance of operators along with the introduction of the advanced main control board (MCB). The influence on the performance of operators is considered based on the operating procedure, the requirements for operators and the operator training. The operating procedure is the document which puts forward the way that the designer has thought in advance for the operators and describes the performance of operators. The introduction of the advanced MCB seems to be bringing a change of the operating procedure. The requirements for operators are the knowledge, skills and attitude, and crew resource management (CRM) skill. CRM skill makes use of the knowledge, skills and attitude and improves the team performance. The advanced MCB seems to induce a change of CRM skill i.e. the communication, decision making or problem solving, team building, situation awareness, and workload management of different shift teams. The operator training is the best way to verify the change of the operating procedure and CRM skill. (author)

  14. Does Nintendo Wii Balance Board improve standing balance? A randomized controlled trial in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Méndez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Guzman-Muñoz, Eduardo; Soto-Poblete, Alex; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Elgueta-Cancino, Edith; Cofré Lizama, L Eduardo

    2017-08-01

    Evidence on the effect of systemic exercise programs to improve the standing balance with the Nintendo Wii system is very limited and its post-treatment effectiveness is unknown in cerebral palsy (CP) patients. Primary aim was to compare the effect of Nintendo Wii balance board (Wii-therapy) and standard physiotherapy (SPT), on the performance of standing balance in children and adolescents with CP. Secondary aim was to determine the post-treatment effectiveness of Wii-therapy and SPT. Two-arm, matched-pairs, parallel-groups, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Outpatient Rehabilitation Centre in the city of Talca. Patients with CP type spastic hemiplegia (SHE) and spastic diplegia (SDI), aged 7 to 14 years, and level I or II of GMFCS or GMFCS-ER. Were excluded patients with FSIQWii-therapy (SDI=7; SHE=9) or SPT intervention (SDI=7; SHE=9). In each group, patients received three sessions per week over a period of 6 weeks. Standing balance was assessed at baseline and every 2 weeks. Additionally, two follow-up assessments (4 additional weeks) were performed to determine post-treatment effectiveness. Standing balance was quantified on force platform obtaining the outcomes area of center-of-pressure (CoP) sway (CoPSway), standard deviation in the medial-lateral (SDML) and the anterior-posterior (SDAP) directions, and velocity in both directions (VML and VAP). Compared to SPT, Wii-therapy significantly reduced the CoPSway (P=0.02) and SDAP in the eyes-open condition (P=0.01). However, the effects wane after 2-4 weeks. Post-hoc analysis revealed that only SHE children benefited from Wii-therapy. Wii-therapy was better than SPT in improving standing balance in patients with CP, but improves the balance only in SHE patients. Also, Wii-therapy effectiveness waned 2-4 weeks after the end the intervention. A systematic exercise program like Wii-therapy using the Nintendo Wii Balance Board device can be considered to improves the standing balance in patients with CP

  15. Notification: FY 2012 Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses for the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    February 1, 2012. The EPA Office of Inspector General is beginning work to update our list of areas we consider to be the key management challenges confronting the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.

  16. Design and construction of AT89C2051 micro controller based water level indicator for poly tank manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashong, Cynthia Ama

    2011-08-01

    This project is aimed at designing and constructing an AT89C2051 Micro controller Based Water level Indicator by programming a micro controller that has high frequency, logic, clock circuitry and 2.7V to 6V operating range with 5V volts being logic level 1 and 0 Volts being logic level 0 using Assembler language and programming the AT89C2051 Microcontroller using Galep 4 programmer. The device component and assembly includes A T89C2051 Micro controller, sensor (copper probe), bread board, electric bell for alarm to indicate low water level and a bulb to indicate high water level (that is the water tank is full). The AT89C2051 Micro controller Based Water Level Indicator works by sounding a bell when the tank is empty or the water level is low and light a bulb when the poly tank is full. The boundary within which the device operates is at the upper water level and the lower water level of the device (tank). That is it can operate within the levels of high to low limit. The result is very useful since it will help in ensuring water security. It is satisfactory since the project is working and indicating that the water level is low or high (that is the tank is empty or full). (au)

  17. State Water Resources Control Board, California Agreement in Principle 1995 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudon, L.

    1996-03-01

    The Agreement in Principle (AIP) was established as part of the Secretary of Energy's Ten-Point Initiative which was announced in 1989. One of the Secretary's goals was to integrate the Department of Energy's (DOE) national security mission with their environmental restoration and compliance responsibilities. In an effort to accomplish this goal, DOE increased the role of the states in the oversight of DOE's monitoring programs through AIPs. The State of California and DOE negotiated the California AIP beginning in 1989 and signed the Agreement in September 1990. The AIP identified six DOE facilities to be evaluated under the program. The six facilities evaluated by the AIP program were: (1) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) including LLNL's Site 300; (2) Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA); (3) Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL); (4) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC); (5) Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC); and (6) Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR)

  18. State Water Resources Control Board, California Agreement in Principle 1995 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudon, L.

    1996-03-01

    The Agreement in Principle (AIP) was established as part of the Secretary of Energy`s Ten-Point Initiative which was announced in 1989. One of the Secretary`s goals was to integrate the Department of Energy`s (DOE) national security mission with their environmental restoration and compliance responsibilities. In an effort to accomplish this goal, DOE increased the role of the states in the oversight of DOE`s monitoring programs through AIPs. The State of California and DOE negotiated the California AIP beginning in 1989 and signed the Agreement in September 1990. The AIP identified six DOE facilities to be evaluated under the program. The six facilities evaluated by the AIP program were: (1) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) including LLNL`s Site 300; (2) Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA); (3) Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL); (4) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC); (5) Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC); and (6) Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR).

  19. Water levels shape fishing participation in flood-control reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Meals, K. O.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between fishing effort (hours fished) and average March–May water level in 3 flood control reservoirs in Mississippi. Fishing effort increased as water level rose, peaked at intermediate water levels, and decreased at high water levels. We suggest that the observed arched-shaped relationship is driven by the shifting influence of fishability (adequacy of the fishing circumstances from an angler's perspective) and catch rate along a water level continuum. Fishability reduces fishing effort during low water, despite the potential for higher catch rates. Conversely, reduced catch rates and fishability at high water also curtail effort. Thus, both high and low water levels seem to discourage fishing effort, whereas anglers seem to favor intermediate water levels. Our results have implications for water level management in reservoirs with large water level fluctuations.

  20. Two-loop feed water control system in BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Takashi; Watanabe, Takao; Hirose, Masao.

    1982-01-01

    In the process of the start-up and shutdown of BWR plants, the operation of changing over feed pumps corresponding to plant output is performed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the automatic changeover system for feed pumps, which minimizes the variation of water level in reactors and is easy to operate. The three-element control system with the water level in reactors, the flow rate of main steam and the flow rate of feed water as the input is mainly applied, but long time is required for the changeover of feed pumps. The two-loop feed control system can control simultaneously two pumps being changed over, therefore it is suitable to the automatic changeover control system for feed pumps. Also it is excellent for the control of the recirculating valves of feed pumps. The control characteristics of the two-loop feed water control system against the external disturbance which causes the variation of water level in reactors were examined. The results of analysis by simulation are reported. The features of the two-loop feed water control system, the method of simulation and the evaluation of the two-loop feed water control system are described. Its connection with a digital feed water recirculation control system is expected. (Kako, I.)

  1. Performance of Control System Using Microcontroller for Sea Water Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriani, A.; Witanto, Y.; Pratama, A. S.; Supriyadi; Hendra; Tanjung, A.

    2018-02-01

    Now a day control system is very important rule for any process. Control system have been used in the automatic system. Automatic system can be seen in the industrial filed, mechanical field, electrical field and etc. In industrial and mechanical field, control system are used for control of motion component such as motor, conveyor, machine, control of process made of product, control of system and soon. In electrical field, control system can met for control of electrical system as equipment or part electrical like fan, rice cooker, refrigerator, air conditioner and etc. Control system are used for control of temperature and circulation gas, air and water. Control system of temperature and circulation of water also can be used for fisher community. Control system can be create by using microcontroller, PLC and other automatic program [1][2]. In this paper we will focus on the close loop system by using microcontroller Arduino Mega to control of temperature and circulation of sea water for fisher community. Performance control system is influenced by control equipment, sensor sensitivity, test condition, environment and others. The temperature sensor is measured using the DS18S20 and the sea water clarity sensor for circulation indicator with turbidity sensor. From the test results indicated that this control system can circulate sea water and maintain the temperature and clarity of seawater in a short time.

  2. Controlling water evaporation through self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Kevin; Liebi, Marianne; Heimdal, Jimmy; Pham, Quoc Dat; Sparr, Emma

    2016-09-13

    Water evaporation concerns all land-living organisms, as ambient air is dryer than their corresponding equilibrium humidity. Contrarily to plants, mammals are covered with a skin that not only hinders evaporation but also maintains its rate at a nearly constant value, independently of air humidity. Here, we show that simple amphiphiles/water systems reproduce this behavior, which suggests a common underlying mechanism originating from responding self-assembly structures. The composition and structure gradients arising from the evaporation process were characterized using optical microscopy, infrared microscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering. We observed a thin and dry outer phase that responds to changes in air humidity by increasing its thickness as the air becomes dryer, which decreases its permeability to water, thus counterbalancing the increase in the evaporation driving force. This thin and dry outer phase therefore shields the systems from humidity variations. Such a feedback loop achieves a homeostatic regulation of water evaporation.

  3. Water control at certain karst U-mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Mingxin; Xu Qiang

    2010-01-01

    To ensure mining security, water control for certain mining area is designed. Hydrogeological conditions in the studied area are analyzed. Four methods were used to calculate the inflow of water at mineral area, such as 'bigwell' method and 'groundwater isostatic' method according to the karst development. The calculated data for average inflow of water for the 100 m middle section are mainly compared with the data for the inflow of spring water in this deposit observed during the last five years. The difference between them is found minor. This indicates that the parameters selected for the calculation of inflow of water are reasonable and the methods used are suitable. Taking into account the above, it is decided to use the combination of surface water control and groundwater control Surface water control first,and groundwater control second, Five methods are used for surface water control such as plugging, filling, stopping, draining and dredging. Three methods for groundwater control such as curtain grouting, drainage in advance and blocking. The implimentation of this program will greatly reduce the threat of groundwater in ming area to mining operation and the cost of treatment of water discharge in mining pits and wells ,and effectively protect the environment and ensure the local people's living and production. (authors)

  4. Optimization of feed water control for auxiliary boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lingmao

    2004-01-01

    This paper described the feed water control system of the auxiliary boiler steam drum in Qinshan Phase III Nuclear Power Plant, analyzed the deficiency of the original configuration, and proposed the optimized configuration. The optimized feed water control system can ensure the stable and safe operation of the auxiliary boiler, and the normal operation of the users. (author)

  5. The study and improvement of water level control of pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Peng; Zhang Qinshun

    2006-01-01

    The PI controller which is used widely in water level control of pressurizer in reactor control system usually leads dynamic overshoot and long setting time. The improvement project for intelligent fuzzy controller to take the place of PI controller is advanced. This paper researches the water level control of pressurizer in reactor control system of Daya Bay Phase I, and describes the method of intelligent fuzzy control in practice. Simulation indicates that the fuzzy control has advantages of small overshoot and short settling time. It can also improve control system's real time property and anti-interference ability. Especially for non-linear and time-varying complicated control systems, it can obtain good control results. (authors)

  6. A recommendation of the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection for the appointment of Nuclear Safety Control Officers for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, B.

    1990-01-01

    The Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR requires that the managers of plants where nuclear facilities are operated appoint Control Officers for the fields of radiation protection, nuclear safety, physical protection, and accounting for and control of nuclear materials. The Control Officers are staff members of the operating organization but their appointment is subject to approval by the National Board and requires adequate qualification. The main task of the Control Officers as specialists is to give advice to the plant manager who retains responsibility for the safety of nuclear facilities, and to verify on his behalf that all requirements within their competence are met by the operating group. For this reason the Control Officer has to be absolutely independent of the head of the operating group. To enable the Control Officers to accomplish all necessary control activities and to guarantee independence from the head of the operating group, the plant manager has to establish adequate regulations of operation. As a pattern for such regulations the National Board has issued a Recommendation for the Appointment of Nuclear Safety Control Officers for Research Reactors, which provides a comprehensive survey of the requisite qualification features as well as the duties and rights of these Control Officers. This recommendation will be dealt with in the presentation

  7. Water control for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.C.; Mody, B.; Pace, J.

    1981-11-01

    Gains in recovery efficiency in W. Texas oil and gas fields have been realized as a result of applying 4 different chemical processes, either singly or in combination. Each of the 4 chemical processes has been tailored to meet specific reservoir requirements. Complete plugging of high flow capacity channels can be accomplished, and the high water production portion of a producing zone can be sealed by injection of gel-forming chemicals into the matrix. Both floodwater diversion and water-oil mobility ratio improvement can be attained by in situ polymerization of a one-stage polymer bank in the reservoir. In producing wells, the water-oil production ratio can be favorably changed by treating certain formulations with a nonplugging polymer which tends to restrict water flow but not oil. One feature which each of the 4 processes has in common is the ability to invade deeply into matrix which may produce long lasting results. A description of each process is presented with various placement techniques used to obtain optimum results. Data from fields which have benefited from these treatments are presented. The work describes what may be expected with each of these proven processes based on field results.

  8. SVX Sequencer Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utes, M.

    1997-01-01

    The SVX Sequencer boards are 9U by 280mm circuit boards that reside in slots 2 through 21 of each of eight Eurocard crates in the D0 Detector Platform. The basic purpose is to control the SVX chips for data acquisition and when a trigger occurs, to gather the SVX data and relay the data to the VRB boards in the Movable Counting House. Functions and features are as follows: (1) Initialization of eight SVX chip strings using the MIL-STD-1553 data bus; (2) Real time manipulation of the SVX control lines to effect data acquisition, digitization, and readout based on the NRZ/Clock signals from the Controller; (3) Conversion of 8-bit electrical SVX readout data to an optical signal operating at 1.062 Gbit/sec, sent to the VRB. Eight HDIs will be serviced per board; (4) Built-in logic analyzer which can record the most important control and data lines during a data acquisition cycle and put this recorded information onto the 1553 bus; (5) Identification header and end of data trailer tacked onto data stream; (6) 1553 register which can read the current values of the control and data lines; (7) 1553 register which can test the optical link; (8) 1553 registers for crossing pulse width, calibration pulse voltage, and calibration pipeline select; (9) 1553 register for reading the optical drivers status link; (10) 1553 register for power control of SVX chips and ignoring bad SVX strings; (11) Front panel displays and LEDs show the board status at a glance; (12) In-system programmable EPLDs are programmed via 1553 or Altera's 'Bitblaster'; (13) Automatic readout abort after 45us; (14) Supplies BUSY signal back to Trigger Framework; (15) Supports a heartbeat system to prevent excessive SVX current draw; and (16) Supports a SVX power trip feature if heartbeat failure occurs.

  9. Buddy Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle; Moselund, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Projekt ’BuddyBoard’ er kommet i stand via et samarbejde mellem Frederikshavn kommune, Bunker43 og Lab. X. Afdeling en ’Havly’ på Sæby Ældrecenter fungerer som living lab, hvilket betyder, at det udgør et levende laboratorium for udvikling og afprøvning af teknologi (Schultz, 2013). Projektet er....... Bunker43 har udviklet en teknologi (BuddyBoard) til hurtig formidling af billeder fra pårørende og personale til beboere på institutioner. Pårørende og personale uploader billeder via en APP eller en hjemmeside og har mulighed for at tilføje en kort forklarende tekst til hvert billede. Beboeren ser...... billederne via en tablet. Systemet bygger på et simpelt og brugervenligt design, så ældre med kognitive og/eller fysiske funktionsnedsættelser kan anvende teknologien. BuddyBoard fungerer via internettet, og billederne gemmes på en sikret server hos udbyderen, som er Bunker43. Intentionerne med BuddyBoard er...

  10. Evaluating the Effects of Aging on Electronic Instrument and Control Circuit Boards and Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannaman, G. Willia; Wilkinson, C. Dan

    2005-01-01

    The report describes potentially useful techniques for monitoring the aging of I and C boards. The techniques have been grouped into: periodic testing, reliability modeling, resistance measures, signal comparison, eternal measures, and internal measures, each representing distinct theoretical approaches to detection and evaluation

  11. Modelling the transient analysis of flat miniature heat pipes in printed circuit boards using a control volume approacht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, W.W.; Kok, J.B.W.; van Steenhoven, A.A.; van der Meer, T.H.; Stoffels, G.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The heat pipe is a two-phase cooling solution, offering very high thermal coefficients, for heat transport. Therefore, it is increasingly used in the design of electronic products. Flat miniature heat pipes are able to effectively remove heat from several hot spots on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB).

  12. Evaluating the Effects of Aging on Electronic Instrument and Control Circuit Boards and Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. William Hannaman; C. Dan Wilkinson

    2005-05-15

    The report describes potentially useful techniques for monitoring the aging of I&C boards. The techniques have been grouped into: periodic testing, reliability modeling, resistance measures, signal comparison, eternal measures, and internal measures, each representing distinct theoretical approaches to detection and evaluation.

  13. Device for controlling water supply to nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshio.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To smoothly control automatic water supply for realizing stable operation of a nuclear reactor by providing a flow rate limiting signal selection circuit and a preferential circuit in a water supply control device for a nuclear reactor wherein the speed of a recirculation pump may be changed in two-steps. Structure: Opening angle signals for a water supply regulating valve are controlled by a nuclear reactor water level signal, a vapor flow rate signal and a supplied water flow rate signal through an adder and an adjuster in response to a predetermined water level setting signal. When the water in the reactor is maintained at a predetermined level, a selection circuit receives a water pump condition signal for selecting one of the signals from a supplied water rate limiting signal generator generating signals for indicating whether one or two water supply pumps are operated. A low value preferential circuit passes the lower of the values generated from the selection circuit and the adder. The selection circuit receives a recirculation pump condition signal and selects either one of the signals from the supplied water flow rate limiting signal generator operated at high speed or low speed. A high value preferential circuit passes the higher value

  14. Controlling taste and odour levels in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, A J

    1980-12-01

    Taste and odor of drinking water supplies act as indicator mechanisms, indicating increased degrees of biological activity, possible contamination of the supply, treatment inadequacies, or contamination of the distribution systems. Disinfection and coagulation are effective preventive measures. Taste and odor problems may arise even with the application of preventive measures, so protective and treatment techniques must be implemented. These include chlorination and activated carbon absorption. (1 photo, 3 references, 1 table)

  15. Radiological monitoring. Controlling surface water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Maxime

    2018-01-01

    Throughout France, surface waters (from rivers to brooks) located at the vicinity of nuclear or industrial sites, are subject to regular radiological monitoring. An example is given with the radiological monitoring of a small river near La Hague Areva's plant, where contaminations have been detected with the help of the French IRSN nuclear safety research organization. The sampling method and various measurement types are described

  16. How to control water supply costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornby, D M

    1965-05-17

    Exploring for water can be as expensive as exploring for oil, a factor which is likely to become increasingly clear. Basic essentials of any water-supply study require an understanding and knowledge of the limiting conditions of quality, quantity, cost, and reliability. A logical 10-step program is outlined. The initial steps are as follows: (1) analyze the acutal water demand for flood requirements; (2) select the logical and apparent sources of supply; (3) collect and assess all availabe pertinent information; and (4) formulate a plan of analysis and attack for the study. The intermediate steps are as follows: (5) use this plan in making field and office investigations: (6) having determined the alternatives and preliminary costs, prepare a written assessment; and (7) using the brain-storming technique within the company or unit, utilize the assessment to devise a master action plan and budget for anticipated expenditures. The final steps are as follows: (8) complete other required investigations based upon the master plan and budget; (9) prepare detailed design, specifications and estimates; and (10) call tenders or negotiate the most favorable arrangements with respect to construction time and price.

  17. Developing and implementing institutional controls for ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.M.; Cooper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE has initiated its Ground Water Project as the second phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project authorized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). In the Ground Water Project, the DOE must reduce risk from ground water contaminated by uranium mill processing activities at 24 inactive processing sites by meeting the US EPA standards. The UMTRCA also requires consistency with federal statutes such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The use of institutional controls to reduce risk from contaminated ground water is one element of compliance with standards and the protection of public health and the environment. Institutional controls are active or passive measures that reduce exposure to risks by preventing intrusion or restricting direct access to an area, or restricting access to the contamination through secondary means. Because of inconsistent regulations and multi-party authorities for ground water management, the key to selecting and implementing effective institutional controls lies with developing a consensus between the parties responsible for ground water remediation; those with authority to implement, monitor, and maintain institutional controls; and those facing the risks from contaminated ground water. These parties must develop a consensus for an institutional control program that meets minimum regulatory requirements and protects public health and the environment. Developing consensus and implementing a successful institutional controls program was achieved by the DOE during the cleanup of uranium mill tailings. An effective institutional controls program can also be developed to protect against risks from contaminated ground water. Consensus building and information transmission are the critical elements of an institutional control program that protects human health and the environment from risks associated with ground water contamination

  18. Status of control assembly materials in Indian water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, V.G.; Kulkarni, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    India's present operating water cooled power reactors comprise boiling water reactors of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) and pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) at Kota (RAPS), Kalpakkam (MAPS), Narora (NAPS) and Kakrapara (KAPS). Boiling water reactors of TAPS use boron carbide control blades for control of power as well as for shut down (scram). PHWRs use boron steel and cobalt absorber rods for power control and Cd sandwiched shut off rods (primary shut down system) and liquid poison rods (secondary shut down system) for shut down. In TAPS, Gadolinium rods (burnable poison rods) are also incorporated in fuel assembly for flux flattening. Boron carbide control blades and Gadolinium rods for TAPS, cobalt absorber rods and shut down assemblies for PHWRs are fabricated indigenously. Considerable development work was carried out for evolving material specifications, component and assembly drawings, and fabrication processes. Details of various control and shut off assemblies being fabricated currently are highlighted in the paper. (author)

  19. Advances in water chemistry control for BWRs and PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the effects of water chemistry developments on the current operation of nuclear power plants in the United States, and the mitigation of corrosion-related degradation processes and radiation field build-up processes through the use of advanced water chemistry. Recent modifications in water chemistry to control and reduce radiation fields are outlined, including revisions to the EPRI water chemistry guidelines for BWRs and PWR primary and secondary systems. The change from a single water chemistry specification for all plants to a set of options, from which a plant-specific chemistry programme can be defined, is described. (author)

  20. Fault tolerant digital control systems for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Cash, N.R.

    1986-01-01

    In a Boiling Water Reactor nuclear power plant, the power generation control function is divided into several systems, each system controlling only a part of the total plant. Presently, each system is controlled by conventional analog or digital logic circuits with little interaction for coordinated control. The advent of microprocessors has allowed the development of distributed fault-tolerant digital controls. The objective is to replace these conventional controls with fault-tolerant digital controls connected together with digital communication links to form a fully integrated nuclear power plant control system

  1. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    WTP Gruszczyn supplies drinking water to a part of the city of Pozna?, in the Midwest of Poland. The conventional production flow control and pressure control of the facility was replaced by the advanced control software called OPIR. To assess the differences between conventional and advanced

  2. Eutrophication of Lake Waters in China: Cost, Causes, and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, C.; Zha, Y.; Li, Y.; Sun, D.; Lu, H.; Yin, B.

    2010-04-01

    Lake water eutrophication has become one of the most important factors impeding sustainable economic development in China. Knowledge of the current status of lake water eutrophicatoin and determination of its mechanism are prerequisites to devising a sound solution to the problem. Based on reviewing the literature, this paper elaborates on the evolutional process and current state of shallow inland lake water eutrophication in China. The mechanism of lake water eutrophication is explored from nutrient sources. In light of the identified mechanism strategies are proposed to control and tackle lake water eutrophication. This review reveals that water eutrophication in most lakes was initiated in the 1980s when the national economy underwent rapid development. At present, the problem of water eutrophication is still serious, with frequent occurrence of damaging algal blooms, which have disrupted the normal supply of drinking water in shore cities. Each destructive bloom caused a direct economic loss valued at billions of yuan. Nonpoint pollution sources, namely, waste discharge from agricultural fields and nutrients released from floor deposits, are identified as the two major sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. Therefore, all control and rehabilitation measures of lake water eutrophication should target these nutrient sources. Biological measures are recommended to rehabilitate eutrophied lake waters and restore the lake ecosystem in order to bring the problem under control.

  3. Evaluation of two methods in controlling dental treatment water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ritu; Puttaiah, Raghunath; Harris, Robert; Reddy, Anil

    2011-03-01

    Dental unit water systems are contaminated with biofilms that amplify bacterial counts in dental treatment water in excess of a million colony forming units per milliliter (cfu/ml). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Dental Association have agreed that the maximum allowable contamination of dental treatment water not exceed 500 cfu/ml. This study was conducted to evaluate two protocols in controlling contamination of dental unit water systems and dental treatment water. Both methods used an antimicrobial self-dissolving chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) tablet at a high concentration (50 ppm) to shock the dental unit water system biofilms initially followed by periodic exposure. To treat dental treatment source water for patient care, 3 parts per million (ppm) ClO₂ in municipal/tap water was compared to use of a citrus botanical extract dissolved in municipal water. Heterotrophic microbial counts of effluent water and laser scanning confocal microscopy were performed to evaluate effects of the two treatments. Results from this study indicated that both treatments were effective in controlling biofilm contamination and reducing heterotrophic plate counts Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):73-83. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.

  4. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  5. Measuring the layer-average volumetric water content in the uppermost 5 cm of soil using printed circuit board TDR probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.; Kobayashi, T.; Chikushi, J.

    2000-01-01

    Newly designed printed circuit board TDR probes (PCBPs) were made, and they were calibrated by indoor experiment. A regression equation for estimating the volumetric water content from the dielectric constant measured with the PCBP was determined, which is almost the same as the well-known Topp's equation when the soil is rather wet while the difference becomes larger as the soil dries. The PCBP was designed to measure the average water content over a soil layer 5 cm thick because the thickness of soil layer involved in measuring water content by microwave remote sensing is several centimeters. A comparison experiment of measurements with PCBPs and those by microwave remote sensing was conducted in an arid area in the northwest of China. The results of this experiment show that the newly designed TDR probe is promising as the sensor to get ground truth of the surface wetness. This paper describes only the calibration of probes and the observations taken using them

  6. [Research on controlling iron release of desalted water transmitted in existing water distribution system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Mei; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Peng; Shan, Jin-Lin; Yang, Suo-Yin; Liu, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Desalted water, with strong corrosion characteristics, would possibly lead to serious "red water" when transmitted and distributed in existing municipal water distribution network. The main reason for red water phenomenon is iron release in water pipes. In order to study the methods of controlling iron release in existing drinking water distribution pipe, tubercle analysis of steel pipe and cast iron pipe, which have served the distribution system for 30-40 years, was carried out, the main construction materials were Fe3O4 and FeOOH; and immersion experiments were carried in more corrosive pipes. Through changing mixing volume of tap water and desalted water, pH, alkalinity, chloride and sulfate, the influence of different water quality indexes on iron release were mainly analyzed. Meanwhile, based on controlling iron content, water quality conditions were established to meet with the safety distribution of desalted water: volume ratio of potable water and desalted water should be higher than or equal to 2, pH was higher than 7.6, alkalinity was higher than 200 mg x L(-1).

  7. A Philosophy of Water Pollution Control--Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeffer, George J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of water pollution control in the U.S. is given, leading to an analysis of present policy trends. A "rational environmental program" is called for to provide economic growth and environmental quality. (MDR)

  8. Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

  9. Water column methanotrophy controlled by a rapid oceanographic switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinle, L.; Graves, C.A.; Treude, T.; Ferré, B.; Biastoch, A.; Bussmann, I.; Berndt, C.; Krastel, S.; James, R.H.; Behrens, E.; Böning, C.W.; Greinert, J.; Sapart, C.-J.; Scheinert, M.; Sommer, S.; Lehmann, M.F.; Niemann, H.

    2015-01-01

    From the seabed to the water column, where it may be consumed by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria. The size and activity of methanotrophic communities, which determine the amount of methane consumed in the water column,are thought to be mainly controlled by nutrient and redoxdynamics3–7. Here, we

  10. Economics of selected water control technologies and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a production function, marginal productivity of farm inputs and benefit-cost analysis, we explore the economics of selected water control technologies. From the production function, all farm inputs, including irrigation water is found to have a significant and positive effect on yield. Marginal value products of farm inputs ...

  11. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  12. Controlling hydrogen behavior in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullingford, H.S.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    In the aftermath of the incident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2), a new and different treatment of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) risks is needed for public safety because of the specific events involving hydrogen generation, transport, and behavior following the core damage. Hydrogen behavior in closed environments such as the TMI-2 containment building is a complex phenomenon that is not fully understood. Hence, an engineering approach is presented for prevention of loss of life, equipment, and environment in case of a large hydrogen generation in an LWR. A six-level defense strategy is described that minimizes the possibility of ignition of released hydrogen gas and otherwise mitigates the consequences of hydrogen release. Guidance is given to reactor manufacturers, utility companies, regulatory agencies, and research organizations committed to reducing risk factors and insuring safety of life, equipment, and environment

  13. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A.

    2014-10-01

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  14. Water level control for a nuclear steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Tan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A water level control system for a nuclear steam generator (SG) is proposed. → The parameters of the control system are directly related to those of the plant model thus scheduling is easy to implement in practice. → The proposed gain-scheduled controller can achieve good performance at both low and high power levels. - Abstract: A water level control system for a nuclear steam generator (SG) is proposed. The control system consists of a feedback controller and a feedforward controller. The feedback controller is of first order, the feedforward controller is of second order, and parameters of the two controllers are directly related to the parameters of plant model thus scheduling is easy to implement in practice. Robustness and performance of the feedback and the feedforward controllers are analyzed in details and tuning of the two parameters of the controllers are discussed. Comparisons among a single robust controller, a multi-model controller and a gain-scheduled controller are studied. It is shown that the proposed gain-scheduled controller can achieve good performance at both low and high power levels.

  15. Biological stability of drinking water: controlling factors, methods and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle ePrest

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g. development of opportunistic pathogens, aesthetic (e.g. deterioration of taste, odour, colour or operational (e.g. fouling or biocorrosion of pipes problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors such as (i type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii presence of predators such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv environmental conditions such as water temperature, and (v spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment or biofilm. Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discuss how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order to

  16. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  17. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.

    2016-02-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  18. Edward C. Little Water Recycling Plant, El Segundo, CA: CA0063401

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint EPA and Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board NPDES Permit and Waiver from Secondary Treatment for the West Basin Municipal Water District Edward C. Little Water Recycling Plant, El Segundo, CA: CA0063401

  19. Fire protection in ammunition storage spaces on board naval craft: An evaluation of the water application rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindström, J.; Rahm, M.; Hiltz, J.; Boonacker, B.; Wal, R. van der; Haara, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ammunition storage spaces on naval vessels are commonly fitted with drencher systems that are designed to prevent ordnance reaching a temperature where it might explode due to fast or slow “cook‐off”. Many of these systems are traditional low pressure water spray systems that are required by the

  20. Modeling, control and optimization of water systems systems engineering methods for control and decision making tasks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides essential background knowledge on the development of model-based real-world solutions in the field of control and decision making for water systems. It presents system engineering methods for modelling surface water and groundwater resources as well as water transportation systems (rivers, channels and pipelines). The models in turn provide information on both the water quantity (flow rates, water levels) of surface water and groundwater and on water quality. In addition, methods for modelling and predicting water demand are described. Sample applications of the models are presented, such as a water allocation decision support system for semi-arid regions, a multiple-criteria control model for run-of-river hydropower plants, and a supply network simulation for public services.

  1. Adaptive Reference Control for Pressure Management in Water Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is an increasing problem worldwide and at the same time a huge amount of water is lost through leakages in the distribution network. It is well known that improved pressure control can lower the leakage problems. In this work water networks with a single pressure actuator and several....... Subsequently, these relations are exploited in an adaptive reference control scheme for the actuator pressure that ensures constant pressure at the critical points. Numerical experiments underpin the results. © Copyright IEEE - All rights reserved....

  2. Optimal control of a waste water cleaning plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellina V. Grigorieva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water at the terminal time T is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Dependence of the optimal solution on the initial conditions is established. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

  3. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Reutter, David C.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Mueller, David K.

    2018-04-10

    The data-quality objectives for samples collected at surface-water sites in the National Water-Quality Network include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of environmental conditions. Quality-control samples provide insight into how well the samples collected at surface-water sites represent the true environmental conditions. Quality-control samples used in this program include field blanks, replicates, and field matrix spikes. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey’s national database.

  4. Potential ballast water transfer of organisms from the west to the east coast of India: Insights through on board sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Dattesh V.; Narale, Dhiraj; Khandeparker, Lidita; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2018-03-01

    The possibility of translocation of organisms via ship's ballast water (BW) during a voyage from Hazira on the west coast to Visakhapatnam on the east coast of India was assessed. Samples of BW during the voyage and discharge and sediment collected subsequent to discharge of BW were collected and analyzed for different abiotic and biotic components. It was observed that the salinity did not change, whereas temperature and pH of BW increased marginally during the voyage. A marginal increase in the dissolved oxygen is observed during rough-very rough sea conditions. A sharp decline in the phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance observed in the initial ballast tank sample compared to natural seawater indicates the impact of ballast water pumping on the plankton community. Changes in the sea state during the voyage (slight-moderate to rough-very rough) resulted in a higher sediment suspension rate and suspended particulate matter and this coincided with higher bacterial abundance followed by increase in phytoplankton. An increase in the phytoplankton abundance in the discharge water could be attributed to the inoculum from the sediment. The abundance of zooplankton decreased from the start till the end of the voyage, with high numbers of dead zooplankton in the discharge sample.

  5. Control of water infiltration through SLB trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A technique for control of water infiltration into waste burial trenches is described. Initial results show the procedure to be very promising. In essence, the technique combines engineered or positive control of run-off, along with a vegetative cover, and is named bioengineering management. To investigate control of infiltration, lysimeters are being used to make complete water balance measurements. The studies are underway at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level waste burial site. Where the original Maxey Flats site closure procedure is followed, it is necessary to pump large amounts of water out of the lysimeters to prevent the water table from rising closer than 2 meters from the surface. Using the fescue grass bioengineering management procedure, no pumping is required. Encouraged by the initial findings in the rather small-scale lysimeters, a large scale demonstration of the bioengineering management technique has been initiated in Beltsville, Maryland. 6 references, 14 figures

  6. 33 CFR 401.90 - Boarding for inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boarding for inspections. 401.90... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.90 Boarding for inspections... approved means of boarding. Pigeon holes are not accepted as a means of boarding and an alternate safe...

  7. A novel coordinated control for Integrated Pressurized Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuxin; Du, Xue; Xia, Genglei; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposed IPWR coordinated control strategy to avoid flow instability of OTSG. • Tuned PID controller parameters by Fuzzy kernel wavelet neural network with kernel trick and adaptive variable step-size. • Transition process exhibit the effectiveness of the novel IPWR control system. - Abstract: Integrated Pressurized Water Reactor (IPWR) has the characteristic of strong coupling, nonlinearity and complicated dynamic performance, which requires high standards of the control strategy and controller design. Most of IPWR systems utilize control strategy of ideal steady-state and PID controller, even though this strategy causes flow instability in the once through steam generator (OTSG) in low load conditions. Besides, the simple form of PID limits the performance developing which could not appropriately satisfy the requirements for quality. Motivated by these drawbacks, this paper proposes an IPWR coordinated control strategy and adopts PID controller to control each subsystem. The control strategy considers the system as a two-level hierarchical control system, and considers coordinating controller and bottom controllers. In the period of controller design, this strategy utilizes PID controller to control each subsystem, and modifies the controller parameters in real time by Fuzzy-KWNN algorithm, which adaptively achieves the system adjustment. Finally, simulation results are presented to exhibit the effectiveness of the proposed IPWR control system

  8. Pilot study comparing changes in postural control after training using a video game balance board program and 2 standard activity-based balance intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, Alessandra; Lee, Sae Yong; Asfour, Shihab; Roos, Bernard A; Signorile, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    To compare the impacts of Tai Chi, a standard balance exercise program, and a video game balance board program on postural control and perceived falls risk. Randomized controlled trial. Research laboratory. Independent seniors (N=40; 72.5±8.40) began the training, 27 completed. Tai Chi, a standard balance exercise program, and a video game balance board program. The following were used as measures: Timed Up & Go, One-Leg Stance, functional reach, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, force plate center of pressure (COP) and time to boundary, dynamic posturography (DP), Falls Risk for Older People-Community Setting, and Falls Efficacy Scale. No significant differences were seen between groups for any outcome measures at baseline, nor were significant time or group × time differences for any field test or questionnaire. No group × time differences were seen for any COP measures; however, significant time differences were seen for total COP, 3 of 4 anterior/posterior displacement and both velocity, and 1 displacement and 1 velocity medial/lateral measure across time for the entire sample. For DP, significant improvements in the overall score (dynamic movement analysis score), and in 2 of the 3 linear and angular measures were seen for the sample. The video game balance board program, which can be performed at home, was as effective as Tai Chi and the standard balance exercise program in improving postural control and balance dictated by the force plate postural sway and DP measures. This finding may have implications for exercise adherence because the at-home nature of the intervention eliminates many obstacles to exercise training. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  10. Model Prediction Control For Water Management Using Adaptive Prediction Accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, X.; Negenborn, R.R.; Van Overloop, P.J.A.T.M.; Mostert, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the field of operational water management, Model Predictive Control (MPC) has gained popularity owing to its versatility and flexibility. The MPC controller, which takes predictions, time delay and uncertainties into account, can be designed for multi-objective management problems and for

  11. Plant-wide Control Strategy for Improving Produced Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...

  12. design and implementation of a water level controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH) ... in real time application by using it to control the level of water in a tank fed by a ... chine when a cow is finished in a milking par- .... Robotics Arm. IEEE Control Systems 10(1).

  13. Automated Water Chemistry Control at University of Virginia Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Dan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the technologically advanced aquatic and fitness center at the University of Virginia. Discusses the imprecise water chemistry control at the former facility and its intensive monitoring requirements. Details the new chemistry control standards initiated in the new center, which ensure constant chlorine and pH levels. (RJM)

  14. Wind and water erosion control on semiarid lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddoway, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial crop production on semiarid lands is difficult because insufficient water is often present to manage the system effectively. Erosion control presents the major management problem. The factors contributing to wind erosion and their interaction have been quantified into a wind erosion equation. The control of wind erosion through agronomic alteration of the various factors is discussed. The quantification and control of water erosion is also discussed with respect to the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Radioisotopes tracers have been used in conjunction with these erosion equations to measure soil losses. (author)

  15. California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) - Impaired Waterbodies

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset contains California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list which is submitted by the California State Water Resources Control Board. The layer has...

  16. Water chemistry control of PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Yuichi; Makino, Ichiro; Yamauchi, Sumio; Fukuda, Fumihito.

    1992-01-01

    In PWR power plants, the primary system taking heat out of nuclear reactors and the secondary system generating steam and driving turbines are completely separated by steam generators, accordingly, by mutually independent water treatment, both systems are to be maintained in the optimal conditions. Namely, primary system is the closed water circulation circuit of simple liquid phase though under high temperature, high pressure condition, therefore, water shows the stable physical and chemical properties, and the minute water treatment for restraining the corrosion of structural materials and reducing radioactivity can be done. Secondary system is similar to the condensate and feedwater system of thermal power plants, and is the circuit for liquid-vapor two-phase transformation, but due to the local concentration of impurities by evaporation, the strict requirement is set for secondary water quality. However, secondary system can be treated in the state without radioactivity, and this is a great merit. The outline, basic concept and execution of primary water quality control, and the outline, concept, control criteria, facilities and execution of secondary water quality control are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Dynamics of controlled release systems based on water-in-water emulsions: A general theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Phase-separated biopolymer solutions, and aqueous dispersions of hydrogel beads, liposomes, polymersomes, aqueous polymer microcapsules, and colloidosomes are all examples of water-in-water emulsions. These systems can be used for encapsulation and controlled release purposes, in for example food or

  18. Analysis of water hammer in control rod drive systems of boiling water reactor nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safwat, H.H.; Arastu, A.H.; Lau, S.

    1983-01-01

    The method of characteristics is applied to analyze water hammer in BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) Control Rod Drive (CRD) Systems following fast opening of scram valves. The modelling of the CRD mechanism is presented. Numerical predictions are compared to experimental data. (author)

  19. Controllability studies for an advanced CANDU boiling light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepp, R.M.; Hinds, H.W.

    1976-12-01

    Bulk controllability studies carried out as part of a conceptual design study of a 1200 MWe CANDU boiling-light-water reactor fuelled with U 235 - or Pu-enriched uranium oxide are outlined. The concept, the various models developed for its simulation on a hybrid computer and the perturbations used to test system controllability, are described. The results show that this concept will have better bulk controllability than similar CANDU-BLW reactors fuelled with natural uranium. (author)

  20. Defense Business Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Business Board Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Defense Business Board Business Excellence in Defense of the Nation Defense Business Board Home Charter Members Meetings Studies Contact Us The Defense

  1. Risk assessment and control management of radon in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The role of risk assessment and risk management of radon in drinking water was reviewed. It is noted that risk assessments for the public health consequences of radon in drinking water require information on radon concentration in water, exposure pathways, and dose-response relationships. On the other hand, risk management involves assumptions of risk acceptance and the establishment of governmental policies in accord with society's acceptance of these assumptions. Although risk assessment for radon exposures can be reasonably qualitative, risk management is clearly judgmental. The following conclusions/recommendations were made. (1) The presence of radon in drinking water is estimated to have its greatest health impact on the 18% of the US population served by private wells. (2) Although no direct evidence exists associated radon in water with health problems, the diseases that are associated with radon in drinking water are stomach cancer from ingestion and lung cancer from inhalation of radon decay products released during household use of water. (3) Using a number of questionable assumptions, the total number of cancer deaths per year attributable to radon in water is estimated to be about 5,000 as a maximum value, with essentially all cases occurring in the population served by private wells. (4) Promulgating federal regulations to control radon levels in water under the Safe Drinking Water Act seems unwarranted, since private wells would not likely be regulated. (5) Government control programs should be limited to emphasizing an awareness of possible substantially higher than average levels of radon in water in certain geological areas. 12 refs., 4 tabs

  2. The Development and Optimization of Techniques for Monitoring Water Quality on-Board Spacecraft Using Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction (C-SPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, April Ann [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The main focus of this dissertation is the design, development, and ground and microgravity validation of methods for monitoring drinking water quality on-board NASA spacecraft using clorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE). The Introduction will overview the need for in-flight water quality analysis and will detail some of the challenges associated with operations in the absence of gravity. The ability of C-SPE methods to meet these challenges will then be discussed, followed by a literature review on existing applications of C-SPE and similar techniques. Finally, a brief discussion of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy theory, which provides a means for analyte identification and quantification in C-SPE analyses, is presented. Following the Introduction, four research chapters are presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 reports the results from microgravity testing of existing C-SPE methods and procedures aboard NASA's C-9 microgravity simulator. Chapter 2 discusses the development of a C-SPE method for determining the total concentration of biocidal silver (i.e., in both dissolved and colloidal forms) in water samples. Chapter 3 presents the first application of the C-SPE technique to the determination of an organic analyte (i.e., formaldehyde). Chapter 4, which is a departure from the main focus of the thesis, details the results of an investigation into the effect of substrate rotation on the kinetics involved in the antigen and labeling steps in sandwich immunoassays. These research chapters are followed by general conclusions and a prospectus section.

  3. Proposal for the utilisation of water hyacinth for paper and board making. Commonwealth Regional (Asia/Pacific) Rural Technology Programme proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    results. The use of potassium hydroxide as the cooking chemical and digestion at atmospheric pressure of the stalk and leaves have been mentioned. The water hyacinth pulp produced under optimum cooking parameters can be beaten in a very short time to get the desired degree of freeness. This is possible due to very fine and soft fibre characteristics; but the pulp becomes too hydrated with a high beater load, resulting in a slow drainage rate with high shrinkage properties. These factors can be removed or minimised by incorporating a small quantity of some other fibre and by adopting a suitable stock preparation procedure. From the bleached pulp, produced by a two-stage hypochlorite process with an intermediate mild alkali wash, a beautiful white translucent paper with a high natural gloss and very good water resistance can be produced. The finished papers show appreciable strength, appearance and smoothness suitable for writing and printing purposes. Other varieties of papers and boards, like file covers, greeting or invitation cards, visiting cards etc, can be made satisfactorily in hand made paper units

  4. Water chemistry control to meet the advanced design and operation of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Sato, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The road maps on R and D plans for water chemistry of nuclear power systems in Japan have been proposed along with promotion of R and D related water chemistry improvement for the advanced application of light water reactors (LWRs). The technical trends were divided into four categories, dose rate reduction, structural integrity, fuel integrity and radioactive waste reduction, and latest technical break through for each category was shown for the advanced application of LWRs. At the same time, the technical break through and the latest movements for regulation of water chemistry were introduced for each of major organizations related to nuclear engineering in the world. The conclusions were summarized as follows; 1. Water chemistry improvements might contribute to achieve the advanced application of LWRs, while water chemistry should be often changed to achieve the advanced application of LWRs. 2. Only one solution for water chemistry control was not obtained for achieving the advanced application of LWRs, but miscellaneous solutions were possible for achieving one. Optimal water chemistry control was desired for having the good practices for satisfying multi-targets at the same time and it was much affected by the plant unique systems and operational history. 3. That meant it was difficult to determine water chemistry regulation targets for achieving application of LWRs but it was necessary to prepare suitable guideline for good achievement of application of LWRs. That meant the guideline should be recommendation for good practice in the plant. 4. The water chemistry guide line should be modified along with progress of plant operation and water chemistry and related technologies. (author)

  5. Cooling water conditioning and quality control for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gootgeld, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Designers and operators of Tokamaks and all associated water cooled, peripheral equipment, are faced with the task of providing and maintaining closed-loop, low conductivity, low impurity, cooling water systems. The primary reason for supplying low conductivity water to the DIII-D vacuum vessel coils, power supplies and auxiliary heating components is to assure, along with the use of a non-conducting break in the supply piping, sufficient electrical resistance and thus an acceptable current-leakage path to ground at operating voltage potentials. As important, good quality cooling water significantly reduces the likelihood of scaling and fouling of flow passages and heat transfer surfaces. Dissolved oxygen gas removal is also required in one major DIII-D cooling water system to minimize corrosion in the ion sources of the neutral beam injectors. Currently, the combined pumping capacity of the high quality cooling water systems at DIII-D is ∼5,000 gpm. Another area that receives close attention at DIII-D is the chemical treatment of the water used in the cooling towers. This paper discusses the DIII-D water quality requirements, the means used to obtain the necessary quality and the instrumentation used for control and monitoring. Costs to mechanically and chemically condition and maintain water quality are discussed as well as the various aspects of complying with government standards and regulations

  6. Strategies to water pollution control in western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGWenchao; CHENGJijian; LONGTengrui; HEQiang

    2003-01-01

    Problems of and main limiting factors to Chinese western eco-environment are analyzea firstly and principles of integrating water pollution control with water resources planning and management, with ecological construction and with economic development planning and setting control priorities according to local conditions are proposed. Following strategies for water pollution control are suggested: 1) a master plan for western area need to be established as soon as possible; 2) total emission control should be regarded as the basic policy and measures such as clean production, charging and subsidy need to be implemented; 3) point sources pollution control should be considered the main task in short term and centralized wasteweter treatment plants by using sustainable processes should be constructed primarily for large and medium-size cities with heavier pollution; 4) sound institutional and regulation systems need to be established to create an enabling environment; 5) multiple investment system should be established; and 6) studies of pragmatic theories and methodologies for water pollution control and cost-effective technologies appropriate to western area, and training of local technicians need to be enhanced as well.

  7. Automatic power control for a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hah, Yung Joon

    1994-02-01

    During a normal operation of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the reactivity is controlled by control rods, boron, and the average temperature of the primary coolant. Especially in load follow operation, the reactivity change is induced by changes in power level and effects of xenon concentration. The control of the core power distribution is concerned, mainly, with the axial power distribution which depends on insertion and withdrawal of the control rods resulting in additional reactivity compensation. The utilization of part strength control element assemblies (PSCEAs) is quite appropriate for a control of the power distribution in the case of Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 3 (YGN Unit 3). However, control of the PSCEAs is not automatic, and changes in the boron concentration by dilution/boration are done manually. Thus, manual control of the PSCEAs and the boron concentration require the operator's experience and knowledge for a successful load follow operation. In this thesis, the new concepts have been proposed to adapt for an automatic power control in a PWR. One of the new concepts is the mode K control, another is a fuzzy power control. The system in mode K control implements a heavy-worth bank dedicated to axial shape control, independent of the existing regulating banks. The heavy bank provides a monotonic relationship between its motion and the axial power shape change, which allows automatic control of the axial power distribution. And the mode K enables precise regulation, by using double closed-loop control of the reactor coolant temperature and the axial power difference. Automatic reactor power control permits the nuclear power plant to accommodate the load follow operations, including frequency control, to respond to the grid requirements. The mode K reactor control concepts were tested using simulation responses of a Korean standardized 1000-MWe PWR which is a reference plant for the YGN Unit 3. The simulation results illustrate that the mode K would be

  8. Cooling water conditioning and quality control for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gootgeld, A.M.

    1995-10-01

    Designers and operators of Tokamaks and all associated water cooled, peripheral equipment, are faced with the task of providing and maintaining closed-loop, low conductivity, low impurity, cooling water systems. Most of these systems must provide large volumes of high quality cooling water at reasonable cost and comply with local and state government orders and EPA mandated national pretreatment standards and regulations. This paper discusses the DIII-D water quality requirements, the means used to obtain the necessary quality and the instrumentation used for control and monitoring. Costs to mechanically and chemically condition and maintain water quality are discussed as well as the various aspects of complying with government standards and regulations

  9. Conjunctively optimizing flash flood control and water quality in urban water reservoirs by model predictive control and dynamic emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Goedbloed, Albert; Schmitter, Petra; Castelletti, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Urban water reservoirs are a viable adaptation option to account for increasing drinking water demand of urbanized areas as they allow storage and re-use of water that is normally lost. In addition, the direct availability of freshwater reduces pumping costs and diversifies the portfolios of drinking water supply. Yet, these benefits have an associated twofold cost. Firstly, the presence of large, impervious areas increases the hydraulic efficiency of urban catchments, with short time of concentration, increased runoff rates, losses of infiltration and baseflow, and higher risk of flash floods. Secondly, the high concentration of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges is likely to cause water quality problems. In this study we propose a new control scheme combining Model Predictive Control (MPC), hydro-meteorological forecasts and dynamic model emulation to design real-time operating policies that conjunctively optimize water quantity and quality targets. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts, which are crucial in such fast-varying systems. In addition, the reduced computational requests of the MPC scheme allows coupling it with dynamic emulators of water quality processes. The approach is demonstrated on Marina Reservoir, a multi-purpose reservoir located in the heart of Singapore and characterized by a large, highly urbanized catchment with a short (i.e. approximately one hour) time of concentration. Results show that the MPC scheme, coupled with a water quality emulator, provides a good compromise between different operating objectives, namely flood risk reduction, drinking water supply and salinity control. Finally, the scheme is used to assess the effect of source control measures (e.g. green roofs) aimed at restoring the natural hydrological regime of Marina Reservoir catchment.

  10. A vadose zone water fluxmeter with divergence control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Caldwell, T.G.; Ritter, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Unsaturated water flux densities are needed to quantify water and contaminant transfer within the vadose zone. However, water flux densities are seldom measured directly and often are predicted with uncertainties of an order or magnitude or more. A water fluxmeter was designed, constructed, and tested to directly measure drainage fluxes in field soils. The fluxmeter was designed to minimize divergence. It concentrates flow into a narrow sensing region filled with a fiberglass wick. The wick applies suction, proportional to its length, and passively drains the meter. The meter can be installed in an augured borehole at almost any depth below the root zone. Water flux through the meter is measured with a self‐calibrating tipping bucket, with a sensitivity of ∼4 mL tip−1. For our meter this is equivalent to detection limit of ∼0.1 mm. Passive‐wick devices previously have not properly corrected for flow divergence. Laboratory measurements supported predictions of a two‐dimensional (2‐D) numerical model, which showed that control of the collector height H and knowledge of soil hydraulic properties are required for improving divergence control, particularly at fluxes below 1000 mm yr−1. The water fluxmeter is simple in concept, is inexpensive, and has the capability of providing continuous and reliable monitoring of unsaturated water fluxes ranging from less than 1 mm yr−1 to more than 1000 mm yr−1.

  11. Process Control for Precipitation Prevention in Space Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Muirhead, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, rotary distillation systems have been actively pursued by NASA as one of the technologies for water recovery from wastewater primarily comprised of human urine. A specific area of interest is the prevention of the formation of solids that could clog fluid lines and damage rotating equipment. To mitigate the formation of solids, operational constraints are in place that limits such that the concentration of key precipitating ions in the wastewater brine are below the theoretical threshold. This control in effected by limiting the amount of water recovered such that the risk of reaching the precipitation threshold is within acceptable limits. The water recovery limit is based on an empirically derived worst case wastewater composition. During the batch process, water recovery is estimated by monitoring the throughput of the system. NASA Johnson Space Center is working on means of enhancing the process controls to increase water recovery. Options include more precise prediction of the precipitation threshold. To this end, JSC is developing a means of more accurately measuring the constituent of the brine and/or wastewater. Another means would be to more accurately monitor the throughput of the system. In spring of 2015, testing will be performed to test strategies for optimizing water recovery without increasing the risk of solids formation in the brine.

  12. Control of corrosion and aggression in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, R E; Morrison, I; Wentzel, M C

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion and/or aggression are common problems arising in pipelines transporting terrestrial waters. The kinetics and severity of such events depend on both the quality of the water being transported and the material properties of the pipeline. Irrespective of the nature of the problem, its solution (or at least its minimisation) is strongly linked to control of pH, calcium concentration and carbonate chemistry of the water (stabilisation). However, application of such chemistry to water treatment problems is complex and time consuming. Various numerical, graphical and computer techniques have been developed to address this, but these are either of insufficient accuracy, too time consuming or lacking in generality. In this paper algorithms are presented for solving a broad spectrum of problems related to control of mineral precipitation/aggression, pH and chemical dosing in water treatment. These have been incorporated into a computer software package, STASOFT, which offers the requisite framework for use in water treatment. Various stabilisation problems pertinent to water supply are addressed.

  13. Dynamic and inertial controls on forest carbon-water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T.; Silva, L.; Horwath, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    This study fuses theory, empirical measurements, and statistical models to evaluate multiple processes controlling coupled carbon-water cycles in forest ecosystems. A series of latitudinal and altitudinal transects across the California Sierra Nevada was used to study the effects of climatic and edaphic gradients on intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) - CO2 fixed per unit of water lost via transpiration - of nine dominant trees species. Transfer functions were determined between leaf, litter, and soil organic matter stable isotope ratios of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, revealing causal links between the physiological performance of tree species and stand-level estimations of productivity and water balance. Our results show that species iWUE is governed both by leaf traits (24% of the variation) and edaphic properties, such as parent material and soil development (3% and 12% of the variation, respectively). We show that soil properties combined with isotopic indicators can be used to explain constraints over iWUE by regulating water and nutrient availability across elevation gradients. Based on observed compositional shifts likely driven by changing climates in the region, encroachment of broad leaf trees could lead to an 80% increase in water loss via transpiration for each unit of CO2 fixed in Sierra mixed conifer zones. A combination of field-based, laboratory, and remote sensed data provide a useful framework for differentiating the effect of multiple controls of carbon and water cycles in temperate forest ecosystems.

  14. The Closed-Loop Control of a Three-Phase Inverter Using a DSPACE DS1102 DSP Board

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frasz, Derek

    1998-01-01

    .... Electrical Control Units, ECUs, control these converters and inverters. Development of an ECU begins with a prototype design, used by the engineer to test the ability of an experimental algorithm to control a physical system...

  15. Technical Basis for Water Chemistry Control of IGSCC in Boiling Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Barry; Garcia, Susan

    Boiling water reactors (BWRs) operate with very high purity water. However, even the utilization of near theoretical conductivity water cannot prevent intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of sensitized stainless steel, wrought nickel alloys and nickel weld metals under oxygenated conditions. IGSCC can be further accelerated by the presence of certain impurities dissolved in the coolant. The goal of this paper is to present the technical basis for controlling various impurities under both oxygenated, i.e., normal water chemistry (NWC) and deoxygenated, i.e., hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) conditions for mitigation of IGSCC. More specifically, the effects of typical BWR ionic impurities (e.g., sulfate, chloride, nitrate, borate, phosphate, etc.) on IGSCC propensities in both NWC and HWC environments will be discussed. The technical basis for zinc addition to the BWR coolant will also provided along with an in-plant example of the most severe water chemistry transient to date.

  16. Digital control application for the advanced boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennern, L.E.; Pearson, T.; Wills, H.D.; Swire Rhodes, L.; Pearson, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is a 1300 MWe class Nuclear Power Plant whose design studies and demonstration tests are being performed by the three manufacturers, General Electric, Toshiba and Hitachi, under requirement specifications from the Tokyo Electric Power Company. The goals are to apply new technology to the BWR in order to achieve enhanced operational efficiencies, improved safety measures and cost reductions. In the plant instrumentation and control areas, traditional analog control equipment and wire cables will be replaced by distributed digital microprocessor based control units communicating with each other and the control room over fiber optic multiplexed data buses

  17. Fuzzy power control algorithm for a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hah, Y.J.; Lee, B.W.

    1994-01-01

    A fuzzy power control algorithm is presented for automatic reactor power control in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Automatic power shape control is complicated by the use of control rods with a conventional proportional-integral-differential controller because it is highly coupled with reactivity compensation. Thus, manual shape controls are usually employed even for the limited capability needed for load-following operations including frequency control. In an attempt to achieve automatic power shape control without any design modifications to the core, a fuzzy power control algorithm is proposed. For the fuzzy control, the rule base is formulated based on a multiple-input multiple-output system. The minimum operation rule and the center of area method are implemented for the development of the fuzzy algorithm. The fuzzy power control algorithm has been applied to Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 3. The simulation results show that the fuzzy control can be adapted as a practical control strategy for automatic reactor power control of PWRs during the load-following operations

  18. Application of the high-temperature ratio method for evaluation of the depth distribution of dose equivalent in a water-filled phantom on board space station Mir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, T.; Hajek, M.; Schoener, W.; Fugger, M.; Vana, N.; Akatov, Y.; Shurshakov, V.; Arkhangelsky, V.; Kartashov, D.

    2002-01-01

    A water-filled tissue equivalent phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems, Moscow, Russia. It contains four channels perpendicular to each other, where dosemeters can be exposed at different depths. Between May 1997 and February 1999 the phantom was installed at three different locations on board the Mir space station. Thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) were exposed at various depths inside the phantom either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. The high-temperature ratio (HTR) method was used for the evaluation of the TLDs. The method was developed at the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna, Austria, and has already been used for measurements in mixed radiation fields on earth and in space with great success. It uses the changes of peak height ratios in LiF:Mg,Ti glow curves in dependence on the linear energy transfer (LET), and therefore allows determination of an 'averaged' LET as well as measurement of the absorbed dose. A mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent can be calculated according to the Q(LET ( ) relationship proposed by the ICRP. The small size of the LiF dosemeters means that the HTR method can be used to determine the gradient of absorbed dose and dose equivalent inside the tissue equivalent body. (author)

  19. Evaluation of structural integrity and controllability of main feed water control valve for APWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koji Tachibana; Toshikazu Maeda; Hideyuki Morita; Takaharu Hiroe; Koichiro Oketani

    2005-01-01

    In Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), the main feed water control valve always controls the mass flow rate of main feed water to maintain the water level of steam generator within the allowable range. For the main feed water control valve of PWR, we have used an air operated globe valve conventionally since it has large capacity and quick responsibility. On the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR) system conditions, the mass flow rate of main feed water increases compared with the conventional PWR system conditions as an increase of the generating power. So, it is expected that the fluid force will increase, and it could cause critical damage on internal parts of the valve, such as plug, stem, etc. and uncontrollability of the valve. In this study, we measured the stem strain in the fluid tests using scale model and test loop under the APWR feed water flow rate conditions. The stem strain gave the stem stress and the fluid force acting on the plug surface. We evaluated the stem integrity from the stem stress and confirmed the influence which the fluid force had on the valve controllability by simulating the feed water system considering the fluid force. (authors)

  20. Rootstock control of scion transpiration and its acclimation to water deficit are controlled by different genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerit, Elisa; Brendel, Oliver; Lebon, Eric; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Ollat, Nathalie

    2012-04-01

    The stomatal control of transpiration is one of the major strategies by which plants cope with water stress. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of the rootstock control of scion transpiration-related traits over a period of 3 yr. The rootstocks studied were full sibs from a controlled interspecific cross (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon × Vitis riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier), onto which we grafted a single scion genotype. After 10 d without stress, the water supply was progressively limited over a period of 10 d, and a stable water deficit was then applied for 15 d. Transpiration rate was estimated daily and a mathematical curve was fitted to its response to water deficit intensity. We also determined δ(13) C values in leaves, transpiration efficiency and water extraction capacity. These traits were then analysed in a multienvironment (year and water status) quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Quantitative trait loci, independent of year and water status, were detected for each trait. One genomic region was specifically implicated in the acclimation of scion transpiration induced by the rootstock. The QTLs identified colocalized with genes involved in water deficit responses, such as those relating to ABA and hydraulic regulation. Scion transpiration rate and its acclimation to water deficit are thus controlled genetically by the rootstock, through different genetic architectures. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Saline water intrusion toward groundwater: Issues and its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnama S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, saline water pollution has been gaining its importance as the major issue around the world, especially in the urban coastal area. Saline water pollution has major impact on human life and livelihood. It ́s mainly a result from static fossil water and the dynamics of sea water intrusion. The problem of saline water pollution caused by seawater intrusion has been increasing since the beginning of urban population. The problem of sea water intrusion in the urban coastal area must be anticipated as soon as possible especially in the urban areas developed in coastal zones,. This review article aims to; (i analyze the distribution of saline water pollution on urban coastal area in Indonesia and (ii analyze some methods in controlling saline water pollution, especially due to seawater intrusion in urban coastal area. The strength and weakness of each method have been compared, including (a applying different pumping patterns, (b artificial recharge, (c extraction barrier, (d injection barrier and (e subsurface barrier. The best method has been selected considering its possible development in coastal areas of developing countries. The review is based considering the location of Semarang coastal area, Indonesia. The results have shown that artificial recharge and extraction barrier are the most suitable methods to be applied in the area.

  2. Fuzzy logic control of steam generator water level in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, C.C.; Lin, C.; Hsu, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a fuzzy logic controller is applied to control the steam generator water level in a pressurized water reactor. The method does not require a detailed mathematical mode of the object to be controlled. The design is based on a set of linguistic rules that were adopted from the human operator's experience. After off-line fuzzy computation, the controller is a lookup table, and thus, real-time control is achieved. Shrink-and-swell phenomena are considered in the linguistic rules, and the simulation results show that their effect is dramatically reduced. The performance of the control system can also be improved by changing the input and output scaling factors, which is convenient for on-line tuning

  3. Leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste printed circuit boards of mobile phone by iodide lixiviant after supercritical water pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Qi, Yingying; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2015-07-01

    Precious metals are the most attractive resources in waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) of mobile phones. In this work, an alternative process for recovering Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) pre-treatment combined with iodine-iodide leaching process was developed. In the process, the waste PCBs of mobile phones were pre-treated in supercritical water, then a diluted hydrochloric acid leaching (HL) process was used to recovery the Cu, whose leaching efficiency was approximately 100%, finally the resulting residue was subjected to the iodine-iodide leaching process for recovering the Au, Ag, and Pd. Experimental results indicated that SCWO pre-treatment temperature, time, and pressure had significant influence on the Au, Ag, and Pd leaching from (SCWO+HL)-treated waste PCBs. The optimal SCWO pre-treatment conditions were 420°C and 60min for Au and Pd, and 410°C and 30min for Ag. The optimum dissolution parameters for Au, Pd, and Ag in (SCWO+HL)-treated PCBs with iodine-iodide system were leaching time of 120min (90min for Ag), iodine/iodide mole ratio of 1:5 (1:6 for Ag), solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L) of 1:10g/mL (1:8g/mL for Ag), and pH of 9, respectively. It is believed that the process developed in this study is environment friendly for the recovery of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by SCWO pre-treatment combined with iodine-iodide leaching process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological control of schistosome transmission in flowing water habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, W R; Laracuente, A

    1979-09-01

    Marisa cornuarietis was evaluated in Puerto Rico for control of schistosome transmission in flowing water. A population of Biomphalaria glabrata and their schistosome infections disappeared after introduction of 20,000 M. cornuarietis to an endemic stream, while in nearby untreated streams the B. glabrata population remained stable and the schistosome prevalence increased. This method cost U.S. $0.10 per capita for over a year of protection, 5%-10% of the cost of chemical control.

  5. Supercooling of Water Controlled by Nanoparticles and Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Jia, Lisi; Chen, Ying; Li, Yi'ang; Li, Jun; Mo, Songping

    2018-05-01

    Nanoparticles, including Al2O3 and SiO2, and ultrasound were adopted to improve the solidification properties of water. The effects of nanoparticle concentration, contact angle, and ultrasonic intensity on the supercooling degree of water were investigated, as well as the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in water during solidification. Experimental results show that the supercooling degree of water is reduced under the combined effect of ultrasound and nanoparticles. Consequently, the reduction of supercooling degree increases with the increase of ultrasonic intensity and nanoparticle concentration and decrease of contact angle of nanoparticles. Moreover, the reduction of supercooling degree caused by ultrasound and nanoparticles together do not exceed the sum of the supercooling degree reductions caused by ultrasound and nanoparticles separately; the reduction is even smaller than that caused by ultrasound individually under certain conditions of controlled nanoparticle concentration and contact angle and ultrasonic intensity. The dispersion stability of nanoparticles during solidification can be maintained only when the nanoparticles and ultrasound together show a superior effect on reducing the supercooling degree of water to the single operation of ultrasound. Otherwise, the aggregation of nanoparticles appears in water solidification, which results in failure. The relationships among the meaningful nanoparticle concentration, contact angle, and ultrasonic intensity, at which the requirements of low supercooling and high stability could be satisfied, were obtained. The control mechanisms for these phenomena were analyzed.

  6. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  7. The Role of Monitoring in Controlling Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Allan

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of trends in the national water pollution control effort and to describe the role of monitoring in that effort, particularly in relation to the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). I hope the paper will serve as a useful framework for the more specific discussions of monitoring technology to follow.

  8. Aquaponic Growbed Water Level Control Using Fog Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi Romli, Muhamad; Daud, Shuhaizar; Raof, Rafikha Aliana A.; Awang Ahmad, Zahari; Mahrom, Norfadilla

    2018-05-01

    Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) is an advance method of aquaculture which combines species with different nutritional needs to live together. The combination between aquatic live and crops is called aquaponics. Aquatic waste that normally removed by biofilters in normal aquaculture practice will be absorbed by crops in this practice. Aquaponics have few common components and growbed provide the best filtration function. In growbed a siphon act as mechanical structure to control water fill and flush process. Water to the growbed comes from fish tank with multiple flow speeds based on the pump specification and height. Too low speed and too fast flow rate can result in siphon malfunctionality. Pumps with variable speed do exist but it is costly. Majority of the aquaponic practitioner use single speed pump and try to match the pump speed with siphon operational requirement. In order to remove the matching requirement some control need to be introduced. Preliminarily this research will show the concept of fill-and-flush for multiple pumping speeds. The final aim of this paper is to show how water level management can be done to remove the speed dependency. The siphon tried to be controlled remotely since wireless data transmission quite practical in vast operational area. Fog architecture will be used in order to transmit sensor data and control command. This paper able to show the water able to be retented in the growbed within suggested duration by stopping the flow in once predefined level.

  9. THE CORROSION CONTROL-WATER QUALITY SPIDER WEB

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides an overview of new research results and emerging research needs with respect to both corrosion control issues, (lead, copper, iron) and to issues of inorganic contaminants that can form or accumulate in distribution system, water, pipe scales and distri...

  10. CHIP regulates aquaporin-2 quality control and body water homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qi; Moeller, Hanne B.; Stevens, Donté A.

    2018-01-01

    The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins...... by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro. shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 andphosphorylatedAQP2.CHIP knockdown increased...... the plasma membrane abundance of AQP2 in these cells. Compared with wild-type controls, CHIP knockout mice or novel CRISPR/Cas9 mice without CHIPE3 ligase activity had greater AQP2 abundance and altered renal water handling, with decreased water intake and urine volume, alongside higher urine osmolality. We...

  11. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use

  12. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  13. NaNet3: The on-shore readout and slow-control board for the KM3NeT-Italia underwater neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammendola R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The KM3NeT-Italia underwater neutrino detection unit, the tower, consists of 14 floors. Each floor supports 6 Optical Modules containing front-end electronics needed to digitize the PMT signal, format and transmit the data and 2 hydrophones that reconstruct in real-time the position of Optical Modules, for a maximum tower throughput of more than 600 MB/s. All floor data are collected by the Floor Control Module (FCM board and transmitted by optical bidirectional virtual point-to-point connections to the on-shore laboratory, each FCM needing an on-shore counterpart as communication endpoint. In this contribution we present NaNet3, an on-shore readout board based on Altera Stratix V GX FPGA able to manage multiple FCM data channels with a capability of 800 Mbps each. The design is a NaNet customization for the KM3NeT-Italia experiment, adding support in its I/O interface for a synchronous link protocol with deterministic latency at physical level and for a Time Division Multiplexing protocol at data level.

  14. NaNet3: The on-shore readout and slow-control board for the KM3NeT-Italia underwater neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lo Cicero, F.; Martinelli, M.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pontisso, L.; Simula, F.; Vicini, P.; Ameli, F.; Nicolau, C. A.; Pastorelli, E.; Simeone, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Lonardo, A.

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT-Italia underwater neutrino detection unit, the tower, consists of 14 floors. Each floor supports 6 Optical Modules containing front-end electronics needed to digitize the PMT signal, format and transmit the data and 2 hydrophones that reconstruct in real-time the position of Optical Modules, for a maximum tower throughput of more than 600 MB/s. All floor data are collected by the Floor Control Module (FCM) board and transmitted by optical bidirectional virtual point-to-point connections to the on-shore laboratory, each FCM needing an on-shore counterpart as communication endpoint. In this contribution we present NaNet3, an on-shore readout board based on Altera Stratix V GX FPGA able to manage multiple FCM data channels with a capability of 800 Mbps each. The design is a NaNet customization for the KM3NeT-Italia experiment, adding support in its I/O interface for a synchronous link protocol with deterministic latency at physical level and for a Time Division Multiplexing protocol at data level.

  15. Annual report to the Atomic Energy Control Board on the Regulatory Research and Support Program April 1, 1994 - March 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The Regulatory Research and Support Program (RSP) is intended to augment and extend activities, undertaken by the Atomic Energy Control Board, beyond what would be possible with in-house resources. The overall objective of the research and support activity is to produce pertinent and independent information that will assist the Board and its staff in making sound, timely and credible decisions for the regulation of nuclear facilities and materials. Represented in this report is a cataloging of seven appendices. The membership of active review panels is given in Appendix A. Appendix B contains summary descriptions and information on the status of individual projects. Appendix C presents a list of those projects which were within the overall RSP but were not active during the year. Appendix D lists the projects undergoing review of final report or post-project evaluation. All projects which were worked on during the year are listed in Appendix E. Specific objectives set for the RSP for Fiscal Year 1994/95 and the degree to which the objectives were achieved are outlined in Appendix F. Appendix G lists the INFO-series reports that were published during Fiscal Year 1994/95. 157 tabs

  16. Annual report to the Atomic Energy Control Board on the Regulatory Research and Support Program April 1, 1994 - March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Regulatory Research and Support Program (RSP) is intended to augment and extend activities, undertaken by the Atomic Energy Control Board, beyond what would be possible with in-house resources. The overall objective of the research and support activity is to produce pertinent and independent information that will assist the Board and its staff in making sound, timely and credible decisions for the regulation of nuclear facilities and materials. Represented in this report is a cataloging of seven appendices. The membership of active review panels is given in Appendix A. Appendix B contains summary descriptions and information on the status of individual projects. Appendix C presents a list of those projects which were within the overall RSP but were not active during the year. Appendix D lists the projects undergoing review of final report or post-project evaluation. All projects which were worked on during the year are listed in Appendix E. Specific objectives set for the RSP for Fiscal Year 1994/95 and the degree to which the objectives were achieved are outlined in Appendix F. Appendix G lists the INFO-series reports that were published during Fiscal Year 1994/95. 157 tabs.

  17. Annual report to the Atomic Energy Control Board on the Regulatory Research and Support Program April 1, 1994 - March 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The Regulatory Research and Support Program (RSP) is intended to augment and extend activities, undertaken by the Atomic Energy Control Board, beyond what would be possible with in-house resources. The overall objective of the research and support activity is to produce pertinent and independent information that will assist the Board and its staff in making sound, timely and credible decisions for the regulation of nuclear facilities and materials. During Fiscal Year 1994/95, a total of $3.245M was spent of RSP research and support work. The range of activities included projects in the general fields of nuclear reactors, fuel cycle facilities, uranium mines and mills, waste management, dosimetry, health physics, regulations and regulatory process development, and other special support services. Some of this work was organized into sub-program groups, each of which addresses research and support effort in theme-related areas. Five sub-programs were launched during the year bringing to eight the total number of such sub-programs. Areas addressed in the sub-programs are environmental impact assessment and management, safety critical software, seismologic studies, pressure boundary integrity, integrity of containment and safety-related structures, human factors, internal dosimetry, and health effects in human populations. During the year, there were a total of 157 active projects

  18. The assessment of postural control and the influence of a secondary task in people with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knees using a Nintendo Wii Balance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Brooke E; Clark, Ross A; Ardern, Clare L; Bryant, Adam L; Feller, Julian A; Whitehead, Timothy S; Webster, Kate E

    2013-09-01

    Postural control impairments may persist following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The effect of a secondary task on postural control has, however, not been determined. The purpose of this case-control study was to compare postural control in patients following ACL reconstruction with healthy individuals with and without a secondary task. 45 patients (30 men and 15 women) participated at least 6 months following primary ACL reconstruction surgery. Participants were individually matched by age, gender and sports activity to healthy controls. Postural control was measured using a Nintendo Wii Balance Board and customised software during static single-leg stance and with the addition of a secondary task. The secondary task required participants to match the movement of an oscillating marker by adducting and abducting their arm. Centre of pressure (CoP) path length in both medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, and CoP total path length. When compared with the control group, the anterior-posterior path length significantly increased in the ACL reconstruction patients' operated (12.3%, p=0.02) and non-operated limbs (12.8%, p=0.02) for the single-task condition, and the non-operated limb (11.5%, p=0.006) for the secondary task condition. The addition of a secondary task significantly increased CoP path lengths in all measures (pcontrol groups. ACL reconstruction patients showed a reduced ability in both limbs to control the movement of the body in the anterior-posterior direction. The secondary task affected postural control by comparable amounts in patients after ACL reconstruction and healthy controls. Devices for the objective measurement of postural control, such as the one used in this study, may help clinicians to more accurately identify patients with deficits who may benefit from targeted neuromuscular training programs.

  19. 46 CFR 96.40-1 - Pilot boarding equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding equipment. 96.40-1 Section 96.40-1... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Pilot Boarding Equipment § 96.40-1 Pilot boarding... boat or other vessel. (b) Each vessel must have suitable pilot boarding equipment available for use on...

  20. 46 CFR 195.40-1 - Pilot boarding equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding equipment. 195.40-1 Section 195.40-1... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Pilot Boarding Equipment § 195.40-1 Pilot boarding... boat or other vessel. (b) Each vessel must have suitable pilot boarding equipment available for use on...

  1. Instrumentation and control strategies for an integral pressurized water reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several vendors have recently been actively pursuing the development of integral pressurized water reactors (iPWRs that range in power levels from small to large reactors. Integral reactors have the features of minimum vessel penetrations, passive heat removal after reactor shutdown, and modular construction that allow fast plant integration and a secure fuel cycle. The features of an integral reactor limit the options for placing control and safety system instruments. The development of instrumentation and control (I&C strategies for a large 1,000 MWe iPWR is described. Reactor system modeling—which includes reactor core dynamics, primary heat exchanger, and the steam flashing drum—is an important part of I&C development and validation, and thereby consolidates the overall implementation for a large iPWR. The results of simulation models, control development, and instrumentation features illustrate the systematic approach that is applicable to integral light water reactors.

  2. High Resolution Sensing and Control of Urban Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, M. D.; Wong, B. P.; Kerkez, B.

    2016-12-01

    We present a framework to enable high-resolution sensing, modeling, and control of urban watersheds using (i) a distributed sensor network based on low-cost cellular-enabled motes, (ii) hydraulic models powered by a cloud computing infrastructure, and (iii) automated actuation valves that allow infrastructure to be controlled in real time. This platform initiates two major advances. First, we achieve a high density of measurements in urban environments, with an anticipated 40+ sensors over each urban area of interest. In addition to new measurements, we also illustrate the design and evaluation of a "smart" control system for real-world hydraulic networks. This control system improves water quality and mitigates flooding by using real-time hydraulic models to adaptively control releases from retention basins. We evaluate the potential of this platform through two ongoing deployments: (i) a flood monitoring network in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area that detects and anticipates floods at the level of individual roadways, and (ii) a real-time hydraulic control system in the city of Ann Arbor, MI—soon to be one of the most densely instrumented urban watersheds in the United States. Through these applications, we demonstrate that distributed sensing and control of water infrastructure can improve flash flood predictions, emergency response, and stormwater contaminant mitigation.

  3. Impact of water control projects on fisheries resources in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Monirul Qader; Ericksen, Neil J.

    1996-07-01

    Bangladesh is a very flat delta built up by the Ganges—Brahmaputra—Meghna/Barak river systems. Because of its geographical location, floods cause huge destruction of lives and properties almost every year. Water control programs have been undertaken to enhance development through mitigating the threat of disasters. This structural approach to flood hazard has severely affected floodplain fisheries that supply the major share of protein to rural Bangladesh, as exemplified by the Chandpur Irrigation Project. Although the regulated environment of the Chandpur project has become favorable for closed-water cultured fish farming, the natural open-water fishery loss has been substantial. Results from research show that fish yields were better under preproject conditions. Under project conditions per capita fish consumption has dropped significantly, and the price of fish has risen beyond the means of the poor people, so that fish protein in the diet of poor people is gradually declining. Bangladesh is planning to expand water control facilities to the remaining flood-prone areas in the next 15 20 years. This will cause further loss of floodplain fisheries. If prices for closed-water fish remain beyond the buying power of the poor, alternative sources of cheap protein will be required.

  4. Biogeochemical control points in a water-limited critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorover, J.; Brooks, P. D.; Gallery, R. E.; McIntosh, J. C.; Olshansky, Y.; Rasmussen, C.

    2017-12-01

    The routing of water and carbon through complex terrain is postulated to control structure evolution in the sub-humid critical zone of the southwestern US. By combining measurements of land-atmosphere exchange, ecohydrologic partitioning, and subsurface biogeochemistry, we seek to quantify how a heterogeneous (in time and space) distribution of "reactants" impacts both short-term (sub-)catchment response (e.g., pore and surface water chemical dynamics) and long-term landscape evolution (e.g., soil geochemistry/morphology and regolith weathering depth) in watersheds underlain by rhyolite and schist. Instrumented pedons in convergent, planar, and divergent landscape positions show distinct depth-dependent responses to precipitation events. Wetting front propagation, dissolved carbon flux and associated biogeochemical responses (e.g., pulses of CO2 production, O2 depletion, solute release) vary with topography, revealing the influence of lateral subsidies of water and carbon. The impacts of these episodes on the evolution of porous media heterogeneity is being investigated by statistical analysis of pore water chemistry, chemical/spectroscopic studies of solid phase organo-mineral products, sensor-derived water characteristic curves, and quantification of co-located microbial community activity/composition. Our results highlight the interacting effects of critical zone structure and convergent hydrologic flows in the evolution of biogeochemical control points.

  5. Skin lipid structure controls water permeability in snake molts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Cristian; Mangoni, Alfonso; Teta, Roberta; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Fermani, Simona; Bonacini, Irene; Gazzano, Massimo; Burghammer, Manfred; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The role of lipids in controlling water exchange is fundamentally a matter of molecular organization. In the present study we have observed that in snake molt the water permeability drastically varies among species living in different climates and habitats. The analysis of molts from four snake species: tiger snake, Notechis scutatus, gabon viper, Bitis gabonica, rattle snake, Crotalus atrox, and grass snake, Natrix natrix, revealed correlations between the molecular composition and the structural organization of the lipid-rich mesos layer with control in water exchange as a function of temperature. It was discovered, merging data from micro-diffraction and micro-spectroscopy with those from thermal, NMR and chromatographic analyses, that this control is generated from a sophisticated structural organization that changes size and phase distribution of crystalline domains of specific lipid molecules as a function of temperature. Thus, the results of this research on four snake species suggest that in snake skins different structured lipid layers have evolved and adapted to different climates. Moreover, these lipid structures can protect, "safety", the snakes from water lost even at temperatures higher than those of their usual habitat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq...

  7. The Kostyuk report: Corporate board practices in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Kostyuk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The author reports on the corporate board practices in Ukraine. The roles of board of directors are mainly about control. The strategic and advisory roles are not developed. The mode of strategic involvement of the members of supervisory boards in Ukraine is mainly about reviewing and approving. Thus, the board of directors in Ukraine is "a rubber stamp". The degree of independence of directors is very low. Major board practices in Ukraine are: small number of independent directors on the board; low frequency of meeting of the board; small number of committees on the board; the management board influences the supervisory board. Board practices in Ukraine need a sort of recommendations, similar to those, made in UK at the end of 1990s, and at the start of the third millennium.

  8. Regulations for the peat production water pollution control; Turvetuotannon vesiensuojeluohjeisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, M.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R. [ed.] [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The regulations for peat production water pollution control include the latest information on anti-pollution constructions applicable to peat production including field ditches, sedimentation basins, overland flow areas, forest soil saturation, evaporation basins, chemicalization, detention of runoff and artificial flood plains. Information on subsurface drainage in peat mining is also given. The regulations deal with environmental viewpoints, planning of water protection and information on how to build, use and maintain anti-pollution constructions. Special attention is given to the soil conditions, because they play an important role in the building of different constructions. (orig.) (48 refs.)

  9. Regulations for the peat production water pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, M.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.

    1996-01-01

    The regulations for peat production water pollution control include the latest information on anti-pollution constructions applicable to peat production including field ditches, sedimentation basins, overland flow areas, forest soil saturation, evaporation basins, chemicalization, detention of runoff and artificial flood plains. Information on subsurface drainage in peat mining is also given. The regulations deal with environmental viewpoints, planning of water protection and information on how to build, use and maintain anti-pollution constructions. Special attention is given to the soil conditions, because they play an important role in the building of different constructions. (orig.) (48 refs.)

  10. Chemistry control challenges in a supercritical water-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzonas, David; Tremaine, Peter; Jay-Gerin, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    The long-term viability of a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) will depend on the ability of designers to predict and control water chemistry to minimize corrosion and the transport of corrosion products and radionuclides. Meeting this goal requires an enhanced understanding of water chemistry as the temperature and pressure are raised beyond the critical point. A key aspect of SCWR water chemistry control will be mitigation of the effects of water radiolysis; preliminary studies suggest markedly different behavior than that predicted from simple extrapolations from conventional water-cooled reactor behavior. The commonly used strategy of adding excess hydrogen at concentrations sufficient to suppress the net radiolytic production of primary oxidizing species may not be effective in an SCWR. The behavior of low concentrations of impurities such as transition metal corrosion products, chemistry control agents, anions introduced via make-up water or from ion-exchange resins, and radionuclides (e.g., 60 Co) needs to be understood. The formation of neutral complexes increases with temperature, and can become important under near-critical and supercritical conditions; the most important region is from 300-450 C, where the properties of water change dramatically, and solvent compressibility effects exert a huge influence on solvation. The potential for increased transport and deposition of corrosion products (active and inactive), leading to (a) increased deposition on fuel cladding surfaces, and (b) increased out-of-core radiation fields and worker dose, must be assessed. There are also significant challenges associated with chemistry sampling and monitoring in an SCWR. The typical methods used in current reactor designs (grab samples, on-line monitors at the end of a cooled, depressurized sample line) will be inadequate, and in-situ measurements of key parameters will be required. This paper describes current Canadian activities in SCWR chemistry and chemistry

  11. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  12. Recent experience in water chemistry control at PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Ichiro

    2000-01-01

    At present, 23 units of PWRs are under operation in all of Japan, among which 11 units are operated by the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEP). Plant availability in KEP's PWRs has been improved for the past several years, through their successive stable operation. Recently, a focus is given not only to maintenance of plant integrity, but also to preventive maintenance and water chemistry control. Various measures have been carried out to enhance exposure reduction of the primary water chemistry control in the Japanese PWRs. As a result, environmental dose equivalent rate is decreasing. A secondary system is now under excellent condition because of application of diversified measures for prevention of the SG tube corrosion. At present, the water chemistry control measures which take into account of efficient chemistry control and plant aging deterioration prevention, are being examined to use for both primary and secondary systems in Japanese PWRs, to further enhance their plant integrity and availability. And, some of them are currently being actually applied. (G.K.)

  13. Control and Coordination of Frequency Responsive Residential Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tess L.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2016-07-31

    Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This paper presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.

  14. Fuzzy logic control of water level in advanced boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chaung; Lee, Chi-Szu; Raghavan, R.; Fahrner, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    The feedwater control system in the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is more challenging to design compared to other control systems in the plant, due to the possible change in level from void collapses and swells during transient events. A basic fuzzy logic controller is developed using a simplified ABWR mathematical model to demonstrate and compare the performance of this controller with a simplified conventional controller. To reduce the design effort, methods are developed to automatically tune the scaling factors and control rules. As a first step in developing the fuzzy controller, a fuzzy controller with a limited number of rules is developed to respond to normal plant transients such as setpoint changes of plant parameters and load demand changes. Various simulations for setpoint and load demand changes of plant performances were conducted to evaluate the modeled fuzzy logic design against the simplified ABWR model control system. The simulation results show that the performance of the fuzzy logic controller is comparable to that of the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, However, the fuzzy logic controller produced shorter settling time for step setpoint changes compared to the simplified conventional controller

  15. Automatic control system of a linear actuator for positioning samples to neutron irradiation using low cost open-hardware boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunya, Eduardo; Chan, Renzo; Pacheco, Adison

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design criteria and implementation of an automatic control system based on embedded electronic circuits (microcontrollers) of different architectures (RISC, ARM) and open source framework software CanFestival, to develop user applications. Electronic devices are autonomous and support the functionality required for communication and remote control of the linear actuator. (author)

  16. Laser and infrared techniques for water pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, A.L.; Landolina, F.; Pantani, L.; Cecchi, G.

    1993-01-01

    A remote sensing application for the control of oil pollution and water quality was developed by the National Council of Research at Florence, and the University of Catania, both in Italy. The application is based on the simultaneous use of active antipassive remote sensing systems (lidar and flir systems) from a helicopter. Water pollution characteristics were determined with the lidar system, in polluted areas of water detected, on a larger scale, by the flir system. Pollution characteristics detected included type of pollutant, type of oil, and oil thickness. The experiment, named LIRA, was carried out using an Italian Navy helicopter over sea areas around Sicily having a high risk of pollution. The results proved the effectiveness and usefulness of the techniques proposed

  17. Performance confirmation operation of water environment control facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magome, Hirokatsu; Okada, Yuji; Tomita, Kenji; Iida, Kazuhiro; Ando, Hitoshi; Yonekawa, Akihisa; Ueda, Haruyasu; Hanawa, Hiroshi; Kanno, Masaru; Sakuta, Yoshiyuki

    2015-09-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in order to solve the problem in the long-term operation of a light water reactor, preparation which does the irradiation experiment of light-water reactor fuel and material was advanced. JMTR stopped after the 165th operation cycle in August 2006, and is advancing renewal of the irradiation facility towards re-operation. The material irradiation test facility was installed from 2008 fiscal year to 2012 fiscal year in JMTR. The material irradiation test facility is used for IASCC study, and consists of mainly three equipments. This report described performance operating test of the water environmental control facilities for IASCC study carried out 2013 fiscal year. (author)

  18. Leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste printed circuit boards of mobile phone by iodide lixiviant after supercritical water pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Qi, Yingying; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We report a novel process for recovering Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs. • The effect of SCWO on the leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd in waste PCBs was studied. • SCWO was highly efficient for enhancing the leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd. • The optimum leaching parameters for Au, Ag, and Pd in iodine–iodide were studied. - Abstract: Precious metals are the most attractive resources in waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) of mobile phones. In this work, an alternative process for recovering Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) pre-treatment combined with iodine–iodide leaching process was developed. In the process, the waste PCBs of mobile phones were pre-treated in supercritical water, then a diluted hydrochloric acid leaching (HL) process was used to recovery the Cu, whose leaching efficiency was approximately 100%, finally the resulting residue was subjected to the iodine–iodide leaching process for recovering the Au, Ag, and Pd. Experimental results indicated that SCWO pre-treatment temperature, time, and pressure had significant influence on the Au, Ag, and Pd leaching from (SCWO + HL)-treated waste PCBs. The optimal SCWO pre-treatment conditions were 420 °C and 60 min for Au and Pd, and 410 °C and 30 min for Ag. The optimum dissolution parameters for Au, Pd, and Ag in (SCWO + HL)-treated PCBs with iodine–iodide system were leaching time of 120 min (90 min for Ag), iodine/iodide mole ratio of 1:5 (1:6 for Ag), solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L) of 1:10 g/mL (1:8 g/mL for Ag), and pH of 9, respectively. It is believed that the process developed in this study is environment friendly for the recovery of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by SCWO pre-treatment combined with iodine–iodide leaching process

  19. Leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste printed circuit boards of mobile phone by iodide lixiviant after supercritical water pre-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong, E-mail: xiu_chem@hotmail.com [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Qi, Yingying [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Zhang, Fu-Shen [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We report a novel process for recovering Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs. • The effect of SCWO on the leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd in waste PCBs was studied. • SCWO was highly efficient for enhancing the leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd. • The optimum leaching parameters for Au, Ag, and Pd in iodine–iodide were studied. - Abstract: Precious metals are the most attractive resources in waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) of mobile phones. In this work, an alternative process for recovering Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) pre-treatment combined with iodine–iodide leaching process was developed. In the process, the waste PCBs of mobile phones were pre-treated in supercritical water, then a diluted hydrochloric acid leaching (HL) process was used to recovery the Cu, whose leaching efficiency was approximately 100%, finally the resulting residue was subjected to the iodine–iodide leaching process for recovering the Au, Ag, and Pd. Experimental results indicated that SCWO pre-treatment temperature, time, and pressure had significant influence on the Au, Ag, and Pd leaching from (SCWO + HL)-treated waste PCBs. The optimal SCWO pre-treatment conditions were 420 °C and 60 min for Au and Pd, and 410 °C and 30 min for Ag. The optimum dissolution parameters for Au, Pd, and Ag in (SCWO + HL)-treated PCBs with iodine–iodide system were leaching time of 120 min (90 min for Ag), iodine/iodide mole ratio of 1:5 (1:6 for Ag), solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L) of 1:10 g/mL (1:8 g/mL for Ag), and pH of 9, respectively. It is believed that the process developed in this study is environment friendly for the recovery of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by SCWO pre-treatment combined with iodine–iodide leaching process.

  20. Use of multiple water surface flow constructed wetlands for non-point source water pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Yan; Chu, Zhaosheng; He, Yan; Huang, Minsheng

    2018-05-02

    Multiple free water surface flow constructed wetlands (multi-FWS CWs) are a variety of conventional water treatment plants for the interception of pollutants. This review encapsulated the characteristics and applications in the field of ecological non-point source water pollution control technology. The roles of in-series design and operation parameters (hydraulic residence time, hydraulic load rate, water depth and aspect ratio, composition of influent, and plant species) for performance intensification were also analyzed, which were crucial to achieve sustainable and effective contaminants removal, especially the retention of nutrient. The mechanism study of design and operation parameters for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus was also highlighted. Conducive perspectives for further research on optimizing its design/operation parameters and advanced technologies of ecological restoration were illustrated to possibly interpret the functions of multi-FWS CWs.

  1. Water hammer prediction and control: the Green's function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Li-Jun; Mao, Feng; Wu, Jie-Zhi

    2012-04-01

    By Green's function method we show that the water hammer (WH) can be analytically predicted for both laminar and turbulent flows (for the latter, with an eddy viscosity depending solely on the space coordinates), and thus its hazardous effect can be rationally controlled and minimized. To this end, we generalize a laminar water hammer equation of Wang et al. (J. Hydrodynamics, B2, 51, 1995) to include arbitrary initial condition and variable viscosity, and obtain its solution by Green's function method. The predicted characteristic WH behaviors by the solutions are in excellent agreement with both direct numerical simulation of the original governing equations and, by adjusting the eddy viscosity coefficient, experimentally measured turbulent flow data. Optimal WH control principle is thereby constructed and demonstrated.

  2. Arid Green Infrastructure for Water Control and Conservation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure is an approach to managing wet weather flows using systems and practices that mimic natural processes. It is designed to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible and protect the quality of receiving waters. Although most green infrastructure practices were first developed in temperate climates, green infrastructure also can be a cost-effective approach to stormwater management and water conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, such as those found in the western and southwestern United States. Green infrastructure practices can be applied at the site, neighborhood and watershed scales. In addition to water management and conservation, implementing green infrastructure confers many social and economic benefits and can address issues of environmental justice. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commissioned a literature review to identify the state-of-the science practices dealing with water control and conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, with emphasis on these regions in the United States. The search focused on stormwater control measures or practices that slow, capture, treat, infiltrate and/or store runoff at its source (i.e., green infrastructure). The material in Chapters 1 through 3 provides background to EPA’s current activities related to the application of green infrastructure practices in arid and semi-arid regions. An introduction to the topic of green infrastructure in arid and semi-arid regions i

  3. Method of controlling the water quality in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Hidefumi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a simple and reliable water quality calculation system and water quality control method based thereon for the entire primary coolant circuits in BWR type reactors. Method: In a method of controlling the water quality of the reactor water by injecting hydrogen into the primary coolant circuits of a nuclear reactor, by utilizing a first linear relationship established between the concentration of oxygen and hydrogen in the main steam system and the concentration of radiolysis products in the reactor core and separators and mixing plenum portions, each of the above-mentioned concentrations is calculated from the concentrations for hydrogen or oxygen. Further, by utilizing the first linear relationship established between the concentrations for the oxygen and hydrogen in the recycling system and the concentration of the radiolysis products in the system from the downcomer to the lower plenum portion, the above-mentioned concentration is calculated from the concentration for oxygen and hydrogen. Then, the hydrogen injection rate into the primary coolant system is determined such that the calculated value takes an aimed value. (Ikeda, J.)

  4. Expert system for control rod programming of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzaki, T.; Yoshida, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Matsuura, H.; Hoshi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Control rod programming, one of the main tasks in reactor core management of boiling water reactors (BWRs), can be successfully accomplished by well-experienced engineers. By use of core performance evaluation codes, their knowledge plays the main role in searching through optimal control rod patterns and exposure points for adjusting notch positions and exchanging rod patterns. An expert system has been developed, based on a method of knowledge engineering, to lighten the engineer's load in control rod programming. This system utilizes an inference engine suited for planning/designing problems, and stores the knowledge of well-experienced engineers in its knowledge base. In this report, the inference engine, developed considering the characteristics of the control rod programming, is introduced. Then the constitution and function of the expert system are discussed

  5. Ultrasonic treatment for microbiological control of water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekman, S.; Pohlmann, O.; Beardwooden, E. S.; Cordemans de Meulenaer, E.

    2010-01-01

    A combination treatment of shear, micro-bubbles, and high-frequency low-power ultrasound introduced via side-stream treatment of industrial water systems has shown excellent results in controlling bacteria and algae; Through the physical, high-stress environment created by ultrasonic waves, sessile and planktonic biological populations, some of which may undergo programmed cell death (PCD), can be controlled. Additionally, the instability and reduction of biofilm have been observed in systems treated by ultrasound and may be attributed to starvation-stress and lack of available cross-linking cations in the biofilm. (authors)

  6. Ultrasonic treatment for microbiological control of water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekman, S.; Pohlmann, O.; Beardwooden, E. S.; Cordemans de Meulenaer, E. [Ashland Hercules Water Technologies, Krefeld (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    A combination treatment of shear, micro-bubbles, and high-frequency low-power ultrasound introduced via side-stream treatment of industrial water systems has shown excellent results in controlling bacteria and algae; Through the physical, high-stress environment created by ultrasonic waves, sessile and planktonic biological populations, some of which may undergo programmed cell death (PCD), can be controlled. Additionally, the instability and reduction of biofilm have been observed in systems treated by ultrasound and may be attributed to starvation-stress and lack of available cross-linking cations in the biofilm. (authors)

  7. California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) - Impaired Streams and Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset contains California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list which is submitted by the California State Water Resources Control Board. The layer has...

  8. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Padolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Mahoney, Michael J.; Richard, Erik

    2002-01-01

    This work describes transport and thermodynamic processes that control water vapor near the tropopause during the SAGE III-Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), held during the Arctic 1999/2000 winter season. Aircraft-based water vapor, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements were analyzed so as to establish how deeply tropospheric air mixes into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere and what the implications are for cloud formation and water vapor removal in this region of the atmosphere. There are three major findings. First, troposphere-to-stratosphere exchange extends into the Arctic stratosphere to about 13 km. Penetration is to similar levels throughout the winter, however, because ozone increases with altitude most rapidly in the early spring, tropospheric air mixes with the highest values of ozone in that season. The effect of this upward mixing is to elevate water vapor mixing ratios significantly above their prevailing stratospheric values of above 5ppmv. Second, the potential for cloud formation in the stratosphere is highest during early spring, with about 20% of the parcels which have ozone values of 300-350 ppbv experiencing ice saturation in a given 10 day period. Third, during early spring, temperatures at the troposphere are cold enough so that 5-10% of parcels experience relative humidities above 100%, even if the water content is as low as 5 ppmv. The implication is that during this period, dynamical processes near the Arctic tropopause can dehydrate air and keep the Arctic tropopause region very dry during early spring.

  9. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O'Donnell, E.

    1992-10-01

    The project objective is to assess means for controlling waste infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large scale lysimeters (70inch x 45inch x lOinch) at Beltsville, MD and results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of LLW, uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three concepts are under investigation: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and bioengineering water management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earth (clay). The conductive layer barrier is a special case of the capillary barrier and it requires a flow layer (e.g. fine sandy loam) over a capillary break. As long as unsaturated conditions am maintained water is conducted by the flow layer to below the waste. This barrier is most efficient at low flow rates and is thus best placed below a resistive layer barrier. Such a combination of the resistive layer over the conductive layer barrier promises to be highly effective provided there is no appreciable subsidence. Bioengineering water management is a surface cover that is designed to accommodate subsidence. It consists of impermeable panels which enhance run-off and limit infiltration. Vegetation is planted in narrow openings between panels to transpire water from below the panels. TWs system has successfully dewatered two lysimeters thus demonstrating that this procedure could be used for remedial action (''drying out'') existing water-logged disposal sites at low cost

  10. Bleed water testing program for controlled low strength material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Bleed water measurements for two Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) mixes were conducted to provide engineering data for the Tank 20F closure activities. CLSM Mix 1 contained 150 pounds of cement per cubic yard whereas CLSM Mix 2 contained 50 pounds per cub yard. SRS currently used CLSM Mix 2 for various applications. Bleed water percentages and generation rates were measured along with flow and compressive strength. This information will be used to select a mix design for the Tank 20F closure activities and to establish the engineering requirements, such as, lift height, time required between lifts and quantity of bleed water to be removed from the tank during the placement activities. Mix 1 is recommended for placement within Tank 20F because it has better flow characteristics, less segregation, lower percentage of bleed water and slightly higher strength. Optimization of Mix 1 was beyond the scope of this study. However, further testing of thickening additives, such as clays (bentonite), sodium silicate or fine silicas maybe useful for decreasing or eliminating bleed water

  11. Modelling of Control Bars in Calculations of Boiling Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlaifi, A.; Buiron, L.

    2004-01-01

    The core of a nuclear reactor is generally composed of a neat assemblies of fissile material from where neutrons were descended. In general, the energy of fission is extracted by a fluid serving to cool clusters. A reflector is arranged around the assemblies to reduce escaping of neutrons. This is made outside the reactor core. Different mechanisms of reactivity are generally necessary to control the chain reaction. Manoeuvring of Boiling Water Reactor takes place by controlling insertion of absorbent rods to various places of the core. If no blocked assembly calculations are known and mastered, blocked assembly neutronic calculation are delicate and often treated by case to case in present studies [1]. Answering the question how to model crossbar for the control of a boiling water reactor ? requires the choice of a representation level for every chain of variables, the physical model, and its representing equations, etc. The aim of this study is to select the best applicable parameter serving to calculate blocked assembly of a Boiling Water Reactor. This will be made through a range of representative configurations of these reactors and used absorbing environment, in order to illustrate strategies of modelling in the case of an industrial calculation. (authors)

  12. Advanced analytical techniques for boiling water reactor chemistry control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alder, H P; Schenker, E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-02-01

    The analytical techniques applied can be divided into 5 classes: OFF-LINE (discontinuous, central lab), AT-LINE (discontinuous, analysis near loop), ON-LINE (continuous, analysis in bypass). In all cases pressure and temperature of the water sample are reduced. In a strict sense only IN-LINE (continuous, flow disturbance) and NON-INVASIVE (continuous, no flow disturbance) techniques are suitable for direct process control; - the ultimate goal. An overview of the analytical techniques tested in the pilot loop is given. Apart from process and overall water quality control, standard for BWR operation, the main emphasis is on water impurity characterization (crud particles, hot filtration, organic carbon); on stress corrosion crackling control for materials (corrosion potential, oxygen concentration) and on the characterization of the oxide layer on austenites (impedance spectroscopy, IR-reflection). The above mentioned examples of advanced analytical techniques have the potential of in-line or non-invasive application. They are different stages of development and are described in more detail. 28 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  13. 78 FR 45565 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Modification to Settlement Agreement Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    .... California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Los Angeles Region v. City of Los Angeles, Civil Action No... of California ex rel. California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Los Angeles Region v. City of... written request and payment of reproduction costs. Please mail your request and payment to: Consent Decree...

  14. Quality control in public participation assessments of water quality: the OPAL Water Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, N L; Turner, S D; Goldsmith, B; Gosling, L; Davidson, T A

    2016-07-22

    Public participation in scientific data collection is a rapidly expanding field. In water quality surveys, the involvement of the public, usually as trained volunteers, generally includes the identification of aquatic invertebrates to a broad taxonomic level. However, quality assurance is often not addressed and remains a key concern for the acceptance of publicly-generated water quality data. The Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) Water Survey, launched in May 2010, aimed to encourage interest and participation in water science by developing a 'low-barrier-to-entry' water quality survey. During 2010, over 3000 participant-selected lakes and ponds were surveyed making this the largest public participation lake and pond survey undertaken to date in the UK. But the OPAL approach of using untrained volunteers and largely anonymous data submission exacerbates quality control concerns. A number of approaches were used in order to address data quality issues including: sensitivity analysis to determine differences due to operator, sampling effort and duration; direct comparisons of identification between participants and experienced scientists; the use of a self-assessment identification quiz; the use of multiple participant surveys to assess data variability at single sites over short periods of time; comparison of survey techniques with other measurement variables and with other metrics generally considered more accurate. These quality control approaches were then used to screen the OPAL Water Survey data to generate a more robust dataset. The OPAL Water Survey results provide a regional and national assessment of water quality as well as a first national picture of water clarity (as suspended solids concentrations). Less than 10 % of lakes and ponds surveyed were 'poor' quality while 26.8 % were in the highest water quality band. It is likely that there will always be a question mark over untrained volunteer generated data simply because quality assurance is uncertain

  15. Innovative Control concepts for German pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozowski, Raphael; Kuhn, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Controlling reactor power without any manual support is becoming more and more important. The READIG project (READIG = Reactor Instrumentation and Digital Control) power control system installed in unit 2 of the Philippsburg nuclear power station (KKP 2) requires no manual intervention except for specific strategy criteria settings. It was even possible to eliminate the power distribution set points. With minor adaptations, this concept can be applied in other PWR plants as well. KKP 2 is a PWR plant with particularly sophisticated core charges; as a consequence, the I and C systems were adapted accordingly. The increase in integral reactor power and the low-leakage core charges are the main reasons for lower limiting margins, especially in peak limiting. The standard control concept was supplemented in such a way that a more precise fine control concept for power distribution in the full-load regime is achieved. The READIG project fully utilizes the possibilities offered by digital TXS Technology, which is why use is also made of physical parameterization. The new power distribution control concept has these advantages: - Operation at small peak-/DNB-reactor output limitation margins. - Stable control without manual intervention also in load cycles and in the frequency control mode. - Simplified operation due to omission of the power distribution set point. - Reduction to zero of the frequency of L-bank steps at constant power with superimposed frequency control mode. - Reduction to zero of the frequency of D-bank steps at constant power with superimposed frequency control mode. - Lower quantities of demineralized water to be fed at constant power with superimposed frequency control mode (±1%). (orig.)

  16. INVESTIGATION OF QUANTIFICATION OF FLOOD CONTROL AND WATER UTILIZATION EFFECT OF RAINFALL INFILTRATION FACILITY BY USING WATER BALANCE ANALYSIS MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    文, 勇起; BUN, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many flood damage and drought attributed to urbanization has occurred. At present infiltration facility is suggested for the solution of these problems. Based on this background, the purpose of this study is investigation of quantification of flood control and water utilization effect of rainfall infiltration facility by using water balance analysis model. Key Words : flood control, water utilization , rainfall infiltration facility

  17. Annual report to the Atomic Energy Control Board on the regulatory research and support program April 1, 1995 - March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Regulatory Research and Support Program (RSP) is intended to augment and extend activities, undertaken by the Atomic Energy Control Board, beyond what would be possible with in-house resources. The overall objective of the research and support activity is to produce pertinent and independent information that will assist the Board and its staff in making sound, timely and credible decisions for the regulation of nuclear facilities and materials. During Fiscal Year 1995/96, a total of $3,029M was spent on RSP research and support work. The range of activities included projects in the general fields of nuclear reactors, fuel cycle facilities, uranium mines and mills, waste management, dosimetry, health physics, regulations and regulatory process development, and other special support services. Some of this work was organized into sub-program groups. Four sub-programs were launched during the year bringing to twelve the total number. Areas addressed in the sub-programs are environmental impact assessment and management, safety-related computerized systems, seismologic studies, pressure boundary integrity, integrity of containment and safety-related structures, human factors, internal dosimetry, health effects in human populations, physics and fuel studies, probabilistic safety assessment, emergency preparedness, and radiobiology. During the year, there were a total of 118 active projects. This number included projects planned for the year, others which remained incomplete from the previous year and a significant number of projects which were initiated in response to new, high-priority needs. This report presents information on the scope of RSP activities during the year and describes how the program was managed, organized and implemented. Overviews are presented of research and support work undertaken in each field of activity and some highlights of results obtained are included. (Abstract Truncated)

  18. Rapid Control Prototyping and PIL Co-Simulation of a Quadrotor UAV Based on NI myRIO-1900 Board

    OpenAIRE

    Soufiene Bouallègue; Rabii Fessi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new Computer Aided Design (CAD) methodology for the Processor-In-the-Loop (PIL) co-simulation and Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) of a Quadrotor Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) type of Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV) is proposed and successfully implemented around an embedded NI myRIO-1900 target and a host PC. The developed software (SW) and hardware (HW) prototyping platform is based on the Control Design and Simulation (CDSim) module of LabVIEW environment and an establi...

  19. A prototype expert system 'SMART' for water chemistry control in reactor water circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The operational safety of a power plant depends mainly on the material compatibility of the system materials with the environment. However, for an operating plant, the material is almost fixed and hence one can improve the safety by controlling the surrounding environment. From the economy point of view, the plant availability factor as well as plant life extension (PLEX) are important considerations and these necessitate a systematic approach for continuous parametric monitoring, rapid data analysis and diagnosis for controlling the water chemistry regime. A prototype expert system 'SMART' was developed in BASIC language. The expert system consists of four modules. The DATA HANDLER module controls all the data handling functions and graphical display of the data parameters. It also generates weekly and monthly reports of the water chemistry data. The DATA INTERPRETER module compares the experimental data with the theoretically calculated values and predicts the presence of impurity ingress in the system. The CHEMISTRY EXPERT contains the knowledge base about the various sub-systems. All the water chemistry specifications are translated in the form of IF... THEN.. rules and are stored in this module. The expert system inferences with the forward chain reasoning mechanism to identify the diagnostic parameters by consulting the knowledge base and applying the appropriate rules. The ACTION EXPERT module collects all the diagnostic parameters and suggests the operator, the remedial actions/counter measures that should be taken immediately. This rule based system can be expanded to accommodate different water chemistry regimes. (author)

  20. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean Water...

  1. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the State... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a...

  2. Advanced Control Synthesis for Reverse Osmosis Water Desalination Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Bui Duc Hong; You, Sam-Sang; Choi, Hyeung-Six; Jeong, Seok-Kwon

    2017-11-01

      In this study, robust control synthesis has been applied to a reverse osmosis desalination plant whose product water flow and salinity are chosen as two controlled variables. The reverse osmosis process has been selected to study since it typically uses less energy than thermal distillation. The aim of the robust design is to overcome the limitation of classical controllers in dealing with large parametric uncertainties, external disturbances, sensor noises, and unmodeled process dynamics. The analyzed desalination process is modeled as a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with varying parameters. The control system is decoupled using a feed forward decoupling method to reduce the interactions between control channels. Both nominal and perturbed reverse osmosis systems have been analyzed using structured singular values for their stabilities and performances. Simulation results show that the system responses meet all the control requirements against various uncertainties. Finally the reduced order controller provides excellent robust performance, with achieving decoupling, disturbance attenuation, and noise rejection. It can help to reduce the membrane cleanings, increase the robustness against uncertainties, and lower the energy consumption for process monitoring.

  3. A Receding Horizon Controller for the Steam Generator Water Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; Lee, Yoon Joon

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the receding horizon control method was used to control the water level of nuclear steam generators and applied to two linear models and also a nonlinear model of steam generators. A receding horizon control method is to solve an optimization problem for finite future steps at current time and to implement the first optimal control input as the current control input. The procedure is then repeated at each subsequent instant. The dynamics of steam generators is very different according to power levels. The receding horizon controller is designed by using a reduced linear steam generator model fixed over a certain power range and applied to a Westinghouse-type (U-tube recirculating type) nuclear steam generator. The proposed controller designed at a fixed power level shows good performance for any other power level within this power range. The steam generator shows actually nonlinear characteristics. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is implemented for a nonlinear model of the nuclear steam generator to verify its real performance and also shows good responses

  4. PARs for combustible gas control in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, J.; Sliter, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress being made in the United States to introduce passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) technology as a cost-effective alternative to electric recombiners for controlling combustible gas produced in postulated accidents in both future Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) and certain U. S. operating nuclear plants. PARs catalytically recombine hydrogen and oxygen, gradually producing heat and water vapor. They have no moving parts and are self-starting and self-feeding, even under relatively cold and wet containment conditions. Buoyancy of the hot gases they create sets up natural convective flow that promotes mixing of combustible gases in a containment. In a non-inerted ALWR containment, two approaches each employing a combination of PARs and igniters are being considered to control hydrogen in design basis and severe accidents. In pre-inerted ALWRs, PARs alone control radiolytic oxygen produced in either accident type. The paper also discusses regulatory feedback regarding these combustible gas control approaches and describes a test program being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Electricite de France (EdF) to supplement the existing PAR test database with performance data under conditions of interest to U.S. plants. Preliminary findings from the EPRI/EdF PAR model test program are included. Successful completion of this test program and confirmatory tests being sponsored by the U. S. NRC are expected to pave the way for use of PARs in ALWRs and operating plants. (author)

  5. Higher energy efficiency and better water quality by using model predictive flow control at water supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Verberk, J.Q.J.C.; Palmen, L.J.; Sperber, V.; Bakker, G.

    2011-01-01

    Half of all water supply systems in the Netherlands are controlled by model predictive flow control; the other half are controlled by conventional level based control. The differences between conventional level based control and model predictive control were investigated in experiments at five full

  6. Water chemistry controlled aggregation and photo-transformation of silver nanoparticles in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongguang; Yang, Xiaoya; Zhou, Xiaoxia; Wang, Weidong; Yu, Sujuan; Liu, Jingfu; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-08-01

    The inevitable release of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into aquatic environments has drawn great concerns about its environmental toxicity and safety. Although aggregation and transformation play crucial roles in the transport and toxicity of AgNPs, how the water chemistry of environmental waters influences the aggregation and transformation of engineered AgNPs is still not well understood. In this study, the aggregation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs was investigated in eight typical environmental water samples (with different ionic strengths, hardness, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations) by using UV-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Raman spectroscopy was applied to probe the interaction of DOM with the surface of AgNPs. Further, the photo-transformation and morphology changes of AgNPs in environmental waters were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The results suggested that both electrolytes (especially Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and DOM in the surface waters are key parameters for AgNP aggregation, and sunlight could accelerate the morphology change, aggregation, and further sedimentation of AgNPs. This water chemistry controlled aggregation and photo-transformation should have significant environmental impacts on the transport and toxicity of AgNPs in the aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. CASE STUDY ON WATER QUALITY CONTROL IN AN AQUAPONIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mihai Filep

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponic systems are integrated systems that combine fish farming and different types of plants. It involves a dynamic interaction between fish plants and bacteria. Fish and plants are dependent the equilibrium of dissolved nutrients and water quality. Only by striking a balance between dissolved nutrients and water quality we can achieve a large production of plants and healthy fish. Thus, control of water quality in an aquaponic system is essential in order to obtain performance in raising fish and plants. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Fisheries and Aquaculture of the Faculty of Animal Science of the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest within a period of 30 days. The system used for the experiment was designed and developed in the laboratory mentioned above. The plant used for water treatment in the system was basil (Ocimum basilicum. Fish species grown in the system was culture carp (Cyprinus carpio. Indicators measured to assess water quality in the system were: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and phosphates. The values determined pH 7.4-7.6, dissolved oxygen 8-10 mg / l, NH4 0.05-05 mg/ l, NO2 0.1-3.2 mg / l, NO3 0-80 mg / l, 0.02-0.3 mg, PO4 0.02-0.3 mg/l were not too high. In conclusion it was demonstrated that water quality in the aquaponic system studied is propitious to the growth and welfare of fish the registered values are not to be harmful.

  8. Water logging and salinity control for environmentally sustainable crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.R.; Bhutta, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Irrigation supplies at proper time and adequate quantities are imperative for potential agricultural production under arid and semi-arid climatic conditions. To achieve this goal one of the largest integrated irrigation network was established. Without adequate drainage it resulted in the problems of water logging and salinity. To control these problems a big programme of Salinity Control and Reclamation projects (SCARPs) was initiated during 1960 and 82 such SCARPs have been completed and 9 were in progress up to June, 2002 covering an area of 18.6 ma (7.5 mh) at a cost of Rs.93 billions. Under these projects 12746 tube wells in fresh, 3572 in saline groundwater and 13726 km surface and 12612 km tile pipes covering 6391.7 ha, 160 km interceptor drains have been constructed an area of 0.998 ma (GCA). In addition to this some other measures like on farm water management, canal command project, canal lining, construction of evaporation ponds, establishment of research Inst./Organizations were also taken. Many drainage plans like Master Plan (1963), Northern Regional Plan (1967), Water Sector Investment Plan Study (1990), Right Bank Master Plan (1992), Drainage Sector Environmental Assessment (1993) and National Drainage Programme (1995) were prepared and implemented. The cost of the, phase-I of the National Drainage Programme was 785 million US$. The main activities undertaken were remodeling/extension of existing surface and new drains; rehabilitation/replacement of saline ground water (SGW) tube wells; construction of interceptor drains, reclamation of waterlogged areas through biological drainage and transfer of fresh ground water tube wells to the farmers. The data indicate that all the measures taken have played a significant role in reducing the water logging, salinity/sodicity and have increased the crop production and consequently improved the socio-economic conditions of the peoples especially the farming community. The environment in these areas was also

  9. Disinfection Methods for Swimming Pool Water: Byproduct Formation and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Ilyas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive and critical comparison of 10 disinfection methods of swimming pool water: chlorination, electrochemically generated mixed oxidants (EGMO, ultraviolet (UV irradiation, UV/chlorine, UV/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, UV/H2O2/chlorine, ozone (O3/chlorine, O3/H2O2/chlorine, O3/UV and O3/UV/chlorine for the formation, control and elimination of potentially toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs: trihalomethanes (THMs, haloacetic acids (HAAs, haloacetonitriles (HANs, trihaloacetaldehydes (THAs and chloramines (CAMs. The statistical comparison is carried out using data on 32 swimming pools accumulated from the reviewed studies. The results indicate that O3/UV and O3/UV/chlorine are the most promising methods, as the concentration of the studied DBPs (THMs and HANs with these methods was reduced considerably compared with chlorination, EGMO, UV irradiation, UV/chlorine and O3/chlorine. However, the concentration of the studied DBPs including HAAs and CAMs remained much higher with O3/chlorine compared with the limits set by the WHO for drinking water quality. Moreover, the enhancement in the formation of THMs, HANs and CH with UV/chlorine compared with UV irradiation and the increase in the level of HANs with O3/UV/chlorine compared with O3/UV indicate the complexity of the combined processes, which should be optimized to control the toxicity and improve the quality of swimming pool water.

  10. Verification of FPGA-Signal using the test board which is applied to Safety-related controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Youn-Hu; Yoo, Kwanwoo; Lee, Myeongkyun; Yun, Donghwa [SOOSAN ENS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This article aims to provide the verification method for BGA-type FPGA of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) developed as Safety Class. The logic of FPGA in the control device with Safety Class is the circuit to control overall logic of PLC. Saftety-related PLC must meet the international standard specifications. With this reason, we use V and V according to an international standard in order to secure high reliability and safety. By using this, we are supposed to proceed to a variety of verification courses for extra reliability and safety analysis. In order to have efficient verification of test results, we propose the test using the newly changed BGA socket which can resolve the problems of the conventional socket on this paper. The Verification of processes is divided into verification of Hardware and firmware. That processes are carried out in the unit testing and integration testing. The proposed test method is simple, the effect of cost reductions by batch process. In addition, it is advantageous to measure the signal from the Hi-speed-IC due to its short length of the pins and it was plated with the copper around it. Further, it also to prevent abrasion on the IC ball because it has no direct contact with the PCB. Therefore, it can be actually applied is to the BGA package test and we can easily verify logic as well as easily checking the operation of the designed data.

  11. 33 CFR 401.57 - Disembarking or boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disembarking or boarding. 401.57... boarding. (a) Except as authorized by an officer, no person, other than a member of the crew of a vessel... essential duties as directed by the Master. (c) Persons disembarking or boarding shall be assisted by a...

  12. Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Actively Follow Simple Instructions and Perform Designated Physical Activities According to Simple Instructions with Nintendo Wii Balance Boards by Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chung, Chiao-Chen; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chen, Ling-Che

    2011-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance standing location detector. This study extended Wii Balance Board functionality to assess whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform designated physical activities according to simple…

  13. Antimicrobial Materials for Advanced Microbial Control in Spacecraft Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele; Caro, Janicce; Newsham, Gerard; Roberts, Michael; Morford, Megan; Wheeler, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Microbial detection, identification, and control are essential for the maintenance and preservation of spacecraft water systems. Requirements set by NASA put limitations on the energy, mass, materials, noise, cost, and crew time that can be devoted to microbial control. Efforts are being made to attain real-time detection and identification of microbial contamination in microgravity environments. Research for evaluating technologies for capability enhancement on-orbit is currently focused on the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis for detection purposes and polymerase chain reaction (peR) for microbial identification. Additional research is being conducted on how to control for microbial contamination on a continual basis. Existing microbial control methods in spacecraft utilize iodine or ionic silver biocides, physical disinfection, and point-of-use sterilization filters. Although these methods are effective, they require re-dosing due to loss of efficacy, have low human toxicity thresholds, produce poor taste, and consume valuable mass and crew time. Thus, alternative methods for microbial control are needed. This project also explores ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), surface passivation methods for maintaining residual biocide levels, and several antimicrobial materials aimed at improving current microbial control techniques, as well as addressing other materials presently under analysis and future directions to be pursued.

  14. Departmental Appeals Board Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Chair and Board Members of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning determinations in discretionary, project grant programs, including...

  15. Kaledo, a board game for nutrition education of children and adolescents at school: cluster randomized controlled trial of healthy lifestyle promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Alessandro; Viggiano, Emanuela; Di Costanzo, Anna; Viggiano, Andrea; Andreozzi, Eleonora; Romano, Vincenzo; Rianna, Ines; Vicidomini, Claudia; Gargano, Giuliana; Incarnato, Lucia; Fevola, Celeste; Volta, Pietro; Tolomeo, Caterina; Scianni, Giuseppina; Santangelo, Caterina; Battista, Roberta; Monda, Marcellino; Viggiano, Adela; De Luca, Bruno; Amaro, Salvatore

    2015-02-01

    During childhood and adolescence, a game could be an effective educational tool to learn healthy eating habits. We developed Kaledo, a new board game, to promote nutrition education and to improve dietary behavior. A two-group design with one pre-treatment assessment and two post-treatment assessments was employed. A total of 3,110 subjects (9-19 years old) from 20 schools in Campania, Italy, were included in the trial. In the treated group, the game was introduced each week over 20 consecutive weeks. Control group did not receive any intervention. The primary outcomes were (i) score on the "Adolescent Food Habits Checklist" (AFHC), (ii) scores on a dietary questionnaire, and (iii) BMI z-score. At the first post-assessment (6 months), the treated group obtained significantly higher scores than the control group on the AFHC (14.4 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 14.0 to 14.8) vs 10.9 (95 % CI 10.6 to -11.2); F(1,20) = 72.677; p childhood and adolescence obesity prevention programs.

  16. In Defense of Boards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Visser (Bauke); S. Dominguez Martinez (Silvia); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIt is often assumed that bad corporate performance means a bad CEO. The task of a board of directors is then simple: dismiss the executive. If it fails to do so, the board is said to be indolent. We take a kinder approach to observed board behaviour and point to the problems even

  17. 77 FR 21778 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... discussions on CDC's safe water activities, immunization infrastructure, and sexually transmitted diseases... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the...

  18. Nuclear electronic equipment for control and monitoring boards. Specifications and test methods of direct current period meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquefort, Henri; Chapelot; Ramard; Tardif; Tournier; Vaux

    1973-11-01

    After a few words of introduction, mention of the main notations used and the definition of certain terms, the field of application of the document is outlined and a list of references given. The main specifications of electronic 'direct current period meter' subassemblies for the monitoring, control and safety of nuclear reactors are then defined and the corresponding test methods described. The apparatus measures on a logarithmic scale the neutron fluence rate of a reactor by means of an ionisation chamber and supplies 'period' data relative to the fluence rate variation in time. The specifications and test methods are given for the different components: logarithmic amplifier, time derivative unit, threshold releases, high tension supply for ionisation chamber, auxiliary circuits and finally the complete period meter. (author) [fr

  19. Seismic Qualification of Auxiliary Feed Water Control Valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K. M.; Jang, J. B.; Kim, J. K.; Suh, Y. P.

    2006-01-01

    Although domestic nuclear power industry has almost accomplished technical independence, Auxiliary Feed Water Control Valve (AFWCV) is still depending on import. In order to jump to advanced nation in nuclear power industry, it is very important to achieve technical independence in designing and manufacturing AFWCV. At last, AFWCV is self-manufactured using the domestic technology under the financial support of the government. Therefore, the seismic qualification is carried out to verify the safety and operability of AFWCV against the earthquake in this study

  20. Ecohydrological Controls on Intra-Basin Alpine Subarctic Water Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Ziegler, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    In the mountainous Canadian subarctic, elevation gradients control the disposition of vegetation, permafrost, and characteristics of the soil profile. How intra-basin ecosystems combine to control catchment-scale water and biogeochimcal cycling is uncertain. To this end, a multi-year ecohydrological investigation was undertaken in Granger Basin (GB), a 7.6 km2 sub-basin of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada. GB was divided into four sub-basins based on the dominant vegetation and permafrost status, and the timing and magnitude of hydrological processes were compared using hydrometric and hydrochemical methods. Vegetation plays an important role in end-of-winter snow accumulation as snow redistribution by wind is controlled by roughness length. In sub-basins of GB with tall shrubs, snow accumulation is enhanced compared with areas of short shrubs and tundra vegetation. The timing of melt was staggered with elevation, although melt-rates were similar among the sub-basins. Runoff was enhanced at the expense of infiltration in tall shrub areas due to high snow water equivalent and antecedent soil moisture. In the high-elevation tundra sub-basin, thin soils with cold ground temperatures resulted in increased surface runoff. For the freshet period, the lower and upper sub-basins accounted for 81 % of runoff while accounting for 58 % of the total basin area. Two-component isotopic hydrograph separation revealed that during melt, pre-event water dominated in all sub-basins, yet those with greater permafrost disposition and taller shrubs had increased event-water. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) spiked prior to peak freshet in each sub-basin except for the highest with thin soils, and was associated with flushing of surficial organic soils. For the post-melt period, all sub-basins have similar runoff contributions. Solute and stable isotope data indicate that in sub-basins dominated by permafrost, supra-permafrost runoff pathways predominate as flow

  1. Selective control of photodissociation in deutereted water molecule HOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.; Deshpande, Sarin; Sarma, Manabendra; Kurkal, Vandana; Mishra, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Bond dissociation in the deutereted water molecule HOD has been investigated to explore the possibility of selective control of dissociation of O-H and O-D bonds using simple field profiles and initial states that do not require high overtone excitations. Preliminary results indicate that considerable selectivity in dissociation of O-H and O-D bonds can be achieved using fundamental and first overtone excitations only and use of field optimized initial state (FOIST) based scheme with appropriate choice of field parameters and initial states may enhance both selectivity and yield

  2. Board diligence, director business and corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibal Ghosh

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the association between financial performance and boards of non-financial firms. Using data on over 200 listed manufacturing firms in India for 2005, the findings indicate that, after controlling for various firm-specific factors, board diligence as well as director busyness exerts a positive influence on corporate performance.

  3. Controls of the U.S. Virtual Water Transfer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S.; Mejia, A.

    2017-12-01

    A complex interplay of human and natural factors shape the economic geography of the U.S., operating through socioeconomic forces that drive the consumption, production, and exchange of commodities. The virtual water content of a commodity represents the water embedded in its production. This work investigates the controls of national bilateral transfers of the virtual water transfer network (VWTN), through a gravity-type spatial interaction model. We use a probabilistic model to predict the binary network and investigate whether the gravity model can explain the topological properties of the empirical weighted network. In general, the gravity model relates transfer flows to the mass of the trading regions and their geographical distance. We hypothesize that properties of the nodes such as population, employment, and availability of land, together with the Euclidean distance between two trading regions, capture the main drivers of the national VWTN. The results from the model are then compared to the empirical weighted network to verify its ability to model the structure of this self-organized system. The proposed empirical model provides insight into the processes that underlie the formation of the VWTN. It can be a promising tool to study how flows are affected by changes in the generating conditions due to shocks and/or stresses.

  4. Additives for pH control in PWR secondary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobble, J.W.; Turner, P.J.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this project is the development of methods for identifying the most promising materials for use as pH control agents in steam generator and auxiliary hot water systems. The methods developed in the first project year to select new pH control agents have been explored in more detail in an effort to assess and improve their reliability. In addition, some new classes of compounds which were not treatable before have been examined on the basis of new experimental results. Predictions of pH and volatility to 300 0 C have now been made for a total of 79 organic bases. Some of the newer classes of compounds studied present properties which may make them of interest either as secondary additives or as principal agents in the event of change in the approach to water treatment. While there have been no substantial changes in number of compounds which meet all EPRI criteria, there are other species which may meet the EPRI criteria after further research. 19 refs., 31 tabs

  5. Use of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board for Studying Standing Static Balance Control: Technical Considerations, Force-Plate Congruency, and the Effect of Battery Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Tyler B; Ma, Christine; Laing, Andrew C

    2017-02-01

    The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) has become popular as a low-cost alternative to research-grade force plates. The purposes of this study were to characterize a series of technical specifications for the WBB, to compare balance control metrics derived from time-varying center of pressure (COP) signals collected simultaneously from a WBB and a research-grade force plate, and to investigate the effects of battery life. Drift, linearity, hysteresis, mass accuracy, uniformity of response, and COP accuracy were assessed from a WBB. In addition, 6 participants completed an eyes-closed quiet standing task on the WBB (at 3 battery life levels) mounted on a force plate while sway was simultaneously measured by both systems. Characterization results were all associated with less than 1% error. R 2 values reflecting WBB sensor linearity were > .99. Known and measured COP differences were lowest at the center of the WBB and greatest at the corners. Between-device differences in quiet stance COP summary metrics were of limited clinical significance. Lastly, battery life did not affect WBB COP accuracy, but did influence 2 of 8 quiet stance WBB parameters. This study provides general support for the WBB as a low-cost alternative to research-grade force plates for quantifying COP movement during standing.

  6. Annual report to the Atomic Energy Control Board on the regulatory research and support program April 1, 1995 - March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The Regulatory Research and Support Program (RSP) is intended to augment and extend activities, undertaken by the Atomic Energy Control Board, beyond what would be possible with in-house resources. The overall objective of the research and support activity is to produce pertinent and independent information that will assist the Board and its staff in making sound, timely and credible decisions for the regulation of nuclear facilities and materials. During Fiscal Year 1995/96, a total of $3,029M was spent on RSP research and support work. The range of activities included projects in the general fields of nuclear reactors, fuel cycle facilities, uranium mines and mills, waste management, dosimetry, health physics, regulations and regulatory process development, and other special support services. Some of this work was organized into sub-program groups, each of which addresses research and support effort in theme-related areas. Four sub-programs were launched during the year bringing to twelve the total number of such sub-programs. Areas addressed in the sub-programs are environmental impact assessment and management, safety-related computerized systems, seismologic studies, pressure boundary integrity, integrity of containment and safety-related structures, human factors, internal dosimetry, health effects in human populations, physics and fuel studies, probabilistic safety assessment, emergency preparedness, and radiobiology. During the year, there were a total of 118 active projects. This number included projects planned for the year, others which remained incomplete from the previous year and a significant number of projects which were initiated in response to new, high-priority needs. This report presents information on the scope of RSP activities during the year and describes how the program was managed, organized and implemented. Overviews are presented of research and support work undertaken in each field of activity and some highlights of results obtained are

  7. 75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act'') Notice is hereby given that on July 21, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree... Sections 301 and 308 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1318, at thirteen of its facilities in...

  8. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal and...

  9. Pension Fund governing board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    On 16 March and 7 May, the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) held its fourth and fifth meetings The first of these meetings was primarily dedicated to the examination of the strategic asset allocation. The PFGB reaffirmed the main goal of the new strategic asset allocation: to improve the Pension Fund’s position with regard to risk by lowering overall portfolio volatility through suitable investments in less volatile asset classes such as real estate and absolute return strategies, where the return does not depend on market trends and negative growth is extremely unlikely. The finalised document will be presented to the Finance Committee and the Council at their June meetings for approval, in accordance with the provisions of the Levaux report. The PFGB also took note of the Internal Audit’s report on Pension Fund operations and decided to refer it to Working Group I as a working document for establishing a control and internal monitoring system for Pension Fund oper...

  10. Design of fuzzy learning control systems for steam generator water level control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gee Yong

    1996-02-01

    A fuzzy learning algorithm is developed in order to construct the useful control rules and tune the membership functions in the fuzzy logic controller used for water level control of nuclear steam generator. The fuzzy logic controllers have shown to perform better than conventional controllers for ill-defined or complex processes such as nuclear steam generator. Whereas the fuzzy logic controller does not need a detailed mathematical model of a plant to be controlled, its structure is to be made on the basis of the operator's linguistic information experienced from the plant operations. It is not an easy work and also there is no systematic way to translate the operator's linguistic information into quantitative information. When the linguistic information of operators is incomplete, tuning the parameters of fuzzy controller is to be performed for better control performance. It is the time and effort consuming procedure that controller designer has to tune the structure of fuzzy logic controller for optimal performance. And if the number of control inputs is many and the rule base is constructed in multidimensional space, it is very difficult for a controller designer to tune the fuzzy controller structure. Hence, the difficulty in putting the experimental knowledge into quantitative (or numerical) data and the difficulty in tuning the rules are the major problems in designing fuzzy logic controller. In order to overcome the problems described above, a learning algorithm by gradient descent method is included in the fuzzy control system such that the membership functions are tuned and the necessary rules are created automatically for good control performance. For stable learning in gradient descent method, the optimal range of learning coefficient not to be trapped and not to provide too slow learning speed is investigated. With the optimal range of learning coefficient, the optimal value of learning coefficient is suggested and with this value, the gradient

  11. Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickson, R J

    2014-01-15

    The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to

  12. Hydrodynamic Controls on Carbon Dioxide Efflux from Inland Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H. E.; Waldron, S.; Hoey, T.; Newton, J.; Quemin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Intensive research has been undertaken on carbon dioxide efflux from lakes, estuaries and oceans, but much less attention has been given to rivers and streams, especially lower order streams. River systems are often over-saturated with carbon dioxide and so tend to act as sources of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. It has been thought that rivers act as pipes carrying this terrestrial carbon to the oceans. However, recent studies have shown that a significant amount of the carbon is reprocessed within the system in a series of transformations and losses. Fluvial evasion of carbon dioxide is now recognised to be a significant component of carbon cycles, however the factors controlling carbon dioxide efflux and its magnitude remain poorly understood and quantified. This research aims to quantify, and better understand the controls on, freshwater carbon dioxide evasion. Data are presented here from field measurements that commenced in Sept 2013 in two contrasting Scottish rivers: the River Kelvin which has a large (335 km.sq) part-urban catchment with predominantly non-peat soils and Drumtee Water, a small (9.6 km.sq) rural catchment of peat soils and agricultural land. Using a floating chamber with the headspace connected to an infrared gas analyser to measure changes in carbon dioxide concentration, efflux rates from 0.22 - 47.4 μmol CO2/m.sq/sec were measured, these close to the middle of the range of previously reported values. At one site on the River Kelvin in May 2013 an influx of -0.61 - -3.53 μmol CO2/m.sq/sec was recorded. Whereas previous research finds carbon dioxide efflux to increase with decreasing river size and a more organic-rich soil catchment, here the controls on carbon dioxide evasion are similar across the contrasting catchments. Carbon dioxide evasion shows seasonality, with maximum fluxes in the summer months being up to twice as high as the winter maxima. Linear regression demonstrates that evasion increases with increased flow velocity

  13. Boiling water reactor radiation shielded Control Rod Drive Housing Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baversten, B.; Linden, M.J. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Operations, Windsor, CT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Control Rod Drive (CRD) mechanisms are located in the area below the reactor vessel in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Specifically, these CRDs are located between the bottom of the reactor vessel and above an interlocking structure of steel bars and rods, herein identified as CRD Housing Supports. The CRD Housing Supports are designed to limit the travel of a Control Rod and Control Rod Drive in the event that the CRD vessel attachement went to fail, allowing the CRD to be ejected from the vessel. By limiting the travel of the ejected CRD, the supports prevent a nuclear overpower excursion that could occur as a result of the ejected CRD. The Housing Support structure must be disassembled in order to remove CRDs for replacement or maintenance. The disassembly task can require a significant amount of outage time and personnel radiation exposure dependent on the number and location of the CRDs to be changed out. This paper presents a way to minimize personal radiation exposure through the re-design of the Housing Support structure. The following paragraphs also delineate a method of avoiding the awkward, manual, handling of the structure under the reactor vessel during a CRD change out.

  14. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    -depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order to maintain good drinking water microbial quality up

  15. Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) control in the Vaalharts Irrigation Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Arp, RS; Fraser, GCG; Hill, MP

    2017-01-01

    Global freshwater resources are threatened by an ever-growing population and continued economic development, highlighting the need for sustainable water management. Sustainable management must include the control of any additional factors that may aggravate water scarcity, such as invasive alien plants. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), one of the world's most destructive invasive plants, presents a direct threat to economically productive water resources. Through high levels of evapotra...

  16. Secondary side water chemistry pH control strategy improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roumiguiere, Fernando-Mario; Fandrich, Joerg; Ramminger, Ute; Hoffmann-Wankerl, Stephan; Drexler, Andreas [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    When selecting a pH control strategy, plant design and operation characteristics have to be carefully considered. The strategy should be tailored to the plant-specific needs and requirements. Owing to the complexity of the interrelated variables, the best way is to perform a modeling with a suitable computer code. This work investigated the possibility of complementing the classic high pH all-volatile treatment (H-AVT) by addition of an organic amine at low concentrations complementarily to ammonia dosing to locally increase the pH in the water phase of the wet steam areas to counteract flow-assisted corrosion (FAC). Alternative conditioning scenarios were considered and calculated for comparative analysis using a computer code. The results obtained argue for the convenience of using ammonia as the main alkalizing agent whenever possible, avoiding multiple amine concepts and their associated drawbacks. (orig.)

  17. Factors controlling the regional distribution of vanadium in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Although the ingestion of vanadium (V) in drinking water may have possible adverse health effects, there have been relatively few studies of V in groundwater. Given the importance of groundwater as a source of drinking water in many areas of the world, this study examines the potential sources and geochemical processes that control the distribution of V in groundwater on a regional scale. Potential sources of V to groundwater include dissolution of V rich rocks, and waste streams from industrial processes. Geochemical processes such as adsorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, and chemical transformations control V concentrations in groundwater. Based on thermodynamic data and laboratory studies, V concentrations are expected to be highest in samples collected from oxic and alkaline groundwater. However, the extent to which thermodynamic data and laboratory results apply to the actual distribution of V in groundwater is not well understood. More than 8400 groundwater samples collected in California were used in this study. Of these samples, high (> or = 50 μg/L) and moderate (25 to 49 μg/L) V concentrations were most frequently detected in regions where both source rock and favorable geochemical conditions occurred. The distribution of V concentrations in groundwater samples suggests that significant sources of V are mafic and andesitic rock. Anthropogenic activities do not appear to be a significant contributor of V to groundwater in this study. High V concentrations in groundwater samples analyzed in this study were almost always associated with oxic and alkaline groundwater conditions, which is consistent with predictions based on thermodynamic data.

  18. Speed control of boiler feed water pump turbine based on gray correlation compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yun Long; Wang, Di; Zhou, Hai Chun [Northeast Dianli UniversityJilin (China)

    2017-01-15

    One of the most important controlled parameters of thermal power units is the boiler drum water level. Disturbances of feed water flow rate could cause instability of the drum water level. This study proposes the Gray correlation compensation (GCC) control technology for the Boiler feed water pump turbine (BFPT) to solve this problem. Simulation results indicate that the GCC controller outperforms the traditional proportional-integral-derivative controller when it encounters different disturbances. Furthermore, the GCC controller can rapidly switch to the high-pressure steam source to ensure that the drum water level is in the secure range during steam source switching of the BFPT.

  19. Prototype of a control board solar tracking mechanism on a shaft; Prototipo de una tarjeta de control del mecanismo de seguimiento solar en un eje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berumen, Carlos; Ramirez Benitez, Juan Rafael; Lopez Perez, Manuel de Jesus; Beltran Adan, Jose; Lagunas Mendoza, Javier [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    A solar concentrator prototype of Parabolic Trough (PT) for solar process heat generation has been designed, manufactured and put into operation by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. By means of a sun tracking mechanism controlled by an automatic device, the PT is moving from East to West during the day then this way the solar energy is focused continually over the lineal receiver. Such movement is reached thanks to the electronic module fitted with special software. In this paper, the design of an electronic module based on calculation algorithm of the sun position along the day and over the year which controls the PT sun tracking is presented. The main purpose of the development is to integrate a control system which is using the algorithm of low cost (it was tested in a commercial system with success). [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha disenado, fabricado y puesto en operacion un prototipo de concentrador solar de canal parabolico para la generacion de calor de proceso. La tecnologia termosolar a concentracion de canal parabolica mantiene el concentrador moviendose de este a oeste durante el dia, enfocando continuamente el sol en el receptor lineal, mediante un mecanismo y un control automatico que permite el seguimiento aparente del sol. Se ha desarrollado el software para el control del mecanismo de seguimiento solar. En este articulo se presenta el diseno de un modulo electronico que controla el mecanismo de seguimiento solar de un canal parabolico, el cual tiene sus bases en un algoritmo que calcula la posicion del sol durante todo el dia y a lo largo del ano. El proposito principal es integrar un sistema de control de bajo costo, que utilice el algoritmo desarrollado por el IIE, el cual fue probado con exito en un sistema comercial para el seguimiento solar de un canal parabolico.

  20. Salinity controls on plant transpiration and soil water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S.; Molini, A.; Suweis, S. S.; Viola, F.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    Soil salinization and aridification represent a major threat for the food security and sustainable development of drylands. The two problems are deeply connected, and their interplay is expected to be further enhanced by climate change and projected population growth. Salt-affected land is currently estimated to cover around 1.1 Gha, and is particularly widespread in semi-arid to hyper-arid climates. Over 900 Mha of these saline/sodic soils are potentially available for crop or biomass production. Salt-tolerant plants have been recently proposed as valid solution to exploit or even remediate salinized soils. However the effects of salinity on evapotranspiration, soil water balance and the long-term salt mass balance in the soil, are still largely unexplored. In this contribution we analyze the feedback of evapotranspiration on soil salinization, with particular emphasis on the role of vegetation and plant salt-tolerance. The goal is to introduce a simple modeling framework able to shed some light on how (a) soil salinity controls plant transpiration, and (b) salinization itself is favored/impeded by different vegetation feedback. We introduce at this goal a spatially lumped stochastic model of soil moisture and salt mass dynamics averaged over the active soil depth, and accounting for the effect of salinity on evapotranspiration. Here, the limiting effect of salinity on ET is modeled through a simple plant response function depending on both salt concentration in the soil and plant salt-tolerance. The coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance is hence used to obtain the conditional steady-state probability density function (pdf) of soil moisture for given salt tolerance and salinization level, Our results show that salinity imposes a limit in the soil water balance and this limit depends on plant salt-tolerance mainly through the control of the leaching occurrence (tolerant plants exploit water more efficiently than the sensitive ones). We also analyzed the

  1. Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

  2. Biological stability of drinking water : Controlling factors, methods, and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.; Hammes, F.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and

  3. Optimised control and pipe burst detection by water demand forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Water demand forecasting The total water demand in an area is the sum of the water demands of all individual domestic and industrial consumers in that area. These consumers behave in repetitive daily, weekly and annual patterns, and the same repetitive patterns can be observed in the drinking water

  4. Validation of Storm Water Management Model Storm Control Measures Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. A.; Platz, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a computational code heavily relied upon by industry for the simulation of wastewater and stormwater infrastructure performance. Many municipalities are relying on SWMM results to design multi-billion-dollar, multi-decade infrastructure upgrades. Since the 1970's, EPA and others have developed five major releases, the most recent ones containing storm control measures modules for green infrastructure. The main objective of this study was to quantify the accuracy with which SWMM v5.1.10 simulates the hydrologic activity of previously monitored low impact developments. Model performance was evaluated with a mathematical comparison of outflow hydrographs and total outflow volumes, using empirical data and a multi-event, multi-objective calibration method. The calibration methodology utilized PEST++ Version 3, a parameter estimation tool, which aided in the selection of unmeasured hydrologic parameters. From the validation study and sensitivity analysis, several model improvements were identified to advance SWMM LID Module performance for permeable pavements, infiltration units and green roofs, and these were performed and reported herein. Overall, it was determined that SWMM can successfully simulate low impact development controls given accurate model confirmation, parameter measurement, and model calibration.

  5. Software to study the control strategy of pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Jose Ricardo de

    2002-01-01

    The computational program, result of this work, is a tool developed for the study of the control of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) constituted by only one coolant loop. The implementation of a user friendly interface for input/output data, makes the program also suitable for training and teaching applications. As design premise, it was considered enough just the modeling of the primary circuit, using as interface with the secondary circuit, a simplified differential equation of the temperature associated with the secondary power. All the incorporated dynamic equations to the model were developed using basic laws of conservation, boundary conditions and hypotheses appropriated to the control study. To arrive to the final model, core thermal and hydraulic characteristics and design data were obtained from of the available bibliography and adapted for a conceptual peculiar design of a small PWR. The whole program and all input/output interfaces were developed using the software Matlab, version 5.L Sub-routines of numeric integration based on the Runge-Kutta 4 method were applied, to solve the set of ordinary differential equations. (author)

  6. Microcomputer-controlled flow meter used on a water loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.

    1982-01-01

    The report describes a microcomputer-controlled instrument intended for operational measurement on an experimental water loop. On the basis of pressure and temperature input signals the instrument calculates the specific weight, and for ten operator-selectable measuring channels it calculates the mass flow G(kp/s), or the voluminal flow Q(m 3 /h). On pressing the appropriate push-buttons the built-in display indicates the values of pressure (p) and temperature (t), as well as the values of specific weight γ calculated therefrom. For ten individually selectable channels the instrument displays either the values of the pressure differences of the measuring throttling elements (√Δpsub(i)), or the values of Gsub(i) or Qsub(i) as obtained by calculation. In addition, on pressing the Σ-push-button it summarizes the values of Gsub(i) and Qsub(i) for the selected channels. The device is controlled by an 8085 microprocessor, the analog unit MP 6812 being used as the A/D convertor. The instrument algorithm indicates some possible errors which may concern faults of input signals or mistakes in calculation. (author)

  7. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, Norhayati; Kaamin, Masiri; Abd. Kadir, Aslila; Sahat, Suhaila; Zaini, Aziza; Raihana Nor Zentan, Siti; Ain Ahmad, Nur; Amran, Wan Haizatul Aisyhah Wan

    2018-03-01

    The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR). The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it's indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  8. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngadiman Norhayati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE and Modulus of Rupture (MOR. The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it’s indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  9. Digitization and simulation realization of full range control system for steam generator water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Hong; Ye Jianhua; Qian Fei; Li Chao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a full range digital control system for the steam generator water level is designed by a control scheme of single element control and three-element cascade feed-forward control, and the method to use the software module configuration is proposed to realize the water level control strategy. This control strategy is then applied in the operation of the nuclear power simulation machine. The simulation result curves indicate that the steam generator water level maintains constant at the stable operation condition, and when the load changes, the water level changes but finally maintains the constant. (authors)

  10. Effective water influx control in gas reservoir development: Problems and countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Feng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the diversity of geological characteristics and the complexity of percolation rules, many problems are found ineffective water influx control in gas reservoir development. The problems mainly focus on how to understand water influx rules, to establish appropriate countermeasures, and to ensure the effectiveness of technical measures. It is hard to obtain a complete applicable understanding through the isolated analysis of an individual gas reservoir due to many factors such as actual gas reservoir development phase, research work, pertinence and timeliness of measures, and so on. Over the past four decades, the exploration, practicing and tracking research have been conducted on water control in gas reservoir development in the Sichuan Basin, and a series of comprehensive water control technologies were developed integrating advanced concepts, successful experiences, specific theories and mature technologies. Though the development of most water-drive gas reservoirs was significantly improved, water control effects were quite different. Based on this background, from the perspective of the early-phase requirements of water influx control, the influencing factors of a water influx activity, the dynamic analysis method of water influx performance, the optimizing strategy of a water control, and the water control experience of typical gas reservoirs, this paper analyzed the key problems of water control, evaluated the influencing factors of water control effect, explored the practical water control strategies, and proposed that it should be inappropriate to apply the previous water control technological model to actual work but the pertinence should be improved according to actual circumstances. The research results in the paper provide technical reference for the optimization of water-invasion gas reservoir development.

  11. Design of Water Temperature Control System Based on Single Chip Microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hanhong; Yan, Qiyan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we mainly introduce a multi-function water temperature controller designed with 51 single-chip microcomputer. This controller has automatic and manual water, set the water temperature, real-time display of water and temperature and alarm function, and has a simple structure, high reliability, low cost. The current water temperature controller on the market basically use bimetal temperature control, temperature control accuracy is low, poor reliability, a single function. With the development of microelectronics technology, monolithic microprocessor function is increasing, the price is low, in all aspects of widely used. In the water temperature controller in the application of single-chip, with a simple design, high reliability, easy to expand the advantages of the function. Is based on the appeal background, so this paper focuses on the temperature controller in the intelligent control of the discussion.

  12. Pressure control for minimizing leakage in water distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nourhan Samir; Rawya Kansoh; Walid Elbarki; Amr Fleifle

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades water resources availability has been a major issue on the international agenda. In a situation of worsening scarcity of water resources and the rapidly increasing of water demands, the state of water losses management is part of manâs survival on earth. Leakage in water supply networks makes up a significant amount, sometimes more than 70% of the total water losses. The best practices suggest that pressure management is one of the most effective way to reduce the amount o...

  13. Recovery Act: Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, William P. [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Buescher, Tom [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-04-30

    The objective of Emerson's Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller is to support the DOE's AARA priority for Clean, Secure Energy by designing a water heater control that levels out residential and small business peak electricity demand through thermal energy storage in the water heater tank.

  14. Secondary side water chemistry pH control strategy improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumiguiere, Fernando-Mario; Fandrich, Joerg; Ramminger, Ute; Hoffmann-Wankerl, Stephan; Drexler, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    Over the years the PWR plant operators were aware of the need of optimizing the pH control strategy in the water-steam cycle with the focus on improvement of steam generator performance with the main goal of reducing the corrosion product ingress into the steam generators and their consequences: SG fouling, SG tube corrosion beneath deposits. To achieve this goal, it becomes necessary to harmonize three requirements: a. High overall pH along the circuit for suppression of general corrosion, requiring a volatile amine to ensure a suitable distribution in steam areas and condenser, and b. High local pH at the water phase of two-phase flow areas, requiring an either rather low volatile amine to ensure high pH in the wet steam water film, or larger amounts of a volatile amine. c. Sufficient amount of hydrazine to ensure reducing conditions in the steam generators. The basic strategy of AREVA NP GmbH (formerly KWU), successfully applied in German nuclear power plants since the late seventies consisted on the achievement of the necessary pH by means of ammonia, as generated by thermal decomposition of hydrazine. By dosing of hydrazine at the necessary amounts to ensure reducing conditions, also sufficient ammonia is generated to achieve a high overall pH along the cycle, being the target pH (25 deg. C) ≥ 9.8 resulting in < 1 ppb Fe in final feed water. This treatment is known as H-AVT (High pH - All Volatile Treatment). Main prerequisite for its application is to have a copper-free system. Eventually, H-AVT started to be applied later at some other western nuclear power plants. In some units, the high condenser exhaust flow rate applied caused a considerable amount of ammonia being removed from the cycle, resulting in too low ammonia concentrations to maintain a sufficiently high pH, making the addition of ammonia necessary. AREVA NP GmbH together with plant operators investigated the possibility of complementing the applied classical H-AVT by addition of an advanced

  15. SMART Boards Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Shaw, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    SMART Board is a technology that combines the functionality of a whiteboard, computer, and projector into a single system. The interactive nature of the SMART Board offers many practical uses for providing an introduction to or review of material, while the large work area invites collaboration through social interaction and communication. As a…

  16. Control of very heavy water inrush from sinkholes connecting with Ordovician limestone. Part 1. [China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the comprehensive water control methods used in Fangezhuang Colliery: water drainage; cutting off of water; and sealing off the water. For water drainage, 20 large-sized submarine pumps were used in Lujiatuo and Fangezhuang collieries with a delivery of 300 m/sup 3//min to control the rising of water level. For cutting off the water, a three-section horizontal injection method and 8 grouting techniques were applied to cut off the water in 3 roadways at the boundary between Lujiatuo and Fangezhuang with water flowing at an average rate of 300 m/sup 3//min. For sealing off the water, a radio perspective instrument was used to detect the shape of No. 2171 sinkhole in Fangezhuang, and computers were employed to process the hydrogeological data. The three section vertical grouting method was introduced, and the inrush water source was sealed off with a success of over 99%.

  17. Economics of Selected Water Control Technologies and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management, water for multiple use systems and all relevant aspects of ... would add to our understanding of adoption decisions (Doss, 2006). ... Methodology .... International Water Management Institute (IWMI) with support from United States.

  18. microcontroller based automatic control for water pumping machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    60% of the human body [1, 3, 4]. Although water ... systems such as dams, reservoirs, wells, artificial lakes, etc. ... Human intelligence ... maximization of the performance and life span of the ... reduced water quality due to contamination of the.

  19. 77 FR 2541 - Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Board Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board; Regular Meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the...

  20. NOESY-WaterControl: a new NOESY sequence for the observation of under-water protein resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Allan M.; Zheng, Gang, E-mail: g.zheng@westernsydney.edu.au; Price, William S. [Western Sydney University, Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics Group, School of Science and Health (Australia)

    2017-03-15

    Highly selective and efficient water signal suppression is indispensable in biomolecular 2D nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments. However, the application of conventional water suppression schemes can cause a significant or complete loss of the biomolecular resonances at and around the water chemical shift (ω{sub 2}). In this study, a new sequence, NOESY-WaterControl, was developed to address this issue. The new sequence was tested on lysozyme and bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), demonstrating its efficiency in both water suppression and, more excitingly, preserving water-proximate biomolecular resonances in ω{sub 2}. The 2D NOESY maps obtained using the new sequence thus provide more information than the maps obtained with conventional water suppression, thereby lessening the number of experiments needed to complete resonance assignments of biomolecules. The 2D NOESY-WaterControl map of BPTI showed strong bound water and exchangeable proton signals in ω{sub 1} but these signals were absent in ω{sub 2}, indicating the possibility of using the new sequence to discriminate bound water and exchangeable proton resonances from non-labile proton resonances with similar chemical shifts to water.

  1. NOESY-WaterControl: a new NOESY sequence for the observation of under-water protein resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Allan M.; Zheng, Gang; Price, William S.

    2017-01-01

    Highly selective and efficient water signal suppression is indispensable in biomolecular 2D nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments. However, the application of conventional water suppression schemes can cause a significant or complete loss of the biomolecular resonances at and around the water chemical shift (ω 2 ). In this study, a new sequence, NOESY-WaterControl, was developed to address this issue. The new sequence was tested on lysozyme and bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), demonstrating its efficiency in both water suppression and, more excitingly, preserving water-proximate biomolecular resonances in ω 2 . The 2D NOESY maps obtained using the new sequence thus provide more information than the maps obtained with conventional water suppression, thereby lessening the number of experiments needed to complete resonance assignments of biomolecules. The 2D NOESY-WaterControl map of BPTI showed strong bound water and exchangeable proton signals in ω 1 but these signals were absent in ω 2 , indicating the possibility of using the new sequence to discriminate bound water and exchangeable proton resonances from non-labile proton resonances with similar chemical shifts to water.

  2. Guidebook on quality control of water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    As a result of the increasing contribution of nuclear power to the world's supply of electrical energy, growing emphasis is being placed on the reliability of nuclear fuel performance. The need to produce a reliable product is based not only on economic reasons but also on safety considerations. Fuel assemblies must withstand the operational requirements placed on them while in the reactor; also, in some cases, they have to be stored for long periods in water-filled basins until they are either reprocessed or ultimately subjected to disposal. One of the keys to consistent and reliable fuel production is an adequate Quality Control (QC) programme, operating under a Quality Assurance (QA) system. In connection with various activities sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency it has been suggested for some time that a guidebook should be published, highlighting the role that QC plays in the manufacture of nuclear fuel and stressing the relationship that exists between the QC and QA functions. The aim of this book is to give a summary of the present state of practical experience in the areas of: quality-relevant design requirements; quality control of products and processes. Specific QA requirements are referred to where they are important for an understanding of the co-operation required between the various activities involved in nuclear fuel technology. Examples are also given to illustrate specific needs or specific types of experience in this area. In order to distinguish clearly between the generally required criteria and rules and the details of particular practical experience, the book is divided into two main parts. Part A focuses on the philosophy and principles; Part B supplements Part A with technically detailed descriptions and examples

  3. Improvement of chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajakovic-Ognjanovic, Vladana N.; Zivojinovic, Dragana Z.; Grgur, Branimir N.; Rajakovic, Ljubinka V.

    2011-01-01

    A more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle (WSC) of thermal power plants (TPP) is proposed in this paper. Minimization of corrosion effects by the production of ultra pure water and its strict control is the basis of all the investigated processes. The research involved the analysis of water samples in the WSC through key water quality parameters and by the most convenient analytical tools. The necessity for the stricter chemical control is demonstrated through a concrete example of the TPP Nikola Tesla, Serbia. After a thorough analysis of the chemical control system of the WSC, diagnostic and control parameters were chosen for continuous systematic measurements. Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as the ions which indicate the corrosion potential of the water and give insight into the proper production and maintenance of water within the WSC. Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica, were considered and related to their quantitative values. - Research highlights: → The more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plant Nikola Tesla, Serbia. → In chemical control the diagnostic and control parameters were optimized and introduced for the systematic measurements in the water-steam cycle. → Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as ions which indicate corrosion potential of water and give insight to proper function of production and maintenance of water within water-team cycle. → Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica are considered and related with their quantitative values.

  4. An underwater robot controls water tanks in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lardiere, C.

    2015-01-01

    The enterprises Newton Research Labs and IHI Southwest Technologies have developed a robot equipped with sensors to inspect the inside walls (partially) and bottom of water tanks without being obliged to empty them. The robot called 'Inspector' is made up of 4 main components: a chassis with 4 independent steering wheels, a camera video system able to provide a 360 degree view, various non-destructive testing devices such as underwater laser scanners, automated ultra-sound or Foucault current probes and an operation system for both driving the robot and controlling the testing. The Inspector robot has been used to inspect the inside bottom of an operating condensate tank at the Palo Verde nuclear station. The robot was able to check all the welds joining the bottom plates and the welds between the walls and the bottom. The robot is also able to come back to the exact place where a defect was detected during a previous inspection. (A.C.)

  5. Multi-functional surfaces with controllable wettability and water adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadis, Spiros H.; Frysali, Melani A.; Kenanakis, George; Kaklamani, Georgia; Papoutsakis, Lampros

    The design of multifunctional surfaces based on biomimetic structures has gained the interest of the scientific community. Novel multifunctional surfaces have been developed, able to alter their wetting properties in response to temperature and pH as well as light illumination, by combining proper chemistry and surface micro/nano-structuring using ultrafast (femtosecond) laser irradiation. The combination of the hierarchical surface with a ZnO and/or a responsive polymer coating results in efficient photo-active properties as well as reversible superhydrophobic / superhydrophilic surfaces in response to external stimuli. These surfaces can be optimized to exhibit high or zero water adhesion and/or controllable directionality as well. Moreover, they can be seeded with human fibroblasts to examine the cellular response on both surface roughness and surface chemistry. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the General Secretariat for Research and Technology (''ARISTEIA II'' Action, SMART-SURF) and the European Union (NFFA Europe -Grant agreement No. 654360).

  6. Controlling radiation fields in siemans designed light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riess, R.; Marchl, T. [Siemens Power Generation Group, Erlangen (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    An essential item for the control of radiation fields is the minimization of the use of satellites in the reactor systems of Light Water Reactors (LWRs). A short description of the qualification of Co-replacement materials will be followed by an illustration of the locations where these materials were implemented in Siemens designed LWRs. Especially experiences in PWRs show the immense influence of reduction of cobalt sources on dose rate buildup. The corrosion and the fatique and wear behavior of the replacement materials has not created concern up to now. A second tool to keep occupational radiation doses at a low level in PWRs is the use of the modified B/Li-chemistry. This is practized in Siemens designed plants by keeping the Li level at a max. value of 2 ppm until it reaches a pH (at 300{degrees}C) of {approximately}7.4. This pH is kept constant until the end of the cycle. The substitution of cobalt base alloys and thus the removal of the Co-59 sources from the system had the largest impact on the radiation levels. Nonetheless, the effectiveness of the coolant chemistry should not be neglected either. Several years of successful operation of PWRs with the replacement materials resulted in an occupational radiation exposure which is below 0.5 man-Sievert/plant and year.

  7. Medical licensing board characteristics and physician discipline: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Marc T; Hansen, Zeynep K

    2010-02-01

    This article investigates the relationship between the characteristics of medical licensing boards and the frequency with which boards discipline physicians. Specifically, we take advantage of variation in the structure of medical licensing boards between 1993 and 2003 to determine the effect of organizational and budgetary independence, public oversight, and resource constraints on rates of physician discipline. We find that larger licensing boards, boards with more staff, and boards that are organizationally independent from state government discipline doctors more frequently. Public oversight and political control over board budgets do not appear to influence the extent to which medical licensing boards discipline doctors. These findings are broadly consistent with theories of regulatory behavior that emphasize the importance of bureaucratic autonomy for effective regulatory enforcement.

  8. Are board meetings proactive or reactive to performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the intensity of board activity, as represented by board meeting frequency, and firm financial performance, using data from the top 500 Australian companies. Firm performance measures include return on assets, return on equity and shareholder return; several control variables are introduced in the analysis. The results indicate that board meeting frequency has a positive impact on subsequent shareholder return. Regarding the explanatory factors for the level of board activity, it is reported that firms with more board committees tend to have relatively more board and committee meetings; firms with larger boards have less board meetings. In addition, lower managerial ownership leads to more committee meetings.

  9. Agreement between the Board of Control of Ferris State College and the Ferris College Faculty Association (MEA/NEA), November 12, 1984-June 30, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Education Association, East Lansing.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Ferris State College and Ferris Faculty Association Chapter (507 members), an affiliate of the National Education Association and the Michigan Education Association, covering the period November 12, 1984-June 30, 1987 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition,…

  10. A Wireless Object Location Detector Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Simple Occupational Activities with Nintendo Wii Balance Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling

    2012-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology, turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance standing location detector with a newly developed standing location detection program (SLDP). This study extended SLDP functionality to assess whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform…

  11. Pollution source control by water utilities – characterisation and implications for water management: research results from England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of agriculturally polluted water to potable standards is costly for water companies. Changes in agricultural practice can reduce these costs while also meeting the objectives of European Union (EU) environmental legislation. In this paper, the uptake of source control interventions

  12. Programmable logic controllers in Heavy Water Project, Manuguru (Paper No. 3.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.C.; Bhaskar, R.; Maiti, A.; Venkatesu, G.; Satish, P.; Goel, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    Enhancement to plant operational flexibility has been achieved in Heavy Water Project, Manuguru by installing programmable logic controllers for its control equipment. The earlier sulfide based Heavy Water Plant, Kota is using relay logic and diode based program-matrix for binary controls. Performance improvement and advantages of PLC and experience in its operation are described. (author). 3 refs

  13. Community Water Improvement, Household Water Insecurity, and Women’s Psychological Distress: An Intervention and Control Study in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, E. G. J.; Ambelu, A.; Caruso, B. A.; Tesfaye, Y.; Freeman, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 650 million people worldwide lack access to safe water supplies, and even among those who have gained access to ‘improved’ sources, water may be seasonally unreliable, far from homes, expensive, and provide insufficient quantity. Measurement of water access at the level of communities and households remains crude, and better measures of household water insecurity are urgently needed to inform needs assessments and monitoring and evaluation. We set out to assess the validity of a quantitative scale of household water insecurity, and to investigate (1) whether improvements to community water supply reduce water insecurity, (2) whether water interventions affect women’s psychological distress, and (3) the impacts of water insecurity on psychological distress, independent of socio-economic status, food security, and harvest quality. Methods and Findings Measures were taken before and one to six months after a community water supply improvement in three villages in rural northern Ethiopia. Villages similar in size and access to water sources and other amenities did not receive interventions, and served as controls. Household water insecurity was assessed using a 21-item scale based on prior qualitative work in Ethiopia. Women’s psychological distress was assessed using the WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Respondents were either female heads of household or wives of the heads of household (n = 247 at baseline, n = 223 at endline); 123 households provided data at both rounds. The intervention was associated with a decline of approximately 2 points on the water insecurity scale between baseline and endline compared to the control (beta -1.99; 95% CI’s -3.15, -0.84). We did not find evidence of impact of the intervention on women’s psychological distress. Water insecurity was, however, predictive of psychological distress (p insecurity scale, and establish our approach to measuring water insecurity as a plausible means of evaluating

  14. Case Study of Urban Water Distribution Networks Districting Management Based on Water Leakage Control

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, S.; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, S.; Zhou, Y.; Diao, K.

    2009-01-01

    Globally, water demand is rising and resources are diminishing. Most of the world's water systems have been highly successful in delivering high-quality water to large populations. However, most of these systems also incur a notable amount of loss in their operations. Water loss from the water supply system has long been a feature of operations management, even in the countries with a well-developed infrastructure and good operating practices. There is no doubt that the sustainable management...

  15. Shedding the waters : institutional change and water control in the Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Wester, P.

    2008-01-01

    Water resources development has led to water overexploitation in many river basins around the world. This is clearly the case in the Lerma-Chapala Basin in central Mexico, where excessive surface water use nearly resulted in the drying up of Lake Chapala, one of the world’s largest shallow lakes. It is also a basin in which many of the policies prescribed in international water debates were pioneered. This thesis investigates the histories and relationships between water overexploitation, wat...

  16. Research on wireless remote control scheme for the water source well of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun; Bao Feng

    2013-01-01

    Traditional wired electrical control method is applicable to simple control for the short-distance industrial equipment, but it is not suitable for the water source well of uranium mines requiring remote control. A kind of wireless remote control system based on high-speed radio modem communication technology was presented for the water source wells of a uranium mine, and the water source wells can be remotely controlled with the system. The component, implementation and characteristics of the control system are introduced. (authors)

  17. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Luc Vos with regard to advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 14 to 28 June 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  18. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  19. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Poul Frandsen concerning his assimilation into the new career structure. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 13 to 24 January 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  20. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Personnel Division

    1999-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Joào Bento with regard to residential category. As the appellant has not objected, the recommendations of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article RÊVIÊ1.20 of the Staff Regulations.The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N¡ 60) from 29 October to 12 November 1999.Personnel DivisionTel. 74128

  1. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to advancement. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (No. 60) from 24 March to 10 April 2006. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  2. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 60) from 24 September to 7 October 2007. Human Resources Department

  3. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Olivier Francis Martin with regard to indefinite contract. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 8 to 25 June 2001.

  4. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Jack Blanchard with regard to 'non recognition of specific functions'. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 12th to 26th April 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  5. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mrs Judith Igo-Kemenes concerning the application of procedures foreseen by Administrative Circular N§ 26 (Rev. 3). As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 6 to 20 June 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  6. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mrs Maria DIMOU with regard to a periodic one-step increase. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 30 April to 14 May 2004. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  7. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Joël Lahaye with regard to non-resident allowance. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 18 May to 1st June 2001.

  8. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to award him a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 500) from 17 March to 30 March 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 73911

  9. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Bertrand Nicquevert with regard to the non-resident allowance. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 29 November to 13 December 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  10. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Antonio Millich with regard to advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 27 September to 11 October 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  11. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to a periodic one-step increase. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 1 to 15 April 2005. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  12. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  13. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Gert Jan Bossen with regard to dependent child allowance. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 1st to 15 March 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  14. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 26 May to 6 June 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  15. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Serge Peraire with regard to exceptional advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 17 to 31 May 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  16. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. These documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 60) from 21 January to 3 February 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  17. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  18. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Aloïs Girardoz with regard to classification and advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the Board's report and the Director-General's decision will be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 15 to 29 August 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  19. Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

  20. Gray mode control or a device with added manoeuvrability: a new fine control system for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmin, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present fine control system for pressurized water reactors (the so-called ''A'' mode) cannot meet the requirements of a variable output in all respects. For this reason specialists are now developing a new fine control system, called gray mode control which is better suited to rapid load variations. The basic principles for control of pressurized water reactors are summarized and, then gray mode control or the device with added manoeuvrability is described. The series of tests carried out in 1981 and 1982 on stage 3 of the Tricastin power station are analyzed and the satisfactory results obtained are presented [fr

  1. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) to guarantee safe water reuse and drinking water production--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewettinck, T; Van Houtte, E; Geenens, D; Van Hege, K; Verstraete, W

    2001-01-01

    To obtain a sustainable water catchment in the dune area of the Flemish west coast, the integration of treated domestic wastewater in the existing potable water production process is planned. The hygienic hazards associated with the introduction of treated domestic wastewater into the water cycle are well recognised. Therefore, the concept of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) was used to guarantee hygienically safe drinking water production. Taking into account the literature data on the removal efficiencies of the proposed advanced treatment steps with regard to enteric viruses and protozoa and after setting high quality limits based on the recent progress in quantitative risk assessment, the critical control points (CCPs) and points of attention (POAs) were identified. Based on the HACCP analysis a specific monitoring strategy was developed which focused on the control of these CCPs and POAs.

  2. Control of water absorption by purification of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, J.E.; Strehlow, R.A.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Uckan, T.

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that graphite can absorb large quantities of water, which can represent an abundant source of oxygen impurities in fusion plasmas if the corresponding components are not properly outgassed. We have outgassed various fusion-relevant graphites (e.g., POCO AXF-5Q) for 1.5 h at 1500/degree/C to release absorbed water and have subsequently exposed the samples to air for various periods of time. Re-absorption of water during the air exposure was estimated by measuring the amount of water produced in subsequent outgassing runs. The results show that the amount of water re-absorbed increases by a factor of approximately 10 within 8 h compared to the sample in the outgassed state but with no air exposure. The water content of the 'as received' material is reached after approximately 30 days. Re-absorption of water was significantly reduced by purification of the investigated graphite samples. This purification process, which consists of heating the sample at 2800/degree/C for 30 min in an argon atmosphere, reduces the levels of trace impurities which can be responsible for catalytic surface reactions on the internal surfaces of the graphite. After exposing an outgassed sample to an electron cyclotron heated plasma followed by 1 h air exposure, the amount of water desorbed was observed to increase by a factor of 6. Data will be presented to correlate this effect with trace impurities. 9 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Control of fjordic deep water renewal by runoff modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, A; Edelsten, D J

    1976-09-01

    Loch Etive is a Scottish fjord subject to fresh-water run off which renders it markedly brackish. This paper considers the frequency of deep water renewal, developing a model which relates the timing of all such renewals to runoff records. Using the model one can examine the effect of changes caused by interference with the natural runoff pattern.

  4. Abrasive water jets for controlled demolition and dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abudaka, M.; Crofton, P.S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Abrasive water jets offer an efficient high speed cutting tool for hard materials such as reinforced concrete, tool steel and armour plate. Cutting by abrasive water jets is often described as a cold cutting operation since no heat is developed and any increase in local temperature is immediately cooled by the water jet. Moreover no sparks are generated to ignite a potentially inflammable atmosphere. Mass flow rates of water and abrasive are small (typically 4 litres/min.water and 1 kg/min abrasive) and hence are easy to collect and to dispose of. For these reasons abrasive water jets offer certain advantages in cutting difficult materials in hazardous environments such as in the nuclear industry, offshore oil rigs and petrochemical plant. Available portable cutting systems are described and the advantages of using abrasive water jets are discussed as well as some of the parameters involved in the cutting operation. Finally a description is presented of some typical applications of abrasive water jet cutting. (author)

  5. Boat boarding ladder placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Presented in three volumes; 'Boat Boarding Ladder Placement,' which explores safety considerations including potential for human contact with a rotating propeller; 'Boat Handhold Placement,' which explores essential principles and methods of fall con...

  6. Checking a printed board

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    An 'Interactive Printed Circuit Board Design System' has been developed by a company in a Member-State. Printed circuits are now produced at the SB's surface treatment workshop using a digitized photo-plotter.

  7. Boarding school rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Matt

    2017-01-04

    Ofsted inspects and regulates services that care for children and young people, including boarding facilities. Medication management is an integral part of caring for children in boarding schools, and robust systems must be in place to pass inspection. These systems must cover how medicines are dispensed, administered and stored at the facility, risk assessments, identifying which pupils can manage their own medicines and the individual health needs of boarders, so that care plans can be put in place for children with specific needs.

  8. Shedding the waters : institutional change and water control in the Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, P.

    2008-01-01

    Water resources development has led to water overexploitation in many river basins around the world. This is clearly the case in the Lerma-Chapala Basin in central Mexico, where excessive surface water use nearly resulted in the drying up of Lake Chapala, one of the world’s largest shallow lakes. It

  9. COLLABORATION BOARD (CB55)

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Cousins

    Open Access Publication Policy ATLAS had recently issued a short statement in support of open access publishing. The mood of the discussions in the December CMS Collaboration Board had appeared to be in favour and so it was being proposed that CMS issue the same statement as that made by ATLAS (the statement is attached to the agenda of this meeting). The Collaboration Board agreed. Election of the Chair of the Collaboration Board Following the agreement to shorten the terms of both the Spokesperson and the Collaboration Board Chair, and to introduce a longer overlap period between the election and the start of the term, the election for the next Collaboration Board Chair was due in December 2007. If the old standard schedule specified in the Constitution were adapted to this date, then the Board should be informed at the present meeting that the election was being prepared. However, it was felt that the experience of the previous year's election of the Spokesperson had shown that it would be desirable to...

  10. Gulf of Maine - Control Points Used to Validate the Accuracies of the Interpolated Water Density Rasters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature dataset contains the control points used to validate the accuracies of the interpolated water density rasters for the Gulf of Maine. These control...

  11. Chemical modelling as a management tool for water pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limpitlaw, D. [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1996-12-31

    In a colliery currently being re-mined by opencast methods, the coal seam was originally extracted using bord and pillar mining. Depressions in the seam floor have facilitated the formation of large underground water bodies. This water has become acidic and contaminated by heavy metals. Mine water is treated by a liming plant and then released into evaporation pans. Seepage from the pans enters a natural wetlands. The de-watering of old workings ahead of mining periodically subjects the liming plant to large quantities of low quality water, and a nett export of salts such as sulphate occurs. As the mine is situated in a sensitive river catchment, this pollution is unacceptable. A chemical speciation program developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency was used to analyse effluent from the liming plant and wetland. Liming plant effluent water was found to vary greatly due to the conditions prevalent in the different water bodies. The liming plant and wetland were periodically subjected to pollution loads beyond the wetland`s assimilative capacity, resulting failure of the system. Despite this, the software provided evidence of the wetland`s pollution-ameliorating potential. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  12. The Water Quality Control of the Secondary Cooling Water under a Normal Operation of 30 MWth in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Chul; Lee, Young Sub; Lim, Rag Yong

    2008-01-01

    HANARO, a multi-purpose research reactor, a 30 MWth open-tank-in-pool type, has been under a full power operation since 2005. The heat generated by the core of HANARO is transferred to the primary cooling water. And the cooling water transfers the heat to the secondary cooling water through the primary cooling heat exchanger. The heat absorbed by the secondary cooling water is removed through a cooling tower. The quality of the secondary cooling water is deteriorated by a temperature variation of the cooling water and a foreign material flowing over the cooling water through the cooling tower fan for a cooling. From these, a corrosion reduces the life time of a system, a scale degrades the heat transfer effect and a sludge and slime induces a local corrosion. For reducing these impacts, the quality of the secondary cooling water is treated by a high ca-hardness water quality program by maintaining a super saturated condition of ions, 12 of a ca-hardness concentration. After an overhaul maintenance of a secondary cooling tower composed of a secondary cooling system in 2007, a secondary cooling water stored in the cooling tower basin was replaced with a fresh city water. In this year, a water quality deterioration test has been performed under a full power operation and a mode of a twenty three day operation and twelve day maintenance for setting a beginning control limit of the secondary cooling water. This paper describes the water quality deterioration test for the secondary cooling system under a full power operation of 30 MWth including a test method, a test requirement and a test result

  13. A fuzzy logic controller for feedwater regulation in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryuerek, E.E.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Alguindigue, I.E.

    1994-01-01

    Fuzzy control refers to the application of fuzzy logic theory to control systems. In this paper fuzzy controllers for steam generator water level control and pump speed control are presented, and their performance in the presence of perturbations is discussed. In order to test the robustness of the controllers, their performance is compared with the performance of model based adaptive controllers and traditional PID controllers. The control actions calculated by the fuzzy controllers is have the characteristic of quick and smooth control compared to the others

  14. Occurrence and Control of Legionella in Recycled Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjemba, Patrick K.; Johnson, William; Bukhari, Zia; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Candidate Contaminant list (CCL) as an important pathogen. It is commonly encountered in recycled water and is typically associated with amoeba, notably Naegleria fowleri (also on the CCL) and Acanthamoeba sp. No legionellosis outbreak has been linked to recycled water and it is important for the industry to proactively keep things that way. A review was conducted examine the occurrence of Legionella and its protozoa symbionts in recycled water with the aim of developing a risk management strategy. The review considered the intricate ecological relationships between Legionella and protozoa, methods for detecting both symbionts, and the efficacy of various disinfectants. PMID:26140674

  15. Fuzzy logic controller architecture for water level control in nuclear power plant steam generator using ANFIS training method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Ekrami, AmirHasan; Naseri, Zahra

    2003-01-01

    Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a fuzzy logic controller is applied to control the steam generator water level in a pressurized water reactor. The method does not require a detailed mathematical model of the object to be controlled. It is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial membership functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generator while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input-output mapping based on both human knowledge (in the from of fuzzy if - then rules) and stipulated input-output data. This fuzzy logic controller is applied to the steam generator level control by computer simulations. The simulation results confirm the excellent performance of this control architecture in compare with a well-turned PID controller. (author)

  16. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution...

  17. Robustness of parameter-less remote real-time pressure control in water distribution systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Page, Philip R

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One way of reducing water leakage, pipe bursts and water consumption in a water distribution system (WDS) is to manage the pressure to be as low as possible. This can be done by adjusting a pressure control valve (PCV) in real-time in order to keep...

  18. Gated or ungated : water control in government-built irrigation systems : comparative research in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradhan, T.M.S.

    1996-01-01


    The control, allocation and distribution, of water is the core process of an irrigation system. It is the process by which the available water is divided and distributed to the smaller irrigation units within the system, which in turn is distributed further down to the individual water

  19. Controlling the photochemical reaction of an azastilbene derivative in water using a water-soluble pillar[6]arene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Danyu; Wang, Pi; Shi, Bingbing

    2017-09-20

    Photochemistry plays an important role in our lives. It has also been a common tool in the laboratory to construct complicated systems from small molecules. Supramolecular chemistry provides an opportunity to solve some of the problems in controlling photochemical reactions via non-covalent interactions. By using confining media and weak interactions between the medium and the reactant molecule, the excited state behavior of molecules has been successfully manipulated. Pillararenes, a new class of macrocyclic hosts, have rarely been used in the field of photochemical investigations, such as the controlling of photo-induced reactions. Herein, we explore a synthetic macrocyclic host, a water-soluble pillar[6]arene, as a controlling tool to manipulate the photo-induced reactions (hydration) in water. A host-guest system in water based on a water-soluble pillar[6]arene and an azastilbene derivative, (E)-4,4'-dimethyl-4,4'-diazoniastilbene diiodide, has been constructed. Then this water-soluble pillar[6]arene was successfully employed to control the photohydration of the azastilbene derivative in water as a "protective agent".

  20. Information technology and the board of directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Richard; McFarlan, F Warren

    2005-10-01

    Ever since the Y2K scare, boards have grown increasingly nervous about corporate dependence on information technology. Since then, computer crashes, denial of service attacks, competitive pressures, and the need to automate compliance with government regulations have heightened board sensitivity to IT risk. Unfortunately, most boards remain largely in the dark when it comes to IT spending and strategy, despite the fact that corporate information assets can account for more than 50% of capital spending. A lack of board oversight for IT activities is dangerous, the authors say. It puts firms at risk in the same way that failing to audit their books would. Companies that have established board-level IT governance committees are better able to control IT project costs and carve out competitive advantage. But there is no one-size-fits-all model for board supervision of a company's IT operations. The correct approach depends on what strategic "mode" a company is in whether its operations are extremely dependent on IT or not, and whether or not it relies heavily on keeping up with the latest technologies. This article spells out the conditions under which boards need to change their level of involvement in IT decisions, explaining how members can recognize their firms' IT risks and decide whether they should pursue more aggressive IT governance. The authors delineate what an IT governance committee should look like in terms of charter, membership, duties, and overall agenda. They also offer recommendations for developing IT policies that take into account an organization's operational and strategic needs and suggest what to do when those needs change. Given the dizzying pace of change in the world of IT, boards can't afford to ignore the state of their IT systems and capabilities. Appropriate board governance can go a long way toward helping a company avoid unnecessary risk and improve its competitive position.

  1. Seawater ultrafiltration fouling control: Backwashing with demineralized water/SWRO permeate

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Verberk, J. Q J C; Amy, Gary L.; Van Dijk, Johannis C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of demineralized water backwashing on fouling control of seawater ultrafiltration was investigated. Seawater from Scheveningen beach in The Hague and a desalination plant of Evides Company at Zeeland in the Netherlands was used as feed water, while demineralized water and UF permeate were used as backwash water for a fouling control efficiency comparison under different fluxes and backwash durations. Furthermore, demineralized waters with 5 or 50 mmol/l NaCl were applied for backwashing as well, to check the influence of monovalent cations on UF fouling control. Additionally, SWRO permeate was used for backwashes in long-term experiments to check the possibility of it replacing demineralized water. Results show that seawater UF fouling control is substantially improved by demineralized water backwashing. However, due to the high salinity of seawater, more water was required to dilute the cation concentration and limit the dispersion effect near the membrane surface than was needed for surface water. A 2-min demineralized water backwash showed better fouling control efficiency than a 1-min backwash. Furthermore, the presence of monovalent cations in the backwash water deteriorated the fouling control efficiency of the backwash, indicating the existence of a charge screening effect. The demineralized water with 5 and 50 mmol/l NaCl both showed a similar fouling control efficiency which is better than the UF permeate backwash. The calcium ions in UF permeate probably deteriorates the fouling control efficiency by maintaining a Ca-bridging effect between the membranes and NOM. SWRO permeate backwashing successfully controls membrane fouling as well. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Seawater ultrafiltration fouling control: Backwashing with demineralized water/SWRO permeate

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the effect of demineralized water backwashing on fouling control of seawater ultrafiltration was investigated. Seawater from Scheveningen beach in The Hague and a desalination plant of Evides Company at Zeeland in the Netherlands was used as feed water, while demineralized water and UF permeate were used as backwash water for a fouling control efficiency comparison under different fluxes and backwash durations. Furthermore, demineralized waters with 5 or 50 mmol/l NaCl were applied for backwashing as well, to check the influence of monovalent cations on UF fouling control. Additionally, SWRO permeate was used for backwashes in long-term experiments to check the possibility of it replacing demineralized water. Results show that seawater UF fouling control is substantially improved by demineralized water backwashing. However, due to the high salinity of seawater, more water was required to dilute the cation concentration and limit the dispersion effect near the membrane surface than was needed for surface water. A 2-min demineralized water backwash showed better fouling control efficiency than a 1-min backwash. Furthermore, the presence of monovalent cations in the backwash water deteriorated the fouling control efficiency of the backwash, indicating the existence of a charge screening effect. The demineralized water with 5 and 50 mmol/l NaCl both showed a similar fouling control efficiency which is better than the UF permeate backwash. The calcium ions in UF permeate probably deteriorates the fouling control efficiency by maintaining a Ca-bridging effect between the membranes and NOM. SWRO permeate backwashing successfully controls membrane fouling as well. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Learn About the Water Pollution Control (Section 106) Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under CWA Section 106, EPA is authorized to provide grants to states, eligible interstate agencies, and eligible tribes to establish and administer programs, including enforcement programs,for the prevention, reduction, and elimination of water pollution.

  4. Developments in the production and control of ultrapure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    ''Ultrapure Water'' is water with ionic impurity levels of less than 1 μg/kg (ppb) with correspondingly low levels of particulate and microbial contaminants. Very high purity water is employed in many industries; the major users are the power and semi-conductor manufacturing industries and the pharmaceutical industry. Its production involves the removal of various types of impurities. These include dissolved gases, ionic, microbial and organic impurities and also particulate and colloidal impurities (including silica). Reverse osmosis and electrodialysis are increasingly used in the early stages of purification and ultrafiltration is used as a pretreatment and in the final stage of ultrapure water preparation. This review is primarily concerned with ion exchange processes which continue to be used both in the roughing stages and are essential for the removal of ionic impurities down to the low ng/kg (ppt) levels. (Author)

  5. Expert Water Quality Panel Review of Responses to the NASA Request for Information for the International Space Station On-Board Environmental Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Julianna L.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Packham, Nigel J.; Schultz, John R.; Straub, John E., II

    2005-01-01

    On August 9, 2003, NASA, with the cooperative support of the Vehicle Office of the International Space Station Program, the Advanced Human Support Technology Program, and the Johnson Space Center Habitability and Environmental Factors Office released a Request for Information, or RFI, to identify next-generation environmental monitoring systems that have demonstrated ability or the potential to meet defined requirements for monitoring air and water quality onboard the International Space Station. This report summarizes the review and analysis of the proposed solutions submitted to meet the water quality monitoring requirements. Proposals were to improve upon the functionality of the existing Space Station Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and monitor additional contaminants in water samples. The TOCA is responsible for in-flight measurement of total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity in the Space Station potable water supplies. The current TOCA requires hazardous reagents to accomplish the carbon analyses. NASA is using the request for information process to investigate new technologies that may improve upon existing capabilities, as well as reduce or eliminate the need for hazardous reagents. Ideally, a replacement for the TOCA would be deployed in conjunction with the delivery of the Node 3 water recovery system currently scheduled for November 2007.

  6. pH Control of Untreated Water for Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyen, Faruk Bin; Kundu, Palash K.; Ghosh, Apurba K.

    2018-05-01

    Irrigation in India still plays a pivotal role in the country's economic and employment structure. But due to unawareness and lack of technological upgradations and ill and careless agricultural practices, the yield from the fields is poor and not to its best capacity. There exists a lot of reasons and factors that brings down the crop productivity. One among them is the quality of irrigation water that is supplied to the fields. It is a common practice in India and other sub-continental countries not to access the water qualitatively before getting fed to the fields. Albeit, it does not have catastrophic effects on the productivity, but it affects the nourishment of the crops to some good extent. Water pH has a strong effect on the soil and crop, when it comes to absorption of nutrients by the plant bodies. With properly regulating the pH level of the irrigation water, it is possible to create an ambiance where the symbiotic effects between the soil and the plant can be optimized. In this paper, it is tried to regulate the pH levels of the water based on the type of soil and the optimal requirement by the crop. The work in this paper involves neutralization of acidic or alkaline water before it is being supplied to the farmlands. The process model is simulation based which gave considerably good and acceptable results.

  7. Board Size and Board Independence: A Quantitative Study on Banking Industry in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Rashid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship of board independence and board size with productivity and efficiency of the listed banks on the Karachi Stock Exchange, Pakistan. There is a lack of consensus regarding impact of corporate governance practices in correspondence to number of board members and board independence in banking sector. The derived results of the study show that there is a positive relationship between board independence and bank profitability and efficiency. Independent directors play a crucial role in providing genuine advice during executive decision making process which is an important source for improving overall corporate governance. Moreover, results regarding the role of control variables suggest a positive relationship of the total assets and deposits of the firm with the firm’s performance supporting stewardship theory in the market.

  8. Water quality control method and device for nuclear power plant and nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Asakura, Yamato; Uetake, Naoto; Sawa, Toshio; Uchida, Shunsuke; Takeda, Renzo; Osumi, Katsumi.

    1993-01-01

    In a BWR type nuclear power plant, water quality of coolants is controlled so as to lower deposition rate of Co ions in reactor water on a fuel cladding tube. The water quality control method includes (1) decreasing an iron concentration in feedwater to less than 0.1ppb, (2) adjusting coolants weakly acidic and (3) controlling dissolved oxygen concentration in reactor water to 20ppb. This can decrease 60 Co ion concentration even if 60 Co ion concentration is increased by the change of environment for the operation in future, such as an operation with hydrogen injection and extention of fuel burnup degree. (T.M.)

  9. Computer board for radioactive ray test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Mingfu

    1996-05-01

    The present status of the radioactive-ray test system for industrial applications, the newly designed computer board for overcoming the shortcomings of the current system are described. The functions, measurement principles and the feature of the board as well as the test results for this board are discussed. The board puts together many functions of the radioactive-ray test system, such as energy calibration, MCS, etc.. It also provides many other subordinate practical function such as motor control, ADC and so on. The board summarizes two sets of test parts into one and therefore composes a powerful unit for the system. Not only can it replace all units in a normal test system for signal analysis, signal process, data management, and motor control, but also can be used in more complex test systems, such as those for double source/double energy/double channel testing, multichannel testing, position testing and core positioning, etc.. The board makes the test system more easier to achieve miniaturization, computerization goals, and therefore improves the quality of the test and reduces the cost of the system. (10 refs., 8 figs.)

  10. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  11. Reducing energy consumption and leakage by active pressure control in a water supply system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    WTP Gruszczyn supplies drinking water to a part of the city of Pozna?, in the Midwest of Poland. For the optimal automatic pressure control of the clear water pumping station, nine pressure measuring points were installed in the distribution network, and an active pressure control model was

  12. 33 CFR 222.5 - Water control management (ER 1110-2-240).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... essential to effective relief or assistance. (6) One copy of all water control manuals and subsequent... project benefits and possible hazards. Accordingly, it is essential that appropriate water control and... considering timeliness, reliability, economics and other factors deemed important. (E) Delineate system scope...

  13. Genetic control of plasticity in root morphology and anatomy of rice in response to water deficit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadam, Niteen N.; Tamilselvan, Anandhan; Lawas, Lovely M.F.; Quinones, Cherryl; Bahuguna, Rajeev N.; Thomson, Michael J.; Dingkuhn, Michael; Muthurajan, Raveendran; Struik, Paul C.; Yin, Xinyou; Jagadish, Krishna S.V.

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the genetic control of rooting behavior under water-deficit stress is essential to breed climate-robust rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars. Using a diverse panel of 274 indica genotypes grown under control and water-deficit conditions during vegetative growth, we phenotyped 35 traits, mostly

  14. On the comparison of predictive control and command governor approaches for operational control of drinking water networks: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Tedesco, Francesco; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Cassavola, Alessandro; Puig, Vicenç

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the application of command governor (CG) strategy for the operational control of drinking water networks (DWN) given their large-scale and complex nature, the permanent and relevant effect of the disturbances (water demands) and their marginal stability feature. Moreover, the performance improvement offered by CG is compared with the application of model predictive control for the same management purposes and in the same context. The paper also discusses the effectiveness...

  15. Board Certification in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about…

  16. 78 FR 4847 - Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Board Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm...

  17. 77 FR 55837 - Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Board Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. ACTION: Regular meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held...

  18. Steam Generator control in Nuclear Power Plants by water mass inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Wei [North Carolina State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States); Doster, J. Michael [North Carolina State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)], E-mail: doster@eos.ncsu.edu; Mayo, Charles W. [North Carolina State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Control of water mass inventory in Nuclear Steam Generators is important to insure sufficient cooling of the nuclear reactor. Since downcomer water level is measurable, and a reasonable indication of water mass inventory near steady-state, conventional feedwater control system designs attempt to maintain downcomer water level within a relatively narrow operational band. However, downcomer water level can temporarily react in a reverse manner to water mass inventory changes, commonly known as shrink and swell effects. These complications are accentuated during start-up or low power conditions. As a result, automatic or manual control of water level is difficult and can lead to high reactor trip rates. This paper introduces a new feedwater control strategy for Nuclear Steam Generators. The new method directly controls water mass inventory instead of downcomer water level, eliminating complications from shrink and swell all together. However, water mass inventory is not measurable, requiring an online estimator to provide a mass inventory signal based on measurable plant parameters. Since the thermal-hydraulic response of a Steam Generator is highly nonlinear, a linear state-observer is not feasible. In addition, difficulties in obtaining flow regime and density information within the Steam Generator make an estimator based on analytical methods impractical at this time. This work employs a water mass estimator based on feedforward neural networks. By properly choosing and training the neural network, mass signals can be obtained which are suitable for stable, closed-loop water mass inventory control. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that water mass control can significantly improve the operation and safety of Nuclear Steam Generators.

  19. Steam Generator control in Nuclear Power Plants by water mass inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Wei; Doster, J. Michael; Mayo, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    Control of water mass inventory in Nuclear Steam Generators is important to insure sufficient cooling of the nuclear reactor. Since downcomer water level is measurable, and a reasonable indication of water mass inventory near steady-state, conventional feedwater control system designs attempt to maintain downcomer water level within a relatively narrow operational band. However, downcomer water level can temporarily react in a reverse manner to water mass inventory changes, commonly known as shrink and swell effects. These complications are accentuated during start-up or low power conditions. As a result, automatic or manual control of water level is difficult and can lead to high reactor trip rates. This paper introduces a new feedwater control strategy for Nuclear Steam Generators. The new method directly controls water mass inventory instead of downcomer water level, eliminating complications from shrink and swell all together. However, water mass inventory is not measurable, requiring an online estimator to provide a mass inventory signal based on measurable plant parameters. Since the thermal-hydraulic response of a Steam Generator is highly nonlinear, a linear state-observer is not feasible. In addition, difficulties in obtaining flow regime and density information within the Steam Generator make an estimator based on analytical methods impractical at this time. This work employs a water mass estimator based on feedforward neural networks. By properly choosing and training the neural network, mass signals can be obtained which are suitable for stable, closed-loop water mass inventory control. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that water mass control can significantly improve the operation and safety of Nuclear Steam Generators

  20. Element Cycles: An Environmental Chemistry Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippins, Tracy; Anderson, Cody M.; Poindexter, Eric F.; Sultemeier, S. Whitney; Schultz, Linda D.

    2011-01-01

    "Element Cycles" is an activity designed to reinforce correlation of essential elements and their different forms in the ecosystem. Students are assigned essential elements to research as homework, then share results, and construct game boards with four ecosphere sections: geosphere (earth), hydrosphere (water), atmosphere (air), and biosphere…