Sample records for water conservation study

  1. Water conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T


    Full Text Available This chapter describes water systems used in green buildings and sets out some objectives that could be aimed for. It also outlines some calculations that can be used to design water systems in green buildings. Finally, aspects of green building...

  2. Water Conservation Resource List. (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981


    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  3. Water Conservation and Water Storage (United States)

    Narayanan, M.


    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.

  4. Water conservation behavior in Australia (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina


    Ensuring a nation's long term water supply requires the use of both supply-sided approaches such as water augmentation through water recycling, and demand-sided approaches such as water conservation. Conservation behavior can only be increased if the key drivers of such behavior are understood. The aim of this study is to reveal the main drivers from a comprehensive pool of hypothesized factors. An empirical study was conducted with 3094 Australians. Data was analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis and decision trees to determine which factors best predict self-reported water conservation behavior. Two key factors emerge: high level of pro-environmental behavior; and pro-actively seeking out information about water. A number of less influential factors are also revealed. Public communication strategy implications are derived. PMID:22522412

  5. Arizona Conserve Water Educators Guide (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2007


    This award-winning, 350-page, full-color book provides a thorough study of Arizona water resources from a water conservation perspective. Its background section contains maps, graphs, diagrams and photos that facilitate the teaching of 15 interactive, multi-disciplinary lessons to K-12 students. In addition, 10 Arizona case studies are highlighted…

  6. Water Watchers: Water Conservation Curriculum for Junior High School Science and Social Studies Classes. (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    Water is precious. It is also easy to take for granted. Many people recognize that water is scarce in desert areas, but it is harder to realize that places like Massachusetts could face a shortage of pure drinking water. This guide is designed for seventh and eighth grade science and social studies teacher. The lessons require 5 to 10 class…

  7. Rethinking soil and water conservation in a changing society : a case study in eastern Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzucato, V.; Niemeijer, D.


    Soil and water conservation is at the top of development agendas in Africa. Virtually every project related to agriculture or the environment has a soil and water conservation component to it and environmental protection plans are being drawn up by African governments in which soil and

  8. Water Conservation Study for Manastash Creek Water Users, Kittias County, Washington, Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery Watson Harza (Firm)


    Manastash Creek is tributary of the Yakima River and is located southwest and across the Yakima River from the City of Ellensburg. The creek drains mountainous terrain that ranges in elevation from 2,000 feet to over 5,500 feet and is primarily snowmelt fed, with largest flows occurring in spring and early summer. The creek flows through a narrow canyon until reaching a large, open plain that slopes gently toward the Yakima River and enters the main stem of the Yakima River at river mile 154.5. This area, formed by the alluvial fan of the Creek as it leaves the canyon, is the subject of this study. The area is presently dominated by irrigated agriculture, but development pressures are evident as Ellensburg grows and develops as an urban center. Since the mid to late nineteenth century when irrigated agriculture was established in a significant manner in the Yakima River Basin, Manastash Creek has been used to supply irrigation water for farming in the area. Adjudicated water rights dating back to 1871 for 4,465 acres adjacent to Manastash Creek allow appropriation of up to 26,273 acre-feet of creek water for agricultural irrigation and stock water. The diversion of water from Manastash Creek for irrigation has created two main problems for fisheries. They are low flows or dewatered reaches of Manastash Creek and fish passage barriers at the irrigation diversion dams. The primary goal of this study, as expressed by Yakama Nation and BPA, is to reestablish safe access in tributaries of the Yakima River by removing physical barriers and unscreened diversions and by adding instream flow where needed for fisheries. The goal expressed by irrigators who would be affected by these projects is to support sustainable and profitable agricultural use of land that currently uses Manastash Creek water for irrigation. This study provides preliminary costs and recommendations for a range of alternative projects that will partially or fully meet the goal of establishing safe access

  9. Zoning of rural water conservation in China: A case study at Ashihe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Liu


    Full Text Available With the effective control of point source (PS pollution accomplished, water pollution problems caused by non-point source (NPS pollution have increased in recent years. The worsening agricultural NPS pollution has drawn the attention of the Chinese Government and researcher scientists and has resulted in the often mentioned “three red lines” on water resources management. One of the red lines is to control water pollution within a rational range. The Agricultural NPS pollution, which includes pollution from housing, and from livestock and crop production, is the main source. Based on the NPS pollution statutes, an index system for integrated evaluation of water quality, and a zoning scheme for rural water conservation were established. Using the method of one-dimensional Euclidean distance, this country is divided into 9 sub-zones at the provincial level, which are the first level zones. The zoning themes include natural resources, socio-economic development, water use efficiency, and pollutants emission intensity. According to pollution types of livestock, agriculture, or both, the first level zones are divided into 25 second level zones. The third class zoning is divided also based on pollution intensity of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD. On the basis of the second level zoning, there were formed 70 rural water conservation third level zones. This case study in the Ashihe river watershed indicated that the main pollution sources are consistent with the zoning research result, and this zoning has shown a good way to guide the agricultural NPS pollution control in not only the wide rural area of China but also other parts of the world.

  10. Ecological Compensation Mechanism in Water Conservation Area: A Case Study of Dongjiang River

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    Kong Fanbin


    Full Text Available The appropriate economic compensation from downstream to upstream watershed is important to solve China’s social and economic imbalances between regions and can potentially enhance water resources protection and ecological security. The study analyzes the implementation of ecological compensation policy and related legal basis under ecological compensation mechanism theory and practice patterns, based on current natural environment and socio-economic development of national origin in Dongjiang water conservation areas. Under the principle of “Users pay”, the Dongjiang River is the subject of ecological compensation and recipient. By using the “cost-benefit analysis” and “cost method of industrial development opportunity”, we estimate that the total ecological compensation amounted to 513.35 million yuan. When estimated by the indicators such as water quantity, water quality and water use efficiency, we establish the “environmental and ecological protection cost sharing model” and measure the total cost of protecting downstream watershed areas, the Guangdong Province, is about 108.61 million yuan. The implementation of the Dongjiang source region that follows the principles of ecological compensation and approaches are also designed

  11. Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya. (United States)

    Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R


    The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable.

  12. Water Conservation and Economic Incentives (United States)

    Narayanan, M.


    Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References:

  13. A case study on the ecological evaluation of water conservation facilities on the basis of plant diversity (United States)

    Wu, C. Y.; Xia, G. J.; He, T. H.; Yu, J.; Qiao, B.


    In this experiment, water conservation facilities in the Yinchuan Plains were studied to establish ecological evaluation criterion for water conservation facilities based on plant diversity indexes. Among the tested indexes, the Margalef and the Simpson indexes were found to effectively characterize the ecological degree of water conservation facilities. Natural lake plant diversity has been used to as a metric; the ecological criteria degree of water conservation facilities can be divided into 4 grades. The results showed that the ecological level of the field ditch, primary furrow, and second furrow qualified as class A, which is the highest grade. The branch canal was grade B, which is good. The lateral canal and flood furrow were grade C, which is a medium level. The trunk canal was grade D, which is the poorest. In addition, the results establish an ecologicalization evaluation system based on the plant diversity composite index of the original lake. Metrics such as biomass, carbon and nitrogen fluctuations, temperature, and humidity could be used to comprehensively evaluate the ecologicalization degree of water conservation projects, such as large reservoirs.

  14. Consequences of Not Conserving Water (United States)

    Narayanan, M.; Crawford, L.


    The problem of fresh water is not only local, but also global. In certain parts of the world, much needed rain is becoming less frequent, possibly due to the effects of global warming. The resources of clean fresh water on earth are very limited and are reducing every year due to pollution like industrial waste, oil spills, untreated sewage, inefficient irrigation systems, waste and leakage, etc. This is destroying the ecosystem of the entire planet. Of course, in some parts of world there is rain almost throughout the year. Regardless, major problems are still prevalent because of a variety of reasons such as drainage, storage, evaporation, cleanliness, etc. It is all too well known that evapotranspiration contributes to a significant water loss from drainage basins. Most of the citizens of this world are still careless about water usage and are unappreciative of the need for water conservation. This is a very unpleasant fact and needs to change. Cost expenditures for the development of infrastructure to supply water to households and industries are becoming prohibitively expensive. Many parts in this world have extremely dry terrain and rainfall is not as frequent as it should be. As a result, the underground water tables are not replenished properly, thereby turning regions to arid land and deserts. Unless effective irrigation methods are used, potential evapotranspiration may be actually greater than precipitation provided by nature. The soil therefore dries out creating an arid landmass. The earth and its inhabitants can sustain only if creative methods of clean water conservation ideas are effectively implemented. (Co-author: Dr. Mysore Narayanan) References:

  15. Impacts of Urban Water Conservation Strategies on Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Health: Southern California as a Case Study. (United States)

    Sokolow, Sharona; Godwin, Hilary; Cole, Brian L


    To determine how urban water conservation strategies in California cities can affect water and energy conservation efforts, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and benefit public health. We expanded upon our 2014 health impact assessment of California's urban water conservation strategies by comparing the status quo to 2 options with the greatest potential impact on the interrelated issues of water and energy in California: (1) banning landscape irrigation and (2) expanding alternative water sources (e.g., desalination, recycled water). Among the water conservation strategies evaluated, expanded use of recycled water stood out as the water conservation strategy with potential to reduce water use, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions, with relatively small negative impacts for the public's health. Although the suitability of recycled water for urban uses depends on local climate, geography, current infrastructure, and finances, analyses similar to that presented here can help guide water policy decisions in cities across the globe facing challenges of supplying clean, sustainable water to urban populations.

  16. 43 CFR 427.1 - Water conservation. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water conservation. 427.1 Section 427.1... INTERIOR WATER CONSERVATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 427.1 Water conservation. (a) In general. The Secretary shall encourage the full consideration and incorporation of prudent and responsible water conservation...

  17. Soil and Water Conservation Prioritization Using Geospatial Technology – a Case Study of Part of Subarnarekha Basin, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz Ahmad


    Full Text Available Changing patterns of land use and land cover have exploited the natural resources. Soil, water and forests are degraded, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Deforestation in recent years has led to changes in the environment and more of soil erosion and loss of potable water. In order to conserve and sustainably use soil and water, a watershed management approach is necessary. It helps in restoring water by increasing the infiltration and reducing the erosion of soil. Such measures should be propagated in rainfall deficit areas. The present study has attempted to study the upper watershed part of Subarnarekha basin in Jharkhand state of India. Remote sensing satellite data (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS 2013 was used for delineation of the land use/land cover and vegetation index maps. Several thematic layers like slope, drainage and rainfall were integrated to achieve a priority area map using spatial multicriteria decision making. It delineated high medium and low priority areas within the watershed for soil and water conservation. The high priority area was 16.63% of the total study area. Further, the causes were analysed and conservation measures proposed.

  18. Water Conservation Education with a Rainfall Simulator. (United States)

    Kok, Hans; Kessen, Shelly


    Describes a program in which a rainfall simulator was used to promote water conservation by showing water infiltration, water runoff, and soil erosion. The demonstrations provided a good background for the discussion of issues such as water conservation, crop rotation, and conservation tillage practices. The program raised awareness of…

  19. An approach to industrial water conservation--a case study involving two large manufacturing companies based in Australia. (United States)

    Agana, Bernard A; Reeve, Darrell; Orbell, John D


    This study presents the application of an integrated water management strategy at two large Australian manufacturing companies that are contrasting in terms of their respective products. The integrated strategy, consisting of water audit, pinch analysis and membrane process application, was deployed in series to systematically identify water conservation opportunities. Initially, a water audit was deployed to completely characterize all water streams found at each production site. This led to the development of a water balance diagram which, together with water test results, served as a basis for subsequent enquiry. After the water audit, commercially available water pinch software was utilized to identify possible water reuse opportunities, some of which were subsequently implemented on site. Finally, utilizing a laboratory-scale test rig, membrane processes such as UF, NF and RO were evaluated for their suitability to treat the various wastewater streams. The membranes tested generally showed good contaminant rejection rates, slow flux decline rates, low energy usage and were well suited for treatment of specific wastewater streams. The synergy between the various components of this strategy has the potential to reduce substantial amounts of Citywater consumption and wastewater discharge across a diverse range of large manufacturing companies. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



    Hamilton, Joel R.; Willis, David B.


    A spreadsheet-based simulation model is used to illustrate the complex relationships between irrigation efficiency, water banking and water conservation under the prior appropriation doctrine. Increases in irrigation efficiency and/or establishment of water banks do not guarantee water conservation. Conservation requires reduction in the quantity of water consumptively used by agriculture.

  1. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct... (United States)


    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating... conservation standards for residential water heaters (other than tabletop and electric instantaneous models...

  2. The value of recycling on water conservation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludi-Herrera, Katlyn D.


    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is working to conserve water through recycling. This report will focus on the water conservation that has been accumulated through the recycling of paper, ceiling tiles, compost, and plastic. It will be discussed the use of water in the process of manufacturing these materials and the amount of water that is used. The way that water is conserved will be reviewed. From the stand point of SNL it will be discussed the amount of material that has been accumulated from 2010 to the first two quarters of 2013 and how much water this material has saved.

  3. Navy Water Conservation Guide for Shore Activities. (United States)


    water overuse, abuse, and apa - tation of the principles of water con- thy. DOE estimates that water use servation at your Navy facility will in the...Sacramento, CA: 1994. Camacho, Norma , et. al. Water Conservation Technology Guide. NEESA-1 - 040. Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity...Conservation Technology Document, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, page 7-8. Port Hueneme, CA: 1985. Figure 4-7: Camacho, Norma , et. al. NEESA 1-040

  4. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.


    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  5. Water Conservation in Schools and Institutions. (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981


    Suggests measures for New Jersey schools to take to decrease building water consumption by 25 per cent during the present state water shortage. Appended is a short list of water conservation instructional materials intended to supplement a bibliography published in the February, 1981 issue of this magazine (pp15-16). (SJL)

  6. Study on the Strategies for the Soil and Water Resource Con-servation of Slopeland in Taiwan in Response to the Extreme Climate (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng


    Global climate change results in extreme weather, especially ex-treme precipitation in Taiwan. Though the total amount of precipi-tation remains unchanged, the frequency of rainfall return period increases which affects slopeland and causes sediment disaster. In Taiwan, slopeland occupies about 73% of national territory. Under harsh environmental stress, soil and water conservation of slope-land becomes more important. In response to the trends of global-ization impacts of climate change, long term strategic planning be-comes more necessary. This study reviewed international practices and decision making process about soil and water conservation of slopeland; and conducted the compilation and analysis of water and soil conservation related research projects in Taiwan within the past five years. It is necessary for Taiwan to design timely adaptive strategies about conducting the all-inclusive conservation of na-tional territory, management and business operation of watershed based on the existing regulation with the effects of extreme weather induced by climate change and the changes of social-economic en-vironments. In order to realize the policy vision of "Under the premise of multiple uses, operating the sustainable business and management of the water and soil resources in the watershed through territorial planning in response to the climate and so-cial-economic environment change". This study concluded the future tasks for soil and water con-servation: 1.Design and timely amend strategies for soil and wand water conservation in response to extreme weather. 2. Strengthen the planning and operating of the land management and integrated conservation of the water and soil resources of key watershed. 3. Manage and operate the prevention of debris flow disaster and large-scale landslide. 4. Formulate polices, related regulations and assessment indicators of soil and water conservation. 5. Maintain the biodiversity of the slopeland and reduce the ecological footprint

  7. Soil and water conservation strategies and impact on sustainable livelihood in Cape Verde - Case study of Ribeira Seca watershed (United States)

    Baptista, I.; Ferreira, A. D.; Tavares, J.; Querido, A. L. E.; Reis, A. E. A.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.; Varela, A.


    Cape Verde, located off the coast of Senegal in western Africa, is a volcanic archipelago where a combination of human, climatic, geomorphologic and pedologic factors has led to extensive degradation of the soils. Like other Sahelian countries, Cape Verde has suffered the effects of desertification through the years, threatening the livelihood of the islands population and its fragile environment. In fact, the steep slopes in the ore agricultural islands, together with semi-arid and arid environments, characterized by an irregular and poorly distributed rainy season, with high intensity rainfall events, make dryland production a challenge. To survive in these fragile conditions, the stabilization of the farming systems and the maintenance of sustainable yields have become absolute priorities, making the islands an erosion control laboratory. Soil and water conservation strategies have been a centerpiece of the government's agricultural policies for the last half century. Aiming to maintain the soil in place and the water inside the soil, the successive governments of Cape Verde have implemented a number of soil and water conservation techniques, the most common ones being terraces, half moons, live barriers, contour rock walls, contour furrows and microcatchments, check dams and reforestation with drought resistant species. The soil and water conservation techniques implemented have contributed to the improvement of the economical and environmental conditions of the treated landscape, making crop production possible, consequently, improving the livelihood of the people living on the islands. In this paper, we survey the existing soil and water conservation techniques, analyze their impact on the livelihood condition of the population through a thorough literature review and field monitoring using a semi-quantitative methodology and evaluate their effectiveness and impact on crop yield in the Ribeira Seca watershed. A brief discussion is given on the cost and

  8. Collaborative learning of water conservation practices: cultivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collaborative learning of water conservation practices: cultivation and expansion of a learning network around rainwater harvesting demonstration sites in the Eastern Cape, ... South Africa has water, nutrition and food security challenges, especially the Eastern Cape Province where there is a relatively high level of poverty.

  9. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape (United States)


    a semi - arid climate , where indoor air is mostly re-circulated, and HVAC unit temperature set points are intentionally high to conserve energy...Traditional Irrigation System • May be applicable in any climate (i.e., arid and/or semi - arid ). • Are economical in many regions of the country where...consumption for irrigation at our DoD installations located in semi - arid regions where alternative water conservation measures are being pursued. The

  10. Contribution to the study of water stress on olive growing under the effect of climate change behind the soil and water conservation techniques in South East of Tunisia (United States)

    Hachani, Amal; Ouessar, Mohamed; Zerrim, Ammar


    Climate change (CC) is a main issue of interest at the international as well as the national levels. It is important at this stage to guide the research to the analysis of impacts and adaptation strategies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the water stress of the olive within the context of CC behind the soil and water conservation techniques in the South East of Tunisia (watershed of Oum Zessar, Medenine) using hydrological modeling (HidroMORE model). Data on rainfall and temperature were collected from available stations, while those for future scenarios (Horizons 2030 and 2090) were obtained using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 CMIP5 (GFDL HIRAM C360). Model parameterization was based from already conducted studies in the region while estimations have been made for the other case. In comparison with the reference period (1996-2005) and following the increase in temperature (1°C) and (5°C) and rainfall decrease of (5.4%) and (20%), ET0 recorded an increase of (3%) (9%) and ETCadj was reduced by (13%) and (30%), respectively for the 2030 and 2090 horizons. Thus, it is expected that the land suitable for olive cultivation will experience shrinkage and this cropping system would become increasingly problematic.

  11. Household water use and conservation models using Monte Carlo techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cahill


    Full Text Available The increased availability of end use measurement studies allows for mechanistic and detailed approaches to estimating household water demand and conservation potential. This study simulates water use in a single-family residential neighborhood using end-water-use parameter probability distributions generated from Monte Carlo sampling. This model represents existing water use conditions in 2010 and is calibrated to 2006–2011 metered data. A two-stage mixed integer optimization model is then developed to estimate the least-cost combination of long- and short-term conservation actions for each household. This least-cost conservation model provides an estimate of the upper bound of reasonable conservation potential for varying pricing and rebate conditions. The models were adapted from previous work in Jordan and are applied to a neighborhood in San Ramon, California in the eastern San Francisco Bay Area. The existing conditions model produces seasonal use results very close to the metered data. The least-cost conservation model suggests clothes washer rebates are among most cost-effective rebate programs for indoor uses. Retrofit of faucets and toilets is also cost-effective and holds the highest potential for water savings from indoor uses. This mechanistic modeling approach can improve understanding of water demand and estimate cost-effectiveness of water conservation programs.

  12. 18 CFR 806.25 - Water conservation standards. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water conservation standards. 806.25 Section 806.25 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Standards for Review and Approval § 806.25 Water conservation...

  13. Evaluation index system for positive operation of water conservancy projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-yuan ZHU


    Full Text Available The conditions for the positive operation of water conservancy projects are described in this paper. A scientific and effective evaluation index system was established based on frequency analysis, theoretical analysis, and expert consultation. This evaluation index system can be divided into six first-level indices: the degree to which facilities are intact and functionality standards are reached, the status of operation and management funds, the rationality and degree of advancement of the management team structure, the adaptability and rationality of the water conservancy project management system, the degree of automatization and informationization of the management techniques, and the conduciveness of the exterior environment. The weights for evaluation indices were obtained through the analytic hierarchy process method with consideration of the difference between public welfare and profit-oriented water conservancy projects. This study provides a scientific method for evaluating the positive operation of water conservancy projects.

  14. Didactic Strategiesthat Foster Care and Water Conservation

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    Enma Rosa Montilla Rangel


    Full Text Available The present research has as main objective to develop didactic strategies that promote the care and conservation of water in the CEIB Barinitas. Barinitas Parish, Barinas state Bolivar County. The nature of the research was framed under the qualitative paradigm and the type of research is action research, under a field design with a descriptive support fulfilling four (4 phases raised by Murcia (diagnosis, planning, implementation and evaluation. The technique used to collect data was the interview and participant observation. In the same way, it was used as an instrument an interview script. Also, to respond to questions in the interview guide were taken as key informants to three (3 teachers from the institution under study. The quality criteria of the investigation were based on reliability, credibility, systematic, trust, transferability and Confirmability the instrument. To carry out the analysis and interpretation of the information was made through the process of data triangulation. The results obtained have shown the need to run an action plan for the promotion, care and preservation of water in children Early Education Center Bolivarian, Barinitas. In conclusion the intention of teachers to participate in training sessions to improve teaching strategies that promote the care and preservation of water in the students was evident. and the directors and pedagogical coordinators was recommended to track and control strategies are incorporated into daily lessons.

  15. Aserpiado - an ancient water conservation measure revisited (United States)

    Duifhuizen, Wolfgang; Baartman, Jantiene EM; Guzman, Gema; Gomez, Jose A.


    In Andalucía, southern Spain, farmers have been applying a water conservation measure in vineyards called 'Aserpiado' (plural: Aserpias) for centuries. This measure consists of creating multiple micro-depressions within a field in either all or in every second inter vines rows, using a tillage tool. The main objective of implementing aserpiado is to let water infiltrate on-site, thereby increasing soil moisture and plant available water, and decreasing runoff and associated losses of water and soil. Even though this system has traditionally been used in dryland areas, the functioning and efficiency of the system are still not well known. This study aimed at investigating the functioning of the aserpiado system at hillslope scale in a commercial vineyard belonging to the Appellation of Origin Montilla-Moriles in Córdoba. For this purpose, rainfall simulations at micro-plot scale and infiltration tests were performed in the field at different positions of the hillslope to determine the runoff coefficient of the untreated rows and the infiltration rate at the aserpias, respectively. These trials were complemented with a detailed description of the soil profile and aserpias and a sampling survey to describe and characterize some soil properties, relevant for this study. Preliminary results and field observations indicate that high-intensity rainstorms cause high runoff coefficients in the untreated rows. Further analysis of the data obtained from the different trials would quantify the degree in which aserpias, if well made, would be able to decrease hortonian runoff in vineyards. As this study is ongoing, more detailed results will be presented on the poster.

  16. Water-Conserving Plant-Growth System (United States)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Brown, Christopher S.


    Report presents further information about plant-growth apparatus described in "Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit" (KSC-11375). Apparatus provides nutrient solution to roots of seedlings without flooding. Conserves water by helping to prevent evaporation from plant bed. Solution supplied only as utilized by seedlings. Device developed for supporting plant growth in space, also has applications for growing plants with minimum of water, such as in arid environments.

  17. Water conservation under scarcity conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zietlow, Kim J.; Michalscheck, Mirja; Weltin, Meike


    This study measures the long-run effect of the Abu Tawfeer media campaign in Jordan. Based on a representative sample (N = 367) conducted five years after the end of the campaign, a multivariate instrumental variable regression analysis shows that the campaign only marginally changed people’s

  18. Water Conservation and Hydrological Transitions in Cities (United States)

    Hornberger, G. M.; Gilligan, J. M.; Hess, D. J.


    A 2012 report by the National Research Council, Challenges and Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences, called for the development of "translational hydrologic science." Translational research in this context requires knowledge about the communication of science to decision makers and to the public but also improved understanding of the public by the scientists. This kind of knowledge is inherently interdisciplinary because it requires understanding of the complex sociotechnical dimensions of water, policy, and user relations. It is axiomatic that good governance of water resources and water infrastructure requires information about water resources themselves and about the institutions that govern water use. This "socio-hydrologic" or "hydrosociological" knowledge is often characterized by complex dynamics between and among human and natural systems. Water Resources Research has provided a forum for presentation of interdisciplinary research in coupled natural-human systems since its inception 50 years ago. The evolution of ideas presented in the journal provides a basis for framing new work, an example of which is water conservation in cities. In particular, we explore the complex interactions of political, sociodemographic, economic, and hydroclimatological factors in affecting decisions that either advance or retard the development of water conservation policies.

  19. Economic Analysis of Water Conservation Policies in the Texas Panhandle


    Taylor, Robert H.; Almas, Lal K.; Colette, W. Arden


    Due to declining water availability from the Ogallala Aquifer, management policy alternatives for extending the life of the aquifer to sustain rural economies in the Texas Panhandle are evaluated. The study concludes that water conservation policies for the region significantly impact crop mix, resource usage, and net present value of farm profits over a sixty-year planning horizon.

  20. Economic analysis of water conservation policies in the Texas Panhandle (United States)

    Due to declining water availability from the Ogallala Aquifer, management policy alternatives for extending the life of the aquifer to sustain rural economies in the Texas Panhandle are evaluated. The study concludes that water conservation policies for the region significantly impact crop mix, reso...

  1. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles (United States)

    Narayanan, M.


    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  2. 75 FR 9921 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation... (United States)


    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... the Draft Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan (NCCP/HCP...

  3. Public Perception of Water Consumption and Its Effects on Water Conservation Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.X.; Wang, F.; Liu, G.B.; Yang, X.; Qin, W.


    The usual perception of consumers regarding water consumption is that their bills do not match their actual water consumption. However, this mismatch has been insufficiently studied; particularly for cases related to specific water-use patterns, water conservation practices, and user

  4. Understanding Public Engagement in Water Conservation Behaviors and Knowledge of Water Policy: Promising Hints for Extension (United States)

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.


    Sustaining water resources is a primary issue facing Florida Extension. The study reported here identified how experience with water issues and familiarity with water policies affected individuals' engagement in water conservation behaviors. A public opinion survey was conducted online to capture Florida residents' responses. The findings…

  5. Furrow Dike Water Conservation Practices in the Texas High Plains


    Wistrand, Glen L.


    Furrow diking can prevent irrigation and rainfall runoff, conserve energy use, prevent soil loss, amd allow producers to reclaim land otherwise unusable, depending on soil, climate, and crops grown in a given area. Initial investment to use this technique may be recovered within the first season. This study analyzes the effects of diking on water and soil conservation, crop yields, costs, and energy use in farming, using examples of farms in the Texas High Plains area.

  6. Evaluating water conservation and reuse policies using a dynamic water balance model. (United States)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R


    A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.

  7. Water demand management in times of drought: What matters for water conservation (United States)

    Maggioni, Elena


    Southern California is subject to long droughts and short wet spells. Its water agencies have put in place voluntary, mandatory, and market-based conservation strategies since the 1980s. By analyzing water agencies' data between 2006 and 2010, this research studies whether rebates for water efficient fixtures, water rates, or water ordinances have been effective, and tests whether structural characteristics of water agencies have affected the policy outcome. It finds that mandates to curb outdoor water uses are correlated with reductions in residential per capita water usage, while water rates and subsidies for water saving devices are not. It also confirms that size is a significant policy implementation factor. In a policy perspective, the transition from a water supply to a water demand management-oriented strategy appears guided by mandates and by contextual factors such as the economic cycle and the weather that occur outside the water governance system. Three factors could improve the conservation effort: using prices as a conservation tool, not only as a cost recovering instrument; investing in water efficient tools only when they provide significant water savings; supporting smaller agencies in order to give them opportunities to implement conservation strategies more effectively or to help them consolidate.

  8. Some Interesting Facts about Water and Water Conservation (United States)

    Narayanan, M.


    The total amount of water in the world today is still the same as it was hundreds of thousands of years ago. Almost 97% of the water that is on this earth is undrinkable. About two percent of world's water is locked in polar ice caps and glaciers. Only one percent of world's water is available for human consumption. Agriculture, livestock farming, irrigation, manufacturing, factories, businesses, commercial establishments, offices, communities and household all have to share this 1% of water that is available. Although we call it drinking water, humans actually drink only about 1% of water that is actually supplied to the household by the utility companies. Inside a leak-proof average American household, about 70% of the water is used in the bathroom and about 20% is utilized in kitchen and laundry. The U.S. daily average consumption of water is about 200 gallons per person. Desalinated water may typically cost about 2,000 - 3000 an acre foot. This is approximately a penny a gallon. An acre-foot or 325,851 gallons is roughly the amount of water a family of five uses in a year. 1.2 trillion gallons of industrial waste, untreated sewage and storm water are dumped into U.S. waters each year. Faster depletion of water supplies is partly due to hotter summers, which mean thirstier people, livestock, plants, trees and shrubs. In addition, hotter summers mean more evaporation from lakes, rivers, reservoirs and irrigated farmland. The median household in the U.S. spends about one of its income on water and sewerage. The human body is about 75% water. Although government agencies have taken necessary steps, water pollution levels continue to rise rapidly. It is becoming more and more difficult to clean up polluted water bodies. Water conservation and preventing water pollution is the responsibility of very human being. References:

  9. Trading Water Conservation Credits: A Coordinative Approach for Enhanced Urban Water Reliability (United States)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. K.


    Water utilities in arid and semi-arid regions are increasingly relying on water use efficiency and conservation to extend the availability of supplies. Despite spatial and institutional inter-dependency of many service providers, these demand-side management initiatives have traditionally been tackled by individual utilities operating in a silo. In this study, we introduce a new approach to water conservation that addresses regional synergies—a novel system of tradable water conservation credits. Under the proposed approach, utilities have the flexibility to invest in water conservation measures that are appropriate for their specific service area. When utilities have insufficient capacity for local cost-effective measures, they may opt to purchase credits, contributing to fund subsidies for utilities that do have that capacity and can provide the credits, while the region as whole benefits from more reliable water supplies. While similar programs have been used to address water quality concerns, to our knowledge this is one of the first studies proposing tradable credits for incentivizing water conservation. Through mathematical optimization, this study estimates the potential benefits of a trading program and demonstrates the institutional and economic characteristics needed for such a policy to be viable, including a proposed web platform to facilitate transparent regional planning, data-driven decision-making, and enhanced coordination of utilities. We explore the impacts of defining conservation targets tailored to local realities of utilities, setting credit prices, and different policy configurations. We apply these models to the case study of water utility members of the Bay Area Water Supply and Conservation Agency. Preliminary work shows that the diverse characteristics of these utilities present opportunities for the region to achieve conservation goals while maximizing the benefits to individual utilities through more flexible coordinative efforts.

  10. Implications of market access on soil and water conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Market access is one of the motivating mechanisms for farmers to invest in soil and water conservation (SWC). Areas of relatively high agricultural potential but remote from major markets face numerous challenges in marketing their outputs. The objective of this study was to explore the market access determinants of farmer ...

  11. Water Conservation and Artificial Recharge of Aquifers in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandha, D. K.


    India has proud traditions and wisdom which have evolved over thousands of years for developing technologies for water conservation and groundwater recharge using surplus monsoon precipitation runoff. This is imperative as the average rainfall/precipitation period is about 27 days/year and with uneven distribution across the country. Groundwater development is now the mainstay for sustaining agricultural production and rural water supplies. As such, groundwater development is increasing at an exponential rate and the estimated draft is now 231 000 hm{sup 3} with the result that almost 15% of the groundwater development areas are showing a continuous decline of water levels. There is an anomalous situation whereby water levels are declining in 831 blocks (assessment units) out of a total of 5 723 blocks across the country, and availability of excessive 864 000 hm{sup 3} runoff in different river basins brings floods and creates water logging in some parts of the country. This non-utilizable water can be planned for creating small surface water storage and to create additional sub-surface storage through groundwater recharge. At present, total water available is estimated at 660 000 hm{sup 3} and the minimum estimated water demand will be 843 000 hm{sup 3} in 2025 and 973 000 hm{sup 3} in 2050. Therefore, if India wants sustainable food supplies and to meet domestic/industrial water requirements, there is no other option than to implement projects for water conservation/groundwater recharge. Although a number of forward looking steps have been planned by the government and other institutions, many lacunae have been observed which need to be addressed for the successful implementation of water conservation and recharge programmes. This paper discusses various practices from the pre-historic to the present day, with case studies showing technological intervention. (Author)

  12. 75 FR 11194 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation... (United States)


    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... application, and notice of public meetings for the San Diego County Water Authority's (Water Authority...

  13. Systematic Environmental Impact Assessment for Non-natural Reserve Areas: A Case Study of the Chaishitan Water Conservancy Project on Land Use and Plant Diversity in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xin Zhu


    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment (EIA before and after the establishment of a Water Conservancy Project (WCP is of great theoretical and practical importance for assessing the effectiveness of ecological restoration efforts. WCPs rehabilitate flood-damaged areas or other regions hit by disasters by controlling and redistributing surface water and groundwater. Using Geographic Information System (GIS and Composite Evaluation Index (CEI in predictive modeling, we studied the degree to which a WCP could change land use, plant communities, and species diversity in Yunnan, China. Via modeling, we quantified likely landscape pattern changes and linked them to naturality (i.e., the percentage of secondary vegetation types, diversity, and stability together with the human interferences (e.g., conservation or restoration project of an ecosystem. The value of each index was determined by the evaluation system, and the weight percentage was decided through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. We found that minor land-use changes would occur after the Chaishitan WCP was theoretically established. The greatest decline was farmland (0.079%, followed by forest (0.066%, with the least decline in water bodies (0.020%. We found 1,076 vascular plant species (including subspecies, varieties and form belonging to 165 families and 647 genera in Chaishitan irrigation area before the water conservancy establishment. The naturality and diversity decreased 11.18 and 10.16% respectively. The CEI was 0.92, which indicated that Chaishitan WCP will enhance local landscape heterogeneity, and it will not deteriorate local ecological quality. Our study proposes a comprehensive ecological evaluation system for this WCP and further suggests the importance of including the ecological and environmental consequences of the WCP, along with the well-established socioeconomic evaluation systems for non-natural reserve areas. We conclude that the Chaishitan WCP will have minor

  14. Water use patterns and conservation in households of Wei River Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.


    Fully understanding patterns of water use and water conservation among different consumer groups will help in implementing more effective water conservation programs worldwide. Consequently, we investigated water use patterns, water conservation practices, attitudes, and hindrances to water

  15. Water Conservation with Water Saving Devices, Proceedings of a Conference. Extension Bulletin 421. (United States)

    Shelton, Theodore B., Ed.

    Presented are six papers on water conservation which were presented at a conference in New Jersey. The first two papers present recommendations of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection on water conservation and a master plan for New Jersey's water supply needs. The following four papers discuss water conservation with water-saving…

  16. Review of Water Consumption and Water Conservation Technologies in the Algal Biofuel Process. (United States)

    Tu, Qingshi; Lu, Mingming; Thiansathit, Worrarat; Keener, Tim C


    Although water is one of the most critical factors affecting the sustainable development of algal biofuels, it is much less studied as compared to the extensive research on algal biofuel production technologies. This paper provides a review of the recent studies on water consumption of the algae biofuel process and presents the water conservation technologies applicable at different stages of the algal biofuel process. Open ponds tend to have much higher water consumption (216 to 2000 gal/gal) than photobioreactors (25 to 72 gal/gal). Algae growth accounts for the highest water consumption (165 to 2000 gal/gal) in the open pond system. Water consumption during harvesting, oil extraction, and biofuel conversion are much less compared with the growth stage. Potential water conservation opportunities include technology innovations and better management practices at different stages of algal biofuel production.

  17. Conservation laws for equations related to soil water equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalique C. M.


    Full Text Available We obtain all nontrivial conservation laws for a class of ( 2+1 nonlinear evolution partial differential equations which are related to the soil water equations. It is also pointed out that nontrivial conservation laws exist for certain classes of equations which admit point symmetries. Moreover, we associate symmetries with conservation laws for special classes of these equations.

  18. The Role of Communicative Feedback in Successful Water Conservation Programs (United States)

    Tom, Gail; Tauchus, Gail; Williams, Jared; Tong, Stephanie


    The Sacramento County Water Agency has made available 2 water conservation programs to its customers. The Data Logger Program attaches the Meter Master Model 100 EL data logger to the customer's water meter for 1 week and provides a detailed report of water usage from each fixture. The Water Wise House Call Program provides findings and…

  19. Design handbook : energy efficiency and water conservation in NAS facilities (United States)


    This handbook was created to provide definitive energy efficiency and water conservation design criteria for the design of NAS facilities. FAA-HDBK-001 provides implementation strategies and tools to comply with E.O. 12902, Energy and Water Conservat...

  20. Impacts of Personal Experience: Informing Water Conservation Extension Education (United States)

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.


    Extension educators have diligently educated the general public about water conservation. Incorporating audiences' personal experience into educational programming is recommended as an approach to effectively enhance audiences' adoption of water conservation practices. To ensure the impact on the audiences and environment, understanding the…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    attempted, to identify the traditional and indigenous of soil conservation practices, to assess the socio-cultural, economic system constraints ... agricultural production in general and the current food insecurity in particular, witnesses ..... Adoption of Improved Soil Conservation. Technology in a Middle Mountain Watershed of.

  2. Effect of water conservation on water demands. [San Francisco Bay area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddaus, W.O.; Feuerstein, D.L.


    A new method for predicting long-range water demands was developed to quantify the post-drought effectiveness of water conservation in the San Francisco Bay area. The method relates water use and population density with employee density in the area. The projection model was used to test several alternative water conservation programs and the water savings were found to range from 4 to 16% by the year 2000. When the costs of water conservation were compared with those for building new water supply projects, it was concluded that water conservation is the most cost-effective source of water supply. 14 references.

  3. The Value of Forest Conservation for Water Quality Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Kreye


    Full Text Available Forests protect water quality by reducing soil erosion, sedimentation, and pollution; yet there is little information about the economic value of conserving forests for water quality protection in much of the United States. To assess this value, we conducted a meta-analysis of willingness-to-pay (WTP for protecting unimpaired waters, and econometrically determined several significant drivers of WTP: type of conservation instrument (tool, aquatic resource type, geographic context, spatial scale, time, and household income. Using a benefit transfer to two highly forested sites, we illustrate the importance of these factors on WTP for water quality protection programs, forest conservation and policy design.

  4. The development of a municipal water conservation and demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEFINITIONS. The DWA has adopted the generic term of 'Water Conservation and Water Demand Management (WC/WDM)' although these terms have been defined independently in the Water Services. Sector Strategy (DWAF, 2004) as: • WC is the minimisation of loss or waste, the care and protection of water resources ...

  5. Development and Simulation of Decentralised Water and Energy Supply Concepts – Case Study of Rainwater Harvesting at the Angkor Centre for Conservation of Biodiversity in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Czarny


    Full Text Available Besides a sufficient energy supply, concepts for accommodations require an intelligent water management. Using the example of quarters that do not have water and energy access, a dynamic simulation model is presented in which a rainwater harvesting concept is implemented and simulated over one year using MATLAB-Simulink. The aim is to minimize respectively suspend the use of fossil energy sources and to guarantee the provision of decentralized clean drinking water. Since traditional water bodies, e.g. groundwater, are increasingly polluted and depleted, utilisation of alternative sources is prudent. Especially in rural areas, where access to drinking water is scarce, rainwater is suitable for providing potable water. Besides its beneficial chemical water properties, it is easily accessed in a decentralized manner, which makes it a preferred choice in areas with sufficient precipitation. However, access to rainwater is limited by its occurrence and contamination, calling for proper storage, utilisation, and treatment strategies. For this purpose, a rainwater harvesting system, including different water and energy management systems, was modelled and implemented using the site of the Angkor Centre for Conservation of Biodiversity in Cambodia as an example. For the simulation, a precipitation generator was implemented using real historical rain event data. An appropriate rainwater treatment process was chosen, consisting of a microfiltration and a subsequent ultrafiltration unit removing bacteriological loads entirely. Both were modelled and implemented dynamically. Using the site of the Angkor Centre of Conservation of Biodiversity, a complete rainwater harvesting plant was implemented including harvest, storage, and utilization of rainwater. Further, a renewable energy management strategy is developed, using photovoltaic modules and batteries. It was shown that the cumulative runoff meets the water demand of the Angkor Centre for Conservation of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ocampo Fletes y Juan Francisco Escobedo Castillo


    Full Text Available The peasant-like agriculture that uses small quantities of water, continues being an important agricultural activity for the rural society of Mexico. Of this activity more than a million peasants and indigenous depend, that besides of meaning for them an economic activity, it represents a socio-cultural system that has allowed the reproduction of the peasant societies and it has generated more respectful practices with the environment due to that they conserve local knowledge. Respecting to the watering water, an identity peasant-water exists to manage it and to conserve it. In the context of the crisis of the watering water, product of physical, social and political changes, the peasant-like agriculture faces problems of shortage of the water, aspect that has caused changes in the form of managing the resource. For such a reason, an objective was proposed, to identify the handling strategies and conservation of the water that the peasants have adapted, and that they are based on ancestral knowledge to continue practicing the agriculture. Applying the focus agro-ecologic, a group of peasants who do the watering with “San Félix” channel was studied in the region of Atlixco Puebla, to know the answer to the shortage of the water that enters for the channel. The results show that the peasants have put in practice different extraction and localization strategies, like: such as the retail-trade for the localization of water, the excavation and tunneling of wells artisans. Likewise, they have implemented strategies for the handling and conservation, like: the construction of deposits and laundries, they have modified the “achololes” handling, modern watering systems have been introduced and it is been modified the arrangement of the cultivations. In all the techniques it is present the traditional knowledge of the peasants, product of the ancestral accumulation. All these practices express the capacity of the peasants' answer facing of

  7. Generic E. coli levels in surface and nontraditional irrigation water in the mid Atlantic in relation to FSMA water quality standards: A CONSERVE study (United States)

    Introduction: The use of surface (pond and river) and nontraditional (reclaimed wastewater, produce wash water) irrigation water (SNIW) could reduce stress on ground water resources. However, it is essential to understand how these irrigation sources may influence the microbiological safety of fresh...

  8. Drought Resilience and Water Conservation Technical Brief (United States)

    In many areas of the US, the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought events are increasing, this brief highlights EPA drought and conservation activities across the nation and includes links to additional materials and reference documents.

  9. Effectiveness of Two Water Conservation Policies: An Integrated Modeling Approach


    Das, Biswa R.; Willis, David B.; Johnson, Jeffrey W.


    Agriculture in the Texas High Plains depends entirely on the Ogallala Aquifer. Texas enacted water conservation legislation to address declining reserves in the aquifer. We developed an integrated regional water policy model that links a hydrology model with an economic optimization model to estimate policy impacts with respect to economic cost and water conservation. Testing the effectiveness of two policies, a groundwater extraction tax and extraction quotas, we observe that neither signifi...

  10. Water conservation quantities vs customer opinion and satisfaction with water efficient appliances in Miami, Florida. (United States)

    Lee, Mengshan; Tansel, Berrin


    During 2006-2007, Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA, provided incentives for low income and senior residents in single family homes for retrofitting with high efficiency fixtures. The participating residences were retrofitted with high-efficiency toilets, showerheads, and aerators. In 2012, a telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of the participants and the associated effects on water conservation practices. This study evaluates the attitudes and opinions of the participants relative to water use efficiency measures and the actual reduction in water consumption characteristics of the participating households. The participant characteristics were analyzed to identify correlations between the socio-demographic factors, program satisfaction and actual water savings. Approximately 65.5% of the survey respondents reported changes in their water use habits and 76.6% reported noticeable reduction in their water bills. The analyses showed that the satisfaction levels of the participants were closely correlated with the actual water savings. The results also showed that satisfaction level along with water saving potential (i.e., implementation of water efficiency devices) or change of water use habits has provided positive synergistic effect on actual water savings. The majority of the participants surveyed (81.3-89.1%) reported positive attitudes for water conservation incentive program and the benefits of the high efficiency fixtures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning on...

  12. The conservation nexus: valuing interdependent water and energy savings in Arizona. (United States)

    Bartos, Matthew D; Chester, Mikhail V


    Water and energy resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona and assesses the potential for cobeneficial conservation programs. The interdependent benefits of investments in eight conservation strategies are assessed within the context of legislated renewable energy portfolio and energy efficiency standards. The cobenefits of conservation are found to be significant. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 0.82-3.1%, satisfying 4.1-16% of the state's mandated energy-efficiency standard. Adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce nonagricultural water demand by 1.9-15%. These conservation cobenefits are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Many cobenefits offer negative costs of saved water and energy, indicating that these measures provide water and energy savings at no net cost. Because ranges of costs and savings for water-energy conservation measures are somewhat uncertain, future studies should investigate the cobenefits of individual conservation strategies in detail. Although this study focuses on Arizona, the analysis can be extended elsewhere as renewable portfolio and energy efficiency standards become more common nationally and internationally.

  13. Assessment of ecological security based on soil and water conservation: a case study from Gansu Province, China (United States)

    Li, Z. J.; Tian, Q.; Song, L. L.


    In this study, the analytic hierarchy process (ahp), ecological security index(S) and PSR model were used to evaluate Gansu's ecological security based on the large number of survey data. The results indicated that Gansu's ecological security index increased from 0.31 in 1986 to 0.66 in 2013, which reflected ecological security was in sensitive state (0.7༞S≥⃒0.5). The main reason was that national policy on protecting the ecological environment has played a crucial role, especially the national project of returning farmland to forest and grass carried out in recent years. Moreover, the environmental issues such as the higher PM2.5, sand storms and climate extremes, had significantly improved people's environmental awareness in the study area. The regional difference of ecological security index was significant in Gansu Provinces, and the part of Yangtze river basin was higher than the part of Yellow River basin, whiles the in-land river basin was the lowest value. In a world, Gansu's ecological security had improved in recent years, but there was strong need for paying more attention to policy for ecological environment protection and increasing the propaganda to ensure the Gansu's ecological security in the future. This study will provide a scientific basis for the sustainable development of regional social economy and ecological environment.

  14. Strategies of water conservation in southern African frogs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    do not normally have a water conservation problem except when the water in or near which they are living dries up. Burrowing frogs (e.g. Bulo, Pyxicephalus, T017Wpterna and Brel/keps) are able to select microhabitats in the soil which reduce evaporative water loss. Burrowing may, in particular cases, be associated with ...

  15. Strategies of Water Conservation in Southern African Frogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three approaches which anurans have adopted in response to water conservation problems have their correlates in bladder size and function. hormonal regulation of water balance and the extent to which water loss can be tolerated. The potential that the southern African amphibian fauna offers for physiological ...

  16. Criterion I: Soil and water conservation on rangelands [Chapter 2 (United States)

    Michael G. (Sherm) Karl; Paul T. Tueller; Gerald E. Schuman; Mark R. Vinson; James L. Fogg; Ronald W. Shafer; David A. Pyke; D. Terrance Booth; Steven J. Borchard; William G. Ypsilantis; Richard H. Barrett


    The Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (SRR) has explicitly included conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources as a criterion of rangeland sustainability. Within the soil/water criterion, 10 indicators ­ five soil-based and five water-based - were developed through the expert opinions of rangeland scientists, rangeland management agency personnel, non-...

  17. Water Wisdom: 23 Stand-Alone Activities on Water Supply and Water Conservation for High School Students. 2nd Edition. (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    This water conservation education program for high schools consists of both stand-alone activities and teacher support materials. Lessons are divided into six broad categories: (1) The Water Cycle; (2) Water and Society; (3) Keeping Water Pure; (4) Visualizing Volumes; (5) The Economics of Water Use; and (6) Domestic Water Conservation. The…

  18. Water Conservation and Reuse. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Committees. (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Univ., Middletown. Inst. of State and Regional Affairs.

    Described is a learning session on water conservation intended for citizen advisory groups interested in water quality planning. Topics addressed in this instructor's manual include water conservation needs, benefits, programs, technology, and problems. These materials are components of the Working for Clean Water Project. (Author/WB)

  19. Soil and Water Conservation Districts of New Mexico (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The New Mexico Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD) shapefile includes forty-seven boudaries which cover each SWCD throughout the State.

  20. Difficulties in assessing outcomes of soil and water conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    therefore no need for bunds). Lack of mulching materials. 75 (55%). 15 (11%). 54 (40%). 33 (24%. Problems inhibiting successful implementation of soil and water conservation techniques. Table 2 shows that although most farmers apply contour.

  1. People’s Communes and Water Conservancy in Communist China (United States)


    SS: 2014 JPRS: 5224 15 August I960 PEOPLE’S COMMUNES AND WATER CONSERVANCY IN COMMUNIST CHINA AB mm***, m P. n wn f?^ tm 19990305 092...Yale University Library New Haven, Connecticut JPRS: 5224 CSO: 4540-N PEOPLE’S COMMUNES AND WATER CONSERVANCY IN COMMUNIST CHINA /The following...mobili- zed 1?800 lemurs of eight production groups that received no benefit from the embankments to participate in an intensive fight with the f\\oo4

  2. Water Worries: The Hidden Costs of Water Conservation in China are not Working


    Junlian Zhang


    One of the obstacles many conservation strategies face is the amount of time and money it actually costs for people t o be involved in their implementation - in other words, their "transaction costs" (TCs) . A new study from China has looked at how these costs have affected an innovative market-based water conservation system. The study found that TCs are a significant barrier to proper functioning of the system. It also found that these costs are linked to key social and administrative obsta...

  3. Analytical Bibliography for Water Supply and Conservation Techniques. (United States)


    reviews and analyzes philosophical assumptions and logics of historically important definitions of "conservation": Aldo Leopold , "The Conservation Ethic...evaluation of conservation measures aimed at industrial water demand. 175 Leopold , L. B., and W. B. Langbein. 1960. A Primer on Water. Washington, D.C...Y., A-90 Leone, R. A., A-91 Leopold , L. B., A-91 Leplastrier, B. 3., A-54 Lin, A., A-91 Linaweaver, F. P., Jr., A-78, A-92, A-163 Liroff, S., A-75

  4. Best Practices for Water Conservation and Efficiency as an Alternative for Water Supply Expansion (United States)

    EPA released a document that provides water conservation and efficiency best practices for evaluating water supply projects. The document can help water utilities and federal and state governments carry out assessments of the potential for future

  5. Water Conservation and Nonpoint Source Pollution. (United States)

    Farrell-Poe, Kitt

    This book contains science activities that are designed to make learning and demonstrating nonpoint source pollution concepts exciting and fun. These activities can either be used alone or with an existing water resources education curricula. Activities include: Water Tasting, Acting Out the Hydrologic Cycle, Concentration of Chemical Pollutants…

  6. Evaluation of potential water conservation using site-specific irrigation (United States)

    With the advent of site-specific variable-rate irrigation (VRI) systems, irrigation can be spatially managed within sub-field-sized zones. Spatial irrigation management can optimize spatial water use efficiency and may conserve water. Spatial VRI systems are currently being managed by consultants ...

  7. Joint Venture Modes of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiding Chen


    Full Text Available With the long construction period, the giant scope and complex technology, water conservancy and hydroelectric engineering construction has large investment. In the fully competitive water conservancy and hydropower project construction contracting market, it is almost impossible for a company to contract with a water conservancy and hydropower project independently. Therefore, water conservancy and hydropower project construction can be contracted by several construction companies together, to play each company's strengths, lower offer, improve project quality, shorten the construction period and win the competition. In this paper, we started from the definition of Joint Venture, summed up the forms of Joint Venture in water conservancy and hydropower engineering, proposed that the JV modes can be divided into domestic and international union, tight mode, half-tight mode, loose mode, incorporation and consortium. Furthermore, we analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Joint Venture. Put forward that the JV can relieve the owner from interfacial administrative work, reduce risk of engineering, and raise the success rate of engineering contract, improve the correctness of price and increase the opportunity of project contracting, Learn from other members, enhance technology and management and make full use of idle resources

  8. 10 CFR 430.34 - Energy and water conservation standards amendments (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards amendments 430.34 Section 430.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.34 Energy and water conservation standards...

  9. Documentation of 50% water conservation in a single process at a beef abattoir. Meat Science (United States)

    Beef slaughter is water intensive due to stringent food safety requirements. We conducted a study at a commercial beef processor to demonstrate water conservation by modifying the mechanical head wash. We documented the initial nozzle configuration (112 nozzles), water pressure (275 kPa), and flowra...

  10. Documentation of 50% water conservation in a single process at a beef abattoir (United States)

    Beef slaughter is water intensive due to stringent food safety requirements. We conducted a study at a commercial beef processor to demonstrate water conservation by modifying the mechanical head wash. We documented the initial nozzle configuration (112 nozzles), water pressure (275 kPa), and flowra...

  11. Using Home Irrigation Users' Perceptions to Inform Water Conservation Programs (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Lamm, Alexa J.; Rumble, Joy N.; Momol, Esen


    Targeted agricultural education programs can play a role in solving complex water issues. This article applies importance-performance analysis to examine dimensions of water resources that may inform local water conservation campaigns in the United States. The purpose of this study was to generate a deep understanding of home irrigation users'…

  12. Water Wizards: School Program on Water Conservation for Third and Fourth Grade Levels. (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    Water is precious. It is also easy to take for granted. Many people recognize that water is scarce in desert areas. but it is harder to realize that places like Massachusetts could face a shortage of pure drinking water. This manual provides teachers with curriculum resources to introduce concepts of water supply and water conservation to third…

  13. Targeting water and energy conservation using big data (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Lund, J. R.


    Water conservation is often the most cost effective source of additional water supply for water stressed regions to maintain supply reliability with increasing population and/or demands, or shorter-term droughts. In previous research we demonstrated how including energy savings of conserved water can increase willingness to adopt conservation measures, at the same time that increases energy and GHG emissions savings. But the capacity to save water, energy and GHG emissions depends fundamentally in the economic benefits for customers and utilities. Utilities have traditionally used rebates, subsidies or incentives to enhance water conservation. But the economic benefits originated by these rebates depend on the actual savings of the water, energy and GHG emissions. A crucial issue that is not considered in the financial analysis of these rebates is the heterogeneity in water consumption, resulting in rebating households that actually do not need improvements in certain appliances. Smart meters with end-use disaggregation allow to consider this heterogeneity and to target rebates. By using an optimization approach that minimizes water and energy residential costs—accounting for retrofit costs and individual benefits according to previous levels of consumption—we are able to assess economically optimal rebate programs both for customers and utilities. Three programs are considered: first, same economic incentives are provided to all households and then they do their optimal decisions; second, traditional appliance-focused rebates are assessed; and third, utilities provide only rebates to those households that maximize water, energy or GHG emissions savings. Results show that the most economically efficient options for households are not the best options for utilities, and that traditional appliance-focused rebates are much less optimal than targeted rebates.

  14. Emotions toward water consumption: Conservation and wastage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Artur Peçanha de Miranda Coelho


    Full Text Available El agua es un elemento clave para la supervivencia humana, pero los patrones no sostenibles de consumo de agua siguen siendo evidentes. Muchos factores influyen en la conservación del agua, pero la literatura existente que investiga los determinantes psicológicos de la conservación del agua, hasta el momento, se han centrado en los factores cognitivos o motivacionales. Sin embargo, existe una creciente evidencia de la importancia del papel de las emociones como predictores de la participación en la conservación del medio ambiente en general y del agua en particular. El presente artículo contribuye a este reconocimiento del papel de las emociones en la exposición de 2 estudios sobre el desarrollo y validación de una medida para acceder a las emociones negativas con respecto a desperdicio de agua, la Escala de Evaluación de las Emociones hacia el Desperdicio de Agua (Rating Scale of Emotions towards Water Wastage [RSEWW]. Los resultados confirmaron que esta escala de 12 ítems forma una medida unidimensional que prevé de manera fiable la intención de conducta de los participantes para intervenir en las actividades para la conservación de agua. Implicaciones teóricas y prácticas de los hallazgos se discuten en relación con la literatura existente.

  15. Conservation laws and LETKF with 2D Shallow Water Model (United States)

    Zeng, Yuefei; Janjic, Tijana


    Numerous approaches have been proposed to maintain physical conservation laws in the numerical weather prediction models. However, to achieve a reliable prediction, adequate initial conditions are also necessary, which are produced by a data assimilation algorithm. If an ensemble Kalman filters (EnKF) is used for this purpose, it has been shown that it could yield unphysical analysis ensemble that for example violates principles of mass conservation and positivity preservation (e.g. Janjic et al 2014) . In this presentation, we discuss the selection of conservation criteria for the analysis step, and start with testing the conservation of mass, energy and enstrophy. The simple experiments deal with nonlinear shallow water equations and simulated observations that are assimilated with LETKF (Localized Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter, Hunt et al. 2007). The model is discretized in a specific way to conserve mass, angular momentum, energy and enstrophy. The effects of the data assimilation on the conserved quantities (of mass, energy and enstrophy) depend on observation covarage, localization radius, observed variable and observation operator. Having in mind that Arakawa (1966) and Arakawa and Lamb (1977) showed that the conservation of both kinetic energy and enstrophy by momentum advection schemes in the case of nondivergent flow prevents systematic and unrealistic energy cascade towards high wave numbers, a cause of excessive numerical noise and possible eventual nonlinear instability, we test the effects on prediction depending on the type of errors in the initial condition. The performance with respect to nonlinear energy cascade is assessed as well.

  16. Managing Water Scarcity: Why Water Conservation Matters to Business (United States)

    Spiwak, Stephen M.


    The issue of water scarcity has often hit the headlines in the past several years. Some states have gone to court over water rights and access even as others have agonized over scarce supplies. University presidents and their staff of directors understand that the days of unlimited, inexpensive water are almost over. While it remains inexpensive…

  17. Empirical Evidence in Support of a Research-Informed Water Conservation Education Program (United States)

    Thompson, Ruthanne; Serna, Victoria Faubion


    Based on results from a 2008 research study of regional citizen knowledge concerning watershed issues, a water conservation education program was designed and implemented. Findings from the initial study demonstrated program success as evidenced by knowledge gain and willingness to "commit" to water saving behaviors in 94% of students. A…

  18. Implementing the 40 Gallon Challenge to Increase Water Conservation (United States)

    Sheffield, Mary Carol; Bauske, Ellen; Pugliese, Paul; Kolich, Heather; Boellstorff, Diane


    The 40 Gallon Challenge is an easy-to-use, comprehensive indoor and outdoor water conservation educational tool. It can be used nationwide and easily incorporated into existing educational programs. Promotional materials and pledge cards are available on the 40 Gallon Challenge website and can be modified by educators. The website displays data…

  19. Structural Soil and Water Conservation Practices in Farta District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil degradation is one of the most serious environmental problems in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian highlands have been experiencing declining soil fertility and severe soil erosion due to intensive farming on steep and fragile lands and other factors attributed to population pressure. Although different soil and water conservation ...

  20. Soil and water conservation practices in the savanna of northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenge posed by the loss of several hectarage of farmlands on account of natural or human-induced ecological problems in terms of food security and sustenance of natural agro-ecosystems is enormous, especially for the resource low-income farmers. Adoption of soil and water conservation measures by farmers is ...

  1. Using Audience Segmentation to Tailor Residential Irrigation Water Conservation Programs (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Rumble, Joy N.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Momol, Esen


    Today's complex issues require technical expertise as well as the application of innovative social science techniques within Extension contexts. Researchers have suggested that a social science approach will play a critical role in water conservation, and people who use home landscape irrigation comprise a critical target audience for agriculture…

  2. Farmers' preference for soil and water conservation practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land degradation is a major socio-economic and environmental concern in the Ethiopian highlands where the phenomenon has rendered vast areas of fertile land unproductive. To reverse this trend, the adoption of soil and water conservation (SWC) practices is crucial. However, failure by research and development ...

  3. Water conservation scenario for the residential and industrial sectors in California: potential savings of water and related energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenson, P.


    A residential and industrial water-conservation scenario for California is constructed in which water consumption is disaggregated by residential end use, industrial sector, and hydrologic study area (HSA). The energy use associated with this water use was estimated for surface and groundwater delivery, distribution, heating, and waste-water treatment. For each end use and sector, water-conservation measures were delineated and their potential savings in terms of both water and attendant energy use were estimated. This material is combined to estimate the total water and energy savings potential by end use, sector, and HSA. This potential is then compared with the reported water savings to date, and finally, some conclusions and policy implications are drawn from the results. The general findings are discussed first, followed by a listing of the more important detailed results.

  4. Measuring urban water conservation policies: Toward a comprehensive index (United States)

    Hess, David; Wold, Christopher; Worland, Scott C.; Hornberger, George M.


    This article (1) discusses existing efforts to measure water conservation policies (WCPs) in the United States (U.S.); (2) suggests general methodological guidelines for creating robust water conservation indices (WCIs); (3) presents a comprehensive template for coding WCPs; (4) introduces a summary index, the Vanderbilt Water Conservation Index (VWCI), which is derived from 79 WCP observations for 197 cities for the year 2015; and (5) compares the VWCI to WCP data extracted from the 2010 American Water Works Association (AWWA) Water and Wastewater Rates survey. Existing approaches to measuring urban WCPs in U.S. cities are limited because they consider only a portion of WCPs or they are restricted geographically. The VWCI consists of a more comprehensive set of 79 observations classified as residential, commercial/industrial, billing structure, drought plan, or general. Our comparison of the VWCI and AWWA survey responses indicate reasonable agreement (ρ = 0.76) between the two WCIs for 98 cities where the data overlap. The correlation suggests the AWWA survey responses can provide fairly robust longitudinal WCP information, but we argue the measurement of WCPs is still in its infancy, and our approach suggests strategies for improving existing methods.

  5. Quantifying the influence of environmental and water conservation attitudes on household end use water consumption. (United States)

    Willis, Rachelle M; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Williams, Philip R; Hollingsworth, Anna L


    Within the research field of urban water demand management, understanding the link between environmental and water conservation attitudes and observed end use water consumption has been limited. Through a mixed method research design incorporating field-based smart metering technology and questionnaire surveys, this paper reveals the relationship between environmental and water conservation attitudes and a domestic water end use break down for 132 detached households located in Gold Coast city, Australia. Using confirmatory factor analysis, attitudinal factors were developed and refined; households were then categorised based on these factors through cluster analysis technique. Results indicated that residents with very positive environmental and water conservation attitudes consumed significantly less water in total and across the behaviourally influenced end uses of shower, clothes washer, irrigation and tap, than those with moderately positive attitudinal concern. The paper concluded with implications for urban water demand management planning, policy and practice. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Encourage Water Conservation among Extension Clients (United States)

    Kumar Chaudhary, Anil; Warner, Laura A.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Israel, Glenn D.; Rumble, Joy N.; Cantrell, Randall A.


    Extension professionals can play a role in addressing water scarcity issues by helping home landscape irrigation users to conserve water. This study used survey research to examine the relationship between several variables, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, personal norms, demographic factors, and past…

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Critical Thinking Style and Water Conservation Behavior: Implications for Extension (United States)

    Owens, Courtney T.; Lamm, Alexa J.


    In the past several years Cooperative Extension has focused on developing educational programs that address water conservation, specifically for individuals using exorbitant amounts of water, with limited success. However, few research studies have examined how the way people think, including their critical thinking styles, can be used to inform…

  8. Arid Green Infrastructure for Water Control and Conservation ... (United States)

    Green infrastructure is an approach to managing wet weather flows using systems and practices that mimic natural processes. It is designed to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible and protect the quality of receiving waters. Although most green infrastructure practices were first developed in temperate climates, green infrastructure also can be a cost-effective approach to stormwater management and water conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, such as those found in the western and southwestern United States. Green infrastructure practices can be applied at the site, neighborhood and watershed scales. In addition to water management and conservation, implementing green infrastructure confers many social and economic benefits and can address issues of environmental justice. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commissioned a literature review to identify the state-of-the science practices dealing with water control and conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, with emphasis on these regions in the United States. The search focused on stormwater control measures or practices that slow, capture, treat, infiltrate and/or store runoff at its source (i.e., green infrastructure). The material in Chapters 1 through 3 provides background to EPA’s current activities related to the application of green infrastructure practices in arid and semi-arid regions. An introduction to the topic of green infrastructure in arid and semi-arid regions i

  9. Optimal residential water conservation strategies considering related energy in California (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lund, Jay R.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel


    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, residential water use is a much more energy intensive user. Based on this, we analyze the increased willingness to adopt water conservation strategies if energy cost is included in the customers' utility function. Using a Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses and probability distribution functions for parameters affecting water and water-related energy use in 10 different locations in California, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills and costs given both water and energy price shocks. Results can provide an upper bound of household savings for customers with well-behaved preferences, and show greater adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances when energy is accounted, resulting in an overall 24% reduction in indoor water use that represents a 30% reduction in water-related energy use and a 53% reduction in household water-related CO2 emissions. Previous use patterns and water and energy rate structures can affect greatly the potential benefits for customers and so their behavior. Given that water and energy are somewhat complementary goods for customers, we use results of the optimization to obtain own-price and cross-price elasticities of residential water use by simulating increases in water and energy prices. While the results are highly influenced by assumptions due to lack of empirical data, the method presented has no precedent in the literature and hopefully will stimulate the collection of additional relevant data.

  10. Conservation program works as an alternative irrigation districts in sustainable water management of agricultural use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Peinado Guevara


    Full Text Available Water scarcity is an issue of worldwide concern since it is already having an impact on social development. Mexico is not an exception to this problem because in several regions of the country are great difficulties in supplying water, primarily for agricultural use. In Sinaloa, it had been mentioned repeatedly by the media that in the Irrigation District 063, located in the northern of the state, there are problems of water scarcity, and yet there still exist difficulties in conserving the resource. More than 49% of the water used for agriculture is wasted. To resolve this problem, producers and government agencies spend significant resources for investment in water conservation. However, the results have not been entirely satisfactory because the waste is high, a situation that motivates them to study more deeply the main weaknesses that affect sustainable resource use. Farmer’s participation in the administration of water infrastructure is important, as well as providing financial resources for the conservation of water system; and participation in activities of construction and repaired of water infrastructure. Farmer’s should also plan and design strategies for water conservation. This situation requires an appropriate level of technology and intellectual, rather than local producers and thus no complicated sustainable resource management. That is what local producers don’t have and therefore it complicates the sustainable management of the resource.

  11. The Effects of Water Conservation Instruction on Seventh-Grade Students. (United States)

    Birch, Sandra K.; Schwaab, Karl E.


    Examined effectiveness of water conservation instructional unit in increasing students' (N=843) knowledge of water conservation practices and influencing their attitudes about efficient water use. Also examined assertion that school education programs are effective in promoting water conservation. Overall results indicate the unit was effective on…

  12. 10 CFR 430.32 - Energy and water conservation standards and their effective dates. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and their... PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.32 Energy and water conservation standards and their effective dates. The energy and water (in the case of faucets, showerheads...

  13. 77 FR 2975 - Roosevelt Water Conservation District; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Roosevelt Water Conservation District; Notice of Termination of Exemption by.... Exemptee: Roosevelt Water Conservation District. e. Name and Location of Project: The Roosevelt Water.... Michael Leonard, General Manager, Roosevelt Water Conservation District, 2344 S. Higley Road, Gilbert, AZ...

  14. The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century (United States)

    Narayanan, M.


    The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. Water conservation also means, less use of water. This in turn, results in less strain on the city sewage treatment plants. This may also imply that one uses less energy for heating water. For example, the city of Los Angeles has grown by more than a million over the past thirty years. Regardless, the city still uses almost the same amount of water even now. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability

  15. 78 FR 2340 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water... (United States)


    ... energy conservation standards adopted pursuant to EPCA, and for making representations about the... product literature, product markings, product marketing, or product installation and operation..., and allow for an accurate representation of efficiency of a wide range of different water heaters...

  16. Soil-, water-, and energy-conserving tillage - Southern Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.R.; Musick, J.T.; Unger, P.W.; Wiese, A.F.


    This paper summarizes some conservation cropping systems that have been developed through research. The cropping systems were: dryland wheat-fallow with stubble mulch, dryland wheat-chemical fallow-sorghum, irrigated wheat-chemical fallow-sorghum, irrigated sorghum double-cropped after winter wheat, and irrigated annual sorghum. For these cropping systems, the affect of tillage method upon soil water storage, crop yield, and energy use is discussed. 15 refs.

  17. Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.


    This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

  18. Water conservation and hydrological transitions in cities in the United States (United States)

    Hornberger, George M.; Hess, David J.; Gilligan, Jonathan


    Cities across the world have had to diversify and expand their water supply systems in response to demand growth, groundwater depletion and pollution, and instability and inadequacy of regional surface freshwater sources. In the U.S., these problems plague not only the arid Western cities but increasingly also cities in the Eastern portions of the country. Although cities continue to seek out new sources of water via Promethean projects of long-distance supply systems, desalinization plants, and the recharge of aquifers with surface water, they also pursue water conservation because of its low cost and other benefits. We examine water conservation as a complex sociotechnical system comprising interactions of political, sociodemographic, economic, and hydroclimatological factors. We provide quantitative data on the factors that affect more and less advanced transitions in water conservation regimes, and we show that water stress and other hydrological data can only partially predict the transition. We also provide qualitative case studies to identify institutional and political barriers to more advanced water conservation regimes. This interdisciplinary, mixed methods approach typifies the need for knowledge that informs hydrologists about how their research may or may not be adopted by decision-makers.

  19. Water conservation through trade: the case of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    This study quantifies and maps the water footprint of Kenya from both production and consumption perspectives and estimates the country’s virtual water export and import. Kenya’s virtual water export related to trade in agricultural products was 4.1 km3/y; its virtual water import was 4.0 km3/y. The

  20. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area]. (United States)

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming


    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  1. Evaluation for Water Conservation in Agriculture: Using a Multi-Method Econometric Approach (United States)

    Ramirez, A.; Eaton, D. J.


    Since the 1960's, farmers have implemented new irrigation technology to increase crop production and planting acreage. At that time, technology responded to the increasing demand for food due to world population growth. Currently, the problem of decreased water supply threatens to limit agricultural production. Uncertain precipitation patterns, from prolonged droughts to irregular rains, will continue to hamper planting operations, and farmers are further limited by an increased competition for water from rapidly growing urban areas. Irrigation technology promises to reduce water usage while maintaining or increasing farm yields. The challenge for water managers and policy makers is to quantify and redistribute these efficiency gains as a source of 'new water.' Using conservation in farming as a source of 'new water' requires accurately quantifying the efficiency gains of irrigation technology under farmers' actual operations and practices. From a water resource management and policy perspective, the efficiency gains from conservation in farming can be redistributed to municipal, industrial and recreational uses. This paper presents a methodology that water resource managers can use to statistically verify the water savings attributable to conservation technology. The specific conservation technology examined in this study is precision leveling, and the study includes a mixed-methods approach using four different econometric models: Ordinary Least Squares, Fixed Effects, Propensity Score Matching, and Hierarchical Linear Models. These methods are used for ex-post program evaluation where random assignment is not possible, and they could be employed to evaluate agricultural conservation programs, where participation is often self-selected. The principal method taken in this approach is Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM), a useful model for agriculture because it incorporates the hierarchical nature of the data (fields, tenants, and landowners) as well as crop rotation

  2. 26 CFR 1.175-2 - Definition of soil and water conservation expenditures. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of soil and water conservation... (continued) § 1.175-2 Definition of soil and water conservation expenditures. (a) Expenditures treated as a... of soil or water conservation in respect of land used in farming, or for the prevention of erosion of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.175-1 - Soil and water conservation expenditures; in general. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Soil and water conservation expenditures; in... (continued) § 1.175-1 Soil and water conservation expenditures; in general. Under section 175, a farmer may deduct his soil or water conservation expenditures which do not give rise to a deduction for depreciation...

  4. 78 FR 12349 - Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program (United States)


    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (LWCF Act) (16 U.S.C. 460l-4 et seq... discussed in detail in the Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program Federal Financial...

  5. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project... (United States)


    ... Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... River Basin Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 21, 2012...

  6. 77 FR 12830 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Intent To File....: 14327-000. c. Date Filed: November 22, 2011. d. Submitted by: Pershing County Water Conservation... Applicant Contact: Bennie Hodges, Pershing County Water Conservation District, P.O. Box 218, Lovelock, NV...

  7. 75 FR 52010 - Land and Water Conservation Fund Description and Notification, Performance Reports, Agreements... (United States)


    ... National Park Service Land and Water Conservation Fund Description and Notification, Performance Reports... copy of the ICR packages free of charge. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Land and Water Conservation... Form Title: Land and Water Conservation Fund Description and Notification Form. OMB Control Number...

  8. Evaluating the Impact of Conservation Measures on Urban Water Fluxes in Los Angeles, California (United States)

    Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.


    California is experiencing one of the most severe droughts on record. In response, the State Water Resources Control Board adopted emergency regulations in May, implementing a mandatory 25% statewide reduction in potable urban water use. Prior to this, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power had implemented mandatory restrictions and a pricing increase in 2009 and 2010, respectively to encourage reduced consumption. Understanding where conservation measures are having the greatest impact and how it is affecting water fluxes throughout the basin is critical, especially when considering the push for increased reliance on local water resources. Los Angeles is selected as the study area due to its high degree of urbanization, while the Ballona Creek watershed is used for runoff analysis due to the lack of dams and wastewater treatment plants altering flow in the channel. Utilizing a combination of runoff gages, groundwater monitoring well data, consumption data, and hydrologic models, we aim to evaluate how hydrologic processes have been influenced by water conservation measures. The work focuses on how changes in outdoor water use have influenced discharge patterns and groundwater recharge since most of the water conservation efforts have been focused on decreasing landscape irrigation. Previous work has shown that outdoor irrigation rates have decreased after the implementation of conservation measures, causing a decrease in vegetation greenness across the city. Runoff has also significantly decreased, especially dry season discharge. Further work is also being conducted to evaluate changes to evapotranspiration, using a combination of NLDAS model results and CIMIS reference ET data, as well as groundwater and recharge, utilizing a Bayesian Hierarchical model to fill missing groundwater monitoring well data. Results provide improved understanding of response to, and impacts of, conservation measures which ultimately allow for better water resources management

  9. Searching for Comparative International Water Research: Urban and Rural Water Conservation Research in India and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Wescoat Jr.


    Full Text Available Comparison is common in water management research: every table, map, and graph invites comparisons of different places and variables. Detailed international comparisons, however, seem infrequent in water resources research. To assess this perceived gap, this paper searched for examples of comparative research between two water sub-sectors in two countries using systematic bibliographic mapping procedures. It focused on rural and urban water conservation research in India and the United States. Search methods built upon procedures initially developed for the FAO Investment Centre and more advanced systematic review methods. The search generally confirmed that there have been few detailed comparative international studies on the subject of this review. Not surprisingly, there are a greater number of comparative studies between rural and urban water conservation within each country. The search also identified different conservation emphases in the two countries, e.g., rainwater harvesting in India compared with stormwater quality management in the United States. It identified unanticipated publications and l¬ines of comparative water conservation (e.g. comparative physiology. Some transnational research goes beyond comparison to address the diffusion of innovations, i.e. research linkages as well as comparisons, although these studies are also few. The more prevalent pattern involves parallel literatures, which indicate substantial opportunities for future comparative and transnational research. This review also identified diffusion of international knowledge paths that are not the product of formal comparative research. The final section focuses on the prospects and priorities for future international and inter-sectoral research, e.g. paired multi-objective river basin research, linkages between climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, diffusion of water conservation innovations, and synthesis of research on urban and rural

  10. Development of Chengdu and sustainable utilization of the ancient Dujiangyan Water-Conservancy Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Huang


    Full Text Available The Dujiangyan Water-Conservancy Project is a great water irrigation works in Chinese cultural history, which led the Min River water to the vast Chengdu Plain, and created fertile and pretty "land of abundance". Now Chengdu is facing increased water demand stress due mainly to rapid urbanization. This paper first analyses the available water resources of Chengdu based on historical hydrological data from 1964 to 2008. The results show that the average annual water resources were 8.9 billion m3 in 1986 and 7.9 billion m3 in 2008 under various environmental conditions. The future tendency of water demand in city development planning is predicted by the Policy Dialogue Model (PODIUM. Finally, the strategies for water resources exploitation accompanying the sustainable development pattern are studied. The result illustrates that rational and careful management are required to balance the gap between water supply and demand

  11. Market Assessment for Capturing Water Conservation Opportunities in the Federal Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Graham B.; Mcmordie, Katherine; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Elliott, Douglas B.


    The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is considering the development of a technology-specific Super-Energy Saving Performance Contract (ESPC) for water conservation. Prior to the development however, FEMP requires the completion of a market assessment to better understand the water conservation opportunities and the strategies available for capturing them. Thus, this market assessment has been undertaken to evaluate the water conservation opportunities and answer the key questions necessary for FEMP to make recommendations on whether or not to proceed with strategies for water conservation primarily through the development of a water conservation technology-specific performance contract.

  12. Influence of soil and water conservation techniques on yield of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the application of soil and water conservation techniques in relation to yield of small-holder swamp rice farmers in Imo State, Nigeria in 2009. Specifically, the socio-economic characteristics of the farmer were described, their influence on the application of the techniques examined and relationship of ...

  13. Design and Implementation of a Research-Informed Water Conservation Education Program (United States)

    Thompson, Ruthanne; Coe, Alice; Klaver, Irene; Dickson, Kenneth


    Informed by the results of a baseline research study of regional citizen knowledge and understanding concerning watershed issues, a team of university faculty and classroom teachers designed and implemented a water conservation education program to address lacking areas of watershed knowledge. The authors developed age-appropriate, hands-on…

  14. Extending the economic life of the Ogallala Aquifer with water conservation policies in the Texas panhandle (United States)

    The continued decline in the availability of water from the Ogallala Aquifer in the Texas Panhandle has led to an increased interest in conservation policies designed to extend the life of the aquifer and sustain rural economies. Four counties were chosen for evaluation. This study evaluates the eff...

  15. Water Use and Conservation on a Free-Stall Dairy Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne L. Le Riche


    Full Text Available Livestock watering can represent as much as 20% of total agricultural water use in areas with intensive dairy farming. Due to an increased emphasis on water conservation for the agricultural sector, it is important to understand the current patterns of on-farm water use. This study utilized in situ water meters to measure the year-round on-farm pumped water (i.e., blue water on a ~419 lactating cow confined dairy operation in Eastern Ontario, Canada. The average total water use for the farm was 90,253 ± 15,203 L day−1 and 33,032 m3 annually. Water use was divided into nutritional water (68%, parlour cleaning and operation (14%, milk pre-cooling (15%, barn cleaning, misters and other uses (3%. There was a positive correlation between total monthly water consumption (i.e., nutritional water and average monthly temperature for lactating cows, heifers, and calves (R2 = 0.69, 0.84, and 0.85, respectively. The blue water footprint scaled by milk production was 6.19 L kg−1 milk or 6.41 L kg−1 fat-and-protein corrected milk (FPCM including contributions from all animal groups and 5.34 L kg−1 milk (5.54 L kg−1 FPCM when excluding the water consumption of non-lactating animals. By applying theoretical water conservation scenarios we show that a combination of strategies (air temperature reduction, complete recycling of milk-cooling water, and modified cow preparation protocol could achieve a savings of 6229 m3 annually, a ~19% reduction in the total annual water use.

  16. Spatial targeting of conservation tillage to improve water quality and carbon retention benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W.; Sheng, C. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Voroney, P. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Land Resource Science


    Conservation tillage reduces soil erosion and improves water quality in agricultural watersheds. However, the benefits of conservation tillage in carbon sequestration are the subject of controversy. Public funds are provided to farms to encourage the adoption of conservation tillage. Given the economic costs, the targeting of areas likely to achieve the greatest environmental benefits has become an important policy-making issue. A geographic information system (GIS) based modelling framework which integrated hydrologic, soil organic matter, and farm models to evaluate the spatial targeting of conservation tillage was presented. A case study applying the framework in the Fairchild Creek watershed in Ontario indicated that targeting conservation tillage based on sediment abatement goals can achieve comparable carbon retention benefits in terms of the percentage reduction of base carbon losses. Targeted subcatchments for conservation tillage varied across the watershed based on benefit to cost ratios. Conservation tillage patterns based on carbon retention goals showed similar results to sediment abatement goals but slight differences were observed because of different carbon content in the soils. The results indicated that sediment abatement may be used as an indicator in setting up program goals. The impacts of conservation programs can then be evaluated based on calibrated and validated hydrologic models in conjunction with monitoring data. Results also showed that setting carbon retention may lead to higher costs in order to achieve corresponding sediment abatement benefits. Carbon retention may not be suitable for setting as a stand-alone environmental goal for conservation programs because of the difficulties in verifying the impacts and the discrepancies between carbon and sediment benefits. It was concluded that the modelling results have important policy implications for the design of conservation stewardship programs that aim to achieve environmental

  17. Estimating Urban Residential Water Demand: Effects of Price Structure, Conservation, and Education (United States)

    Nieswiadomy, Michael L.


    Water demand equations are estimated using the most current American Water Works Association (1984) survey of 430 (of 600 largest) U.S. utilities. The data set was augmented by monthly rainfall and temperature data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's climatological data. Demographic data were obtained from the U.S. Department of Commerce (1988). Besides the usual endogeneity problems involving block price structures this paper also examines the possible endogeneity of conservation and education programs. Three types of models were used: a marginal price model, an average price model, and Shin's (1985) price perception model. The results generally show that price elasticity is higher in the South and the West. Conservation does not appear to reduce water use, but public education appears to have reduced water usage in the West. The Shin (1985) tests in this study indicate that consumers react more to average than marginal prices in all regions.

  18. Linking spatial planning, water resources management and biodiversity protection: a case study for the systematic conservation of rivers in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maree, GA


    Full Text Available global trend is that while many protected areas do include rivers they are dammed or stocked with alien species for fishing and tourism purposes (Saunders et al, 2002). There are only a few examples globally of protected areas that are designed... healthy ecosystem functioning. For long-term conservation of biodiversity, an integrated perspective of all three elements is required (Margules and Pressey, 2000). Traditionally, protected areas have been used as method aimed at curbing extinction...

  19. Turning Minds On and Faucets Off: Water Conservation Education in Jordanian Schools. (United States)

    Middlestadt, Susan; Grieser, Mona; Hernandez, Orlando; Tubaishat, Khulood; Sanchack, Julie; Southwell, Brian; Schwartz, Reva


    An evaluation was conducted to measure the impact of a curriculum implemented through the Jordan Water Conservation Education Project. Examines the effect of recommending water conservation at the household level and the impact of using interactive teaching methods to promote conservation behaviors among students and their families. (Author/SAH)

  20. 10 CFR 431.156 - Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. 431.156 Section 431.156 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM... Standards § 431.156 Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. Each commercial clothes...

  1. Effects of terracing on soil and water conservation in China: A meta-analysis (United States)

    Chen, Die; Wei, Wei


    Terracing has long been considered a powerful strategy for soil and water conservation. However, the efficiency is limited by many factors, such as climate, soil properties, topography, land use, population and socioeconomic status. The aim of this critical review was to discuss the effects of terracing on soil and water conservation in China, using a systematic approach to select peer-reviewed articles published in English and Chinese. 46 individual studies were analyzed, involving six terracing structures (level terraces, slope-separated terraces, slope terraces, reverse-slope terraces, fanya juu terraces and half-moon terraces), a wide geographical range (Northeastern China, Southeastern hilly areas, Southwestern mountain areas and Northwestern-central China), and six land use types (forest, crop trees, cropland, shrub land, grassland and bare land) as well as a series of slope gradients ranging from 3° to 35°. Statistical meta-analysis with runoff for 593 observations and sediment for 636 observations confirmed that terracing had a significant effect on water erosion control. In terms of different terrace structures, runoff and sediment reduction were uppermost on slope-separated terraces. Land use in terraces also played a crucial role in the efficiency of conservation, and tree crops and forest were detected as the most powerful land covers in soil and water conservation due to large aboveground biomass and strong root systems below the ground, which directly reduces the pressure of terraces on rainwater redistribution. In addition, a significant positive correlation between slope gradients (3° 15° and 16° 35°) and terracing efficiency on soil and water conservation was observed. This study revealed the effectiveness and variation of terracing on water erosion control on the national scale, which can serve as a scientific basis to land managers and decision-makers.

  2. Antecedent precipitation as a methodological concern in attitude surveys on water conservation (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig W.; Markee, Nancy L.; O'Keefe, Garrett J.; Park, Eunkyung


    Are precipitation cycles a factor in analyses of water conservation attitudes? This article reports a post hoc analysis of two independently generated data sets examining water conservation attitudes in Reno, Nevada, in 1994 and 1997 (dry and wet years, respectively). Six attitudinal and behavior variables are contrasted across time (attitude toward water conservation, self-efficacy for water conservation, perceived social normative pressure, reported conservation behavior, percentage of yard in grass, and perceived value of landscaping), controlling for three demographic variables that shifted significantly across the time span (income, single family home occupancy, and home value). Results confirm expectations of more positive attitudes toward water conservation and less variance in those attitudes during the dry period, as well as a stronger attitude-behavior correlation then. While unmeasured variables could be at play, results suggest that precipitation could be an important factor to consider when investigating attitude-behavior associations for water conservation.

  3. Conservation tillage, optimal water and organic nutrient supply enhance soil microbial activities during wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivation (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Singh, Geeta; Singh, Rana P.


    The field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of conservation tillage, irrigation regimes (sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal water regimes), and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on soil biological parameters in wheat cultivation. The conservation tillage soils has shown significant (pbiofertilizer+25% Green Manure) has been used in combination with the conservation tillage and the optimum water supply. Study demonstrated that microbial activity could be regulated by tillage, water and nitrogen management in the soil in a sustainable manner. PMID:24031665

  4. Assessment of Ecosystem Water Conservation Value In The Beijing Four Seasons Flower Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao-Na


    Full Text Available Based on the data of field investigation and multi-source data analysis, Beijing Four Seasons Flower Valley declared in 2008 towards valley economy water conservation function and value was estimated by means of rainfall storage capacity as well as ecological economy. The results showed that: Landscape structure of FSFV was forest land-cultivated land-grassland. FSFV had the highest water conservation function in Beijing valleys, with the capacity of 1101.13 m3/hm2. Annual total amount of water conservation was 31.20×106 m3, accounting for 10.07% of Beijing valleys, and the total value of water conservation was 3.61×108 Yuan. High water conservation capacity areas were mainly located in the eastern mountainous region with broadleaf forest centralized distribution. Low water conservation function areas were mainly occurred in the regions effected by human activities. Forest ecosystem had the highest capacity of water conservation of 1116 m3/hm2, while construction ecosystem had the lowest. Higher degree of human activities, lower capacity of water conservation. Shrub forest and broadleaf forest had the largest contribution on valley water conservation, with contribution rate of 36.35% and 35.62%. Ranking of water conservation capacity, broadleaf forest had the highest value of 1135 m3/hm2, followed by coniferous forest, shrub forest and mixed forest.

  5. Conservation of water for washing beef heads at harvest. (United States)

    DeOtte, R E; Spivey, K S; Galloway, H O; Lawrence, T E


    The objective of this research was to develop methods to conserve water necessary to cleanse beef heads prior to USDA-FSIS inspection. This was to be accomplished by establishing a baseline for the minimum amount of water necessary to adequately wash a head and application of image analysis to provide an objective measure of head cleaning. Twenty-one beef heads were manually washed during the harvest process. An average 18.75 L (2.49 SD) and a maximum of 23.88 L were required to cleanse the heads to USDA-FSIS standards. Digital images were captured before and after manual washing then evaluated for percentage red saturation using commercially available image analysis software. A decaying exponential curve extracted from these data indicated that as wash water increased beyond 20 L the impact on red saturation decreased. At 4 sigma from the mean of 18.75 L, red saturation is 16.0 percent, at which logistic regression analysis indicates 99.994 percent of heads would be accepted for inspection, or less than 1 head in 15,000 would be rejected. Reducing to 3 sigma would increase red saturation to 27.6 percent, for which 99.730 percent of heads likely would be accepted (less than 1 in 370 would be rejected). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 78 FR 59919 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Accepted... County Water Conservation District. e. Name of Project: Humboldt River Hydropower Project. f. Location... water quality certification; (2) a copy of the request for certification, including proof of the date on...

  7. Examining Thought Processes to Understand the Impact of Water Conservation Messages on Attitude (United States)

    Rumble, Joy N.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Martin, Emmett T.; Warner, Laura A.


    Water availability issues have plagued many regions around the world and is viewed as the top issue facing the world. As a result, encouraging water conservation has become a priority for agricultural communicators. Previous research suggests strategically framed messages can impact attitudes about water conservation, but whether this change is a…

  8. Building an Interdisciplinary Research Program in Water Conservation: Approach, preliminary findings, and next steps


    Rosenberg, David E.; Endter-Wada, Joanna; Caplan, Arthur; Glenn, Diana T.; Ballard, Guy; Henderson, Katie


    Effective urban water conservation programs must harness a synergy of new technologies, public policies, social cost pricing, information dissemination, citizen engagement, and coordinated actions across decision making scales. Together, these factors affect the volume of water an individual user ultimately saves and the overall success of a conservation program or programs. Over the past 18 months, we have started building an interdisciplinary research program in urban water conservation to ...

  9. Toward sustainable water use in North China Plain - Scenario analysis of water conservation strategies in a changing climate (United States)

    He, X.; Qin, H.; Refsgaard, J. C.; Zheng, C.


    North China Plain (NCP), situated in the continental semi-arid climate region, is one of the most densely populated regions in the world, and contributes to over 1/10 of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in China. NCP is traditionally a water scarce area where precipitation equals to or less than ET. In recent years, due to rapid population and economic growth, and subsequently significantly larger water demand, the water crisis in this region has deepened. The surface water resources has run dry except for a few canals and reservoirs, and thus the water consumption of NCP is almost entirely dependent on groundwater. It is estimated that the groundwater table has declined at the rate of about 1 m/year in the past decades; therefore, sustainable water use in the NCP is of critical importance. In the present study, we explore the scale of the water scarcity problem in NCP as well as the possible water saving strategies to alleviate the crisis from a modeling approach. Water demand is extremely difficult to estimate due to the lack of actual data. To solve this problem, we use a System Dynamic model, where the resulted data are then used as groundwater pumping in a physically based, distributed and integrated hydrological model. Five scenarios are developed to analyze different water management perspectives: 1) Business as usual, 2) Agricultural water saving, 3) Domestic and industrial water saving, 4) Managed aquifer recharge using water leftover from the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, and 5) a combination of the above mentioned measures. The hydrological model will predict the overall water balance and water at different hydrological components for the period 2020-2050. Under each scenario, our study also accounts for dry, medium, and wet climate conditions. The results indicate if the current tendency continues, groundwater table will keep declining at the rate of about 1 m/year. Each single conservation measure will not be able to solve the water crisis on

  10. Some difficulties and inconsistencies when using habit strength and reasoned action variables in models of metered household water conservation. (United States)

    Jorgensen, Bradley S; Martin, John F; Pearce, Meryl; Willis, Eileen


    Research employing household water consumption data has sought to test models of water demand and conservation using variables from attitude theory. A significant, albeit unrecognised, challenge has been that attitude models describe individual-level motivations while consumption data is recorded at the household level thereby creating inconsistency between units of theory and measurement. This study employs structural equation modelling and moderated regression techniques to addresses the level of analysis problem, and tests hypotheses by isolating effects on water conservation in single-person households. Furthermore, the results question the explanatory utility of habit strength, perceived behavioural control, and intentions for understanding metered water conservation in single-person households. For example, evidence that intentions predict water conservation or that they interact with habit strength in single-person households was contrary to theoretical expectations. On the other hand, habit strength, self-reports of past water conservation, and perceived behavioural control were good predictors of intentions to conserve water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic Changes of Water Conservation Service of Typical Ecosystems in China within a Year Based on Data from CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Pei


    Full Text Available In this study, we compared and analyzed the dynamic changes of water conservation and its value of some typical forests, grasslands, and farmlands in China within a year based on the dataset of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Net (CERN. Results showed that forest, grassland, and farmland provide different kinds of water conservation services which vary in size and dynamic processes within a year. Water conservation of forest consisted of water regulation service, here referred to as water retaining service, and water supply service, while water conservation of grassland and farmland was mainly water regulation service. Different types of forests/grasslands/farmlands can serve different water conservation services in both size and change patterns. In general, the water conservation service and value of forests is the largest (Xishuangbanna forest being $712·hm−2·year−1, Dingshu Mountains forest being $823·hm−2·year−1, and Changbai Mountains forest being $366·hm−2·year−1, and then is the farmlands (Yucheng farmland being $147·hm−2·year−1, Changshu farmland being $92·hm−2·year−1, Qianyanzhou farmland being $247 hm−2·year−1, and that of the grasslands is the least (Haibei alpine meadow being $75·hm−2·year−1, Mongolia grassland being $30·hm−2·year−1. The monthly water conservation and its value of each ecosystem had its own changing pattern throughout the year.

  12. Evaluation of water conservation capacity of loess plateau typical mountain ecosystems based on InVEST model simulation (United States)

    Lv, Xizhi; Zuo, Zhongguo; Xiao, Peiqing


    With increasing demand for water resources and frequently a general deterioration of local water resources, water conservation by forests has received considerable attention in recent years. To evaluate water conservation capacities of different forest ecosystems in mountainous areas of Loess Plateau, the landscape of forests was divided into 18 types in Loess Plateau. Under the consideration of the factors such as climate, topography, plant, soil and land use, the water conservation of the forest ecosystems was estimated by means of InVEST model. The result showed that 486417.7 hm2 forests in typical mountain areas were divided into 18 forest types, and the total water conservation quantity was 1.64×1012m3, equaling an average of water conversation quantity of 9.09×1010m3. There is a great difference in average water conversation capacity among various forest types. The water conservation function and its evaluation is crucial and complicated issues in the study of ecological service function in modern times.

  13. 76 FR 6491 - San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat... (United States)


    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA; Final Environmental Impact Statement and Habitat Conservation Plan AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  14. Simulated wetland conservation-restoration effects on water quantity and quality at watershed scale. (United States)

    Wang, Xixi; Shang, Shiyou; Qu, Zhongyi; Liu, Tingxi; Melesse, Assefa M; Yang, Wanhong


    Wetlands are one of the most important watershed microtopographic features that affect hydrologic processes (e.g., routing) and the fate and transport of constituents (e.g., sediment and nutrients). Efforts to conserve existing wetlands and/or to restore lost wetlands require that watershed-level effects of wetlands on water quantity and water quality be quantified. Because monitoring approaches are usually cost or logistics prohibitive at watershed scale, distributed watershed models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), enhanced by the hydrologic equivalent wetland (HEW) concept developed by Wang [Wang, X., Yang, W., Melesse, A.M., 2008. Using hydrologic equivalent wetland concept within SWAT to estimate streamflow in watersheds with numerous wetlands. Trans. ASABE 51 (1), 55-72.], can be a best resort. However, there is a serious lack of information about simulated effects using this kind of integrated modeling approach. The objective of this study was to use the HEW concept in SWAT to assess effects of wetland restoration within the Broughton's Creek watershed located in southwestern Manitoba, and of wetland conservation within the upper portion of the Otter Tail River watershed located in northwestern Minnesota. The results indicated that the HEW concept allows the nonlinear functional relations between watershed processes and wetland characteristics (e.g., size and morphology) to be accurately represented in the models. The loss of the first 10-20% of the wetlands in the Minnesota study area would drastically increase the peak discharge and loadings of sediment, total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen (TN). On the other hand, the justifiable reductions of the peak discharge and loadings of sediment, TP, and TN in the Manitoba study area may require that 50-80% of the lost wetlands be restored. Further, the comparison between the predicted restoration and conservation effects revealed that wetland conservation seems to deserve a higher priority

  15. Integrating water use into Southern California's power dispatch: an evaluation of the potential for cost-effective water conservation (United States)

    Bolorinos, J.; Ajami, N.; Yu, Y.; Rajagopal, R.


    Urban water supply and energy systems in the arid Southwestern United States are closely linked. Freshwater use by the electricity sector in particular represents a sizable portion of total water consumption in the region. Nonetheless, the dispatch of water and energy resources is managed separately, and no research to-date has examined the water conservation potential presented by the electricity sector. This study gauges the potential water savings that could be achieved including water use in the power dispatch process in Southern California by simulating a DC Optimal Power Flow for a simplified model of the region's power network. The simulation uses historical power consumption data, historical power production data and water use data from the US Geological Survey, the California Energy Commission and the US Energy Information Administration to estimate freshwater consumption by the region's thermoelectric power generation fleet. Preliminary results indicate that power system freshwater consumption could be reduced by as much as 20% at a minimal cost penalty, with potential for even greater savings. Model results show that Southern California's power system has the ability to competitively shift the use of some of the region's water resources from electricity to urban consumption, and suggests that water use should be incorporated into the policy-making process to enhance the efficient use of the state's interconnected water and energy resources.

  16. Cooperative drought adaptation: Integrating infrastructure development, conservation, and water transfers into adaptive policy pathways (United States)

    Zeff, Harrison B.; Herman, Jonathan D.; Reed, Patrick M.; Characklis, Gregory W.


    A considerable fraction of urban water supply capacity serves primarily as a hedge against drought. Water utilities can reduce their dependence on firm capacity and forestall the development of new supplies using short-term drought management actions, such as conservation and transfers. Nevertheless, new supplies will often be needed, especially as demands rise due to population growth and economic development. Planning decisions regarding when and how to integrate new supply projects are fundamentally shaped by the way in which short-term adaptive drought management strategies are employed. To date, the challenges posed by long-term infrastructure sequencing and adaptive short-term drought management are treated independently, neglecting important feedbacks between planning and management actions. This work contributes a risk-based framework that uses continuously updating risk-of-failure (ROF) triggers to capture the feedbacks between short-term drought management actions (e.g., conservation and water transfers) and the selection and sequencing of a set of regional supply infrastructure options over the long term. Probabilistic regional water supply pathways are discovered for four water utilities in the "Research Triangle" region of North Carolina. Furthermore, this study distinguishes the status-quo planning path of independent action (encompassing utility-specific conservation and new supply infrastructure only) from two cooperative formulations: "weak" cooperation, which combines utility-specific conservation and infrastructure development with regional transfers, and "strong" cooperation, which also includes jointly developed regional infrastructure to support transfers. Results suggest that strong cooperation aids utilities in meeting their individual objectives at substantially lower costs and with less overall development. These benefits demonstrate how an adaptive, rule-based decision framework can coordinate integrated solutions that would not be

  17. Effects of soil and water conservation on crop productivity: Evidences from Anjenie watershed, Ethiopia (United States)

    Adgo, Enyew; Teshome, Akalu


    Widespread soil and water conservation activities have been implemented in many parts of eastern Africa to control soil erosion by water and improve land productivity for the last few decades. Following the 1974 severe drought, soil and water conservation became more important to Ethiopia and the approach shifted to watershed based land management initiatives since the 1980s. To capture long-term impacts of these initiatives, a study was conducted in Anjenie Watershed of Ethiopia, assessing fanya juu terraces and grass strips constructed in a pilot project in 1984, and which are still functional nearly 30 years later. Data were collected from government records, field observations and questionnaire surveys administered to 60 farmers. Half of the respondents had terraced farms in the watershed former project area (with terrace technology) and the rest were outside the terraced area. The crops assessed were teff, barley and maize. Cost-benefit analyses were used to determine the economic benefits with and without terraces, including gross and net profit values, returns on labour, water productivity and impacts on poverty. The results indicated that soil and water conservation had improved crop productivity. The average yield on terraced fields was 0.95 t ha-1 for teff (control 0.49), 1.86 t ha-1 for barley (control 0.61), and 1.73 t ha-1 for maize (control 0.77). The net benefit was significantly higher on terraced fields, recording US 20.9 (US -112 control) for teff, US 185 (US -41 control) for barley and US -34.5 (US - 101 control) ha-1 yr-1 for maize. The returns on family labour were 2.33 for barley, 1.01 for teff, and 0.739 US per person-day for maize grown on terraced plots, compared to US 0.44, 0.27 and 0.16 per person-day for plots without terraces, respectively. Using a discount rate of 10%, the average net present value (NPV) of barley production with terrace was found to be about US 1542 over a period of 50 years. In addition, the average financial

  18. The Value of Recycling on Water Conservation 2nd Edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bales, Shannon Nicole [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ludi-Herrera, Katlyn D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is working to conserve water through recycling. This report will focus on the water conservation that has been accumulated through the recycling of paper, aluminum, copper, plastic, compost, and ceiling tiles. It will discuss the use of water in the process of harvesting, manufacturing, and recycling these materials. The way that water is conserved will be reviewed. From the stand point of SNL, it will discuss the amount of material that has been accumulated from 2012 through 2013 and how much water has been saved by recycling .

  19. The Three Domains of Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Hawaiian Waters (United States)


    The scientific field of conservation biology is dominated by 3 specialties: phylogenetics, ecology, and evolution. Under this triad, phylogenetics is oriented towards the past history of biodiversity, conserving the divergent branches in the tree of life. The ecological component is rooted in the present, maintaining the contemporary life support systems for biodiversity. Evolutionary conservation (as defined here) is concerned with preserving the raw materials for generating future biodiversity. All 3 domains can be documented with genetic case histories in the waters of the Hawaiian Archipelago, an isolated chain of volcanic islands with 2 types of biodiversity: colonists, and new species that arose from colonists. This review demonstrates that 1) phylogenetic studies have identified previously unknown branches in the tree of life that are endemic to Hawaiian waters; 2) population genetic surveys define isolated marine ecosystems as management units, and 3) phylogeographic analyses illustrate the pathways of colonization that can enhance future biodiversity. Conventional molecular markers have advanced all 3 domains in conservation biology over the last 3 decades, and recent advances in genomics are especially valuable for understanding the foundations of future evolutionary diversity. PMID:27001936

  20. Conserved water-mediated H-bonding dynamics of catalytic Asn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    [Nandi T K, Bairagya H R, Mukhopadhyay B P, Sekar K, Sukul D and Bera A K 2009 Conserved water-mediated H-bonding dynamics of catalytic. Asn 175 in plant thiol protease; J. Biosci. 34 27–34]. Keywords. Conserved water in molecular recognition; MD simulation; plant cysteine protease. Abbreviations used: CHASA ...

  1. Financial efficiency of major soil and water conservation measures in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenge, A.J.M.; Graaff, de J.; Hella, J.P.


    Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) measures are needed to control soil erosion and sustain agricultural production on steep slopes of West Usambara mountains. However, the adoption by farmers of the recommended soil and water conservation measures is low and soil erosion continues to be a problem. It

  2. The Effects of a Water Conservation Instructional Unit on the Values Held by Sixth Grade Students (United States)

    Aird, Andrew; Tomera, Audrey


    Sixth grade students were divided into two groups. Students in one group received instruction on water conservation using expository and discovery activities. The students in the control group received none. Results gave evidence that students' values could be changed by this mode of water conservation instruction. (MA)

  3. 78 FR 41390 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with the... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered...: Pershing County Water Conservation District. e. Name of Project: Humboldt River Hydro Power Project. f...

  4. Competing Air Quality and Water Conservation Co-benefits from Power Sector Decarbonization (United States)

    Peng, W.; Wagner, F.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Ramana, M. V.; Zhai, H.; Small, M.; Zhang, X.; Dalin, C.


    Decarbonizing the power sector can reduce fossil-based generation and associated air pollution and water use. However, power sector configurations that prioritize air quality benefits can be different from those that maximize water conservation benefits. Despite extensive work to optimize the generation mix under an air pollution or water constraint, little research has examined electricity transmission networks and the choice of which fossil fuel units to displace in order to achieve both environmental objectives simultaneously. When air pollution and water stress occur in different regions, the optimal transmission and displacement decisions still depend on priorities placed on air quality and water conservation benefits even if low-carbon generation planning is fixed. Here we use China as a test case, and develop a new optimization framework to study transmission and displacement decisions and the resulting air quality and water use impacts for six power sector decarbonization scenarios in 2030 ( 50% of national generation is low carbon). We fix low-carbon generation in each scenario (e.g. type, location, quantity) and vary technology choices and deployment patterns across scenarios. The objective is to minimize the total physical costs (transmission costs and coal power generation costs) and the estimated environmental costs. Environmental costs are estimated by multiplying effective air pollutant emissions (EMeff, emissions weighted by population density) and effective water use (Weff, water use weighted by a local water stress index) by their unit economic values, Vem and Vw. We are hence able to examine the effect of varying policy priorities by imposing different combinations of Vem and Vw. In all six scenarios, we find that increasing the priority on air quality co-benefits (higher Vem) reduces air pollution impacts (lower EMeff) at the expense of lower water conservation (higher Weff); and vice versa. Such results can largely be explained by differences

  5. Water Conservation Policy Alternatives for the Ogallala Aquifer in the Texas Panhandle


    Taylor, Robert H.; Almas, Lal K.; Lust, David G.


    The continued decline in the availability of water from the Ogallala Aquifer has led to an increased interest in conservation policies designed to extend the life of the aquifer to sustain rural economies in the Texas Panhandle. This study evaluates the effectiveness of five policies in terms of changes in the saturated thickness of the aquifer as well as the impact each policy has on crop mix, water use per acre, and the net present value of farm profits over a sixty-year planning horizon fo...

  6. Model for quantifying the synergies between farmland biodiversity conservation and water protection at catchment scale. (United States)

    Helin, Janne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Korpela, Eeva-Liisa; Kuussaari, Mikko


    This paper studies joint provision of two environmental non-market commodities related to agriculture: biodiversity conservation and water protection. We provide an optimising tool for analysing spatial dependencies of multifunctional agriculture at catchment scale. We show that efficiency gains can be achieved by spatial allocation and choice of the type of vegetation. In particular, inclusion of meadow nectar plants in the founding grass seed mixture of set-asides was found out to be an economically efficient measure to promote biodiversity and water protection on warm, steep slopes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coordinating water conservation efforts through tradable credits: A proof of concept for drought response in the San Francisco Bay area (United States)

    Gonzales, Patricia; Ajami, Newsha; Sun, Yujie


    Water utilities are increasingly relying on water efficiency and conservation to extend the availability of supplies. Despite spatial and institutional interdependency of many utilities, these demand-side management initiatives have traditionally been tackled by individual utilities operating in isolation. In this study, we introduce a policy framework for water conservation credits that enables collaboration at the regional scale. Under the proposed approach, utilities have the flexibility to invest in water conservation measures that are appropriate for their specific service area. When utilities have insufficient capacity for local cost-effective measures, they may opt to purchase credits, contributing to fund subsidies for utilities that do have that capacity and can provide the credits, while the region as a whole benefits from more reliable water supplies. This work aims to provide insights on the potential impacts of a water conservation credit policy framework when utilities are given the option to collaborate in their efforts. We model utility decisions as rational cost-minimizing actors subject to different decision-making dynamics and water demand scenarios, and demonstrate the institutional characteristics needed for the proposed policy to be effective. We apply this model to a counterfactual case study of water utility members of the Bay Area Water Supply and Conservation Agency in California during the drought period of June 2015 to May 2016. Our scenario analysis indicates that when the institutional structure and incentives are appropriately defined, water agencies can achieve economic benefits from collaborating in their conservation efforts, especially if they coordinate more closely in their decision-making.

  8. Using Water Footprints to Identify Alternatives for Conserving Local Water Resources in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Marrin


    Full Text Available As a management tool for addressing water consumption issues, footprints have become increasingly utilized on scales ranging from global to personal. A question posed by this paper is whether water footprint data that are routinely compiled for particular regions may be used to assess the effectiveness of actions taken by local residents to conserve local water resources. The current California drought has affected an agriculturally productive region with large population centers that consume a portion of the locally produced food, and the state’s arid climate demands a large volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports most of its food products, enough is consumed within the state so that residents shifting their food choices and/or habits could save as much or more local blue water as their reduction of household or office water use. One of those shifts is reducing the intake of animal-based products that require the most water of any food group on both a gravimetric and caloric basis. Another shift is reducing food waste, which represents a shared responsibility among consumers and retailers, however, consumer preferences ultimately drive much of this waste.

  9. Using Social Marketing Principles to Understand an Extension Audience’s Landscape Water Conservation Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Warner


    Full Text Available A substantial amount of water is applied to Florida landscapes, and encouraging water conservation through irrigation practices has been identified as a priority programming area where there is great opportunity to positively affect the state’s water resources. Florida Extension addresses this priority area through educational programming. Social marketing has been identified as a promising approach to changing behaviors that influence environmental issues, such as water-saving irrigation technologies and practices. This approach recognizes that there are barriers that prevent individuals from engaging in positive behavior changes. This study evaluated an irrigation seminar using a retrospective pretest-posttest design that incorporated elements of a social marketing intercept survey. Thirty-four attendees participated and primarily represented green industry professional and government sectors. Study objectives were to evaluate the workshop and describe the audience using social marketing principles for future program planning based on audience research. The audience rated their descriptive norms, a strong predictor of behavioral change, lower than their injunctive norms, a less robust predictor. The majority planned to adopt at least one water-conservation best management practice as a result of the workshop. We make recommendations for applying social marketing principles to Extension programming.

  10. Infrared thermography requirements study for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headley, R B; Larsen, R J; Goldberg, G G; Boyd, R J


    A description is given of a study to identify users (and their needs) of infrared (IR) instrumentation that may be applicable in the measurement of heat gains and/or losses from buildings, and to identify research, development and demonstration opportunities. The study is intended to provide the following information: (1) identify present and potential users and uses of infrared thermographic technology as related to energy conservation in buildings; (2) identify presently available IR thermographic instrumentation, techniques, and services, and determine how well it can serve the users and uses identified above; and (3) identify the technical opportunities for research, development, and demonstration on new IR thermographic technology that will better serve the users and uses identified above. The building sector requirements were analyzed, the user measurement requirements were identified, and cost guidelines for instrumentation are provided. An analysis is given of the constraints, requirements, and limitations of measurable parameters. This analysis provides the basis against which an IR instrument survey was conducted. The building sector requirements study indicates the general satisfaction of the user community with the use of IR thermography for qualitative evaluation of heat loss from buildings.

  11. Role of Conservation Adoption Premiums on Participation in Water Quality Trading Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Motallebi


    Full Text Available Over half of lakes, reservoirs, and ponds in the United States are threatened or impaired, mostly by nutrients. One policy to improve water quality is water quality trading (WQT. While the concept is appealing, adoption of conservation practices in these programs has been anemic at best. Using a case study in the newly-formed WQT market in Jordan Lake, North Carolina, we propose that part of the problem is a large adoption premium (AP for this program. AP is the amount that farmers require over and above direct adoption costs to participate. In this study, farmers were asked at in-person interviews about their willingness to accept (WTA a payment to adopt a particular conservation practice (riparian buffers in order to generate and sell credits. We compared farmers’ WTA to their direct cost of participation, which allowed us to estimate an AP. On average, the AP more than doubles the cost of purchasing credits. The AP sums all of the known indirect costs already cited in the literature, and more, into a single value and is relatively simple to estimate. Knowing the AP would improve the ability of policy makers to accurately estimate what is needed to boost adoption rates in WQT programs and other conservation programs as well.

  12. Conserved hydrogen bonds and water molecules in MDR HIV-1 protease substrate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhigang [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Harbor Hospital Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Yong [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Yedidi, Ravikiran S. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Dewdney, Tamaria G. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Reiter, Samuel J. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Brunzelle, Joseph S. [Northwestern Univ. Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Kovari, Iulia A. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Kovari, Ladislau C. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)


    Success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in anti-HIV therapy is severely compromised by the rapidly developing drug resistance. HIV-1 protease inhibitors, part of HAART, are losing their potency and efficacy in inhibiting the target. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) 769 HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, 90) was selected for the present study to understand the binding to its natural substrates. The nine crystal structures of MDR769 HIV-1 protease substrate hepta-peptide complexes were analyzed in order to reveal the conserved structural elements for the purpose of drug design against MDR HIV-1 protease. Our structural studies demonstrated that highly conserved hydrogen bonds between the protease and substrate peptides, together with the conserved crystallographic water molecules, played a crucial role in the substrate recognition, substrate stabilization and protease stabilization. Additionally, the absence of the key flap-ligand bridging water molecule might imply a different catalytic mechanism of MDR769 HIV-1 protease compared to that of wild type (WT) HIV-1 protease.

  13. Process Integration Design Methods for Water Conservation and Wastewater Reduction in Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overcash, Michael; Russell, Dunn; Wenzel, Henrik


    ” or “warehouses”) to process water users (referred to as “sinks”, “demands” or “customers”). A detailed case study of industrial significance, highlighting land treatment technology, is included to illustrate the proposed methodology and various process scenarios are evaluated within this case study......This paper addresses operational techniques for applying mass integration design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. This paper presents a design technique for any number of wastewater streams containing multiple contaminants. The technique comprises...... a single non-linear optimization program to minimize the wastewater discharged (or maximize the amount of recycled wastewater). This program is developed based on general water allocation principles and uses the transshipment model theory to allow the “shipment” of wastewater (referred to as “sources...

  14. 78 FR 67336 - Habitat Conservation Plan for the United Water Conservation District, Santa Clara River Watershed... (United States)


    ..., operations, and maintenance of water management facilities within the lower Santa Clara River watershed... water management activities. United intends to request a 50-year permit covering five species federally... describe direct, indirect, and cumulative impacts on biological resources, land use, air quality, water...

  15. A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Lutz, James


    Reducing the water use of plumbing products—toilets, urinals, faucets, and showerheads —has been a popular conservation measure. Improved technologies have created opportunities for additional conservation in this area. However, plumbing products do not operate in a vacuum. This paper reviews the literature related to plumbing products to determine a systems framework for evaluating future conservation measures using these products. The main framework comprises the following categories: water use efficiency, product components, product performance, source water, energy, and plumbing/sewer infrastructure. This framework for analysis provides a starting point for professionals considering future water conservation measures to evaluate the need for additional research, collaboration with other standards or codes committees, and attachment of additional metrics to water use efficiency (such as performance).

  16. Energy conservation in the production of domestic hot water (United States)


    Improvements in energy efficiency in existing buildings and the construction of energy efficient buildings are discussed with emphasis on water heating. Cost effective measures proposed include fitting an 80-mm insulating jacket to the hot water storage cylinder, using time switches, fitting thermostatic control systems to boiler based central heating, and storing domestic hot water at a lower temperature. Research into the recovery of heat from waste water, the use of cold water detergents, and the use of heat pumps is urged.

  17. Predicting compliance with an information-based residential outdoor water conservation program (United States)

    Landon, Adam C.; Kyle, Gerard T.; Kaiser, Ronald A.


    Residential water conservation initiatives often involve some form of education or persuasion intended to change the attitudes and behaviors of residential consumers. However, the ability of these instruments to change attitudes toward conservation and their efficacy in affecting water use remains poorly understood. In this investigation the authors examine consumer attitudes toward complying with a persuasive water conservation program, the extent to which those attitudes predict compliance, and the influence of environmental contextual factors on outdoor water use. Results indicate that the persuasive program was successful in developing positive attitudes toward compliance, and that those attitudes predict water use. However, attitudinal variables explain a relatively small proportion of the variance in objectively measured water use behavior. Recommendations for policy are made stressing the importance of understanding both the effects of attitudes and environmental contextual factors in behavior change initiatives in the municipal water sector.

  18. Intelligent irrigation performance: evaluation and quantifying its ability for conserving water in arid region (United States)

    Al-Ghobari, Hussein M.; Mohammad, Fawzi S.


    Intelligent irrigation technologies have been developed in recent years to apply irrigation to turf and landscape plants. These technologies are an evapotranspiration (ET)-based irrigation controller, which calculates ET for local microclimate. Then, the controller creates a program for loading and communicating automatically with drip or sprinkler system controllers. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the new ET sensors in ability to irrigate agricultural crops and to conserve water use for crop in arid climatic conditions. This paper presents the case for water conservation using intelligent irrigation system (IIS) application technology. The IIS for automating irrigation scheduling was implemented and tested with sprinkle and drip irrigation systems to irrigate wheat and tomato crops. Another irrigation scheduling system was also installed and operated as another treatment, which is based on weather data that retrieved from an automatic weather station. This irrigation control system was running in parallel to the former system (IIS) to be control experiments for comparison purposes. However, this article discusses the implementation of IIS, its installation, testing and calibration of various components. The experiments conducted for one growing season 2009-2010 and the results were represented and discussed herein. Data from all plots were analyzed, which were including soil water status, water consumption, and crop yield. The initial results indicate that up to 25% water saving by intelligent irrigation compared to control method, while maintaining competing yield. Results show that the crop evapotranspiration values for control experiments were higher than that of ET-System in consistent trend during whole growth season. The analysis points out that the values of the two treatments were somewhat close to each other's only in the initial development stages. Generally, the ET-System, with some modification was precise in

  19. Assessment of Soil Water Conservation with Biochar in Oregon Cropping Systems (United States)

    Phillips, C. L.; Trippe, K. M.


    Biochar, a carbon-rich by-product of energy production, has received growing attention as a soil amendment that can improve soil structure and crop production, as well sequestering carbon. In this study we evaluated the potential for gasified wood and grass biochars to improve soil water retention in a range of Oregon agricultural soils. Using laboratory measures of moisture release we showed increases in plant-available water at amendment rates as low as 1% by mass in most soils. Using a model of field hydrological balance (SPAW), we extrapolated from laboratory measures to estimate the potential benefits of biochar amendment under dryland and irrigated field conditions. Under both current and projected climate conditions, biochar provided modest benefits for soil water conservation when applied at economically-feasible rates. In combination with other cultural practices, gasified biochars can provide benefits for drought adaptation.

  20. Electricity and Water Conservation on College and University Campuses in Response to National Competitions among Dormitories: Quantifying Relationships between Behavior, Conservation Strategies and Psychological Metrics. (United States)

    Petersen, John E; Frantz, Cynthia M; Shammin, Md Rumi; Yanisch, Tess M; Tincknell, Evan; Myers, Noel


    "Campus Conservation Nationals" (CCN) is a recurring, nation-wide electricity and water-use reduction competition among dormitories on college campuses. We conducted a two year empirical study of the competition's effects on resource consumption and the relationship between conservation, use of web technology and various psychological measures. Significant reductions in electricity and water use occurred during the two CCN competitions examined (n = 105,000 and 197,000 participating dorm residents respectively). In 2010, overall reductions during the competition were 4% for electricity and 6% for water. The top 10% of dorms achieved 28% and 36% reductions in electricity and water respectively. Participation was larger in 2012 and reductions were slightly smaller (i.e. 3% electricity). The fact that no seasonal pattern in electricity use was evident during non-competition periods suggests that results are attributable to the competition. Post competition resource use data collected in 2012 indicates that conservation behavior was sustained beyond the competition. Surveys were used to assess psychological and behavioral responses (n = 2,900 and 2,600 in 2010 and 2012 respectively). Electricity reductions were significantly correlated with: web visitation, specific conservation behaviors, awareness of the competition, motivation and sense of empowerment. However, participants were significantly more motivated than empowered. Perceived benefits of conservation were skewed towards global and future concerns while perceived barriers tended to be local. Results also suggest that competitions may be useful for "preaching beyond the choir"-engaging those who might lack prior intrinsic or political motivation. Although college life is distinct, certain conclusions related to competitions, self-efficacy, and motivation and social norms likely extend to other residential settings.

  1. Searching for comparative international water research: Urban and rural water conservation research in India and the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L Wescoat Jr


    .... It focused on rural and urban water conservation research in India and the United States. Search methods built upon procedures initially developed for the FAO Investment Centre and more advanced systematic review methods...

  2. Motivating farmers for soil and water conservation: A promising strategy from the Bolivian mountain valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, A.


    Successful examples of strategies that motivate farmers for the large-scale execution of soil and water conservation (SWC) practices are scarce. This paper presents a promising strategy for changing mostly passive Bolivian Andes farmers into active participators in natural resources conservation. In

  3. 75 FR 27926 - Notice of Availability of Interpretive Rule on the Applicability of Current Water Conservation... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 Notice of Availability of Interpretive Rule on the Applicability of Current Water Conservation... ``showerhead'' in the DOE's regulations related to the energy conservation program for consumer products. The...

  4. The conservative behaviour of fluorescein | Smith | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Failure to account for fluorescein absorbance changes with pH may be responsible for some of the apparent non-conservative behaviour of this easily detectable tracer compound. While it is possible to calculate an accurate absorptivity value for fluorescein at every pH, this calculation is not necessary if the sample pH is ...

  5. American-Mexican group met to discuss water conservation (United States)

    A workshop was held on July 7-9, 2010, at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory in Bushland, Texas entitled "Enhancing Groundwater Sustainability Under Increased Climate Deficits: Policy and Management Alternatives with a Focus on the Calera Aquifer in Zacatecas, Mexico." At...

  6. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. (United States)


    ... the event of a drought or other water shortage condition. Contingency plans of public authorities or... statewide water shortage contingency plans. (b) Programs prepared pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section... including emergency conservation measures to be instituted in the event of a drought or other water shortage...

  7. Conservation psychology as a field of study


    Polona Kalc


    During the past decades the importance of psychology has become more prominent when addressing environmental issues. At the turn of the millennium a new field of psychological research was introduced to scientific community. The so-called conservation psychology strives to merge and spur basic and applied psychological research from the field of (pro)environmental behaviour and sustainable development. Together with environmental and population psychology, it forms Division 34 of American Psy...

  8. 76 FR 39091 - San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of Effectiveness of Surrender (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of... for a Conduit Hydroelectric Project \\1\\ to the San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation...\\ San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District, 17 FERC ] 62,113 (1981). On October 24...

  9. Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources (United States)

    Brian G. Tavernia; Mark D. Nelson; Titus S. Seilheimer; Dale D. Gormanson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Peter V. Caldwell; Ge. Sun


    Forest ecosystem productivity and functioning depend on soil and water resources. But the reverse is also true—forest and land-use management activities can significantly alter forest soils, water quality, and associated aquatic habitats (Ice and Stednick 2004, Reid 1993, Wigmosta and Burges 2001). Soil and water resources are protected through the allocation of land...

  10. Domestic water conservation practices in Tlemcen City (Algeria) (United States)

    Habi, Mohammed; Harrouz, Omar


    During the last three decades, citizens of an Algerian city are concerned with the problem of drinking water supply. Time discontinuation service became the rule. The central idea of the analysis based on interviews is to assess the role of water in the organization of the relationship between habitat and users. The fundamental question is how users, in particular women, incorporate water in their daily lives due to rationing. Having to deal with the discontinuous and frequent weak water supply, the inhabitants of the city of Tlemcen who are connected to the water supply system, as well as those connected to the water system of all Algerian towns, have developed an internal water storage system to sort out this problem. The imposed rationing has proved to be expensive for consumers. The water shortage pushed the consumers to invest in relatively expensive storage and pumping facilities to satisfy their domestic needs. As the frequency of the water supply is on a two times per week basis, the survey reveals a discrepancy in terms of volumes consumed and stored by each household. The use of water depends on the individual storage facility and the frequency of the supply. The life of the households, particularly that of the housewives, depends on the availability of water and thus on the schedules of the Company of Production of Water "Algerian Des Eaux'' (ADE). This is particularly the case when they are supplied during the night.

  11. Will farmers save water? A theoretical analysis of groundwater conservation policies (United States)

    The development of agricultural irrigation systems has generated significant increases in food production and farm income. However, unplanned and unconstrained groundwater use could also cause serious consequences. To extend the economic life of groundwater, water conservation issues have become the...


    AbstractSoil and water conservation policies and programs in developed countries in North America, Europe, and Australia are examined in the context of their effectiveness for addressing environmental degradation associated with technology-intensive agricultural syste...

  13. The Function and Value of Water Conservation of Forest Ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve of Tibet


    Tang, Jia; Fang, Jiang-ping; Li, Ping; Guo, Jian-bin; Lu, Jie; Yuan, Qing-juan


    Gongbo Nature Reserve, located in Nyingchi of Tibet, is by far the largest construction project of forest reserves that China approves and invests in. This article adopts the shadow project method, and estimates the water conservation function of forest ecosystem of Gongbo Nature Reserve based on the Specifications for Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China promulgated by State Forestry Administration of China. The results show that the total value of water conservation of forest ec...

  14. Conservation agriculture increases soil organic carbon and residual water content in upland crop production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor B. Ella


    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture involves minimum soil disturbance, continuous ground cover, and diversified crop rotations or mixtures. Conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS have the potential to improve soil quality if appropriate cropping systems are developed. In this study, five CAPS including different cropping patterns and cover crops under two fertility levels, and a plow-based system as control, were studied in a typical upland agricultural area in northern Mindanao in the Philippines. Results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC at 0- 5-cm depth for all CAPS treatments generally increased with time while SOC under the plow-based system tended to decline over time for both the high (120, 60 and 60 kg N P K ha-1 and moderate (60-30-30 kg N P K ha-1 fertility levels. The cropping system with maize + Stylosanthes guianensis in the first year followed by Stylosanthes guianensis and fallow in the second year, and the cassava + Stylosanthes guianensis exhibited the highest rate of SOC increase for high and moderate fertility levels, respectively. After one, two, and three cropping seasons, plots under CAPS had significantly higher soil residual water content (RWC than under plow-based systems. Results of this study suggest that conservation agriculture has a positive impact on soil quality, while till systems negatively impact soil characteristics.

  15. Improvement of Soil and Water Conservation Outdoor Classrooms and Volunteers in Taiwan (United States)

    Wu, Y. L.; Lin, Y. H.; Huang, K. F.; Chan, H. C.


    In order to improve the knowledge and understanding of soil and water conservation, the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau, Taiwan sets up soil and water conservation outdoor classrooms and assigns volunteers for on-site commentating. There are 19 soil and water conservation outdoor classrooms and 483 volunteers. In order to intergate education resource and improve quality, the examination of outdoor classrooms and training of the volunteers were conducted. The training programs aimed to improve the standard of living, promote a general mood of voluntary service, and encourage the public to cultivate the value of hometown-treasuring and the sentiment of people-helping. The service system of volunteers was also organized through the training programs. The assessments of soil and water conservation outdoor classrooms were conducted through the on-site investigations. The improvement suggestions were then put forward according to the characteristics of the classrooms. The improvement contents were compiled for each outdoor classroom and there are five common suggestions depicted as follows: 1. the expectations of internationalization; 2. the issues of land leases; 3. improvement of traffic flow; 4. the format and information of explanation boards should be unified; and 5. the issues of facility maintaining. Key words: Soil and water conserveation, Volunteer, Outdoor classroom.

  16. Species Conservation and Management: Case Studies (United States)

    Akcakaya, H.R.; Burgman, M.A.; Kindvall, O.; Wood, C.C.; Sjogren-Gulve, P.; Hatfield, J.S.; McCarthy, M.A.


    This edited volume is a collection of population and metapopulation models for a wide variety of species, including plants, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Each chapter of the book describes the application of RAMAS GIS 4.0 to one species, with the aim of demonstrating how various life history characteristics of the species are incorporated into the model, and how the results of the model has been or can be used in conservation and management of the species. The book comes with a CD that includes a demo version of the program, and the data files for each species.

  17. Hearing Conservation Self-Study #12350

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.

  18. The implications of drought and water conservation on the reuse of municipal wastewater: Recognizing impacts and identifying mitigation possibilities. (United States)

    Tran, Quynh K; Jassby, David; Schwabe, Kurt A


    As water agencies continue to investigate opportunities to increase resilience and local water supply reliability in the face of drought and rising water scarcity, water conservation strategies and the reuse of treated municipal wastewater are garnering significant attention and adoption. Yet a simple water balance thought experiment illustrates that drought, and the conservation strategies that are often enacted in response to it, both likely limit the role reuse may play in improving local water supply reliability. For instance, as a particular drought progresses and agencies enact water conservation measures to cope with drought, influent flows likely decrease while influent pollution concentrations increase, particularly salinity, which adversely affects wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) costs and effluent quality and flow. Consequently, downstream uses of this effluent, whether to maintain streamflow and quality, groundwater recharge, or irrigation may be impacted. This is unfortunate since reuse is often heralded as a drought-proof mechanism to increase resilience. The objectives of this paper are two-fold. First, we illustrate-using a case study from Southern California during its most recent drought- how drought and water conservation strategies combine to reduce influent flow and quality and, subsequently, effluent flow and quality. Second, we use a recently developed regional water reuse decision support model (RWRM) to highlight cost-effective strategies that can be implemented to mitigate the impacts of drought on effluent water quality. While the solutions we identify cannot increase the flow of influent or effluent coming into or out of a treatment plant, they can improve the value of the remaining effluent in a cost-effective manner that takes into account the characteristics of its demand, whether it be for landscaping, golf courses, agricultural irrigation, or surface water augmentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carole Dalin; Huanguang Qiu; Naota Hanasaki; Denise L. Mauzerall; Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe


    .... The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies...

  20. Cave Water Studies. (United States)

    O'Keefe, Elizabeth S.


    Describes a comparative study project where seventh grade students tested water samples from 10 cave sites that had been tested 24 years ago in a study that had attempted to determine if pollution in the environment had reached cave water. Discusses lab skills and some results of the study. (JRH)

  1. A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations (United States)

    Arakawa, A.; Lamb, V. R.


    To improve the simulation of nonlinear aspects of the flow over steep topography, a potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations is derived. It is pointed out that a family of schemes can conserve total energy for general flow and potential enstrophy for flow with no mass flux divergence. The newly derived scheme is a unique member of this family, that conserves both potential enstrophy and energy for general flow. Comparison by means of numerical experiment with a scheme that conserves (potential) enstrophy for purely horizontal nondivergent flow demonstrated the considerable superiority of the newly derived potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme, not only in suppressing a spurious energy cascade but also in determining the overall flow regime. The potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for a spherical grid is also presented.

  2. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China. (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio


    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.

  3. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio


    China’s economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China’s future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km3/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%. PMID:25825748

  4. Using Social Marketing Principles to Understand an Extension Audience’s Landscape Water Conservation Practices


    Laura A. Warner; William L. Schall


    A substantial amount of water is applied to Florida landscapes, and encouraging water conservation through irrigation practices has been identified as a priority programming area where there is great opportunity to positively affect the state’s water resources. Florida Extension addresses this priority area through educational programming. Social marketing has been identified as a promising approach to changing behaviors that influence environmental issues, such as water-saving irrigation tec...

  5. Selected Works in Water Supply, Water Conservation and Water Quality Planning. (United States)


    34Accumulation of Radionuclides in Bed Sediments of the Columbia River Between the Hanford Reactors and McNary Dam," Water Resources Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp...certain institutional functions, ef- fective forecasting would deal with each of these trends separately, extrap - olating or not as the evidence appears

  6. Evaluation of soil and water conservation practices in the north-western Ethiopian highlands using multi-criteria analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome Firew, A.; Graaff, de J.; Stroosnijder, L.


    Investments by farmers in soil and water conservation (SWC) practices are influenced by the physical effectiveness, financial efficiency, and social acceptability of these practices. The objective of this study is to evaluate different SWC practices in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia using

  7. Wild Water Buffalo Bubalus arnee in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal: status, population and conservation importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Khatri


    Full Text Available The Asiatic Wild Water Buffalo Bubalus arnee is an endangered species restricted to South and Southeast Asia. Nepal’s only population survives in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve which is located on the floodplain of the Koshi River, a tributary of Ganga. This species is under threat due to high anthropogenic pressure ranging from habitat deterioration to hybridization with domestic buffalo. Yet, the population has grown from 63 in 1976 to 219 in 2009, despite the decline in the calf/cow ratio. The present study conducted in 2009 used the block count method. The count showed the presence of a backcrossed population of 74 in addition to the total of 219 individuals. At present, a number of conservation and livelihood interventions have been undertaken to safeguard the biodiversity, particularly the wild buffalo population in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve. The community-based sustainable management approach benefiting both conservation and livelihood of local people is necessary to ensure the long term conservation of the species

  8. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carole Dalin; Huanguang Qiu; Naota Hanasaki; Denise L. Mauzerall; Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe


    .... We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions...

  9. Purified water quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.


    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  10. The Modeling of Time-Varying Stream Water Age Distributions: Preliminary Investigations with Non-Conservative Solutes (United States)

    Wilusz, D. C.; Harman, C. J.; Ball, W. P.


    Modeling the dynamics of chemical transport from the landscape to streams is necessary for water quality management. Previous work has shown that estimates of the distribution of water age in streams, the transit time distribution (TTD), can improve prediction of the concentration of conservative tracers (i.e., ones that "follow the water") based on upstream watershed inputs. A major challenge however has been accounting for climate and transport variability when estimating TDDs at the catchment scale. In this regard, Harman (2014, in review) proposed the Omega modeling framework capable of using watershed hydraulic fluxes to approximate the time-varying TTD. The approach was previously applied to the Plynlimon research watershed in Wales to simulate stream concentration dynamics of a conservative tracer (chloride) including 1/f attenuation of the power spectra density. In this study we explore the extent to which TTDs estimated by the Omega model vary with the concentration of non-conservative tracers (i.e., ones whose concentrations are also affected by transformations and interactions with other phases). First we test the hypothesis that the TTD calibrated in Plynlimon can explain a large part of the variation in non-conservative stream water constituents associated with storm flow (acidity, Al, DOC, Fe) and base flow (Ca, Si). While controlling for discharge, we show a correlation between the percentage of water of different ages and constituent concentration. Second, we test the hypothesis that TTDs help explain variation in stream nitrate concentration, which is of particular interest for pollution control but can be highly non-conservative. We compare simulation runs from Plynlimon and the agricultural Choptank watershed in Maryland, USA. Following a top-down approach, we estimate nitrate concentration as if it were a conservative tracer and examine the structure of residuals at different temporal resolutions. Finally, we consider model modifications to

  11. Economic benefits of combining soil and water conservation measures with nutrient management in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmoré, R.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Ouédraogo, E.


    Nutrient limitation is the main cause of per capita decline in crop production in the Sahel, where water shortage also limits an efficient use of available nutrients. Combining soil and water conservation measures with locally available nutrient inputs may optimize crop production and economic

  12. Soil and water conservation in semi-arid areas of Tanzania: national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... farmers have directed their efforts to the effective management of rainwater for the production of high water-demanding but high-value crops such as rice and vegetables. It is proposed that sustainable adoption of soil and water conservation practices in semi-arid areas of Tanzania requires policies and strategies that: (i) ...

  13. Water and Agriculture in the Western U.S.: Conservation, Reallocation, and Markets (United States)

    Lord, William B.

    Water conservation has long been an unqualified good in the western United States. But when westerners have said “conservation,” they have usually meant reservoir storage to prevent water from escaping downstream before it could be diverted and put to beneficial use. They took particular umbrage when the Carter Administration defined it to mean water demand management, a way of avoiding or postponing the construction of reservoirs. To oppose reservoir development in the West most certainly is to defy the conventional wisdom and to court political extinction. It is to brand oneself as daft or disloyal as well.

  14. Do conservative and reactive tracers take the same water flow pathways? An experimental approach (United States)

    Kasteel, Roy; Koestel, Johannes; Vereecken, Harry


    Reactive transport modelling heavily relies on the assumption that the soil's hydraulic behavior, i.e. the solute transport volume (water content) and the water flow pathways (dispersivity), can be characterized by the use of a conservative tracer. However, there exits ample experimental evidence in the literature whether this assumption holds, mainly because of the lack of detection methods that are able to monitor solute transport with a high resolution in space and time. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) supplies three-dimensional spatio-temporally resolved image data through minimally invasive measurements. ERT has proved to be a valuable tool for imaging solute transport processes in the subsurface and has the potential to resolve the above-mentioned issue. The goals of this study are to verify to what extent ERT can be used to compare flow pathways of a conservative tracer (chloride) and a reactive tracer (food-dye Brilliant Blue) in the same large soil monolith filled with an undisturbed loamy sand and eventually address the question whether they take the same flow pathways. A constant water flow field was established in the soil monolith by means of an irrigation device. The tracers chloride and Brilliant Blue were successively added to the irrigation water. The negative charge of both tracer provides an electrical conductivity contrast that can be detected by means of ERT. Time-lapse ERT provides a qualitative comparison between both tracers, by visualizing the three-dimensional transport behavior. A quantitative analysis was performed by parameterizing the voxel-scale breakthrough curves using the convection-dispersion equation, which includes retardation and sorption kinetics for the reactive tracer. At the voxel-scale, heterogeneous water flow was observed, identified by regions with different pore-water velocities. In the subsoil, these regions were aligned to soil structural features of the plough pan. We discuss the comparison of the

  15. Conservation of peat soils in agricultural use by infiltration of ditch water via submerged drains: results of a case study in the western peat soil area of The Netherlands (United States)

    van den Akker, Jan J. H.; Hendriks, Rob F. A.


    About 8% of all soils in The Netherlands are peat soils which almost all drained with ditches and mainly in agricultural use as permanent pasture for dairy farming. The largest part of the peat meadow area is situated in the densely populated western provinces South- and North-Holland and Utrecht and is called the Green Heart and is valued as a historic open landscape. Conservation of these peats soil by raising water levels and converting the peat meadow areas mainly in very extensive grasslands or wet nature proved to be a very costly and slow process due to the strong opposition of farmers and many others who value the open cultural historic landscape and meadow birds. The use of submerged drains seems to be a promising solution acceptable for dairy farmers and effective in diminishing peat oxidation and so the associated subsidence and CO2 emissions. Oxidation of peat soils strongly depends on the depth of groundwater levels in dry periods. In dry periods the groundwater level can be 30 to 50 cm lower than the ditchwater level, which is 30 - 60 cm below soil surface. Infiltration of ditchwater via submerged drain can raise the groundwater level up to the ditchwater level and diminish the oxidation and associated subsidence and CO2 emissions with at least 50%. Since 2003 several pilots with submerged drains are started to check this theoretical reduction and to answer questions raised about water usage and water quality and grass yields and trafficability etcetera. In our presentation we focus on the results of a pilot in South-Holland concerning the hydrological aspects, however, include results from the other pilots to consider the long term aspects such as the reduction of subsidence. The use of submerged drains proves to be promising to reduce peat oxidation and so subsidence and CO2 emissions with at least 50%. Grass yields are more or less equal in parcels with versus parcels without submerged drains. Trafficability in wet periods is better and trampling

  16. The development of a municipal water conservation and demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WDM) at municipal level has been inadequate for many years, despite South Africa being one of the driest countries in the world. This could be attributed to a lack of planning, and not realising the consequences and potential benefits of water ...

  17. Criterion 4: Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield


    Soils are the fundamental resource enabling land to provide a wide array of benefits. Both humans and wildlife rely on soils for the production of life-sustaining nourishment and shelter. Soil is important to society because it supports plants that supply food, fibers, drugs, and other essentials and because it filters water and recycles wastes.The factors that affect...

  18. Strategies of water conservation in southern African frogs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    out the year in many of the warmer areas of Rhodesia on the margins of artificial water bodies. As a generalization it seems that the genera mentioned would remain .... in a crocodile nest, and on other occasions in rather shallow burrows under logs. Mitchell. (1950) found them in termite mounds. TomopterTUJ delalandei ...

  19. Variable-Volume Flushing (V-VF) device for water conservation in toilets (United States)

    Jasper, Louis J., Jr.


    Thirty five percent of residential indoor water used is flushed down the toilet. Five out of six flushes are for liquid waste only, which requires only a fraction of the water needed for solid waste. Designers of current low-flush toilets (3.5-gal. flush) and ultra-low-flush toilets (1.5-gal. flush) did not consider the vastly reduced amount of water needed to flush liquid waste versus solid waste. Consequently, these toilets are less practical than desired and can be improved upon for water conservation. This paper describes a variable-volume flushing (V-VF) device that is more reliable than the currently used flushing devices (it will not leak), is simple, more economical, and more water conserving (allowing one to choose the amount of water to use for flushing solid and liquid waste).

  20. A Socio-Hydrological Model of the Voluntary Urban Water Conservation Behavior during Droughts (United States)

    Sangwan, N.; Eisma, J. A.; Sung, K.; Yu, D. J.


    Several cities across the globe are increasingly struggling to meet the water demands of their population. By 2050, nearly 160 million urban dwellers are likely to face perennial water shortage due to ever rising population numbers and climate change. As observed once again during recent drought in California, voluntary water conservation is a key approach for managing urban water availability during periods of constrained supply. It relies on behavioral adaptation that is critical for long-term reductions in water use and building drought resilient communities. Strong interdependencies between human group behavior and regional hydrology in this context entail that the two components be coupled together in a socio-hydrology model to fully understand the dynamics of urban water systems. This work proposes a conceptual framework for one such model and simulates the dynamics of a voluntary conservation program in Marin Municipal Water District, California using dynamic systems modeling approach. Through this model, we plan to assess the effects of different social factors (such as social concern and conformist tendencies) and climato-hydrological conditions (viz. storage levels and weather forecast) on the trajectory of a voluntary conservation program. Our preliminary results have indicated several `tipping points' which can be capitalized on by policy makers to boost conservation at low social costs.

  1. Public versus private: does it matter for water conservation? Insights from California. (United States)

    Kallis, Giorgos; Ray, Isha; Fulton, Julian; McMahon, James E


    This article asks three connected questions: First, does the public view private and public utilities differently, and if so, does this affect attitudes to conservation? Second, do public and private utilities differ in their approaches to conservation? Finally, do differences in the approaches of the utilities, if any, relate to differences in public attitudes? We survey public attitudes in California toward (hypothetical but plausible) voluntary and mandated water conservation, as well as to price increases, during a recent period of shortage. We do this by interviewing households in three pairs of adjacent public and private utilities. We also survey managers of public and private urban water utilities to see if they differ in their approaches to conservation and to their customers. On the user side we do not find pronounced differences, though a minority of customers in all private companies would be more willing to conserve or pay higher prices under a public operator. No respondent in public utility said the reverse. Negative attitudes toward private operators were most pronounced in the pair marked by a controversial recent privatization and a price hike. Nonetheless, we find that California's history of recurrent droughts and the visible role of the state in water supply and drought management undermine the distinction between public and private. Private utilities themselves work to underplay the distinction by stressing the collective ownership of the water source and the collective value of conservation. Overall, California's public utilities appear more proactive and target-oriented in asking their customers to conserve than their private counterparts and the state continues to be important in legitimating and guiding conservation behavior, whether the utility is in public hands or private.

  2. Using Personal Water Footprints to Identify Consumer Food Choices that Influence the Conservation of Local Water Resources (United States)

    Marrin, D. L.


    As the global demand for water and food escalates, the emphasis is on supply side factors rather than demand side factors such as consumers, whose personal water footprints are dominated (>90%) by food. Personal footprints include the water embedded in foods that are produced locally as well as those imported, raising the question of whether local shifts in people's food choices and habits could assist in addressing local water shortages. The current situation in California is interesting in that drought has affected an agriculturally productive region where a substantial portion of its food products are consumed by the state's large population. Unlike most agricultural regions where green water is the primary source of water for crops, California's arid climate demands an enormous volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports many of its food products, enough is consumed in-state so that residents making relatively minor shifts their food choices could save as much local blue water as their implementing more drastic reductions in household water use (comprising food group on both a caloric and gravimetric basis. Another change is wasting less food, which is a shared responsibility among consumers, producers and retailers; however, consumers' actions and preferences ultimately drive much of the waste. Personal water footprints suggest a role for individuals in conserving local water resources that is neither readily obvious nor a major focus of most conservation programs.

  3. Dealing with Drought: Decoupling Climatic and Management-Related Drivers of Water Conservation Behavior (United States)

    Hemati, A.; Rippy, M.; Grant, S. B.


    As global populations grow, cities in drought prone regions of the world such as California and South East Australia are faced with escalating water scarcity and water security challenges. The management approaches geared towards addressing these challenges are diverse. Given the myriad of possible approaches and the tendency to apply them in combination, successful management actions can be difficult to identify. Background climactic variability further complicates the story, making transfer of management lessons from one drought stressed region to another difficult. Here we use Melbourne, a city of 4.3 million people in South East Australia that recently faced and overcame a > 10 year "Millennium" drought, as a test case for evaluating the relative importance of various management-related and climactic factors in driving reductions in municipal water consumption (~60% in 12 years). Our analysis suggests that Melbourne's declining municipal consumption cannot be explained by potable substitution alone, as reductions in municipal consumption were not matched by increased use of alternative sources (e.g., urban rain or recycled water). Thus, water conservation behavior (not source switching) may be responsible for the majority of demand reduction in Melbourne. Interestingly, while voluntary or mandatory water restrictions appear to have substantially altered the rate of change of consumption near the end of Melbourne's Millennium drought (e.g., forcing a period of intense conservation), overall conservation behavior precedes these restrictions. This suggests that other rapidly implemented (and hither too unquantified) management approaches such as advertising or newspapers may have driven water conservation behavior early in the drought. Climatic factors, particularly precipitation may also have influenced conservation behavior; changes in precipitation were significantly positively correlated with changes in water consumption at a lag of 18 months. Similar

  4. Case study of building of conservation coalitions to conserve ecological interactions. (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Luo, Shihong; Mei, Nianshu; Shen, Dingfang; Sun, Weibang


    We engaged experts in various fields of study (pollination ecology, chemical ecology, and ethnobotany), invited community participation, and provided environmental education in an effort to conserve an endangered birthwort (Aristolochia delavayi) and a vulnerable pipevine swallowtail (Byasa daemonius). Scientists studied the uptake and sequestration of the secondary metabolites aristolochic acids from A. delavayi leaves by different stages of pipevine swallowtail as a defense mechanism; low fruit set of the myophilous A. delavayi due to pollinator limitation; and the emission of chemical signals that attract parasitic wasps by the prepupae of B. daemonius. The results of these studies were part of an education program delivered by personnel of non-governmental organizations. The program was devised to deliver information to the public about the health risks of consuming A. delavayi individuals (aristolochic-acid-associated cancers) and to establish a bridge between the public and scientific research. Following delivery of the program, the behavior of residents changed considerably. Community residents were involved in management activities, including participation in a program to promote understanding of ecological interactions between A. delavayi and B. daemonius; designing an in situ conservation site; monitoring A. delavayi and B. daemonius individuals; and promoting the natural fruit set of A. delavayi by scattering animal excrement to attract fly pollinators. The integration of scientific information and community participation appears to have resulted in an increase in abundance of threatened A. delavayi and B. daemonius populations. We believe the involvement of local people in conservation is necessary for successful species conservation. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Conserving water and preserving infrastructures between dictatorship and democracy in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Moss


    Full Text Available This paper sheds a long-term perspective on the politics of water infrastructure in 20th century Berlin, focusing on how water conservation became enrolled in the political agendas of very diverse regimes, from the Weimar Republic to the present day. The paper poses the following three questions: firstly, in what socio-technical and political contexts have strategies of water conservation emerged (and disappeared in Berlin? Secondly, what meanings have been attributed to these strategies and how were they politically appropriated? Thirdly, what continuities and changes to water-saving strategies can be traced across Berlin’s turbulent 20th century history? These questions are addressed with an empirical analysis of four periods of Berlin’s water infrastructure history: a an era of expansion (1920-1935 about harnessing (regional water for (urban prosperity, b an era of national autarky (1936-1945 about enrolling urban water in the Nazi cause, c an era of division (1948-1989 about reordering truncated water flows in divided West and East Berlin, and d an era of reunification (1990-present in which expansionism has confronted environmentalism, giving rise to contestation over the desirability of water conservation. This empirical analysis is framed conceptually in terms of a dialogue between notions of obdurate socio-technical systems and dynamic socio-material assemblages.

  6. Update of Market Assessment for Capturing Water Conservation Opportunities in the Federal Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcmordie, Katherine; Solana, Amy E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Parker, Graham B.


    This updated market assessment for capturing water conservation opportunities in the Federal sector is based on a new analytical approach that utilizes newly available data and technologies. The new approach fine-tunes the original assessment by using actual Federal water use, which is now tracked by DOE (as compared to using estimated water use). Federal building inventory data is also used to disseminate water use by end-use technology in the Federal sector. In addition, this analysis also examines the current issues and obstacles that face performance contracting of water efficiency projects at Federal sites.

  7. Optimal urban water conservation strategies considering embedded energy: coupling end-use and utility water-energy models. (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.


    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our

  8. Key techniques for evaluation of safety monitoring sensors in water conservancy and hydropower engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan XIANG


    Full Text Available For the evaluation of construction quality and the verification of the design of water conservancy and hydropower engineering projects, and especially for the control of dam safety operation behavior, safety monitoring sensors are employed in a majority of engineering projects. These sensors are used to monitor the project during the dam construction and operation periods, and play an important role in reservoir safety operation and producing benefits. With the changing of operating environments and run-time of projects, there are some factors affecting the operation and management of projects, such as a certain amount of damaged sensors and instability of the measured data. Therefore, it is urgent to evaluate existing safety monitoring sensors in water conservancy and hydropower engineering projects. However, there are neither standards nor evaluation guidelines at present. Based on engineering practice, this study examined some key techniques for the evaluation of safety monitoring sensors, including the evaluation process of the safety monitoring system, on-site detection methods of two typical pieces of equipment, the differential resistor sensor and vibrating wire sensor, the on-site detection methods of communication cable faults, and a validity test of the sensor measured data. These key techniques were applied in the Xiaolangdi Water Control Project and Xiaoxi Hydropower Project. The results show that the measured data of a majority of sensors are reliable and reasonable, and can reasonably reflect the structural change behavior in the project operating process, indicating that the availabilities of the safety monitoring sensors of the two projects are high.

  9. Effectiveness of a deep-water coral conservation area: Evaluation of its boundaries and changes in octocoral communities over 13 years (United States)

    Bennecke, Swaantje; Metaxas, Anna


    Over the past 15 years, multiple areas in the North Atlantic have been closed to destructive fishing practices to protect vulnerable deep-water coral ecosystems, known to provide habitat for diverse associated fauna. Despite the growing number of conservation measures, long-term studies on the recovery of deep-water coral communities from fisheries impacts remain scarce. In the Gulf of Maine, the Northeast Channel Coral Conservation Area (NECCCA)1

  10. Project Based Masters Dissertation Conservation Studies


    Sandtrø, Anja


    Plasticised PVC is known to have less longevity than certain other plastics in a museum environment. Pressure-sensitive adhesives are also not durable. In the object of study, Time Zero (1982) by the Norwegian-born artist Kjartan Slettemark, both are used. The first part of this study investigates the artistic context and the current condition of the plastic collage, and reflects upon common degradation patterns in PVC and pressure-sensitive adhesives. The second part of this project is devot...

  11. Geomorphic and Hydrological challenges in Africa: implications for soil and water conservation (United States)

    Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean


    Expected scenarios of climate change and population growth confront Africa with various important challenges related to food, water and energy security. Many of these challenges are closely linked to the impacts of soil erosion and other geomorphic processes, such as reduced crop yields, sedimentation of reservoirs and reduced freshwater quality. Despite the urgency and extent of many of these challenges, the causes and dynamics of these processes and their impacts remain severely understudied. This becomes apparent when the availability of e.g. soil erosion and catchment sediment export measurements for Africa is compared to that of other continents. Nonetheless, a substantial amount of geomorphic research has been conducted in Africa. Many of this work dates back from several decades ago, and were often only reported in 'gray literature' (e.g. internal reports). Here we present an overview of our current state of knowledge on soil erosion and its implications in Africa. We discuss which geomorphic process rate measurements are currently available and what can be learned from these with respect to the challenged raised above. We especially focus on our current understanding about the effectiveness of soil and water conservation techniques at various spatial and temporal scales. Based on specific case-studies (e.g. in Ethiopia and Uganda) and a meta-analysis of previous work, we highlight some research gaps, research needs and research opportunities when aiming to use Africa's soil and water resources sustainably and efficiently.

  12. Chilean central valley beekeeping as socially inclusive conservation practice in a social water scarcity context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Eduardo Trujillo Bilbao


    Full Text Available Through an ethnographic approach that complements conversations, tours and surveys of productive characterization is that the present study aims to approach the domestic beekeeping in the valley of Colliguay, Quilpué, fifth region of Chile. This is an activity that emerges as a result of deep transformations detonated by the neoliberalization of nature in general and water in particular. That is why it seeks to contextualize the situation of water scarcity that displaced livestock and put in place the bees. All of this through a political ecology lens. It is discussed how to achieve an anthropological reading of the ecological scenarios that denaturalize metabolic fractures in an area with a threatened presence of native forest. It is discovered that the outsider is the material and symbolic responsible of an increase in water stress and a key element in the social relations of confrontation of the valley. It is then related how bees have diverted the attention of their human counterparts to the affection and care of the forest that allows them to live, thus reinforcing the idea of a socially inclusive conservation.

  13. An integrated social and ecological modeling framework - impacts of agricultural conservation practices on water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Daloğlu


    Full Text Available We present a modeling framework that synthesizes social, economic, and ecological aspects of landscape change to evaluate how different agricultural policy and land tenure scenarios and land management preferences affect landscape pattern and downstream water quality. We linked a stylized agent-based model (ABM of farmers' conservation practice adoption decisions with a water quality model, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, to simulate the water quality effects of changing land tenure dynamics and different policies for crop revenue insurance in lieu of commodity payments over 41 years (1970-2010 for a predominantly agricultural watershed of Lake Erie. Results show that non-operator owner involvement in land management decisions yields the highest reduction in sediment and nutrient loads, and crop revenue insurance leads to more homogeneous farmer decisions and a slight increase in sediment and nutrient loads unless cross compliance with expanded conservation requirements is implemented.

  14. The Strategy of Water Resources Conservation in Regunung Village, Tengaran Subdistrict, Semarang District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Puatin


    Full Text Available Water resource conservation is a required activity to do in in Regunung Village, Tengaran Subdistrict, Semarang District because this area is potentially dried and has often experienced the lack of clean water even though the water resource conservation is vegetatively conducted. The resecarh is conducted from June to August 2014. The purpose of this research is to analyze the strategy of water resource conservation in Regunung Village by analyze the social-economy condition and physical condition. The method used to gain data is obeservation and direct measuring including vegetation analysis, the data analysis of the citra condition of the changing of the land; the crossed tabulation analysis and Marcov Chain for the projection of the cahinging of the land use; the technique of interview using questioners to know the participation of community; the secondary data analysis, FGD to determine the strategy of water resource conservation with SWOT analysis. The population of this research is the people of Regunung Village. Respondent is purposively determined by the number of respondent based on Slovin formula, while the FGD informant is purposively determined. The result of the research shows that the condition of Regunung Village is located at discharged area CAT Salatiga with the various level of elevation and the type of soil is latosol. The changing of the use of land happening since 1991 - 2014. The vegetation condition shows that the planting method used in Regunung Village is Agroforestry. The index of diversity for three in Regunung Village is at the low level (0,8. The result of the social-economy condition research shows that the majority people's income is less than Rp. 1.000.000,00 and the level of participation is on placation level. The Water Resource Conservation Strategy suggested is the diversification strategy.

  15. Farming methods impact on soil and water conservation efficiency under tea [Camellia sinensis (L.] plantation in Nilgiris of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruba Charan Sahoo


    Full Text Available Growing of tea on sloping land without any soil and water conservation measures causes enormous soil loss especially in the initial years. For sound soil and water conservation planning, there is a need to evaluate the various conservation measures as related to the amount of expected runoff and soil erosion. In this context, a field study was conducted in the farmer's field in Nilgiris of South India, for evaluating the impact of farming methods on soil and water conservation efficiency under new tea plantation. One year old B-6 tea clones were planted at double hedge spacing (135 cm×75 cm×75 cm in two slopes (8–12% and 30–35% with treatments viz., contour staggered trenches (CST, vegetative barrier (VB, CST alternate with VB, CST with cover crop of beans and farmers’ practice of plantation. Minimum runoff (14.6% was observed from CST with cover crop of beans followed by CST (15.4% under 8–12% slope range with exactly similar trend in runoff from the plots under 30–35% slope. Contrary to runoff, minimum soil loss was observed from CST (4.9 and 6.9 t ha−1 yr−1 followed by CST with cover crop of beans (5.3 and 7.3 t ha−1 yr−1 under 8–12% and 30–35% respectively. Implementation CST and CST with cover crop of beans are resulted in better soil moisture under both the slope ranges in comparison to remaining measures as well as farmers’ practice of plantation. Therefore, either CST alone or in combination with cover crop of beans are recommended for soil and water conservation under new tea plantation in the hill slopes.

  16. 21st century hydrological modeling for optimizing traditional soil and water conservation practices (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Jasmien; Garba, Maman; Sabiou, Mahaman; Al-Barri, Bashar; Cornelis, Wim


    In order to increase dryland productivity, soil and water conservation practices have received renewed attention, leading to their massive implementation in marginal drylands. However, versatile tools to evaluate their efficiency under a wide range of conditions are often lacking. This study focuses on semi-arid Niger, where as a result of growing population pressure and severe soil erosion, farmers increasingly rely on degraded lands for millet production. The adverse rainfall distribution and imbalanced rainfall partitioning over the rootzone of these degraded lands calls for sustainable land management strategies that are water resource efficient. We therefore evaluated the soil-water balance of promising Nigerien Water and Soil Conservation (WSC) techniques (i.e., zaï pits, demi-lune microcatchments and scarification with standing crop residue) and their impact on millet yield by means of an in-situ field experiment on degraded laterite soil classified as Plinthosol with a 1% slope. We also applied a fully coupled 3D surface-subsurface hydrological model based on the Richards' and the Saint Venant equations to further improve promising WSC techniques. All WSC practices received the same amount of fertilizer and were compared to two control practices, one with and one without fertilizer. Soil-water content was recorded with a neutron probe till 105 cm depth and runoff by means of a cemented gutter directing runoff water with a multi-pipe divisor into a collector drum. WSC techniques proved to significantly reduce runoff with overall runoff coefficients being reduced from 25% (control practice) to 5-10%. Consequently, significantly more water was stored inside the catchments of the zaï pits and demi-lunes. With the scarification treatment, no considerable differences in soil-water storage were found with the control. On the other hand, WSC practices had little impact on soil evaporation, which was only 12% of rainfall by the self-mulching soil. Crop

  17. Tillage for soil and water conservation in the semi-arid Tropics


    Hoogmoed, W.


    Soil tillage is the manipulation of soil which is generally considered as necessary to obtain optimum growth conditions for a crop. In the same time the resulting modification of soil structure has serious implications for the behaviour of the soil to erosive forces by water and wind. In Chapter 1 an introduction is given to the most important aspects: the objectives of tillage, the conflicting requirements set to tillage, the characteristics of soil and water conservation in the sem...

  18. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report (United States)


    and not considered sustainable. • HVAC condensate may not be practical in a semi - arid climate , where indoor air is mostly re-circulated, and HVAC...installations located in semi - arid regions where alternative water conservation measures are being pursued. 1.1 BACKGROUND DoD operates numerous...will provide more condensate water than those units that intake re-circulated indoor air. • Application in an extremely arid climate is limited to

  19. Conservation tillage systems and water productivity implications for smallholder farmers in semi-arid Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, M.L.


    Conservation tillage systems have been adopted by farmers in many countries to solve the problem of land degradation and declining water productivity. However, direct application of such tillage systems was not possible among resource poor smallholder farmers in semi arid areas of Ethiopia. Problems

  20. Modeling the effect of three soil and water conservation practices in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Meijerink, G.W.; Mosugu, M.E.


    Severe land degradation affects the livelihood of many farmers in the highlands of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Various soil and water conservation practices have been proposed to reduce land degradation and to improve the quality of the natural resource base but quantitative information on their

  1. Soil and Water Conservation in Semi-Arid Areas of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fied~ Foi'eXample;' in'1943; 'territorial regula- tions were made and 'enforc'ed to try to prevent ..... tion and land use planning have also been de- tined", but water is not mentioned in any .of tliem. Trus is a serious ... COlll)pil. Ministry of Agriculture. Soil Conservation and Land Use Planning. Unit. National Soil Service.

  2. Land management, erosion problems and soil and water conservation in Fincha'a watershed, western Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuayehu, T.; Sterk, G.


    The knowledge of soil erosion processes, attitude towards rational use of resources and institutional support affect the capability of farmers to implement soil and water conservation (SWC) measures. This research was conducted to determine soil erosion problems and the factors that affect the



    Johnson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Phillip N.; Segarra, Eduardo; Willis, David B.


    Three alternative groundwater conservation policies were examined for their impact on the regional economy of the Southern High Plains of Texas using nonlinear optimization models and an input-output model. Restriction of drawdown of the aquifer was found to be more effective than proposed water use fees.

  4. 77 FR 38795 - Dolores Water Conservancy District; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Dolores Water Conservancy District; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On May 10, 2012, Dolores... located on Plateau Creek, near the town of Dolores, Montezuma County, Colorado. The project affects...

  5. 77 FR 35377 - Dolores Water Conservancy District; Notice of Completing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Dolores Water Conservancy District; Notice of Completing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On May 10, 2012, Dolores... located on Plateau Creek, near the town of Dolores, Montezuma County, Colorado. The project affects...

  6. Development of Soil and Water Conservation in Last Several Decades in China (United States)

    Liu, Zhen


    China is one of the countries suffered from very severe soil erosion over the world. It has caused a series of environmental and economic problems, and hence attracted the attentions from the Chinese government in the last several decades. To make clear the real situations of soil erosion, four times national surveys for soil and water conservation have been conducted from 1985 to 2012, this provided the crucial information to develop measures to reduce soil loss. The Law of Soil and Water Conservation of People's Republic of China was promulgated in 1991 and revised in 2010. It together with the relative regulations and technical standards have played very important roles in controlling erosion caused by human activities. National key projects of soil and water conservation were put into effect across the country, numerous small watersheds located in different regions were well treated and protected, these both contributed to the ecological improvement greatly. Undoubtedly, after several decades' efforts in soil erosion control, remarkable progresses have been achieved in environment, economy, and public awareness. In the background of "Soil and water conservation is one of the basic state policies in China", in the following years, greater achievements must be obtained under the support of more investments from governments and companies, more advanced technologies from research institutes, and deeper awareness from all people.

  7. Participatory appraisal for farm-level soil and water conservation planning in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenge, A.J.M.


    Soil and water conservation (SWC) measures are needed to control soil erosion and sustain agricultural production on the steep slopes of Usambara Mountains. The need for SWC has resulted in the development and promotion of several SWC measures by both governmental and non-governmental programmes.

  8. The Effect of Strategic Message Selection on Residents' Intent to Conserve Water in the Landscape (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Rumble, Joy; Martin, Emmett; Lamm, Alexa J.; Cantrell, Randall


    Changing individuals' behaviors is a critical challenge for Extension professionals who encourage good irrigation practices and technologies for landscape water conservation. Multiple messages were used to influence two predictors of behavioral intent informed by the theory of planned behavior, Florida residents' (N = 1,063) attitude and perceived…

  9. The Impact of Soil and Water Conservation Program on the Income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land degradation due to soil erosion and nutrient depletion is one of the main problems constraining the development of the agricultural sector in Ethiopia. As part of intervention activities a number of soil and water conservation (SWC) practices have been promoted to smallholder farmers living in highly degraded and ...

  10. Every Drop Counts: Students Develop Public Service Announcements on the Importance of Water Conservation (United States)

    Stokes, Nina Christiane; Hull, Mary Margaret


    In today's fast-paced, technological world, it is a constant battle for teachers to find new and exciting ways to challenge and engage their students. One success story involves a unique collaborative project that focuses on water resources and conservation in which students design public service announcements (PSAs) to be produced and aired on…

  11. The Design and Development of a Simulation to Teach Water Conservation to Primary School Students (United States)

    Campbell, Lee


    Information and Communications Technology (ICT) plays a dominant role in enhancing teaching and learning. Similar advances have been made in the use of multimedia in the classroom. These advances are coupled with newer developmental tools and techniques. This paper examines the design and development of a simulation on water conservation. Science…

  12. Monitoring for impact: Evaluating 20 years of soil and water conservation in southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodnar, F.


    A soil and water conservation (SWC) project has been going on in southern Mali since 1986. Donor support was gradually withdrawn between 1998 and 2002, but no final evaluation was undertaken to learn lessons from this long-term and large-scale experience. The objective of this present research was

  13. Decisive key-factors influencing farm households' soil and water conservation investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, A.


    In the inter-Andean valleys of Bolivia decisive key-factors influencing farm households' soil and water conservation investments were determined. The household's progressiveness most influences the decision how much to invest; dynamic and responsible families are among the first. Economic stratum is

  14. Individual Water Purifier Study (United States)


    study participants (Appendix A) who contributed their time and expertise to the analysis described in this report. 5 Blank 6 CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ...and Weaknesses of Individual Devices ....................... 44 8 INDIVIDUAL WATER PURIFIER STUDY 1. INTRODUCTION This study was performed to evaluate...Data were gathered on each device and documented in a database. A Multi-Criteria Decision Model ( MCDM ) was developed, and a panel of experts assessed

  15. An Analytical Framework for Flood Water Conservation Considering Forecast Uncertainty and Acceptable Risk (United States)

    Ding, W.; Zhang, C.


    Reservoir water levels are usually not allowed to exceed the flood limited water level (FLWL) during flood season, which neglects the meteorological and real-time forecast information and leads to the great waste of water resources. With the development of weather forecasting, hydrologic modeling, and hydro-climatic teleconnection, the streamflow forecast precision have improved a lot, which provides the technical support for the flood water utilization. This paper addresses how much flood water can be conserved for use after the flood season through the operation of reservoir based on uncertain forecast information by taking into account the residual flood control capacity (the difference between flood conveyance capacity and the expected inflow in a lead time). A two-stage model for dynamic control of the flood limited water level (the maximum allowed water level during the flood season, DC-FLWL) is established considering forecast uncertainty and acceptable flood risk. It is found that DC-FLWL is applicable when the reservoir inflow ranges from small to medium levels of the historical records, while both forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk in the downstream affect the feasible space of DC-FLWL. As forecast uncertainty increases (under a given risk level) or as acceptable risk level decreases (under a given forecast uncertainty level), the minimum required safety margin for flood control increases, and the chance for DC-FLWL decreases. The derived hedging rules from the modeling framework illustrate either the dominant role of water conservation or flood control or the tradeoff between the two objectives under different levels of forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk. These rules may provide useful guidelines for conserving water from flood, especially in the area with heavy water stress.

  16. Quantifying the Effects of Conservation Practices on Soil, Water, and Nutrients in the Loess Mesa Ravine Region of the Loess Plateau, China (United States)

    Xu, Xiang-Zhou; Li, Mei-Juan; Liu, Bin; Kuang, Shang-Fu; Xu, Shi-Guo


    A large number of soil and water conservation programs have been implemented on the Loess Plateau of China since the 1950s. To comprehensively assess the merits and demerits of the conservation practices is of great importance in further supervising the conservation strategy for the Loess Plateau. This study calculates the impact factors of conservation practices on soil, water, and nutrients during the period 1954-2004 in the Nanxiaohegou Catchment, a representative catchment in the Loess Mesa Ravine Region of the Loess Plateau, China. Brief conclusions could be drawn as follows: (1) Soil erosion and nutrient loss had been greatly mitigated through various conservation practices. About half of the total transported water and 94.8 % of the total transported soil and nutrients, had been locally retained in the selected catchment. The soil retained from small watersheds do not only form large-scale fertile farmland but also safeguard the Yellow River against overflow. (2) Check dam was the most appropriate conservation practice on the Loess Plateau. In the selected catchment, more than 90 % of the retained soil and water were accomplished by the dam farmland, although the dam farmland occupied only 2.3 % of the total area of all conservation measures. Retention abilities of the characteristic conservation practices were in the following order: dam farmland > terrace farmland > forest land and grassland. (3) The conservation practices were more powerful in retaining sediment than in reducing runoff from the Loess Plateau, and the negative effects of the conservation practices on reducing water to the Yellow River were relatively slight.

  17. Case studies of conservation plans that incorporate geodiversity. (United States)

    Anderson, M G; Comer, P J; Beier, P; Lawler, J J; Schloss, C A; Buttrick, S; Albano, C M; Faith, D P


    Geodiversity has been used as a surrogate for biodiversity when species locations are unknown, and this utility can be extended to situations where species locations are in flux. Recently, scientists have designed conservation networks that aim to explicitly represent the range of geophysical environments, identifying a network of physical stages that could sustain biodiversity while allowing for change in species composition in response to climate change. Because there is no standard approach to designing such networks, we compiled 8 case studies illustrating a variety of ways scientists have approached the challenge. These studies show how geodiversity has been partitioned and used to develop site portfolios and connectivity designs; how geodiversity-based portfolios compare with those derived from species and communities; and how the selection and combination of variables influences the results. Collectively, they suggest 4 key steps when using geodiversity to augment traditional biodiversity-based conservation planning: create land units from species-relevant variables combined in an ecologically meaningful way; represent land units in a logical spatial configuration and integrate with species locations when possible; apply selection criteria to individual sites to ensure they are appropriate for conservation; and develop connectivity among sites to maintain movements and processes. With these considerations, conservationists can design more effective site portfolios to ensure the lasting conservation of biodiversity under a changing climate. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Comparison of conservation metrics in a case study of lemurs. (United States)

    Gudde, Renske; Venditti, Chris


    Conservation planning is important to protect species from going extinct now that natural habitats are decreasing owing to human activity and climate change. However, there is considerable controversy in choosing appropriate metrics to weigh the value of species and geographic regions. For example, the added value of phylogenetic conservation-selection criteria remains disputed because high correlations between them and the nonphylogenetic criteria of species richness have been reported. We evaluated the commonly used conservation metrics species richness, endemism, phylogenetic diversity (PD), and phylogenetic endemism (PE) in a case study on lemurs of Madagascar. This enabled us to identify the conservation target of each metric and consider how they may be used in future conservation planning. We also devised a novel metric that uses a phylogeny scaled according to the rate of phenotypic evolution as a proxy for a species' ability to adapt to change. High rates of evolution may indicate generalization or specialization. Both specialization and low rates of evolution may result in an inability to adapt to changing environments. We examined conservation priorities by using the inverse of the rate of body mass evolution to account for species with low rates of evolution. In line with previous work, we found high correlations among species richness and PD (r = 0.96), and endemism and PE (r = 0.82) in Malagasy lemurs. Phylogenetic endemism in combination with rates of evolution and their inverse prioritized grid cells containing highly endemic and specialized lemurs at risk of extinction, such as Avahi occidentalis and Lepilemur edwardsi, 2 endangered lemurs with high rates of phenotypic evolution and low-quality diets, and Hapalemur aureus, a critically endangered species with a low rate of body mass evolution and a diet consisting of very high doses of cyanide. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Effort to Increase Oil Palm Production through Application Technique of Soil and Water Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Murtilaksono


    Full Text Available The study was carried out at block 375, 415, and 414 (block 1, 2, and 3 Afdeling III, Mangement Unit of Rejosari, PT Perkebunan Nusantara VII, Lampung from June 2005 until December 2007. Objective of the study is to examine the effect of soil and water conservation measurement, namely bund terrace and silt pit that are combined with retarded-water hole on production of oil palm. Sampled trees of each block were randomly selected as much as 36 trees. Parameters of vegetative growth (additional new frond, total of frond, number of new bunch, production (number of bunch, fresh fruit bunch (TBS, and average of bunch weigh (RBT were observed and recorded every two weeks. Production of palm oil of each block was also recorded every harvesting schedule of Afdeling. Tabular data were analyzed descriptively by logical comparison among the blocks as result of application of bund terrace and silt pit. Although the data of sampled trees were erratic, bund terrace and silt pit generally increasing number of frond, number of bunch, average of bunch weight, and fresh fruit bunch. Bund terrace gived the highest production of TBS (25.2 t ha-1 compared to silt pit application (23.6 t ha-1, and it has better effect on TBS than block control (20.8 t ha-1. Aside from that, RBT is the highest (21 kg at bund terrace block compared to silt pit block (20 kg and control block (19 kg.

  20. Designing climate-smart conservation: guidance and case studies. (United States)

    Hansen, Lara; Hoffman, Jennifer; Drews, Carlos; Mielbrecht, Eric


    To be successful, conservation practitioners and resource managers must fully integrate the effects of climate change into all planning projects. Some conservation practitioners are beginning to develop, test, and implement new approaches that are designed to deal with climate change. We devised four basic tenets that are essential in climate-change adaptation for conservation: protect adequate and appropriate space, reduce nonclimate stresses, use adaptive management to implement and test climate-change adaptation strategies, and work to reduce the rate and extent of climate change to reduce overall risk. To illustrate how this approach applies in the real world, we explored case studies of coral reefs in the Florida Keys; mangrove forests in Fiji, Tanzania, and Cameroon; sea-level rise and sea turtles in the Caribbean; tigers in the Sundarbans of India; and national planning in Madagascar. Through implementation of these tenets conservation efforts in each of these regions can be made more robust in the face of climate change. Although these approaches require reconsidering some traditional approaches to conservation, this new paradigm is technologically, economically, and intellectually feasible.

  1. Soil and water conservation for sustainable land management: where do we stand ? (United States)

    Govers, Gerard


    Although soil and water conservation efforts date back to the 1930's in the USA, the implementation of appropriate conservation measures and land management strategies is still lagging in many areas in the world. The reasons for this are, without any doubt, manifold and range from an inadequate understanding of the problem, over the insufficient understanding of the effectiveness of measures and a lack of insight into the benefits of sustainable strategies, to an lack of sensitivity for the impact of certain strategies on local social and economic systems. In this paper we will not attempt to present a general overview of the state of knowledge in this wide domain, but rather focus on the identification of major bottlenecks that impede or slow down the application of sustainable conservation technology, whereby we will focus on soil degradation as a main problem. Moving towards more sustainable soil conservation and land management strategies requires progress on the following issues: - We need accurate data on the extent of problems of land degradation It may sound surprising that several decades of research have not delivered those data, but recent research conclusively shows that, for many areas, our estimates of erosion rates are far off and sometimes our perception is plain wrong. This has detrimental consequences as funds are inefficiently used and, on the long term, stakeholders will invariably lose interest. Various strategies may be used to improve the quality of the data that we used. - We need good insight in the effectiveness of different measures. A major issue here is the scale of assessment: the classical tools used to assess the effectiveness of measures are sometimes not suitable and may lead to both underestimation and overestimation of effectiveness. Furthermore, perceptions of effectiveness may have been shaped by experiences that are decades old, while agricultural technology has moved on. - We need a correct assessments of the co-benefits we

  2. θ-improved limited tolerance relation model of incomplete information system for evaluation of water conservancy project management modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-qin GAO


    Full Text Available The modernization of water conservancy project management is a complicated engineering system involving a management system, a management method, management personnel, the exertion of social, economic, and ecological effects, and so on. However, indices for evaluating the modernization of water conservancy project management are usually unobtainable in practical applications. Conducting appropriate extension of the classical rough set theory and then applying it to an incomplete information system are the key to the application of the rough set theory. Based on analysis of some extended rough set models in incomplete information systems, a rough set model based on the θ-improved limited tolerance relation is put forward. At the same time, upper approximation and lower approximation are defined under this improved relation. According to the evaluation index system and management practices, the threshold for θ is defined. An example study indicates the practicability and maneuverability of the model.

  3. Conglobation in the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a water conservation mechanism. (United States)

    Smigel, Jacob T; Gibbs, Allen G


    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 +/- 1 degrees C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation.

  4. Conservation markets for wildlife management with case studies from whaling. (United States)

    Gerber, Leah R; Costello, Christopher; Gaines, Steven D


    Although market-based incentives have helped resolve many environmental challenges, conservation markets still play a relatively minor role in wildlife management. Establishing property rights for environmental goods and allowing trade between resource extractors and resource conservationists may offer a path forward in conserving charismatic species like whales, wolves, turtles, and sharks. In this paper, we provide a conceptual model for implementing a conservation market for wildlife and evaluate how such a market could be applied to three case studies for whales (minke [Balaenoptera acutorostrata], bowhead [Balaena mysticetus], and gray [Eschrictius robustus]). We show that, if designed and operated properly, such a market could ensure persistence of imperiled populations, while simultaneously improving the welfare of resource harvesters.

  5. [Challenges and countermeasures for water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control in China in new era]. (United States)

    Jia-Sheng, Wang; Jin-You, Lu; Feng-Yang, Min; Kong-Xian, Zhu


    The spread of schistosomiasis seriously threaten the health of people and hinder the economic and social development in China. The water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control effectively controlled the spread of schistosomiasis by controlling the spread of Oncomelania hupensis , the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum . This paper reviews the evolution of the strategy of schistosomiasis prevention and control in China and points out the historical role of water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control. Furthermore, this article analyzes the problems and challenges of water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control in the new period. In response to the challenges, the new strategy of water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control is put forward, including: developing the research of the new strategy of water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control, enhancing the research of water conservancy technology combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control, improving the efficiency and applicability of water conservancy projects combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control, strengthening the guidance of water conservancy technology combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control, and perfecting the evaluation system.

  6. Conservation practice establishment in two northeast Iowa watersheds: Strategies, water quality implications, and lessons learned (United States)

    Gassman, P.W.; Tisl, J.A.; Palas, E.A.; Fields, C.L.; Isenhart, T.M.; Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.; Seigley, L.S.; Helmers, M.J.


    Coldwater trout streams are important natural resources in northeast Iowa. Extensive efforts have been made by state and federal agencies to protect and improve water quality in northeast Iowa streams that include Sny Magill Creek and Bloody Run Creek, which are located in Clayton County. A series of three water quality projects were implemented in Sny Magill Creek watershed during 1988 to 1999, which were supported by multiple agencies and focused on best management practice (BMP) adoption. Water quality monitoring was performed during 1992 to 2001 to assess the impact of these installed BMPs in the Sny Magill Creek watershed using a paired watershed approach, where the Bloody Run Creek watershed served as the control. Conservation practice adoption still occurred in the Bloody Run Creek watershed during the 10-year monitoring project and accelerated after the project ended, when a multiagency supported water quality project was implemented during 2002 to 2007. Statistical analysis of the paired watershed results using a pre/post model indicated that discharge increased 8% in Sny Magill Creek watershed relative to the Bloody Run Creek watershed, turbidity declined 41%, total suspended sediment declined 7%, and NOx-N (nitrate-nitrogen plus nitrite-nitrogen) increased 15%. Similar results were obtained with a gradual change statistical model.The weak sediment reductions and increased NOx-N levels were both unexpected and indicate that dynamics between adopted BMPs and stream systems need to be better understood. Fish surveys indicate that conditions for supporting trout fisheries have improved in both streams. Important lessons to be taken from the overall study include (1) committed project coordinators, agency collaborators, and landowners/producers are all needed for successful water quality projects; (2) smaller watershed areas should be used in paired studies; (3) reductions in stream discharge may be required in these systems in order for significant sediment

  7. Ethnobotanical study and conservation status of local medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plants are important sources of medicines. Herbal medicines in Lesotho are exposed to excessive exploitation and habitat destruction. Comprehensive information to promote proper use and conservation of these herbal medicines is lacking. This study described the uses of medicinal plants in Lesotho with ...

  8. A case study of culturally appropriate conservation education (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Michele. Schermann


    Create culturally appropriate conservation education materials for Hmong Americans, including new refugees and elders with little proficiency in English, as well as the broader, multigenerational Hmong community. This case study discusses an organizational response from the USDA Forest Service, in partnership with others, to better serve the Hmong American community....

  9. Suiformes conservation: a study case of strategies for DNA utilization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Oliveira-Monteiro N., Lopes-Rodrigues V., Bastos E. and Guedes-Pinto H. 2013 Suiformes conservation: a study case of strategies for DNA utilization. J. Genet. 92, e49–e52. ... WGA technology (Barker et al. 2004; Bergen et al. 2005 ..... unprocessed food by PCR amplification of a new specific DNA fragment. J. Anim. Sci.

  10. Household Welfare, Investment in Soil and Water Conservation and Tenure Security: Evidence from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabubo-Mariara, J.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Kruseman, G.; Atieno, R.; Mwabu, G.


    In Kenya, conservation and sustainable utilization of the environment and natural resources form an integral part of national planning and poverty reduction efforts. However, weak environmental management practices are a major impediment to agricultural productivity growth. This study was motivated

  11. Economic Aspects of Urban Water Supply: Some Reflections on Water Conservation Policies


    Hanke, S.H.


    Water supply planning has traditionally been carried out in two steps: first, water requirements are forecast; and second, water systems are planned to meet these requirements. This traditional approach served water planners well until the 1960's. Then costs began to increase dramatically but regulators failed to allow revenues to increase as rapidly. As a result, the traditional approach to water supply planning became inadequate. To reduce costs and reduce waste, planners began to consider ...

  12. Conservation agriculture increases soil organic carbon and residual water content in upland crop production systems


    Ella, Victor B.; Reyes, Manuel R.; Mercado, Jr., Agustin; Adrian, Ares; Padre, Rafael


    Conservation agriculture involves minimum soil disturbance, continuous ground cover, and diversified crop rotations or mixtures. Conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS) have the potential to improve soil quality if appropriate cropping systems are developed. In this study, five CAPS including different cropping patterns and cover crops under two fertility levels, and a plow-based system as control, were studied in a typical upland agricultural area in northern Mindanao in the Phil...

  13. Private landowners and environmental conservation: a case study of social-psychological determinants of conservation program participation in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Drescher


    Full Text Available Preservation of biodiversity and continued provision of ecosystem services increasingly relies on environmental conservation on private lands. Despite a multitude of past studies, our knowledge of the motives, opportunities, and challenges of private land conservation, especially on nonworking lands, where financial incentives are less relevant, remains incomplete. A key reason is that a variety of theoretical approaches, resulting in diverging study results, have been used to investigate private land conservation. To help remedy this problem, the current study rigorously examined several established social-psychological determinants of proenvironmental behaviors and developed a comprehensive model, which merged elements from previous studies, to investigate landowner participation in a government-sponsored private land conservation program for nonworking lands. The results are based on analysis of a mailed survey of 800 program-eligible landowners. Contrasting program participants with nonparticipants, we elicited information such as about values, worldviews, socio-demographic characteristics, and property attributes that led landowners to participate in this conservation program. The results of our study illustrate the complex relationships among values, worldviews, norms, attitudes, and behaviors emphasizing the importance of proenvironmental worldviews and of formal education for increasing the likelihood of enrollment in this government-sponsored private land conservation program. Against expectation, neither personal norms, household income, political leaning, nor the size of the eligible property area were found to be important in directly determining the decision to enroll in this conservation program. However, an association of political leaning with stated personal obligation for private land conservation was found. Our results highlight the relationship between formal education and achievement of private land conservation goals

  14. Spatial conservation prioritization for mobile top predators in French waters: Comparing encounter rates and predicted densities as input (United States)

    Delavenne, J.; Lepareur, F.; Witté, I.; Touroult, J.; Lambert, C.; Pettex, E.; Virgili, A.; Siblet, J.-P.


    EU member states have to develop their Natura 2000 networks in their national waters to fulfill their conservation obligations regarding species and habitats listed in the Birds and Habitats directives. In France, a coastal network of Natura 2000 areas exists since 2008 but it had to be completed in offshore waters for some marine megafauna species. The SAMM aerial surveys (Aerial Census of Marine Megafauna) which occurred in winter 2011 and summer 2011-2012 over a large area comprising the whole metropolitan French Economic Exclusive Zone produced sighting data for species listed in the Birds and Habitats directives. These data produced different types of species distribution data: encounter rates and predicted densities by kriging and habitat modelling. Using these species distribution data, the aim of the present study was to compare these different types of inputs in the same conservation prioritization process to complete the existing Natura 2000 network in French waters. We ran prioritization analyses using the encounter rates only (scenario 1) then using the predicted densities provided by kriging and habitat modelling (scenario 2). We then compared the outputs of the two prioritization processes. The prioritization outputs were different but not in contradiction, with similar areas appearing as important to reach the conservation targets. Habitat models were thought to provide better pictures of seasonal species distributions and informed scientists about the phenology and ecology of species. However, the use of encounter rates as input data for the prioritization process in the Natura 2000 program is acceptable provided that sufficient survey effort is available.

  15. Energy conserving site design case study: Shenandoah, Georgia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The case study examines the means by which energy conservation can be achieved at an aggregate community level by using proper planning and analytical techniques for a new town, Shenandoah, Georgia, located twenty-five miles southwest of Atlanta's Hartsfield International Airport. A potentially implementable energy conservation community plan is achieved by a study team examining the land use options, siting characteristics of each building type, alternate infrastructure plans, possible decentralized energy options, and central utility schemes to determine how community energy conservation can be achieved by use of pre-construction planning. The concept for the development of mixed land uses as a passively sited, energy conserving community is based on a plan (Level 1 Plan) that uses the natural site characteristics, maximizes on passive energy siting requirement, and allows flexibility for the changing needs of the developers. The Level 2 Plan is identical with Level 1 plan plus a series of decentraized systems that have been added to the residential units: the single-family detached, the apartments, and the townhouses. Level 3 Plan is similar to the Level 1 Plan except that higher density dwellings have been moved to areas adjacent to central site. The total energy savings for each plan relative to the conventional plan are indicated. (MCW)

  16. New findings and setting the research agenda for soil and water conservation for sustainable land management (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Argaman, Eli; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Quinton, John


    The session on soil and water conservation for sustainable land management provides insights into the current research producing viable measures for sustainable land management and enhancing the lands role as provider of ecosystem services. The insights into degradation processes are essential for designing and implementing feasible measures to mitigate against degradation of the land resource and adapt to the changing environment. Land degradation occurs due to multiple pressures on the land, such as population growth, land-use and land-cover changes, climate change and over exploitation of resources, often resulting in soil erosion due to water and wind, which occurs in many parts of the world. Understanding the processes of soil erosion by wind and water and the social and economic constraints faced by farmers forms an essential component of integrated land development projects. Soil and water conservation measures are only viable and sustainable if local environmental and socio-economic conditions are taken into account and proper enabling conditions and policies can be achieved. Land degradation increasingly occurs because land use, and farming systems are subject to rapid environmental and socio-economic changes without implementation of appropriate soil and water conservation technologies. Land use and its management are thus inextricably bound up with development; farmers must adapt in order to sustain the quality of their, and their families, lives. In broader perspective, soil and water conservation is needed as regulating ecosystem service and as a tool to enhance food security and biodiversity. Since land degradation occurs in many parts of the world and threatens food production and environmental stability it affects those countries with poorer soils and resilience in the agriculture sector first. Often these are the least developed countries. Therefore the work from researchers from developing countries together with knowledge from other disciplines

  17. Measuring, understanding and implementing (or at least trying) soil and water conservation in agricultural areas in Mediterranean conditions (United States)

    Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Burguet, María; Castillo, Carlos; de Luna, Elena; Guzmán, Gema; Lora, Ángel; Lorite, Ignacio; Mora, José; Pérez, Rafael; Soriano, María A.; Taguas, Encarnación V.


    Understanding soil erosion processes is the first step for designing and implementing effective soil conservation strategies. In agricultural areas, spatially in arid and semiarid conditions, water conservation is interlinked with soil conservation, and usually need to be addressed simultaneously to achieve success in their use by farmers. This is so for different reasons, but usually because some reduction in runoff is required to prevent soil erosion or to the need to design soil conservation systems that do maintain a favourable water balance for the crop to prevent yield reductions. The team presenting this communication works around both issues in Southern Spain, interconnecting several lines of research with the final objective of contribute to reverse some severe issues relating soil conservation in agricultural areas, mostly on tree crops (olives and vineyards). One of these lines is long-term experiments measuring, runoff and sediment losses at plot and small catchment scale. In these experiments we test the effect of different soil management alternatives on soil and water conservation. We also measured the evolution of soil properties and, in some cases, the evolution of soil moisture as well as nutrient and carbon losses with runoff and sediment. We also tests in these experiments new cover crops, from species better adapted to the rainfall regime of the region to mixes with several species to increase biodiversity. We complement these studies with surveys of soil properties in commercial farms. I some of these farms we follow the introduction by farmers of the cover crop strategies previously developed in our experimental fields. These data are invaluable to elaborate, calibrate and validate different runoff generation, water balance, and water erosion models and hillslope and small catchment scale. This allows us to elaborate regional analysis of the effect of different strategies to soil and water conservation in olive growing areas, and to refine

  18. Effects of Soil and Water Conservation Measures on Groundwater Levels and Recharge


    Hong Wang; Jianen Gao; Xinghua Li; Hongjie Wang; Yuanxing Zhang


    Measures of soil and water conservation (SWC) could affect the hydrological process. The impacts of typical measures on groundwater recharge, levels and flow were analyzed based on simulated rainfall experiments and a groundwater model. The three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) was calibrated and verified for bare slope, grassland and straw mulching scenarios based on the experiments. The results of the verification in groundwater balance, levels, runoff and fl...

  19. Generalized energy and potential enstrophy conserving finite difference schemes for the shallow water equations (United States)

    Abramopoulos, Frank


    The conditions under which finite difference schemes for the shallow water equations can conserve both total energy and potential enstrophy are considered. A method of deriving such schemes using operator formalism is developed. Several such schemes are derived for the A-, B- and C-grids. The derived schemes include second-order schemes and pseudo-fourth-order schemes. The simplest B-grid pseudo-fourth-order schemes are presented.

  20. Surface water ponding on clayey soils managed by conventional and conservation tillage in boreal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Surface water ponding and crop hampering due to soil wetness was monitored in order to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage practices and perennial grass cover on soil infiltrability for five years in situ in gently sloping clayey fields. Thirteen experimental areas, each having three experimental fields, were established in southern Finland. The fields belonged to: autumn mouldboard ploughing (AP, conservation tillage (CT and perennial grass in the crop rotation (PG. In the third year, direct drilled (DD fields were established in five areas. Excluding PG, mainly spring cereals were grown in the fields. Location and surface area of ponded water (in the spring and autumn as well as hampered crop growth (during June-July were determined in each field by using GPS devices and GIS programs. Surface water ponding or crop hampering occurred when the amount of rainfall was clearly greater than the long-term average. The mean of the relative area of the ponded surface water, indicating the risk of surface runoff, and hampered crop growth was larger in the CT fields than in the AP fields. The differences between means were, however, not statistically significant. Complementary soil physical measurements are required to investigate the reasons for the repeated surface water ponding.;

  1. Water balance and soil losses in an irrigated catchment under conservation tillage in Southern Spain (United States)

    Cid, Patricio; Mateos, Luciano; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez-Macpherson, Helena


    Conservation tillage based on permanent beds with crop-residue retention and controlled traffic has been recently introduced in irrigated annual crops in Southern Spain as one way to improve water infiltration, reduce soil losses, and save energy. The water balance and soil losses in water runoff have been monitored during 4 years in a 28-ha catchment within a production farm where this kind of soil conservation practice was established in 2004 for a maize-cotton-wheat rotation. The catchment average slope is 6 %. Soils are Typic Calcixerept and Typic Haploxerert. The water balance components that were measured include: applied irrigation water, rainfall, and runoff. Runoff was measured at the outlet of the catchment by means of a hydrological station that consisted of long-throated flume, ultrasonic water level sensor, automatic water sampler, data logger and transmission system, weather station, and ancillary equipment. We present here results from three hydrological seasons (October to September): 2009-10, 2010-11, and 2011-12. The first season the catchment was grown with wheat, thus the irrigation depth was small (25 mm); rainfall above average, 1103 mm; and the runoff coefficient was 26 %. In the season 2010-11, the catchment was grown with cotton, the irrigation depth was 503 mm, rainfall was 999 mm, and the seasonal runoff coefficient was 7 %. The last season, the crop was maize, rainfall was below average (368 mm), irrigation 590 mm, and the runoff coefficient as the previous year, 7 %. Soil losses were very small: 0.05, 1.26, and 1.33 t per ha and year, the first, second, and third monitored seasons, respectively. A simple water balance model allowed simulating evapotranspiration, deep percolation and runoff. The Curve Number for the catchment was calibrated using the balance model.

  2. Watershed prioritization in the upper Han River basin for soil and water conservation in the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (middle route) of China. (United States)

    Wu, Haibing


    Watershed prioritization with the objective of identifying critical areas to undertake soil and water conservation measures was conducted in the upper Han River basin, the water source area of approximately 95,000 km2 for the middle route of China's South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Based on the estimated soil erosion intensity in uplands and clustering analysis of measured nutrient concentrations in rivers, the basin was grouped into very-high-, high-, moderate-, and low-priority regions for water and soil conservation, respectively. The results indicated that soil erosion was primarily controlled by topography, and nutrients in rivers were associated with land use and land cover in uplands. Also, there was large spatial disparity between soil erosion intensity in the uplands and nutrient concentrations in the rivers across the basin. Analysis was then performed to prioritize the basin by the integration of the soil erosion intensity and water quality on a GIS platform in order to identify critical areas for water and soil conservation in the basin. The identified high-priority regions which occupy 5.74% of the drainage areas need immediate attention for soil and water conservation treatments, of which 5.28% is critical for soil erosion prevention and 0.46% for water conservation. Understandings of the basin environment and pollutant loading with spatial explicit are critical to the soil and water resource conservation for the interbasin water transfer project.

  3. Dynamic sediment discharge in the Hekou-Longmen region of Yellow River and soil and water conservation implications. (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Deng, Jingcheng; Chai, Xueke; Mu, Xingmin; Zhao, Guangju; Shao, Hongbo; Sun, Wenyi


    The middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin transport the vast majority of sediment (>85% of the basin's total available sediment load), which has had profound effects on the characteristics of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. Since the late 1950s, soil and water conservation measures have been extensively implemented in the Loess Plateau, China, especially since the 1970s. This has resulted in sediment discharge changing significantly. In this study, data from 22 catchments in the region of the Loess Plateau from Hekou to Longmen in the middle reaches of the Yellow River were analyzed to investigate the responses of the sediment regime to climate change and human activities. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and the Pettitt test were used to identify trends and shifts in sediment discharge. All 22 catchments had a significantly decreasing trend (Pwater conservation and environmental rehabilitation campaigns, have played a more prominent role in the changes in sediment regimes. In order to reduce soil erosion and sediment yield, more attention should be paid to proper and rational soil and water conservation and eco-restoration in this region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristics of water erosion and conservation practice in arid regions of Central Asia: Xinjiang Province, China as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentai Zhang


    Full Text Available Located in the inland arid area of Central Asia and northwest China, Xinjiang has recently received heightened concerns over soil water erosion, which is highly related with the sustainable utilization of barren soil and limited water resources. Data from the national soil erosion survey of China (1985–2011 and Xinjiang statistical yearbook (2000–2010 was used to analyze the trend, intensity, and serious soil water erosion regions. Results showed that the water erosion area in Xinjiang was 87.6×103 km2 in 2011, mainly distributed in the Ili river valley and the northern and southern Tian Mountain. Soil erosion gradient was generally slight and the average erosion modulus was 2184 t/(km2 a. During the last 26 years, the water erosion area in Xinjiang decreased by 23.2%, whereas the intensity was still increasing. The driving factors from large to small impact included: population boom and human activities>vegetation degradation>rainfall and climate change>topography and soil erodibility>tectonics movement. Soil water erosion resulted in eco-environmental and socioeconomic losses, such as destroying farmland and grassland, triggering floods, sedimentation of reservoirs, damaging transportation and irrigation facilities, and aggravating poverty. A landscape ecological design approach is suggested for integrated control of soil erosion. Currently, an average of 2.07×103 km2 of formerly eroded area is conserved each year. This study highlighted the importance and longevity of soil and water conservation efforts in Xinjiang, and offered some suggestions on ecological restoration and combating desertification in arid regions of Central Asia.

  5. Water ponding and catchment runoff as influenced by conservation agriculture in May Zeg-zeg (Ethiopia) (United States)

    Lanckriet, Sil; Nyssen, Jan; Araya, Tesfay; Poesen, Jean; Govaerts, Bram; Bauer, Hans; Deckers, Jozef; Haile, Mitiku; Verfaillie, Els; Cornelis, Wim M.


    This study evaluates the practice of conservation agriculture (CA) in the May Zeg-zeg catchment (MZZ; 187 ha) in the North Ethiopian Highlands as a soil management technique for reducing soil loss and runoff, and assesses the consequences of future large-scale implementation on soil and hydrology at catchment-level. The study of such practice is important especially under conditions of climate change, since EdGCM (Educational Global Climate Model) simulation predicts by 2040 an increase in precipitation by more than 100 mm yr-1 in the study area. Firstly, field-saturated infiltration rates, together with soil texture and soil organic carbon contents, were measured. Relation with local topography allows to generate a pedotransfer function for field-saturated infiltration rate, and spatial interpolation with Linear Regression Mapping was used to map field-saturated infiltration rates optimally within the catchment. Secondly, on several farmlands, CA was checked against Plain Tillage (PT) for values of field-saturated infiltration rates, soil organic carbon, runoff and soil loss. Results show no significant differences for infiltration rates but significant differences for runoff and soil loss (as measured in the period 2005-2011). Runoff coefficients were 30.4% for PT and 18.8% for CA; soil losses were 35.4 t ha-1 yr-1 for PT and 14.4 t ha-1 yr-1 for CA. Thirdly, all collected information was used to predict future catchment hydrological response for full-implementation of CA under the predicted wetter climate (simulation with EdGCM). Curve Numbers for farmlands with CA were calculated. An area-weighted Curve Number allows the simulation of the 2011 rainy season runoff, predicting a total runoff depth of 23.5 mm under CA and 27.9 mm under PT. Furthermore, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation management factor P was calibrated for CA. Results also show the important influence of increased surface roughness on water ponding, modeled with a hydrologic conservation

  6. Save water or save wildlife? Water use and conservation in the central Sierran foothill oak woodlands of California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Huntsinger


    Full Text Available More frequent drought is projected for California. As water supplies constrict, and urban growth and out-migration spread to rural areas, trade-offs in water use for agriculture, biodiversity conservation, fire hazard reduction, residential development, and quality of life will be exacerbated. The California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus, state listed as "Threatened," depends on leaks from antiquated irrigation district irrigation systems for much of its remnant small wetland habitat in the north central Sierra Nevada foothills. Residents of the 1295 km² foothill habitat distribution of the Black Rail were surveyed about water use. Results show that the most Black Rail habitat is owned by those purchasing water to irrigate pasture, a use that commonly creates wetlands from leaks and tailwater. Promoting wildlife, agricultural production, and preventing wildfire are common resident goals that call for abundant and inexpensive water; social and economic pressures encourage reduction in water use and the repair of leaks that benefit wildlife and greenery. Broad inflexible state interventions to curtail water use are likely to create a multitude of unintended consequences, including loss of biodiversity and environmental quality, and alienation of residents as valued ecosystem services literally dry up. Adaptive and proactive policies are needed that consider the linkages in the social-ecological system, are sensitive to local conditions, prevent landscape dewatering, and recognize the beneficial use of water to support ecosystem services such as wildlife habitat. Much Black Rail habitat is anthropogenic, created at the nexus of local governance, plentiful water, agricultural practices, historical events, and changing land uses. This history should be recognized and leveraged rather than ignored in a rush to "save" water by unraveling the social-ecological system that created the landscape. Policy and governance needs to identify

  7. A System Dynamics Model to Conserve Arid Region Water Resources through Aquifer Storage and Recovery in Conjunction with a Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Niazi


    Full Text Available Groundwater depletion poses a significant threat in arid and semi-arid areas where rivers are usually ephemeral and groundwater is the major source of water. The present study investigated whether an effective water resources management strategy, capable of minimizing evaporative water losses and groundwater depletion while providing water for expanded agricultural activities, can be achieved through aquifer storage and recovery (ASR implemented in conjunction with water storage in an ephemeral river. A regional development modeling framework, including both ASR and a dam design developed through system dynamics modeling, was validated using a case study for the Sirik region of Iran. The system dynamics model of groundwater flow and the comprehensive system dynamics model developed in this study showed that ASR was a beneficial strategy for the region’s farmers and the groundwater system, since the rate of groundwater depletion declined significantly (from 14.5 meters per 40 years to three meters over the same period. Furthermore, evaporation from the reservoir decreased by 50 million cubic meters over the simulation period. It was concluded that the proposed system dynamics model is an effective tool in helping to conserve water resources and reduce depletion in arid regions and semi-arid areas.

  8. 78 FR 35951 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the City of Santa Cruz Graham Hill Water... (United States)


    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the City of Santa Cruz Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant, Santa Cruz County, California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... and conservation measures for the federally endangered Ben Lomond spineflower (Chorizanthe pungens var...

  9. A conserved water-mediated hydrogen bond network defines bosutinib’s kinase selectivity (United States)

    Levinson, Nicholas M.; Boxer, Steven G.


    Kinase inhibitors are important cancer drugs, but they tend to display limited target specificity, and their target profiles are often challenging to rationalize in terms of molecular mechanism. Here we report that the clinical kinase inhibitor bosutinib recognizes its kinase targets by engaging a pair of conserved structured water molecules in the active site, and that many other kinase inhibitors share a similar recognition mechanism. Using the nitrile group of bosutinib as an infrared probe, we show that the gatekeeper residue and one other position in the ATP-binding site control access of the drug to the structured water molecules, and that the amino acids found at these positions account for the kinome-wide target spectrum of the drug. Our work highlights the importance of structured water molecules for inhibitor recognition, reveals a new role for the kinase gatekeeper, and showcases an effective approach for elucidating the molecular origins of selectivity patterns. PMID:24292070

  10. Post-adoption behaviour of farmers towards soil and water conservation technologies of watershed management in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lal Bagdi


    Full Text Available The Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation (IISWC and its Research Centres have developed many successful model watershed projects in India in the past and implemented many Soil and Water Conservation (SWC technologies for sustainable watershed management. While many evaluation studies were conducted on these projects in the past, there has been no assessment of the post-adoption status of the SWC technologies over a longer period. It was imperative to appraise the behaviour of the farmers with regard to the continuance or discontinuance of the technologies adopted, diffusion or infusion that took place and technological gaps that occurred in due course of time in the post watershed programme. Therefore, it was realized that the post-adoption behaviour of beneficiary farmers who have adopted different soil and water conservation technologies for watershed management projects should be studied in detail. The research study was initiated in 2012 as a core project at Vasad as the lead Centre along with IISWC headquarter Dehradun, and Centres Agra, Bellary, Chandigarh, Datia, Kota & Ooty, with the specific objectives of the study to measure the extent of post-adoption behaviour (continued-adoption, discontinuance, technological gap, diffusion and infusion of farmers towards the adopted SWC technologies of watershed management. In the present study various indices regarding continued adoption, dis-adoption (discontinuance, technological gap, diffusion, infusion regarding soil and water conservation technologies for watershed management were developed for measurement of post-adoption behaviour of farmers. It was revealed that a little less than three-fourth (73% of SWC technologies continued to be adopted and more than one-fourth (27% were discontinued by farmers. Out of the total continue adopted SWC technologies by farmers, a little less than one-fifth (19% of technologies continued to be adopted with a technological gap. More than one


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ingrid G Martínez; Carlos Ovalle; Alejandro Del Pozo; Hamil Uribe; Natalia V Valderrama; Christian Prat; Marco Sandoval; Fernando Fernández; Erick Zagal


      Chilean dryland areas of the Mediterranean climate region are characterized by highly degraded and compacted soils, which require the use of conservation tillage systems to mitigate water erosion...

  12. A Web-Based GIS for Reporting Water Usage in the High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (United States)

    Jia, M.; Deeds, N.; Winckler, M.


    The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Recent rule changes have motivated HPWD to develop a more automated system to allow owners and operators to report well locations, meter locations, meter readings, the association between meters and wells, and contiguous acres. INTERA, Inc. has developed a web-based interactive system for HPWD water users to report water usage and for the district to better manage its water resources. The HPWD web management system utilizes state-of-the-art GIS techniques, including cloud-based Amazon EC2 virtual machine, ArcGIS Server, ArcSDE and ArcGIS Viewer for Flex, to support web-based water use management. The system enables users to navigate to their area of interest using a well-established base-map and perform a variety of operations and inquiries against their spatial features. The application currently has six components: user privilege management, property management, water meter registration, area registration, meter-well association and water use report. The system is composed of two main databases: spatial database and non-spatial database. With the help of Adobe Flex application at the front end and ArcGIS Server as the middle-ware, the spatial feature geometry and attributes update will be reflected immediately in the back end. As a result, property owners, along with the HPWD staff, collaborate together to weave the fabric of the spatial database. Interactions between the spatial and non-spatial databases are established by Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services to record water-use report, user-property associations, owner-area associations, as well as meter-well associations. Mobile capabilities will be enabled in the near future for field workers to collect data and synchronize them to the spatial database. The entire solution is built on a highly scalable cloud

  13. Handbook in energy conservation on pump systems for waste water; Haendbog i energibesparelser pae pumpesystemer til spildevand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The handbook primarily addresses staff responsible for the daily operation of local waste water pump stations, but it can also be of use to other professions which are engaged in planning, operation and maintenance of waste water plants. The aim of the handbook is energy conservation, but at the same time all recommendations for energy conservation initiatives take working environment and operating safety into consideration. (BA)

  14. Predicting improved optical water quality in rivers resulting from soil conservation actions on land. (United States)

    Dymond, J R; Davies-Colley, R J; Hughes, A O; Matthaei, C D


    Deforestation in New Zealand has led to increased soil erosion and sediment loads in rivers. Increased suspended fine sediment in water reduces visual clarity for humans and aquatic animals and reduces penetration of photosynthetically available radiation to aquatic plants. To mitigate fine-sediment impacts in rivers, catchment-wide approaches to reducing soil erosion are required. Targeting soil conservation for reducing sediment loads in rivers is possible through existing models; however, relationships between sediment loads and sediment-related attributes of water that affect both ecology and human uses of water are poorly understood. We present methods for relating sediment loads to sediment concentration, visual clarity, and euphotic depth. The methods require upwards of twenty concurrent samples of sediment concentration, visual clarity, and euphotic depth at a river site where discharge is measured continuously. The sediment-related attributes are related to sediment concentration through regressions. When sediment loads are reduced by soil conservation action, percentiles of sediment concentration are necessarily reduced, and the corresponding percentiles of visual clarity and euphotic depth are increased. The approach is demonstrated on the Wairua River in the Northland region of New Zealand. For this river we show that visual clarity would increase relatively by approximately 1.4 times the relative reduction of sediment load. Median visual clarity would increase from 0.75m to 1.25m (making the river more often suitable for swimming) after a sediment load reduction of 50% associated with widespread soil conservation on pastoral land. Likewise euphotic depth would increase relatively by approximately 0.7 times the relative reduction of sediment load, and the median euphotic depth would increase from 1.5m to 2.0m with a 50% sediment load reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bound water at protein-protein interfaces: partners, roles and hydrophobic bubbles as a conserved motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa H Ahmed

    Full Text Available There is a great interest in understanding and exploiting protein-protein associations as new routes for treating human disease. However, these associations are difficult to structurally characterize or model although the number of X-ray structures for protein-protein complexes is expanding. One feature of these complexes that has received little attention is the role of water molecules in the interfacial region.A data set of 4741 water molecules abstracted from 179 high-resolution (≤ 2.30 Å X-ray crystal structures of protein-protein complexes was analyzed with a suite of modeling tools based on the HINT forcefield and hydrogen-bonding geometry. A metric termed Relevance was used to classify the general roles of the water molecules.The water molecules were found to be involved in: a (bridging interactions with both proteins (21%, b favorable interactions with only one protein (53%, and c no interactions with either protein (26%. This trend is shown to be independent of the crystallographic resolution. Interactions with residue backbones are consistent for all classes and account for 21.5% of all interactions. Interactions with polar residues are significantly more common for the first group and interactions with non-polar residues dominate the last group. Waters interacting with both proteins stabilize on average the proteins' interaction (-0.46 kcal mol(-1, but the overall average contribution of a single water to the protein-protein interaction energy is unfavorable (+0.03 kcal mol(-1. Analysis of the waters without favorable interactions with either protein suggests that this is a conserved phenomenon: 42% of these waters have SASA ≤ 10 Å(2 and are thus largely buried, and 69% of these are within predominantly hydrophobic environments or "hydrophobic bubbles". Such water molecules may have an important biological purpose in mediating protein-protein interactions.

  16. Non-dispersive conservative regularisation of nonlinear shallow water (and isentropic Euler equations) (United States)

    Clamond, Didier; Dutykh, Denys


    A new regularisation of the shallow water (and isentropic Euler) equations is proposed. The regularised equations are non-dissipative, non-dispersive and posses a variational structure; thus, the mass, the momentum and the energy are conserved. Hence, for instance, regularised hydraulic jumps are smooth and non-oscillatory. Another particularly interesting feature of this regularisation is that smoothed 'shocks' propagates at exactly the same speed as the original discontinuous ones. The performance of the new model is illustrated numerically on some dam-break test cases, which are classical in the hyperbolic realm.

  17. Energy conserving and potential-enstrophy dissipating schemes for the shallow water equations (United States)

    Arakawa, Akio; Hsu, Yueh-Jiuan G.


    To incorporate potential enstrophy dissipation into discrete shallow water equations with no or arbitrarily small energy dissipation, a family of finite-difference schemes have been derived with which potential enstrophy is guaranteed to decrease while energy is conserved (when the mass flux is nondivergent and time is continuous). Among this family of schemes, there is a member that minimizes the spurious impact of infinite potential vorticities associated with infinitesimal fluid depth. The scheme is, therefore, useful for problems in which the free surface may intersect with the lower boundary.

  18. Energy and Water Conservation Assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Stephanie R.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Boyd, Brian K.


    This report summarizes the results of an energy and water conservation assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The assessment was performed in October 2013 by engineers from the PNNL Building Performance Team with the support of the dedicated RPL staff and several Facilities and Operations (F&O) department engineers. The assessment was completed for the Facilities and Operations (F&O) department at PNNL in support of the requirements within Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007.

  19. FY1999 Meeting of The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineering of Japan. Water conservation, rain water utilization and cases in overseas countries; 1999 nendo gakujutsu koenkai gaiyo. Sessui usui riyo kaigai jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, M. [Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama (Japan)


    G-38 describes a fundamental study to establish water conservation guidelines by noticing on water usage in residential houses, and estimate water use amount by applications dividing water conservation levels in each application into normal, water saving, urgent and emergent statuses. G-39 is a study to discuss possibility of utilizing rainwater fallen on roofs of railway station buildings as flushing water used in station toilets. The report calculates the collected water quantity and water saving rates (13 to 25%) in five stations, by using the existing station toilet using data and precipitation amount reported by AMEDAS. G-40 intends to develop a household waste water recycling system, which utilizes water remaining in bathtubs and clothes rinsing waste water as the water re-utilization source. The system assumes water saving of about 30% (280 to 320 liters) in a family of four persons. G-43 investigates life patterns, water using conditions, outdoor climate, and indoor hot heat environment for residents in traditional houses in Myanmar located in the west end of South-Eastern Asia, and describes the features thereof. (translated by NEDO)

  20. Membrane Proteins Are Dramatically Less Conserved than Water-Soluble Proteins across the Tree of Life. (United States)

    Sojo, Victor; Dessimoz, Christophe; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick


    Membrane proteins are crucial in transport, signaling, bioenergetics, catalysis, and as drug targets. Here, we show that membrane proteins have dramatically fewer detectable orthologs than water-soluble proteins, less than half in most species analyzed. This sparse distribution could reflect rapid divergence or gene loss. We find that both mechanisms operate. First, membrane proteins evolve faster than water-soluble proteins, particularly in their exterior-facing portions. Second, we demonstrate that predicted ancestral membrane proteins are preferentially lost compared with water-soluble proteins in closely related species of archaea and bacteria. These patterns are consistent across the whole tree of life, and in each of the three domains of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Our findings point to a fundamental evolutionary principle: membrane proteins evolve faster due to stronger adaptive selection in changing environments, whereas cytosolic proteins are under more stringent purifying selection in the homeostatic interior of the cell. This effect should be strongest in prokaryotes, weaker in unicellular eukaryotes (with intracellular membranes), and weakest in multicellular eukaryotes (with extracellular homeostasis). We demonstrate that this is indeed the case. Similarly, we show that extracellular water-soluble proteins exhibit an even stronger pattern of low homology than membrane proteins. These striking differences in conservation of membrane proteins versus water-soluble proteins have important implications for evolution and medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Conservative arbitrary order finite difference schemes for shallow-water flows (United States)

    Skiba, Yuri N.; Filatov, Denis M.


    The classical nonlinear shallow-water model (SWM) of an ideal fluid is considered. For the model, a new method for the construction of mass and total energy conserving finite difference schemes is suggested. In fact, it produces an infinite family of finite difference schemes, which are either linear or nonlinear depending on the choice of certain parameters. The developed schemes can be applied in a variety of domains on the plane and on the sphere. The method essentially involves splitting of the model operator by geometric coordinates and by physical processes, which provides substantial benefits in the computational cost of solution. Besides, in case of the whole sphere it allows applying the same algorithms as in a doubly periodic domain on the plane and constructing finite difference schemes of arbitrary approximation order in space. Results of numerical experiments illustrate the skillfulness of the schemes in describing the shallow-water dynamics.

  2. Water Conservation as a Way to Lessen the Impact of New Construction at the Presidio of Monterey. (United States)


    the aggregate, the water resources avai-4 lable are clearly defined by the famous line from the Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner ...34During the 1976-77 drought (in California], a double water system of sorts was used by scme water consumers ia Marin County who disconnected their kitchen...71A-ffi132. 196 WATER CONSERVATION AS A WY TO LESSEN THE IMPACT OF NEW ii CONSTRUCTION AT THE PRESIDIO F MONTEREY(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE

  3. Preimpoundment Water Quality Study (United States)


    Passiflora incarnara No Camin N,-tn P. lutea Crossvixe Anisosticus capreolata Climbing hydrangea Decumaria barbara PJapanese Honeysuckle Lonicera japonica...Impatiens, Balsam Impatiens balsandina Curly Dock Rumex Plantain Plantago virginica Water Hemlock Cicuta maculata Violet Viola floridana Ironweied Sida acuta


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    puti renosori


    Full Text Available The high population density in the devotion location, causing groundwater getting a much needed, but its condition now is dwindling due to lack of land infiltration. It is caused by the high of land conversion therefore the land becomes water resistant. Many residents who buy clean water during the dry season but when in the rainy season many puddles in the yard and the street due to the capacity of the drainage is not enough anymore. Furthermore, the rainwater runoff in the area contributed to the flooding in the Rancaekek and Jatinangor area. To resolve this issue is done counseling in order to change the rainwater management paradigm that only distributes as soon as possible to maximize their absorption into the drainage channel in a way to invite people to make LRB. LRB  chosen because it is one of the appropriate technology that is easy to do, relatively cheap, environmentally friendly and is an effective way to conserve underground water can overcome the water crisis, and contribute significantly to reducing flood donations. Residents with making LRB have benefits to eliminate the puddles in the yard and the street, and further can be groundwater reserves. Because the LRB can be filled with organic waste, which can be turned into compost, then the other benefits are be able to improve the processing of organic waste into compost.

  5. Evaluation of soil and water conservation measures in a semi-arid river basin in Tunisia using SWAT (United States)

    The Merguellil catchment (Central Tunisia) is a typical Mediterranean semi-arid basin which suffers from regular water shortage aggravated by current droughts. During the recent decades the continuous construction of small and large dams and Soil and Water Conservation Works (i.e. Contour ridges) ha...

  6. Phosphorus fractionation and distribution in sediments from wetlands and canals of a water conservation area in the Florida Everglades (United States)

    Qingren Wang; Yuncong Li; Ying. Ouyang


    Phosphorus (P) fractionation and distribution in sediments are of great concern in the Florida Everglades ecosystem because potential eutrophication of surface waters usually results from P external loading and stability. Intact core sediment samples were collected to a depth of 35 cm from wetlands and canals across Water Conservation Area 3 (WCA‐3) of the Florida...

  7. Energy conservation in coal conversion. Final report, September 15, 1977--September 1, 1978. Selected case studies and conservation methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcupile, J.C.


    The purpose of this study is to apply the methodologies developed in the Energy Conservation in Coal Conversion August, 1977 Progress Report - Contract No. EY77S024196 - to an energy efficient, near-term coal conversion process design, and to develop additional, general techniques for studying energy conservation and utilization in coal conversion processes. The process selected for study was the Ralph M. Parsons Company of Pasadena, California ''Oil/Gas Complex, Conceptual Design/Economic Analysis'' as described in R and D Report No. 114 - Interim Report No. 4, published March, 1977, ERDA Contract No. E(49-18)-1975. Thirteen papers representing possible alternative methods of energy conservation or waste heat utilization have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  8. [Heavy metals in environmental media around drinking water conservation area of Shanghai]. (United States)

    Shi, Gui-Tao; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Zhang, Cui; Bi, Chun-Juan; Cheng, Chen; Teng, Ji-Yan; Shen, Jun; Wang, Dong-Qi; Xu, Shi-Yuan


    The levels of heavy metals in Shanghai drinking water conservation area were determined, and the spatial distributions and main sources of heavy metals were investigated. Moreover, the ecological risk assessment of heavy metals was conducted. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The average concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and As in road dust were 0.80, 0.23, 148.45, 127.52, 380.57, 63.17, 250.38 and 10.37 mg x kg(-1) respectively. In terms of the pollution level, the values of soils were relatively lower, with the mean contents of 0.16 (Cd), 0.33 (Hg), 30.14 (Pb), 30.66 (Cu), 103.79 (Zn), 24.04 (Ni), 65.75 (Cr) and 6.31 mg x kg(-1) (As) severally; meanwhile the average levels of heavy metals in vegetables were 0.010 (Cd), 0.016 (Hg), 0.36 (Pb), 12.80 (Cu), 61.69 (Zn), 2.04 (Ni), 2.41 (Cr) and 0.039 mg x kg(-1) (As) respectively. (2) Semivariogram and multivariate analysis indicated that heavy metals pollution of soils was induced by anthropogenic activities mostly, and the pollutants produced by traffic were the major source of heavy metals in road dust. (3) The order for heavy metal enrichment coefficients of vegetables was as following: Zn (0.589) > Cu (0.412) > 0.102 (Ni) > Cd (0.059) > Cr (0.061) > Hg (0.056) > Pb (0.012) > As (0.007), and the results indicated that Cd and Zn in vegetables were mainly from the soils, and the other metals were probably from the pollutants in the atmosphere. (4) Sediments in drinking water conservation area were probably derived from soils around; however, there was no significant relationship between heavy metals contents of them. (5) The results of ecological risk assessment of heavy metals showed that heavy metals in soils were in no-warning to warning situation, and warning to light-warning situation for road dust and vegetables. The fuzzy synthesis judgment for all the environmental media around drinking water conservation area was warning to light-warning.

  9. An energy and potential enstrophy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations. [orography effects on atmospheric circulation (United States)

    Arakawa, A.; Lamb, V. R.


    A three-dimensional finite difference scheme for the solution of the shallow water momentum equations which accounts for the conservation of potential enstrophy in the flow of a homogeneous incompressible shallow atmosphere over steep topography as well as for total energy conservation is presented. The scheme is derived to be consistent with a reasonable scheme for potential vorticity advection in a long-term integration for a general flow with divergent mass flux. Numerical comparisons of the characteristics of the present potential enstrophy-conserving scheme with those of a scheme that conserves potential enstrophy only for purely horizontal nondivergent flow are presented which demonstrate the reduction of computational noise in the wind field with the enstrophy-conserving scheme and its convergence even in relatively coarse grids.

  10. Impact of advanced water conservation features and new copper pipe on rapid chloramine decay and microbial regrowth. (United States)

    Nguyen, Caroline; Elfland, Carolyn; Edwards, Marc


    Taste and odor issues occurring in new buildings were attributed to rapid loss of chloramine residual, high levels of microbes in the potable water system, and high water age due to use of advanced water conservation devices. Laboratory experiments confirmed that chloramine could decay rapidly in the presence of new copper pipe, providing a possible explanation for the rapid disinfectant loss in the new buildings. Higher temperature and lower pH also accelerated the rate of chloramine decay in copper pipes. The reaction was slowed by the addition of phosphate inhibitor or aluminum, which presumably formed barriers between the pipe wall and the chloramine in the bulk water. Additional research is needed to better understand how to maintain high quality water in buildings while also conserving water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 77821 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative (United States)


    ... the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (2008 Act). AWEP and CCPI are voluntary conservation..., section 2510 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (2008 Act), Public Law 110-246. The.../technical/standards/ . c. Include the total acres that need conservation treatment and the priority...

  12. Analyzing the Potential Water Conservation Strategies: An Application to Irrigated Agriculture in the Texas Panhandle


    Tewari, Rachna; Almas, Lal K.; Lust, David G.; Amosson, Stephen H.; Bretz, Fran E.


    Witnessing a rapid surge in irrigation requirements as well as the pressure on natural resources to augment production for satisfying grain demand for the growing human and livestock population, ground water supply in the Texas Panhandle reflects itself as a limiting yet indispensable factor. This study evaluates the effectiveness of eight potential water management strategies in terms of water savings, implementation costs as well as the regional impact of each policy on the agricultural eco...

  13. Development of a household waste treatment subsystem, volume 1. [with water conservation features (United States)

    Gresko, T. M.; Murray, R. W.


    The domestic waste treatment subsystem was developed to process the daily liquid and non-metallic solid wastes provided by a family of four people. The subsystem was designed to be connected to the sewer line of a household which contained water conservation features. The system consisted of an evaporation technique to separate liquids from solids, an incineration technique for solids reduction, and a catalytic oxidizer for eliminating noxious gases from evaporation and incineration processes. All wastes were passed through a grinder which masticated the solids and deposited them in a settling tank. The liquids were transferred through a cleanable filter into a holding tank. From here the liquids were sprayed into an evaporator and a spray chamber where evaporation occurred. The resulting vapors were processed by catalytic oxidation. Water and latent energy were recovered in a combination evaporator/condenser heat exchanger. The solids were conveyed into an incinerator and reduced to ash while the incineration gases were passed through the catalytic oxidizer along with the processed water vapor.

  14. A Study of the Relationship Between Gesell's Developmental Age and Piaget's Concept of Conservation. (United States)

    Civretta, Adeline E.

    A study was conducted to determine whether a significant correlation exists between developmental age and the concept of conservation. The hypothesis was that if developmental age and the concept of conservation are related, then stages of understanding conservation will increase as developmental age increases. Ss consisted of 30 primary children…

  15. Persistence of legacy soil P and elevated background water P concentrations in Water Conservation Area 2A, a northern Everglades wetland (United States)

    Juston, John M.; Kadlec, Robert H.; DeBusk, William F.; Jerauld, Mike J.; DeBusk, Thomas A.


    Upstream source control and Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs) have reduced phosphorus (P) loads to Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2A), a northern Everglades wetland, by three quarters since year 2000. Nevertheless, large storages of P remain in enriched peat soils and it is unclear how legacy stores will impact spatial and temporal scales of recovery. We remeasured soil P enrichment along a well-studied eutrophication gradient in WCA-2A and applied a profile modeling approach with uncertainty analysis to assess changes in longitudinal soil P gradients 13 years after load reductions. We then analyzed existing internal water P data, using a novel data screening approach, for evidence of lowest possible water P concentrations independent from inflows. We interpret such water P limits as evidence of the strength of internal loading at a location. Results indicate that soil P enrichment persists in the ˜7.5 km long "impacted" zone, with no significant evidence of net advancement or recession, while a large pool of labile P in the flocculent layer consolidated and diminished. There is indeed evidence, both spatial and temporal, that this extensive zone of enriched soil P continues to elevate lowest achievable water P concentrations. The corresponding gradient of elevated water P limits is both receding and diminishing since load reductions, thus providing further evidence toward recovery. However, results also suggest that these "transitory P limits" due to internal loading are likely to persist for decades above water quality targets. These results advance our understanding of recovery in impacted wetlands and are relevant to Everglades restoration.

  16. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area Transportation Feasibility Study (United States)


    Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area is a popular Bureau of Land Management natural area located near Las Vegas, Nevada. Red Rock Canyon experiences heavy congestion on its Scenic Drive and associated parking areas, due to high volumes of visit...

  17. The world's second largest population of humpback dolphins in the waters of Zhanjiang deserves the highest conservation priority. (United States)

    Xu, Xinrong; Song, Jinyuan; Zhang, Zhenhua; Li, Peng; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Kaiya


    Chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) inhabiting shallow coastal waters are vulnerable to impacts from human activities in the near shore waters. This study examined the population of Chinese white dolphins occurring off the coast of Zhanjiang in the northern South China Sea. A total of 492 Chinese white dolphins were identified, 176 of which were photographed on more than one occasion. The Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is isolated from populations of conspecifics along the Guangdong coast. It is composed of approximately 1485 individuals (95% CI = 1371-1629; SE = 63.8), with estimates of mean representative range and core area of 168.51 and 44.26 km(2), respectively. The high site fidelity and long-term residence of Chinese white dolphins in the study area are well established. A review of all available data indicates that based on what is currently known, the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is the second largest of the species and genus in the world. However, the recent industrial boom along the Zhanjiang coast has increased concerns regarding the conservation of the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population. We recommend the designation of a national nature reserve as a most urgent measure for protecting Chinese white dolphins in Zhanjiang waters.

  18. Evaluating the accuracy of soil water sensors for irrigation scheduling to conserve freshwater (United States)

    Ganjegunte, Girisha K.; Sheng, Zhuping; Clark, John A.


    In the Trans-Pecos area, pecan [ Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] is a major irrigated cash crop. Pecan trees require large amounts of water for their growth and flood (border) irrigation is the most common method of irrigation. Pecan crop is often over irrigated using traditional method of irrigation scheduling by counting number of calendar days since the previous irrigation. Studies in other pecan growing areas have shown that the water use efficiency can be improved significantly and precious freshwater can be saved by scheduling irrigation based on soil moisture conditions. This study evaluated the accuracy of three recent low cost soil water sensors (ECH2O-5TE, Watermark 200SS and Tensiometer model R) to monitor volumetric soil water content (θv) to develop improved irrigation scheduling in a mature pecan orchard in El Paso, Texas. Results indicated that while all three sensors were successful in following the general trends of soil moisture conditions during the growing season, actual measurements differed significantly. Statistical analyses of results indicated that Tensiometer provided relatively accurate soil moisture data than ECH2O-5TE and Watermark without site-specific calibration. While ECH2O-5TE overestimated the soil water content, Watermark and Tensiometer underestimated. Results of this study suggested poor accuracy of all three sensors if factory calibration and reported soil water retention curve for study site soil texture were used. This indicated that sensors needed site-specific calibration to improve their accuracy in estimating soil water content data.

  19. Designing monitoring for conservation impact assessment in water funds in Latin America: an approach to address water-data scarcity (Invited) (United States)

    Nelson, J. L.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Ziv, G.; Wolny, S.; Vogl, A. L.; Tallis, H.; Bremer, L.


    The risk of water scarcity is a rising threat in a rapidly changing world. Communities and investors are using the new institution of water funds to enact conservation practices in watersheds to bolster a clean, predictable water supply for multiple stakeholders. Water funds finance conservation activities to support water-related ecosystem services, and here we relate our work to develop innovative approaches to experimental design of monitoring programs to track the effectiveness of water funds throughout Latin America. We highlight two examples: the Fund for the Protection of Water (FONAG), in Quito, Ecuador, and Water for Life, Agua por la Vida, in Cali, Colombia. Our approach is meant to test whether a) water funds' restoration and protection actions result in changes in water quality and/or quantity at the site scale and the subwatershed scale, and b) the suite of investments for the whole water fund reach established goals for improving water quality and/or quantity at the basin scale or point of use. Our goal is to create monitoring standards for ecosystem-service assessment and clearly demonstrate translating those standards to field implementation in a statistically robust and cost-effective way. In the gap between data-intensive methods requiring historic, long-term water sampling and more subjective, ad hoc assessments, we have created a quantitative, land-cover-based approach to pairing conservation activity with appropriate controls in order to determine the impact of water-fund actions. To do so, we use a statistical approach in combination with open-source tools developed by the Natural Capital Project to optimize water funds' investments in nature and assess ecosystem-service provision (Resource Investment Optimization System, RIOS, and InVEST). We report on the process of identifying micro-, subwatershed or watershed matches to serve as controls for conservation 'impact' sites, based on globally-available land cover, precipitation, and soil data

  20. A mass conservative and water storage consistent variable parameter Muskingum-Cunge approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Todini


    Full Text Available The variable parameter Muskingum-Cunge (MC flood routing approach, together with several variants proposed in the literature, does not fully preserve the mass balance, particularly when dealing with very mild slopes (<10−3. This paper revisits the derivation of the MC and demonstrates (i that the loss of mass balance in MC is caused by the use of time variant parameters which violate the implicit assumption embedded in the original derivation of the Muskingum scheme, which implies constant parameters and at the same time (ii that the parameters estimated by means of the Cunge approach violate the two basic equations of the Muskingum formulation. The paper also derives the modifications needed to allow the MC to fully preserve the mass balance and, at the same time, to comply with the original Muskingum formulation in terms of water storage. The properties of the proposed algorithm have been assessed by varying the cross section, the slope, the roughness, the space and the time integration steps. The results of all the tests also show that the new algorithm is always mass conservative. Finally, it is also shown that the proposed approach closely approaches the full de Saint Venant equation solution, both in terms of water levels and discharge, when the parabolic approximation holds.

  1. Securing Water for Wetland Conservation in China - An Assessment of Policy Options


    Wu Jian; Wang Xiaoxia; Niu Kunyu; Li Shushan


    Wetlands are one of the world's most ecologically important and productive ecosystems. They face many challenges, one of the most sifnificant being the disruption of the water supplies that feed them. As the flow of water entering a wetland is diverted to other uses, the werland's ecosystme is damaged. This problem affects many wetland areas in China. This study assesses the situation in the Qixinghe Wetlands which lie in the country's Sanjiang Plain. The study hifhlights two policy options t...

  2. Conserved waters mediate structural and functional activation of family A (rhodopsin-like) G protein-coupled receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, T.; Chance, M; Palczewski, K


    G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane {alpha}-helices (GPCRs) comprise the largest receptor superfamily and are involved in detecting a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. The availability of high-resolution crystal structures of five prototypical GPCRs, bovine and squid rhodopsin, engineered A2A-adenosine, {beta}1- and {beta}2-adrenergic receptors, permits comparative analysis of features common to these and likely all GPCRs. We provide an analysis of the distribution of water molecules in the transmembrane region of these GPCR structures and find conserved contacts with microdomains demonstrated to be involved in receptor activation. Colocalization of water molecules associating with highly conserved and functionally important residues in several of these GPCR crystal structures supports the notion that these waters are likely to be as important to proper receptor function as the conserved residues. Moreover, in the absence of large conformational changes in rhodopsin after photoactivation, we propose that ordered waters contribute to the functional plasticity needed to transmit activation signals from the retinal-binding pocket to the cytoplasmic face of rhodopsin and that fundamental features of the mechanism of activation, involving these conserved waters, are shared by many if not all family A receptors.

  3. Water and soil conservation for food security in Niger and its constraints for adoption (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Jasmien; Timmerman, Emma; Garba, Maman; Mazijn, Bernard; Sabiou, Mahamane; Ibro, Germaine; Cornelis, Wim


    Nigerien subsistence farmers increasingly rely on marginal degraded lands for food production as a result of ongoing soil degradation, limited fertile land availability and growing population pressure. These degraded lands, however, generally provide poor yields which are largely assigned to an increased vulnerability to drought as a major part of the rainfall is lost through inefficient rain water partitioning. More efficient use of rainwater can be achieved with the aid of water and soil conservation (WSC) techniques such as zaï (Z) and demi-lunes (DL) which positively alter the soil water-balance in favour of productive water and deliver a wide range of ecosystem services. The results of our in situ root-zone water balance experiment at Sadoré-village (2011-2012) confirm improved agronomical, hydrological and soil quality parameters under the Z and DL treatments. The highest grain yield is produced by the zaï, which is 3 times better than the grain yield of the demi-lunes. Zaï moreover reduce cumulative actual evaporation and both Z and DL increase soil water content in the catchment as measured by a neutron probe and biological soil quality indicated by an extended nematode population of free living species. The techniques therefore show promising potential to rehabilitate and to increase the agronomic efficiency of marginal land in Niger, but the adoption of the techniques has not been widespread and the dissemination generally encounters difficulties. To identify and quantify the importance and presence of several adoption obstacles in the Tillabéri region, we conducted 100 households surveys exploring farmers' erosion perception, WSC technique knowledge and resource availability. Although the important adoption triggers such as food insecurity and limited fertile land availability are present, the regions' adoption rate is low due to a general lack of manure availability and a profound knowledge of erosion and the techniques themselves, which indicates

  4. [Effect of water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects combined with molluscicide to controlOncomelania hupensissnails in rivers connecting with Yangtze River in Pukou District, Nanjing City]. (United States)

    Qiang, Zhou; Li-Xin, Wan; De-Rong, Hang; Qi-Hui, You; Jun, You; Yu-Lin, Zhang; Zhao-Feng, Zhu; Yi-Xin, Huang


    To evaluate the effect of the water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects combined with molluscicide to control Oncomelania hupensis snails in the rivers connecting with the Yangtze River. The water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects of Zhujiashan River, Qili River and Gaowang River were chosen as the study objects in Pukou District, Nanjing City. The data review method and field investigation were used to evaluate the effect of the water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects combined with molluscicide to control O. hupensis snails. After the projects of the water level control and concrete slope protection and mollusciciding were implemented, the snails in the project river sections were completely eliminated. The snail diffusion did not happen in the inland irrigation area too. In the outside of the river beach, though the snails still existed, the snail densities plunged below 1.0 snail per 1.0 m 2 . The comprehensive measures of the combination of water level control, concrete slope protection and mollusciciding can effectively control and eliminate the snails, and prevent the snails from spreading.

  5. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake. (United States)

    Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Johannes, Bernd; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens


    The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO

  6. Umbrellas can work under water: Using threatened species as indicator and management surrogates can improve coastal conservation (United States)

    Gilby, Ben L.; Olds, Andrew D.; Connolly, Rod M.; Yabsley, Nicholas A.; Maxwell, Paul S.; Tibbetts, Ian R.; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.


    Species surrogates, the use of particular species to index habitat condition or to represent ecological assemblages are commonly identified in many ecosystems, but are less tested, and therefore less employed in estuaries. Estuaries provide important ecosystem goods (e.g. harvestable species) and services (e.g. carbon processing, coastal armouring), but require protection from multiple human activities, meaning that finding surrogates for estuarine condition or faunal assemblages is a significant knowledge gap. In this study, we test the efficacy of the threatened estuary ray Hemitrygon fluviorum, as a suitable indicator of ecosystem condition and management umbrella surrogate species for conservation prioritisation and monitoring purposes within estuaries. We surveyed fish assemblages and ray presence at ten sites within each of 22 estuaries in southeast Queensland, Australia, using one hour deployments of baited video arrays. We then tested for correlations between ray presence, a series of environmental variables considered important to ecosystem management within estuaries (i.e. testing rays as indicator species), and the co-occurring fish species (i.e. testing rays as umbrella species). Estuary rays function as both umbrella species and ecological indicators of habitat status in subtropical Australian estuaries. As umbrellas, ray occurrence concords with elevated species richness. As ecological indicators, ray distribution concords with habitats of good water quality (especially low turbidity) and more natural vegetation remaining in the catchment. These results highlight the potential for other threatened aquatic vertebrates that are both readily detectable and that are reliable proxies for ecosystems status to be become useful management tools in estuaries. The protection of such large, threatened species in coastal seascapes allows managers to address multiple targets for conservation, especially; (1) protecting species of conservation concern; (2

  7. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 through 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2012. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2012, the standards saved an estimated 3.6 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 3% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $51.4 billion. The average household saved $347 in operating costs as a result of residential and plumbing product standards. The estimated reduction in CO2 emissions associated with the standards in 2012 was 198 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 3% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2070 amount to 179 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a past and projected cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,104 billion and $1,390 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.8 trillion gallons in 2012, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2040 of 54 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2012 from reduced water use amounted to $13 billon.

  8. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2015. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2015, the standards saved an estimated 4.49 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 5% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $63.4 billion. The average household saved $320 in operating costs as a result of residential appliance standards. The estimated reduction in CO2 emissions associated with the standards in 2015 was 238 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 4.3% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2090 amount to 216.9 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,627 billion and $1,887 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.9 trillion gallons in 2015 and estimated cumulative water savings by 2090 amount to 55 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2015 from reduced water use amounted to $12 billon.

  9. Marine ornamental species from European waters: a valuable overlooked resource or a future threat for the conservation of marine ecosystems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calado


    Full Text Available P align=justify>The worldwide growth of the marine aquarium market has contributed to the degradation of coral reef ecosystems. Enforcing the legislation on importing ornamental species has led some European traders to concentrate on local species. Portugal is used as a case study of marine ornamental fish and invertebrate collection in European waters. One hundred and seventy two species occurring in Portuguese waters (mainland, the Azores and Madeira archipelagos were considered as potential targets for the marine aquarium industry, some of which are already traded on a regular basis (e.g. Clibanarius erythropus, Lysmata seticaudata, Cerithium vulgatum, Hinia reticulata and Ophioderma longicauda. To ensure appropriate management and conservation of these resources, the following options have been evaluated: banning the harvest and trade of all marine ornamental species from European waters; creating sanctuaries and “no take zones”; issuing collection permits; creating certified wholesalers; implementing the use of suitable gear and collecting methods; setting minimum and maximum size limits; establishing species-based quotas; protecting rare, or “key stone” species and organisms with poor survivability in captivity; establishing closed seasons; culturing ornamental organisms; and creating an “eco-fee” to support research and management. Establishing this sustainable alternative fishery may help minimise the economical and social impacts caused by the crash of important food fisheries in Portugal and other European and West African countries.

  10. [Effects of conservation tillage and weed control on soil water and organic carbon contents in winter wheat field]. (United States)

    Han, Hui-Fang; Ning, Tang-Yuan; Li, Zeng-Jia; Tian, Shen-Zhong; Wang, Yu; Zhong, Wei-Lei; Tian, Xin-Xin


    Taking a long-term (since 2004) straw-returning winter wheat field as the object, an investigation was made in the wheat growth seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 to study the effects of different tillage methods (rotary tillage, harrow tillage, no-tillage, subsoil tillage, and conventional tillage) and weed management on the soil water and organic carbon contents. No matter retaining or removing weeds, the weed density under subsoil tillage and no-tillage was much higher than that under rotary tillage, harrow tillage, and conventional tillage. From the jointing to the milking stage of winter wheat, retaining definite amounts of weeds, no matter which tillage method was adopted, could significantly increase the 0-20 cm soil water content, suggesting the soil water conservation effect of retaining weeds. Retaining weeds only increased the soil organic carbon content in 0-20 cm layer at jointing stage. At heading and milking stages, the soil organic carbon contents in 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm layers were lower under weed retaining than under weed removal. Under the conditions of weed removal, the grain yield under subsoil tillage increased significantly, compared with that under the other four tillage methods. Under the conditions of weed retaining, the grain yield was the highest under rotary tillage, and the lowest under conventional tillage.

  11. A study of rectangular tuned liquid damper using a mometum conserving formulation and experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Jørgen; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov


    Rectangular tanks filled with shallow liquid, also know as shallow-water type Tuned Liquid Dampers, have been investigated by several researchers. Common to the approaches is that an energy conserving form of the nonlinear shallow water equations is used for describing the sloshing motion...

  12. Household-Level Determinants of Soil and Water Conservation Adoption Phases: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, Akalu; Graaff, de J.; Kassie, M.


    Soil and water conservation (SWC) practices have been promoted in the highlands of Ethiopia during the last four decades. However, the level of adoption of SWC practices varies greatly. This paper examines the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC technologies in the north-western highlands

  13. Process Integration Design Methods for Water Conservation and Wastewater Reduction in Industry. Part 3: Experience of Industrial Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Dunn, Russell; Gottrup, Lene


    This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience with indu...

  14. Soil management system for water conservation and mitigation of global change effect (United States)

    Ospina, A.; Florentino, A.; Lorenzo, V.


    One of the main constraints in rained agriculture is the water availability for plant growth which depends largely on the ability of the soil to allow water flow, infiltration and its storage. In Venezuela, the interaction between aggressive climatic conditions, highly susceptible soils and inadequate management systems have caused soil degradation which together with global change threatened the food production sustainability. To address this problem, we need to implement conservationist management strategies that improve infiltration rate, permeability and water holding capacity in soil and reduce water loss by protecting the soil surface. In order to study the impact of different management systems on soil water balance in a Fluventic Haplustept, the effects of 11 years of tillage and crops rotation management were evaluated in a long term field experiment located in Turén (Portuguesa state). The evaluated tillage systems were no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) and crop rotation treatments were maize (Zea mays)-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and maize-bean (Vigna unguiculata). Treatments were established in plots arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. The gravimetric moisture content was determined in the upper 20 cm of soil, at eight different sampling dates. Results showed increased in time of the water availability with the use of tillage and corn-cotton rotation and, better protection of the soil against raindrop impact with crop residues. Water retention capacity also increased and improved structural condition on soil surface such as infiltration, storage and water flow distribution in the rooting zone. We conclude that these strategies of land use and management would contribute to mitigate the climate change effects on food production in this region of Venezuela. Key words: Soil quality; rained agriculture; plant water availability

  15. Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications (United States)

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S.; Bilton, David T.


    Abstract Water beetles are one of the dominant macroinvertebrate groups in inland waters and are excellent ecological indicators, reflecting both the diversity and composition of the wider aquatic community. The predaceous water beetles (Hydradephaga) make up around one-third of known aquatic Coleoptera and, as predators, are a key group in the functioning of many aquatic habitats. Despite being relatively well-known taxonomically, ecological studies of these insects in tropical and subtropical systems remain rare. A dedicated survey of the hydradephagan beetles of the Lake St Lucia wetlands (South Africa) was undertaken between 2013 and 2015, providing the first biodiversity census for this important aquatic group in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site within the Maputaland biodiversity hotspot. A total of 32 sites covering the entire spectrum of waterbody types were sampled over the course of three collecting trips. The Lake St Lucia wetlands support at least 68 species of Hydradephaga, a very high level of diversity comparing favourably with other hotspots on the African continent and elsewhere in the world and a number of taxa are reported for South Africa for the first time. This beetle assemblage is dominated by relatively widespread Afrotropical taxa, with few locally endemic species, supporting earlier observations that hotspots of species richness and centres of endemism are not always coincident. Although there was no significant difference in the number of species supported by the various waterbody types sampled, sites with the highest species richness were mostly temporary depression wetlands. This contrasts markedly with the distribution of other taxa in the same system, such as molluscs and dragonflies, which are most diverse in permanent waters. Our study is the first to highlight the importance of temporary depression wetlands and emphasises the need to maintain a variety of wetland habitats for aquatic conservation in this

  16. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). (United States)

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N


    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species.

  17. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study (United States)

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J.; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N.; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam


    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future

  18. Impact of Watercourse Lining on Water Conservation in the Gadeji Minor Command, Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Shabir Solangi


    Full Text Available Looming water scarcity could be curtailed with intelligent water losses control. Present study was designed to assess the relative effect of watercourse lining in prospect of seepage minimization. Qualitative as well as quantitative analysis was undertaken using water conveyance efficiency, annual water saving, increase in cropping intensities, time and land saving along with labor saving indictors over Gadeji minor in Sindh, Pakistan. Primary data was collected from field measurements while secondary data was gathered from NPIW (National Program for Improvement of Watercourses, Irrigation Department, personal interviews and site survey. The analysis revealed that lining of 30% initial portion of watercourses resulted average annual water saving of 10.32 hectare-m. Similarly, the cropping intensity increased 15% in Rabi and 14% in Kharif seasons. Crop yield increased by 17% for wheat crop, 14% for cottoncrop, 12% for sugarcane, 17% for chilies, 11% for onion crop and 20% for rice crop after lining the selected watercourses. Thus, it is concluded that watercourse lining has noticeable effect for seepage control which yielded a significant water saving. In future, economic viability of watercourse lining may be assessed for obtaining optimum benefits.

  19. A Study of Amish and Conservative Mennonite Schooling in Ohio 1982-1985. (United States)

    Newcomb, Thomas L.

    This paper is a summary of a longer report on a 1982 study, "Amish and Conservative Mennonite Schools in Ohio: A Comparative Study Incorporating Ohio's Minimum Standards for Elementary Schools." The purpose of the study was to evaluate the growth and progress of Old Order Amish and Conservative Mennonite schools in Ohio since 1960, when…

  20. PPP mode’s applications motivation in the field of water conservancy project - based on the “money service” theory of Milton Friedman (United States)

    Chen, Zurong; Feng, Jingchun; Wang, Yuting; Xue, Song


    We study on PPP mode’s applications motivation in the field of water conservancy project, on the basis of analyzing Friedman’s “money service” theory, for the disadvantages of traditional investment mode in water conservancy project field. By analyzing the way of government and social capital spending money in PPP projects, we get conclusion that both of which are the way of “spending their own money to do their own thing”, which fully reflects that the two sides are a win-win partnership in PPP mode. From the application motivation, PPP mode can not only compensate for the lack of local funds, improve the investment efficiency of the government, but also promote marketization and the supply-side structural reforms.

  1. Implementation proposal of a water conservation and reuse program at the TRANSPETRO; Proposta de implementacao de um programa de conservacao e reuso de agua na TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The great amount of water that is used by industries and the ascendant preoccupation about the quantity and quality of water resources in Brazil and in the world are important justifications to start thinking of more efficient proposals for water application. Between the alternatives for water consume reduction in industry there is the reuse as the principle of those. A study of PricewaterhouseCoopers about this matter at the main national industries identified that 48% have reuse goals. The present work intends to show a methodology and the justifications to implement a conservation and water reuse program at the Terminals of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO. Therefore are presented the many possible applications for reuse water at TRANSPETRO and the stages to the implementation of this kind of project. The methodology presented, based on FIESP Proposal, has as the objective both water consumed reduction and water discharged reduction. Then it must be realized an identification of several water consumed sources and water discharged sources, focusing on the many reuse possible. (author)

  2. Letting Wood Rot: A Case Study on Local Perceptions of Global Conservation Initiatives (Boumba, Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Müller


    Full Text Available Although there is a pressing need for conservation in Africa and a push for such actions to be directed by the community, there is still much conflict both in academia and on the ground regarding the success and methods of community-based conservation. Employing key-informant interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation, we look at how one community has perceived the conservation actions in their village, Boumba, Niger, and the neighbouring national park, Park-W. This study examines local perceptions of the goals, priorities and methods of conservation in Park-W and the Boumba region. We demonstrate that while participants expressed positive alignment with perceived conservation goals, they did not agree with conservation priorities and felt strongly against the methods.  Reframing conservation discourse in the terms of sustainable-use or adaptive management may serve to help translate much of the conservation ethic to local realities. We argue that for local conservation to be culturally sustainable, programmers of conservation must engage the community on their own terms, and recognize the value of local perceptions.

  3. Conserved Water-mediated Hydrogen Bond Network between TM-I, -II, -VI, and -VII in 7TM Receptor Activation* (United States)

    Nygaard, Rie; Valentin-Hansen, Louise; Mokrosinski, Jacek; Frimurer, Thomas M.; Schwartz, Thue W.


    Five highly conserved polar residues connected by a number of structural water molecules together with two rotamer micro-switches, TrpVI:13 and TyrVII:20, constitute an extended hydrogen bond network between the intracellular segments of TM-I, -II, -VI, and -VII of 7TM receptors. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that, although the fewer water molecules in rhodopsin were relatively movable, the hydrogen bond network of the β2-adrenergic receptor was fully loaded with water molecules that were surprisingly immobilized between the two rotamer switches, both apparently being in their closed conformation. Manipulations of the rotamer state of TyrVII:20 and TrpVI:13 demonstrated that these residues served as gates for the water molecules at the intracellular and extracellular ends of the hydrogen bond network, respectively. TrpVI:13 at the bottom of the main ligand-binding pocket was shown to apparently function as a catching trap for water molecules. Mutational analysis of the β2-adrenergic receptor demonstrated that the highly conserved polar residues of the hydrogen bond network were all important for receptor signaling but served different functions, some dampening constitutive activity (AsnI:18, AspII:10, and AsnVII:13), whereas others (AsnVII:12 and AsnVII:16) located one helical turn apart and sharing a water molecule were shown to be essential for agonist-induced signaling. It is concluded that the conserved water hydrogen bond network of 7TM receptors constitutes an extended allosteric interface between the transmembrane segments being of crucial importance for receptor signaling and that part of the function of the rotamer micro-switches, TyrVII:20 and TrpVI:13, is to gate or trap the water molecules. PMID:20395291

  4. Land-based adaptation to global change: what drives soil and water conservation in Western Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietz, D.; Dijk, van H.


    Conservation of land resources is a promising strategy for sustainable agricultural intensification in order to adapt dryland farming systems to climate, market and other stresses. At a local level, factors that drive the adoption of conservation measures operate and interact in specific ways.

  5. Washoe County : Regional water supply and quality study : Phase II final report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The major goal of this study was to help structure a solution to the fragmented responsibilities for conservation, resource management, water supply, wastewater,...

  6. Recent studies of laser science in paintings conservation and research. (United States)

    Pouli, Paraskevi; Selimis, Alexandros; Georgiou, Savas; Fotakis, Costas


    The removal of aged and deteriorated molecular overlayers from the surface of paintings is a delicate and critical intervention in Cultural Heritage (CH) conservation. This irreversible action gets particularly complicated given the multitude of materials that may be present within a painted work of art (often in ultrathin layers or traces), as well as the exceptional sensitivity of the original surfaces to environmental conditions such as heat, light, and so on. Lasers hold an important role among the available cleaning methodologies, as they enable high control and accuracy, material selectivity, and immediate feedback. Still, prior to their implementation, it is imperative to optimize the cleaning parameters, so to ensure that any potential implications to the remaining materials are minimal and well understood. Toward this aim, research at IESL-FORTH is focused on both refining and continuously updating the laser-cleaning protocols (by introducing novel laser technologies into the field, i.e., ultrashort laser pulses), as well as on investigating and studying the nature and extent of laser-induced physicochemical alterations to the involved materials. In this Account, extended work for the understanding of ultraviolet (UV) laser ablation of polymers is presented. Emphasis is placed on the use of model systems (polymers doped with chromophores of known photochemistry) to examine the in-depth laser-induced modifications at the processed surfaces and thus to illustrate the dependence of their nature and extent on laser parameters and material properties. Furthermore, studies for the potential use of femtosecond UV pulses to overcome certain limitations involved with the nanosecond ablation of molecular overlayers from CH surfaces are highlighted. In particular, it is demonstrated that in the femtosecond regime any chemical modifications are, qualitatively and quantitatively, highly defined, limited and nearly independent of the material properties, such as the

  7. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Stephen; Williams, Alison; Chan, Peter


    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2013. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2013, the standards saved an estimated 4.05 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 4% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $56 billion. The average household saved $361 in operating costs as a result of residential and plumbing product standards. The estimated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions associated with the standards in 2013 was 218 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 4% of total U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2090 amount to 181 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a past and projected cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,271 billion and $1,487 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.9 trillion gallons in 2013, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2090 of 55 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2013 from reduced water use amounted to $16 billon.

  8. Energy-conserving site design: case study, The Woodlands, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M


    The Woodlands is a HUD Title VII New Town located north of Houston. It includes 22,000 acres and the plan for the new town consists of 6 residential villages, a town center called the Metro Center and several additional tracts, such as the Trade Center for larger-scale industrial use. Each village is to be structured around one large and several supporting neighborhood centers. Ultimate population is planned to be 150,000. Included in this report are sections on background, team structure and organization, methodological considerations, the conventional and energy-conserving plan, constraints to implementation, and general conclusions and next phases.

  9. Determination of carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in polyethylene terephthalate containers designated for water conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepović Azra S.


    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET has in the last several years become the main packaging material for many food products, particularly carbonated beverages and bottled water, as well as for products of chemical industry (packaging of various hygiene maintenance agents, pesticides, solvents, etc.. The strength and permeability properties of PET are very good for packaging of beverages, its resistance to chemicals is high and it has a high degree of transparency. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde are formed during the thermoforming of PET containers. After cooling, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde remain trapped in the walls of a PET bottle and may migrate into the water after filling and storage. Since there are no migration tests in Serbia prescribed for the determination of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, the purpose of the paper is to test the quantitative contents of carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in PET containers of different volumes, made by various manufacturers of bottled mineral carbonated and noncarbonated water, and exposed to different temperatures. In this study, the migration of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde from PET bottles into mineral carbonated and noncarbonated water was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Taking into consideration that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde have no UV active or fluorescent group, the chromatography shall be preceded by derivatization in a closed system (due to a low boiling point of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, which shall transform carbonyl compounds into UV active compounds.

  10. Practicing Sustainability in an Urban University: A Case Study of a Behavior Based Energy Conservation Project (United States)

    Chan, Stuart; Dolderman, Dan; Savan, Beth; Wakefield, Sarah


    This case study of the University of Toronto Sustainability Office's energy conservation project, Rewire, explores the implementation of a social marketing campaign that encourages energy efficient behavior. Energy conservation activities have reached approximately 3,000 students and staff members annually, and have saved electricity, thermal…

  11. The estimated impact of California’s urban water conservation mandate on electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (United States)

    Spang, Edward S.; Holguin, Andrew J.; Loge, Frank J.


    In April 2015, the Governor of California mandated a 25% statewide reduction in water consumption (relative to 2013 levels) by urban water suppliers. The more than 400 public water agencies affected by the regulation were also required to report monthly progress towards the conservation goal to the State Water Resources Control Board. This paper uses the reported data to assess how the water utilities have responded to this mandate and to estimate the electricity savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions associated with reduced operation of urban water infrastructure systems. The results show that California succeeded in saving 524 000 million gallons (MG) of water (a 24.5% decrease relative to the 2013 baseline) over the mandate period, which translates into 1830 GWh total electricity savings, and a GHG emissions reduction of 521 000 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents (MT CO2e). For comparison, the total electricity savings linked to water conservation are approximately 11% greater than the savings achieved by the investor-owned electricity utilities’ efficiency programs for roughly the same time period, and the GHG savings represent the equivalent of taking about 111 000 cars off the road for a year. These indirect, large-scale electricity and GHG savings were achieved at costs that were competitive with existing programs that target electricity and GHG savings directly and independently. Finally, given the breadth of the results produced, we built a companion website, called ‘H2Open’ (, to this research effort that allows users to view and explore the data and results across scales, from individual water utilities to the statewide summary.

  12. Conserved water-mediated hydrogen bond network between TM-I, -II, -VI, and -VII in 7TM receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Rie; Hansen, Louise Valentin; Mokrosinski, Jacek


    Five highly conserved polar residues connected by a number of structural water molecules together with two rotamer micro-switches, TrpVI:13 and TyrVII:20, constitute an extended hydrogen bond network between the intracellular segments of TM-I, -II, -VI, and -VII of 7TM receptors. Molecular dynamics...... simulations showed that, although the fewer water molecules in rhodopsin were relatively movable, the hydrogen bond network of the beta2-adrenergic receptor was fully loaded with water molecules that were surprisingly immobilized between the two rotamer switches, both apparently being in their closed...... conformation. Manipulations of the rotamer state of TyrVII:20 and TrpVI:13 demonstrated that these residues served as gates for the water molecules at the intracellular and extracellular ends of the hydrogen bond network, respectively. TrpVI:13 at the bottom of the main ligand-binding pocket was shown...

  13. Soil and water conservation on Central American hillsides: if more technologies is the answer, what is the question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hellin


    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to lead to increased water scarcity in the coming decades and to changes in patterns of precipitation. The result will be more short-term crop failures and long-term production declines. Improved soil management is key to climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts. There is growing interest in the promotion of climate smart agricultural practices. Many of these are the same practices that were promoted in the 1980s and 1990s under the guise of soil and water conservation. Farmer non-adoption of soil conservation technologies was rife and suggests that different approaches are needed today. Much can be learnt from these past endeavors to ensure that current efforts are better designed and implemented. We use the example of Central America to highlight some of these lessons and suggest alternative ways forward. Technology per se is not the limiting factor; many suitable technologies and practices are extant. What is required is a more nuanced approach to soil conservation efforts. There is a need to focus less on capturing soil once it has been eroded, via the use of cross-slope soil conservation practices, and more on improving soil quality of the soil that remains through improved soil cover. It is also critical to understand farming systems as a whole i.e. the full range of interlinked activities and the multiplicity of goals that farm households pursue. Furthermore, it is important to engage farmers as active players in conservation efforts rather than passive adopters of technologies, and to adopt a board value chain approach and engage a plethora of value chain actors (researchers, extension agents, equipment manufacturers, input suppliers, farmers, traders, and processors in an agricultural innovation system.

  14. Infiltration and runoff losses under fallowing and conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fallowing and conservation agriculture are sustainable farming practices that can be used for soil and water conservation. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of different conservation agriculture practices on rainfall infiltration and soil and water losses across 4 sites, using simulated rainfall. The study ...

  15. Feeding nine billion people sustainably: conserving land and water through shifting diets and changes in technologies. (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Duchin, Faye


    In the early 21st century the extensive clearing of forestland, fresh water scarcity, and sharp rises in the price of food have become causes for concern. These concerns may be substantially exacerbated over the next few decades by the need to provide improved diets for a growing global population. This study applies an inter-regional input-output model of the world economy, the World Trade Model, for analysis of alternative scenarios about satisfying future food requirements by midcentury. The scenario analysis indicates that relying only on more extensive use of arable land and fresh water would require clearing forests and exacerbating regional water scarcities. However, a combination of less resource-intensive diets and improved agricultural productivity, the latter especially in Africa, could make it possible to use these resources sustainably while also constraining increases in food prices. Unlike the scenario outcomes from other kinds of economic models, our framework reveals the potential for a decisive shift of production and export of agricultural products away from developed countries toward Africa and Latin America. Although the assumed changes in diets and technologies may not be realizable without incentives, our results suggest that these regions exhibit comparative advantages in agricultural production due to their large remaining resource endowments and their potential for higher yields.

  16. Business strategies for conservation on private lands: Koa forestry as a case study. (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua H; Daily, Gretchen C; Friday, James B; Matson, Pamela A; Naylor, Rosamond L; Vitousek, Peter


    Innovative financial instruments are being created to reward conservation on private, working lands. Major design challenges remain, however, to make investments in biodiversity and ecosystem services economically attractive and commonplace. From a business perspective, three key financial barriers for advancing conservation land uses must frequently be addressed: high up-front costs, long time periods with no revenue, and high project risk due to long time horizons and uncertainty. We explored ways of overcoming these barriers on grazing lands in Hawaii by realizing a suite of timber and conservation revenue streams associated with their (partial) reforestation. We calculated the financial implications of alternative strategies, focusing on Acacia koa ("koa") forestry because of its high conservation and economic potential. Koa's timber value alone creates a viable investment (mean net present value = $453/acre), but its long time horizon and poor initial cash flow pose formidable challenges for landowners. At present, subsidy payments from a government conservation program targeting benefits for biodiversity, water quality, and soil erosion have the greatest potential to move landowners beyond the tipping point in favor of investments in koa forestry, particularly when combined with future timber harvest (mean net present value = $1,661/acre). Creating financial mechanisms to capture diverse ecosystem service values through time will broaden opportunities for conservation land uses. Governments, nongovernmental organizations, and private investors have roles to play in catalyzing this transition by developing new revenue streams that can reach a broad spectrum of landowners.

  17. Eight years of Conservation Agriculture-based cropping systems research in Eastern Africa to conserve soil and water and mitigate effects of climate change (United States)

    Araya, Tesfay; Nyssen, Jan; Govaerts, Bram; Lanckriet, Sil; Baudron, Frédéric; Deckers, Jozef; Cornelis, Wim


    In Ethiopia, repeated plowing, complete removal of crop residues at harvest, aftermath grazing of crop fields and occurrence of repeated droughts have reduced the biomass return to the soil and aggravated cropland degradation. Conservation Agriculture (CA)-based resource conserving cropping systems may reduce runoff and soil erosion, and improve soil quality, thereby increasing crop productivity. Thus, a long-term tillage experiment has been carried out (2005 to 2012) on a Vertisol to quantify - among others - changes in runoff and soil loss for two local tillage practices, modified to integrate CA principles in semi-arid northern Ethiopia. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design with three replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were (i) derdero+ (DER+) with a furrow and permanent raised bed planting system, ploughed only once at planting by refreshing the furrow from 2005 to 2012 and 30% standing crop residue retention, (ii) terwah+ (TER+) with furrows made at 1.5 m interval, plowed once at planting, 30% standing crop residue retention and fresh broad beds, and (iii) conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three plain tillage operations and complete removal of crop residues. All the plowing and reshaping of the furrows was done using the local ard plough mahresha and wheat, teff, barley and grass pea were grown. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year onwards (2007) at 2 l ha-1 before planting to control pre-emergent weeds in CA plots. Runoff and soil loss were measured daily. Soil water content was monitored every 6 days. Significantly different (pdesign appropriate weed management strategies.

  18. Determinants of farmers’ perception to invest in soil and water conservation technologies in the North-Western Highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalew Meseret Moges


    Full Text Available Soil erosion by water is a severe and continuous ecological problem in the north-western Highlands of Ethiopia. Limited perception of farmers to practice soil and water conservation (SWC technologies is one of the major causes that have resulted accelerated soil erosion. Therefore, this paper examines the major determinants of farmers’ perception to use and invest in SWC technologies in Ankasha District, north-western highlands of Ethiopia. A detailed field survey was carried out among 338 households, randomly selected from two rural sample kebeles (called villages here after. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression model were used to analyse the effects of multiple variables on farmers’ perception. The results indicate that educational level of the respondents and their access to trainings were found to have a positive and very significant association (P<0.01 with farmers’ perception. Likewise, land ownership, plot size, slope type, and extension contact positively and significantly influenced farmers’ perception at 5% level of significance. On the other hand, the influence of respondents’ age and plot distance from the homestead was found to be negative and significant (P<0.05. The overall results of this study indicate that the perception of farmers to invest in SWC technologies was highly determined by socioeconomic, institutional, attitudinal and biophysical factors. Thus, a better understanding of constrains that influence farmers' perception is very important while designing and implementing SWC technologies. Frequent contacts between farmers and extension agents and continues agricultural trainings are also needed to increase awareness of the impacts of SWC benefits.

  19. Conservation Newsbriefs: Could dirt help heal the climate?


    Soil and Water Conservation Society


    Metadata only record Conservation Newsbriefs is a weekly publication by the Soil and Water Conservation Society that provides links to and synopses of recent conservation projects and studies. Sources include, but are not limited to, The Associated Press, newspapers, and magazines. This particular issue emphasizes conservation tillage.

  20. Roles of energy conservation and climate feedback in Bjerknes compensation: a coupled modeling study (United States)

    Dai, Haijin; Yang, Haijun; Yin, Jie


    The roles of energy balance and climate feedback in Bjerknes compensation (BJC) are studied through wind-perturbation experiments in a coupled climate model. Shutting down surface winds over the ocean causes significant reductions in both wind-driven and thermohaline overturning circulations, leading to a remarkable decrease in poleward ocean heat transport (OHT). The sea surface temperature (SST) responds with an increasing meridional gradient, resulting in a stronger Hadley Cell, and thus an enhanced atmosphere heat transport (AHT), compensating the OHT decrease. This is the so-called BJC. Coupled model experiments confirm that the occurrence of BJC is an intrinsic requirement of local energy conservation, and local climate feedback determines the degree of BJC, consistent with our previous theoretical results. Negative (positive or zero) local feedback results in AHT change undercompensating (overcompensating or perfectly compensating) OHT change. Using the radiative kernel technique, the general local feedback between the radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere and surface temperature can be partitioned into individual feedbacks that are related to perturbations in temperature, water vapor, surface albedo, and clouds. We find that the overcompensation in the tropics (extratropics) is mainly caused by positive feedbacks related to water vapor and clouds (surface albedo). The longwave feedbacks related to SST and atmospheric temperature are always negative and strong outside the tropics, well offsetting positive feedbacks in most regions and resulting in undercompensation. Different dominant feedbacks give different BJC scenarios at different regions, acting together to maintain the local energy balance.

  1. Computation and Analysis of High Rocky Slope Safety in a Water Conservancy Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yang


    Full Text Available An integrated method, covering the actual monitoring analysis, practical geological model, and theoretical mathematical simulation model, is systematically proposed and successfully applied. Deformation characteristic of a unique high rocky slope was firstly analyzed from multiple angles and multiple layers by changeable elevations and distances. Arrangements of monitoring points were listed and monitoring equipment was designed to comprise a complete monitoring system. Present larger displacement was concluded for bottom larger displacement caused by water erosion and middle larger displacement formed by seepage. Temporal and spatial displacements rule study of multiple-points linkage effects with water factor proved this conclusion. To better excavate useful message and analyze the deep rule from the practical monitoring data, the slope geological model was conducted and rock mechanic parameters were researched. Finally, a unique three-dimensional finite element model was applied to approach the structure character using numerical simulations. The corresponding strength criterion was used to determine the safety coefficient by selecting a typical section. Subsequently, an integrated three-dimensional finite element model of the slope and dam was developed and more detailed deformation evolution mechanism was revealed. This study is expected to provide a powerful and systematic method to analyze very high, important, and dangerous slopes.

  2. Conservation properties of smoothed particle hydrodynamics applied to the shallow water equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Frank (Jason); S. Reich


    textabstractConservation of potential vorticity (PV) and Kelvin's circulation theorem express two of the fundamental concepts in ideal fluid dynamics. In this note, we discuss these two concepts in the context of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. We show that, if interpreted in an

  3. Processes affecting genetic structure and conservation: a case study of wild and cultivated Brassica rapa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Naja Steen; Poulsen, Gert; Andersen, Bente Anni


    When planning optimal conservation strategies for wild and cultivated types of a plant species, a number of influencing biological and environmental factors should be considered from the outset. In the present study Brassica rapa was used to illustrate this: to develop Scandinavian conservation s...... cultivar. The study point to that many processes, e.g. spontaneous introgression, naturalisation, breeding and agricultural practise affected the genetic structure of wild and cultivated B. rapa populations....

  4. Attitudes of Local People Toward Wildlife Conservation: A Case Study From the Kashmir Valley


    Zaffar Rais Mir; Athar Noor; Bilal Habib; Gopi Govindan Veeraswami


    People’s attitudes toward wildlife conservation can significantly affect the success of conservation initiatives. Understanding the factors influencing these attitudes is essential for designing strategies to alleviate human–wildlife conflict. Although this topic has been studied extensively across diverse regions, there has been no such study in the Kashmir Division of Jammu and Kashmir state, India. We surveyed 3 administrative units around Dachigam National Park through semistructured inte...

  5. Facilitating Transitional Processes in Rigid Institutional Regimes for Water Management and Wetland Conservation: Experience from the Guadalquivir Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo F. Méndez


    Full Text Available Traditional policies for water resources management and wetland conservation are often based on command-and-control approaches. The latter tend to drive the human-wetland-water system into pathological states, characterized by more vulnerable ecosystems and rigid institutions for governance. The overcoming of these states may rest in the development of flexible and adaptive institutional regimes that rely on adaptive governance and management. Because past factors might constrain the implementation of more flexible adaptive approaches to management, it is important to understand the historical mechanisms underlying the genesis of institutional rigidity. We first present the results of a historical analysis of Doñana, which can be characterized as a pathological water socio-ecosystem governed through rigid institutional regimes for water resources management and wetland conservation. In a second step, we analyze the advances achieved during a recent, large-scale restoration program for the Doñana wetlands, which adhered explicitly to the tenets of adaptive management. Our analysis indicated that the historical persistence of command-and-control approaches has been a path-dependent process that led to the emergence of a rigid institutional regime and caused it to enter a rigidity trap. However, the achievements of the restoration program suggest that a more flexible and adaptive regime could be developed through the introduction of adaptive management at the operational levels, using specifically tailored action research programs. To conclude, we speculate that the research strategy outlined could be extended to comply with, or complement, the requirements of the EU's Water Framework Directive in other European water socio-ecosystems.

  6. Diet, female reproduction and conservation of Jagor's water snake, Enhydris jagorii in Bung Ka Loh wetland, Uttaradit province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattraphas Pongcharoen


    Full Text Available Jagor's water snake (Enhydris jagorii is a freshwater snake that is endemic to the Chao Phraya-Ta Chin basin, Thailand. However, habitat change and destruction are the main threats to this snake, where a large area of the wetland has been rapidly transformed into urban and agricultural areas. Moreover, uncontrolled fishing seriously threatens the remaining population of this snake. In order to protect this species, information on its natural history is required. This study was conducted in the Bung Ka Loh wetland during October, 2010 to August, 2014 when 108 specimens of this species were collected. Analysis of the stomach contents revealed that it is piscivorous, with cyprinids being the dominant prey. Prey items were usually less than 10% of the snake body mass and multiple prey items were occasionally found. No significant difference in diet was noted between the sexes. In addition, predation on this snake by Cylindrophis ruffus was first recorded in this study. The smallest gravid female collected had a snout-vent length of 34.0 cm. The clutch size and mass ranged from 1 to 28 embryos and 3.1–123.0 g, respectively, and both of these quantities increased significantly with increased female size. Reproduction was possibly seasonal and occurred in the rainy season. A preliminary study of other wetlands in the central plain of Thailand failed to detect the existence of this species. Accordingly, the conservation status of this species should be changed from Data Deficient to Critically Endangered.

  7. Conglobation in the Pill Bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a Water Conservation Mechanism


    Smigel, Jacob T.; Gibbs, Allen G.


    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 ± 1°C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to...

  8. Introduction of participatory conservation in Croatia, residents' perceptions: a case study from the Istrian peninsula. (United States)

    Sladonja, Barbara; Brščić, Kristina; Poljuha, Danijela; Fanuko, Neda; Grgurev, Marin


    Croatia, like many other transition countries has undergone radical changes in its nature protection models. This paper discusses a historical overview, present situation and future possibilities for nature conservation in Croatia. A conservative top-down approach to nature protection was applied in the past in Croatia and is now being replaced by a prevalent bottom-up approach. Social context is crucial to introducing participatory conservation, therefore special concern is given to the perception of the local population towards protected area management in Istria as a case study in Croatia. Survey data were used to assess the conservation knowledge of local populations and their perception towards Protected Areas (PAs), leadership activities and management authorities in Istria County. This paper examines the perceptions of 313 residents living in and around six natural PAs located in Istria. The results revealed a moderate general knowledge about PAs in Istria and environmental issues, and a low awareness of institutions managing PAs, eagerness to participate in the activities of PAs and general support for the conservation cause. Understanding the perception of local residents enables the creation of feasible, long-term strategies for the implementation of participatory conservation. The research identifies the need for greater human, technical and financial efforts to strengthen the management capabilities of local agencies responsible for PAs. The process of participatory conservation optimization in Croatia is underway and world experiences must be observed in order to create a congruent, site-specific model with the best possible results.

  9. Biodiversity conservation and water security in pastoral landscapes of the Chalbi desert : Is the “landesque capital” approach relevant to pastoralists livelihood enduring environmental change?


    Hazard, Benoit


    International audience; In the arid land of Northern Kenya, the biodiversity conservation project reflects the debates that have shaped the nexus between biodiversity, water and food security. For long assumptions about the inabilities of pastoralist to manage land degradation and soil and water conservation have been part of environmental policies and legitimized “green grabbing” practices. How does the implementation of natural resources management models interact with pastoralist livelihoo...

  10. Effects of Long-term Conservation Tillage on Soil Nutrients in Sloping Fields in Regions Characterized by Water and Wind Erosion


    Chunjian Tan; Xue Cao; Shuai Yuan; Weiyu Wang; Yongzhong Feng; Bo Qiao


    Conservation tillage is commonly used in regions affected by water and wind erosion. To understand the effects of conservation tillage on soil nutrients and yield, a long-term experiment was set up in a region affected by water and wind erosion on the Loess Plateau. The treatments used were traditional tillage (CK), no tillage (NT), straw mulching (SM), plastic-film mulching (PM), ridging and plastic-film mulching (RPM) and intercropping (In). Our results demonstrate that the available nutrie...

  11. Dewetting acrylic polymer films with water/propylene carbonate/surfactant mixtures - implications for cultural heritage conservation. (United States)

    Baglioni, M; Montis, C; Brandi, F; Guaragnone, T; Meazzini, I; Baglioni, P; Berti, D


    The removal of hydrophobic polymer films from surfaces is one of the top priorities of modern conservation science. Nanostructured fluids containing water, good solvents for polymers, either immiscible or partially miscible with water, and surfactants have been used in the last decade to achieve controlled removal. The dewetting of the polymer film is often an essential step to achieve efficient removal; however, the role of the surfactant throughout the process is yet to be fully understood. We report on the dewetting of a methacrylate/acrylate copolymer film induced by a ternary mixture of water, propylene carbonate (PC) and C 9-11 E 6 , a nonionic alcohol ethoxylate surfactant. The fluid microstructure was characterised through small angle X-ray scattering and the interactions between the film and water, water/PC and water/PC/C 9-11 E 6 , were monitored through confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) and analised both from a thermodynamic and a kinetic point of view. The presence of a surfactant is a prerequisite to induce dewetting of μm-thick films at room temperature, but it is not a thermodynamic driver. The amphiphile lowers the interfacial energy between the phases and favors the loss of adhesion of the polymer on glass, decreasing, in turn, the activation energy barrier, which can be overcome by the thermal fluctuations of polymer film stability, initiating the dewetting process.

  12. Surgical versus conservative management of patella fractures in cats: a retrospective study. (United States)

    Salas, Nicole; Popovitch, Catherine


    This study compared the clinical outcome in cats with patella fractures treated by surgery to those treated conservatively. Six cats with 9 patella fractures were treated. Six fractures were treated surgically and 3 were treated conservatively. Medical records of all 6 patients were reviewed for age, breed, gender, trauma, and fracture conformation. All patients had follow-up which consisted of a physical examination, radiographs, and an interview with the client between 1 and 4.5 y after surgery or diagnosis. All cats treated conservatively returned to normal activity with no gait abnormalities. In cats that had surgery, 4/6 had breakdown of the surgical repair but all cats went on to full recovery with normal activity and gait. The conclusions of this preliminary study are that surgical repair of cat patella fractures has a high rate of implant failure and that conservative management of cat patella fractures results in excellent clinical outcome.

  13. Case studies in residual use and energy conservation at wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. [Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (United States)


    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) funded a study to document energy conservation activities and their effects on operation costs, regulatory compliance, and process optimization at several wastewater treatment plants (WWTPS). The purpose of this report is to review the efforts of wastewater treatment Facilities that use residuals as fuels. Case histories are presented for facilities that have taken measures to reduce energy consumption during wastewater treatment. Most of the WWTPs discussed in this report have retrofitted existing facilities to achieve energy conservation. The case studies of energy conservation measures found no effects on the facilities` ability to comply with NPDES permits. Indeed, energy conservation activities enhance environmental compliance in several ways.

  14. Surgical versus conservative management of patella fractures in cats: A retrospective study (United States)

    Salas, Nicole; Popovitch, Catherine


    This study compared the clinical outcome in cats with patella fractures treated by surgery to those treated conservatively. Six cats with 9 patella fractures were treated. Six fractures were treated surgically and 3 were treated conservatively. Medical records of all 6 patients were reviewed for age, breed, gender, trauma, and fracture conformation. All patients had follow-up which consisted of a physical examination, radiographs, and an interview with the client between 1 and 4.5 y after surgery or diagnosis. All cats treated conservatively returned to normal activity with no gait abnormalities. In cats that had surgery, 4/6 had breakdown of the surgical repair but all cats went on to full recovery with normal activity and gait. The conclusions of this preliminary study are that surgical repair of cat patella fractures has a high rate of implant failure and that conservative management of cat patella fractures results in excellent clinical outcome. PMID:22654136

  15. Predicting salt intrusion into freshwater aquifers resulting from CO2 injection – A study on the influence of conservative assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Lena; Binning, Philip John; Class, Holger


    . A crucial task is to choose an appropriate conceptual model and relevant scenarios. Overly conservative assumptions may lead to estimation of unacceptably high risks, and thus prevent the implementation of a CO2 storage project unnecessarily. On the other hand, risk assessment should not lead...... to an underestimation of hazards. This study compares two conceptual model approaches for the numerical simulation of brine-migration scenarios through a vertical fault and salt intrusion into a fresh water aquifer. The first approach calculates salt discharge into freshwater using an immiscible two-phase model......-phase model is applied in the CO2 storage reservoir and spatially coupled to a single-phase (water) two-component (water, salt) model, where salt mass fraction is a variable. A Dirichlet–Neumann technique is used for the coupling conditions at the interface of the two models. The results show...

  16. Assessment of the conservation priority status of South African estuaries for use in management and water allocation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turpie, JK


    Full Text Available Vol. 28 No. 2 April 2002 191 Assessment of the conservation priority status of South African estuaries for use in management and water allocation JK Turpie1*, JB Adams2, A Joubert3, TD Harrison4, BM Colloty2, RC Maree5, AK Whitfield6, TH Wooldridge7... and Coastal Management, Private Bag X2, Roggebaai 8012, South Africa 6JLB Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Private Bag 1015, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa 7Zoology Department, University of Port Elizabeth, P.O Box 1600, Port Elizabeth, 6000, South Africa 8CSIR...

  17. Food, Fracking, and Freshwater: The Potential for Markets and Cross-Sectoral Investments to Enable Water Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Cook


    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing—the injection of pressurized fluid, often water, to increase recovery of oil or gas—has become increasingly popular in combination with horizontal drilling. Hydraulic fracturing improves production from a well, but requires a significant amount of water to do so and could put pressure on existing water resources, especially in water-stressed areas. To supply water needs, some water rights holders sell or lease their water resources to oil and gas producers in an informal water market. These transactions enable the opportunity for cross-sectoral investments, by which the energy sector either directly or indirectly provides the capital for water efficiency improvements in the agricultural sector as a mechanism to increase water availability for other purposes, including oil and gas production. In this analysis, we employ an original water and cost model to evaluate the water market in Texas and the potential for cross-sectoral collaboration on water efficiency improvements through a case study of the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. We find that, if irrigation efficiency management practices were fully implemented, between 420 and 800 million m3 of water could be spared per year over a ten year period, potentially enabling freshwater use in oil and gas production for up to 26,000 wells, while maintaining agricultural productivity and possibly improving water flows to the ecosystem.

  18. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge Hydraulic and Hydrologic Study and Water Management Study. (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the fall of 1992 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service requested assistance from the local Soil and Water Conservation District and the Soil Conservation Service to...

  19. KE Basin water dispositioning engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunacek, G.S.; Gahir, S.S.


    This engineering study is a feasibility study of KE Basin water treatment to an acceptable level and dispositioning the treated water to Columbia River, ground through ETF or to air through evaporation.

  20. Phylogeographic lineages and species comparisons in conservation analyses: a case study of california herpetofauna. (United States)

    Rissler, Leslie J; Hijmans, Robert J; Graham, Catherine H; Moritz, Craig; Wake, David B


    Many phylogeographic studies have revealed strongly diverged lineages within species that are masked by a lack of congruent morphological differentiation. To assess the extent to which the genetic component of diversity affects conservation assessments, we compared spatial patterns of endemism and conservation value for 22 species of Californian amphibians and reptiles with the 75 phylogeographic lineages that they contain. We used bioclimatic distribution modeling with environmental layers to generate 5-km spatial-resolution maps of predicted distribution for each species and lineage. We found concentrations of lineage breaks across the Central Valley, San Francisco Bay, the Sierra Nevada, and the Tehachapi and Trinity ranges. Subdivision of the ranges of species into phylogeographic units revealed novel areas of endemism. Several areas of very high conservation value for lineages were not evident in the species-level analysis. These observations illustrate the importance of considering multiple levels of biodiversity in conservation assessments.

  1. No runoff, no soil loss : soil and water conservation in hedgerow barrier systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiepe, P.


    Land degradation by water erosion represents a serious, and fast increasing, environmental threat. Hedgerow barriers control water erosion through the presence of the tree stem and through an increase in infiltration beneath the hedgerow. The infiltration rate beneath hedgerows is 3-8 times

  2. Enhancing Extension Programs by Discussing Water Conservation Technology Adoption with Growers (United States)

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Warner, Laura A.; Martin, Emmett T.; White, Sarah A.; Fisher, Paul


    Nursery growers are one of the largest agricultural users of water. Researchers have been developing new water treatment techniques and technologies for nursery growers to assist in preserving this precious resource, yet adoption within the industry has been limited. Extension professionals need to work closely with nursery growers to encourage…

  3. Review of studies of research opportunities in energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Williams, T.A.; Hauser, S.G.


    This study attempted to systematically identify, screen and review many of the 27 remaining major studies across the end-use areas. The method used to identify and review the studies, the scope of this effort, the types of studies reviewed, and the R and D opportunities identified are discussed. The actual report reviews are included. The review format and the kinds of information sought from each report are discussed. The general categories of the material are described; the types of information presented are summarized; and gaps in the literature are discussed. A discussion of R and D needs and comments of the specific needs presented and their temporal and evolutionary characteristics are included. The findings of the review are summarized and the researchers contacted for information are listed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiwi Pratiwi


    Full Text Available Encroachments on Carita Research Forest area have exacerbated the degradation of land due to uncontrolled runoff, erosion and nutrient losses especially on the sloping land with high annual rainfall. To reduce the severity of the degradation the area should be rehabilitated by applying soil and water conservation techniques. The techniques used were the vegetative methods (culture, and a combination of it with mechanical/technical methods. The combination method is expected to be more effective in controlling runoff, erosion and nutrient losses. One important parameter is the efficiency of the distance of the vertical mulch channel, which affects the application cost. This study was aimed to determine the effect of different distances of vertical mulch channels on the plant growth and annual crop yield as well as its effectiveness in controlling runoff, erosion and nutrient losses. The research was conducted in Carita Research Forest from 2005 to 2008, using the randomized block design. Treatments applied were: vertical mulch with six and twelve meter distances of plots of khaya (Khaya anthotheca C.Dc. and corn ( Zea mays L. cropping system. Observations included height and diameter growth of khaya, runoff and erosion, and cost per ha. The results showed that six meter of vertical mulch was the most efficient distance. The height and diameter of khaya tree increased by 7% and 31% in six meter distance compared to the control. Moreover, runoff and erosion was reduced by 75% and 37%, and nutrient losses could be trimmed down by three to five times. In addition, six meters distance could also produce corn of 712 kg/ha/year, which was 73% greater than corn production without vertical mulch. On the other hand, the cropping system with six meter distance of vertical mulch required Rp 3,250,000,- per ha, which was Rp 250,000,- more expensive than that without vertical mulch.

  5. Household-Level Determinants of Soil and Water Conservation Adoption Phases: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopian Highlands (United States)

    Teshome, Akalu; de Graaff, Jan; Kassie, Menale


    Soil and water conservation (SWC) practices have been promoted in the highlands of Ethiopia during the last four decades. However, the level of adoption of SWC practices varies greatly. This paper examines the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC technologies in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia. This study is based on a detailed farm survey among 298 households in three watersheds. Simple descriptive statistics were applied to analyze the stages of adoption. An ordered probit model was used to analyze the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC. This model is used to analyze more than two outcomes of an ordinal dependent variable. The results indicate that sampled households are found in different phases of adoption, i.e., dis-adoption/non-adoption (18.5 %), initial adoption (30.5 %), actual adoption (20.1 %), and final adoption (30.9 %). The results of the ordered probit model show that some socio-economic and institutional factors affect the adoption phases of SWC differently. Farm labor, parcel size, ownership of tools, training in SWC, presence of SWC program, social capital (e.g., cooperation with adjacent farm owners), labor sharing scheme, and perception of erosion problem have a significant positive influence on actual and final adoption phases of SWC. In addition, the final adoption phase of SWC is positively associated with tenure security, cultivated land sizes, parcel slope, and perception on SWC profitability. Policy makers should take into consideration factors affecting (continued) adoption of SWC such as profitability, tenure security, social capital, technical support, and resource endowments (e.g., tools and labor) when designing and implementing SWC policies and programs.

  6. Study of energy conservation in selected institutions of higher education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlisin, M.


    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between 1) energy usage and number of full-time-equivalent students and 2) energy usage and twenty-two selected energy savings measures incorporated by the Illinois public universities in fiscal years 1976 and 1980. The study culminated in the evaluation of the statistical significance and positive or negative relationships of the data through use of the Spearman rho correlation formula. The conclusions of this study were that there was a positive relationship between decreased 1) energy usage and numbers of full-time-equivalent students and decreased 2) energy usage and twenty-two selected energy-savings measures incorporated by the Illinois public universities in fiscal years 1976 and 1980.

  7. Water Conservation: A Tool to Build Understanding, Service and Awareness about Natural Resources Linda Ruiz McCall, Katherine K. Ellins, and Bridget Cameron (United States)

    McCall, L. R.; Ellins, K. K.; Cameron, B.


    Water is arguably our most important natural resource, essential for sustaining life on Earth; necessary to support agriculture and industry; and important for fisheries, power, navigation, and recreation. As world population increases and climate change brings about a redistribution of water and people across our planet, water resource management and conservation are increasingly important. Based on current population projections for Texas, about 85 percent of the state’s projected population will not have enough water by 2060 in drought conditions. Water conservation is critical for meeting the state’s long-term water needs. To that end, the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) is engaged in a number of education and outreach programs. In this paper, we report on three TWDB educational campaigns. Water Exploration, a Web-based water resources education program for Texas high school students, Put Some Blue in Your Green School, a service learning project designed to promote interaction between schools and their local communities, and Water IQ: Know Your Water, a public awareness campaign for water conservation. Water Exploration uses a pedagogical approach called the Legacy Cycle to involve students in experiential, project-based learning to help them achieve a deeper understanding about water resources. It addresses the need for rigorous curriculum in a vitally important area for the new Texas high school Earth and Space Science Capstone course, as well as Environmental Systems, and Aquatic Science. The interdisciplinary nature of the curriculum encourages students to explore the connections between water resources and economics (water planning, water as a commodity), history (water affects human settlement and migration), and biology (water is essential for life; contaminated water affects living organisms). The ability to integrate information from different disciplines and weigh the perspectives of multiple experts is particularly important for solving the

  8. Time evolving multi-city dependencies and robustness tradeoffs for risk-based portfolios of conservation, transfers, and cooperative water supply infrastructure development pathways (United States)

    Trindade, B. C.; Reed, P. M.; Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.


    Water scarcity in historically water-rich regions such as the southeastern United States is becoming a more prevalent concern. It has been shown that cooperative short-term planning that relies on conservation and transfers of existing supplies amongst communities can be used by water utilities to mitigate the effects of water scarcity in the near future. However, in the longer term, infrastructure expansion is likely to be necessary to address imbalances between growing water demands and the available supply capacity. This study seeks to better diagnose and avoid candidate modes for system failure. Although it is becoming more common for water utilities to evaluate the robustness of their water supply, defined as the insensitivity of their systems to errors in deeply uncertain projections or assumptions, defining robustness is particularly challenging in multi-stakeholder regional contexts for decisions that encompass short management actions and long-term infrastructure planning. Planning and management decisions are highly interdependent and strongly shape how a region's infrastructure itself evolves. This research advances the concept of system robustness by making it evolve over time rather than static, so that it is applicable to an adaptive system and therefore more suited for use for combined short and long-term planning efforts. The test case for this research is the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, where the cities of Raleigh, Durham, Cary and Chapel Hill are experiencing rapid population growth and increasing concerns over drought. This study is facilitating their engagement in cooperative and robust regional water portfolio planning. The insights from this work have general merit for regions where adjacent municipalities can benefit from improving cooperative infrastructure investments and more efficient resource management strategies.

  9. Accès Eau: Enhanced Water Access for Bio-diversity Conservation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Accès Eau, un meilleur accès à l'eau pour la conservation de la biodiversité et le bien-être de la population sur le plateau de Mahafaly, à Madagascar. Situé dans le sud-ouest de Madagascar, le plateau de Mahafaly connaît un taux de pauvreté élevé et fait partie des régions du pays qui reçoivent le moins de précipitations.

  10. Comparative study of conservative resection and radical operation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare mortality and morbidity in management of thyroid cancers by total lobectomy (C-R) and near-total thyroidectomy (R-0) and to relate pathological subtype to prognosis. Design: A retrospective study of patients with thyroid cancers that were managed during an eleven-year period. Setfing: Jos University ...

  11. Preliminary studies on mycorrhizal symbiosis in plant conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farming systems affected the abundance of spores of Mycorrhizae with spore abundance higher in improved tree fallow than natural fallow and continuous cropping systems. Studies on orchids showed each orchid species to associate with specific Rhizoctonia isolate and taxonomic trends were observed in the association ...

  12. Conservation vs. renewable energy. Cases studies from Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcintas, Melek; Kaya, Abidin [AMEL Technologies, Inc., Manoa Innovation Center, 2800 Woodlawn Drive, Suite 251, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)


    State of Hawaii generates about 90 percent of its electricity from imported fossil fuel sources. Thus, there is pressure from both public and policy makers to reduce the State dependency on foreign fossil fuel sources. To this extend, there are incentives created at State and Federal level for both residential and commercial buildings to install photovoltaic (PV) systems. Although such incentives are necessary for long-term objectives, it is shown in this study that retrofitting inefficient old building-equipment is another viable source to reduce the State of Hawaii's electricity demand. Four case studies are presented to illustrate that building-equipment retrofitting is a viable and necessary tool for increasing the energy efficiency of buildings. Each case study presents an equipment retrofit project electricity savings with its payback periods, and compares with equivalent electricity capacity and economics PV systems in Honolulu, Hawaii. The case studies show that energy savings from retrofit projects ranged from 28% to 61% for individual equipment retrofits. These results indicate that equipment retrofitting with energy-efficient alternatives is about 50% or more cost-effective than installing PV systems. This is so even when large renewable energy tax incentives provided by the Federal and State Governments are taken into account. (author)

  13. Conservation vs. renewable energy: Cases studies from Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcintas, Melek [AMEL Technologies, Inc., Manoa Innovation Center, 2800 Woodlawn Drive, Suite 251, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)], E-mail:; Kaya, Abidin [AMEL Technologies, Inc., Manoa Innovation Center, 2800 Woodlawn Drive, Suite 251, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)


    State of Hawaii generates about 90 percent of its electricity from imported fossil fuel sources. Thus, there is pressure from both public and policy makers to reduce the State dependency on foreign fossil fuel sources. To this extend, there are incentives created at State and Federal level for both residential and commercial buildings to install photovoltaic (PV) systems. Although such incentives are necessary for long-term objectives, it is shown in this study that retrofitting inefficient old building-equipment is another viable source to reduce the State of Hawaii's electricity demand. Four case studies are presented to illustrate that building-equipment retrofitting is a viable and necessary tool for increasing the energy efficiency of buildings. Each case study presents an equipment retrofit project electricity savings with its payback periods, and compares with equivalent electricity capacity and economics PV systems in Honolulu, Hawaii. The case studies show that energy savings from retrofit projects ranged from 28% to 61% for individual equipment retrofits. These results indicate that equipment retrofitting with energy-efficient alternatives is about 50% or more cost-effective than installing PV systems. This is so even when large renewable energy tax incentives provided by the Federal and State Governments are taken into account.

  14. Grasses suppress shoot-borne roots to conserve water during drought. (United States)

    Sebastian, Jose; Yee, Muh-Ching; Goudinho Viana, Willian; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Feldman, Max; Priest, Henry D; Trontin, Charlotte; Lee, Tak; Jiang, Hui; Baxter, Ivan; Mockler, Todd C; Hochholdinger, Frank; Brutnell, Thomas P; Dinneny, José R


    Many important crops are members of the Poaceae family, which develop root systems characterized by a high degree of root initiation from the belowground basal nodes of the shoot, termed the crown. Although this postembryonic shoot-borne root system represents the major conduit for water uptake, little is known about the effect of water availability on its development. Here we demonstrate that in the model C4 grass Setaria viridis, the crown locally senses water availability and suppresses postemergence crown root growth under a water deficit. This response was observed in field and growth room environments and in all grass species tested. Luminescence-based imaging of root systems grown in soil-like media revealed a shift in root growth from crown-derived to primary root-derived branches, suggesting that primary root-dominated architecture can be induced in S. viridis under certain stress conditions. Crown roots of Zea mays and Setaria italica, domesticated relatives of teosinte and S. viridis, respectively, show reduced sensitivity to water deficit, suggesting that this response might have been influenced by human selection. Enhanced water status of maize mutants lacking crown roots suggests that under a water deficit, stronger suppression of crown roots actually may benefit crop productivity.

  15. Comparison of Surface Water Quality and Yields from Organically and Conventionally Produced Sweet Corn Plots with Conservation and Conventional Tillage. (United States)

    Edgell, Joshua; Osmond, D L; Line, D E; Hoyt, G D; Grossman, J M; Larsen, E M


    Organic agricultural systems are often assumed to be more sustainable than conventional farming, yet there has been little work comparing surface water quality from organic and conventional production, especially under the same cropping sequence. Our objective was to compare nutrient and sediment losses, as well as sweet corn ( L. var. ) yield, from organic and conventional production with conventional and conservation tillage. The experiment was located in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Four treatments, replicated four times, had been in place for over 18 yr and consisted of conventional tillage (chisel plow and disk) with conventional production (CT/Conven), conservation no-till with conventional production (NT/Conven), conventional tillage with organic production (CT/Org), and conservation no-till with organic production (NT/Org). Water quality (surface flow volume; nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment concentrations) and sweet corn yield data were collected in 2011 and 2012. Sediment and sediment-attached nutrient losses were influenced by tillage and cropping system in 2011, due to higher rainfall, and tillage in 2012. Soluble nutrients were affected by the nutrient source and rate, which are a function of the cropping system. Sweet corn marketable yields were greater in conventional systems due to high weed competition and reduced total nitrogen availability in organic treatments. When comparing treatment efficiency (yield kg ha /nutrient loss kg ha ), the NT/Conven treatment had the greatest sweet corn yield per unit of nutrient and sediment loss. Other treatment ratios were similar to each other; thus, it appears the most sustainably productive treatment was NT/Conven. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Water footprint assessment of oil palm in Malaysia: A preliminary study (United States)

    Muhammad-Muaz, A.; Marlia, M. H.


    This study evaluates the water footprint of growing oil palm in Malaysia based on the water footprint method. The crop water use was determined using the CROPWAT 8.0 model developed by the Land and Water Development Division of FAO. The total water footprint for growing oil palm is 243 m3/ton. The result of this study showed that the green water footprint is 1.5 orders of magnitude larger compared to the blue water footprint. Besides providing updated status of total water used from the oil palm plantation, our result also shows that this baseline information helps in identifying which areas need to be conserved and what type of recommendation that should be drawn. As the results of the water footprint can differ between locations, the inclusion of local water stress index should be considered in the calculation of water footprint.

  17. Energy Conservation Study on Darigold Fluid Milk Plant, Issaquah, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seton, Johnson & Odell, Inc.


    This report presents the findings of an energy study done at Darigold dairy products plant in Issaquah, Washington. The study includes all electrical energy using systems at the plant, but does not address specific modifications to process equipment or the gas boilers. The Issaquah Darigold plant receives milk and cream, which are stored in large, insulated silos. These raw products are then processed into butter, cottage cheese, buttermilk, yogurt, sour cream, and powdered milk. This plant produces the majority of the butter used in the state of Washington. The Issaquah plant purchases electricity from Puget Sound Power and Light Company. The plant is on Schedule 31, primary metering. The plant provides transformers to step down the voltage to 480, 240, and 120 volts as needed. Based on utility bills for the period from July 1983 through July 1984, the Issaquah Darigold plant consumed 7,134,300 kWh at a total cost of $218,703.78 and 1,600,633 therms at a total cost of $889,687.48. Energy use for this period is shown in Figures 1.1 to 1.5. Demand charges account for approximately 23% of the total electrical bill for this period, while reactive charges account for less than 0.5%. The electrical usage for the plant was divided into process energy uses, as summarized in Figure 1.2. This breakdown is based on a 311-day processing schedule, with Sunday clean-up and holidays composing the 54 days of downtime.

  18. [Conservation Units. (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  19. ORD Studies of Water Quality in Hospitals (United States)

    Presentation descibes results from two studies of water quality and pathogen occurrence in water and biofilm samples from two area hospitals. Includes data on the effectiveness of copper/silver ionization as a disinfectant.

  20. Main issues in research and practice of environmental protection for water conservancy and hydropower projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Chen


    Full Text Available In this paper, we generally summarize the main issues in the operational period of water conservancy and hydropower projects in China over the past several decades. First, the adverse impacts of these projects since the technical guidelines were proposed in 2006 are analyzed. Then, combined with projects and experience from 2006 to 2014, the four main issues are summarized: (1 There exist many questions in the design and construction of fishways, which are useful for fish migration, and the migration effects are not as expected. (2 Temperature stratification affecting the downstream fish is the major impact of temperature, and alters fish spawning in the reproduction season. (3 Ecological base flow has been one of the primary questions of the last 30 years in China, the greatest related difficulty being quantification of the amount and flow process necessary to satisfy fish life history. (4 Fish habitat protection and restoration are popular topics in recent years with the development of river ecosystem restoration. Fish habitat loss due to the impacts of dam construction and habitat fragmentation has become more and more serious. These four issues are now the main difficulties in water project management, and interact with one another to bear combined effects on river ecosystems. The issues of eco-hydraulic consideration in the design period are the key factors. Finally, future priorities for research and practice of environmental protection for water conservancy and hydropower projects in China are proposed. The main purpose of this paper is to enhance the scientific research, monitoring, and assessment of operating effectiveness.

  1. Studying citizen science through adaptive management and learning feedbacks as mechanisms for improving conservation. (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca; Gray, Steven; Sorensen, Amanda; Newman, Greg; Mellor, David; Newman, Greg; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy; LaDeau, Shannon; Biehler, Dawn; Crall, Alycia


    Citizen science has generated a growing interest among scientists and community groups, and citizen science programs have been created specifically for conservation. We examined collaborative science, a highly interactive form of citizen science, which we developed within a theoretically informed framework. In this essay, we focused on 2 aspects of our framework: social learning and adaptive management. Social learning, in contrast to individual-based learning, stresses collaborative and generative insight making and is well-suited for adaptive management. Adaptive-management integrates feedback loops that are informed by what is learned and is guided by iterative decision making. Participants engaged in citizen science are able to add to what they are learning through primary data collection, which can result in the real-time information that is often necessary for conservation. Our work is particularly timely because research publications consistently report a lack of established frameworks and evaluation plans to address the extent of conservation outcomes in citizen science. To illustrate how our framework supports conservation through citizen science, we examined how 2 programs enacted our collaborative science framework. Further, we inspected preliminary conservation outcomes of our case-study programs. These programs, despite their recent implementation, are demonstrating promise with regard to positive conservation outcomes. To date, they are independently earning funds to support research, earning buy-in from local partners to engage in experimentation, and, in the absence of leading scientists, are collecting data to test ideas. We argue that this success is due to citizen scientists being organized around local issues and engaging in iterative, collaborative, and adaptive learning. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Study of the conservation of mechanical energy in the motion of a pendulum using a smartphone (United States)

    Pierratos, Theodoros; Polatoglou, Hariton M.


    A common method that scientists use to validate a theory is to utilize known principles and laws to produce results on specific settings, which can be assessed using the appropriate experimental methods and apparatuses. Smartphones have various sensors built-in and could be used for measuring and logging data in physics experiments. In this work, we propose the use of smartphones for students to study a simple pendulum’s conservation of mechanical energy. It is well known that common smartphones do not have a velocity sensor, which could make the verification of the conservation of mechanical energy a simpler task. To overcome this, one can use an accelerometer to measure the centripetal acceleration on the mass and from that, deduce the maximum velocity. In this study, we show that this can be achieved with reasonable uncertainty, using a mobile device. Thus, we developed an experiment which corroborates with the conservation of mechanical energy and can be performed in the classroom.

  3. Drought Resilience and Water Conservation - Agency-Wide Actions and Research (United States)

    In many areas of the United States, the frequency and duration of drought events are increasing. This pattern is expected to continue and to shift outside of historical trends, making forecasting our water quality and supply more difficult. EPA is conducting research and working ...

  4. Accès Eau: Enhanced Water Access for Bio-diversity Conservation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Mahafaly Plateau in southwestern Madagascar has a high rate of poverty and some of the lowest rainfall in the country. Over the last 40 years, the central and eastern parts of the plateau have experienced increasing variability in precipitation and longer dry spells. Due to water scarcity, people living here are forced to ...

  5. Understanding Farmers: Explaining Soil and Water Conservation in Konso, Wolaita and Wello, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshah, T.


    Soil erosion by water is an old problem in Ethiopia. The prevalence of mountainous and undulating landscapes, coupled with the expansion of arable farming on steep areas due to population pressure have aggravated the soil erosion problem in the country. Prompted by one of the great famines in the

  6. Tillage for soil and water conservation in the semi-arid Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, W.


    Soil tillage is the manipulation of soil which is generally considered as necessary to obtain optimum growth conditions for a crop. In the same time the resulting modification of soil structure has serious implications for the behaviour of the soil to erosive forces by water and wind. In

  7. Environmental Management System of Petroleum Industries: A case study of Oil and Gas Exploration in the Zamrud Field Conservation Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onny Setiani


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background:The Zamrud Field is one of the oil fields managed by Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI a production sharing contractor of Pertamina. It is located in the Coastal Plain and  Pekanbaru (CPP Block. The government of Indonesia has designated Zamrud as a conservation area. The petroleum industry in Zamrud fields has received 14001 ISO Certificate on Environmental Management System. The production sharing contract between CPI and the Government of Indonesia expired in August 2002 Methods: .This case study describes how CPI managed the development  of oil and gas production and compared to  the environmental management system for  petroleum industries  that should be taken  in the Zamrud conservation areas. Results: A number of specific measures were employed by CPI  to protect this sensitive area including a green seismic project, zero-discharge drilling, water management, preservation of nature and regular monitoring and impact assessment. There are two  important points that should be in consideration  for the environmental management system by CPI in the Zamrud areas, including top soil utilization to maintain biological and nutrients quality and re-vegetation in all areas of significant disturbances. Conclusion: oil and gas  exploration and production in conservation areas has to be managed through high commitment to good environmental  and social practices. Key words     : Environmental Management System (EMS, Petroleum Industries, Zamrud Field

  8. Habitat, Fauna, and Conservation of Florida's Deep-Water Coral Reefs (United States)

    Reed, J. K.; Pomponi, S. A.; Messing, C. G.; Brooke, S.


    Various types of deep-water coral habitats are common off the southeastern United States from the Blake Plateau through the Straits of Florida to the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Expeditions in the past decade with the Johnson-Sea- Link manned submersibles, ROVs, and AUVs have discovered, mapped and compiled data on the status, distribution, habitat, and biodiversity for many of these relatively unknown deep-sea coral ecosystems. We have discovered over three hundred, high relief (15-152-m tall) coral mounds (depth 700-800 m) along the length of eastern Florida (700 km). The north Florida sites are rocky lithoherms, whereas the southern sites are primarily classic coral bioherms, capped with dense 1-2 m tall thickets of Lophelia pertusa and Enallopsammia profunda. Off southeastern Florida, the Miami Terrace escarpment (depth 300-600 m) extends nearly 150 km as a steep, rocky slope of Miocene-age phosphoritic limestone, which provides habitat for a rich biodiversity of fish and benthic invertebrates. Off the Florida Keys, the Pourtalès Terrace (depth 200- 460 m) has extensive high-relief bioherms and numerous deep-water sinkholes to depths of 250-610 m and diameters up to 800 m. The dominant, deep-water, colonial scleractinian corals in this region include Oculina varicosa, L. pertusa, E. profunda, Madrepora oculata, and Solenosmilia variabilis. Other coral species include hydrozoans (Stylasteridae), bamboo octocorals (Isididae), numerous other gorgonians, and black corals (Antipatharia). These structure-forming taxa provide habitat and living space for a relatively unknown but biologically rich and diverse community of crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms, polychaete and sipunculan worms, and associated fishes. We have identified 142 taxa of benthic macro-invertebrates, including 66 Porifera and 57 Cnidaria. Nearly 100 species of fish have been identified to date in association with these deep-water coral habitats. Paull et al. (2000) estimated that over 40

  9. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study


    Massimiliano Magro; Livio Corain; Silvia Ferro; Davide Baratella; Emanuela Bonaiuto; Milo Terzo; Vittorino Corraducci; Luigi Salmaso; Fabio Vianello


    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of “deceler...

  10. Integrating Social Values and Ecosystem Services in Systematic Conservation Planning: A Case Study in Datuan Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pin Lin


    Full Text Available Systematic conservation planning (SCP deals with a delicate interplay of competing interests and has far-reaching impacts for all stakeholders and systems involved. While SCP has traditionally attempted to conserve ecosystem services that benefit ecological systems, public perceptions of conservation initiatives influence their ultimate feasibility and sustainability. In an attempt to balance ecological integrity, social utility, and urban development, this study develops a framework that applies four popular models to represent these competing factors, including two ecosystem services models—InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs for biophysical services (BpS, and SolVES (Social Values for Ecosystem Services for social values (SV; a land use and land cover (LULC suitability model; and Zonation for delimiting high priority areas. We also analyze a number of conservation scenarios that consider varying levels of urban development. While BpS are distributed with considerable spatial variability, SV spatially overlap. Approximately 6% of the area was identified as having both high BpS and SV, whereas a further 24.5% of the area was identified as either high BpS low SV or vise-versa. Urban development scenarios affected the conservation area selection drastically. These results indicate tradeoffs and potential synergies between development, SV, and BpS. Our findings suggest that the information provided by the proposed framework can assist in finding solutions to social-ecological planning complexities that serve multiple stakeholders.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A survey of the macroinvertebrates of three brooks harbouring the white-clawed crayfish was conducted in Haute-Vienne department (France. Its aim was to increase our understanding of these ecosystems to help the conservation of A. pallipes. These brooks run through pastoral areas with well-developed riparian vegetation, which offers an important shade. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and conductivity fell within the ranges found for this species. A total of 34, 31, 29 taxa and 1 502, 1 364, 2 707 individuals of macrobenthos were collected in Holme, Besque and Bellecombe streams, respectively. Results showed good to very good water quality with IBGN scores ranging from 15 (Bellecombe to 17 (Holme and Besque, reflecting a limited impact of the anthropogenic disturbances. Taxa diversity were high for Holme and Besque with Shannon index around 3.2, translating a great heterogeneity of habitat and an equilibrated faunal community. Bellecombe showed a limited diversity with Shannon index of 1.42, resulting from the presence of numberous Chironomidae. This brook suffers probably weak organic pollution which could be related to the low water flow observed during the sampling. The similarity test according to Jaccard index showed high percentage of common taxa among ETP (Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Plecoptera between all sites. The high similarity of benthic macroinvertebrate communities could be an useful criteria to identify brooks for restocking purpose.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Kare


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fracture of the distal radius (‘broken wrist’ is a common clinical problem. It can be treated conservatively usually involving wrist immobilisation in a plaster cast or surgically. A key method of surgical fixation is external fixation. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was carried out on 66 patients admitted between June 2014 to May 2016 for evaluation of conservative and surgical management of distal radius fractures. RESULTS Excellent, fair or good result was noticed in around 85% of cases managed conservatively and in above 90% of cases managed by external fixator. CONCLUSION There is some evidence to support the use of external fixation for dorsally displaced fractures of the distal radius in adults. Though, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a better functional outcome, external fixation reduces redisplacement gives improved anatomical results and most of the excess surgically-related complications are minor.

  13. Use of landscape-level river signatures in conservation planning: a South African case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, D


    Full Text Available : 1CSIR; 2Albany Museum Insight Use of Landscape-level River Signatures in Conservation Planning: a South African Case Study Dirk Roux1, Ferdy de Moor2, Jim Cambray2, and Helen Barber-James2... biota (Cowling and Pressey Conservation Ecology 6(2): 6. The most significant river system that flows though the GAENP is the Sundays River and its tributaries. Darlington Dam is the largest man...

  14. Native trees show conservative water use relative to invasive: results from a removal experiment in a Hawaiian wet forest (United States)

    M.A. Cavaleri; R. Ostertag; S. Cordell; L. and Sack


    While the supply of freshwater is expected to decline in many regions in the coming decades, invasive plant species, often 'high water spenders', are greatly expanding their ranges worldwide. In this study, we quantified the ecohydrological differences between native and invasive trees and also the effects of woody invasive removal on plot-level water use in...

  15. A field study on Sumatran orang utans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii Lesson 1827) : ecology, behaviour and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijksen, H.D.


    The results of a three year research project on the ecology, behaviour and conservation of the Sumatran orang utan are discussed. The 150 hectares Ketambe study area lie within the boundaries of the Gunung Leuser. reserve in Aceh Tenggara, and consists of mixed rainforest typical of hilly

  16. Conservative strategy in infantile fibrosarcoma is possible: The European paediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orbach, Daniel; Brennan, Bernadette; de Paoli, Angela; Gallego, Soledad; Mudry, Peter; Francotte, Nadine; van Noesel, Max; Kelsey, Anna; Alaggio, Rita; Ranchère, Dominique; de Salvo, Gian Luca; Casanova, Michela; Bergeron, Christophe; Merks, Johannes H. M.; Jenney, Meriel; Stevens, Michael C. G.; Bisogno, Gianni; Ferrari, Andrea


    Infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS) is a very rare disease occurring in young infants characterised by a high local aggressiveness but overall with a favourable survival. To try to reduce the total burden of therapy, the European pediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group has developed conservative

  17. Attitudes of Local People Toward Wildlife Conservation: A Case Study From the Kashmir Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaffar Rais Mir


    Full Text Available People’s attitudes toward wildlife conservation can significantly affect the success of conservation initiatives. Understanding the factors influencing these attitudes is essential for designing strategies to alleviate human–wildlife conflict. Although this topic has been studied extensively across diverse regions, there has been no such study in the Kashmir Division of Jammu and Kashmir state, India. We surveyed 3 administrative units around Dachigam National Park through semistructured interviews (n = 384 to investigate the socioeconomic status of local people, the extent of economic damage caused by wild animals, and people’s attitudes toward wildlife conservation. Results, analyzed using a generalized linear model approach, indicated that about 75% of the respondents suffered crop damage, while 23% suffered livestock predation by wild animals. The majority of respondents expressed favorable attitudes toward wildlife, with only about 16% expressing a negative perception. Gender, crop damage, livestock predation, and total livestock holdings were the strongest variables influencing the attitudes of local people in the study area. The study identified the need to use appropriate mitigation measures to minimize economic damage by wildlife in order to reduce negative local attitudes toward wildlife conservation.

  18. Pollinator networks, alien species and the conservation of rare plants: Trinia glauca as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalheiro, L.G.; Barbosa, E.R.; Memmott, J.


    1. Despite the essential role of pollination in the maintenance of many rare plant species, conservation management plans rarely consider the service of pollination. 2. This study identifies the main pollinators of a rare English plant species, Trinia glauca (Apiaceae), and provides recommendations

  19. The Woodlands Metro Center energy study. Case studies of project planning and design for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Woodlands is a HUD Title VII New Town located near Houston, including 22,000 acres; the plan for the new town consists of 6 residential villages, a town center (Metro), and a Trade Center for larger-scale industrial use. Included within the program for each village are schools and commercial activities, as well as employment activities. The Woodlands is planned to be developed over a 26-year period (commenced in 1972) with an ultimate population of 150,000. Following a summary chapter, Chapter II presents background material on The Woodlands and results of the study are summarized. Chapter III describes the project team and its organizational structure. Chapter IV outlines and documents the methodology that was employed in developing, analyzing, and evaluating the case study. The next chapter describes and analyzes the conventional plan, documents the process by which energy-conserving methods were selected, and evaluates the application of these methods to the Metro Center Study area. Chapter VI discusses constraints to implementation and is followed by a final chapter that presents the general conclusions from the case study and suggests directions for further investigation.

  20. Effectiveness Of Miraba an Indigenous Soil and Water Conservation Measures On Reducing Runoff And Soil Loss In Arable Land Of Western Usambara Mountains (United States)

    Msita, H. B.; Kimaro, D. N.; Mtakwa, P. W.; Msanya, B. M.; Dondyene, S.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J.


    Soil erosion by water is rampant mainly in mountainous areas of Tanzania leading to environmental hazards, low land productivity, low income and increased poverty. Despite the severity of the soil erosion problem, there is not much quantitative data on the erosion effects and effectiveness of indigenous soil and water conservation (SWC) measures. The consequence is that indigenous knowledge in SWC planning is ignored. The on-farm field experiment was conducted for three years in Migambo village, Lushoto district in Tanzania, to determine the effectiveness of improved Miraba (IM) an indigenous soil erosion control measure on reducing runoff and soil loss. Management practices were tested viz: control that is without any soil conservation measure (C), Miraba alone (M), Miraba with farmyard manure and mulching (MFM) replicated three times in CRD setting. Maize (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were used as test crops, due to their importance as food crops and the high erosion rates on fields with these crops. The crops were planted in rotation, maize and beans in short and long rains respectively. Gerlach troughs and runoff plots were used to evaluate the physical effectiveness. Results show significant effects of IM against control on crop yields, soil loss, surface runoff and moisture retention. MFM is the most effective measure in reducing soil and water losses followed by MF and M. The results further showed that these management practices can be implemented to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses in the study area and areas with similar ecological setting. To facilitate adoption of these practices further research works is recommended for identifying economically feasible indigenous SWC measures under different biophysical and socio-economic conditions.

  1. Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach dynamics and succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (east Africa): implications for water quality and biodiversity conservation. (United States)

    Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub


    This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities.

  2. Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms-Laubach Dynamics and Succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa: Implications for Water Quality and Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gichuki


    Full Text Available This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb. Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities.

  3. Built urban heritage conservation in Islamic societies: Study case in Banda Aceh, Indonesia (United States)

    Meutia, Z. D.


    This paper aims to find the concept of the built heritage related to Islamic societies with a case study in the city of Banda Aceh through study literature review, with the context of the planning in the era of uncertainty. In this paper will be elaborated and described what it was about heritage and urban heritage and conservation Islamic values in heritage, as well as explain the concept of the built heritage conservation in Islamic societies. Discussion and analysis will be done through its study literature. Literature reviews about built urban heritage conservation and perspective of the Islamic societies in Banda aceh was done using systematic methodology literature review. This methodology summarizes research results earlier that presents the fact that a more comprehensive and balanced. The synthesis of the results conducted using narrative techniques or technique of qualitative. The discovery paper in this paper is to understand the relationship the built heritage conservation of Islamic societies perspective that consider shari’a aspect and local tradition in built urban heritage that can affect to heritage planning.

  4. What is the optimum social marketing mix to market energy conservation behaviour: an empirical study. (United States)

    Sheau-Ting, Low; Mohammed, Abdul Hakim; Weng-Wai, Choong


    This study attempts to identify the optimum social marketing mix for marketing energy conservation behaviour to students in Malaysian universities. A total of 2000 students from 5 major Malaysian universities were invited to provide their preferred social marketing mix. A choice-based conjoint analysis identified a mix of five social marketing attributes to promote energy conservation behaviour; the mix is comprised of the attributes of Product, Price, Place, Promotion, and Post-purchase Maintenance. Each attribute of the mix is associated with a list of strategies. The Product and Post-purchase Maintenance attributes were identified by students as the highest priority attributes in the social marketing mix for energy conservation behaviour marketing, with shares of 27.12% and 27.02%, respectively. The least preferred attribute in the mix is Promotion, with a share of 11.59%. This study proposes an optimal social marketing mix to university management when making decisions about marketing energy conservation behaviour to students, who are the primary energy consumers in the campus. Additionally, this study will assist university management to efficiently allocate scarce resources in fulfilling its social responsibility and to overcome marketing shortcomings by selecting the right marketing mix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. General survey and conclusions with regard to the connection of water quantity and water quality studies of surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijtema, P.E.


    Publikatie die bestaat uit twee delen: 1. General survey of the relation between water quantity and water quality; 2. Conclusions with regard to the connection of water quantity and water quality studies of surface waters

  6. Defluoridation study for Boise geothermal water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigdon, L.


    Methods of removing fluorides from water are reviewed and recommendations are made for treating geothermal water used by the Boise Geothermal Project, Boise, Idaho. The Boise geothermal water except for its high fluoride content would be high quality, suitable for primary drinking water. Fluoride ranges from about 15 to 25 mg/l in water from various wells in the Boise region where the Project plans to obtain hot water. Four techniques for removing fluorides from water have been studied extensively during the past 15 years or so. Electrodialysis and reverse osmosis are useful in reducing total dissolved solids from brackish water, but are nonspecific and are too expensive for treatment of the Boise geothermal water. Selective precipitation is a widely used technique for treating water, but would also prove expensive for the Boise geothermal water because of the relatively high solubility of fluoride salts and consequently high concentration (and cost) of precipitants required to reduce the fluorides to an acceptable level. Ion-exchange separation using activated alumina as the exchange medium appears to be the most promising technique and we recommend that some laboratory and pilot studies be conducted to establish suitability and operating boundaries.

  7. Case history studies of energy conservation improvements in the meat industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Presented are case histories for ten energy-efficient technologies implemented by the meat industry. For each case is presented: the name and location of the plant, name of plant employee contact with address and telephone number, energy consumption and costs at the plant before and after implementation of energy-conserving technology, description of the investment decision process, and changes in production or product quality as a result of the new equipment. The measures presented are: continuous rendering, high-pressure return on the boiler, heat recovery from condensate return and flash steam, continuous whole blood processing, preheating of process water with recovered refrigeration waste heat, continuous rendering of poultry scraps, electrical stimulation of beef, preheating and storing process water with recovered refrigeration waste heat, microcomputer control system, and housekeeping improvements. (LEW)

  8. Conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats - from field studies to molecolar ecology


    Jones, Gareth


    Greater horseshoe bats have experienced a substantial range contraction in Britain over the past century, and are also endangered in many European countries. Our studies on the conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats have been running since 1987, and have ranged from simple field-based studies on diet, through radio-tracking studies of habitat use, to research on population genetics, paternity and genetic factors affecting survival. Initially, I described the diet of the species and th...

  9. Reaching people with energy conservation information: four statewide residential case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.; Braid, R.B.; Jones, D.W.; Reed, J.H.


    Four state residential energy conservation programs are reviewed in terms of their origins, evolutions, purposes and goals, administration, organization, and outcomes. The four programs chosen were selected from among 30 nominated by state energy offices and regional Department of Energy personnel as being illustrative in terms of organization and/or outcomes. While intended primarily for state-level program managers and staff, the profiles of programs, conclusions, and recommendations should be useful to anyone interested in developing viable, action-oriented conservation programs. The four case studies included Oregon's Master Conserver program, Oklahoma's energy education project for low-income and elderly families, Virginia's workshops for heating dealers service and contractors, and Maine's three energy education projects - the Energy Bus, Energy Conservation Month, and the Home Energy Check-up. All four programs utilized Energy Extension Service (EES) funds from the federal government, and three were directly managed through the state EES organization. The findings of the study indicate that these programs (1) had flexibility to experiment, iterate, and reorganize as a result of their initial experiences, (2) made extensive use of networking to involve local groups in program delivery, (3) employed a large variety of delivery methods, and (4) made substantial efforts to tailor literature and handouts to the target audiences.

  10. Impact of land reclamation and agricultural water regime on the distribution and conservation status of the endangered Dryophytes suweonensis. (United States)

    Borzée, Amaël; Kim, Kyungmin; Heo, Kyongman; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jang, Yikweon


    Knowledge about the distribution and habitat preferences of a species is critical for its conservation. The Suweon Treefrog (Dryophytes suweonensis) is an endangered species endemic to the Republic of Korea. We conducted surveys from 2014 to 2016 at 890 potentially suitable sites across the entire range of the species in South Korea. We then assessed whether D. suweonensis was found in the current and ancestral predicted ranges, reclaimed and protected areas, and how the presence of agricultural floodwater affected its occurrence. Our results describe a 120 km increase in the southernmost known distribution of the species, and the absence of the species at lower latitudes. We then demonstrate a putative constriction on the species ancestral range due to urban encroachment, and provide evidence for a significant increase in its coastal range due to the colonisation of reclaimed land by the species. In addition, we demonstrate that D. suweonensis is present in rice fields that are flooded with water originating from rivers as opposed to being present in rice fields that are irrigated from underground water. Finally, the non-overlap of protected areas and the occurrence of the species shows that only the edge of a single site where D. suweonensis occurs is legally protected. Based on our results and the literature, we suggest the design of a site fitting all the ecological requirements of the species, and suggest the use of such sites to prevent further erosion in the range of D. suweonensis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Freshwater crayfish are found in 20 out of 53 Prefectures of Greece (38% and they form isolated populations in relatively pristine water bodies. Three indigenous crayfish species (ICS occur in Greek waters: Astacus astacus, Astacus leptodactylus and Austropotamobius torrentium, as well as one non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS Pacifastacus leniusculus. Greece represents probably the most southern natural distribution limit for A. astacus and A. torrentium in the world. Concerning NICS, P. leniusculus was imported, at least in two cases, from Sweden and Germany during the early and late 1980’s respectively, in order to replace A. astacus stocks impoverished by human activities. Recently, Cherax quadricarinatus specimens have been seen in a restaurant’s aquarium and pet shop, raising fears about uncontrolled imports of alien pet species. During our 2004-2005 survey, we found that P. leniusculus established not only a thriving population in the artificial Lake Agra (Region of Central Macedonia, but also they co-occur with A. torrentium there. It is also suspected that A. astacus may co-occur there with these two species, as three large male specimens of A. astacus were caught in a creek close to the lake. Concerning A. leptodactylus, there are three sets of preserved samples from the River Evros (state border with Turkey in Thrace today, dated back to the 19th century, but no recent information about occurrence was available. But the accidental catch of six specimens of A. leptodactylus during May 2005 in that river re-documented the occurrence of the species. Finally, a deep-dwelling A. torrentium population with bluish legs was found to live in depths up to 7,800 meters inside the Aggitis Cave in northeastern Greece. There is a lot of work to be done on geographic distribution, population dynamics, genetics, reproduction, nutrition, diseases, and farming of crayfish species in Greece. Moreover, several actions should be undertaken to

  12. Breast Conserving Therapy and Quality of Life in Thai Females: a Mixed Methods Study. (United States)

    Peerawong, Thanarpan; Phenwan, Tharin; Supanitwatthana, Sojirat; Mahattanobon, Somrit; Kongkamol, Chanon


    To explore factors that influence quality of life (QOL) in patients receiving breast conserving therapy (BCT). In this sequential mixed methods study, 118 women from Songklanagarind Hospital were included. We used participants' characteristics, Body Image Scale (BIS), and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy with the Breast Cancer Subscale (FACT-B) for analysis. The BIS transformed into presence of body image disturbance (BID). Factors that influenced QOL were determined by stepwise multiple linear regression. Forty-one participants were selected for qualitative analysis. Our female researcher performed the semi-structured interviews with questions based on the symbolic interaction theory. Final codes were analysed using thematic analysis along with investigator triangulation methods. Ninety percent had early stage breast cancer with post-completed BCT, for an average of 2.7 years. The median BIS score and FACT-B score were 2 (IQR=10) and 130 (IQR=39). In the regression analysis, an age of more than 50 years and BID were significant factors. As for the value of conserved breasts, two themes emerged: a conserved breast is an essential part of a participant's life and also the representation of her womanhood; the importance of a breast is related to age. Body image influenced QOL in post BCT participants. The conserved breasts also lead to positive and better impact on their body image as an essential part of their life.

  13. Evaluation of Conservation Tillage Techniques for Maize Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation tillage as an approach to reduce surface runoff and soil degradation and reduced tillage systems may offer a compromise solution. The objective of the study is to test different conservation tillage techniques and evaluate the impacts of the system on conserving water, labor requirement for pre and post ...

  14. Water-quality assessment of the Lower Grand River Basin, Missouri and Iowa, USA, in support of integrated conservation practices (United States)

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.


    The effectiveness of agricultural conservation programmes to adequately reduce nutrient exports to receiving streams and to help limit downstream hypoxia issues remains a concern. Quantifying programme success can be difficult given that short-term basin changes may be masked by long-term water-quality shifts. We evaluated nutrient export at stream sites in the 44 months that followed a period of increased, integrated conservation implementation within the Lower Grand River Basin. These short-term responses were then compared with export that occurred in the main stem and adjacent rivers in northern Missouri over a 22-year period to better contextualize any recent changes. Results indicate that short-term (October 2010 through May 2014) total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in the Grand River were 20% less than the long-term average, and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were 23% less. Nutrient reductions in the short term were primarily the result of the less-than-average precipitation and, consequently, streamflow that was 36% below normal. Therefore, nutrient concentrations measured in tributary streams were likely less than normal during the implementation period. Northern Missouri streamflow-normalized TN concentrations remained relatively flat or declined over the period 1991 through 2013 likely because available sources of nitrogen, determined as the sum of commercial fertilizers, available animal manures and atmospheric inputs, were typically less than crop requirement for much of that time frame. Conversely, flow-normalized stream TP concentrations increased over the past 22 years in northern Missouri streams, likely in response to many years of phosphorus inputs in excess of crop requirements. Stream nutrient changes were most pronounced during periods that coincided with the major tillage, planting and growth phases of row crops and increased streamflow. Nutrient reduction strategies targeted at the period February through June would likely have the

  15. Anthropogenic impact in the Santa Maria di Leuca cold-water coral province (Mediterranean Sea): Observations and conservation straits (United States)

    D'Onghia, G.; Calculli, C.; Capezzuto, F.; Carlucci, R.; Carluccio, A.; Grehan, A.; Indennidate, A.; Maiorano, P.; Mastrototaro, F.; Pollice, A.; Russo, T.; Savini, A.; Sion, L.; Tursi, A.


    The Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) cold-water coral (CWC) province is a proposed priority conservation area according to several conservation initiatives in the Mediterranean Sea. Part of it is a Fisheries Restricted Area (FRA). Anthropogenic impacts due to fishing on this FRA were investigated using a towed camera system during 2005. The geographic distribution of fishing effort in the SML CWC province was examined through an observers' program of longline and trawl fishing activities during 2009 and 2010 and Vessel Monitoring by satellite System (VMS) data from 2008 to 2013. Using the video system, it was possible to observe evidence of impacts in the FRA due to longlines, proved by remains of lines on the bottoms and/or entangled in corals, and those due to trawl nets, proved by trawl door scars on the bottom. The application of Generalized Liner Models indicates that the impacts due to longline were significantly related to a geographic site characterized by carbonate mounds while those from trawl net were significantly related to the soft bottoms, consisting of bioturbated fine-grained sediments. The presence of waste of various types was also observed in the FRA; plastic was the most widespread waste and was significantly related to a macrohabitat characterized by the presence of corals. The geographic distribution of fishing effort for each type of fishing were rather superimposed in the two years of the observers' program and six years of VMS data with a significantly greater fishing effort outside the FRA than inside this area. The trawlers generally fished on the muddy bottoms of the upper and middle slope within the SML CWC province and near and inside the northward limit of the FRA. The longliners fished mainly on the shelf in north and off the FRA. The coral by-catch was only recorded during 2009 in 26% of the trawl hauls. No coral by-catch was recorded from longlining in either year. The catches from longlining mainly consisted of Chelidonichthys lucerna

  16. Effects of Ridge-Furrow System Combined with Different Degradable Mulching Materials on Soil Water Conservation and Crop Production in Semi-Humid Areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Ren


    Full Text Available In China, the ridge-furrow water conservation planting (RC system is advantageous for improving crop yields and rainwater use efficiency. In RC planting system, plastic film-mulched ridges are employed for water harvesting while the furrows serve as infiltration and planting belts. To optimize the RC system and to overcome problems due to the lack of water in semi-humid areas at risk of drought, we mulched the furrows with 8% biodegradable film (RCSB, liquid film (RCSL, or no mulching in the furrows (RCSN, while conventional flat planting (CF was employed as the control. After 4 year (2007–2010 consecutive field study, the results showed that the soil water storage level in the 0–100 cm layer with four treatments was ranked as follow: RCSB > RCSL > RCSN > CF, while the RCSB and RCSL were 26.3 and 12.2 mm greater than RCSN, respectively. Compared with CF, the average soil temperature was significantly (P < 0.05 higher by 3.1, 1.7, and 1.5°C under the RC planting treatments (RCSB, RCSL, and RCSN during each year, respectively. The average ET rate of RC treatments were all lower than CF in each experimental year, and the average decreased by 8.0% (P < 0.05. The average yields with RCSB, RCSL, and RCSN increased by 2,665, 1,444, and 1,235 kg ha−1, respectively, and the water use efficiency (WUE increased by 51.6, 25.6, and 21.1%, compared with CF. RCSB obtained the highest economic benefit, the average net income was higher than CF by 4,020 Yuan ha−1. In conclusion, we found that RC planting with biodegradable film mulching in the furrows is the best cultivation pattern in the semi-humid areas of China in terms of both environmental and economic benefits.

  17. Satellite tagging highlights the importance of productive Mozambican coastal waters to the ecology and conservation of whale sharks (United States)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Jaine, Fabrice R. A.; Bennett, Michael B.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Cliff, Geremy; Robinson, David P.; Reeve-Arnold, Katie E.; Pierce, Simon J.


    The whale shark Rhincodon typus is an endangered, highly migratory species with a wide, albeit patchy, distribution through tropical oceans. Ten aerial survey flights along the southern Mozambican coast, conducted between 2004–2008, documented a relatively high density of whale sharks along a 200 km stretch of the Inhambane Province, with a pronounced hotspot adjacent to Praia do Tofo. To examine the residency and movement of whale sharks in coastal areas around Praia do Tofo, where they may be more susceptible to gill net entanglement, we tagged 15 juveniles with SPOT5 satellite tags and tracked them for 2–88 days (mean = 27 days) as they dispersed from this area. Sharks travelled between 10 and 2,737 km (mean = 738 km) at a mean horizontal speed of 28 ± 17.1 SD km day−1. While several individuals left shelf waters and travelled across international boundaries, most sharks stayed in Mozambican coastal waters over the tracking period. We tested for whale shark habitat preferences, using sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and water depth as variables, by computing 100 random model tracks for each real shark based on their empirical movement characteristics. Whale sharks spent significantly more time in cooler, shallower water with higher chlorophyll-a concentrations than model sharks, suggesting that feeding in productive coastal waters is an important driver of their movements. To investigate what this coastal habitat choice means for their conservation in Mozambique, we mapped gill nets during two dedicated aerial surveys along the Inhambane coast and counted gill nets in 1,323 boat-based surveys near Praia do Tofo. Our results show that, while whale sharks are capable of long-distance oceanic movements, they can spend a disproportionate amount of time in specific areas, such as along the southern Mozambique coast. The increasing use of drifting gill nets in this coastal hotspot for whale sharks is likely to be a threat to regional

  18. The DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.L.; King, A.W.; Miller, M.A.; Springer, E.P.; Wesely, M.L.; Bashford, K.E.; Conrad, M.E.; Costigan, K.; Foster, P.N.; Gibbs, H.K.; Jin, J.; Klazura, J.; Lesht, B.M.; Machavaram, M.V.; Pan, F.; Song, J.; Troyan, D.; Washington-Allen, R.A.


    A Department of Energy (DOE) multi-laboratory Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) investigated components of the local water budget at the Walnut River Watershed in Kansas to study the relative importance of various processes and to determine the feasibility of observational water budget closure. An extensive database of local meteorological time series and land surface characteristics was compiled. Numerical simulations of water budget components were generated and, to the extent possible, validated for three nested domains within the Southern Great Plains; the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement/Cloud Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (ARM/CART), the Walnut River Watershed (WRW), and the Whitewater Watershed (WW), Kansas A 2-month Intensive Observation Period (IOP) was conducted to gather detailed observations relevant to specific details of the water budget, including fine-scale precipitation, streamflow, and soil moisture measurements not made routinely by other programs. Event and season al water isotope (delta 18O, delta D) sampling in rainwater, streams, soils, lakes, and wells provided a means of tracing sources and sinks within and external to the WW, WRW, and the ARM/CART domains. The WCPS measured changes in leaf area index for several vegetation types, deep groundwater variations at two wells, and meteorological variables at a number of sites in the WRW. Additional activities of the WCPS include code development toward a regional climate model with water isotope processes, soil moisture transect measurements, and water level measurements in ground water wells.

  19. Adaptation to heavy rainfall events: watershed-community planning of soil and water conservation technologies in Syria (United States)

    Ziadat, Feras; Al-Wadaey, Ahmed; Masri, Zuhair; Sakai, Hirokazu


    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other research, predict a significant future increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall events in many regions. This increase runoff and soil erosion, and reduce agricultural productivity, as well as increasing risks of flood damage to crops and infrastructure. Implementing adaptation measures and improved land management through erosion control and soil protection are among those that protect water and agriculture and limit their vulnerability. Soil erosion control practices are often based on long-term climatic averages. Special attention is needed to provide protection against average high-return frequency storms as well as severe storms with low-return frequency. Suitable and affordable soil conservation plans, coupled with an appropriate enabling environment, are needed. A watershed and community were selected in the mountainous area of North West Syria. The fields represent the non-tropical highland dry areas and dominated by olive orchards on steep slopes. Farmers were aware of resource degradation and productivity reduction, but lacked financial capital to implement the needed adaptation measures. A micro-credit system was established with the help of the UNDP Global Environment Facility - Small Grants Program (GEF-SGP) with small grants available for each farmer. Haphazard implementation on scattered fields proved inefficient in demonstrating obvious impact. Therefore, each watershed was classified into three erosion risk categories (high, moderate and low), derived from maps of flow accumulation, slope steepness, slope shape and land use. Using field survey of land ownership, the boundaries of 168 farms in the watersheds were mapped. Farmers' fields were classified using the erosion-risk map and considering the on-farm erosion hazard and the off-farm effect on other farmers' fields following the hillslope sequence. More than 60% of the farms were

  20. Co-evolution of soil and water conservation policy and human-environment linkages in the Yellow River Basin since 1949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; Mu, X.; Li, R.; Fleskens, L.; Stringer, L.C.; Ritsema, C.J.


    Policy plays a very important role in natural resource management as it lays out a government framework for guiding long-term decisions, and evolves in light of the interactions between human and environment. This paper focuses on soil and water conservation (SWC) policy in the Yellow River Basin

  1. Positive impacts in soil and water conservation in an Andean region of South America: Case scenarios from a USAID multidisciplinary cooperative project (United States)

    The USAID-SANREM-Virginia Polytechnic Institute project has made and continues to make an excellent impact, specifically showcasing the positive results of soil and water conservation (Barrera et al. 2010a; 2010b). This project has strong international cooperation between the USA, Ecuador and Bolivi...

  2. Residue management increases fallow water conservation and yield deficit irrigated crops grown in rotation with wheat (United States)

    No-tillage (NT) residue management provides cover to increase precipitation capture compared with disk tillage (DT) or in the absence of a cover crop. Therefore, NT has the potential to reduce irrigation withdrawals from the declining Ogallala Aquifer. In a 4-year study, we quantified DT and NT effe...

  3. Optimization in the utility maximization framework for conservation planning: a comparison of solution procedures in a study of multifunctional agriculture (United States)

    Kreitler, Jason R.; Stoms, David M.; Davis, Frank W.


    Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management.

  4. Optimization in the utility maximization framework for conservation planning: a comparison of solution procedures in a study of multifunctional agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Kreitler


    Full Text Available Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management.

  5. Optimization in the utility maximization framework for conservation planning: a comparison of solution procedures in a study of multifunctional agriculture. (United States)

    Kreitler, Jason; Stoms, David M; Davis, Frank W


    Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management.

  6. Assessing the potential for conservation tillage: a case study in the Maple Creek Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosper, H.R.; Erickson, M.W.; Hoover, H.


    A case study of the selected areas shows about 95 percent of the soils are suitable for all forms of conservation tillage. Critical erosion areas are lands of 12 to 13 percent slope. These lands comprise one-fourth of the land but contribute over half the total sediment. Preharvest costs are shown for four tillage methods. Labor, energy and other inputs for reduced, no-till and conventional tillage are compared for nonirrigated corn production.

  7. Creative Conservation Communication (United States)

    Houston, Jason


    I am a fellow with the International League of Conservation photographers (iLCP) and have been focused on photographing conservation dynamics at the intersection of social and environmental issues for a decade. Subjects have included traditional concerns such as deforestation, water conservation, endangered species, and fisheries. However, I rarely make photographs of the traditional nature, wildlife, landscapes, or environmental atrocities that most people think of when they think about environmentalism. Instead, I photograph people and how they live on the planet, as I believe passionately that without also considering social and cultural concerns, we will not be able to effectively and sustainably do conservation work or achieve positive environmental change. My presentation will share recent photography projects on forest conservation in Indonesian Borneo and fisheries management in Central America where I used a 'stakeholder profile-based' process to broadly survey the complexity of the issues while also making personal connections for these projects' diverse audiences. Through these case studies I will explore the opportunities and challenges of combining the authenticity, accuracy, and scientific validity of journalistic and documentary work with the emotional impact of the conventions of art and storytelling.

  8. Study and conservation of wood objects saturated of water originating of a pre-Columbian archaeological site: The Gran Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan; Estudio y conservacion de objetos de madera saturada provenientes de un sitio arqueologico precolombino: el Gran Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso O, A. [Coordinacion Nacional de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, INAH, Subdireccion de Conservacion Arqueologica y Acabados Arquitectonicos. Xicotencatl y General Anaya s/n, San Diego Churubusco, 04010 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Tzompantzi R, T. [Universidad de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Tecnologia e Ingenieria de la Madera, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Mendoza A, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Morgos, A. [Hungarian National Museum, Conservation Department, 1370 Budapest, Pf.: 364. (Hungary); Imazu, S. [Archaeological Conservation of the Kashihara Archaeological Institute, Unebishi, Nara 634-0065 (Japan)


    Few studies have been practiced on deterioration processes suffered by objects made of ancient tropical and coniferous woods. The reason is related to the fact that very few objects made of wood are usually found in archaeological excavations in our country. For this reason, applied studies of archaeological woods are, to us, fundamental to understand the preservation processes which have allowed very few pre-Columbian objects to survive the extreme conditions or submerged in streams and oceans. Some preliminary results were obtained in the studies practiced on the Mexican wooden miniature from the Offering number 102 of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan. Light and electron microscopy as well as physical tests have proven to be suitable examination techniques to obtain information about the preservation level of wooden structures. The results obtained were important to understand the influence of the context in the preservation of the buried materials, furthermore they have allowed us to evaluate and ascertain new conservation procedures. (Author) 24 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  9. Insights into soil and water conservation measures for major land utilization types in South Eastern Tanzania


    Kabanza, Andrew Kaggwa


    Land-use/cover changes have taken place in South Eastern Tanzania with as a result a decline in natural vegetation. Land use change coupled with anticipated climate change has lead to accelerated land degradation in terms of soil erosion, loss in biodiversity and changed hydrological cycles. Changes in land use if not properly managed goes hand in hand with soil erosion. This study was conducted to assess land use/cover change and its linkage to soil erosion visavis runoff and soil loss from ...

  10. Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative—A case study in partnership development (United States)

    D'Erchia, Frank


    The Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) is a successful example of collaboration between science and natural resource management at the landscape scale. In southwestern Wyoming, expanding energy and mineral development, urban growth, and other changes in land use over recent decades, combined with landscape-scale drivers such as climate change and invasive species, have presented compelling challenges to resource managers and a diverse group of Federal, State, industry, and non-governmental organizations, as well as citizen stakeholders. To address these challenges, the WLCI was established as a collaborative forum and interagency partnership to develop and implement science-based conservation actions. About a decade after being established, this report documents the establishment and history of the WLCI, focusing on the path to success of the initiative and providing insights and details that may be useful in developing similar partnerships in other locations. Not merely retrospective, the elements of the WLCI that are presented herein are still in play, still evolving, and still contributing to the resolution of compelling conservation challenges in the Western United States.The U.S. Geological Survey has developed many successful longstanding partnerships, of which the WLCI is one example.“As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the U.S. Geological Survey collects, monitors, analyzes, and provides scientific understanding about natural resource conditions, issues, and problems. The diversity of our scientific expertise enables us to carry out large-scale, multi-disciplinary investigations and provide impartial scientific information to resource managers, planners, and other customers” (U.S. Geological Survey, 2016).

  11. Water and Energy Savings using Demand Hot Water Recirculating Systems in Residential Homes: A Case Study of Five Homes in Palo Alto, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R.


    This report summarizes a preliminary study aimed at estimating the potential of saving potable water, (and the electrical energy used to heat it), that is presently lost directly to the drain while occupants wait for hot water to arrive at the faucet (point of use). Data were collected from five single-family homes in Palo Alto, California. Despite the small sample size in this study, the results make a compelling case for retrofitting homes with hot water recirculation systems to eliminate unnecessary wastage of water at the point of use. Technical as well as behavioral and attitudinal changes towards water conservation are necessary for a fulfilling and successful conservation effort. This report focuses on the technical issues, but behavioral issues are also noted, which may be factored into future studies involving local and state governments and utility companies.

  12. Optimization of Energy Efficiency and Conservation in Green Building Design Using Duelist, Killer-Whale and Rain-Water Algorithms (United States)

    Biyanto, T. R.; Matradji; Syamsi, M. N.; Fibrianto, H. Y.; Afdanny, N.; Rahman, A. H.; Gunawan, K. S.; Pratama, J. A. D.; Malwindasari, A.; Abdillah, A. I.; Bethiana, T. N.; Putra, Y. A.


    The development of green building has been growing in both design and quality. The development of green building was limited by the issue of expensive investment. Actually, green building can reduce the energy usage inside the building especially in utilization of cooling system. External load plays major role in reducing the usage of cooling system. External load is affected by type of wall sheathing, glass and roof. The proper selection of wall, type of glass and roof material are very important to reduce external load. Hence, the optimization of energy efficiency and conservation in green building design is required. Since this optimization consist of integer and non-linear equations, this problem falls into Mixed-Integer-Non-Linear-Programming (MINLP) that required global optimization technique such as stochastic optimization algorithms. In this paper the optimized variables i.e. type of glass and roof were chosen using Duelist, Killer-Whale and Rain-Water Algorithms to obtain the optimum energy and considering the minimal investment. The optimization results exhibited the single glass Planibel-G with the 3.2 mm thickness and glass wool insulation provided maximum ROI of 36.8486%, EUI reduction of 54 kWh/m2·year, CO2 emission reduction of 486.8971 tons/year and reduce investment of 4,078,905,465 IDR.

  13. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magro, Massimiliano; Corain, Livio; Ferro, Silvia; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Terzo, Milo; Corraducci, Vittorino; Salmaso, Luigi; Vianello, Fabio


    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model...

  14. Renal water conservation determines the increase in body weight after surgery: A randomized, controlled trial. (United States)

    Hahn, Robert G


    The present study was undertaken to identify factors that correlate with the gain in body weight after surgery. Twenty-one patients (median age of 49 years) were randomized to receive either Ringer × s acetate or 6% dextran 70 as their first infusion fluid during cholecystectomy or hysterectomy. Each patient's body weight was measured before the surgery and on the first postoperative morning. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for signs of stress, inflammation, and kidney injury. The fluid retention index (FRI), which reflects how strongly the kidneys excrete or retain fluid, was also calculated. The body weight increased by a median of 0.4 kg in the crystalloid fluid group and by 1.0 kg in the colloid fluid group (maximum 2.5 kg, P weight did not correlate with the infused fluid volume, the plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein or cortisol, or the urinary excretion of albumin, cortisol, or neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. However, the body weight increased with the postoperative FRI score (r = 0.64; P weight during the day of surgery. The amount of fluid alone did not correlate with the gain in body weight.

  15. Carbon budgets for two Portuguese estuaries: implications for the management and conservation of coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. Oliveira


    The results presented illustrate that Tagus and Sado estuaries represent an important land/ocean boundary for carbon transformation and emission, and confirm the anthropogenic pressure that these estuaries are subject to. Carbon budgets vary markedly within and between these two estuaries reflecting the human pressure. Anthropogenic inputs, autochthonous carbon production and primary production are indicated as the main responsible for the carbon production within the estuaries. Both estuaries export carbon to the ocean and to the atmosphere. The inorganic carbon faction has a major role in the carbon budget, enriching the ocean in carbon dioxide, contributing this for the greenhouse effect. Our understanding of organic and inorganic carbon fluxes in Tagus and Sado estuaries is vital for an efficient protection and preservation of such ecosystems being helpful in limit human-caused damage and in restoring damaged estuarine/coastal ecosystems. In addition, the economic impact of the carbon fluxes to the atmosphere, estimated as €375,000 per year, creates the appropriate incentives to reduce emissions and shift them to higher-value uses. Suggesting, therefore, a coastal management re-oriented towards a more adaptive approach through the use of carbon market-based policies. This study is a contribution to the integration of coastal and global carbon cycles. However, additional efforts are required to fully merge other components subsystems, such as salt marshes, with these budgets. Moreover, a fully comprehension of the community metabolism in these estuaries will greatly improve this integration.

  16. Overview of energy-conserving development planning and design techniques based on five case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Findings and recommendations are presented of a review of five case studies of ways to conserve energy through development planning and site design in communities. Two approaches were used. In the first approach, a conventional, pre-existing plan was analyzed to determine potential energy use. Once energy-conservation options were identified and evaluated, the conventional plan was modified by employing those options. This approach was used in The Woodlands, Burke Center, and Radisson studies. In the second approach, energy-conservation options are independently identified and evaluated. Those options that passed specific criteria screening were then utilized in developing one or more totally new plans based on energy objectives. This approach was used in Greenbrier and Shenandoah. Radisson is a new town on the outskirts of Syracuse, New York. Greenbrier is a 3000 acre planned community adjacent to Norfolk and Virginia Beach. Shenandoah is a proposed new town in the Atlanta urbanized area. The Woodlands is a new community under development north of Houston. Burke Center is a residential planned unit development in Fairfax County, Virgnia. (MCW)

  17. Biosocial Conservation: Integrating Biological and Ethnographic Methods to Study Human-Primate Interactions. (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Fairet, Emilie; Shutt, Kathryn; Waters, Siân; Bell, Sandra


    Biodiversity conservation is one of the grand challenges facing society. Many people interested in biodiversity conservation have a background in wildlife biology. However, the diverse social, cultural, political, and historical factors that influence the lives of people and wildlife can be investigated fully only by incorporating social science methods, ideally within an interdisciplinary framework. Cultural hierarchies of knowledge and the hegemony of the natural sciences create a barrier to interdisciplinary understandings. Here, we review three different projects that confront this difficulty, integrating biological and ethnographic methods to study conservation problems. The first project involved wildlife foraging on crops around a newly established national park in Gabon. Biological methods revealed the extent of crop loss, the species responsible, and an effect of field isolation, while ethnography revealed institutional and social vulnerability to foraging wildlife. The second project concerned great ape tourism in the Central African Republic. Biological methods revealed that gorilla tourism poses risks to gorillas, while ethnography revealed why people seek close proximity to gorillas. The third project focused on humans and other primates living alongside one another in Morocco. Incorporating shepherds in the coproduction of ecological knowledge about primates built trust and altered attitudes to the primates. These three case studies demonstrate how the integration of biological and social methods can help us to understand the sustainability of human-wildlife interactions, and thus promote coexistence. In each case, an integrated biosocial approach incorporating ethnographic data produced results that would not otherwise have come to light. Research that transcends conventional academic boundaries requires the openness and flexibility to move beyond one's comfort zone to understand and acknowledge the legitimacy of "other" kinds of knowledge. It is

  18. Nitrogen fertilisation of durum wheat: a case study in Mediterranean area during transition to conservation agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Galieni


    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N nutrition plays a key role for high yields and quality in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf. Husn; in Mediterranean environments, data regarding N fertilisation management during the transition phase to conservation agriculture (CA are limited. The aim of this work was to study the effects of N fertiliser forms and rates on yield and some quality traits of durum wheat, during the transition period to CA in Mediterranean areas; moreover, indication on the recommendable N form/rate combinations have been given. Field trials were carried out in south of Italy, during the first two years of transition to CA (from 2010 to 2012 in a durum wheat-based rotation. Following a split-plot design arranged on a randomised complete blocks with three replications, two N forms (main plots - urea and calcium nitrate - and four N rates (sub-plots - 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha–1 - plus an un-fertilised Control, were compared. The following parameters were analysed: grain yield, N-input efficiency, grains protein concentration (GPC, total gluten, gluten fractions and minerals concentration in kernels. Calcium nitrate gave the highest yield (4.48 t ha–1, as predicted by the quadratic model, at 146 kg N ha–1, on average. This was particularly noticeable in 2012, when the distribution of rainfall and temperatures regimes as well as residues’ status could have favoured such N-form. These results were confirmed by the observed higher values of all indices describing N-input efficiency. High GPC values (14.8% were predicted at slightly higher N-rates (173 kg N ha–1, averaging both N forms. In particular, gluten proteins and glutenin/gliadin ratio accrued as the N doses increased, reaching the highest values at 150 kg N ha–1, also positively affecting the quality of durum wheat flour. Iron and zinc concentrations were noticeably increased (38% and 37% on average by N supply, probably due to the enhanced water use efficiency under

  19. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Magro


    Full Text Available The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of “deceleration aging factor” as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline water of long-lived mouse models.

  20. Cohort study of lumbar percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel in sciatica refractory to conservative treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touraine, Sebastien; Tran, Olivia; Laredo, Jean-Denis [Hopital Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Radiologie Osteo-Articulaire, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Damiano, Joel [Hopital Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Rhumatologie, Centre Viggo-Petersen, Paris Cedex 10 (France)


    To investigate the efficacy of percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel (PCEG) in alleviating radicular pain due to disc herniation after failure of conservative treatment. After failure of conservative treatment, PCEG was performed under fluoroscopic guidance in 42 patients with sciatica >4/10 on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for at least 6 weeks and consistent disc herniation on MRI or CT <3 months. The VAS pain score was determined at baseline, then after 1 and 3 months. We assessed the influence of patient-related factors (age, gender, pain duration) and disc herniation-related factors (level, migration pattern, disc herniation-related spinal stenosis) on outcome of PCEG. Mean pain duration was 6.7 months. Pain intensity decreased by 44 % and 62.6 % after 1 and 3 months, respectively, versus baseline (P = 0.007). A mild improvement was noted by the rheumatologist in 30/42 (71.4 %) and 36/42 (85.7 %) patients after 1 and 3 months, respectively, and in 31/42 (73.8 %) and 33/42 (78.6 %) patients by self-evaluation. Patients who failed PCEG were significantly older (49.8 vs. 37.3 years, P = 0.03). None of the other variables studied were significantly associated with pain relief. PCEG may significantly improve disc-related radicular pain refractory to conservative treatment. (orig.)

  1. Conservation education in Madagascar: three case studies in the biologically diverse island-continent. (United States)

    Dolins, Francine L; Jolly, Alison; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Feistner, Anna T C; Ravoavy, Florent


    Few Malagasy children and adults are aware of the rare and unique fauna and flora indigenous to their island-continent, including flagship lemur species. Even the Malagasy ancestral proverbs never mentioned lemurs, but these same proverbs talked about the now extinct hippopotamus. Madagascar's geography, history, and economic constraints contribute to severe biodiversity loss. Deforestation on Madagascar is reported to be over 100,000 ha/year, with only 10-15% of the island retaining natural forest [Green & Sussman, 1990]. Educating children, teacher-training, and community projects about environmental and conservation efforts to protect the remaining natural habitats of endangered lemur species provide a basis for long-term changes in attitudes and practices. Case studies of three conservation education projects located in different geographical regions of Madagascar, Centre ValBio, Madagacar Wildlife Conservation Alaotra Comic Book Project, and The Ako Book Project, are presented together with their ongoing stages of development, assessment, and outcomes. We argue that while nongovernmental organizational efforts are and will be very important, the Ministry of Education urgently needs to incorporate biodiversity education in the curriculum at all levels, from primary school to university. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Cohort study of lumbar percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel in sciatica refractory to conservative treatment. (United States)

    Touraine, Sébastien; Damiano, Joël; Tran, Olivia; Laredo, Jean-Denis


    To investigate the efficacy of percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel (PCEG) in alleviating radicular pain due to disc herniation after failure of conservative treatment. After failure of conservative treatment, PCEG was performed under fluoroscopic guidance in 42 patients with sciatica >4/10 on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for at least 6 weeks and consistent disc herniation on MRI or CT <3 months. The VAS pain score was determined at baseline, then after 1 and 3 months. We assessed the influence of patient-related factors (age, gender, pain duration) and disc herniation-related factors (level, migration pattern, disc herniation-related spinal stenosis) on outcome of PCEG. Mean pain duration was 6.7 months. Pain intensity decreased by 44% and 62.6% after 1 and 3 months, respectively, versus baseline (P = 0.007). A mild improvement was noted by the rheumatologist in 30/42 (71.4%) and 36/42 (85.7%) patients after 1 and 3 months, respectively, and in 31/42 (73.8%) and 33/42 (78.6%) patients by self-evaluation. Patients who failed PCEG were significantly older (49.8 vs. 37.3 years, P = 0.03). None of the other variables studied were significantly associated with pain relief. PCEG may significantly improve disc-related radicular pain refractory to conservative treatment. • Percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel (PCEG) is feasible on an outpatient basis. • PCEG improves disc-related radicular pain refractory to conservative treatment. • PCEG is feasible on an outpatient basis. • Failure of PCEG does not interfere with subsequent spinal surgery.

  3. Presentation and conservative management of acute calcific tendinopathy: a case study and literature review. (United States)

    Scibek, Jason S; Carcia, Christopher R


    The efficacy of a variety of noninvasive, conservative management techniques for calcific tendinopathy has been investigated and established for improving pain and function and/or facilitating a decrease in the size or presence of calcium deposits. Surprisingly, few have reported on the use of traditional therapeutic exercise and rehabilitation alone in the management of this condition, given the often spontaneous resorptive nature of calcium deposits. The purpose of this case is to present the results of a conservative approach, including therapeutic exercise, for the management of calcific tendinopathy of the supraspinatus, with an emphasis on patient outcomes. The patient was a self-referred 41-y-old man with complaints of acute right-shoulder pain and difficulty sleeping. Imaging studies revealed liquefied calcium deposits in the right supraspinatus. The patient reported constant pain at rest (9/10) and tenderness in the area of the greater tuberosity. He exhibited a decrease in all shoulder motions and had reduced strength. The simple shoulder test (SST) revealed limited function (0/12). Conservative management included superficial modalities and medication for pain and a regimen of scapulothoracic and glenohumeral range-of-motion (ROM) and strengthening exercises. At discharge, pain levels decreased to 0/10 and SST scores increased to 12/12. ROM was full in all planes, and resisted motion was strong and pain free. The patient was able to engage in endurance activities and continue practicing as a health care provider. The outcomes with respect to pain, function, and patient satisfaction provide evidence to support the use of conservative therapeutic interventions when managing patients with acute cases of calcific tendinopathy. Successful management of calcific tendinopathy requires attention to outcomes and an understanding of the pathophysiology, prognostic factors, and physical interventions based on the current stage of the calcium deposits and the

  4. Watershed Conservation in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks


    We studied unanticipated long-run outcomes of conservation activities that occurred in forested watersheds on O`ahu, Hawaii, in the early twentieth century. The initial general impetus for the conservation activities was to improve irrigation surface water flow for the sugar industry. Industry...... in determining conservation policy. We incorporated remote-sensing data, expert opinion on current watershed quality, and a spatial economic and hydrological model of O`ahu’s freshwater use with reports of conservation activities from 1910–1960 to assess these benefits. We find a 2.3% annual increase...

  5. Analysis of different management systems for water and soil conservation in experimental plots of "macauba" (Acrocomia aculeata) in Araponga (MG, Brazil) (United States)

    Batista Lúcio-Correa, João; Cristina-Tonello, Kelly; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Texeira-Dias, Herly C.


    In Brazil, the conservation of water resources and agricultural soil are key environmental and economic aspects to mantain land services and the quality of life people in rural and urban communities. The macaw - Acrocomia aculeata) (Jacq.) Lodd. (Ex Martius) - is a Brazilian native oleaginous palm, whose potential has been highlighted in the scientific community due to its high economic potential and its recent advances in crop farming. This study aims to quantify the runoff in macaw plantation, comparing different techniques of crop management for a period of one year (from September 2012 to August 2013). The data from this study were collected in the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV) located in the municipality of Araponga, MG, Brazil. The seedlings took place in February 2009, in holes, spaced 5X5 in an area of 1.7 ha (680 plants) with a slope of 25%. Rainfall was monitored through three pluviometers with expose area of 162.86 cm² whereas the impact of different management systems on runoff was measured by using 10 plots of 63 m² each: 3 treatments with three repetitions plus the control plot. Each plot presented four macaw plants. The treatment one (T1), was formed by macaw plants without using any soil conservation technique; the treatment two (T2) consisted of macaws with a contour cord with 40 cm wide by 30 cm deep, located between the plantation lines; for the treatment three (T3) beans were planted forming vegetation strips; the control (T0) was represented by a portion without macaws plants, with spontaneous vegetation growing throughout the plot, which was not used any soil conservation technique. T2 presented the lowest values of runoff during the twelve months and at the same time, the greatest requirements of initial rainfall for runoff generation. In contrast, T3 showed the highest volumes of runoff for the study period, with a small reduction with the exception of January and February 2013, when the bean plants were well

  6. The Consequences of the FAA not Offering Emergency Agricultural UAS Rules for Water Conservation During the 2012 Drought (United States)

    Darling, R. G.


    The FAA's policies for agricultural Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) is essential towards preservation and optimization of water use in the parched Western United States. Had FAA applied emergency rules putting farmers on equal-footing with hobbyists for sUAS use at the beginning of the 2012 drought, the Western US could have been able to save approximately 3 Million/AF of water through improved irrigation management. For perspective, Los Angeles city's annual current consumption is 587,000 acre-feet. This study uses various assumptions about developed water use in agriculture and urban areas to determine water use, energy consumption, monetary loss through delay in FAA regulations. If the saved water was added to the ground the energy savings could have been approximately 1.27 Terra-Watt hours, enough energy to power the entire University of California system for 5 years. It remains unclear if new FAA regulations are sufficiently permissive to allow for widespread adoption of sUAS based precision agriculture. Substantial opportunities exist for utilizing UAS traffic management software in rural areas of less crowed airspace: incorporating geofencing and a notification system to operators and air traffic control as an alternative to a difficult examination process.

  7. Kyphoplasty vs conservative treatment: a case-control study in 110 post-menopausal women population. Is kyphoplasty better than conservative treatment? (United States)

    Colangelo, D; Nasto, L A; Genitiempo, M; Formica, V M; Autore, G; Pambianco, V; Tamburrelli, F C; Cerulli, G; Pola, E


    Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent disease worldwide. Consequences of vertebral osteoporotic fractures include pain and progressive vertebral collapse resulting in spinal kyphosis, decreased quality of life, disability and mortality. Minimally invasive procedures represent an advance to the treatment of osteoporotic VCFs. Despite encouraging results reported by many authors, surgical intervention in an osteoporotic spine is fraught with difficulties. Advanced patients age and comorbidities are of great concern. We designed a retrospective case-control study on 110 post-menopausal women consecutively visited at our institution. Study population was split in a surgical and a conservative cohort, according to the provided treatment. Kyphoplasty treated patients had lower back pain VAS scores at 1 month as compared with conservatively treated patients (p Kyphoplasty was able to restore more than 54.55% of the original segmental kyphosis, whereas patients in conservative cohort lost 6.67% of the original segmental kyphosis on average. Kyphoplasty is a modern minimal invasive surgery, allowing faster recovery than bracing treatment. It can avoid the deformity in kyphosis due to VCF. In fact, the risk to develop a new vertebral fracture after the first one is very high.

  8. Conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats - from field studies to molecolar ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Jones


    Full Text Available Greater horseshoe bats have experienced a substantial range contraction in Britain over the past century, and are also endangered in many European countries. Our studies on the conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats have been running since 1987, and have ranged from simple field-based studies on diet, through radio-tracking studies of habitat use, to research on population genetics, paternity and genetic factors affecting survival. Initially, I described the diet of the species and this proved to be a useful predictor of habitat use. Habitat use was studied in detail by radio-tracking 67 bats at three sites, with further small-scale studies to investigate the generality of landscape use patterns. We also studied the development of foraging behaviour in juveniles to determine critical foraging habitats that may promote juvenile survival. In Britain, greater horseshoe bats feed frequently in winter, and the extent of winter activity has been quantified by acoustic surveys and telemetry of hibernating bats. Recent advances in molecular genetics have provided fascinating insights into the conservation biology of threatened populations of this species, for example illustrating genetic effects of population isolation, and how outbreeding influences survival.

  9. Conserving the Greater Sage-grouse: A social-ecological systems case study from the California-Nevada region (United States)

    Duvall, Alison L; Metcalf, Alexander L.; Coates, Peter S.


    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) continues to serve as one of the most powerful and contested federal legislative mandates for conservation. In the midst of heated debates, researchers, policy makers, and conservation practitioners champion the importance of cooperative conservation and social-ecological systems approaches, which forge partnerships at multiple levels and scales to address complex ecosystem challenges. However, few real-world examples exist to demonstrate how multifaceted collaborations among stakeholders who share a common goal of conserving at-risk species may be nested within a systems framework to achieve social and ecological goals. Here, we present a case study of Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) conservation efforts in the “Bi-State” region of California and Nevada, United States. Using key-informant interviews, we explored dimensions and drivers of this landscape-scale conservation effort. Three themes emerged from the interviews, including 1) ESA action was transformed into opportunity for system-wide conservation; 2) a diverse, locally based partnership anchored collaboration and engagement across multiple levels and scales; and 3) best-available science combined with local knowledge led to “certainty of effectiveness and implementation”—the criteria used by the US Fish and Wildlife Service to evaluate conservation efforts when making listing decisions. Ultimately, collaborative conservation through multistakeholder engagement at various levels and scales led to proactive planning and implementation of conservation measures and precluded the need for an ESA listing of the Bi-State population of Greater Sage-grouse. This article presents a potent example of how a systems approach integrating policy, management, and learning can be used to successfully overcome the conflict-laden and “wicked” challenges that surround at-risk species conservation.

  10. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu


    Full Text Available Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  11. Identifying regional landscapes for conservation planning: a case study from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fairbanks, DHK


    Full Text Available The application of landscape ecology in conservation biology has rarely occurred in the context of defined landscapes. Conservation planning has focussed on representation of species diversity patterns and assumed that ecosystems, landscapes...

  12. Studies of Conservation with Yoruba Children of Differing Ages and Experience (United States)

    Lloyd, Barbara B.


    Questions concerning the effects of familiar and alien materials, age and culture, and the etiology of conservation are examined in number and continous quantity tasks assessing conservation in Yoruba children from traditional and educationally advantaged homes. (Author/AJ)

  13. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  14. Farm and rural adolescents′ perspective on hearing conservation: Reports from a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne S Rosemberg


    Full Text Available This study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of rural and farm adolescents regarding hearing conservation strategies. This qualitative study took place at two high schools in rural Michigan. Twenty-five adolescents living and working on farms or living in rural areas participated in one of two focus groups. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two researchers and checked by an additional researcher to ensure reliability. Noise exposure was ubiquitous among participants, both in farm-related (e.g., equipment, livestock and non-farm-related (e.g., music, firearms activities. Perceived barriers to use of hearing protection devices outweighed perceived benefits, resulting in uncommon use of protection. When hearing protection was used, it was usually earmuffs or earplugs. Participants indicated a lack of training in noise hazards and protective strategies. Despite their acknowledged risk of hearing loss, participants did not associate their use of hearing protection today with their hearing ability later in life. Categories emerging that relate to hearing protector use included: Barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, situational influences, impersonal influences, cues to action, susceptibility, and severity. Farm and rural adolescents are at risk for noise exposure and hearing loss. The findings stress the significance of work environment and adult modeling in facilitating hearing conservation behaviors. As indicated by the youths′ recommendations, school-based interventions may be an effective approach to address this health concern. Intervention studies are needed to test various approaches that can effectively promote use of hearing conservation strategies among rural and farm adolescents.

  15. Farm and rural adolescents' perspective on hearing conservation: reports from a focus group study. (United States)

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S; McCullagh, Marjorie C; Nordstrom, Megan


    This study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of rural and farm adolescents regarding hearing conservation strategies. This qualitative study took place at two high schools in rural Michigan. Twenty-five adolescents living and working on farms or living in rural areas participated in one of two focus groups. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two researchers and checked by an additional researcher to ensure reliability. Noise exposure was ubiquitous among participants, both in farm-related (e.g., equipment, livestock) and non-farm-related (e.g., music, firearms) activities. Perceived barriers to use of hearing protection devices outweighed perceived benefits, resulting in uncommon use of protection. When hearing protection was used, it was usually earmuffs or earplugs. Participants indicated a lack of training in noise hazards and protective strategies. Despite their acknowledged risk of hearing loss, participants did not associate their use of hearing protection today with their hearing ability later in life. Categories emerging that relate to hearing protector use included: Barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, situational influences, impersonal influences, cues to action, susceptibility, and severity. Farm and rural adolescents are at risk for noise exposure and hearing loss. The findings stress the significance of work environment and adult modeling in facilitating hearing conservation behaviors. As indicated by the youths' recommendations, school-based interventions may be an effective approach to address this health concern. Intervention studies are needed to test various approaches that can effectively promote use of hearing conservation strategies among rural and farm adolescents.

  16. Conservation-induced displacement: A comparative study of two Indian protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabra Asmita


    Full Text Available Attempts at ′preservation via displacement′ are an extreme manifestation of the ′fortress′ or an exclusionary conservation paradigm, support for which has increased lately due to escalating conservation threats. While the policies and processes emanating from this paradigm have produced positive conservation outcomes for some Protected Areas, livelihood outcomes for the displaced people have seldom been as positive. This article examines whether the impoverishment risks arising from conservation-induced displacement tend to vary with the degree of marginalisation of the displaced community. In this light, this article examines in detail the impact on livelihood of conservation-induced displacement in two Protected Areas (PAs of India. The article posits that understanding the dynamic livelihood context of displaced communities, especially the ecological base of their livelihoods, is critical to any assessment of their pre- and post-displacement livelihood strategies and livelihood outcomes (such as income, poverty, food security and health. A variety of livelihood parameters, including compensation received, consumption flows, agricultural production, monetary income, food security, headcount ratio of poverty and overall poverty indices have been studied, to understand the extent to which key livelihood risks arising out of displacement are addressed by the rehabilitation package and process in the two PAs. The Sahariya is a forest-dependent Adivasi community living in and around the Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in the semi-arid tropical region of Madhya Pradesh. The Sahariya Adivasis of the Kuno Sanctuary were a socially, politically and economically marginalised community, whose lives and livelihoods were intricately linked to their ecological base. We found that inadequate attention was paid to this factor while designing and implementing a suitable rehabilitation package for the 1650 Sahariya households displaced from this PA. As a result

  17. The Conservation of Rhythm in Suzuki Violin Students: A Task Validation Study. (United States)

    Nelson, David J.


    Twenty Suzuki violin students between four and eight years old were individually administered an author-designed rhythmic task and a series of standardized tasks that measured area and length conservation. The students' prior training was found to be less of a factor in rhythmic conservation than were age and area-length conservation. (Author/RM)

  18. Spine Tango registry data collection in a conservative spinal service: a feasibility study. (United States)

    Morris, Samuel; Booth, James; Hegarty, James


    The study reports the feasibility of implementing routine registry data collection and sustaining a high rate of data capture within a secondary care spinal osteopathy service, using the Spine Tango Conservative registry data collection tool (STC) with multiple patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs): Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Neck Disability Index (NDI), COMI Low Back Conservative, COMI Neck Conservative and EQ-5D-3L. Data collection rates were studied during the implementation of a registry data collection project from October 2011 to June 2015. The primary outcome was completion rate of PROMs and the STC, measured as a percentage of total expected data collection. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate completion rates by year, age group, sex, region of spinal complaint, baseline ODI or NDI score and number of PROMs required to complete the data set. Data were collected on 349 patients. Overall data collection rates increased from 54.8 % in January-June 2012 to 90.4 % in January-June 2015. The percentage of fully completed data sets was lower in the patient group required to complete 4-5 PROMs at each data collection point (15.4 %) than it was in the patient group required to complete 2-3 PROMs (37.4 %). Other comparisons showed no clear patterns. Our analysis shows that a high rate of data capture can be sustained in a clinical setting using the STC and multiple PROMs. However, increasing the burden of data collection on patients and practitioners was associated with increased data loss. We describe measures taken to reduce data loss in the future and to increase the efficiency of the data collection project.

  19. [Some problems of the study and representation of Siberian flora biodiversity in connection with its conservation]. (United States)

    Olonova, M V


    The present knowledge of flora of Siberia is quite insufficient, which is a considerable obstacle to the detection of its biodiversity for conserving the gene pool. Planning conservation measures should be focused not only on species, but also on intraspecific taxa and their phylogenetic uniqueness. In the absence of genetic data, available morphological and geographical methods should be used, so that, when it is impossible to establish the actual origin and relationship of taxa, the existing morphological diverstity is at least represented, as far as it is known to be based on genetic diversity. Phenetic maps can be of much use in the study of intraspecific morphological diversity. The estimation of geographic variability and morphological diversity, as well as the evaluation of territories, can be based on such maps. To represent adequately the biodiversity existing within poorly studied, presumably hybrid plant groups, until actual origin and relationship are known, they should probably be forcedly and provisionally considered as a special type of hybrid complexes, representing the unclear present day taxonomic situation. Such complexes could include populations and individuals with morphological characters of two or more different species, until the systematic position of such populations and individuals is further explored. Until the actual taxonomic status and relationship of the components are established, they could be regarded as subspecies permitted by the Code, or as certain recorded morphological deviations from the type, without assigning any taxonomic status to them--depending on the available data on variability and distribution. In the future, the resulting provisional information on morphological diversity would help to concentrate the efforts of biologists, in possession of the newest methods, on the most important objects, and serve as the scientific base for effective measures aimed at the conservation and management of the vast gene pool of

  20. Study on Anoa’s Preference to Feed Form Under Ex Situ Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RI Pujaningsih


    Full Text Available The Anoa is potential to be developed as a meat-producing animal. Studies on its preference to certain feed types and form is essential as an initial effort to conserve and cultivate anoa as livestock using feed processing technology. This study was aimed to evaluate the anoa’s feed preference to feed physical form, which was processed through feed processing/preserving technology. Latin square design with 3 treatments, and 3 replications was used in this study. The treatments were three different feed form, i.e. fresh, hay and wafers. Three anoas used as replications. Eating behaviour (eating, rumination upon standing, lying and wallowing, total feed consumptions, total dung, protein and crude fibre content of feed were observed. The results showed that the anoa’s feed in the ex situ area could be prepared in the form of wafers with protein content, crude fibre and total digestible nutrient of 8.11, 23.11 and 72.85%, respectively. Total digestible nutrients of wafer-shaped feed was higher than fresh and dry feed (72.85 vs 62.25, 60.88%. It could be recommended that wafer feed could be applied in anoa ex situ conservation and cultivation. (Animal Production 12(3: 150-155 (2010Key words: anoa, feed preference, wafer, TDN, anoa cultivation

  1. The use of laboratory experiments for the study of conservative solute transport in heterogeneous porous media (United States)

    Silliman, S. E.; Zheng, L.; Conwell, P.

    Laboratory experiments on heterogeneous porous media (otherwise known as intermediate scale experiments, or ISEs) have been increasingly relied upon by hydrogeologists for the study of saturated and unsaturated groundwater systems. Among the many ongoing applications of ISEs is the study of fluid flow and the transport of conservative solutes in correlated permeability fields. Recent advances in ISE design have provided the capability of creating correlated permeability fields in the laboratory. This capability is important in the application of ISEs for the assessment of recent stochastic theories. In addition, pressure-transducer technology and visualization methods have provided the potential for ISEs to be used in characterizing the spatial distributions of both hydraulic head and local water velocity within correlated permeability fields. Finally, various methods are available for characterizing temporal variations in the spatial distribution (and, thereby, the spatial moments) of solute concentrations within ISEs. It is concluded, therefore, that recent developments in experimental techniques have provided an opportunity to use ISEs as important tools in the continuing study of fluid flow and the transport of conservative solutes in heterogeneous, saturated porous media. Résumé Les hydrogéologues se sont progressivement appuyés sur des expériences de laboratoire sur des milieux poreux hétérogènes (connus aussi par l'expression "Expériences àéchelle intermédiaire", ISE) pour étudier les zones saturées et non saturées des aquifères. Parmi les nombreuses applications en cours des ISE, il faut noter l'étude de l'écoulement de fluide et le transport de solutés conservatifs dans des champs aux perméabilités corrélées. Les récents progrès du protocole des ISE ont donné la possibilité de créer des champs de perméabilités corrélées au laboratoire. Cette possibilité est importante dans l'application des ISE pour l'évaluation des th

  2. The Study of Enhancing Plans on Korean Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM) (United States)

    Sung, M.; Choi, Y.; Hwang, J.; Jeon, S. W.


    With the limitation of land area in the Republic of Korea, land use and excessive development in Korea is one of the huge socio-environmental problems. Plethora of land owners, government, and enterprises to develop land cover are still struggling for maintaining balance between efficient land utilization and sufficient land conservation. For the feasible management and land use in the future, ECVAM(as known as Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map) was created, accompanied with objective environmental grading of land in South Korea as well as integrated environmental information. ECVAM is the mapping system expressed by five-graded quality whether to develop or conserve in given land area with different colours. This map was primarily produced as the version 1.0 to ultimately use land eco-friendly and thoroughly which contains legally considered grade factors, environmental and ecological factors since 2001. From 2013, this project has planned to renovate the version 2.0 in more precise methods - strengthening legal support for user expansion, more amplified scale to 1:5,000, and the wide-spread supply such as education for those who demands ECVAM to adjust other fields like Environmental Impact Assessment to cope with land developers. For this year, we framed the official guideline to facilitate governments to design their newly-upgraded ECVAM but also to encourage local governors to utilize this figure for given land assessments. This assessment system also include the theoretical concept called natural asset valuation and the base study plan analyzing Vertical Vegetation Profile in the grading element of Stability of Community Structure. For the further study, it needs to reorganize the assessment factors to make the linkage between the ministry of environment and the ministry of land, infrastructure and transport in Korea for sustainable land use as well as to satisfy the grading ones in other nations' environmental conservation assessments such as

  3. Conservative treatment, plate fixation, or prosthesis for proximal humeral fracture. A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Launonen Antti P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proximal humerus fracture is the third most common fracture type after hip and distal radius fracture in elderly patients. A comprehensive study by Palvanen et al. demonstrated an increase in the annual fracture rate of 13.7% per year over the past 33 years. Should this trend continue, the fracture rate would triple over the next three decades. The increasing incidence of low-energy fractures raises questions about the optimal treatment in terms of functional outcome, pain, and rehabilitation time, as well as the economical impact. Despite the high incidence and costs of proximal humerus fractures, there is currently no valid scientific evidence for the best treatment method. Several publications, including a Cochrane review outline the need for high-quality, well-designed randomized controlled trials. Methods/Design The study is a prospective, randomized, national multi-center trial. The hypothesis of the trial is that surgical treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures achieves better functional outcome, pain relief, and patient satisfaction compared to conservative treatment. The trial is designed to compare conservative and surgical treatment of proximal humerus fractures in patients 60 years and older. The trial includes two strata. Stratum I compares surgical treatment with locking plates to conservative treatment for two-part fractures. Stratum II compares multi-fragmented fractures, including three- and four-part fractures. The aim of Stratum II is to compare conservative treatment, surgical treatment with the Philos locking plate, and hemiarthroplasty with an Epoca prosthesis. The primary outcome measure will be the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH score and the secondary outcome measures will be the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D value, OSS, Constant-Murley Score, VAS, and 15D. Recruiting time will be 3 years. The results will be analyzed after the 2-year follow-up period. Discussion This publication

  4. Irrigation Water Conveyance by Pipelines on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 430 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP430), Irrigation...

  5. Irrigation Water Management Recovery on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 449 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP449), Irrigation...

  6. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V


    Full Text Available , and of the remaining 2,5 percent, some 70 percent is frozen in the polar caps and around 30 percent is present as soil moisture or in underground aquifers. Less than 1 percent is thus accessible for direct use by humans, animals and plants. Consequently... be serviced with harvested water and/or grey water. Conserve and reuse cooling tower water by using efficient systems and strategies. Avoid ?once-through systems? commonly used for evaporation coolers, ice makers, hydraulic equipment, and air compressors...

  7. Exploring conservation discourses in the Galapagos Islands: A case study of the Galapagos giant tortoises. (United States)

    Benitez-Capistros, Francisco; Hugé, Jean; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico


    Conservation discourses change rapidly both at global and local scales. To be able to capture these shifts and the relationships between humans and nature, we focused on a local and iconic conservation case: the Galapagos giant tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.). We used the Q methodology to contextualize conservation for science and decision making and to explore the multidimensionality of the conservation concept in Galapagos. The results indicate four prevailing discourses: (1) Multi-actor governance; (2) giant tortoise and ecosystems conservation; (3) community governance; and (4) market and tourism centred. These findings allow us to identify foreseeable points of disagreement, as well as areas of consensus, and to discuss the implication of the findings to address socio-ecological conservation and sustainability challenges. This can help the different involved stakeholders (managers, scientists and local communities) to the design and apply contextualized conservation actions and policies to contribute to a better sustainable management of the archipelago.

  8. Willingness to pay for ecosystem conservation in Alaska's Tongass National Forest: a choice modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan E. Hjerpe


    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems contribute to human welfare in important ways, but because of the nonmarket nature of many of the goods and services produced, both markets and governments fail to optimize their production commensurate with their economic and ecological significance. Despite the recent proliferation of nonmarket environmental valuation in the literature, the incorporation of nonmarket values into public forest decision making has been limited by institutional and methodological barriers. To address this disconnect, we conducted a case study to quantify conservation values for the Tongass National Forest in a manner conducive for public forest planning. A choice experiment featuring proposed forest management alternatives with changes in critical attributes relative to their levels in the status quo was used to generate the requisite data. Econometric analysis suggests that Alaskans have strong preference for conservation management, including both preservation and ecological restoration, over status quo or exploitation management. However, there is significant heterogeneity among Alaskans in terms of bias toward the status quo depending on their socioeconomic characteristics, e.g., gender, age, place of residence, household income, whether or not they have dependent children. The findings of this study can be helpful to forest managers in the preparation of resource management plans consistent with maximization of total economic value of forest ecosystem services.

  9. Energy-conserving site design case studies: proceedings of the second workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrabak, R


    The workshop was opened by Mr. J. Kaminsky giving a brief synopsis of the history of the case studies to date. The Site and Neighborhood Design case studies are roughly midway through the process of identifying and evaluating various options for increasing energy conservation in current design stages of their development and marketing schedule. The experiences gained to date are given for Burke Center (a village center site, concentrating on building options) in Fairfax Co., Virginia; Radisson (basically a new town) in central New York; Greenbrier (3,000 acres, very flat and wet in a standard metropolitan area) in Virginia near Norfolk; Shenandoah (a series of villages, developed in stages) in Georgia near Atlanta; and The Woodlands (12 million ft/sup 2/ of building area and 37,000 parking spaces) in Texas near Houston. Technical progress for each development is then summed. Dr. W.R. Powell presented a paper describing an energy conservation system called Community Annual Storage Systems (CASES). CASES collects heat in in summer and stores it for used heating in winter. In the winter, it preserves the chill and provides the necessary cooling in the summer for communities.

  10. The effect of curing time and curing method on microleakge of conservative adhesive resin restorations: an in vitro study


    Alireza Heidari; Mehdi Shahrabi; Sara Ghadimi; Shahram Mosharafian; Zohreh Rafiee


    Background and Aims: Using the conservative adhesive resin restoration (CAR) in uncooperative children lead to numerous problems because of being time consuming. The purpose of this study was to compare the microleakage of conservative adhesive resin restoration under separate curing and co-curing.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 120 intact premolar teeth were collected and 120 vertical grooves were prepared on them. Then the teeth were divided into four groups: group 1, sep...

  11. Applying time series Landsat data for vegetation change analysis in the Florida Everglades Water Conservation Area 2A during 1996-2016 (United States)

    Zhang, Caiyun; Smith, Molly; Lv, Jie; Fang, Chaoyang


    Mapping plant communities and documenting their changes is critical to the on-going Florida Everglades restoration project. In this study, a framework was designed to map dominant vegetation communities and inventory their changes in the Florida Everglades Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2A) using time series Landsat images spanning 1996-2016. The object-based change analysis technique was combined in the framework. A hybrid pixel/object-based change detection approach was developed to effectively collect training samples for historical images with sparse reference data. An object-based quantification approach was also developed to assess the expansion/reduction of a specific class such as cattail (an invasive species in the Everglades) from the object-based classifications of two dates of imagery. The study confirmed the results in the literature that cattail was largely expanded during 1996-2007. It also revealed that cattail expansion was constrained after 2007. Application of time series Landsat data is valuable to document vegetation changes for the WCA-2A impoundment. The digital techniques developed will benefit global wetland mapping and change analysis in general, and the Florida Everglades WCA-2A in particular.

  12. Initial joint stability affects the outcome after conservative treatment of simple elbow dislocations: a retrospective study. (United States)

    Schnetzke, Marc; Aytac, Sara; Studier-Fischer, Stefan; Grützner, Paul-Alfred; Guehring, Thorsten


    Conservative treatment of simple elbow dislocations can lead to complications such as persisting pain and restricted joint mobility. The current aim was to identify patients with deteriorated outcome after conservative treatment and to investigate a possible association with initial joint (in)stability. Sixty-eight patients (mean age 37.1 ± 17.2 years) with simple elbow dislocations received conservative treatment. After closed reduction, joint stability was tested by varus and valgus stress under fluoroscopy. According to the findings under fluoroscopy, three different groups of instability could be identified: (1) slight instability (joint angulation dislocation under stability testing) were treated with primary surgical ligament repair and therefore excluded from this study. Additionally, MRIs and radiographs were analysed regarding warning signs of instability such as the drop sign and joint incongruence. Main outcome parameters were the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), range of motion (ROM), complications and revision rates. After 40.7 ± 20.4 months, the overall MEPS was excellent (94.2 ± 11.3) with a trend of slightly worse clinical results in group 2 (95.8 ± 9.0 vs. 90.0 ± 15.2 points; p = 0.154). In group 1, significantly more patients achieved an excellent result regarding the MEPS scoring system (77.6 vs. 52.6 %; p = 0.043) and elbow extension was significantly worse in group 2 (5.3 ± 9.9° vs. 1.4 ± 3.0°; p = 0.015). Seven treatment complications occurred in group 2 (36.8 %) compared with two in group 1 (4.1 %, p dislocation have a significantly worse clinical outcome, more complications and a higher need for secondary revision surgery following conservative treatment compared to patients with slight elbow instability.

  13. AES Water Architecture Study Interim Results (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.


    The mission of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) is to develop advanced water recovery systems in order to enable NASA human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO). The primary objective of the AES WRP is to develop water recovery technologies critical to near term missions beyond LEO. The secondary objective is to continue to advance mid-readiness level technologies to support future NASA missions. An effort is being undertaken to establish the architecture for the AES Water Recovery System (WRS) that meets both near and long term objectives. The resultant architecture will be used to guide future technical planning, establish a baseline development roadmap for technology infusion, and establish baseline assumptions for integrated ground and on-orbit environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) definition. This study is being performed in three phases. Phase I of this study established the scope of the study through definition of the mission requirements and constraints, as well as indentifying all possible WRS configurations that meet the mission requirements. Phase II of this study focused on the near term space exploration objectives by establishing an ISS-derived reference schematic for long-duration (>180 day) in-space habitation. Phase III will focus on the long term space exploration objectives, trading the viable WRS configurations identified in Phase I to identify the ideal exploration WRS. The results of Phases I and II are discussed in this paper.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 1, 2015 ... CORRELATION STUDY AMONG WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS OF. GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT (INDIA). P. Shroff. 1. , R. T. Vashi. 1,*. , V. A. Champaneri. 2 and K. K. Patel. 1. 1Department of Chemistry, Navyug Science College, Surat-395009, (Gujarat), India. 2.

  15. Conservation of historical buildings – The Omani–French museum as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheir M. Hegazy


    Full Text Available The conservation of historical buildings in developed countries has been very common, well carried out, and accumulated a wealth of experience. Conversely, the developing countries do not have this experience, qualified experts or professionals to handle the restoration process of historical buildings independently. So, unless the developing countries received comprehensive support from the related cultural societies and institutions in developed countries for the conservation of its historical heritage, many problems will arise and excessive sums of money will be incurred. The Omani–French museum is a case in point. Through discussing the renovation process of the aforesaid building- as a case study- this paper will highlight some critical issues such as the importance of involving an integrated team of highly qualified professionals. The precautions to maintain the well-being of the building against any further problems arising or required modifications must also be included in the mission of the said team. Authentic treatment of historical buildings must be highly considered, taking in consideration the new standards of rehabilitating process. Any modern techniques or plants needed must be added with great care to blend with the essence of the original environment.

  16. From intent to action: A case study for the expansion of tiger conservation from southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gubbi


    Full Text Available To conserve a large, wide-ranging carnivore like the tiger, it is critical not only to maintain populations at key habitat sites, but also to enable the persistence of the species across much larger landscapes. To do this, it is important to establish well-linked habitat networks where sites for survival and reproduction of tigers are complemented by opportunities for dispersal and colonization. On the ground, expanding protection to areas with a potential for tiger recovery still remains the means of operationalizing the landscape approach. Yet, while the gazetting of protected areas is necessary to enable this, it is not sufficient. It is essential to benchmark and monitor the process by which establishment of protected areas must necessarily be followed by management changes that enable a recovery of tigers, their prey and their habitats. In this paper, we report a case study from the Cauvery and Malai Mahadeshwara Hills Wildlife Sanctuaries of southern India, where we document the infrastructural and institutional changes that ensued after an unprecedented expansion of protected areas in this landscape. Further, we establish ecological benchmarks of the abundance and distribution of tigers, the relative abundance of their prey, and the status of their habitats, against which the recovery of tigers in this area of vast conservation potential may be assessed over time.

  17. Mitigation of air pollution and carbon footprint by energy conservation through CFLs: a case study. (United States)

    Wath, Sushant B; Majumdar, Deepanjan


    Electricity consumption of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is low, making them a useful tool for minimizing the rapidly increasing demand of electrical energy in India. The present study aims to project the likely electricity conservation in a scenario of complete replacement of existing Fluorescent Tubes (FTs) by CFLs at CSIR-NEERI (National Environmental Engineering Research Institute) visa vis the financial repercussions and indirect reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases, e.g. CO2, N2O, CH4 and other air pollutants, e.g. SO2, NO, suspended particulate matter (SPM), black carbon (BC) and mercury (Hg) from coal fired thermal power plants. The calculations show that the Institute could save around 122850 kWh of electricity per annum, thereby saving approximately INR 859950/(USD 18453.86) towards electricity cost per annum and would be able to minimize 44579.08 kg of CO2-C equivalent (over 100 year time horizon), 909 kg SO2, 982.8 kg NO, 9.8 kg of BC, 368.5 kg SPM, 18.4 kg PM10 and 0.0024 kg Hg emissions per annum from a coal fired thermal power plant by conserving electricity at the institute level.

  18. Perceptions of Water Pricing during a Drought: A Case Study from South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Martin


    Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of urban and regional water consumers in three areas of South Australia on the fairness of the water pricing system, the impact of increases in water pricing on households and pricing as a driver of water conservation. The study was conducted in 2009 during a time of severe drought and mandatory water restrictions. The results did not show a general aversion to all aspects of price increases but rather different sectors of the population were particularly resistant to different, specific aspects of water pricing. A state-wide water pricing policy in South Australia means that all consumers pay the same rate per volume of water consumed regardless of their location; yet in the regional study area, where it costs more for the service provider to supply the water, the respondents had stronger feelings that the price of water should be higher in places where it costs more to supply it. Generally, low income earners were less in favor of a block pricing system than higher income earners. The latter findings indicate a common lack of awareness around various aspects of water pricing. Some implications of the findings for water managers are outlined.

  19. The landscapes that Finnish children and adolescents want to conserve - a study of pupils´drawings in Basic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Yli-Panula


    Full Text Available A landscape is an experienced environment, which can be perceived by senses and feelings or through cognition processes. The background hypotheses of this study comprise the idea that the landscape which somebody would like to conserve is, in one way or another, important and valuable to her or him. The person undoubtedly has positive experiences and images of this environment. The present study used students’ drawings to analyze their conceptions of the landscape. The conceptions differ both in content and in quality and they are dependent on age and experiences. The aim of this study was to analyze the drawings of a group of Finnish pupils (N=324 in basic education to find out the landscape they would like to conserve and to find out their relation to the environment. Pupils from grades 1-2, 5-6 and 8-9 participated. The results show that the nature landscape was the most common one in all age groups. In the nature landscapes the following issues were usually present: vegetation, especially trees, often also flowers (in girls’ drawings, water elements, the sky and the sun. Furthermore, dominating contents in the nature landscapes were water elements, like creeks, rivers, small lakes, lakes or the sea. Many of the nature drawings contained forest. One third of the landscapes represented a built environment, the so-called cultural landscape, where the nature landscape had been more or less changed by human activity The number of these built landscapes did not vary markedly between the three age groups. The third of the main categories, a landscape where human beings were physically present in the landscapes, was the most infrequent and was relatively most often drawn by pupils in grades 5-6. The boys valued more landscapes modified by human activity compared to the landscapes valued by girls. In conclusion: the landscapes in the drawings of these Finnish pupils in basic education were strongly connected to the nature and this result is in

  20. Resource Conservation Glossary. (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…