Sample records for water conducting fractures

  1. Research of the electrical anisotropic characteristics of water-conducting fractured zones in coal seams (United States)

    Su, Ben-Yu; Yue, Jian-Hua


    Water flooding disasters are one of the five natural coal-mining disasters that threaten the lives of coal miners. The main causes of this flooding are water-conducting fractured zones within coal seams. However, when resistivity methods are used to detect water-conducting fractured zones in coal seams, incorrect conclusions can be drawn because of electrical anisotropy within the water-conducting fractured zones. We present, in this paper, a new geo-electrical model based on the geology of water-conducting fractured zones in coal seams. Factors that influence electrical anisotropy were analyzed, including formation water resistivity, porosity, fracture density, and fracture surface roughness, pressure, and dip angle. Numerical simulation was used to evaluate the proposed electrical method. The results demonstrate a closed relationship between the shape of apparent resistivity and the strike and dip of a fracture. Hence, the findings of this paper provide a practical resistivity method for coal-mining production.

  2. Database for hydraulically conductive fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammisto, E.; Palmen, J.; Ahokas, H. (Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland))


    Posiva flow logging (PFL) with a 0.5 m test interval and made in 10 cm steps can be used for the determination of the depth of hydraulically conductive fractures. Together with drillhole wall images and fracture data from core logging, PFL provides possibilities to detect individual conductive fractures. In this report, the results of PFL are combined with fracture data on drillholes OL-KR1 - OL-KR40, OL-KR15B - KR20B, OL-KR22B - KR23B, OL-KR25B, OL-KR27B, OL-KR29B, OL-KR31B, OLKR33B, OL-KR37B and OL-KR39B - KR40B and pilot holes OL-PH1 and ONK-PH2 - ONK-PH7. The conductive fractures were first recognised from PFL data and digital drillhole images and then the fractures from the core logging that correspond to the ones picked from the digital drillhole images were identified. The conductive fractures were primarily recognised in the images based on the openness of fractures or a visible flow in the image. In most of the cases, no tails of flow were seen in the image. In these cases the conductive fractures were recognised in the image based on the openness of fractures and a matching depth. On the basis of the results hydraulically conductive fractures/zones could in most cases be distinguished in the drillhole wall images. An important phase in the work is the calibration of the depth of the image and flow logging with the sample length. Hydraulic conductivity is clearly higher in the upper part of the bedrock in the depth range 0-150 m below sea level than deeper in the bedrock. The frequency of hydraulically conductive fractures (T > 10-10-10-9 m2/s) in depth range 0-150 m varies between 0.06 and 0.78 fractures/metre of sample length. Deeper in the rock conductive fractures are less frequent, but often occur in groups of a few fractures. About 10% of the conductive fractures are within HZ-structures and 6% within BFZ-structures. 3% of the conductive fractures are within HZ- and BFZ-structures. (orig.)

  3. Database for Hydraulically Conductive Fractures. Update 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammisto, E.; Palmen, J. (Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland))


    Posiva flow logging (PFL) with 0.5 m test interval and made in 10 cm steps can be used for exact depth determination of hydraulically conductive fractures. Together with drillhole wall images and fracture data from core logging PFL provides possibilities to detect single conductive fractures. In this report, the results of PFL are combined to the fracture data in drillholes OL-KR49 .. OL-KR53, OL-KR50B, OL-KR52B and OLKR53B and pilot holes ONK-PH11 - ONK-PH13. The results are used mainly in development of hydroDFN- models. The conductive fractures were first recognised from the PFL data and digital drillhole images and then the fractures from the core logging corresponding to the ones picked from the digital drillhole images were identified. The conductive fractures were recognised from the images primarily based on openness of fractures or a visible flow in the image. In most of the cases of measured flow, no tails of flow were seen in the image. In these cases, the conductive fractures were recognised from the image based on openness of fractures and a matching depth. According to the results the hydraulically conductive fractures/zones can be distinguished from the drillhole wall images in most cases. An important phase in the work is to calibrate the depth of the image and the flow logging with the sample length. The hydraulic conductivity is clearly higher in the upper part of the bedrock in the depth range 0-150 m below sea level than deeper in the bedrock. The frequency of hydraulically conductive fractures detected in flow logging (T > 10 -10-10-9 m2/s) in depth range 0-150 m varies from 0.07 to 0.84 fractures/meter of sample length. Deeper in the rock the conductive fractures are less frequent, but occur often in groups of few fractures. In drillholes OL-KR49 .. OL-KR53, OL-KR50B, OL-KR52B and OL-KR53B about 8.5 % of all fractures and 4.4 % of the conductive fractures are within HZ-structures. (orig.)

  4. Database for hydraulically conductive fractures. Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmen, J.; Tammisto, E.; Ahokas, H. (Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland))


    Posiva flow logging (PFL) with a 0.5 m test interval and made in 10 cm steps can be used for the determination of the depth of hydraulically conductive fractures. Together with drillhole wall images and fracture data from core logging, PFL provides possibilities to detect individual conductive fractures. In this report, the results of PFL are combined with fracture data on drillholes OL-KR41 - OL-KR48, OL-KR41B - OLKR45B and pilot holes ONK-PH8 - ONK-PH10. In addition, HTU-data measured by 2 m section length and 2 m steps in holes OL-KR39 and OL-KR40 at depths 300-700 m were analyzed and combined with fracture data in a similar way. The conductive fractures were first recognised from PFL data and digital drillhole images and then the fractures from the core logging that correspond to the ones picked from the digital drillhole images were identified. The conductive fractures were primarily recognised in the images based on the openness of fractures or a visible flow in the image. In most of the cases, no tails of flow were seen in the image. In these cases the conductive fractures were recognised in the image based on the openness of fractures and a matching depth. On the basis of the results hydraulically conductive fractures/zones could in most cases be distinguished in the drillhole wall images. An important phase in the work is the calibration of the depth of the image, flow logging and the HTU logging with the sample length. In addition to results of PFL-correlation, Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU) data measured by 2 m section length and 2 m steps was studied at selected depths for holes OL-KR39, OL-KR40, OL-KR42 and OL-KR45. Due to low HTU section depth accuracy the conducting fractures were successfully correlated with Fracture Data Base (FDB) fractures only in drillholes OL-KR39 and OL-KR40. HTU-data depth matching in these two drillholes was performed using geophysical Single Point Resistance (SPR) data both from geophysical and PFL measurements as a depth

  5. Quantifying Representative Hydraulic Conductivity for Three-Dimensional Fractured Formations (United States)

    Lee, I.; Ni, C.


    The fractures and pores in rock formations are the fundamental units for flow and contaminant transport simulations. Due to technical and logical limitations it is difficult in reality to account for such small units to model flow and transport in large-scale problems. The concept of continuum representations of fractured rocks is then used as an alternative to solve for flow and transport in complex fractured formations. For these types of approaches the determinations of the representative parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and dispersion coefficient play important roles in controlling the accuracy of simulation results for large-scale problems. The objective of this study is to develop a discrete fracture network (DFN) model and the associated unstructured mesh generation system to characterize the continuum hydraulic conductivity for fractured rocks on different scales. In this study a coupled three-dimensional model of water flow, thermal transport, solute transport, and geochemical kinetic/equilibrium reactions in saturated/unsaturated porous media (HYDROGEOCHEM) is employed to be the flow simulator to analyze the flow behaviors in fracture formations. The fracture network model and the corresponding continuum model are simulated for same scale problems. Based on the concept of mass conservation in flow, the correlations between statistics of fracture structure and the representative continuum parameters are quantified for a variety of fracture distribution scenarios and scales. The results of this study are expected to provide general insight into the procedures and the associated techniques for analyzing flow in complex large-scale fractured rock systems.

  6. Hydraulic conductivities of fractures and matrix in Slovenian carbonate aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timotej Verbovšek


    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivities and specific storage coefficients of fractures and matrix in Slovenian carbonate aquifers were determined by Barker’s method for pumping test analysis, based on fractional flow dimension. Values are presented for limestones and mainly for dolomites, and additionally for separate aquifers, divided by age andlithology in several groups. Data was obtained from hydrogeological reports for 397 water wells, and among these, 79 pumping tests were reinterpreted. Hydraulic conductivities of fractures are higher than the hydraulic conductivities of matrix, and the differences are highly statistically significant. Likewise, differences are significant for specific storage, and the values of these coefficients are higher in the matrix. Values of all coefficients vary in separate aquifers, and the differences can be explained by diagenetic effects, crystal size, degree of fracturing, andcarbonate purity. Comparison of the methods, used in the reports, and the Barker’s method (being more suitable for karstic and fractured aquifers, shows that the latter fits real data better.

  7. Transmissivity and conductivity of single fractures (United States)

    Adler, P. M.; Thovert, J. F.; Mourzenko, V. V.


    A fracture can be seen as a void space between two rough surfaces in partial contact. Transmissivity and conductivity can be determined numerically by solving the Stokes and Laplace equations between these two surfaces. These problems were first solved and published by the same authors between 1995 and 2001. Updated, more complete and precise results are presented here. Each surface of a fracture can be schematized as a random surface oscillating around an average plane, characterized by the probability density and autocorrelation function C(u) of the heights; their standard deviation is the roughness sigma. The two surfaces are separated by a mean distance b_m and their heights are correlated with an intercorrelation coefficient theta. The two major classes for C(u), namely the Gaussian and the self-affine autocorrelations with Hurst exponent H, are both characterized by a length scale l_c, which is a typical scale for the surface features in the Gaussian case and a cut-off length in the self-affine case. Gaussian surfaces are statistically homogeneous while the mean properties in the self-affine case are size-dependent. Systematic calculations were performed for these two classes, with recent emphasis put on the Gaussian fractures. The results are modeled as functions of b_m/sigma, l_c/sigma and theta. Cubic law applies for large b_m/sigma in terms of the aperture reduced by the hydraulic thickness of the surface rugosity. Another cubic law applies in the opposite limit of tight fractures with an offset depending on theta and a prefactor which depends on theta and l_c. A transition takes place between these two regimes. It is also shown that the Reynolds approximation may overestimate the true transmissivity by almost an order of magnitude. Similar calculations were performed for conductivity. The whole work is summarized by a series of master curves and models which can be used to estimate the properties of real fractures.

  8. A pore water conductivity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.A.


    The electrical permittivity and conductivity of the bulk soil are a function of the permittivity and conductivity of the pore water. For soil water contents higher than 0.10 both functions are equal, facilitating in situ conductivity measurements of the pore water. A novel method is described, based

  9. Method development for determining the hydraulic conductivity of fractured porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kenneth L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    datasets suitable for analysis (sample types 3 and 4). The intact saltstone sample (sample type 1) did not yield any measureable outflow over the pressure range of the outflow test (0-1000 cm H2O). This was expected because the estimated air entry pressure for intact saltstone is on the order of 100,000 cm H2O (Dixon et al., 2009). The intact saltstone sample with a single saw cut smooth surface fracture (sample type 2) did not produce useable data because the fracture completely drained at less than 10 cm H2O applied pressure. The cumulative outflow data from sample types 3 and 4 were analyzed using an inverse solution of the Richard’s equation for water flow in variably saturated porous media. This technique was implemented using the computer code Hydrus-1D (Šimunek et al., 2008) and the resulting output included the van Genuchten-Mualem water retention and relative permeability parameters and predicted saturated hydraulic conductivity (Van Genuchten, 1980; Van Genuchten et al., 1991). Estimations of relative permeability and saturated conductivity are possible because the transient response of the sample to pressure changes is recorded during the multi-step outflow extraction test. Characteristic curves were developed for sample types 3 and 4 based on the results of the transient outflow method and compared to that of intact saltstone previously reported by Dixon et al. (2009). The overall results of this study indicate that the outflow extraction method is suitable for measuring the hydraulic properties of micro-fractured porous media. The resulting cumulative outflow data can be analyzed using the computer code Hydrus-1D to generate the van Genuchten curve fitting parameters that adequately describe fracture drainage. The resulting characteristic curves are consistent with blended characteristic curves that combine the behaviors of low pressure drainage associated with fracture flow with high pressure drainage from the bulk

  10. Potential Relationships Between Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources (United States)

    The conferees urge the Agency to carry out a study on the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using a credible approach that relies on the best available science, as well as independent sources of information. The conferees expect the study to be conduct...

  11. Study on unstable fracture characteristics of light water reactor piping

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    Kurihara, Ryoichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment


    Many testing studies have been conducted to validate the applicability of the leak before break (LBB) concept for the light water reactor piping in the world. It is especially important among them to clarify the condition that an inside surface crack of the piping wall does not cause an unstable fracture but ends in a stable fracture propagating only in the pipe thickness direction, even if the excessive loading works to the pipe. Pipe unstable fracture tests performed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute had been planned under such background, and clarified the condition for the cracked pipe to cause the unstable fracture under monotonous increase loading or cyclic loading by using test pipes with the inside circumferential surface crack. This paper examines the pipe unstable fracture by dividing it into two parts. One is the static unstable fracture that breaks the pipe with the inside circumferential surface crack by increasing load monotonously. Another is the dynamic unstable fracture that breaks the pipe by the cyclic loading. (author). 79 refs.

  12. Water-soluble conductive polymers (United States)

    Aldissi, Mahmoud


    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  13. Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert


    Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

  14. [Hydraulic fracturing - a hazard for drinking water?]. (United States)

    Ewers, U; Gordalla, B; Frimmel, F


    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a technique used to release and promote the extraction of natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal bed methane) from deep natural gas deposits. Among the German public there is great concern with regard to the potential environmental impacts of fracking including the contamination of ground water, the most important source of drinking water in Germany. In the present article the risks of ground water contamination through fracking are discussed. Due to the present safety requirements and the obligatory geological and hydrogeological scrutiny of the underground, which has to be performed prior to fracking, the risk of ground water contamination by fracking can be regarded as very low. The toxicity of chemical additives of fracking fluids is discussed. It is recommended that in the future environmental impact assessment and approval of fracs should be performed by the mining authorities in close cooperation with the water authorities. Furthermore, it is recommended that hydraulic fracturing in the future should be accompanied by obligatory ground water monitoring. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. From Micro to Meso: an exercise in determining hydraulic conductivity of fractured sandstone cores from detailed characterization of the fractures (United States)

    Baraka-Lokmane, Salima; Liedl, Rudolf


    Hydraulic conductivities of fractured sandstone bore cores of 0.1 m in diameter are calculated using detailed characterization of the fracture geometry parameters determined using a resin casting technique. The accuracy of the measurements was about 0.25-1.25 μm with the image size used. The values of the effective fracture apertures vary between 10 μm and 50 μm. For modelling purposes the samples are sectioned serially, perpendicular to the flow direction along the cylinder axis. The hydraulic conductivity of individual slices is estimated by summing the contribution of the matrix (assumed uniform) and each fracture (depending on its length and aperture). Finally, the hydraulic conductivity of the bulk sample is estimated by a harmonic average in series along the flow path. Results of this geometrical upscaling compare favourably with actual conductivity measured in hydraulic and pneumatic experiments carried out prior to sectioning. This study shows that the determination of larger-scale conductivity can be achieved, based on the evaluation of fracture geometry parameters (e.g. fracture aperture, fracture width and fracture length), measured using an optical method, at least at the laboratory scale.

  16. Fracture behavior of nickel-based alloys in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, W.J.; Brown, C.M.


    The cracking resistance of Alloy 600, Alloy 690 and their welds, EN82H and EN52, was characterized by conducting J{sub IC} tests in air and hydrogenated water. All test materials displayed excellent toughness in air and high temperature water, but Alloy 690 and the two welds were severely embrittled in low temperature water. In 54 C water with 150 cc H{sub 2}/kg H{sub 2}O, J{sub IC} values were typically 70% to 95% lower than their air counterparts. The toughness degradation was associated with a fracture mechanism transition from microvoid coalescence to intergranular fracture. Comparison of the cracking response in water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air demonstrated that susceptibility to low temperature cracking is due to hydrogen embrittlement of grain boundaries. The effects of water temperature, hydrogen content and loading rate on low temperature crack propagation were studied. In addition, testing of specimens containing natural weld defects and as-machined notches was performed to determine if low temperature cracking can initiate at these features. Unlike the other materials, Alloy 600 is not susceptible to low temperature cracking as the toughness in 54 C water remained high and a microvoid coalescence mechanism was operative in both air and water.

  17. The EPA's Study on the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources (United States)

    Burden, Susan


    Natural gas plays a key role in our nation's clean energy future. The United States has vast reserves of natural gas that are commercially viable as a result of advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies, which enable greater access to gas in rock formations deep underground. These advances have spurred a significant increase in the production of both natural gas and oil across the country. However, as the use of hydraulic fracturing has increased, so have concerns about its potential human health and environmental impacts, especially for drinking water. In response to public concern, the US Congress requested that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conduct scientific research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. In 2011, the EPA began research to assess the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources, if any, and to identify the driving factors that may affect the severity and frequency of such impacts. The study is organized around the five stages of the hydraulic fracturing water cycle, from water acquisition through the mixing of chemicals and the injection of fracturing fluid to post-fracturing treatment and/or disposal of wastewater. EPA scientists are using a transdisciplinary research approach involving laboratory studies, computer modeling, toxicity assessments, and case studies to answer research questions associated with each stage of the water cycle. This talk will provide an overview of the EPA's study, including a description of the hydraulic fracturing water cycle and a summary of the ongoing research projects.

  18. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Systems and Electromagnetic Geophysical Monitoring of Fluid Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Um, Evan; Moridis, George


    -geomechanical simulator and are transformed via a rock-physics model into electrical conductivity models. It is shown that anomalous conductivity distribution in the resulting models is closely related to injected water saturation, but not closely related to newly created unsaturated fractures. Our numerical modeling experiments demonstrate that the crosswell EM method can be highly sensitive to conductivity changes that directly indicate the migration pathways of the injected fluid. Accordingly, the EM method can serve as an effective monitoring tool for distribution of injected fluids (i.e., migration pathways) during hydraulic fracturing operations

  19. Simulation of water flow in fractured porous medium by using discretized virtual internal bond (United States)

    Peng, Shujun; Zhang, Zhennan; Li, Chunfang; He, Guofu; Miao, Guoqing


    The discretized virtual internal bond (DVIB) is adopted to simulate the water flow in fractured porous medium. The intact porous medium is permeable because it contains numerous micro cracks and pores. These micro discontinuities construct a fluid channel network. The representative volume of this fluid channel network is modeled as a lattice bond cell with finite number of bonds in statistical sense. Each bond serves as a fluid channel. In fractured porous medium, many bond cells are cut by macro fractures. The conductivity of the fracture facet in a bond cell is taken over by the bonds parallel to the flow direction. The equivalent permeability and volumetric storage coefficient of a micro bond are calibrated based on the ideal bond cell conception, which makes it unnecessary to consider the detailed geometry of a specific element. Such parameter calibration method is flexible and applicable to any type of element. The accuracy check results suggest this method has a satisfying accuracy in both the steady and transient flow simulation. To simulate the massive fractures in rockmass, the bond cells intersected by fracture are assigned aperture values, which are assumed random numbers following a certain distribution law. By this method, any number of fractures can be implicitly incorporated into the background mesh, avoiding the setup of fracture element and mesh modification. The fracture aperture heterogeneity is well represented by this means. The simulation examples suggest that the present method is a feasible, simple and efficient approach to the numerical simulation of water flow in fractured porous medium.

  20. The analysis of pulse interference tests conducted in a fractured rock aquifer bounded by a moving free surface (United States)

    Elmhirst, Laura M.; Novakowski, Kentner S.


    An analytical model is presented for the analysis of pulse interference tests conducted in a fractured porous medium with connection to a free surface boundary at the water table. The solution is applicable to open borehole pulse interference tests due to the accommodation of multiple horizontal fractures intersecting each wellbore and a connection from the uppermost horizontal fracture via a network of vertical fractures to a free surface boundary. The solution is derived using the Laplace transform method and evaluation of the solution is performed by numerical inversion. Based on an informal analysis, the model is sensitive to transmissivity, storativity, specific storage, vertical hydraulic conductivity and particularly specific yield over a range of realistic values for these parameters. A field example is presented to illustrate the application of the model in the estimation of specific yield in fractured rock settings with relatively low vertical permeability. Although a reasonable model fit was obtained, application to an additional field example having only one fracture was unsatisfactory, and further study on uniqueness is warranted.

  1. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F., E-mail: [US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, MA 01760 (United States); Bernabei, Manuele [ITAF, Test Flight Centre, Chemistry Dept. Pratica di Mare AFB, 00071 Pomezia (Rome), Italy (UE) (Italy)


    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  2. Long-term Sustainability of Fracture Conductivity in Geothermal Systems using Proppants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl D Mattson; Ghanashyam Neupane; Mitchell Plummer; Clay Jones; Joe Moore


    Long-term sustainability of fracture conductivity is critical for commercial success of engineered geothermal system (EGS) and hydrogeothermal field sites. The injection of proppants has been suggested as a means to enhance the conductivity in these systems. Several studies have examined the chemical behavior of proppants that are not at chemical equilibrium with the reservoir rock and water. These studies have suggested that in geothermal systems, geochemical reactions can lead to enhance proppant dissolution and deposition alteration minerals. We hypothesize that proppant dissolution will decrease the strength of the proppant and can potentially reduce the conductivity of the fracture. To examine the geomechanical strength of proppants, we have performed modified crushing tests of proppants and reservoir rock material that was subjected to geothermal reservoir temperature conditions. The batch reactor experiments heated crushed quartz monzonite rock material, proppants (either quartz sand, sintered bauxite or kryptospheres) with Raft River geothermal water to 250 ºC for a period of 2 months. Solid and liquid samples were shipped to University of Utah for chemical characterization with ICP-OES, ICP-MS, and SEM. A separate portion of the rock/proppant material was subjected to a modified American Petroleum Institute ISO 13503-2 proppant crushing test. This test is typically used to determine the maximum stress level that can be applied to a proppant pack without the occurrence of unacceptable proppant crushing. We will use the test results to examine potential changes in proppant/reservoir rock geomechanical properties as compared to samples that have not been subjected to geothermal conditions. These preliminary results will be used to screen the proppants for long term use in EGS and hot hydrogeothermal systems.

  3. Preliminary studies of water seepage through rough-walled fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, J.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Su, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)][California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    For groundwater aquifers in fractured rock, fractures play a significant role in the transport of water and contaminants through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table. Fractures can provide preferential flow paths for infiltrating liquids that dramatically accelerate contaminant transport compared to predictions based upon spatially uniform infiltration. The actual liquid distribution during infiltration determines the contact area between the flowing water and rock, and liquid residence time, which in turn affects the potential for rock-water and rock-solute interaction, as well as mass transfer between liquid and gas phases. This report summarizes flow- visualization experiments of water percolation through transparent replicas of a natural rock fracture. We have focused on phenomenological and exploratory experiments that can lead to a conceptual model which incorporates the important physical mechanisms that control flow.

  4. EPA Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources (United States)

    In its FY2010 Appropriations Committee Conference Report, Congress directed EPA to study the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using: • Best available science • Independent sources of information • Transparent, peer-reviewed process • Consultatio...

  5. Migration of Water Pulse Through Fractured Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Finsterle; J. T. Fabryka-Martin; J. S. Y. Wang


    Contaminant transport from waste-disposal sites is strongly affected by the presence of fractures and the degree of fracture-matrix interaction. Characterization of potential contaminant plumes at such sites is difficult, both experimentally and numerically. Simulations of water flow through fractured rock were performed to examine the penetration depth of a large pulse of water entering such a system. Construction water traced with lithium bromide was released during the excavation of a tunnel at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located in an unsaturated fractured tuff formation. Modeling of construction-water migration is qualitatively compared with bromide-to-chloride (Br/CI) ratio data for pore-water salts extracted from drillcores. The influences of local heterogeneities in the fracture network and variations in hydrogeologic parameters were examined by sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the observed Br/CI signals, although these data may only indicate a minimum penetration depth, and water may have migrated further through the fracture network.

  6. Case Study Analysis of the Impacts of Water Acquisition for Hydraulic Fracturing on Local Water Availability (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is used to develop unconventional gas reserves, but the technology requires large volumes of water, placing demands on local water resources and potentially creating conflict with other users and ecosystems. This study examines the balance between water ...

  7. Analytical Estimation of Water-Oil Relative Permeabilities through Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saboorian-Jooybari Hadi


    Full Text Available Modeling multiphase flow through fractures is a key issue for understanding flow mechanism and performance prediction of fractured petroleum reservoirs, geothermal reservoirs, underground aquifers and carbon-dioxide sequestration. One of the most challenging subjects in modeling of fractured petroleum reservoirs is quantifying fluids competition for flow in fracture network (relative permeability curves. Unfortunately, there is no standard technique for experimental measurement of relative permeabilities through fractures and the existing methods are very expensive, time consuming and erroneous. Although, several formulations were presented to calculate fracture relative permeability curves in the form of linear and power functions of flowing fluids saturation, it is still unclear what form of relative permeability curves must be used for proper modeling of flow through fractures and consequently accurate reservoir simulation. Basically, the classic linear relative permeability (X-type curves are used in almost all of reservoir simulators. In this work, basic fluid flow equations are combined to develop a new simple analytical model for water-oil two phase flow in a single fracture. The model gives rise to simple analytic formulations for fracture relative permeabilities. The model explicitly proves that water-oil relative permeabilities in fracture network are functions of fluids saturation, viscosity ratio, fluids density, inclination of fracture plane from horizon, pressure gradient along fracture and rock matrix wettability, however they were considered to be only functions of saturations in the classic X-type and power (Corey [35] and Honarpour et al. [28, 29] models. Eventually, validity of the proposed formulations is checked against literature experimental data. The proposed fracture relative permeability functions have several advantages over the existing ones. Firstly, they are explicit functions of the parameters which are known for

  8. The analysis of pulse interference tests conducted in a fractured rock aquifer bounded by a constant free surface (United States)

    Stephenson, Kyle M.; Novakowski, Kentner S.


    An analytical model is presented for the analysis of pulse interference tests conducted in a double porosity medium. The special case of a horizontal fracture zone in a fractured rock environment with vertical connection to a high permeability zone at the water table is considered. The high permeability zone is modeled as a hydraulic boundary of constant head and the vertical fractures are modeled using a formulation based on equivalent porous media. Wellbore storage at the source and observation wells is accounted for using an approximate superposition technique. The solution is found using the Laplace transform method and numerical inversion into real space. The derivation is presented in dimensioned terms and a method for estimating the hydraulic conductivity of the vertical fractures is developed. Several alternate solutions describing differing system geometry and boundary conditions are presented for comparative purposes. A sensitivity analysis shows that the new model predicts unique values for horizontal transmissivity and vertical hydraulic conductivity over a range of realistic storage term values for a given distance to the constant head boundary. Storage values were not found to be uniquely determined with this method. Several field examples are presented in order to validate the applicability of the analysis to real data. The effects of the connection to the water table through double porosity were found to be significant, resulting in an observation well response that cannot be simulated using a single porosity model. Thus, the method is very useful for uniquely estimating the vertical hydraulic properties of fractured rock aquifers, parameters that are often difficult to measure in this setting.

  9. The water footprint of hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin, China. (United States)

    Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Li, Jian; Kondash, Andrew; Coyte, Rachel; Lauer, Nancy; Cui, Huiying; Liao, Fengrong; Vengosh, Avner


    Shale gas is likely to play a major role in China's transition away from coal. In addition to technological and infrastructural constraints, the main challenges to China's sustainable shale gas development are sufficient shale gas production, water availability, and adequate wastewater management. Here we present, for the first time, actual data of shale gas production and its water footprint from the Weiyuan gas field, one of the major gas fields in Sichuan Basin. We show that shale gas production rates during the first 12 months (24 million m 3 per well) are similar to gas production rates in U.S. shale basins. The amount of water used for hydraulic fracturing (34,000 m 3 per well) and the volume of flowback and produced (FP) water in the first 12 months (19,800 m 3 per well) in Sichuan Basin are also similar to the current water footprints of hydraulic fracturing in U.S. basins. We present salinity data of the FP water (5000 to 40,000 mgCl/L) in Sichuan Basin and the treatment operations, which include sedimentation, dilution with fresh water, and recycling of the FP water for hydraulic fracturing. We utilize the water use data, empirical decline rates of shale gas and FP water productions in Sichuan Basin to generate two prediction models for water use for hydraulic fracturing and FP water production upon achieving China's goals to generate 100 billion m 3 of shale gas by 2030. The first model utilizes the current water use and FP production data, and the second assumes a yearly 5% intensification of the hydraulic fracturing process. The predicted water use for hydraulic fracturing in 2030 (50-65 million m 3 per year), FP water production (50-55 million m 3 per year), and fresh water dilution of FP water (25 million m 3 per year) constitute a water footprint that is much smaller than current water consumption and wastewater generation for coal mining, but higher than those of conventional gas production in China. Given estimates

  10. Hydraulically conductive fractures and their properties in boreholes KR4 and KR7 - KR10 at Olkiluoto site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellae, P.; Tammisto, E.; Ahokas, H. [JP-Fintact Oy (Finland)


    As part of the program for the final disposal of the nuclear fuel waste, Posiva Oy investigates the prevailing hydrological conditions at the Olkiluoto island. Hydraulic properties of fractures are of interest for the groundwater flow modelling and for planning of grouting and analysis of leakages etc. The detailed flow logging with 0.5 m test interval and made in 10 cm steps is used for exact depth determination of hydraulically conductive fractures or fracture zones. Together with borehole wall images flow logging provides possibilities to detect single conductive fractures. The results of flow logging are combined to the fracture data and other rock properties. Boreholes KR4, KR7, KR8, KR9 and KR10 have been selected as pilot holes. The conductive fractures were recognised from the images primarily based on a visible flow traces along the image. In most of the cases of measured flow, no visible flow traces were seen in the image. In these cases the most probable fracture(s) to conduct the flow were picked using the single point resistance measurements as supportive information. In order to be able to analyse the properties of the hydraulically conductive fractures, the fractures in the mineralogical/drilling report corresponding to the ones picked from the borehole wall image were identified. The combination was done based on matching the depth, intersection angle and other fracture properties (reported large aperture or thickness etc.). The results from boreholes KR7 and KR8 were checked also from the core sample. According to the results the hydraulically conductive fractures/zones could be distinguished from the borehole wall images in most cases. An important phase in the work is to calibrate the depth of the image and the flow logging with the sample length. Checking results from the core samples is essential in order to reliably correlate the borehole wall fractures to the core sample mappings. The hydraulic conductivity is clearly higher in the upper part

  11. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications. (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J; Varela, Brian A; Haines, Seth S; Engle, Mark A


    A U.S. map of water volumes used to hydraulically fracture oil and gas wells, 2011-2014Hydraulic fracturing water volumes differ regionally across the U.S.Discussion of variation in water use and potential environmental implications.

  12. Interpretation of hydraulic conductivity in a fractured-rock aquifer over increasingly larger length dimensions (United States)

    Shapiro, Allen M.; Ladderud, Jeffery; Yager, Richard M.


    A comparison of the hydraulic conductivity over increasingly larger volumes of crystalline rock was conducted in the Piedmont physiographic region near Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Fluid-injection tests were conducted on intervals of boreholes isolating closely spaced fractures. Single-hole tests were conducted by pumping in open boreholes for approximately 30 min, and an interference test was conducted by pumping a single borehole over 3 days while monitoring nearby boreholes. An estimate of the hydraulic conductivity of the rock over hundreds of meters was inferred from simulating groundwater inflow into a kilometer-long section of a Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority tunnel in the study area, and a groundwater modeling investigation over the Rock Creek watershed provided an estimate of the hydraulic conductivity over kilometers. The majority of groundwater flow is confined to relatively few fractures at a given location. Boreholes installed to depths of approximately 50 m have one or two highly transmissive fractures; the transmissivity of the remaining fractures ranges over five orders of magnitude. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity over increasingly larger rock volumes varied by less than half an order of magnitude. While many investigations point to increasing hydraulic conductivity as a function of the measurement scale, a comparison with selected investigations shows that the effective hydraulic conductivity estimated over larger volumes of rock can either increase, decrease, or remain stable as a function of the measurement scale. Caution needs to be exhibited in characterizing effective hydraulic properties in fractured rock for the purposes of groundwater management.

  13. Fracturing Pressure of Shallow Sediment in Deep Water Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanliang Yan


    Full Text Available The shallow sediment in deep water has weak strength and easily gets into plastic state under stress concentration induced by oil and gas drilling. During drilling, the formation around a wellbore can be divided into elastic zone and plastic zone. The unified strength theory was used after yielding. The radius of the plastic zone and the theoretical solution of the stress distribution in these two zones were derived in undrained condition. The calculation model of excess pore pressure induced by drilling was obtained with the introduction of Henkel’s excess pore pressure theory. Combined with hydraulic fracturing theory, the fracturing mechanism of shallow sediment was analyzed and the theoretical formula of fracturing pressure was given. Furthermore, the influence of the parameters of unified strength theory on fracturing pressure was analyzed. The theoretical calculation results agreed with measured results approximately, which preliminary verifies the reliability of this theory.

  14. Production decline type curves analysis of a finite conductivity fractured well in coalbed methane reservoirs (United States)

    Wei, Mingqiang; Wen, Ming; Duan, Yonggang; Fang, Quantang; Ren, Keyi


    Production decline type curves analysis is one of the robust methods used to analyze transport flow behaviors and to evaluate reservoir properties, original gas in place, etc. Although advanced production decline analysis methods for several well types in conventional reservoirs are widely used, there are few models of production decline type curves for a fractured well in coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs. In this work, a novel pseudo state diffusion and convection model is firstly developed to describe CBM transport in matrix systems. Subsequently, based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, pseudo state diffusion and convection in matrix systems and Darcy flow in cleat systems, the production model of a CBM well with a finite conductivity fracture is derived and solved by Laplace transform. Advanced production decline type curves of a fractured well in CBM reservoirs are plotted through the Stehfest numerical inversion algorithm and computer programming. Six flow regimes, including linear flow regime, early radial flow in cleat systems, interporosity flow regime, late pseudo radial flow regime, transient regime and boundary dominated flow regime, are recognized. Finally, the effect of relevant parameters, including the storage coefficient of gas in cleat systems, the transfer coefficient from a matrix system to the cleat system, the modified coefficient of permeability, dimensionless fracture conductivity and dimensionless reservoir drainage radius, are analyzed on type curves. This paper does not only enrich the production decline type curves model of CBM reservoirs, but also expands our understanding of fractured well transport behaviors in CBM reservoirs and guides to analyze the well's production performance.

  15. Use of advanced borehole geophysical techniques to delineate fractured-rock ground-water flow and fractures along water-tunnel facilities in northern Queens County, New York (United States)

    Stumm, Frederick; Chu, Anthony; Lange, Andrew D.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Williams, John H.; Lane, John W.


    Advanced borehole geophysical methods were used to assess the geohydrology of crystalline bedrock along the course of a new water tunnel for New York City. The logging methods include natural gamma, spontaneous potential, single-point resistance, mechanical and acoustic caliper, focused electromagnetic induction, electromagnetic resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, borehole-fluid temperature and conductance, differential temperature, heat-pulse flowmeter, acoustic televiewer, borehole deviation, optical televiewer, and borehole radar. Integrated interpretation of the geophysical logs from an 825-foot borehole (1) provided information on the extent, orientation, and structure (foliation and fractures) within the entire borehole, including intensely fractured intervals from which core recovery may be poor; (2) delineated transmissive fracture zones intersected by the borehole and provided estimates of their transmissivity and hydraulic head; and (3) enabled mapping of the location and orientation of structures at distances as much as 100 ft from the borehole.Analyses of the borehole-wall image and the geophysical logs from the borehole on Crescent Street, in northern Queens County, are presented here to illustrate the application of the methods. The borehole penetrates gneiss and other crystalline bedrock that has predominantly southeastward dipping foliation and nearly horizontal and southeastward-dipping fractures. The heat-pulse flowmeter logs obtained under pumping and nonpumping conditions, together with the other geophysical logs, indicate five transmissive fracture zones. More than 90 percent of the open-hole transmissivity is associated with a fracture zone 272 feet BLS (below land surface). A transmissive zone at 787 feet BLS that consists of nearly parallel fractures lies within the projected tunnel path; here the hydraulic head is 12 to 15 feet lower than that of transmissive zones above the 315-foot depth. The 60-megahertz directional borehole radar logs

  16. Observations of water movement in a block of fractured welded Tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamir, F.; Kwicklis, E.M. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Hampson, D. [Foothills Engineering Consultants Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Anderton, S. [ROCKTECH West Jordan, UT (United States)


    A laboratory water infiltration experiment through a block of fractured, moderately welded volcanic tuff was conducted at different boundary pressures. The block measured 47.5 cm long {times} 54.3 cm wide {times} 80.6 cm high. The purpose of the experiment was: (a) to test an instrumentation scheme for a field test, and (b) to make flow measurements through a fractured network at different boundary pressures to understand mechanisms that affect fracture flow. The upper boundary water pressure was decreased in steps; each step lasted several weeks where the pressure was kept steady. Water inflow and outflow rates were measured for each boundary condition. Entrapped air was found to impede water movement. The gas phase in the fracture network was found to not be continuous; its pressure within the network was not known. The matric potential values could not be measured with tensiometers alone since a known gas pressure is required. Long-term input and output flow rates were equal. Outflow rate did not stabilize during the test period; it continued to decrease, even when the upper boundary water pressure was kept steady. No relation between boundary pressure and flow rate was established. Bacteria, which was found in the outflow, possibly caused variations in the behavior. Trapped air caused the outflow to periodically decrease or stop; however, outflow rates following the interruptions did not change long-term flow trends.

  17. Wetted-region structure in horizontal unsaturated fractures: Water entry through the surrounding porous matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Norton, D.L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources


    Small-scale processes that influence wetted structure within the plane of a horizontal fracture as the fracture wets or drains through the matrix are investigated. Our approach integrates both aperture-scale modeling and physical experimentation. Several types of aperture-scale models have been defined and implemented. A series of physical experimental systems that allow us to measure wetted-region structure as a function of system parameters and water pressure head in analogue fractures also have been designed. In our preliminary proof-of-concept experiment, hysteresis is clearly evident in the measured saturation/pressure relation, as is the process of air entrapment, which causes a reduction in the connected areas between blocks and the wetted region available for flow in the plane of the fracture. A percolation threshold where the system is quickly spanned, allowing fluid conduction in the fracture plane, is observed which is analogous to that found in the aperture-scale models. A fractal wetted and entrapped-region structure is suggested by both experiment and modeling. This structure implies that flow tortuosity for both flow in the fracture and for inter-block fluid transfer is a scale-dependent function of pressure head.

  18. The Influence of Fracturing Fluids on Fracturing Processes: A Comparison Between Water, Oil and SC-CO2 (United States)

    Wang, Jiehao; Elsworth, Derek; Wu, Yu; Liu, Jishan; Zhu, Wancheng; Liu, Yu


    Conventional water-based fracturing treatments may not work well for many shale gas reservoirs. This is due to the fact that shale gas formations are much more sensitive to water because of the significant capillary effects and the potentially high contents of swelling clay, each of which may result in the impairment of productivity. As an alternative to water-based fluids, gaseous stimulants not only avoid this potential impairment in productivity, but also conserve water as a resource and may sequester greenhouse gases underground. However, experimental observations have shown that different fracturing fluids yield variations in the induced fracture. During the hydraulic fracturing process, fracturing fluids will penetrate into the borehole wall, and the evolution of the fracture(s) then results from the coupled phenomena of fluid flow, solid deformation and damage. To represent this, coupled models of rock damage mechanics and fluid flow for both slightly compressible fluids and CO2 are presented. We investigate the fracturing processes driven by pressurization of three kinds of fluids: water, viscous oil and supercritical CO2. Simulation results indicate that SC-CO2-based fracturing indeed has a lower breakdown pressure, as observed in experiments, and may develop fractures with greater complexity than those developed with water-based and oil-based fracturing. We explore the relation between the breakdown pressure to both the dynamic viscosity and the interfacial tension of the fracturing fluids. Modeling demonstrates an increase in the breakdown pressure with an increase both in the dynamic viscosity and in the interfacial tension, consistent with experimental observations.

  19. Reverse water-level change during interference slug tests in fractured rock (United States)

    Slack, Trever Z.; Murdoch, Lawrence C.; Germanovich, Leonid N.; Hisz, David B.


    Reverse water-level responses in monitoring wells are widely known during pumping tests, where they are recognized as the Noordbergum or Rhade effects, and a similar response was observed in many of the 100+ interference slug tests conducted at a well field near Clemson, South Carolina. The reverse water-level effect is characterized by a drop in pressure head by 1 cm to several centimeters and it occurs in the first 10-100 s of the test. The reverse response is followed by a rise and fall of pressure head that is typical of slug-in tests. The reverse water-level response is highly repeatable, and it increases when the pressure used to create the slug test is increased. A conceptual model recognizes that opening displacement of the fracture wall can cause a pressure drop, even when the pressure increases in the wellbore. The conceptual model is supported by a closed-form, analytical solution and a numerical model that couple fluid pressure and deformation in a fracture. Characteristics of the reverse water-level response are sensitive to properties of the fracture system and enveloping formation. Parameter estimation methods can be used to invert theoretical analyses and use the reverse response to improve the characterization of fractured rock aquifers.

  20. Effects of polar solvents on the fracture resistance of dentin: Role of water hydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, R O; Nalla, R K; Balooch, M; Ager III, J W; Kruzic, J J; Kinney, J H


    Although healthy dentin is invariably hydrated in vivo, from a perspective of examining the mechanisms of fracture in dentin, it is interesting to consider the role of water hydration. Furthermore, it is feasible that exposure to certain polar solvents, e.g., those found in clinical adhesives, can induce dehydration. In the present study, in vitro deformation and fracture experiments, the latter involving a resistance-curve (R-curve) approach (i.e., toughness evolution with crack extension), were conducted in order to assess changes in the constitutive and fracture behavior induced by three common solvents - acetone, ethanol and methanol. In addition, nanoindentation-based experiments to evaluate the deformation behavior at the level of individual collagen fibers and ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy to evaluate changes in bonding were performed. The results indicate a reversible effect of chemical dehydration, with increased fracture resistance, strength, and stiffness associated with lower hydrogen bonding ability of the solvent. These results are analyzed both in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic toughening phenomena to further understand the micromechanisms of fracture in dentin and the specific role of water hydration.

  1. Investigation of fracture conductivity under in situ conditions as a function of frac- and formation parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyn, V.; Lajcsak, I.


    Because of their low permeability, deep-lying gas fields are often developed by the fracturing technique. Essential for the economy of this measure is a high fracture conductivity which persists over a long period. The objective of the project was the investigation of the various factors influencing the fracture conductivity under reservoir conditions. Besides the breaking strength of proppants, which is decisive for the conductivity attainable at high confining pressure, the long-term stability, the embedment and the transport of fragments, which results in plugging, were examined. With the proppants Superprop and Carboprop HC, fracture conductivity exhibits only a slight dependence on the closure pressure. Transport of fragments and embedment play no important role. With resin-coated proppants, conductivity is not improved appreciably. The resin-coating doesn`t resist reservoir conditions. After only one week, aquathermolytic products were detected. (orig.) [Deutsch] Tiefliegende Erdgasfelder werden aufgrund ihrer niedrigen Permeabilitaet haeufig durch eine Frac-Behandlung erschlossen. Eine wesentliche Voraussetzung fuer die Wirtschaftlichkeit einer solchen Massnahme ist eine hohe Rissleitfaehigkeit, die ueber einen langen Zeitraum bestehen bleibt. Ziel des Projektes war die Untersuchung der verschiedenen Faktoren, die die Rissleitfaehigkeit unter Lagerstaettenbedingungen beeinflussen. Neben der Bruchfestigkeit des Stuetzmittels, die fuer die bei hohen Schliessdrucken erreichbaren Rissleitfaehigkeiten entscheidend ist, wurde die Langzeitstabilitaet, das Embedment und der zu Verstopfung fuehrende Transport von Bruchstuecken untersucht. Die Stuetzmittel Superprop und Carboprop HC weisen nur eine geringe Abhaengigkeit der Rissleitfaehigkeit vom Schliessdruck auf. Der Bruchstuecktransport sowie das Embedment spielen nur eine untergeordnete Rolle. Durch die Verwendung von beschichtetem Stuetzmittel wird die Rissleitfaehigkeit nicht wesentlich erhoeht. Die Beschichtung

  2. Shrink-wrapping water to conduct protons (United States)

    Shimizu, George K. H.


    For proton-conducting metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to find application as the electrolyte in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, materials with better stability and conductivity are required. Now, a structurally flexible MOF that is also highly stable is demonstrated to possess high proton conductivity over a range of humidities.

  3. Overview of Chronic Oral Toxicity Values for Chemicals Present in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids, Flowback and Produced Waters (United States)

    as part of EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Drinking Water Assessment, EPA is summarizing existing toxicity data for chemicals reported to be used in hydraulic fracturing fluids and/or found in flowback or produced waters from hydraulically fractured wells

  4. Conductive diamond electrodes for water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle


    Full Text Available Nowadays, synthetic diamond has been studied for its application in wastewater treatment, electroanalysis, organic synthesis and sensor areas; however, its use in the water disinfection/purification is its most relevant application. The new electrochemistry applications of diamond electrodes open new perspectives for an easy, effective, and chemical free water treatment. This article highlights and summarizes the results of a selection of papers dealing with electrochemical disinfection using synthetic diamond films.

  5. Conceptual Model of the Geometry and Physics of Water Flow in a Fractured Basalt Vadose Zone: Box Canyon Site, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Steiger, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Long, Jane C.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (US). Mackay School of Mines; Wood, Tom [Parsons Engineering, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobsen, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lore, Jason [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Zawislanski, Peter T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    A conceptual model of the geometry and physics of water flow in a fractured basalt vadose zone was developed based on the results of lithological studies and a series of ponded infiltration tests conducted at the Box Canyon site near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. The infiltration tests included one two-week test in 1996, three two-day tests in 1997, and one four-day test in 1997. For the various tests, initial infiltration rates ranged from 4.1 cm/day to 17.7 cm/day and then decreased with time, presumably due to mechanical or microbiological clogging of fractures and vesicularbasalt in the near-surface zone, as well as the effect of entrapped air. The subsurface moisture redistribution was monitored with tensiometers, neutron logging, time domain reflectrometry and ground penetrating radar. A conservative tracer, potassium bromide, was added to the pond water at a concentration of 3 g/L to monitor water flow with electrical resistivity probes and water sampling. Analysis of the data showed evidence of preferential flow rather than the propagation of a uniform wetting front. We propose a conceptual model describing the saturation-desaturation behavior of the basalt, in which rapid preferential flow through vertical column-bounding fractures occurs from the surface to the base of the basalt flow. After the rapid wetting of column-bounding fractures, a gradual wetting of other fractures and the basalt matrix occurs. Fractures that are saturated early in the tests may become desaturated thereafter, which we attribute to the redistribution of water between fractures and matrix. Lateral movement of water was also observed within a horizontal central fracture zone and rubble zone, which could have important implications for contaminant accumulation at contaminated sites.

  6. Failure Mode of the Water-filled Fractures under Hydraulic Pressure in Karst Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xin


    Full Text Available Water-filled fractures continue to grow after the excavation of karst tunnels, and the hydraulic pressure in these fractures changes along with such growth. This paper simplifies the fractures in the surrounding rock as flat ellipses and then identifies the critical hydraulic pressure values required for the occurrence of tensile-shear and compression-shear failures in water-filled fractures in the case of plane stress. The occurrence of tensile-shear fracture requires a larger critical hydraulic pressure than compression-shear failure in the same fracture. This paper examines the effects of fracture strike and lateral pressure coefficient on critical hydraulic pressure, and identifies compression-shear failure as the main failure mode of water-filled fractures. This paper also analyses the hydraulic pressure distribution in fractures with different extensions, and reveals that hydraulic pressure decreases along with the continuous growth of fractures and cannot completely fill a newly formed fracture with water. Fracture growth may be interrupted under the effect of hydraulic tensile shear.

  7. 78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources (United States)


    ... research on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources from April 30, 2013... research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. The EPA... drinking water resources and to identify the driving factors that may affect the severity and frequency of...

  8. 77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources (United States)


    ... impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. DATES: EPA will accept data and literature in... scientific research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources... water resources, if any, and to identify the driving factors that may affect the severity and frequency...

  9. Water diffusion and fracture in organosilicate glass film stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Youbo [Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138-2901 (United States); Tsui, Ting Y. [Silicon Technology Development, Texas Instruments Inc., 13121 TI Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75243 (United States); Vlassak, Joost J. [Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138-2901 (United States)]. E-mail:


    Organosilicate glass (OSG) coatings with low dielectric permittivity are widely used as dielectrics in high-performance integrated circuits. OSG is very brittle and it is susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking in water-containing environments. We have investigated the adhesion degradation of silicon nitride/OSG and silicon carbonitride/OSG interfaces caused by water diffusion. Experimental results are in good quantitative agreement with an analytical model that combines water diffusion with subcritical crack growth. Fracture experiments show that water diffusion in OSG film stacks is remarkably fast and that it has an activation energy of 0.27 eV. The adhesion degradation is completely reversible under mild annealing conditions. Interfacial plasma treatments result in a significant enhancement of the adhesion in the absence of water, but this enhancement is lost almost completely upon exposure of the film stack to water. A diffusion study using deuterium as an isotopic tracer shows that the Si/OSG interface is the main diffusion path.

  10. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications (United States)

    Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.


    Abstract Until now, up‐to‐date, comprehensive, spatial, national‐scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use. Although median annual volumes of 15,275 m3 and 19,425 m3 of water per well was used to hydraulically fracture individual horizontal oil and gas wells, respectively, in 2014, about 42% of wells were actually either vertical or directional, which required less than 2600 m3 water per well. The highest average hydraulic fracturing water usage (10,000−36,620 m3 per well) in watersheds across the United States generally correlated with shale‐gas areas (versus coalbed methane, tight oil, or tight gas) where the greatest proportion of hydraulically fractured wells were horizontally drilled, reflecting that the natural reservoir properties influence water use. This analysis also demonstrates that many oil and gas resources within a given basin are developed using a mix of horizontal, vertical, and some directional wells, explaining why large volume hydraulic fracturing water usage is not widespread. This spatial variability in hydraulic fracturing water use relates to the potential for environmental impacts such as water availability, water quality, wastewater disposal, and possible wastewater injection‐induced earthquakes. PMID:26937056

  11. A County Level Assessment of Water Withdrawals for Hydraulic Fracturing: Where are Impacts Most Likely? (United States)

    Fleming, M. M.; LeDuc, S. D.; Clark, C.; Todd, J.


    Concerns have arisen of the potential effects of hydraulic fracturing water withdrawals on both water for human consumption and aquatic communities. Any impacts are likely to be location specific since current U.S. hydraulic fracturing activities are concentrated in particular regions, water availability is unevenly distributed, and hydraulic fracturing water use differs between locations, including the amount of water use per well, source water, and reuse rates. Here, we used FracFocus to estimate annual hydraulic fracturing water use, and combined this with U.S. Geological Survey water use data and water availability indices to identify U.S. counties where potential impacts may be most likely. We surveyed the literature to understand source water and reuse rates. Overall, we found that hydraulic fracturing water use and consumption are a small percentage relative to total water use and consumption for most U.S. counties. However, there are 26 counties where fracturing water use is greater than 10% compared to 2010 total water use, and eight and four counties at greater than 30% and 50%, respectively. We conclude hydraulic fracturing water use currently has the greatest potential for impacts in southern and western Texas due to relatively high fracturing water use, low reuse rates, low fresh water availability, and frequent drought. However, the availability of brackish groundwater in these areas is also high relative to fracturing water use, suggesting an alternative source that could reduce potential impacts. Comparatively, the potential for impacts appears to be lower in other U.S. regions. While our county-scale findings do not preclude the possibility of more localized water quantity effects, this study provides a relative indicator of areas where potential problems might arise. Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  12. Disparities in trauma care: are fewer diagnostic tests conducted for uninsured patients with pelvic fracture? (United States)

    Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi B; Haider, Adil H; Oyetunji, Tolulope A; Khoury, Amal; Cubangbang, Maricel; Haut, Elliot R; Greene, Wendy R; Chang, David C; Cornwell, Edward E; Siram, Suryanarayana M


    Research from other medical specialties suggests that uninsured patients experience treatment delays, receive fewer diagnostic tests, and have reduced health literacy when compared with their insured counterparts. We hypothesized that these disparities in interventions would not be present among patients experiencing trauma. Our objective was to examine differences in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures administered to patients undergoing trauma with pelvic fractures using a national database. A retrospective analysis was conducted using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), 2002 to 2006. Patients aged 18 to 64 years who experienced blunt injuries with pelvic fractures were analyzed. Patients who were dead on arrival, those with an injury severity score (ISS) less than 9, those with traumatic brain injury, and patients with burns were excluded. The likelihood of the uninsured receiving select diagnostic and therapeutic procedures was compared with the same likelihood in the insured. Multivariate analysis for mortality was conducted, adjusting for age, sex, race, ISS, presence of shock, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) motor score, and mechanism of injury. Twenty-one thousand patients met the inclusion criteria: 82% of these patients were insured and 18% were uninsured. There was no clinical difference in ISSs (21 vs 20), but the uninsured were more likely to present in shock (P < .001). The mortality rate in the uninsured was 11.6% vs 5.0% in the insured (P < .001). The uninsured were less likely to receive vascular ultrasonography (P = .01) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen (P < .005). There was no difference in the rates of CT of the thorax and abdominal ultrasonography, but the uninsured were more likely to receive radiographs. There was no difference in exploratory laparotomy and fracture reduction, but uninsured patients were less likely to receive transfusions, central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring, or arterial catheterization for embolization

  13. Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas: Impacts from the Hydraulic Fracturing Water Cycle on Drinking Water Resources in the United States (Final Report) (United States)

    This final report provides a review and synthesis of available scientific information concerning the relationship between hydraulic fracturing activities and drinking water resources in the United States. The report is organized around activities in the hydraulic...

  14. Hydraulically conductive fractures and their properties in boreholes KR4 and KR7 - KR10 at Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellae, P.; Tammisto, E.; Ahokas, H. [Jaakko Poeyry Infra Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)


    As part of the program for the final disposal of the nuclear fuel waste, Posiva Oy investigates the prevailing hydrological conditions at the Olkiluoto Island. Hydraulic properties of fractures are of interest for the groundwater flow modelling, planning of grouting, analysis of leakages etc. This paper presents the results of a pilot study carried out to combine the results of detailed flow logging with borehole wall images and core mapping and thereby to describe properties of single conductive fractures. (orig.)

  15. Development of and tests with the NMR technique to detect water bearing fractures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, R


    Full Text Available on surface to assess the groundwater potential of thick porous water saturated geological formations. In hard rock aquifers, ground water is normally encountered in fractures or fracture zones. In this paper the authors describe the development of theoretical...

  16. Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources (Monterey, CA) (United States)

    A summary of EPA's research relating to potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources will be presented. Background about the study plan development will be presented along with an analysis of the water cycle as it relates to hydraulic fracturing processe...

  17. Elucidating Water Contamination by Fracturing Fluids and Formation Waters from Gas Wells: Integrating Isotopic and Geochemical Tracers (United States)

    The objective of this presentation is to evaluate the potential and applicability of different geochemical and isotopic tracers for tracing the impacts of fracturing fluids and co-produced waters on water resources.

  18. Water-Energy Metrics for Hydraulic Fracturing Versus Other Energy Technologies (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.


    The combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling has transformed energy production but drawn scrutiny for its water demands. Hydraulically fractured wells in the United States require millions of gallons of water per well and generate hundreds of billions of gallons of wastewater each year. Such wells also generate considerable energy. How does the water intensity (water per unit energy) for hydraulic fracturing compare with the intensity of other fossil fuels, nuclear power, and various renewables? I will use new data from plays such as the Marcellus and Bakken to address this question, comparing water metrics for extraction, processing, and, where relevant, electricity generation.

  19. Characterization of hydraulic fracturing flowback water in Colorado: Implications for water treatment (United States)

    Lester, Yaal; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael; Sitterley, Kurban A.; Korak, Julie A.; Aiken, George R.; Linden, Karl G.


    A suite of analytical tools was applied to thoroughly analyze the chemical composition of an oil/gas well flowback water from the Denver–Julesburg (DJ) basin in Colorado, and the water quality data was translated to propose effective treatment solutions tailored to specific reuse goals. Analysis included bulk quality parameters, trace organic and inorganic constituents, and organic matter characterization. The flowback sample contained salts (TDS = 22,500 mg/L), metals (e.g., iron at 81.4 mg/L) and high concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOC = 590 mgC/L). The organic matter comprised fracturing fluid additives such as surfactants (e.g., linear alkyl ethoxylates) and high levels of acetic acid (an additives' degradation product), indicating the anthropogenic impact on this wastewater. Based on the water quality results and preliminary treatability tests, the removal of suspended solids and iron by aeration/precipitation (and/or filtration) followed by disinfection was identified as appropriate for flowback recycling in future fracturing operations. In addition to these treatments, a biological treatment (to remove dissolved organic matter) followed by reverse osmosis desalination was determined to be necessary to attain water quality standards appropriate for other water reuse options (e.g., crop irrigation). The study provides a framework for evaluating site-specific hydraulic fracturing wastewaters, proposing a suite of analytical methods for characterization, and a process for guiding the choice of a tailored treatment approach.

  20. Characterization of hydraulic fracturing flowback water in Colorado: implications for water treatment. (United States)

    Lester, Yaal; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E Michael; Sitterley, Kurban A; Korak, Julie A; Aiken, George; Linden, Karl G


    A suite of analytical tools was applied to thoroughly analyze the chemical composition of an oil/gas well flowback water from the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) basin in Colorado, and the water quality data was translated to propose effective treatment solutions tailored to specific reuse goals. Analysis included bulk quality parameters, trace organic and inorganic constituents, and organic matter characterization. The flowback sample contained salts (TDS=22,500 mg/L), metals (e.g., iron at 81.4 mg/L) and high concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOC=590 mgC/L). The organic matter comprised fracturing fluid additives such as surfactants (e.g., linear alkyl ethoxylates) and high levels of acetic acid (an additives' degradation product), indicating the anthropogenic impact on this wastewater. Based on the water quality results and preliminary treatability tests, the removal of suspended solids and iron by aeration/precipitation (and/or filtration) followed by disinfection was identified as appropriate for flowback recycling in future fracturing operations. In addition to these treatments, a biological treatment (to remove dissolved organic matter) followed by reverse osmosis desalination was determined to be necessary to attain water quality standards appropriate for other water reuse options (e.g., crop irrigation). The study provides a framework for evaluating site-specific hydraulic fracturing wastewaters, proposing a suite of analytical methods for characterization, and a process for guiding the choice of a tailored treatment approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Cel


    Full Text Available Poland, due to the estimated shale gas deposits amounting to 346-768 billion m3 has become one of the most attractive regions for shale gas exploration in Europe. Throughout the period 2010-2015, 72 exploratory drillings have been made (as of 4.01.2016 while hydraulic fracturing was carried out 25 times. Employing new drilling and shale gas prospecting technologies raises a question pertaining to their impact on the environment. The number of chemical compounds used (approximately 2000 for the production of new technological fluids may potentially pollute the environment. The fact that the composition of these fluids remains undisclosed hinders the assessment of their impact on the environment and devising optimal methods for managing this type of waste. The presented work indicates the chemical compounds which may infiltrate to groundwater, identified on the basis of technological fluids characteristics, as well as the review of studies pertaining to their impact on potable water carried out in the United States. The study focused on marking heavy metals, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, chlorides and sulphates in the surface waters collected in proximity of Lewino well.

  2. The Depths of Hydraulic Fracturing and Accompanying Water Use Across the United States. (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Lowry, Ella R; Pickle, Amy; Kang, Mary; DiGiulio, Dominic; Zhao, Kaiguang


    Reports highlight the safety of hydraulic fracturing for drinking water if it occurs "many hundreds of meters to kilometers underground". To our knowledge, however, no comprehensive analysis of hydraulic fracturing depths exists. Based on fracturing depths and water use for ∼44,000 wells reported between 2010 and 2013, the average fracturing depth across the United States was 8300 ft (∼2500 m). Many wells (6900; 16%) were fractured less than a mile from the surface, and 2600 wells (6%) were fractured above 3000 ft (900 m), particularly in Texas (850 wells), California (720), Arkansas (310), and Wyoming (300). Average water use per well nationally was 2,400,000 gallons (9,200,000 L), led by Arkansas (5,200,000 gallons), Louisiana (5,100,000 gallons), West Virginia (5,000,000 gallons), and Pennsylvania (4,500,000 gallons). Two thousand wells (∼5%) shallower than one mile and 350 wells (∼1%) shallower than 3000 ft were hydraulically fractured with >1 million gallons of water, particularly in Arkansas, New Mexico, Texas, Pennsylvania, and California. Because hydraulic fractures can propagate 2000 ft upward, shallow wells may warrant special safeguards, including a mandatory registry of locations, full chemical disclosure, and, where horizontal drilling is used, predrilling water testing to a radius 1000 ft beyond the greatest lateral extent.

  3. Status of the art: hydraulic conductivity of acid- fractures; Condutividade hidraulica de fratura acida: estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Valdo Ferreira [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LENEP/UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia. Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao de Petroleo; Campos, Wellington [PETROBRAS, RJ (Brazil). E and P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Completacao e Avaliacao], e-mail:


    This paper presents a review of the hydraulic conductivity models developed for acid fractures in almost four decades of studies in petroleum engineering. These studies have often benefited from theories and experiments carried out in areas of knowledge such as physics, geology, hydrology, fluid mechanics, rock mechanics and tribology. The review showed that the pioneer study of Nierode and Kruk (1973) is still used in commercial software and influences the current studies. There was significant evolution on the quantitative surface topography characterization of the fractures and their impact on the hydraulic conductivity. The same occurred for the effects of acid dissolution on the rock resistance. Improvements on correlations similar to the Nierode and Kruk can be applied at once on the acid fracturing project and evaluation practice for the cases of rough dissolution pattern. A method to consider the overall conductivity from heterogeneous channels and roughness pattern was recently proposed. The complexity of the theoretical fundaments, specially the range of validity of the equations in face of the simplifications assumed, the difficulty of performing representative laboratory and field experiments, the difficulty of characterizing quantitatively the fractures surface topography and its effects on the conductivity, and the large variety of rocks and acid systems keep this subject open for research. (author)

  4. Anion Conduction in Solid Electrolytes Probed by Water Transport Measurement


    Takahashi, Hiroki; Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Ueda, Wataru


    The application of inorganic materials as electrolyte of alkaline fuel cell is an important task to achieve noble-metal-free and high-temperature-resistant fuel cells. In the present study, water transport during ion conduction through solid electrolyte was measured to seek inorganic materials with anion conduction. We discovered the anion conduction in layered oxide NaCo2O4. Although LiCoO2 has the similar layered structure to NaCo2O4, this oxide showed cation conduction.

  5. Electrical conductivity and water sampling measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR50, OL-KR54 and OL-KR55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komulainen, J.; Poellaenen, J. [Poyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland); Lamminmaeki, T.


    Fracture-specific water sampling and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were performed in drillholes OL-KR50, OL-KR54 and OL-KR55 at the Olkiluoto investigation site between July 2011 and November 2011. The measurements were conducted using Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) with a configuration for water sampling. The purpose of the measurements was to obtain information on the geochemical properties of the groundwater. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements and samplings. The main point in the investigation programme was water sampling, the incidental measurements were carried out for controlling the quality of the sampling. Flow and single point resistance (SPR) measurements were performed in order to locate the target fractures for sampling. During sampling at a target fracture the flow rate, electrical conductivity and temperature of the flowing water were also monitored. (orig.)

  6. Effect of water on critical and subcritical fracture properties of Woodford shale (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Eichhubl, Peter; Olson, Jon E.


    Subcritical fracture behavior of shales under aqueous conditions is poorly characterized despite increased relevance to oil and gas resource development and seal integrity in waste disposal and subsurface carbon sequestration. We measured subcritical fracture properties of Woodford shale in ambient air, dry CO2 gas, and deionized water by using the double-torsion method. Compared to tests in ambient air, the presence of water reduces fracture toughness by 50%, subcritical index by 77%, and shear modulus by 27% and increases inelastic deformation. Comparison between test specimens coated with a hydrophobic agent and uncoated specimens demonstrates that the interaction of water with the bulk rock results in the reduction of fracture toughness and enhanced plastic effects, while water-rock interaction limited to the vicinity of the propagating fracture tip by a hydrophobic specimen coating lowers subcritical index and increases fracture velocity. The observed deviation of a rate-dependent subcritical index from the power law K-V relations for coated specimens tested in water is attributed to a time-dependent weakening process resulting from the interaction between water and clays in the vicinity of the fracture tip.

  7. Effects of water saturation on P-wave propagation in fractured coals: An experimental perspective (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Dameng; Cai, Yidong; Gan, Quan; Yao, Yanbin


    Internal structure of coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs can be evaluated through ultrasonic measurements. The compressional wave that propagates in a fractured coal reservoir may indicate the internal coal structure and fluid characteristics. The P-wave propagation was proposed to study the relations between petrophysical parameters (including water saturation, fractures, porosity and permeability) of coals and the P-wave velocity (Vp), using a KON-NM-4A ultrasonic velocity meter. In this study, the relations between Vps and water saturations were established: Type I is mainly controlled by capillary of developed seepage pores. The controlling factors on Type II and Type III are internal homogeneity of pores/fractures and developed micro-fractures, respectively. Micro-fractures density linearly correlates with the Vp due to the fracture volume and dispersion of P-wave; and micro-fractures of types C and D have a priority in Vp. For dry coals, no clear relation exists between porosity, permeability and the Vp. However, as for water-saturated coals, the correlation coefficients of porosity, permeability and Vp are slightly improved. The Vp of saturated coals could be predicted with the equation of Vp-saturated = 1.4952Vp-dry-26.742 m/s. The relation between petrophysical parameters of coals and Vp under various water saturations can be used to evaluate the internal structure in fractured coals. Therefore, these relations have significant implications for coalbed methane (CBM) exploration.

  8. The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcock, Harry R.; Benesi, Alan; Macdonald, Digby D.


    The research carried out under grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46371, "The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes", during the period June 1, 2008 - May 31, 2010 was comprised of three related parts. These are: 1. An examination of the state of water in classical proton conduction membranes with the use of deuterium T1 NMR spectroscopy (Allcock and Benesi groups). 2. A dielectric relaxation examination of the behavior of water in classical ionomer membranes (Macdonald program). 3. Attempts to synthesize new proton-conduction polymers and membranes derived from the polyphosphazene system. (Allcock program) All three are closely related, crucial aspects of the design and development of new and improved polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes on which the future of fuel cell technology for portable applications depends.

  9. Study of tunnelling through water-bearing fracture zones. Baseline study on technical issues with NE-1 as reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanting Chang; Swindell, Robert; Bogdanoff, Ingvar; Lindstroem, Beatrice; Termen, Jens [WSP Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden) ; Starsec, Peter [SGI, Linkoeping (Sweden)


    established, based on the review of the geological and hydrogeological characteristics of the deformation zone NE-1. In the descriptive model, the water-bearing fracture zone consists of an 8 metre wide central core zone and a 15 meter wide transition zone sited on either side of the core zone. Rock mechanical and hydrogeological properties of the rock mass as well as in situ rock stresses are assigned in the descriptive model. To highlight the important technical issues in tunnelling through water-bearing fracture zones, system analysis and problem identification based on a literature review of relevant case histories are conducted. The identified important technical issues, namely large water inflow and tunnel stability, will be the objects to be analysed in this study. Control of water inflows is the key issue for the safe passage of a tunnel through a water-bearing fracture zone with the characteristics of NE-1. Technical issues associated with the two most used methods for water inflow control, namely grouting and ground freezing are discussed. The analyses regarding water inflows associated with grouting are presented. The degree of difficulty for water inflow control increases with depth. The study indicates that control of water inflows at all the depths could be achieved by grouting with current technology. But ground freezing might be an alternative for the core zone, for instance at a depth of 600 metres. Due to the high water pressure that may be encountered at a depth of 600 metres, precautions must be taken in the decision making process in selecting the most appropriate methods of groundwater control. The deformation analysis indicates that large deformations are unlikely to occur in the transition zone, even at a depth of 600 metres. The reduction in rock mass quality in the core zone, however, is likely to result in large deformations at great depths. The estimated mean values of deformation for an unsupported tunnel in the core zone are 60 mm and 130 mm at

  10. Addressing the challenges of traceable electrolytic conductivity measurements in water (United States)

    Thirstrup, Carsten; Snedden, Alan; Deleebeeck, Lisa Carol


    This paper addresses the challenges of making accurate and traceable electrolytic conductivity cell constant calibrations and sensor system calibration measurements over a wide range of conductivity, from 5.5 µS m‑1 (ultrapure water) up to 140 000 µS m‑1, where stable and reliable commercial certified reference materials (CRMs) are available. The challenges of making electrolytic conductivity measurements in the time domain versus the frequency domain are discussed and the relationship between the two domains is analysed in terms of a Gaver–Stehfest algorithm for inverse Laplace transform. Data from a commercial current-step-pulse-based sensor reader operating in the time domain are compared with accurate and traceable data from a closed-flow-loop electrolytic conductivity measurement system operating in the frequency domain and traceable to the SI length unit. In the high conductivity range, the readouts of the sensor reader are observed to deviate from traceable conductivity values by up to 10 times the estimated standard measurement uncertainty, which is in the range 0.07%–0.17%. If accurate conductivity calibrations are required (<1%), the usual method of calibrating a conductivity sensor system at a high conductivity level, where CRMs are available, and relying on the same calibration for low conductivity measurements is, therefore, risky.

  11. Saturate hydraulic conductivity, water stable aggregates and soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saturate hydraulic conductivity, water stable aggregates and soil organic matter in a sandy-loam soil in Ikwuano lga of Abia state. ... Samples were analyzed for soil properties like; Ksat, WSA (%) and percent organic carbon (OC %), Data from the analysis were subjected to ANOVA using a split plot in RCBD. Results ...

  12. A Case History of Tracking Water Movement Through Fracture Systems in the Barnett Shale, March 10-11, 2011 (United States)

    Technical Presentation Session 6: Monitoring slides to presentation by Denbury on tracking water movement through fracture systems in the Barnett shale. This includes information on micro-seismic well evaluation, well plans, and a fracture map.

  13. Effect of water uptake on the fracture behavior of low-k organosilicate glass (United States)

    Xiangyu Guo; Joseph E. Jakes; Samer Banna; Yoshio Nishi; J. Leon Shohet


    Water uptake in porous low-k dielectrics has become a significant challenge for both back-end-of-the-line integration and circuit reliability. This work examines the effects of water uptake on the fracture behavior of nanoporous low-k organosilicate glass. By using annealing dehydration and humidity conditioning, the roles of different water types...

  14. Exposure to Fluoride in Drinking Water and Hip Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies (United States)

    Yin, Xin-Hai; Huang, Guang-Lei; Lin, Du-Ren; Wan, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Ya-Dong; Song, Ju-Kun; Xu, Ping


    Background Many observational studies have shown that exposure to fluoride in drinking water is associated with hip fracture risk. However, the findings are varied or even contradictory. In this work, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between fluoride exposure and hip fracture risk. Methods PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify relevant observational studies from the time of inception until March 2014 without restrictions. Data from the included studies were extracted and analyzed by two authors. Summary relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random- or fixed-effects models as appropriate. Sensitivity analyses and meta-regression were conducted to explore possible explanations for heterogeneity. Finally, publication bias was assessed. Results Fourteen observational studies involving thirteen cohort studies and one case-control study were included in the meta-analysis. Exposure to fluoride in drinking water does not significantly increase the incidence of hip fracture (RRs, 1.05; 95% CIs, 0.96–1.15). Sensitivity analyses based on adjustment for covariates, effect measure, country, sex, sample size, quality of Newcastle–Ottawa Scale scores, and follow-up period validated the strength of the results. Meta-regression showed that country, gender, quality of Newcastle–Ottawa Scale scores, adjustment for covariates and sample size were not sources of heterogeneity. Little evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusion The present meta-analysis suggests that chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water does not significantly increase the risk of hip fracture. Given the potential confounding factors and exposure misclassification, further large-scale, high-quality studies are needed to evaluate the association between exposure to fluoride in drinking water and hip fracture risk. PMID:26020536

  15. Microbial community changes in hydraulic fracturing fluids and produced water from shale gas extraction. (United States)

    Murali Mohan, Arvind; Hartsock, Angela; Bibby, Kyle J; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D; Gregory, Kelvin B


    Microbial communities associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing are not well understood, and their deleterious activity can lead to significant increases in production costs and adverse environmental impacts. In this study, we compared the microbial ecology in prefracturing fluids (fracturing source water and fracturing fluid) and produced water at multiple time points from a natural gas well in southwestern Pennsylvania using 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries, pyrosequencing, and quantitative PCR. The majority of the bacterial community in prefracturing fluids constituted aerobic species affiliated with the class Alphaproteobacteria. However, their relative abundance decreased in produced water with an increase in halotolerant, anaerobic/facultative anaerobic species affiliated with the classes Clostridia, Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Bacteroidia, and Fusobacteria. Produced water collected at the last time point (day 187) consisted almost entirely of sequences similar to Clostridia and showed a decrease in bacterial abundance by 3 orders of magnitude compared to the prefracturing fluids and produced water samplesfrom earlier time points. Geochemical analysis showed that produced water contained higher concentrations of salts and total radioactivity compared to prefracturing fluids. This study provides evidence of long-term subsurface selection of the microbial community introduced through hydraulic fracturing, which may include significant implications for disinfection as well as reuse of produced water in future fracturing operations.

  16. Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources: Update on EPA Hydraulic Fracturing Study (United States)

    Natural gas plays a key role in our nation's energy future and the process known as hydraulic fracturing (HF) is one way of accessing that resource. Over the past few years, several key technical, economic, and energy developments have spurred increased use of HF for gas extracti...

  17. Delineation of areas having elevated electrical conductivity, orientation and characterization of bedrock fractures, and occurrence of groundwater discharge to surface water at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski


    During October 2012 through March 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4, Superfund Section, conducted borehole geophysical logging, surface geophysical surveys, and water-quality profiling in selected wells and areas to characterize or delineate the extent of elevated subsurface electrical conductivity at the EPA Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina. Elevated electrical conductivity measured at the site may be related to native rock materials, waste rock disposal areas used in past operations, and (or) groundwater having elevated dissolved solids (primarily metals and major ions) related to waste migration. Five shallow screened wells and four open-borehole bedrock wells were logged by using a suite of borehole tools, and downhole water-quality profiles were recorded in two additional wells. Well depths ranged from about 26 to 300 feet below land surface. Surface geophysical surveys based on frequency-domain electromagnetic and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) techniques were used to identify areas of elevated electrical conductivity (Earth materials and groundwater) and potential high dissolved solids in groundwater and surface water on land and in areas along the northern unnamed tributary at the site.

  18. Surface self-potential patterns related to transmissive fracture trends during a water injection test (United States)

    DesRoches, A. J.; Butler, K. E.; MacQuarrie, K. TB


    Variations in self-potential (SP) signals were recorded over an electrode array during a constant head injection test in a fractured bedrock aquifer. Water was injected into a 2.2 m interval isolated between two inflatable packers at 44 m depth in a vertical well. Negative SP responses were recorded on surface corresponding to the start of the injection period with strongest magnitudes recorded in electrodes nearest the well. SP response decreased in magnitude at electrodes further from the well. Deflation of the packer system resulted in a strong reversal in the SP signal. Anomalous SP patterns observed at surface at steady state were found to be aligned with dominant fracture strike orientations found within the test interval. Numerical modelling of fluid and current flow within a simplified fracture network showed that azimuthal patterns in SP are mainly controlled by transmissive fracture orientations. The strongest SP gradients occur parallel to hydraulic gradients associated with water flowing out of the transmissive fractures into the tighter matrix and other less permeable cross-cutting fractures. Sensitivity studies indicate that increasing fracture frequency near the well increases the SP magnitude and enhances the SP anomaly parallel to the transmissive set. Decreasing the length of the transmissive fractures leads to more fluid flow into the matrix and into cross-cutting fractures proximal to the well, resulting in a more circular and higher magnitude SP anomaly. Results from the field experiment and modelling provide evidence that surface-based SP monitoring during constant head injection tests has the ability to identify groundwater flow pathways within a fractured bedrock aquifer.

  19. Fracture


    Bourdin, Blaise; Francfort, Gilles A.


    These notes begin with a review of the mainstream theory of brittle fracture, as it has emerged from the works of Griffi th and Irwin. We propose a re-formulation of that theory within the confi nes of the calculus of variations, focussing on crack path prediction. We then illustrate the various possible minimality criteria in a simple 1d-case as well as in a tearing experiment and discuss in some details the only complete mathematical formulation so far, that is that where global minimality ...

  20. Flowing fluid electrical conductivity logging of a deep borehole during and following drilling: estimation of transmissivity, water salinity and hydraulic head of conductive zones (United States)

    Doughty, Christine; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Juhlin, Christopher; Dobson, Patrick F.; Birkholzer, Jens T.


    Flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging is a hydrogeologic testing method that is usually conducted in an existing borehole. However, for the 2,500-m deep COSC-1 borehole, drilled at Åre, central Sweden, it was done within the drilling period during a scheduled 1-day break, thus having a negligible impact on the drilling schedule, yet providing important information on depths of hydraulically conductive zones and their transmissivities and salinities. This paper presents a reanalysis of this set of data together with a new FFEC logging data set obtained soon after drilling was completed, also over a period of 1 day, but with a different pumping rate and water-level drawdown. Their joint analysis not only results in better estimates of transmissivity and salinity in the conducting fractures intercepted by the borehole, but also yields the hydraulic head values of these fractures, an important piece of information for the understanding of hydraulic structure of the subsurface. Two additional FFEC logging tests were done about 1 year later, and are used to confirm and refine this analysis. Results show that from 250 to 2,000 m depths, there are seven distinct hydraulically conductive zones with different hydraulic heads and low transmissivity values. For the final test, conducted with a much smaller water-level drawdown, inflow ceased from some of the conductive zones, confirming that their hydraulic heads are below the hydraulic head measured in the wellbore under non-pumped conditions. The challenges accompanying 1-day FFEC logging are summarized, along with lessons learned in addressing them.

  1. Bounding Analysis of Drinking Water Health Risks from a Spill of Hydraulic Fracturing Flowback Water. (United States)

    Rish, William R; Pfau, Edward J


    A bounding risk assessment is presented that evaluates possible human health risk from a hypothetical scenario involving a 10,000-gallon release of flowback water from horizontal fracturing of Marcellus Shale. The water is assumed to be spilled on the ground, infiltrates into groundwater that is a source of drinking water, and an adult and child located downgradient drink the groundwater. Key uncertainties in estimating risk are given explicit quantitative treatment using Monte Carlo analysis. Chemicals that contribute significantly to estimated health risks are identified, as are key uncertainties and variables to which risk estimates are sensitive. The results show that hypothetical exposure via drinking water impacted by chemicals in Marcellus Shale flowback water, assumed to be spilled onto the ground surface, results in predicted bounds between 10-10 and 10-6 (for both adult and child receptors) for excess lifetime cancer risk. Cumulative hazard indices (HICUMULATIVE ) resulting from these hypothetical exposures have predicted bounds (5th to 95th percentile) between 0.02 and 35 for assumed adult receptors and 0.1 and 146 for assumed child receptors. Predicted health risks are dominated by noncancer endpoints related to ingestion of barium and lithium in impacted groundwater. Hazard indices above unity are largely related to exposure to lithium. Salinity taste thresholds are likely to be exceeded before drinking water exposures result in adverse health effects. The findings provide focus for policy discussions concerning flowback water risk management. They also indicate ways to improve the ability to estimate health risks from drinking water impacted by a flowback water spill (i.e., reducing uncertainty). © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Quantifying water flow and retention in an unsaturated fracture-facial domain (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.; Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak


    Hydrologically significant flow and storage of water occur in macropores and fractures that are only partially filled. To accommodate such processes in flow models, we propose a three-domain framework. Two of the domains correspond to water flow and water storage in a fracture-facial region, in addition to the third domain of matrix water. The fracture-facial region, typically within a fraction of a millimeter of the fracture wall, includes a flowing phase whose fullness is determined by the availability and flux of preferentially flowing water, and a static storage portion whose fullness is determined by the local matric potential. The flow domain can be modeled with the source-responsive preferential flow model, and the roughness-storage domain can be modeled with capillary relations applied on the fracture-facial area. The matrix domain is treated using traditional unsaturated flow theory. We tested the model with application to the hydrology of the Chalk formation in southern England, coherently linking hydrologic information including recharge estimates, streamflow, water table fluctuation, imaging by electron microscopy, and surface roughness. The quantitative consistency of the three-domain matrix-microcavity-film model with this body of diverse data supports the hypothesized distinctions and active mechanisms of the three domains and establishes the usefulness of this framework.

  3. Risks to Water Resources from Shale Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing in the United States (United States)

    Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.; Warner, Nathaniel; Darrah, Thomas H.; Kondash, Andrew


    The rise of shale gas development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded oil and gas exploration in the USA. The rapid rate of shale gas exploration has triggered an intense public debate regarding the potential environmental and human health effects. A review of the updated literature has identified four potential risks for impacts on water resources: (1) stray gas contamination of shallow aquifers near shale gas sites; (2) contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater from spills, leaks, and disposal of inadequately treated wastewater or hydraulic fracturing fluids; (3) accumulation of toxic and radioactive residues in soil or stream sediments near disposal or spill sites; and (4) over-extraction of water resources for drilling and hydraulic fracturing that could induce water shortages and conflicts with other water users, particularly in water-scarce areas. As part of a long-term research on the potential water contamination associated with shale gas development, new geochemical and isotopic techniques have been developed for delineating the origin of gases and contaminants in water resource. In particular, multiple geochemical and isotopic (carbon isotopes in hydrocarbons, noble gas, strontium, boron, radium isotopes) tracers have been utilized to distinguish between naturally occurring dissolved gas and salts in water and contamination directly induced from shale gas drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations.

  4. Unified pipe network method for simulation of water flow in fractured porous rock (United States)

    Ren, Feng; Ma, Guowei; Wang, Yang; Li, Tuo; Zhu, Hehua


    Rock masses are often conceptualized as dual-permeability media containing fractures or fracture networks with high permeability and porous matrix that is less permeable. In order to overcome the difficulties in simulating fluid flow in a highly discontinuous dual-permeability medium, an effective unified pipe network method is developed, which discretizes the dual-permeability rock mass into a virtual pipe network system. It includes fracture pipe networks and matrix pipe networks. They are constructed separately based on equivalent flow models in a representative area or volume by taking the advantage of the orthogonality of the mesh partition. Numerical examples of fluid flow in 2-D and 3-D domain including porous media and fractured porous media are presented to demonstrate the accuracy, robustness, and effectiveness of the proposed unified pipe network method. Results show that the developed method has good performance even with highly distorted mesh. Water recharge into the fractured rock mass with complex fracture network is studied. It has been found in this case that the effect of aperture change on the water recharge rate is more significant in the early stage compared to the fracture density change.

  5. Investigating the permeability of fractured rock masses and the origin of water in a mine tunnel in Shandong Province, China. (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Zhao, Haijun; Ma, Fengshan; Li, Kepeng; Zhao, Chunhu


    The coastal Sanshandao mine is threatened by the overlying Quaternary water and seawater. Following an introduction to the geology and hydrogeological conditions in the mine area, a detailed hydrogeological survey and sampling were conducted and hydrochemical and stable isotopic (δ2H and δ18O) tests on various waters were carried out to characterize the origin of water in the mine tunnels. Investigation and statistical analysis indicated that the northwest-trending fractures with large dip angles and long trace lengths are well developed in the northeast compared with those in the southwest of the mine. The permeability coefficients of the rock masses are in the range 4.19×10(-8)-2.25×10(-5) m/s, indicating that the fractured rock masses have generally low permeability. The seepage water had higher values of EC, total dissolved solids, and concentrations of most elements than the seawater and saline groundwater. Besides, the isotope composition of the waters indicated that the seepage water was more isotopically enriched than seawater but less than brine. The proportions of the three different sources were calculated based on hydrochemical and isotopic analyses. Overall, the mine water was composed of 72% seawater, 14.8% brine, and 13.2% atmospheric precipitation, respectively. Therefore, some preventive measures are essential to avoid the probability of seawater inrush.

  6. Water Inrush Analysis of the Longmen Mountain Tunnel Based on a 3D Simulation of the Discrete Fracture Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Ziming


    Full Text Available The construction of tunnels and underground engineering in China has developed rapidly in recent years in both the number and the length of tunnels. However, with the development of tunnel construction technology, risk assessment of the tunnels has become increasingly important. Water inrush is one of the most important causes of engineering accidents worldwide, resulting in considerable economic and environmental losses. Accordingly, water inrush prediction is important for ensuring the safety of tunnel construction. Therefore, in this study, we constructed a three-dimensional discrete network fracture model using the Monte Carlo method first with the basic data from the engineering geological map of the Longmen Mountain area, the location of the Longmen Mountain tunnel. Subsequently, we transformed the discrete fracture networks into a pipe network model. Next, the DEM of the study area was analysed and a submerged analysis was conducted to determine the water storage area. Finally, we attempted to predict the water inrush along the Longmen Mountain tunnel based on the Darcy flow equation. Based on the contrast of water inrush between the proposed approach, groundwater dynamics and precipitation infiltration method, we conclude the following: the water inflow determined using the groundwater dynamics simulation results are basically consistent with those in the D2K91+020 to D2K110+150 mileage. Specifically, in the D2K91+020 to D2K94+060, D2K96+440 to D2K98+100 and other sections of the tunnel, the simulated and measured results are in close agreement and show that this method is effective. In general, we can predict the water inflow in the area of the Longmen Mountain tunnel based on the existing fracture joint parameters and the hydrogeological data of the Longmen Mountain area, providing a water inrush simulation and guiding the tunnel excavation and construction stages.

  7. Water Inrush Analysis of the Longmen Mountain Tunnel Based on a 3D Simulation of the Discrete Fracture Network (United States)

    Xiong, Ziming; Wang, Mingyang; Shi, ShaoShuai; Xia, YuanPu; Lu, Hao; Bu, Lin


    The construction of tunnels and underground engineering in China has developed rapidly in recent years in both the number and the length of tunnels. However, with the development of tunnel construction technology, risk assessment of the tunnels has become increasingly important. Water inrush is one of the most important causes of engineering accidents worldwide, resulting in considerable economic and environmental losses. Accordingly, water inrush prediction is important for ensuring the safety of tunnel construction. Therefore, in this study, we constructed a three-dimensional discrete network fracture model using the Monte Carlo method first with the basic data from the engineering geological map of the Longmen Mountain area, the location of the Longmen Mountain tunnel. Subsequently, we transformed the discrete fracture networks into a pipe network model. Next, the DEM of the study area was analysed and a submerged analysis was conducted to determine the water storage area. Finally, we attempted to predict the water inrush along the Longmen Mountain tunnel based on the Darcy flow equation. Based on the contrast of water inrush between the proposed approach, groundwater dynamics and precipitation infiltration method, we conclude the following: the water inflow determined using the groundwater dynamics simulation results are basically consistent with those in the D2K91+020 to D2K110+150 mileage. Specifically, in the D2K91+020 to D2K94+060, D2K96+440 to D2K98+100 and other sections of the tunnel, the simulated and measured results are in close agreement and show that this method is effective. In general, we can predict the water inflow in the area of the Longmen Mountain tunnel based on the existing fracture joint parameters and the hydrogeological data of the Longmen Mountain area, providing a water inrush simulation and guiding the tunnel excavation and construction stages.

  8. Overview of EPA's Approach to Developing Prospective Case Studies Technical Workshop: Case Studies to Assess Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources (United States)

    One component of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) study of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources is prospective case studies, which are being conducted to more fully understand and assess if and how site specific hydrau...

  9. Proton conduction in water ices under an electric field. (United States)

    Cassone, Giuseppe; Giaquinta, Paolo V; Saija, Franz; Saitta, A Marco


    We report on a first-principles study of the effects produced by a static electric field on proton conduction in ordinary hexagonal ice (phase Ih) and in its proton-ordered counterpart (phase XI). We performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of both phases and investigated the effects produced by the field on the structure of the material, with particular attention paid to the phenomenon of proton transfer. We observed that in ice Ih molecules start to dissociate for field intensities around 0.25 V/Å, as in liquid water, whereas fields stronger than 0.36 V/Å are needed to induce a permanent proton flow. In contrast, in ice XI, electric fields as intense as 0.22 V/Å are already able to induce and sustain, through correlated proton jumps, an ionic current; this behavior suggests, somewhat counterintuitively, that the ordering of protons favors the autoprotolysis phenomenon. However, the same is not true for static conductivities. In fact, both crystalline phases show an ohmic behavior in the conduction regime, but the conductivity of ice Ih turns out to be larger than that of ice XI. We finally discuss the qualitative and quantitative importance of the conspicuous concentration of ionic defects generated by intense electric fields in determining the value of the conductivity, also through a comparison with the experimental data available for saline ices.

  10. Electrical resistivity dynamics beneath a fractured sedimentary bedrock riverbed in response to temperature and groundwater-surface water exchange (United States)

    Steelman, Colby M.; Kennedy, Celia S.; Capes, Donovan C.; Parker, Beth L.


    Bedrock rivers occur where surface water flows along an exposed rock surface. Fractured sedimentary bedrock can exhibit variable groundwater residence times, anisotropic flow paths, and heterogeneity, along with diffusive exchange between fractures and rock matrix. These properties of the rock will affect thermal transients in the riverbed and groundwater-surface water exchange. In this study, surface electrical methods were used as a non-invasive technique to assess the scale and temporal variability of riverbed temperature and groundwater-surface water interaction beneath a sedimentary bedrock riverbed. Conditions were monitored at a semi-daily to semi-weekly interval over a full annual period that included a seasonal freeze-thaw cycle. Surface electromagnetic induction (EMI) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) methods captured conditions beneath the riverbed along a pool-riffle sequence of the Eramosa River in Canada. Geophysical datasets were accompanied by continuous measurements of aqueous specific conductance, temperature, and river stage. Time-lapse vertical temperature trolling within a lined borehole adjacent to the river revealed active groundwater flow zones along fracture networks within the upper 10 m of rock. EMI measurements collected during cooler high-flow and warmer low-flow periods identified a spatiotemporal riverbed response that was largely dependent upon riverbed morphology and seasonal groundwater temperature. Time-lapse ERT profiles across the pool and riffle sequence identified seasonal transients within the upper 2 and 3 m of rock, respectively, with spatial variations controlled by riverbed morphology (pool versus riffle) and dominant surficial rock properties (competent versus weathered rock rubble surface). While the pool and riffle both exhibited a dynamic resistivity through seasonal cooling and warming cycles, conditions beneath the pool were more variable, largely due to the formation of river ice during the winter season

  11. Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Yen, Shiao-Pin


    Poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate (P4VPBS) is a polymeric salt that has shown promise as a water-free proton-conducting material (solid electrolyte) suitable for use in membrane/electrode assemblies in fuel cells. Heretofore, proton-conducting membranes in fuel cells have been made from perfluorinated ionomers that cannot conduct protons in the absence of water and, consequently, cannot function at temperatures >100 C. In addition, the stability of perfluorinated ionomers at temperatures >100 C is questionable. However, the performances of fuel cells of the power systems of which they are parts could be improved if operating temperatures could be raised above 140 C. What is needed to make this possible is a solid-electrolyte material, such as P4VPBS, that can be cast into membranes and that both retains proton conductivity and remains stable in the desired higher operating temperature range. A family of solid-electrolyte materials different from P4VPBS was described in Anhydrous Proton-Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells (NPO-30493), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 8 (August 2005), page 48. Those materials notably include polymeric quaternized amine salts. If molecules of such a polymeric salt could be endowed with flexible chain structures, it would be possible to overcome the deficiencies of simple organic amine salts that must melt before being able to conduct protons. However, no polymeric quaternized amine salts have yet shown to be useful in this respect. The present solid electrolyte is made by quaternizing the linear polymer poly- 4-vinylpyridine (P4VP) to obtain P4VPBS. It is important to start with P4VP having a molecular weight of 160,000 daltons because P4VPBS made from lower-molecular-weight P4VP yields brittle membranes. In an experimental synthesis, P4VP was dissolved in methanol and then reacted with an excess of sulfuric acid to precipitate P4VPBS. The precipitate was recovered, washed several times with methanol to remove traces of acid, and dried to a

  12. Water Infiltration and Hydraulic Conductivity in Sandy Cambisols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bens, Oliver; Wahl, Niels Arne; Fischer, Holger


    of this study was to characterize the variation of infiltration capacity, hydraulic conductivity and soil organoprofile development on forest sites with comparable geological substrate, soil type and climatic conditions, but different stand ages and tree species in terms of the effects of forest transformation....... By contrast, the thickness of the humous topsoil increases. Presumably, changes in soil organic matter storage and quality caused by the management practice of forest transformation affect the persistence and degree of water repellency in the soil, which in turn influences the hydraulic properties...

  13. Conductive Cotton Filters for Affordable and Efficient Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li


    Full Text Available It is highly desirable to develop affordable, energy-saving, and highly-effective technologies to alleviate the current water crisis. In this work, we reported a low-cost electrochemical filtration device composing of a conductive cotton filter anode and a Ti foil cathode. The device was operated by gravity feed. The conductive cotton filter anodes were fabricated by a facile dying method to incorporate carbon nanotubes (CNTs as fillers. The CNTs could serve as adsorbents for pollutants adsorption, as electrocatalysts for pollutants electrooxidation, and as conductive additives to render the cotton filters highly conductive. Cellulose-based cotton could serve as low-cost support to ‘host’ these CNTs. Upon application of external potential, the developed filtration device could not only achieve physically adsorption of organic compounds, but also chemically oxide these compounds on site. Three model organic compounds were employed to evaluate the oxidative capability of the device, i.e., ferrocyanide (a model single-electron-transfer electron donor, methyl orange (MO, a common recalcitrant azo-dye found in aqueous environments, and antibiotic tetracycline (TC, a common antibiotic released from the wastewater treatment plants. The devices exhibited a maximum electrooxidation flux of 0.37 mol/h/m2 for 5.0 mmol/L ferrocyanide, of 0.26 mol/h/m2 for 0.06 mmol/L MO, and of 0.9 mol/h/m2 for 0.2 mmol/L TC under given experimental conditions. The effects of several key operational parameters (e.g., total cell potential, CNT amount, and compound concentration on the device performance were also studied. This study could shed some light on the good design of effective and affordable water purification devices for point-of-use applications.

  14. Effects of Water-Rock Interaction on Unsaturated Flow in Heterogeneous Fractured Rock (United States)

    Sonnenthal, E. L.; Spycher, N. F.; Haukwa, C. B.


    Evaluation of coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes associated with the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV require consideration of the effects of permeability heterogeneity on reaction-transport processes in unsaturated fractured tuff under boiling conditions. As a result of capillary suction in unsaturated flow systems, the effect of permeability heterogeneity on water-rock interaction can be markedly different than in saturated flow systems. If regions of lower fracture permeability correspond to narrower fracture apertures, the liquid saturation may be higher than in adjacent areas of higher permeability and larger fracture apertures. Spatial differences in liquid saturation within fractures, resulting from variations in capillary suction, affect reaction rates in a number of ways. Of primary importance to the overall reaction rate is the reactive surface area, which may diminish with decreasing liquid saturation - a relationship that is unknown apriori. The extent of reaction is also a function of the percolation flux that may be smaller in regions of higher absolute permeability but having lower relative permeability. However, diffusive and advective gaseous species transport may be enhanced in areas of low liquid saturation and high absolute permeability. Here we relate the reactive surface area to the fracture-matrix interaction area based on a modified form of the `Active Fracture Model' for flow in unsaturated fracture rock. Simulations included coupling between heat, water, and vapor flow, aqueous and gaseous species transport, kinetic and equilibrium mineral-water reactions, and feedback of mineral precipitation/dissolution on porosity, permeability, and capillary for a dual permeability (fracture-matrix) medium. Based on air-permeability measurements, 2-D heterogeneous fracture permeability fields were generated having a range of four orders of magnitude. Steady-state fracture liquid saturations, under

  15. Analyzing Conductivity Profiles in Stream Waters Influenced by Mine Water Discharges (United States)

    Räsänen, Teemu; Hämäläinen, Emmy; Hämäläinen, Matias; Turunen, Kaisa; Pajula, Pasi; Backnäs, Soile


    Conductivity is useful as a general measure of stream water quality. Each stream inclines to have a quite constant range of conductivity that can be used as a baseline for comparing and detecting influence of contaminant sources. Conductivity in natural streams and rivers is affected primarily by the geology of the watershed. Thus discharges from ditches and streams affect not only the flow rate in the river but also the water quality and conductivity. In natural stream waters, the depth and the shape of the river channel change constantly, which changes also the water flow. Thus, an accurate measuring of conductivity or other water quality indicators is difficult. Reliable measurements are needed in order to have holistic view about amount of contaminants, sources of discharges and seasonal variation in mixing and dilution processes controlling the conductivity changes in river system. We tested the utility of CastAway-CTD measuring device (SonTek Inc) to indicate the influence of mine waters as well as mixing and dilution occurring in the recipient river affected by treated dewatering and process effluent water discharges from a Finnish gold mine. The CastAway-CTD measuring device is a small, rugged and designed for profiling of depths of up to 100m. Device measures temperature, salinity, conductivity and sound of speed using 5 Hz response time. It has also built-in GPS which produces location information. CTD casts are normally used to produce vertical conductivity profile for rather deep waters like seas or lakes. We did seasonal multiple Castaway-CTD measurements during 2013 and 2014 and produced scaled vertical and horizontal profiles of conductivity and water temperature at the river. CastAway-CTD measurement pinpoints how possible contaminants behave and locate in stream waters. The conductivity profiles measured by CastAway-CTD device show the variation in maximum conductivity values vertically in measuring locations and horizontally in measured cross

  16. Estimated drinking water fluoride exposure and risk of hip fracture: a cohort study. (United States)

    Näsman, P; Ekstrand, J; Granath, F; Ekbom, A; Fored, C M


    The cariostatic benefit from water fluoridation is indisputable, but the knowledge of possible adverse effects on bone and fracture risk due to fluoride exposure is ambiguous. The association between long-term (chronic) drinking water fluoride exposure and hip fracture (ICD-7-9: '820' and ICD-10: 'S72.0-S72.2') was assessed in Sweden using nationwide registers. All individuals born in Sweden between January 1, 1900 and December 31, 1919, alive and living in their municipality of birth at the time of start of follow-up, were eligible for this study. Information on the study population (n = 473,277) was linked among the Swedish National In-Patient Register (IPR), the Swedish Cause of Death Register, and the Register of Population and Population Changes. Estimated individual drinking water fluoride exposure was stratified into 4 categories: very low, fluoride exposure and the occurrence of hip fracture. The risk estimates did not change in analyses restricted to only low-trauma osteoporotic hip fractures. Chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water does not seem to have any important effects on the risk of hip fracture, in the investigated exposure range.

  17. Hydrophobic Organic Compounds in Hydraulic Fracturing Flowback Waters: Identification and Source Apportionment (United States)

    Plata, D.; Shregglman, K.; Elsner, M.; Getzinger, G.; Ferguson, L.; Drollette, B.; Karatum, O.; Nelson, R. K.; Reddy, C. M.


    Current hydraulic fracturing technologies rely on organic chemicals to serve multiple critical functions, including corrosion inhibition, in situ gel formation, and friction reduction. While industrial users have disclosed several hundreds of compound and mixture identities, it is unclear which of these are used and where, in what proportion, and with what frequency. Furthermore, while flowback and production waters contain both fracturing additive and geogenic compounds, they may contain potential reaction byproducts as well. Here, we identified several hundred organic compounds present in six hydraulic fracturing flowback waters over the Fayetteville shale. Identifications were made via non-target analysis using two-dimensional gas chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry for hydrophobic organic compounds and liquid chromatography- orbitrap mass spectrometry. Compound identities were confirmed using purchased standards when available. Using the SkyTruth database and the Waxman list of disclosed compounds, we assigned compounds as either fracturing-fluid-derived or geogenic (or both), or a putative transformation products thereof. Several unreported halogenated compounds were detected, including chlorinated, brominated, and iodated species that have no known natural sources. Control studies indicated that these could not be formed under typical laboratory or field storage conditions, suggesting that halogenation reactions may give rise to novel compounds in the subsurface, presumably via reaction between fracturing fluid additives and shale-derived brines. Further, the six samples were strikingly heterogeneous, reflecting the diversity in fracturing fluid composition and flowback handling procedures at the time of the study.

  18. Effect of Water Saturation on the Fracture and Mechanical Properties of Sedimentary Rocks (United States)

    Guha Roy, Debanjan; Singh, T. N.; Kodikara, J.; Das, Ratan


    Fracture and mechanical properties of the water saturated sedimentary rocks have been experimentally investigated in the present paper. Three types of sandstones and one type of shale were saturated in water for different periods of time. They were then tested for their index geomechanical properties such as Brazilian tensile strength (BTS), Young's modulus (YM), P-wave velocity and all pure and mixed-mode fracture toughness (FT). FT was measured using semicircular bend specimens in a three-point bend set-up. All the geomechanical and fracture properties of the saturated rocks were compared together to investigate their interrelations. Further, statistical methods were employed to measure the statistical significance of such relationships. Next, three types of fracture criteria were compared with the present experimental results. Results show that degree of saturation has significant effect on both the strength and fracture properties of sedimentary rock. A general decrease in the mechanical and fracture toughness was noticed with increasing saturation levels. But, t-test confirmed that FT, BTS, P-wave velocity and YM are strongly dependent on each other and linear relationships exist across all the saturation values. Calculation of the `degradation degree' (DD) appeared to be a difficult task for all types of sedimentary rocks. While in sandstone, both the BTS and mode-I FT overestimated the DD calculated by YM method, in shale BTS was found to give a closure value.

  19. Simulation of counter-current imbibition in water-wet fractured reservoirs based on discrete-fracture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yueying


    Full Text Available Isolated fractures usually exist in fractured media systems, where the capillary pressure in the fracture is lower than that of the matrix, causing the discrepancy in oil recoveries between fractured and non-fractured porous media. Experiments, analytical solutions and conventional simulation methods based on the continuum model approach are incompetent or insufficient in describing media containing isolated fractures. In this paper, the simulation of the counter-current imbibition in fractured media is based on the discrete-fracture model (DFM. The interlocking or arrangement of matrix and fracture system within the model resembles the traditional discrete fracture network model and the hybrid-mixed-finite-element method is employed to solve the associated equations. The Behbahani experimental data validates our simulation solution for consistency. The simulation results of the fractured media show that the isolated-fractures affect the imbibition in the matrix block. Moreover, the isolated fracture parameters such as fracture length and fracture location influence the trend of the recovery curves. Thus, the counter-current imbibition behavior of media with isolated fractures can be predicted using this method based on the discrete-fracture model.

  20. Influence of water sorption of the underlying abutment on fracture resistance of zirconia copings. (United States)

    Behr, Michael; Weiser, Felix; Meier, Manfred; Schneider-Feyrer, Sybille; Hahnel, Sebastian; Handel, Gerhard; Rosentritt, Martin


    To investigate the influences of abutment water sorption and various aging parameters on the fracture resistance of zirconia copings. Using a master die, identical replicas were made from three resin materials. The first was a melamine resin with very high water sorption (n = 48), the second an experimental resin core build-up composite with moderate water sorption (n = 40) and the third a commercially available core build-up composite with low water sorption (n = 40). On the abutment replicas, zirconia copings (n = 128) were made using a computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing system. The copings were luted onto the abutments using zinc oxide phosphate cement. In the melamine group, a subgroup of samples (n = 8) was cemented with a composite cement as controls. The forty specimens in every abutment material group were randomly divided into one of five subgroups, as follows: (i) not aged; (ii) mechanically (dry) loaded only (50 N; 1.2 × 10(6) cycles); (iii) stored for 10 days in water; (iv) thermally cycled (TC; 6000 × 5/55°C); and (v) TC and mechanically loaded (TCML; 50 N, 1.2 × 10(6); 6000 × 5/55°C). After aging, all copings were loaded to fracture. A statistically significant difference was found between the three abutment-die groups if the samples were aged by TCML. The zirconia copings cemented on abutments with high water sorption fractured during TCML, and the subgroup with moderate water sorption had significantly lower fracture resistance. A change of luting material had no impact on this behavior. Only the simultaneous combination of all chosen aging factors (TCML) was able to detect a difference in fracture behavior of a zirconia coping luted on abutments with varying water sorption.

  1. Numerical simulation study of fracturing wells for shale gas with gas–water two-phase flow system under desorption and diffusion conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhou Zhao


    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is an essential technology in developing shale gas reservoirs, not to mention, accurate prediction of productivity in fractured shale gas wells is the foundation of an efficient development in shale gas reservoirs. This paper establishes a gas–water two-phase flow percolation mathematical model by a determined numerical simulation and calculation method under desorption and diffusion conditions. By means of simulating for a post-frac performance of the shale gas reservoir, this paper devotes to a quantitative analysis the impact of fracture parameters, physical parameters, and desorption–diffusion parameters. The outcome of this research indicates that hydraulic fracturing can improve single well production and it's an effective measure in the development of shale gas. The conductivity of hydraulic fractures and the permeability of natural fractures are the main influences on shale gas production. The higher these factors are, the higher the gas and water productions are. In comparison, the matrix permeability and diffusion coefficients have minimal influences on production.

  2. Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater from a fractured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The area is heavily populated with a high density of industrial activities which may pose a risk for groundwater and surface water resources. The groundwater and surface water quality was investigated as a basis for more future investigations. The results revealed highly variable water hydrochemistry. High values of ...

  3. Numerical simulation experiments on water seepage patterns in heterogeneous, unsaturated rock fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.


    Water seepage has been numerically simulated in heterogeneous fractures, which were conceptualized as two-dimensional heterogeneous porous media. Flow was found to proceed in dendritic patterns along preferential paths, giving rise to such features as localized ponding and bypassing. Limited parameter variation studies have shown strong dependence of seepage patterns on fracture permeability and applied flow rate. The temporal evolution of seeps proceeds on a vast range of time scales. This casts doubt on the applicability of steady-state concepts for water migration in thick unsaturated zones of fractured rock where infiltration is episodic. An approximate invariance of seepage behavior was derived for simultaneous space-and-time scaling. Numerical simulation experiments have confirmed this invariance, as well as its limits of applicability.

  4. Numerical simulation of counter-current spontaneous imbibition in water-wet fractured porous media: Influences of water injection velocity, fracture aperture, and grains geometry (United States)

    Jafari, Iman; Masihi, Mohsen; Nasiri Zarandi, Masoud


    Counter-current spontaneous imbibition (SI), in which water and oil flow through the same face in opposite directions, is known as one of the most significant oil recovery mechanisms in naturally fractured reservoirs; however, this mechanism has not received much attention. Understanding the dynamic of water-oil displacement during counter-current SI is very challenging because of simultaneous impacts of multiple factors including geometry complexity and heterogeneity of naturally fractured reservoir materials, e.g., high permeability contrast between the rock matrix and fracture, wettability, and porosity. This study investigates the effects of water injection velocity, fracture aperture, and grain shape during counter-current SI at pore-scale. A robust finite element solver is used to solve the governing equations of multiphase flow, which are the coupled Navier-Stokes and Cahn-Hilliard phase-field equations. The results showed that the case with the highest injection velocity (uinj = 5 mm/s) recovered more than 15% of the matrix oil at the early times and then reached its ultimate recovery factor. However, in the case of the lowest injection velocity, i.e., uinj = 0.05 mm/s, the lowest imbibition rate was observed at the early times, but ultimately 23% of the matrix oil was recovered. The model with uinj = 5 mm/s was able to capture some pore-level mechanisms such as snap-off, oil film thinning, interface coalescence, and water film bridging. The obtained results revealed that changing the fracture aperture has a slight effect on the imbibition rate at the earlier times and ultimate recoveries would be almost equal. To assess the influences of grain shape on the imbibition process, the simulated domain was reconstructed with cubic grains. It was noticed that because of higher permeability and porosity, relatively larger oil drops were formed and resulted in higher oil recovery compared with the model with spherical grains. The developed model can be used as a

  5. Deep and bottom water characteristics in the Owen Fracture Zone, Western Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kureishy, T.W.

    Hydro chemical studies at a station (10 degrees 34.l'N,56 degrees 31,7'E) in the Owen Fracture zone reveal an active movement of bottom water as approx 75 m thick, cold, low-salinity layer. Silicate profile exhibits a broad maximum coinciding with a...

  6. Community water fluoridation, bone mineral density, and fractures: prospective study of effects in older women (United States)

    Phipps, Kathy R; Orwoll, Eric S; Mason, Jill D; Cauley, Jane A


    Objective To determine whether fluoridation influences bone mineral density and fractures in older women. Design Multicentre prospective study on risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures. Setting Four community based centres in the United States. Participants 9704 ambulatory women without bilateral hip replacements enrolled during 1986-8; 7129 provided information on exposure to fluoride. Main outcome measures Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, radius, and calcaneus plus incident fractures (fractures that occurred during the study) of vertebrae, hip, wrist, and humerus. Results Women were classified as exposed or not exposed or having unknown exposure to fluoride for each year from 1950 to 1994. Outcomes were compared in women with continuous exposure to fluoridated water for the past 20 years (n=3218) and women with no exposure during the past 20 years (n=2563). In women with continuous exposure mean bone mineral density was 2.6% higher at the femoral neck (0.017 g/cm2, Pfluoridated drinking water does not increase the risk of fracture. PMID:11021862

  7. Delineation of faults, fractures, foliation, and ground-water-flow zones in fractured-rock, on the southern part of Manhattan, New York, through use of advanced borehole-geophysical techniques (United States)

    Stumm, Frederick; Chu, Anthony; Monti, Jack


    Advanced borehole-geophysical techniques were used to assess the geohydrology of crystalline bedrock in 20 boreholes on the southern part of Manhattan Island, N.Y., in preparation for construction of a third water tunnel for New York City. The borehole-logging techniques included natural gamma, single-point resistance, short-normal resistivity, mechanical and acoustic caliper, magnetic susceptibility, borehole-fluid temperature and resistivity, borehole-fluid specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, redox, heatpulse flowmeter (at selected boreholes), borehole deviation, acoustic and optical televiewer, and borehole radar (at selected boreholes). Hydraulic head and specific-capacity test data were collected from 29 boreholes. The boreholes penetrated gneiss, schist, and other crystalline bedrock that has an overall southwest to northwest-dipping foliation. Most of the fractures penetrated are nearly horizontal or have moderate- to high-angle northwest or eastward dip azimuths. Foliation dip within the potential tunnel-construction zone is northwestward and southeastward in the proposed North Water-Tunnel, northwestward to southwestward in the proposed Midtown Water-Tunnel, and northwestward to westward dipping in the proposed South Water-Tunnel. Fracture population dip azimuths are variable. Heat-pulse flowmeter logs obtained under pumping and nonpumping (ambient) conditions, together with other geophysical logs, indicate transmissive fracture zones in each borehole. The 60-megahertz directional borehole-radar logs delineated the location and orientation of several radar reflectors that did not intersect the projection of the borehole.Fracture indexes range from 0.12 to 0.93 fractures per foot of borehole. Analysis of specific-capacity tests from each borehole indicated that transmissivity ranges from 2 to 459 feet squared per day; the highest transmissivity is at the Midtown Water-Tunnel borehole (E35ST-D).

  8. The Fracture of Thermosetting Resins after Exposure to Water. (United States)


    1.0 water. 23 0C uptakeamine-cured 0.6 /* anhydride cured 0.2 bisphenol cured epoxy/glass laminate (VF =0.55) Source: H W Gitschner and G Menges...process, pipe and food storage applications. Like epoxides, these resins withstand water well, except at higher temperatures. The reason for their

  9. Sustainable Management of Flowback Water during Hydraulic Fracturing of Marcellus Shale for Natural Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidic, Radisav [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    This study evaluated the feasibility of using abandoned mine drainage (AMD) as make- up water for the reuse of produced water for hydraulic fracturing. There is an abundance of AMD sources near permitted gas wells as documented in this study that can not only serve as makeup water and reduce the demand on high quality water resources but can also as a source of chemicals to treat produced water prior to reuse. The assessment of AMD availability for this purpose based on proximity and relevant regulations was accompanied by bench- and pilot-scale studies to determine optimal treatment to achieve desired water quality for use in hydraulic fracturing. Sulfate ions that are often present in AMD at elevated levels will react with Ba²⁺ and Sr²⁺ in produced water to form insoluble sulfate compounds. Both membrane microfiltration and gravity separation were evaluated for the removal of solids formed as a result of mixing these two impaired waters. Laboratory studies revealed that neither AMD nor barite formed in solution had significant impact on membrane filtration but that some produced waters contained submicron particles that can cause severe fouling of microfiltration membrane. Coagulation/flocculation was found to be an effective process for the removal of suspended solids and both bench- and pilot-scale studies revealed that optimal process conditions can consistently achieve the turbidity of the finished water below 5 NTU. Adjusting the blending ratio of AMD and produced water can achieve the desired effluent sulfate concentration that can be accurately predicted by chemical thermodynamics. Co-treatment of produced water and AMD will result in elevated levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the solid waste generated in this process due to radium co-precipitation with barium sulfate. Laboratory studies revealed that the mobility of barite that may form in the subsurface due to the presence of sulfate in the fracturing fluid can be

  10. Numerical simulation of air- and water-flow experiments in a block of variably saturated, fractured tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwicklis, E.M.; Healy, R.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Thamir, F. [AMX International, Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Hampson, D. [EQE International, Evergreen, CO (United States)


    Numerical models of water movement through variably saturated, fractured tuff have undergone little testing against experimental data collected from relatively well-controlled and characterized experiments. This report used the results of a multistage experiment on a block of variably saturated, fractured, welded tuff and associated core samples to investigate if those results could be explained using models and concepts currently used to simulate water movement in variably saturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential location of a high-level nuclear-waste repository. Aspects of the experiment were modeled with varying degrees of success. Imbibition experiments performed on cores of various lengths and diameters were adequately described by models using independently measured permeabilities and moisture-characteristic curves, provided that permeability reductions resulting from the presence of entrapped air were considered. Entrapped gas limited maximum water saturations during imbibition to approximately 0.70 to 0,80 of the fillable porosity values determined by vacuum saturation. A numerical simulator developed for application to fluid flow problems in fracture networks was used to analyze the results of air-injection tests conducted within the tuff block through 1.25-cm-diameter boreholes. These analyses produced estimates of transmissivity for selected fractures within the block. Transmissivities of other fractures were assigned on the basis of visual similarity to one of the tested fractures. The calibrated model explained 53% of the observed pressure variance at the monitoring boreholes (with the results for six outliers omitted) and 97% of the overall pressure variance (including monitoring and injection boreholes) in the subset of air-injection tests examined.

  11. Managing the Increasing Water Footprint of Hydraulic Fracturing in the Bakken Play, United States. (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Male, Frank; Hove, Michael


    The water footprint of oil production, including water used for hydraulic fracturing (HF) and flowback-produced (FP) water, is increasingly important in terms of HF water sourcing and FP water management. Here, we evaluate trends in HF water use relative to supplies and FP water relative to disposal using well by well analysis in the Bakken Play. HF water use per well increased by ∼6 times from 2005-2014, totaling 24.5 × 10(9) gal (93 × 10(9) L) for ∼10 140 wells. Water supplies expanded to meet increased demand, including access of up to ∼33 × 10(9) gal/year (125 × 10(9) L/year) from Lake Sakakawea, expanding pipeline infrastructure by hundreds of miles and allowing water transfers from irrigation. The projected inventory of ∼60 000 future wells should require an additional ∼11 times more HF water. Cumulative FP water has been managed by disposal into an increasing number (277 to 479) of salt water disposal wells. FP water is projected to increase by ∼10 times during the play lifetime (∼40 years). Disposal of FP water into deeper geologic units should be considered because of reported overpressuring of parts of the Dakota Group. The long time series shows how policies have increased water supplies for HF and highlights potential issues related to FP water management.

  12. Sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation and injection scenarios (United States)

    Başağaoğlu, Hakan; Succi, Sauro; Manepally, Chandrika; Fedors, Randall; Wyrick, Danielle Y.


    Active fractures refer to the portions of unsaturated, connected fractures that actively conduct water. The active fracture model parameter accounts for the reduction in the number of fractures carrying water and in the fracture-matrix interface area in field-scale simulations of flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rocks. One example includes the numerical analyses of the fault test results at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada (USA). In such applications, the active fracture model parameter is commonly used as a calibration parameter without relating it to fracture network orientations and infiltration rates. A two-dimensional, multiphase lattice-Boltzmann model was used in this study to investigate the sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation and injection scenarios for an unsaturated, variable dipping, and geometrically simple fracture network. The active fracture model parameter differed by as much as 0.11-0.44 when the effects of fracture network orientation, injection rate, and injection mode were included in the simulations. Hence, the numerical results suggest that the sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation, injection rates, and injection modes should be explored at the field-scale to strengthen the technical basis and range of applicability of the active fracture model.

  13. Fracture toughness of Alloy 690 and EN52 weld in air and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.M.; Mills, W.J.


    The effect of low and high temperature water with high hydrogen on the fracture toughness of Alloy 690 and its weld, EN52, was characterized using elastic-plastic J{sub IC} methodology. While both materials display excellent fracture resistance in air and elevated temperature (>93 C) water, a dramatic degradation in toughness is observed in 54 C water. The loss of toughness is associated with a hydrogen-induced intergranular cracking mechanism where hydrogen is picked up from the water. Comparison of the cracking behavior in low temperature water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air indicates that the critical local hydrogen content required to cause low temperature embrittlement is on the order of 120 to 160 ppm. Loading rate studies show that the cracking resistance is significantly improved at rates above ca. 1000 MPa{radical}m/h because there is insufficient time to produce grain boundary embrittlement. Electron fractographic examinations were performed to correlate cracking behavior with microstructural features and operative fracture mechanics.

  14. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Murali Mohan

    Full Text Available Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. The metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

  15. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing. (United States)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Bibby, Kyle J; Lipus, Daniel; Hammack, Richard W; Gregory, Kelvin B


    Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. The metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

  16. Characterizing Ground-Water Flow Paths in High-Altitude Fractured Rock Settings Impacted by Mining Activities (United States)

    Wireman, M.; Williams, D.


    The Rocky Mountains of the western USA have tens of thousands of abandoned, inactive and active precious-metal(gold,silver,copper)mine sites. Most of these sites occur in fractured rock hydrogeologic settings. Mining activities often resulted in mobilization and transport of associated heavy metals (zinc,cadmium,lead) which pose a significant threat to aquatic communities in mountain streams.Transport of heavy metals from mine related sources (waste rock piles,tailings impoudments,underground workings, mine pits)can occur along numerous hydrological pathways including complex fracture controlled ground-water pathways. Since 1991, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology and the University of Colorado (INSTAAR)have been conducting applied hydrologic research at the Mary Murphy underground mine. The mine is in the Chalk Creek mining district which is located on the southwestern flanks of the Mount Princeton Batholith, a Tertiary age intrusive comprised primarily of quartz monzonite.The Mount Princeton batholith comprises a large portion of the southern part of the Collegiate Range west of Buena Vista in Chaffee County, CO. Chalk Creek and its 14 tributaries drain about 24,900 hectares of the eastern slopes of the Range including the mining district. Within the mining district, ground-water flow is controlled by the distribution, orientation and permeability of discontinuities within the bedrock. Important discontinuities include faults, joints and weathered zones. Local and intermediate flow systems are perturbed by extensive underground excavations associated with mining (adits, shafts, stopes, drifts,, etc.). During the past 12 years numerous hydrological investigations have been completed. The investigations have been focused on developing tools for characterizing ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the vicinity of hard-rock mines in fractured-rock settings. In addition, the results from these

  17. Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater from a fractured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    red brick factories. Industries consume significant amounts of water and return in many cases highly polluted wastewater sometime directly to the envi- ronment. Hence, these activities are considered. Figure 1. Location map showing the sampling points (numbers 1 to 13) and trace of hydrogeological cross section AB in.

  18. Quantifying the Impact of Technological Trends and Spatiotemporal Variability in Hydraulic Fracturing Water Intensity (United States)

    Montgomery, J.; O'sullivan, F.


    An important metric for comparing the environmental impact of hydraulically fractured oil and gas wells to other energy technologies is the water intensity, or water usage normalized to energy production. Due to varying hydraulic fracturing practices, immense variability in short-term well performance, and uncertainty about lifetime production from wells, the water intensity of wells is difficult to predict and should be modeled statistically using field data. We analyzed public production and hydraulic fracturing data for 3497 wells drilled in the North Dakota Williston Basin between 2012 and 2015 to identify technology and sweet-spotting trends and identify their impact on well productivity and water intensity. We found that the water used per well increased by an average of 43% per year over this period while the water intensity of wells increased by 32% per year. The difference in these rates was due to a trend of increasing production rates, which we found to be associated equally with changes in technology and sweet-spotting. The prevalent role of sweet spotting means that as future drilling activity shifts into less productive areas than are presently being exploited, this will predictably increase the water intensity of new wells. Although some of the variability in well productivity and water intensity is resolvable to the influence of spatial heterogeneity and technology practices, a substantial amount of uncertainty is irreducible due to unobservable factors. This uncertainty can best be represented and updated with new information, such as initial rates of production, using a Bayesian decline curve model. We demonstrate how this approach can be used to forecast uncertainty of water intensity at different locations and points in time, making it a useful tool for a range of stakeholders, including regulatory agencies assessing the environmental impact of drilling activity within particular watersheds.

  19. Greenland englacial drainage: conditions favoring water transport through a fractured aquifer (United States)

    Creyts, T. T.; Fountain, A. G.


    Recently, the subglacial hydrology of glaciers and ice sheets has garnered intense interest because of its effects on ice sliding and potential ice sheet responses leading to sea level rise. Less attention has focused on the englacial water system that connects surface meltwater sources to the basal drainage system. Observations of englacial drainage have revealed diametrically opposed behaviors, so that understanding the role of the englacial system is critical to developing knowledge of ice sheet responses. The englacial connections either enhance or limit subglacial processes, including sliding. Some observations show cases where water drainage is mainly through an englacial system of fractures so that water flow at the bed is stunted. Other observations show static englacial water systems that play little role in drainage with primary drainage routes being along the bed. Here, we use a thermomechanical model of englacial water flow to understand the interaction between ice and water along these connections. We assume that water flow is through a series of connected fractures analogous to crevassed Greenland outlet glaciers. The fractures are modified by ice flow, and freezing and melting of the water system. Simple mathematical analyses show trade offs between closure rates and melting rates that determine the englacial flowpaths. From numerical experiments, we show that the dominance of englacial flow follows the locations of both bed overdeepenings and areas where the basal water system is compressed dynamically. The preponderance of overdeependenings in Greenland suggests that englacial systems may be favored in critical areas of ice sheet flow. We conclude by relating the insights from the analytic and numerical results to the broad scale patterns of change of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  20. Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) Removal from Fractured Rock using Thermal Conductive Heating (TCH) (United States)


    may include thermal destruction by oxidation and pyrolysis near heating elements (for thermal conductive heating) at temperatures around 400Ε is used for enhanced oil recovery applications to depths >1,000 ft and for volumes exceeding 100,000 cubic yards (yd3). • pdf . Heron, G., R.S. Baker, J.M. Bierschenk, and J.C. LaChance, 2006. Heat it All the Way - Mechanisms and

  1. Modelling electrolyte conductivity in a water electrolyzer cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael; Kirkegaard, Julius Bier


    An analytical model describing the hydrogen gas evolution under natural convection in an electrolyzer cell is developed. Main purpose of the model is to investigate the electrolyte conductivity through the cell under various conditions. Cell conductivity is calculated from a parallel resistor...... for electrolyte conductivity from combinations of pressure, current density and electrolyte width among others....

  2. MRI-derived bound and pore water concentrations as predictors of fracture resistance. (United States)

    Manhard, Mary Kate; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Granke, Mathilde; Gochberg, Daniel F; Nyman, Jeffry S; Does, Mark D


    Accurately predicting fracture risk in the clinic is challenging because the determinants are multi-factorial. A common approach to fracture risk assessment is to combine X-ray-based imaging methods such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with an online Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) that includes additional risk factors such as age, family history, and prior fracture incidents. This approach still does not adequately diagnose many individuals at risk, especially those with certain diseases like type 2 diabetes. As such, this study investigated bound water and pore water concentrations (Cbw and Cpw) from ultra-short echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as new predictors of fracture risk. Ex vivo cadaveric arms were imaged with UTE MRI as well as with DXA and high-resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT), and imaging measures were compared to both whole-bone structural and material properties as determined by three-point bending tests of the distal-third radius. While DXA-derived areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and μCT-derived volumetric BMD correlated well with structural strength, they moderately correlated with the estimate material strength with gender being a significant covariate for aBMD. MRI-derived measures of Cbw and Cpw had a similar predictive ability of material strength as aBMD but did so independently of gender. In addition, Cbw was the only imaging parameter to significantly correlate with toughness, the energy dissipated during fracture. Notably, the strength of the correlations with the material properties of bone tended to be higher when a larger endosteal region was used to determine Cbw and Cpw. These results indicate that MRI measures of Cbw and Cpw have the ability to probe bone material properties independent of bone structure or subject gender. In particular, toughness is a property of fracture resistance that is not explained by X-ray based methods. Thus, these MRI-derived measures of Cbw and Cpw in cortical

  3. Electrical resistivity dynamics beneath a fractured sedimentary bedrock riverbed in response to temperature and groundwater–surface water exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Steelman


    Full Text Available Bedrock rivers occur where surface water flows along an exposed rock surface. Fractured sedimentary bedrock can exhibit variable groundwater residence times, anisotropic flow paths, and heterogeneity, along with diffusive exchange between fractures and rock matrix. These properties of the rock will affect thermal transients in the riverbed and groundwater–surface water exchange. In this study, surface electrical methods were used as a non-invasive technique to assess the scale and temporal variability of riverbed temperature and groundwater–surface water interaction beneath a sedimentary bedrock riverbed. Conditions were monitored at a semi-daily to semi-weekly interval over a full annual period that included a seasonal freeze–thaw cycle. Surface electromagnetic induction (EMI and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT methods captured conditions beneath the riverbed along a pool–riffle sequence of the Eramosa River in Canada. Geophysical datasets were accompanied by continuous measurements of aqueous specific conductance, temperature, and river stage. Time-lapse vertical temperature trolling within a lined borehole adjacent to the river revealed active groundwater flow zones along fracture networks within the upper 10 m of rock. EMI measurements collected during cooler high-flow and warmer low-flow periods identified a spatiotemporal riverbed response that was largely dependent upon riverbed morphology and seasonal groundwater temperature. Time-lapse ERT profiles across the pool and riffle sequence identified seasonal transients within the upper 2 and 3 m of rock, respectively, with spatial variations controlled by riverbed morphology (pool versus riffle and dominant surficial rock properties (competent versus weathered rock rubble surface. While the pool and riffle both exhibited a dynamic resistivity through seasonal cooling and warming cycles, conditions beneath the pool were more variable, largely due to the formation of river

  4. Analysis of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced waters using accurate mass: identification of ethoxylated surfactants. (United States)

    Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Blotevogel, Jens; Borch, Thomas


    Two series of ethylene oxide (EO) surfactants, polyethylene glycols (PEGs from EO3 to EO33) and linear alkyl ethoxylates (LAEs C-9 to C-15 with EO3-EO28), were identified in hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water using a new application of the Kendrick mass defect and liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The Kendrick mass defect differentiates the proton, ammonium, and sodium adducts in both singly and doubly charged forms. A structural model of adduct formation is presented, and binding constants are calculated, which is based on a spherical cagelike conformation, where the central cation (NH4(+) or Na(+)) is coordinated with ether oxygens. A major purpose of the study was the identification of the ethylene oxide (EO) surfactants and the construction of a database with accurate masses and retention times in order to unravel the mass spectral complexity of surfactant mixtures used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. For example, over 500 accurate mass assignments are made in a few seconds of computer time, which then is used as a fingerprint chromatogram of the water samples. This technique is applied to a series of flowback and produced water samples to illustrate the usefulness of ethoxylate "fingerprinting", in a first application to monitor water quality that results from fluids used in hydraulic fracturing.

  5. Hydraulic Conductivity Modeling of Fractured Rock at Grasberg Surface Mine, Papua-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedy Agung Cahyadi


    Full Text Available Packer tests and slug tests were conducted at 49 points at the Grasberg surface mine, Indonesia to obtain hydraulic conductivity data. The HC-system approach, which relies on rock quality designation, lithology permeability index, depth index, and gouge content designation, was applied. Geotechnical drill holes in 441 locations, consisting of 4,850 points of information, were used to determine the K values using the equation K = 2x10-6x HC0.5571. The K values, which were within the range of 10-8 and 10-5 m/s, were distributed into five alternative 3D distributions using Ordinary Kriging (OK and Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The result of the ANN modeling showed that some of the K values, with log K varying from -10.51 m/s to -3.09 m/s, were outside the range of the observed K values. The OK modeling results of K values, with log K varying from -8.12 m/s to -5.75 m/s, were within the range of the observed K values. The ANN modeled K values were slightly more varied than the OK modeled values. The result of an alternative OK modeling was chosen to represent the existing data population of flow media because it fits well to the geological conditions.

  6. Source and fate of hydraulic fracturing water in the Barnett Shale: a historical perspective. (United States)

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Costley, Ruth A


    Considerable controversy continues about water availability for and potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing (HF) of hydrocarbon assets on water resources. Our objective was to quantify HF water volume in terms of source, reuse, and disposal, using the Barnett Shale in Texas as a case study. Data were obtained from commercial and state databases, river authorities, groundwater conservation districts, and operators. Cumulative water use from ∼ 18,000 (mostly horizontal) wells since 1981 through 2012 totaled ∼ 170,000 AF (210 Mm(3)); ∼ 26 000 AF (32 Mm(3)) in 2011, representing 32% of Texas HF water use and ∼ 0.2% of 2011 state water consumption. Increase in water use per well by 60% (from 3 to 5 Mgal/well; 0.011-0.019 Mm(3)) since the mid-2000s reflects the near-doubling of horizontal-well lengths (2000-3800 ft), offset by a reduction in water-use intensity by 40% (2000-1200 gal/ft; 2.5-1.5 m(3)/m). Water sources include fresh surface water and groundwater in approximately equal amounts. Produced water amount is inversely related to gas production, exceeds HF water volume, and is mostly disposed in injection wells. Understanding the historical evolution of water use in the longest-producing shale play is invaluable for assessing its water footprint for energy production.

  7. Record-high specific conductance and water temperature in San Francisco Bay during water year 2015 (United States)

    Work, Paul; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Livsey, Daniel


    The San Francisco estuary is commonly defined to include San Francisco Bay (bay) and the adjacent Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta (delta). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated a high-frequency (15-minute sampling interval) water-quality monitoring network in San Francisco Bay since the late 1980s (Buchanan and others, 2014). This network includes 19 stations at which sustained measurements have been made in the bay; currently, 8 stations are in operation (fig. 1). All eight stations are equipped with specific conductance (which can be related to salinity) and water-temperature sensors. Water quality in the bay constantly changes as ocean tides force seawater in and out of the bay, and river inflows—the most significant coming from the delta—vary on time scales ranging from those associated with storms to multiyear droughts. This monitoring network was designed to observe and characterize some of these changes in the bay across space and over time. The data demonstrate a high degree of variability in both specific conductance and temperature at time scales from tidal to annual and also reveal longer-term changes that are likely to influence overall environmental health in the bay.In water year (WY) 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015), as in the preceding water year (Downing-Kunz and others, 2015), the high-frequency measurements revealed record-high values of specific conductance and water temperature at several stations during a period of reduced freshwater inflow from the delta and other tributaries because of persistent, severe drought conditions in California. This report briefly summarizes observations for WY 2015 and compares them to previous years that had different levels of freshwater inflow.

  8. Flowback patterns of fractured shale gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naizhen Liu


    Full Text Available Shale gas reservoirs generally need to be fractured massively to reach the industrial production, however, the flowback ratio of fractured shale gas wells is low. In view of this issue, the effects of natural fracture spacing, fracture conductivity, fracturing scale, pressure coefficient and shut-in time on the flowback ratio were examined by means of numerical simulation and experiments jointly, and the causes of flowback difficulty of shale gas wells were analyzed. The results show that the flowback ratio increases with the increase of natural fracture spacing, fracture conductivity and pressure coefficient and decreases with the increase of fracturing scale and shut-in time. From the perspective of microscopic mechanism, when water enters micro-cracks of the matrix through the capillary self-absorbing effect, the original hydrogen bonds between the particles are replaced by the hydroxyl group, namely, hydration effect, giving rise to the growth of new micro-cracks and propagation of main fractures, and complex fracture networks, so a large proportion of water cannot flow back, resulting in a low flowback ratio. For shale gas well fracturing generally has small fracture space, low fracture conductivity and big fracturing volume, a large proportion of the injected water will be held in the very complex fracture network with a big specific area, and unable to flow back. It is concluded that the flowback ratio of fractured shale gas wells is affected by several factors, so it is not necessary to seek high flowback ratio deliberately, and shale gas wells with low flowback ratio, instead, usually have high production.

  9. High volume hydraulic fracturing operations: potential impacts on surface water and human health. (United States)

    Mrdjen, Igor; Lee, Jiyoung


    High volume, hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) processes, used to extract natural gas and oil from underground shale deposits, pose many potential hazards to the environment and human health. HVHF can negatively affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air matrices with potential pollutants. Due to the relatively novel nature of the process, hazards to surface waters and human health are not well known. The purpose of this article is to link the impacts of HVHF operations on surface water integrity, with human health consequences. Surface water contamination risks include: increased structural failure rates of unconventional wells, issues with wastewater treatment, and accidental discharge of contaminated fluids. Human health risks associated with exposure to surface water contaminated with HVHF chemicals include increased cancer risk and turbidity of water, leading to increased pathogen survival time. Future research should focus on modeling contamination spread throughout the environment, and minimizing occupational exposure to harmful chemicals.

  10. Analysis of External Water Pressure for a Tunnel in Fractured Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-jun Liu


    Full Text Available External water pressure around tunnels is a main influential factor in relation to the seepage safety of underground chambers and powerhouses which make managing external water pressure crucial to water conservation and hydropower projects. The equivalent continuous medium model and the discrete fracture network (DFN model were, respectively, applied to calculate the seepage field of the study domain. Calculations were based on the integrity and permeability of rocks, the extent of fracture development, and the combination of geological and hydrogeological conditions in the Huizhou pump-storage hydropower station. The station generates electricity from the upper reservoir and stores power by pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir. In this paper, the external water pressure around the cavern and variations in pressure with only one operational and one venting powerhouse were analyzed to build a predictive model. The results showed that the external water pressure was small with the current anti-seepage and drainage system that normal operation of the reservoir can be guaranteed. The results of external water pressure around the tunnels provided sound scientific evidence for the future design of antiseepage systems.

  11. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook. (United States)


    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  12. Conductive fracture mapping. A study on the correlation between borehole TV- and radar images and difference flow logging results in borehole KLX02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, S.; Straahle, A.; Ludvigson, Jan-Erik [GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden)


    angle and the recorded borehole length were used as the most important parameters. The accuracy of the recorded length (depth) of the interpreted radar reflectors is rather poor compared to the BIPS-logging. A total number of 6 radar reflectors (of the 12 identified) could be correlated with BIPS-features and DIFF-flow anomalies. As above, the correlated BIPS-features were classified as open fractures or in some cases as veins in the rock. The correlation study indicates that the number of features mapped as 'open fractures' together with 'fractures with cavities' in the BIPS characterisation, correspond to almost 70% of the total number of interpreted flow anomalies from the DIFF-logging in this borehole interval. This figure increases to almost 80% if uncertain flow anomalies below the measurement limit are excluded. The remainder of the flow anomalies correspond to features mapped as 'altered fractures or veins' and 'dull fractures or veins 'in the BIPS- characterisation. The estimated lateral extent of the correlated radar reflectors is about 10-30 m. The latter figure corresponds to the estimated persistence (depth of penetration)of the radar images in this case. The dominant strike of the interpreted flow anomalies is towards WNW-NW as determined from the BIPS- and radar characterisation. This result is in good agreement with previous investigations of the orientation of water-conductive fractures at Aespoe. Thus, it is concluded that the interpreted flow anomalies from the DIFF-log are representative for the dominating hydraulic conditions in the rock. The accuracy of the depth recording is one of the most important parameter and also the one that, in this study, contributes to the largest error when comparing different methods. One of the conclusions of this study is to diminish the error by using efficient measuring wheels in order to avoid sliding of the cable during logging. A new method for making length registration

  13. Measuring water quality from individual fractures in open wellbores using hydraulic isolation and the dissolved oxygen alteration method (United States)

    Vitale, Sarah A.; Robbins, Gary A.


    This study describes a low-cost method for sampling individual fractures in open wellbores in crystalline bedrock utilizing naturally occurring flow conditions in the well. The method entails using the dissolved oxygen alteration method (DOAM) to identify transmissive fractures and vertical flow direction. After obtaining information about relative hydraulic gradients, flow direction in the well is modified using a single control pump to isolate fractures of interest for sampling. Additional dissolved oxygen, injected during the DOAM procedure, serves as a tracer to ensure the water quality in the sampling zone is characteristic of the fracture of interest by requiring a tracer-free zone prior to sampling. Sampling procedures are described conceptually for nine bedrock wells with varying flow conditions containing one, two, or three transmissive inflowing fractures. The method was demonstrated in two crystalline bedrock wells containing one and two transmissive inflowing fractures.

  14. Observation of fracture behavior of 3-D printed specimens under rolling contact fatigue in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizobe Koshiro


    Full Text Available Polymer bearing was widely used in the corrosive conditions because of its high corrosion durability. The polymer bearing had been formed using molding and machining until the new 3-D printing method was developed. In this study, we performed the rolling contact fatigue tests of the 3-D printed specimens in water and observed the fracture behaviour of the specimens. We found that the surface cracks are related to both the rolling direction and the lamination directions.

  15. Analysis and Treatment of Waters from Hydraulically Fractured Oil and Gas Wells (United States)

    Our research is largely focused on analyzing the chemical and microbiological components of the waters. In addition, we are conducting studies to biodegrade the organicpollutants within flowback and produced waters to develop the potential for inexpensive bioremediation technologies.

  16. Hydraulic fracture conductivity: effects of rod-shaped proppant from lattice-Boltzmann simulations and lab tests (United States)

    Osiptsov, Andrei A.


    The goal of this study is to evaluate the conductivity of random close packings of non-spherical, rod-shaped proppant particles under the closure stress using numerical simulation and lab tests, with application to the conductivity of hydraulic fractures created in subterranean formation to stimulate production from oil and gas reservoirs. Numerical simulations of a steady viscous flow through proppant packs are carried out using the lattice Boltzmann method for the Darcy flow regime. The particle packings were generated numerically using the sequential deposition method. The simulations are conducted for packings of spheres, ellipsoids, cylinders, and mixtures of spheres with cylinders at various volumetric concentrations. It is demonstrated that cylinders provide the highest permeability among the proppants studied. The dependence of the nondimensional permeability (scaled by the equivalent particle radius squared) on porosity obtained numerically is well approximated by the power-law function: K /Rv2 = 0.204ϕ4.58 in a wide range of porosity: 0.3 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.7. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations are cross-verified against finite-volume simulations using Navier-Stokes equations for inertial flow regime. Correlations for the normalized beta-factor as a function of porosity and normalized permeability are presented as well. These formulae are in a good agreement with the experimental measurements (including packings of rod-shaped particles) and existing laboratory data, available in the porosity range 0.3 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.5. Comparison with correlations by other authors is also given.

  17. Short Communication: Conductivity as an indicator of surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is one of the leading ferrochrome (FeCr) producing countries. One of the main environmental and healthrelated issues associated with FeCr production is the possible generation of Cr(VI). However, Cr(VI) is not the only potential pollutant that has to be considered during FeCr production. Various water- soluble ...

  18. Monitoring corrosion rates and localised corrosion in low conductivity water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel


    Monitoring of low corrosion rates and localised corrosion in a media with low conductivity is a challenge. In municipal district heating, quality control may be improved by implementing on-line corrosion monitoring if a suitable technique can be identified to measure both uniform and localised...... corrosion. Electrochemical techniques (LPR, EIS, crevice corrosion current) as well as direct measurement techniques (high-sensitive electrical resistance, weight loss) have been applied in operating plants. Changes in the corrosion processes are best monitored in non-aggressive, low conductivity media...... with sensitive electrical resistance technique and crevice corrosion current measurements....

  19. The Water Risks of Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking): Key Issues from the New California Assessment (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.


    A key component of the Water-Energy Nexus is the effort over the past decade or so to quantify the volumes and form of water required for the energy fuel cycle from extraction to generation to waste disposal. The vast majority of the effort in this area has focused on the water needs of electricity generation, but other fuel-cycle components also entail significant water demands and threats to water quality. Recent work for the State of California (managed by the California Council on Science and Technology - CCST) has produced a new state-of-the-art assessment of a range of potential water risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and related oil and gas extraction, including volumetric water demands, methods of disposal of produced water, and aquifer contamination. For example, this assessment produced new information on the disposal of produced water in surface percolation pits and the potential for contamination of local groundwater (see Figure). Understanding these risks raises questions about current production and future plans to expand production, as well as tools used by state and federal agencies to manage these risks. This talk will summarize the science behind the CCST assessment and related policy recommendations for both water and energy managers.

  20. Sensing the water content of honey from temperature-dependent electrical conductivity (United States)

    In order to predict water content in honey, electrical conductivity was measured on blossom honey types of milk-vetch, jujube and yellow-locust with water content of 18%-37% between 5-40ºC. Regression models of electrical conductivity were developed as functions of water content and temperature. The...

  1. Heat, chloride, and specific conductance as ground water tracers near streams (United States)

    Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.; Constantz, J.


    Commonly measured water quality parameters were compared to heat as tracers of stream water exchange with ground water. Temperature, specific conductance, and chloride were sampled at various frequencies in the stream and adjacent wells over a 2-year period. Strong seasonal variations in stream water were observed for temperature and specific conductance. In observation wells where the temperature response correlated to stream water, chloride and specific conductance values were similar to stream water values as well, indicating significant stream water exchange with ground water. At sites where ground water temperature fluctuations were negligible, chloride and/or specific conductance values did not correlate to stream water values, indicating that ground water was not significantly influenced by exchange with stream water. Best-fit simulation modeling was performed at two sites to derive temperature-based estimates of hydraulic conductivities of the alluvial sediments between the stream and wells. These estimates were used in solute transport simulations for a comparison of measured and simulated values for chloride and specific conductance. Simulation results showed that hydraulic conductivities vary seasonally and annually. This variability was a result of seasonal changes in temperature-dependent hydraulic conductivity and scouring or clogging of the streambed. Specific conductance fits were good, while chloride data were difficult to fit due to the infrequent (quarterly) stream water chloride measurements during the study period. Combined analyses of temperature, chloride, and specific conductance led to improved quantification of the spatial and temporal variability of stream water exchange with shallow ground water in an alluvial system. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  2. Nationwide data on municipal drinking water and hip fracture: could calcium and magnesium be protective? A NOREPOS study. (United States)

    Dahl, Cecilie; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Tell, Grethe S; Flaten, Trond Peder; Hongve, Dag; Omsland, Tone Kristin; Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Aamodt, Geir


    Norway has a high incidence of hip fractures, and the incidence varies by degree of urbanization. This variation may reflect a difference in underlying environmental factors, perhaps variations in the concentration of calcium and magnesium in municipal drinking water. A trace metal survey (1986-1991) in 556 waterworks (supplying 64% of the Norwegian population) was linked geographically to hip fractures from hospitals throughout the country (1994-2000). In all, 5472 men and 13,604 women aged 50-85years suffered a hip fracture. Poisson regression models were fitted, adjusting for age, urbanization degree, region of residence, type of water source, and pH. The concentrations of calcium and magnesium in drinking water were generally low. An inverse association was found between concentration of magnesium and risk of hip fracture in both genders (IRR men highest vs. lowest tertile=0.80, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.87; IRR women highest vs. lowest tertile=0.90, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.95), but no consistent association between calcium and hip fracture risk was observed. The highest tertile of urbanization degree (city), compared to the lowest (rural), was related to a 23 and 24% increase in hip fracture risk in men and women, respectively. The association between magnesium and hip fracture did not explain the variation in hip fracture risk between city and rural areas. Magnesium in drinking water may have a protective role against hip fractures; however this association should be further investigated. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of water contamination from hydraulic fracturing wastewater: a μPAD for bromide analysis in natural waters. (United States)

    Loh, Leslie J; Bandara, Gayan C; Weber, Genevieve L; Remcho, Vincent T


    Due to the rapid expansion in hydraulic fracturing (fracking), there is a need for robust, portable and specific water analysis techniques. Early detection of contamination is crucial for the prevention of lasting environmental damage. Bromide can potentially function as an early indicator of water contamination by fracking waste, because there is a high concentration of bromide ions in fracking wastewaters. To facilitate this, a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) has been developed and optimized for the quantitative colorimetric detection of bromide in water using a smartphone. A paper microfluidic platform offers the advantages of inexpensive fabrication, elimination of unstable wet reagents, portability and high adaptability for widespread distribution. These features make this assay an attractive option for a new field test for on-site determination of bromide.

  4. Will water scarcity in semiarid regions limit hydraulic fracturing of shale plays? (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Reedy, Robert C.; Nicot, Jean Philippe


    There is increasing concern about water constraints limiting oil and gas production using hydraulic fracturing (HF) in shale plays, particularly in semiarid regions and during droughts. Here we evaluate HF vulnerability by comparing HF water demand with supply in the semiarid Texas Eagle Ford play, the largest shale oil producer globally. Current HF water demand (18 billion gallons, bgal; 68 billion liters, bL in 2013) equates to ˜16% of total water consumption in the play area. Projected HF water demand of ˜330 bgal with ˜62 000 additional wells over the next 20 years equates to ˜10% of historic groundwater depletion from regional irrigation. Estimated potential freshwater supplies include ˜1000 bgal over 20 yr from recharge and ˜10 000 bgal from aquifer storage, with land-owner lease agreements often stipulating purchase of freshwater. However, pumpage has resulted in excessive drawdown locally with estimated declines of ˜100-200 ft in ˜6% of the western play area since HF began in 2009-2013. Non-freshwater sources include initial flowback water, which is ≤5% of HF water demand, limiting reuse/recycling. Operators report shifting to brackish groundwater with estimated groundwater storage of 80 000 bgal. Comparison with other semiarid plays indicates increasing brackish groundwater and produced water use in the Permian Basin and large surface water inputs from the Missouri River in the Bakken play. The variety of water sources in semiarid regions, with projected HF water demand representing ˜3% of fresh and ˜1% of brackish water storage in the Eagle Ford footprint indicates that, with appropriate management, water availability should not physically limit future shale energy production.

  5. Comparison of water use for hydraulic fracturing for unconventional oil and gas versus conventional oil. (United States)

    Scanlon, B R; Reedy, R C; Nicot, J-P


    We compared water use for hydraulic fracturing (HF) for oil versus gas production within the Eagle Ford shale. We then compared HF water use for Eagle Ford oil with Bakken oil, both plays accounting for two-thirds of U.S. unconventional oil production in 2013. In the Eagle Ford, we found similar average water use in oil and gas zones per well (4.7-4.9 × 10(6) gallons [gal]/well). However, about twice as much water is used per unit of energy (water-to-oil ratio, WOR, vol water/vol oil) in the oil zone (WOR: 1.4) as in the gas zone (water-to-oil-equivalent-ratio, WOER: 0.6). We also found large differences in water use for oil between the two plays, with mean Bakken water use/well (2.0 × 10(6) gal/well) about half that in the Eagle Ford, and a third per energy unit. We attribute these variations mostly to geological differences. Water-to-oil ratios for these plays (0.6-1.4) will further decrease (0.2-0.4) based on estimated ultimate oil recovery of wells. These unconventional water-to-oil ratios (0.2-1.4) are within the lower range of those for U.S. conventional oil production (WOR: 0.1-5). Therefore, the U.S. is using more water because HF has expanded oil production, not because HF is using more water per unit of oil production.

  6. The Influence of Pinus brutia on the Water Balance of Fractured Mediterranean Mountain Environments (United States)

    Eliades, Marinos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lubczynski, Maciek; Christou, Andreas


    In dry Mediterranean environments, both rainfall and temperature vary throughout the year and frequent droughts occur. The mountainous topography is characterized by steep slopes, often leading to shallow soil layers with limited water storage capacity. While for most of the tree species, these conditions can be characterized as unfavourable, Pinus brutia trees manage to survive and thrive. The main objective of this study is to define and quantify the water balance components of a Pinus brutia forest at tree level. Our study was conducted from 30/12/2014 until 31/09/2015 in an 8966-m2 fenced area of Pinus brutia forest. The site is located on the northern foothills of Troodos mountain at 620 m elevation, in Cyprus. The slope of the site ranged between 0 and 82%. The average daily minimum temperature is 5 0C in January and the average daily maximum temperature is 35 oC in August. The mean annual rainfall is 425 mm. We measured the diameter at breast height (DBH) from a total of 122 trees. Based on the average DBH, four trees were selected for monitoring (two were above the average DBH and two were below). We measured soil depth in a 1-m grid around each of the four selected trees. We processed soil depths in ArcGIS software (ESRI) to create a soil depth map. We used a Total Station and a differential GPS for the creation of a high resolution DEM of the area covering the four selected trees. We installed soil moisture sensors at 15-cm depth at distances of 1 and 2 m from the selected trees and a second sensor at 30-cm depth when the soil was deeper than 20 cm.. We randomly installed four metric manual rain gauges under each trees' canopy to measure throughfall and for stemflow we installed a plastic tube around each tree trunk and connected it to a manual rain gauge. We used six sap flow heat ratio method instruments to determine sap flow rates of the Pinus brutia trees. Two trees had one sensor installed at 1.3 m height facing north. The remaining trees had two sap

  7. Water recharge and solute transport through the vadose zone of fractured chalk under desert conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nativ, R.; Dahan, O. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel); Adar, E. [Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boker (Israel); Geyh, M. [State Geological Survey of Lower Saxony, Hannover (Germany)


    In the present study the inferred mechanism of groundwater recharge and contamination was studied using tracer concentrations in the fractured vadose zone of the Avdat chalk. The results of this study are important for an evaluation of groundwater contamination from existing and planned facilities in the northern Negev desert in Israel. This study focused on the vicinity of the Ramat Hovav industrial chemical complex in the northern Negev, which also includes the national site for hazardous waste. Water recharge and solute migration rates were examined in five core holes and one borehole which penetrate the entire vadose zone and enabled the collection of rock samples for chemical and isotopic analyses, and an observation of fracture distribution with depth. Tritium profiles were used to estimate water percolation rates through the vadose zone, chloride profiles were used to assess the migration rate of nonreactive solutes, and bromide profiles were also used to evaluate the migration rate of nonreactive contaminants. Deuterium and oxygen 18 profiles were used to assess the evaporation of the infiltrating water at and near land surface.

  8. A percolation model for electrical conduction in wood with implications for wood-water relations (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Samuel V. Glass; Donald S. Stone


    The first models used to describe electrical conduction in cellulosic materials involved conduction pathways through free water. These models were abandoned in the middle of the 20th century. This article re-evaluates the theory of conduction in wood by using a percolation model that describes electrical conduction in terms of overlapping paths of loosely bound or...

  9. Geochemical simulation of fluid rock interactions to predict flowback water compostions during hydraulic fracturing (United States)

    Kühn, Michael; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Wilke, Franziska D. H.


    Black shales are a heterogeneous mixture of minerals, organic matter and formation water and little is actually known about the fluid-rock interactions during hydraulic fracturing and their effects on composition of flowback and produced water. Geochemical simulations have been performed based on the analyses of "real" flowback water samples and artificial stimulation fluids from lab experiments with the aim to set up a chemical process model for shale gas reservoirs. Prediction of flowback water compositions for potential or already chosen sites requires validated and parameterized geochemical models. For the software "Geochemist's Workbench" (GWB) data bases are adapted and amended based on a literature review. Evaluation of the system has been performed in comparison with the results from laboratory experiments. Parameterization was done in regard to field data provided. Finally, reaction path models are applied for quantitative information about the mobility of compounds in specific settings. Our work leads to quantitative estimates of reservoir compounds in the flowback based on calibrations by laboratory experiments. Such information is crucial for the assessment of environmental impacts as well as to estimate human- and ecotoxicological effects of the flowback waters from a variety of natural gas shales. With a comprehensive knowledge about potential composition and mobility of flowback water, selection of water treatment techniques will become easier.

  10. Experimental and Analytical Research on Fracture Processes in ROck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert H.. Einstein; Jay Miller; Bruno Silva


    Experimental studies on fracture propagation and coalescence were conducted which together with previous tests by this group on gypsum and marble, provide information on fracturing. Specifically, different fracture geometries wsere tested, which together with the different material properties will provide the basis for analytical/numerical modeling. INitial steps on the models were made as were initial investigations on the effect of pressurized water on fracture coalescence.

  11. Influence of conductivity on the generation of a radio frequency plasma surrounded by bubbles in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, T; Honda, S; Inokuchi, C; Mukasa, S; Toyota, H; Nomura, S [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Kuramoto, M [Integrated Center for Sciences, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Kawashima, A, E-mail: [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama 790-8566 (Japan)


    A radio frequency plasma was generated and maintained in water over a wide range of water conductivities (0.2-7000 mS m{sup -1}). The conductivity of water was changed by adding NaCl to it. The size of the plasma increased with conductivity. Although the intensity of the OH(A-X) line monotonically decreased with increasing conductivity, the generation of hydrogen peroxide and the degradation of methylene blue suggested that the number of generated OH radicals decreased with increasing conductivity in the range 0.2-80 mS m{sup -1} and increased in the range 80-7000 mS m{sup -1}. Ultraviolet irradiation was found to enhance the degradation of methylene blue not only in pure water but also in high-conductivity water ({approx_equal}5000 mS m{sup -1}).

  12. Do cadmium, lead, and aluminum in drinking water increase the risk of hip fractures? A NOREPOS study. (United States)

    Dahl, Cecilie; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Tell, Grethe S; Flaten, Trond Peder; Hongve, Dag; Omsland, Tone Kristin; Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Aamodt, Geir


    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between cadmium, lead, and aluminum in municipality drinking water and the incidence of hip fractures in the Norwegian population. A trace metals survey in 566 waterworks was linked geographically to hip fractures from hospitals throughout the country (1994-2000). In all those supplied from these waterworks, 5,438 men and 13,629 women aged 50-85 years suffered a hip fracture. Poisson regression models were fitted, adjusting for age, region of residence, urbanization, and type of water source as well as other possibly bone-related water quality factors. Effect modification by background variables and interactions between water quality factors were examined (correcting for false discovery rate). Men exposed to a relatively high concentration of cadmium (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.01, 1.20) had an increased risk of fracture. The association between relatively high lead and hip fracture risk was significant in the oldest age group (66-85 years) for both men (IRR = 1.11; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.21) and women (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.16). Effect modification by degree of urbanization on hip fracture risk in men was also found for all three metals: cadmium, lead, and aluminum. In summary, a relatively high concentration of cadmium, lead, and aluminum measured in drinking water increased the risk of hip fractures, but the associations depended on gender, age, and urbanization degree. This study could help in elucidating the complex effects on bone health by risk factors found in the environment.

  13. A Device to Emulate Diffusion and Thermal Conductivity Using Water Flow (United States)

    Blanck, Harvey F.


    A device designed to emulate diffusion and thermal conductivity using flowing water is reviewed. Water flowing through a series of cells connected by a small tube in each partition in this plastic model is capable of emulating diffusion and thermal conductivity that occurs in variety of systems described by several mathematical equations.

  14. Microbial communities in flowback water impoundments from hydraulic fracturing for recovery of shale gas. (United States)

    Murali Mohan, Arvind; Hartsock, Angela; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D; Gregory, Kelvin B


    Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction from shale produces waste brine known as flowback that is impounded at the surface prior to reuse and/or disposal. During impoundment, microbial activity can alter the fate of metals including radionuclides, give rise to odorous compounds, and result in biocorrosion that complicates water and waste management and increases production costs. Here, we describe the microbial ecology at multiple depths of three flowback impoundments from the Marcellus shale that were managed differently. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that bacterial communities in the untreated and biocide-amended impoundments were depth dependent, diverse, and most similar to species within the taxa γ-proteobacteria, α-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, Clostridia, Synergistetes, Thermotogae, Spirochetes, and Bacteroidetes. The bacterial community in the pretreated and aerated impoundment was uniform with depth, less diverse, and most similar to known iodide-oxidizing bacteria in the α-proteobacteria. Archaea were identified only in the untreated and biocide-amended impoundments and were affiliated to the Methanomicrobia class. This is the first study of microbial communities in flowback water impoundments from hydraulic fracturing. The findings expand our knowledge of microbial diversity of an emergent and unexplored environment and may guide the management of flowback impoundments. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of polypropylene glycols and polyethylene glycol carboxylates in flowback and produced water from hydraulic fracturing. (United States)

    Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Rosenblum, James; Linden, Karl; Ryan, Joseph N


    The purpose of the study was to separate and identify the unknown surfactants present in flowback and produced water from oil and gas wells in the Denver-Julesburg Basin (Niobrara Formation) in Weld County, Colorado, USA. Weld County has been drilled extensively during the last five years for oil and gas between 7000-8000 feet below land-surface. Polypropylene glycols (PPGs) and polyethylene glycols carboxylates (PEG-Cs) were found for the first time in these flowback and produced water samples. These ethoxylated surfactants may be used as friction reducers, clay stabilizers, and surfactants. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF-MS) was used to separate and identify the different classes of PPGs, PEG-Cs, and their isomers. The Kendrick mass scale was applied along with mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS-MS) with accurate mass for rapid and unequivocal identification. The PPGs and their isomers occur at the ppm concentration range and may be useful as "fingerprints" of hydraulic-fracturing. Comparing these detections to the compounds used in the fracturing process from FracFocus 3.0 (, it appears that both PPGs and polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are commonly named as additives, but the PEG-Cs have not been reported. The PEG-Cs may be trace impurities or degradation products of PEGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing (United States)

    Osborn, Stephen G.; Vengosh, Avner; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Jackson, Robert B.


    Directional drilling and hydraulic-fracturing technologies are dramatically increasing natural-gas extraction. In aquifers overlying the Marcellus and Utica shale formations of northeastern Pennsylvania and upstate New York, we document systematic evidence for methane contamination of drinking water associated with shale-gas extraction. In active gas-extraction areas (one or more gas wells within 1 km), average and maximum methane concentrations in drinking-water wells increased with proximity to the nearest gas well and were 19.2 and 64 mg CH4 L-1 (n = 26), a potential explosion hazard; in contrast, dissolved methane samples in neighboring nonextraction sites (no gas wells within 1 km) within similar geologic formations and hydrogeologic regimes averaged only 1.1 mg L-1 (P fracturing fluids. We conclude that greater stewardship, data, and—possibly—regulation are needed to ensure the sustainable future of shale-gas extraction and to improve public confidence in its use. PMID:21555547

  17. Chemical and toxicological characterizations of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water. (United States)

    He, Yuhe; Flynn, Shannon L; Folkerts, Erik J; Zhang, Yifeng; Ruan, Dongliang; Alessi, Daniel S; Martin, Jonathan W; Goss, Greg G


    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has emerged as a major method of unconventional oil and gas recovery. The toxicity of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water (HF-FPW) has not been previously reported and is complicated by the combined complexity of organic and inorganic constituents in HF fluids and deep formation water. In this study, we characterized the solids, salts, and organic signatures in an HF-FPW sample from the Duvernay Formation, Alberta, Canada. Untargeted HPLC-Orbitrap revealed numerous unknown dissolved polar organics. Among the most prominent peaks, a substituted tri-phenyl phosphate was identified which is likely an oxidation product of a common polymer antioxidant. Acute toxicity of zebrafish embryo was attributable to high salinity and organic contaminants in HF-FPW with LC50 values ranging from 0.6% to 3.9%, depending on the HF-FPW fractions and embryo developmental stages. Induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was detected, due in part to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and suspended solids might have a synergistic effect on EROD induction. This study demonstrates that toxicological profiling of real HF-FPW sample presents great challenges for assessing the potential risks and impacts posed by HF-FPW spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mass transport in fracture media: impact of the random function model assumed for fractures conductivity; Transporte de masa en medio fracturado: impacto del modelo estocastico de conductividad en las fracturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capilla, J. E.; Rodrigo, J.; Gomez Hernandez, J. J.


    Characterizing the uncertainty of flow and mass transport models requires the definition of stochastic models to describe hydrodynamic parameters. Porosity and hydraulic conductivity (K) are two of these parameters that exhibit a high degree of spatial variability. K is usually the parameter whose variability influence to a more extended degree solutes movement. In fracture media, it is critical to properly characterize K in the most altered zones where flow and solutes migration tends to be concentrated. However, K measurements use to be scarce and sparse. This fact calls to consider stochastic models that allow quantifying the uncertainty of flow and mass transport predictions. This paper presents a convective transport problem solved in a 3D block of fractured crystalline rock. the case study is defined based on data from a real geological formation. As the scarcity of K data in fractures does not allow supporting classical multi Gaussian assumptions for K in fractures, the non multi Gaussian hypothesis has been explored, comparing mass transport results for alternative Gaussian and non-Gaussian assumptions. The latter hypothesis allows reproducing high spatial connectivity for extreme values of K. This feature is present in nature, might lead to reproduce faster solute pathways, and therefore should be modeled in order to obtain reasonably safe prediction of contaminants migration in a geological formation. The results obtained for the two alternative hypotheses show a remarkable impact of the K random function model in solutes movement. (Author) 9 refs.

  19. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, Diane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, Leslie A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Veselka, Thomas D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Palmer, C. S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Loftin, S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Osiek, B. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2013. It is the fifth report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011), a report released June 2012 examined water year 2011 (Poch et al. 2012), and a report released April 2013 examined water year 2012 (Poch et al. 2013).

  20. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Energy, Environmental, and Economic Systems Analysis Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Poch, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Energy, Environmental, and Economic Systems Analysis Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Veselka, T. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Energy, Environmental, and Economic Systems Analysis Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Palmer, C. S. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Colorado River Storage Project Management Center; Loftin, S. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Colorado River Storage Project Management Center; Osiek, B. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Colorado River Storage Project Management Center


    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2013. It is the fifth report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011), a report released June 2012 examined water year 2011 (Poch et al. 2012), and a report released April 2013 examined water year 2012 (Poch et al. 2013).

  1. 76 FR 10892 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor... (United States)


    ... AGENCY Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor.... SUMMARY: EPA is announcing the release of the draft report titled, ``Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality... relative vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, across the United States, to the potential...

  2. 76 FR 55060 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor... (United States)


    ... AGENCY Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor... of Availability. SUMMARY: EPA is releasing a final report entitled, Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality... with identifying, calculating, and mapping indicators of the relative vulnerability of water quality...

  3. Mechanism of the Two-Phase Flow Model for Water and Gas Based on Adsorption and Desorption in Fractured Coal and Rock (United States)

    Chen, Shikuo; Yang, Tianhong; Ranjith, P. G.; Wei, Chenhui


    Coalbed methane (CBM) is an important high-efficiency, clean-energy raw material with immense potential for application; however, its occurrence in low-permeability reservoirs limits its application. Hydraulic fracturing has been used in low-permeability CBM exploration and as a new technique for preventing gas hazards in coal mines. Fractures are the main pathways of fluid accumulation and migration, and they exert some control over the stability of rock mass. However, the differences in progression between the original fractures of the coal mass and the new discrete fractures caused by hydraulic fracturing remain unclear, and the unsaturated seepage flows require further study. Therefore, a cross-scale hydraulic fractured rock mass numerical model was developed by using the 3D fractured extrusion coupling variables reconstruction technique. This paper uses fracture surface parameters combined with the fractal dimension and multi-medium theory to provide a high-precision characterization and interpretation of the fracture mechanics. The mechanism of the permeability evolution of fractured coal and rock under stress-releasing mining combined with water injection was studied by considering gas adsorption and desorption as well as the coupling characteristic of seepage-stress in fractured rock masses. Aperture, contact area ratio, and stress in permeability and fracture development have a strong influence on the permeability and seepage path, which in turn control the effective radius by absolute water injection. All of these factors should be considered when studying the structural characteristics of rock masses.

  4. A new method of calculating electrical conductivity with applications to natural waters (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ryan, Joseph N.; Ball, James W.


    A new method is presented for calculating the electrical conductivity of natural waters that is accurate over a large range of effective ionic strength (0.0004–0.7 mol kg-1), temperature (0–95 °C), pH (1–10), and conductivity (30–70,000 μS cm-1). The method incorporates a reliable set of equations to calculate the ionic molal conductivities of cations and anions (H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, F-, Cl-, Br-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, NO3-, and OH-), environmentally important trace metals (Al3+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, and Zn2+), and ion pairs (HSO4-, NaSO4-, NaCO3-, and KSO4-). These equations are based on new electrical conductivity measurements for electrolytes found in a wide range of natural waters. In addition, the method is coupled to a geochemical speciation model that is used to calculate the speciated concentrations required for accurate conductivity calculations. The method was thoroughly tested by calculating the conductivities of 1593 natural water samples and the mean difference between the calculated and measured conductivities was -0.7 ± 5%. Many of the samples tested were selected to determine the limits of the method and include acid mine waters, geothermal waters, seawater, dilute mountain waters, and river water impacted by municipal waste water. Transport numbers were calculated and H+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, F-, Al3+, Fe2+, NO3-, and HSO4- substantially contributed (>10%) to the conductivity of at least one of the samples. Conductivity imbalance in conjunction with charge imbalance can be used to identify whether a cation or an anion measurement is likely in error, thereby providing an additional quality assurance/quality control constraint on water analyses.

  5. Effect of roughness on water flow through a single rough fracture (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Zhou, Z.; WANG, J.; Guo, Q.; Dou, Z.


    A single fracture (SF) usually has rough surfaces with points of contact. Though relative roughness was considered in quantifying flow through a single rough fracture (SRF) previously, additional factors such as the distribution of rough elements and bending degree of streamlines are rarely considered before. Semi-empirical friction factor (f) and discharge per unit width (q) equations are first deduced based on the consideration of relative roughness, roughness elements distribution and streamline reattachment length in this study. A horizontal SRF model is set up and a series of experiments and simulations are performed. Main conclusions are drawn: recirculation of streamlines occurred in the rough element and its intensity increases with the entering angle of the streamlines into the element and Reynolds number (Re); streamlines are discontinuously distributed when asperity height is large, leading to departure from Darcy's law (non-linear flow); the non-linearity of flow increases with the asperity height and Re; the relative roughness for not affecting water flow through a SRF should be much less than 0.033, a benchmark value commonly used previously for neglecting the roughness effect; the revised f and q equations under laminar flow through a SRF are shown to be better than previously proposed equations.

  6. Fracture analysis of axially cracked pressure tube of pressurized heavy water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, S.; Bhasin, V.; Mahajan, S.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)] [and others


    Three Dimensional (313) finite element elastic plastic fracture analysis was done for through wall axially cracked thin pressure tubes of 220 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. The analysis was done for Zr-2 and Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes operating at 300{degrees}C and subjected to 9.5 Mpa internal pressure. Critical crack length was determined based on tearing instability concept. The analysis included the effect of crack face pressure due to the leaking fluid from tube. This effect was found to be significant for pressure tubes. The available formulae for calculating J (for axially cracked tubes) do not take into account the effect of crack face pressure. 3D finite element analysis also gives insight into variation of J across the thickness of pressure tube. It was observed that J is highest at the mid-surface of tube. The results have been presented in the form of across the thickness average J value and a peak factor on J. Peak factor on J is ratio of J at mid surface to average J value. Crack opening area for different cracked lengths was calculated from finite element results. The fracture assessment of pressure tubes was also done using Central Electricity Generating Board R-6 method. Ductile tearing was considered.

  7. Potential water resource impacts of hydraulic fracturing from unconventional oil production in the Bakken shale. (United States)

    Shrestha, Namita; Chilkoor, Govinda; Wilder, Joseph; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Stone, James J


    Modern drilling techniques, notably horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have enabled unconventional oil production (UOP) from the previously inaccessible Bakken Shale Formation located throughout Montana, North Dakota (ND) and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The majority of UOP from the Bakken shale occurs in ND, strengthening its oil industry and businesses, job market, and its gross domestic product. However, similar to UOP from other low-permeability shales, UOP from the Bakken shale can result in environmental and human health effects. For example, UOP from the ND Bakken shale generates a voluminous amount of saline wastewater including produced and flowback water that are characterized by unusual levels of total dissolved solids (350 g/L) and elevated levels of toxic and radioactive substances. Currently, 95% of the saline wastewater is piped or trucked onsite prior to disposal into Class II injection wells. Oil and gas wastewater (OGW) spills that occur during transport to injection sites can potentially result in drinking water resource contamination. This study presents a critical review of potential water resource impacts due to deterministic (freshwater withdrawals and produced water management) and probabilistic events (spills due to leaking pipelines and truck accidents) related to UOP from the Bakken shale in ND. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Steady state method to determine unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the ambient water potential (United States)

    HUbbell, Joel M.


    The present invention relates to a new laboratory apparatus for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at a single water potential. One or more embodiments of the invented apparatus can be used over a wide range of water potential values within the tensiometric range, requires minimal laboratory preparation, and operates unattended for extended periods with minimal supervision. The present invention relates to a new laboratory apparatus for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at a single water potential. One or more embodiments of the invented apparatus can be used over a wide range of water potential values within the tensiometric range, requires minimal laboratory preparation, and operates unattended for extended periods with minimal supervision.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. BDAL1 Reconstructed from a Bakken Shale Hydraulic Fracturing-Produced Water Storage Tank Metagenome. (United States)

    Lipus, Daniel; Ross, Daniel; Bibby, Kyle; Gulliver, Djuna


    We report the 5,425,832 bp draft genome of Pseudomonas sp. strain BDAL1, recovered from a Bakken shale hydraulic fracturing-produced water tank metagenome. Genome annotation revealed several key biofilm formation genes and osmotic stress response mechanisms necessary for survival in hydraulic fracturing-produced water. Copyright © 2017 Lipus et al.

  10. Effect of α-lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor on bone metabolism, oxidative stress and nerve conduction function after femoral fracture surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Jun Cao


    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the effect of 毩 -lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor on bone metabolism, oxidative stress and nerve conduction function after femoral fracture surgery. Methods: A total of 110 patients with femoral fracture who received surgical treatment in the hospital between January 2015 and January 2017 were collected and divided into the control group (n=55 and study group (n=55 by random number table. Control group received postoperative nerve growth factor therapy, and study group received postoperative 毩 -lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor therapy. The differences in the contents of bone metabolism and oxidative stress indexes as well as the levels of nerve conduction function indexes were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, the differences in the contents of bone metabolism and oxidative stress indexes as well as the levels of nerve conduction function indexes were not statistically significant between the two groups. After treatment, serum bone metabolism indexes BGP and PⅠNP contents of study group were higher than those of control group while CTX-Ⅰ and TRAP contents were lower than those of control group; serum oxidative stress indexes TAC, CAT and SOD contents of study group were higher than those of control group while MDA content was lower than that of control group; limb nerve conduction velocity SCV and MCV levels of study group were higher than those of control group. Conclusion: 毩 -lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor therapy after femoral fracture surgery can effectively balance osteoblast/ osteoclast activity, reduce oxidative stress and improve limb nerve conduction velocity.

  11. Silicon enhances water stress tolerance by improving root hydraulic conductance in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu eShi


    Full Text Available Silicon (Si can improve drought tolerance in plants, but the mechanism is still not fully understood. Previous research has been concentrating on Si’s role in leaf water maintenance in Si accumulators, while little information is available on its role in water uptake and in less Si-accumulating plants. Here, we investigated the effects of Si on root water uptake and its role in decreasing oxidative damage in relation to root hydraulic conductance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Zhongza No.9’ under water stress. Tomato seedlings were subjected to water stress induced by 10% (w/v polyethylene glycol-6000 in the absence or presence of 2.5 mM added silicate. The results showed that Si addition ameliorated the inhibition in tomato growth and photosynthesis, and improved water status under water stress. The root hydraulic conductance of tomato plants was decreased under water stress, and it was significantly increased by added Si. There was no significant contribution of osmotic adjustment in Si-enhanced root water uptake under water stress. The transcriptions of plasma membrane aquaporin genes were not obviously changed by Si under water stress. Water stress increased the production of reactive oxygen species and induced oxidative damage, while added Si reversed these. In addition, Si addition increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and the levels of ascorbic acid and glutathione in the roots under stress. It is concluded that Si enhances the water stress tolerance via enhancing root hydraulic conductance and water uptake in tomato plants. Si-mediated decrease in membrane oxidative damage may have contributed to the enhanced root hydraulic conductance.

  12. Mechanisms for fast flow in unsaturated fractured rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin


    Although fractures in rock are well-recognized as pathways for fast percolation of water, the possibility that fast flow could occur along unsaturated fracture pathways is commonly not considered in vadose zone hydrology. In this study, two mechanisms for fast flow along unsaturated fractures were investigated, film flow and surface zone flow. The importance of fracture surface roughness was demonstrated through experiments conducted on ceramic blocks having simple surface topographies. Those experiments showed that film flow on fracture surfaces is largely due to flow along continuous surface channels which become water-filled at near-zero matric (capillary) potentials. The second mechanism, surface zone flow, is important when the permeability of the rock along fractures (fracture skin) is significantly greater than that of the bulk rock matrix. Surface zone fast flow was demonstrated through water imbibition (sorptivity) experiments. These mechanisms help explain observations of rapid solute transport in unsaturated subsurface environments.

  13. Development of Rapid Radiochemical Method for Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activity Concentration in Flowback and Produced Waters from Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (United States)

    This report summarizes the development and validation of an improved method for the Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activity in Flowback and Produced Waters from Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (FPWHFO). Flowback and produced waters are characterized by high concentra...

  14. MRI-derived Bound and Pore Water Concentrations as Predictors of Fracture Resistance


    Manhard, Mary Kate; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Granke, Mathilde; Gochberg, Daniel F.; Nyman, Jeffry S; Does, Mark D


    Accurately predicting fracture risk in the clinic is challenging because the determinants are multi-factorial. A common approach to fracture risk assessment is to combine X-ray-based imaging methods such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with an online Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) that includes additional risk factors such as age, family history, and prior fracture incidents. This approach still does not adequately diagnose many individuals at risk, especially those with certa...

  15. Novel Conductive Water Removal Membrane (CWRM) for PEM Passive Fuel Cell Operation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ElectroChem proposes a Phase II program to advance its Phase I effort, to develop a conductive water removal membrane to enable passive, high current density PEMFC...

  16. Hydraulic Conductivity of a Silty Sand Obtained from the Soil Water Characteristic Curve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallegos-Fonseca G; Leal-Vaca J.C; Rojas-González E


    This work shows the determination of the hydraulic conductivity of a silty sand (SM), according to USCS. For this purpose, the soil water characteristic curve at drying and wetting was first determined...

  17. Thermal Conductivity of Liquid Water from Reverse Nonequilibrium Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics (United States)

    Tsuchida, Eiji


    We report on a theoretical framework for calculating the thermal conductivity of liquid water from first principles with the aid of the linear scaling method. We also discuss the possibility of obtaining equilibrium properties from a nonequilibrium trajectory.

  18. A decision analysis framework for estimating the potential hazards for drinking water resources of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. (United States)

    Yost, Erin E; Stanek, John; Burgoon, Lyle D


    Despite growing concerns over the potential for hydraulic fracturing to impact drinking water resources, there are limited data available to identify chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids that may pose public health concerns. In an effort to explore these potential hazards, a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework was employed to analyze and rank selected subsets of these chemicals by integrating data on toxicity, frequency of use, and physicochemical properties that describe transport in water. Data used in this analysis were obtained from publicly available databases compiled by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of a larger study on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water. Starting with nationwide hydraulic fracturing chemical usage data from EPA's analysis of the FracFocus Chemical Disclosure Registry 1.0, MCDAs were performed on chemicals that had either noncancer toxicity values (n=37) or cancer-specific toxicity values (n=10). The noncancer MCDA was then repeated for subsets of chemicals reported in three representative states (Texas, n=31; Pennsylvania, n=18; and North Dakota, n=20). Within each MCDA, chemicals received scores based on relative toxicity, relative frequency of use, and physicochemical properties (mobility in water, volatility, persistence). Results show a relative ranking of these chemicals based on hazard potential, and provide preliminary insight into chemicals that may be more likely than others to impact drinking water resources. Comparison of nationwide versus state-specific analyses indicates regional differences in the chemicals that may be of more concern to drinking water resources, although many chemicals were commonly used and received similar overall hazard rankings. Several chemicals highlighted by these MCDAs have been reported in groundwater near areas of hydraulic fracturing activity. This approach is intended as a preliminary analysis, and represents one

  19. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources (External Review Draft) (United States)

    This assessment provides a review and synthesis of available scientific literature and data to assess the potential for hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas to impact the quality or quantity of drinking water resources, and identifies factors affecting the frequency or severity o...

  20. Potential Impacts of Spilled Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Chemicals on Water Resources: Types, volumes, and physical-chemical properties of chemicals (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid chemicals spilled on-site may impact drinking water resources. While chemicals generally make up <2% of the total injected fluid composition by mass, spills may have undiluted concentrations. HF fluids typically consist of a mixture of base flui...

  1. Influence of electrical conductivity on water uptake and vase life of cut gladiolus stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cavalcante da Costa


    Full Text Available Several experiments reveal that distilled water varies among different laboratories and also does not have a standard composition. Water electrical conductivity (EC of vase solution is one of the parameters that influence the water uptake by cut flowers. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of electrical conductivity on water uptake and vase life in cut stems of gladiolus. The stems harvested and kept in distilled water (pH 6.6, EC <0.01dS m-1 and tap water (pH 7.0, EC 0.75 dS m-1 at room temperature. Flowers kept in tap water showed lower fresh weight loss after the second day and higher water uptake during vase life. In a second set of experiments, we verified the limit EC saturation supported by the flower. For this, flowers were placed in individual test tubes containing four different solutions with varying ion concentrations. Solution 2 (EC 0.60 dS m-1 promoted increased vase life and allowed maximum water uptake by the flowers. The results show that the electrical conductivity of vase solution is a major parameter in experiments with vase life of cut gladiolus. The presence of ions in the vase solution increases the overall vase life and improves water uptake of flowers with favorable optimal EC between 0.60 to 0.87 dS m-1.

  2. Environmental Life Cycle Analysis of Water and CO2-Based Fracturing Fluids Used in Unconventional Gas Production. (United States)

    Wilkins, Rodney; Menefee, Anne H; Clarens, Andres F


    Many of the environmental impacts associated with hydraulic fracturing of unconventional gas wells are tied to the large volumes of water that such operations require. Efforts to develop nonaqueous alternatives have focused on carbon dioxide as a tunable working fluid even though the full environmental and production impacts of a switch away from water have yet to be quantified. Here we report on a life cycle analysis of using either water or CO 2 for gas production in the Marcellus shale. The results show that CO 2 -based fluids, as currently conceived, could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 400% (with sequestration credit) and water consumption by 80% when compared to conventional water-based fluids. These benefits are offset by a 44% increase in net energy use when compared to slickwater fracturing as well as logistical barriers resulting from the need to move and store large volumes of CO 2 . Scenario analyses explore the outlook for CO 2 , which under best-case conditions could eventually reduce life cycle energy, water, and greenhouse gas (GHG) burdens associated with fracturing. To achieve these benefits, it will be necessary to reduce CO 2 sourcing and transport burdens and to realize opportunities for improved energy recovery, averted water quality impacts, and carbon storage.

  3. Influence of water conductivity on shock waves generated by underwater electrical wire explosion (United States)

    Liu, Ben; Wang, Deguo; Guo, Yanbao


    The new application of electrical explosion of wire (EEW) used in petroleum industry is to enhance oil recovery (EOR). Because of the complex environment underground, the effect of underground water conductivity on EEW should be considered. This work describes the effect of water conductivities on discharge current, voltage and shock waves. It was found that the effect of water conductivity contains two parts. One is the shunt effect of saline water, which can be considered as a parallel load with the copper wire between the electrodes connected to the discharge circuit. The peak pressure of shock waves are gradually decrease with the increase of water conductivity. The other is the current loss through saline water directly to the ground ends without flowing through the electrodes. The shunt effect is the main factor affecting the wire discharge process. As the charging voltage increased, the energy loss caused by these two parts are all reduced. These indicate that increasing the charging voltage to a certain value will increase the energy efficiency to generate a more powerful shock waves in conductive water.

  4. Hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clampitt, R.L.


    A method of fracturing a subterranean porous formation penetrated by a well bore consists of injecting down the well and into the formation, at a pressure sufficient to fracture the formation, a fracturing fluid comprising an aqueous gel. This gel is composed of water to which there has been added: a water-thickening amount of a water-dispersible polymer selected from the group consisting of polyacrylamides and polymethacrylamides; crosslinked polyacrylamides and crosslinked polyacrylamides; polyacrylic acid and polymethacrylic acid; polyacrylates; polymers of N-substituted acrylamides; copolymers of acrylamide with another ethylenically unsaturated monomer copolymerizable therewith; mixtures of the polymers; a water-soluble compound of a polyvalent metal which is capable of gelling the water when the valence of the metal is reduced to a lower valence state; and a water-soluble reducing agent. (31 claims)

  5. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Veselka, T. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Palmer, C. S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Western Area Power Administration; Loftin, S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Western Area Power Administration; Osiek, B. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Western Area Power Administration


    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year (WY) 2014. It is the sixth report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011), a report released June 2012 examined water year 2011 (Poch et al. 2012), a report released April 2013 examined water year 2012 (Poch et al. 2013), and a report released June 2014 examined water year 2013 (Graziano et al. 2014).

  6. Mathematical simulation of ionic equilibriums of water coolant using electrical conductivity and pH measurements (United States)

    Bushuev, E. N.


    A generalized mathematical model for ionic equilibriums of water coolant is proposed. Particular cases of its solution for turbine condensate, demineralized water, feedwater, and boiler water are considered. It is shown that, by using the proposed method, it is possible to indirectly determine the concentrations of standardized ionic impurities from readings of conductivity meters and pH meters, instruments available in a regular chemical monitoring system.

  7. Soil permittivity response to bulk electrical conductivity for selected soil water sensors (United States)

    Bulk electrical conductivity can dominate the low frequency dielectric loss spectrum in soils, masking changes in the real permittivity and causing errors in estimated water content. We examined the dependence of measured apparent permittivity (Ka) on bulk electrical conductivity in contrasting soil...

  8. Hydraulic Conductivity of a Silty Sand Obtained from the Soil Water Characteristic Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallegos-Fonseca G.


    Full Text Available This work shows the determination of the hydraulic conductivity of a silty sand (SM, according to USCS. For this purpose, the soil water characteristic curve at drying and wetting was first determined. Then, these curves were adjusted using the Fredlund and Xing model and finally the hydraulic conductivity of the soil for both paths was obtained.

  9. Electrical conductivity of electrolytes applicable to natural waters from 0 to 100 degrees C (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine


    The electrical conductivities of 34 electrolyte solutions found in natural waters ranging from (10-4 to 1) mol•kg-1 in concentration and from (5 to 90) °C have been determined. High-quality electrical conductivity data for numerous electrolytes exist in the scientific literature, but the data do not span the concentration or temperature ranges of many electrolytes in natural waters. Methods for calculating the electrical conductivities of natural waters have incorporated these data from the literature, and as a result these methods cannot be used to reliably calculate the electrical conductivity over a large enough range of temperature and concentration. For the single-electrolyte solutions, empirical equations were developed that relate electrical conductivity to temperature and molality. For the 942 molar conductivity determinations for single electrolytes from this study, the mean relative difference between the calculated and measured values was 0.1 %. The calculated molar conductivity was compared to literature data, and the mean relative difference for 1978 measurements was 0.2 %. These data provide an improved basis for calculating electrical conductivity for most natural waters.

  10. The Effect of a Spiral Gradient Magnetic Field on the Ionic Conductivity of Water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartušek, Karel; Marcon, P.; Fiala, P.; Máca, J.; Dohnal, P.


    Roč. 9, č. 9 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 664. ISSN 2073-4441 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00607S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : gradient field * demineralized water * conductivity * ionic conductivity * magnetic field Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.832, year: 2016

  11. Effect of oxidation agent on wood biomass in ethylene vinyl acetate conductive polymer: tensile properties, tensile fracture surface and electrical properties (United States)

    Hanif, M. P. M.; Supri, A. G.; Rozyanty, A. R.; Tan, S. J.


    The wood fiber (WF) type of Pulverised Wood Filler obtained by combustion process at temperature under 700 °C for 3 hours was characterized and coated with ferric chloride (FeCl3) by ethanol solution. Both carbonized wood fiber (CWF) and carbonized wood fiber-ferric chloride (CWF-FeCl3) were used as filler in ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) conductive polymer. The filler was coated with FeCl3 to enhance the properties of the CWF to achieve progressive mechanical and electrical properties. The CWF and CWF-FeCl3 loading were varied from 2.5 to 10.0 wt%. EVA/CWF and EVA/CWF-FeCl3 conductive polymer were processed by using Brabender Plasticoder at 160 °C with 50 rpm rotor speed for 10 min. The mechanical properties were investigated by tensile testing and the tensile fractured surface of conductive polymers was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Then, the electrical conductivity of conductive polymer was determined by four-point probe I-V measurement system. The EVA/CWF-FeCl3 conductive polymer showed greater electrical conductivity and tensile strength but lower elongation at break than EVA/CWF conductive polymer. SEM morphology displayed rougher surface between CWF-FeCl3 and EVA phases compared to EVA/CWF conductive polymer.

  12. Proton-conductive nano zeolite-PVA composite film as a new water-absorbing electrolyte for water electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nishihara


    Full Text Available In this study, organic-inorganic composite electrolyte membranes are developed for a novel water-absorbing porous electrolyte water electrolysis cell. As the materials of the composite electrolyte membrane, 80 wt% of a proton-conducting nano zeolite (H-MFI as an electrolyte and 20 wt% of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA as a cross-linkable matrix are used. The nano zeolite is prepared by a milling process. The nano zeolite-PVA composite membrane precursors are prepared by spraying onto a substrate, followed by cross-linking. The resulting nano zeolite-cross-linked PVA composite films are then evaluated for their properties such as proton conductivity as electrolyte membranes for the water-absorbing porous electrolyte water electrolysis cell. It is confirmed that conventional materials such as zeolites and PVA can be used for the water electrolysis as an electrolyte.

  13. Population data on calcium in drinking water and hip fracture: An association may depend on other minerals in water. A NOREPOS study. (United States)

    Dahl, Cecilie; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Tell, Grethe S; Forsén, Lisa; Flaten, Trond Peder; Hongve, Dag; Omsland, Tone Kristin; Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Aamodt, Geir


    The Norwegian population has among the highest hip fracture rates in the world. The incidence varies geographically, also within Norway. Calcium in drinking water has been found to be beneficially associated with bone health in some studies, but not in all. In most previous studies, other minerals in water have not been taken into account. Trace minerals, for which drinking water can be an important source and even fulfill the daily nutritional requirement, could act as effect-modifiers in the association between calcium and hip fracture risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between calcium in drinking water and hip fracture, and whether other water minerals modified this association. A survey of trace metals in 429 waterworks, supplying 64% of the population in Norway, was linked geographically to the home addresses of patients with incident hip fractures (1994-2000). Drinking water mineral concentrations were divided into "low" (below and equal waterworks average) and "high" (above waterworks average). Poisson regression models were fitted, and all incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were adjusted for age, geographic region, urbanization degree, type of water source, and pH of the water. Effect modifications were examined by stratification, and interactions between calcium and magnesium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese were tested both on the multiplicative and the additive scale. Analyses were stratified on gender. Among those supplied from the 429 waterworks (2,110,916 person-years in men and 2,397,217 person-years in women), 5433 men and 13,493 women aged 50-85 years suffered a hip fracture during 1994-2000. Compared to low calcium in drinking water, a high level was associated with a 15% lower hip fracture risk in men (IRR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.91) but no significant difference was found in women (IRR=0.98, 95%CI: 0.93-1.02). There was interaction between calcium and copper on hip fracture risk in men (p=0.051); the association

  14. Low water conductivity increases the effects of copper on the serum parameters in fish (Oreochromis niloticus). (United States)

    Canli, Esin G; Canli, Mustafa


    The conductivity is largely determined by ion levels in water, predominant ion being Ca(2+) in the freshwaters. For this reason, the effects of copper were evaluated as a matter of conductivity of exposure media in the present study. Thus, freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to copper in differing conductivities (77, 163 and 330 μS/cm), using acute (0.3 μM, 3 d) and chronic (0.03 μM, 30 d) exposure protocols. Following the exposure serum parameters of fish were measured. Data showed that there was no significant alteration (P>0.05) in serum parameters of control fish. However, activities of ALP, ALT and AST decreased significantly at the lower conductivities in chronic copper exposure, but not in acute ones. Protein levels did not differ significantly in any of the exposure conditions. However, Cu exposure at the lowest conductivity sharply increased the levels of glucose in the acute exposure, while there was no significant difference in the chronic exposure. Cholesterol levels decreased only at the lower conductivities in chronic exposure, but increased in acute exposure. Similarly, triglyceride levels increased in acute exposures and decreased in chronic exposures at the lowest conductivity. There was no change in Na(+) levels, while there was an increase in K(+) levels and a decrease in Ca(2+) level at the lowest conductivity of acute exposures. However, Cl(-) levels generally decreased at the higher conductivities of chronic exposures. There was a strong negative relationship between significant altered serum parameters and water conductivity. In conclusion, this study showed that copper exposure of fish at lower conductivities caused more toxicities, indicating the protective effect of calcium ions against copper toxicity. Data suggest that conductivity of water may be used in the evaluation of metal data from different waters with different chemical characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting the occurrence of mixed mode failure associated with hydraulic fracturing, part 2 water saturated tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broome, Scott Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Choens, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barrow, Perry Carl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Seven water-saturated triaxial extension experiments were conducted on four sedimentary rocks. This experimental condition was hypothesized more representative of that existing for downhole hydrofracture and thus it may improve our understanding of the phenomena. In all tests the pore pressure was 10 MPa and confirming pressure was adjusted to achieve tensile and transitional failure mode conditions. Using previous work in this LDRD for comparison, the law of effective stress is demonstrated in extension using this sample geometry. In three of the four lithologies, no apparent chemo-mechanical effect of water is apparent, and in the fourth lithology test results indicate some chemo-mechanical effect of water.

  16. Mobile TDR for geo-referenced measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anton; Schelde, Kirsten; Drøscher, Per


    content and electrical conductivity within two research fields. Measurements made during the early or late season, when soil moisture levels are close to field capacity, are related to the amount of plant available water and soil texture. Combined measurements of water content and electrical conductivity...... analysis of the soil water measurements, recommendations are made with respect to sampling strategies. Depending on the variability of a given area, between 15 and 30 ha can be mapped with respect to soil moisture and electrical conductivity with sufficient detail within 8 h......The development of site-specific crop management is constrained by the availability of sensors for monitoring important soil and crop related conditions. A mobile time-domain reflectometry (TDR) unit for geo-referenced soil measurements has been developed and used for detailed mapping of soil water...

  17. Nose fracture (United States)

    Fracture of the nose; Broken nose; Nasal fracture; Nasal bone fracture; Nasal septal fracture ... A fractured nose is the most common fracture of the face. It most ... occurs with other fractures of the face. Nose injuries and neck ...

  18. The influence of water and salt content on the thermal conductivity coefficient of red clay brick (United States)

    Bednarska, Dalia; Koniorczyk, Marcin


    This paper presents the results of experiments aimed at the determination of hygro-thermal properties of red clay brick containing water or salt. The main objective of the research is the determination of the relation between the apparent thermal conductivity of brick and its water or Na2SO4 in water solution content. The research is conducted using stationary technique for the dry specimens, as well as the ones containing 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% water or sodium sulphate solution. The experimental results confirm the negative influence of water or sodium sulphate solution on thermal properties of material. However we observe that the presence of Na2SO4 in pores slightly weakens this negative impact.

  19. Effects of heat transfer coefficient treatments on thermal shock fracture prediction for LWR fuel claddings in water quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youho; Lee, Jeong Ik; Cheon, Hee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Accurate modeling of thermal shock induced stresses has become ever most important to emerging accident-tolerant ceramic cladding concepts, such as silicon carbide (SiC) and SiC coated zircaloy. Since fractures of ceramic (entirely ceramic or coated) occur by excessive tensile stresses with linear elasticity, modeling transient stress distribution in the material provides a direct indication of the structural integrity. Indeed, even for the current zircaloy cladding material, the oxide layer formed on the surface - where cracks starts to develop upon water quenching - essentially behaves as a brittle ceramic. Hence, enhanced understanding of thermal shock fracture of a brittle material would fundamentally contribute to safety of nuclear reactors for both the current fuel design and that of the coming future. Understanding thermal shock fracture of a brittle material requires heat transfer rate between the solid and the fluid for transient temperature fields of the solid, and structural response of the solid under the obtained transient temperature fields. In water quenching, a solid experiences dynamic time-varying heat transfer rates with phase changes of the fluid over a short quenching period. Yet, such a dynamic change of heat transfer rates during the water quenching transience has been overlooked in assessments of mechanisms, predictability, and uncertainties for thermal shock fracture. Rather, a time-constant heat transfer coefficient, named 'effective heat transfer coefficient' has become a conventional input to thermal shock fracture analysis. No single constant heat transfer could suffice to depict the actual stress evolution subject to dynamic heat transfer coefficient changes with fluid phase changes. Use of the surface temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will remarkably increase predictability of thermal shock fracture of brittle materials and complete the picture of stress evolution in the quenched solid. The presented result

  20. Introduction of water from halogen layers to lower reservoirs under high pressure and by hydraulic fracturing of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozoravich, G.E.; Skrynnik, Z.B.


    A petrographic study of the distribution characteristics of chemogenic cements and oil-bearing Cambrian and gas-bearing Triassic granular reservoirs of the Khassi-Messaud and Khassi R'mel fields has made it possible to establish that these cements were formed from halogenic Triassic waters which were squeezed downward under high pressure, and filtered through the rock. This process was accompanied by the natural hydraulic fracturing of rock. During periods of tectonic activation, these waters penetrated downward through fractures which intersected the layer, and brought liquid petroleum with them. This explains the presence of oil in rocks of a significantly lower water--oil layer contact in the foundation. 5 references.

  1. Effective Thermal Conductivity of an Aluminum Foam + Water Two Phase System (United States)

    Moskito, John


    This study examined the effect of volume fraction and pore size on the effective thermal conductivity of an aluminum foam and water system. Nine specimens of aluminum foam representing a matrix of three volume fractions (4-8% by vol.) and three pore sizes (2-4 mm) were tested with water to determine relationships to the effective thermal conductivity. It was determined that increases in volume fraction of the aluminum phase were correlated to increases in the effective thermal conductivity. It was not statistically possible to prove that changes in pore size of the aluminum foam correlated to changes in the effective thermal conductivity. However, interaction effects between the volume fraction and pore size of the foam were statistically significant. Ten theoretical models were selected from the published literature to compare against the experimental data. Models by Asaad, Hadley, and de Vries provided effective thermal conductivity predictions within a 95% confidence interval.

  2. Experiment and Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity for Alumina-Water Nanofluids. (United States)

    Zhao, Ningbo; Li, Zhiming


    To effectively predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of alumina (Al₂O₃)-water nanofluids, an artificial neural network (ANN) approach was investigated in the present study. Firstly, using a two-step method, four Al₂O₃-water nanofluids were prepared respectively by dispersing different volume fractions (1.31%, 2.72%, 4.25%, and 5.92%) of nanoparticles with the average diameter of 30 nm. On this basis, the thermal conductivity and viscosity of the above nanofluids were analyzed experimentally under various temperatures ranging from 296 to 313 K. Then a radial basis function (RBF) neural network was constructed to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al₂O₃-water nanofluids as a function of nanoparticle volume fraction and temperature. The experimental results showed that both nanoparticle volume fraction and temperature could enhance the thermal conductivity of Al₂O₃-water nanofluids. However, the viscosity only depended strongly on Al₂O₃ nanoparticle volume fraction and was increased slightly by changing temperature. In addition, the comparative analysis revealed that the RBF neural network had an excellent ability to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al₂O₃-water nanofluids with the mean absolute percent errors of 0.5177% and 0.5618%, respectively. This demonstrated that the ANN provided an effective way to predict the thermophysical properties of nanofluids with limited experimental data.

  3. Optimality and Conductivity for Water Flow: From Landscapes, to Unsaturated Soils, to Plant Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.


    Optimality principles have been widely used in many areas. Based on an optimality principle that any flow field will tend toward a minimum in the energy dissipation rate, this work shows that there exists a unified form of conductivity relationship for three different flow systems: landscapes, unsaturated soils and plant leaves. The conductivity, the ratio of water flux to energy gradient, is a power function of water flux although the power value is system dependent. This relationship indicates that to minimize energy dissipation rate for a whole system, water flow has a small resistance (or a large conductivity) at a location of large water flux. Empirical evidence supports validity of the relationship for landscape and unsaturated soils (under gravity dominated conditions). Numerical simulation results also show that the relationship can capture the key features of hydraulic structure for a plant leaf, although more studies are needed to further confirm its validity. Especially, it is of interest that according to this relationship, hydraulic conductivity for gravity-dominated unsaturated flow, unlike that defined in the classic theories, depends on not only capillary pressure (or saturation), but also the water flux. Use of the optimality principle allows for determining useful results that are applicable to a broad range of areas involving highly non-linear processes and may not be possible to obtain from classic theories describing water flow processes.

  4. Effectiveness of Geoelectrical Resistivity Surveys for the Detection of a Debris Flow Causative Water Conducting Zone at KM 9, Gap-Fraser’s Hill Road (FT 148, Fraser’s Hill, Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Anuri Ghazali


    Full Text Available This study reports the findings of resistivity surveys which were conducted at the initiation area of debris flow at KM 9, Fraser’s Hill Gap road (FT148. The study involves three slope parallel survey lines and two lines perpendicular to the slope face. The parallel lines are FH01, FH02, and FH03, while the lines FH04 and FH05 are perpendicular. A granite body was detected at the central part of the east line and is nearest to the ground surface along FH02. The existence of low resistivity zones within the granite body is interpreted as highly fractured, water conducting zones. These zones are continuous as they have been detected in both the east-west as well as the north-south lines. The residual soil layer is relatively thin at zones where weathered granite dominates the slope face of the failure mass. The weak layer is relatively thick with an estimated thickness of 80 m and water flow occurs at the base of it. The high water flow recorded from the horizontal drains further supports the possible existence of these highly fractured, water conducting zones located within the granite. The shallow fractured granite is virtually “floating” above the water saturated zone and therefore is considered unstable.

  5. The Process of Hydraulic Fracturing (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing, know as fracking or hydrofracking, produces fractures in a rock formation by pumping fluids (water, proppant, and chemical additives) at high pressure down a wellbore. These fractures stimulate the flow of natural gas or oil.

  6. An inductive conductivity meter for monitoring the salinity of dialysis water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J.M.


    An inductive conductivity meter is described, especially adapted as a salinity monitor for dialysis water. Salinity are given. The principal problems of the inductive conductivity meter result from the low conductivity of electrolytes. The weak coupling due to the electrolyte means that stray...... coupling must be reduced to a very low level. This has been accomplished by means of a heavy copper eddy-current shield, which reduces the unwanted coupling to a level corresponding to a conductivity increment of the order of 10-8 ¿-1. cm-1. The effect of parasitic impedances in the receiver core...

  7. [Determination of trace bromate in drinking water by ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection]. (United States)

    Ying, Bo; Li, Shumin; Yue, Yinling; Xueli, E


    Bromate is a common disinfection by-product produced from the ozonation of source water containing bromide. An ion exchange chromatographic method with suppressed conductivity detection for the determination of trace bromate in drinking water was developed. The separation of the bromate in drinking water was achieved on a Metrosep A Supp 5 anion exchange column and a Metrosep A Supp 4/5 Guard column with a carbonate eluent. A new dual suppressed system, an MSM II chemical suppressor combined with a CO2 suppressor, was used to suppress the background conductivity, and to improve the detection limit of bromate. Ion chromatographic experiments were carried out by using a Metrosep A Supp 5 anion exchange column with a suppressed conductivity detector and an eluent of 3.2 mmoL/L Na2CO3-1.0 mmol/L NaHCO3 at a flow rate of 0.65 mL/min. This method had good linearity (r = 0.9999) in the range of 5-100 microg/L and high precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) water, pure water and mineral water were 96.1%-107%, and the detection limit for bromate was 0.50 microg/L. This method has a simple operation procedure, good separation results, high sensitivity and good repeatability. It can be used as a standard method for the determination of bromate in drinking water.

  8. Eggshell permeability: a standard technique for determining interspecific rates of water vapor conductance. (United States)

    Portugal, Steven J; Maurer, Golo; Cassey, Phillip


    Typically, eggshell water vapor conductance is measured on whole eggs, freshly collected at the commencement of a study. At times, however, it may not be possible to obtain whole fresh eggs but rather egg fragments or previously blown eggs. Here we evaluate and describe in detail a technique for modern laboratory analysis of eggshell conductance that uses fragments from fresh and museum eggs to determine eggshell water vapor conductance. We used fresh unincubated eggs of domesticated chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), and guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) to investigate the reliability, validity, and repeatability of the technique. To assess the suitability of museum samples, museum and freshly collected black-headed gull eggs (Larus ridibundus) were used. Fragments were cut out of the eggshell from the blunt end (B), equator (E), and pointy end (P). Eggshell fragments were glued to the top of a 0.25-mL micro test tube (Eppendorf) filled with 200 μL of distilled water and placed in a desiccator at 25°C. Eppendorfs were weighed three times at 24-h intervals, and mass loss was assumed to be a result of water evaporation. We report the following results: (1) mass loss between weighing sessions was highly repeatable and consistent in all species; (2) the majority of intraspecific variability in eggshell water vapor conductance between different eggs of the same species was explained through the differences in water vapor conductance between the three eggshell parts of the same egg (B, E, and P); (3) the technique was sensitive enough to detect significant differences between the three domestic species; (4) there was no overall significant difference between water vapor conductance of museum and fresh black-headed gull eggs; (5) there was no significant difference in water vapor conductance for egg fragments taken from the same egg both between different trials and within the same trial. We conclude, therefore, that this technique

  9. Case History: Merging the Tools of DC Resistivity and Fracture Trace Analysis for Locating High Yield Domestic Water Wells in Karst Terrain, Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, USA (United States)

    Frangos, W.; Eaton, L. S.


    The karstic eastern margin of Virginia's Shenandoah Valley hosts large volumes of high quality ground water in discrete zones or pockets. Industrial and culinary exploitation poses a challenging exploration problem. Recent work by the authors using geophysical and aerial photogrammetric techniques resulted in the successful location of three high- yield water wells. This indirect methodology increases the probability of locating valuable wells by locating geologic features that may harbor water-bearing zones. The eastern Shenandoah Valley is geologically complex. The underlying bedrock is dominantly limestones, dolomites, and shales of Cambrian age that have been extensively folded, fractured, and faulted. Geomorphologic features such as solution cavities, caves, disappearing streams, and sinkholes are common. Extensive alluvial fan and river terrace deposits, comprised dominantly of quartzite gravel and sand, cover much of the land surface, and fill surface depressions. The combination of sand and gravel filtering and large storage capacity in the voids makes this region ideal for producing a large quantity of high quality groundwater. Two sites were investigated for karst aquifers near the town of Stuarts Draft. Interbedded limestones and dolomites underlie Barth Farm, situated on the north bank of the South River. The owners attempted to installed a water well to service an active vineyard. The drilling located a previously unknown, water-filled cavern ~5 m below the surface; subsequent high pumping rates in finishing the well resulted in a surface collapse and the creation of a sinkhole. A second effort, offset by ~30 meters, resulted in a catastrophic collapse, and seriously endangered the lives of the drillers. A subsequent dipole-dipole DC resistivity survey delineated a conductive zone coincident with the two sinkholes. Fracture trace analysis of pre-drilling aerial photographs indicates the presence of lineaments that pass through this drilling site

  10. Laboratory Visualization Experiments of Temperature-induced Fractures Around a Borehole (Cryogenic Fracturing) in Shale and Analogue Rock Samples (United States)

    Kneafsey, T. J.; Nakagawa, S.; Wu, Y. S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.


    In tight shales, hydraulic fracturing is the dominant method for improving reservoir permeability. However, injecting water-based liquids can induce formation damage and disposal problems, thus other techniques are being sought. One alternative to hydraulic fracturing is producing fractures thermally, using low-temperature fluids (cryogens). The primary consequence of thermal stimulation is that shrinkage fractures are produced around the borehole wall. Recently, cryogenic stimulation produced some promising results when the cryogen (typically liquid nitrogen and cold nitrogen gas) could be brought to reservoir depth. Numerical modeling also showed possible significant increases in gas production from a shale reservoir after cryogenic stimulation. However, geometry and the dynamic behavior of these thermally induced fractures under different stress regimes and rock anisotropy and heterogeneity is not yet well understood.Currently, we are conducting a series of laboratory thermal fracturing experiments on Mancos Shale and transparent glass blocks, by injecting liquid nitrogen under atmospheric pressure into room temperature blocks under various anisotropic stress states. The glass blocks allow clear optical visualization of fracture development and final fracturing patterns. For the shale blocks, X-ray CT is used to image both pre-existing and induced fractures. Also, the effect of borehole orientation with respect to the bedding planes and aligned preexisting fractures is examined. Our initial experiment on a uniaxially compressed glass block showed fracturing behavior which was distinctly different from conventional hydraulic fracturing. In addition to tensile fractures in the maximum principal stress directions, the thermal contraction by the cryogen induced (1) chaotic, spalling fractures around the borehole wall, and (2) a series of disk-shaped annular fractures perpendicular to the borehole. When applied to a horizontal borehole, the propagation plane of the

  11. Photo-Cross-Linked Anion Exchange Membranes with Improved Water Management and Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertem, S. Piril; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Donahue, Melissa M.; Zhang, Wenxu; Sarode, Himanshu; Liu, Ye; Seifert, Soenke; Herring, Andrew M.; Coughlin, E. Bryan


    Robust, cross-linked anion exchange membranes (AEMs) were prepared from solvent-processable polyisoprene- ran -poly(vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride) (PI- ran -P- [VBTMA][Cl]) ionomers via photoinitiated thiol - ene chem- istry. Two series of membranes were prepared choosing two dithiol cross-linkers, 1,10-decanedithiol and 2,2 ' - (ethylenedioxy)diethanethiol, selected for their di ff erent hydro- phobicities. A strong correlation was found between the choice of dithiol cross-linker, water uptake, morphology, and the ion conductivity of the membranes. Results were compared with previous fi ndings of thermally cross-linked AEMs from analogous random copolymers. Comparably high chloride ion conductivities were obtained at low to moderate ion exchange capacities (IECs) with signi fi cantly low water uptake values. It was shown that by choosing a hydrophilic cross-linker ion cluster formation may be suppressed and ion conduction improved. This study highlights that it is possible to promote ion conductivities for low IEC membranes (<1 mmol/g) by forming well- connected, ion conducting network morphology. This observation paves the way for mechanically robust ion conducting membranes with enhanced conductivities and better water management.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of quantitative ultrasound as a technique for screening of osteoporotic fracture risk: report on a health technology assessment conducted in 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen


    Full Text Available Aim: On behalf of the German Agency for Health Technology Assessment (DAHTA@DIMDI a rapid economic HTA was conducted. Aim of the HTA was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of quantitative ultrasound (QUS for screening of osteoporotic fracture risk. Study population was formed by postmenopausal women. QUS was compared to the dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the most frequently used method of measurement. Methods: According to the recommendations for rapid economic HTA a comprehensive literature search was conducted. Data of identified and relevant publications have been extracted in form of a qualitative and quantitative information synthesis. The authors calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for different screening procedures: (1 one-step proceeding comparing QUS with DXA, (2 two-step proceeding starting with QUS followed by DXA in pathologic cases. Results: An additional case diagnosed by DXA in a one-step proceeding rises additional costs of about 1,000 EURO. A two-step proceeding with QUS is cost-effective as long as the costs of one QUS examination are lower than 31%-51% of the costs of one DXA examination. Discussion: All considered studies showed methodological limitations. None of them included long term effects like avoided bone fractures. Considering long-term effects probably would change the results. Due to the weakness of data no concluding judgement about the cost-effectiveness of QUS can be given.

  13. [Effects of long-term fluoride in drinking water on risks of hip fracture of the elderly: an ecologic study based on database of hospitalization episodes]. (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Hwang, Seung Sik; Kim, Jai Yong; Cho, Soo Hun


    Fluoridation of drinking water is known to decrease dental caries, particularly in children. However, the effects of fluoridated water on bone over several decades are still in controversy. To assess the risk of hip fracture related to water fluoridation, we evaluated the hip fracture-related hospitalizations of the elderly between a fluoridated city and non-fluoridated cities in Korea. Cheongju as a fluoridated area and Chungju, Chuncheon, Suwon, Wonju as non-fluoridated areas were chosen for the study. We established a database of hip fracture hospitalization episode based on the claims data submitted to the Health Insurance Review Agency from January 1995 to December 2002. The hip fracture hospitalization episodes that satisfied the conditions were those that occurred in patients over 65 years old, the injuries had a hip fracture code (ICD-9 820, ICD-10 S72) and the patients were hospitalized for at least 7days. A total of 80,558 cases of hip fracture hospitalization episodes were analyzed. The admission rates for hip fracture increased with the age of the men and women in both a fluoridated city and the non-fluoridated cities (pfluoridated city and the nonfluoridated cities. We cannot conclude that fluoridation of drinking water increases the risk of hip fracture in the elderly.

  14. Coarse-grained model of water diffusion and proton conductivity in hydrated polyelectrolyte membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ming-Tsung; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V., E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8058 (United States)


    Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), we simulate nanoscale segregation, water diffusion, and proton conductivity in hydrated sulfonated polystyrene (sPS). We employ a novel model [Lee et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11(9), 4395-4403 (2015)] that incorporates protonation/deprotonation equilibria into DPD simulations. The polymer and water are modeled by coarse-grained beads interacting via short-range soft repulsion and smeared charge electrostatic potentials. The proton is introduced as a separate charged bead that forms dissociable Morse bonds with the base beads representing water and sulfonate anions. Morse bond formation and breakup artificially mimics the Grotthuss mechanism of proton hopping between the bases. The DPD model is parameterized by matching the proton mobility in bulk water, dissociation constant of benzenesulfonic acid, and liquid-liquid equilibrium of water-ethylbenzene solutions. The DPD simulations semi-quantitatively predict nanoscale segregation in the hydrated sPS into hydrophobic and hydrophilic subphases, water self-diffusion, and proton mobility. As the hydration level increases, the hydrophilic subphase exhibits a percolation transition from isolated water clusters to a 3D network. The analysis of hydrophilic subphase connectivity and water diffusion demonstrates the importance of the dynamic percolation effect of formation and breakup of temporary junctions between water clusters. The proposed DPD model qualitatively predicts the ratio of proton to water self-diffusion and its dependence on the hydration level that is in reasonable agreement with experiments.

  15. Water Stress from High-Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Potentially Threatens Aquatic Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Arkansas, United States. (United States)

    Entrekin, Sally; Trainor, Anne; Saiers, James; Patterson, Lauren; Maloney, Kelly; Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joseph; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Konschnik, Katherine; Wiseman, Hannah; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Ryan, Joseph N


    Demand for high-volume, short duration water withdrawals could create water stress to aquatic organisms in Fayetteville Shale streams sourced for hydraulic fracturing fluids. We estimated potential water stress using permitted water withdrawal volumes and actual water withdrawals compared to monthly median, low, and high streamflows. Risk for biological stress was considered at 20% of long-term median and 10% of high- and low-flow thresholds. Future well build-out projections estimated potential for continued stress. Most water was permitted from small, free-flowing streams and "frack" ponds (dammed streams). Permitted 12-h pumping volumes exceeded median streamflow at 50% of withdrawal sites in June, when flows were low. Daily water usage, from operator disclosures, compared to median streamflow showed possible water stress in 7-51% of catchments from June-November, respectively. If 100% of produced water was recycled, per-well water use declined by 25%, reducing threshold exceedance by 10%. Future water stress was predicted to occur in fewer catchments important for drinking water and species of conservation concern due to the decline in new well installations and increased use of recycled water. Accessible and precise withdrawal and streamflow data are critical moving forward to assess and mitigate water stress in streams that experience high-volume withdrawals.

  16. Effect of different soil water potential on leaf transpiration and on stomatal conductance in poinsettia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek S. Nowak


    Full Text Available Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild.'Lilo' was grown in containers in 60% peat, 30% perlite and 10% clay (v/v mixture, with different irrigation treatments based on soil water potential. Plants were watered at two levels of drought stress: -50kPa or wilting. The treatments were applied at different stages of plant development for a month or soil was brought to the moisture stress only twice. Additionally, some plants were watered at -50 kPa during the entire cultivation period while the control plants were watered at -5kPa. Plants were also kept at maximum possible moisture level (watering at -0,5kPa or close to it (-1.OkPa through the entire growing period. Soil water potential was measured with tensiometer. Drought stress applied during entire cultivation period or during the flushing stage caused significant reduction in transpiration and conductance of leaves. Stress applied during bract coloration stage had not as great effect on the stomatal conductance and transpiration of leaves as the similar stress applied during the flushing stage. High soil moisture increased stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, respectively by 130% and 52% (flushing stage, and 72% and 150% (bract coloration stage at maximum, compared to the control.

  17. Protic Salt Polymer Membranes: High-Temperature Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervasio, Dominic Francis [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    This research on proton-containing (protic) salts directly addresses proton conduction at high and low temperatures. This research is unique, because no water is used for proton ionization nor conduction, so the properties of water do not limit proton fuel cells. A protic salt is all that is needed to give rise to ionized proton and to support proton mobility. A protic salt forms when proton transfers from an acid to a base. Protic salts were found to have proton conductivities that are as high as or higher than the best aqueous electrolytes at ambient pressures and comparable temperatures without or with water present. Proton conductivity of the protic salts occurs providing two conditions exist: i) the energy difference is about 0.8 eV between the protic-salt state versus the state in which the acid and base are separated and 2) the chemical constituents rotate freely. The physical state of these proton-conducting salts can be liquid, plastic crystal as well as solid organic and inorganic polymer membranes and their mixtures. Many acids and bases can be used to make a protic salt which allows tailoring of proton conductivity, as well as other properties that affect their use as electrolytes in fuel cells, such as, stability, adsorption on catalysts, environmental impact, etc. During this project, highly proton conducting (~ 0.1S/cm) protic salts were made that are stable under fuel-cell operating conditions and that gave highly efficient fuel cells. The high efficiency is attributed to an improved oxygen electroreduction process on Pt which was found to be virtually reversible in a number of liquid protic salts with low water activity (< 1% water). Solid flexible non-porous composite membranes, made from inorganic polymer (e.g., 10%indium 90%tin pyrophosphate, ITP) and organic polymer (e.g., polyvinyl pyridinium phosphate, PVPP), were found that give conductivity and fuel cell performances similar to phosphoric acid electrolyte with no need for hydration at

  18. Results of two years of water training on jump height in postmenopausal women with moderate hip risk fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carrasco Poyatos


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a water-based calisthenics and resistance program on jump height in postmenopausal women with moderate hip risk fracture. 39 women were divided into three groups: swimming group (GN; n = 17, calisthenics and resistance group (GIR; n = 14, and control group (GC; n = 8. Body composition test included body mass index (IMC and waist to hip ratio (ICC. Jump height was assessed by a countermovement jump (CMJ. GN showed a significant (p<0.05 decrease in ICC (5.81%. GIR showed a significant decrease in IMC (3.65% and a significant increase in CMJ (15.5%. Two years of water-based calisthenics and resistance training can offer significant benefits in jump height in postmenopausal women with moderate hip risk fracture. Both exercise programs can also improve body composition.

  19. Study on hydraulic property models for water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in MATSIRO with representation of water table dynamics (United States)

    Yoshida, N.; Oki, T.


    Appropriate initial condition of soil moisture and water table depth are important factors to reduce uncertainty in hydrological simulations. Approaches to determine the initial water table depth have been developed because of difficulty to get information on global water table depth and soil moisture distributions. However, how is equilibrium soil moisture determined by climate conditions? We try to discuss this issue by using land surface model with representation of water table dynamics (MAT-GW). First, the global pattern of water table depth at equilibrium soil moisture in MAT-GW was verified. The water table depth in MAT-GW was deeper than the previous one at fundamentally arid region because the negative recharge and continuous baseflow made water table depth deeper. It indicated that the hydraulic conductivity used for estimating recharge and baseflow need to be reassessed in MAT-GW. In soil physics field, it is revealed that proper hydraulic property models for water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity should be selected for each soil type. So, the effect of selecting hydraulic property models on terrestrial soil moisture and water table depth were examined.Clapp and Hornburger equation(CH eq.) and Van Genuchten equation(VG eq.) were used as representative hydraulic property models. Those models were integrated on MAT-GW and equilibrium soil moisture and water table depth with using each model were compared. The water table depth and soil moisture at grids which reached equilibrium in both simulations were analyzed. The equilibrium water table depth were deeper in VG eq. than CH eq. in most grids due to shape of hydraulic property models. Then, total soil moisture were smaller in VG eq. than CH eq. at almost all grids which water table depth reached equilibrium. It is interesting that spatial patterns which water table depth reached equilibrium or not were basically similar in both simulations but reverse patterns were shown in east and west


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Grader; D. Elsworth; P.M. Halleck; F. Alvarado; A. Alajmi; Z. Karpyn; N. Mohammed; S. Al-Enezi


    quantify the distribution of apertures and the nature of the asperities. Low resolution images of fluids in a sample with a shear fracture were performed and they provide the confidence that flow patterns and saturations could be determined in the future. A series of water imbibition tests were conducted in which water was injected into a fracture and its migration into the matrix was monitored with CT and DR x-ray techniques. The objective is to understand the impact of the fracture, its topology and occupancy on the nature of mass transfer between the matrix and the fracture. Counter-current imbibition next to the fracture was observed and quantified, including the influence of formation layering.

  1. Regulation of Water Pollution from Hydraulic Fracturing in Horizontally-Drilled Wells in the Marcellus Shale Region, USA


    Heather Hatzenbuhler; Terence J. Centner


    Hydraulic fracturing is an industrial process used to extract fossil fuel reserves that lie deep underground. With the introduction of horizontal drilling, new commercial sources of energy have become available. Wells are drilled and injected with large quantities of water mixed with specially selected chemicals at high pressures that allow petroleum reserves to flow to the surface. While the increased economic activities and the outputs of domestic energy are welcomed, there is growing conce...

  2. Estimation of fracture toughness of Zr 2.5% Nb pressure tube of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor using cyclic ball indentation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, S., E-mail:; Panwar, Sanjay; Madhusoodanan, K.; Rama Rao, A.


    Highlights: • Measurement of fracture toughness of pressure tube is required for its fitness assessment. • Pressure tube removal from the core consumes large amount of radiation for laboratory test. • A remotely operable In situ Property Measurement System (IProMS) has been designed in house. • Conventional and IProMS tests conducted on pressure tube spool pieces having different mechanical properties. • Correlation has been established between the conventional and IProMS estimated fracture properties. - Abstract: In Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) fuel bundles are located inside horizontal pressure tubes made up of Zr 2.5 wt% Nb alloy. Pressure tubes undergo degradation during its service life due to high pressure, high temperature and radiation environment. Measurement of mechanical properties of degraded pressure tubes is important for assessing their fitness for further operation. Presently as per safety guidelines imposed by the regulatory body, a few pre-decided pressure tubes are removed from the reactor core at regular intervals during the planned reactor shut down to carry out post irradiation examination (PIE) in a laboratory which consumes lots of man-rem and imposes economic penalties. Hence a system is indeed felt necessary which can carry out experimental trials for measurement of mechanical properties of pressure tubes under in situ conditions. The only way to accomplish this important objective is to develop a system based on an in situ measurement technique. In the field of in situ estimation of properties of materials, cyclic ball indentation is an emerging technique. Presently, commercial systems are available for doing an indentation test either on the outside surface of a component at site or on a test piece in a laboratory. However, these systems cannot be used inside a pressure tube for carrying out ball indentation trials under in situ conditions. Considering the importance of such measurements, an In situ Property

  3. Hydraulic conductivity and contribution of aquaporins to water uptake in roots of four sunflower genotypes. (United States)

    Adiredjo, Afifuddin Latif; Navaud, Olivier; Grieu, Philippe; Lamaze, Thierry


    This article evaluates the potential of intraspecific variation for whole-root hydraulic properties in sunflower. We investigated genotypic differences related to root water transport in four genotypes selected because of their differing water use efficiency (JAC doi: 10.1111/jac.12079. 2014). We used a pressure-flux approach to characterize hydraulic conductance (L 0 ) which reflects the overall water uptake capacity of the roots and hydraulic conductivity (Lp r ) which represents the root intrinsic water permeability on an area basis. The contribution of aquaporins (AQPs) to water uptake was explored using mercuric chloride (HgCl2), a general AQP blocker. There were considerable variations in root morphology between genotypes. Mean values of L 0 and Lp r showed significant variation (above 60% in both cases) between recombinant inbred lines in control plants. Pressure-induced sap flow was strongly inhibited by HgCl2 treatment in all genotypes (more than 50%) and contribution of AQPs to hydraulic conductivity varied between genotypes. Treated root systems displayed markedly different L 0 values between genotypes whereas Lp r values were similar. Our analysis points to marked differences between genotypes in the intrinsic aquaporin-dependent path (Lp r in control plants) but not in the intrinsic AQP-independent paths (Lp r in HgCl2 treated plants). Overall, root anatomy was a major determinant of water transport properties of the whole organ and can compensate for a low AQP contribution. Hydraulic properties of root tissues and organs might have to be taken into account for plant breeding since they appear to play a key role in sunflower water balance and water use efficiency.

  4. Influence of water contamination and conductive additives on the intercalation of lithium into graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joho, F.; Rykart, B.; Novak, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Spahr, M.E.; Monnier, A. [Timcal AG, Sins (Switzerland)


    The irreversible charge loss in the first cycle of lithium intercalation into graphite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is discussed as a function of water contamination of the electrolyte solution. Furthermore, the improvement of the electrode cycle life due to conductive additives to graphite is demonstrated. (author) 5 figs., 3 refs.

  5. Improved thermal conductivity of Ag decorated carbon nanotubes water based nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farbod, Mansoor, E-mail:; Ahangarpour, Ameneh


    The effect of Ag decoration of carbon nanotubes on thermal conductivity enhancement of Ag decorated MWCNTs water based nanofluids has been investigated. The pristine and functionalized MWCNTs were decorated with Ag nanoparticles by mass ratios of 1%, 2% and 4% and used to prepare water based nanofluids with 0.1 vol.%. An enhancement of 1–20.4 percent in thermal conductivity was observed. It was found that the decoration of functionalized MWCNTs can increase the thermal conductivity about 0.16–8.02 percent compared to the undecorated ones. The maximum enhancement of 20.4% was measured for the sample containing 4 wt.% Ag at 40 °C. - Highlights: • MWCNTs were decorated with Ag nanoparticles by the mass ratios of 1, 2 and 4%. • The decorated CNTs were used to prepare water based nanofluids with 0.1 Vol.%. • 1–20.4% increase was observed in thermal conductivity (TC) compared to pure water. • Ag decorated CNTs increased TC of nanofluid up to 8% compared to CNTs nanofluid.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Umarov


    Full Text Available The article gives the anatomical description of sea buckthorn, that grows 1200 and 1600 above the sea level in Eastern Caucasus. It analyses quantitative changes of its traits - radial growth, elements of water conducting tissue and the degree of its variability.

  7. Sample dimensions effect on prediction of soil water retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity (United States)

    Soil water retention curve (SWRC) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) are key hydraulic properties for unsaturated zone hydrology and groundwater. Not only are the SWRC and SHC measurements time-consuming, their results are scale dependent. Although prediction of the SWRC and SHC from availab...

  8. Prediction of the saturated hydraulic conductivity from Brooks and Corey’s water retention parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasta, P.; Vrugt, J.A.; Romano, N.


    Prediction of flow through variably saturated porous media requires accurate knowledge of the soil hydraulic properties, namely the water retention function (WRF) and the hydraulic conductivity function (HCF). Unfortunately, direct measurement of the HCF is time consuming and expensive. In this

  9. A New system for Measuring Electrical Conductivity of Water as a Function of Admittance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haval Yacoob


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new system for measuring water conductivity as a function of electrophysical property (admittance. The system is cheap and its manufacturing is easy. In addition, it dose not require any sort of electrolysis and calibration. The system consists of four electrodes made of silver (Ag 92.5 g to Cu 7.5 g fixed in a plastic tube filled by water which allows the use of two and four electrode setups. The admittance (reciprocal of impedance is measured for different water sources (distilled, rainfall, mineral, river and tap water using different frequencies between 50 Hz and 100 kHz. These measurements were taken twice, once with four electrodes and another with two electrodes of two modes (inner and outer electrodes. The results have shown good correlation between the measured admittance and the conductivity of all the water sources and the best correlation was found at low frequencies between 50 Hz and 20 kHz. The highest efficiency can be achieved by performing the four electrodes system which allows circumventing the effect of the electrode impedance. This result makes the system efficient compared to traditional conductivity meters which usually require high frequencies for good operation. doi:10.5617/jeb.203 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 86-92, 2011

  10. Scoping Materials for Initial Design of EPA Research Study on Potential Relationships Between Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources, March 2010 (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to describe the initial steps in framing a study consistent with the House of Representatives Appropriate Conference committee mandate to carry out a study on the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water.

  11. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu


    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical

  12. Water adsorption and proton conduction in metal-organic frameworks: Insights from molecular simulations (United States)

    Paesani, Francesco


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a relatively new class of porous materials that hold great potential for a wide range of applications in chemistry, materials science, and nanoengineering. Compared to other porous materials such as zeolites, MOF properties are highly tunable. In particular, it has been shown that both size and shape of the MOF pores can be rationally designed for specific applications. For example, the ability to modify the framework properties with respect to hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and acidity/basicity can enable the direct control of proton conduction through carrier molecules adsorbed inside the pores. Here, I report on our current efforts aimed at providing a molecular-level characterization of water-mediated proton conduction through the MOF pores. Particular emphasis will be put on correlation between proton conduction and both structural and chemical properties of the frameworks as well as on the dynamical behavior of water confined in the MOF pores. NSF award number: DMR-130510

  13. Water-Based Fe2O3 Nanofluid Characterization: Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity Measurements and Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Colla


    Full Text Available An experimental investigation on water-based nanofluids containing iron oxide (Fe2O3 in concentrations ranging between 5 and 20% in mass is presented. The purpose of this study is to measure thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of these fluids, as a starting point to study the heat transfer capability. The stability of the nanofluids was verified by pH and Zeta potential measurements. A dynamic light scattering (DLS technique was used to obtain the mean nanoparticle diameters. It was found that thermal conductivity of these nanofluids improved with temperature and particles concentration. The temperature and nanoparticle concentration effects on viscosity were analyzed, obtaining a significant increase with respect to water. All the fluids exhibited a Newtonian behaviour. The experimental values were compared with some theoretical models for both thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity.

  14. The role of water channel proteins in facilitating recovery of leaf hydraulic conductance from water stress in Populus trichocarpa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Laur

    Full Text Available Gas exchange is constrained by the whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant. Leaves account for an important fraction of Kplant and may therefore represent a major determinant of plant productivity. Leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf decreases with increasing water stress, which is due to xylem embolism in leaf veins and/or the properties of the extra-xylary pathway. Water flow through living tissues is facilitated and regulated by water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQPs. Here we assessed changes in the hydraulic conductance of Populus trichocarpa leaves during a dehydration-rewatering episode. While leaves were highly sensitive to drought, Kleaf recovered only 2 hours after plants were rewatered. Recovery of Kleaf was absent when excised leaves were bench-dried and subsequently xylem-perfused with a solution containing AQP inhibitors. We examined the expression patterns of 12 highly expressed AQP genes during a dehydration-rehydration episode to identify isoforms that may be involved in leaf hydraulic adjustments. Among the AQPs tested, several genes encoding tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs showed large increases in expression in rehydrated leaves, suggesting that TIPs contribute to reversing drought-induced reductions in Kleaf. TIPs were localized in xylem parenchyma, consistent with a role in facilitating water exchange between xylem vessels and adjacent living cells. Dye uptake experiments suggested that reversible embolism formation in minor leaf veins contributed to the observed changes in Kleaf.

  15. Skull fracture (United States)

    Basilar skull fracture; Depressed skull fracture; Linear skull fracture ... Skull fractures may occur with head injuries . The skull provides good protection for the brain. However, a severe impact ...

  16. Assessment of ground water quality in a fractured aquifer under continue wastewater injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrieri, C.; Masciopinto, C. [National Research Center, Water Research Institute, Bari (Italy)


    Experimental studies have been carried out in a fractured coastal aquifer of the Salento Region (Nardo' (Le) Italy), subject since 1991 to injection of 12000 m{sup 3}/d of treated municipal wastewater in a natural sink. The analytical parameters of ground water sampled in monitoring wells, have been compared before and after the injection started. The mound of water table (1.5 m), the reduction of seawater extent of 2 km and the spreading of pollutants injected were evaluated by means of mathematical model results. After ten years operation, the volume of the available resource for agricultural and drinking use has been increased, without notable decrease of the pre existent ground water quality. Moreover for preserving such resource from pollution, the mathematical model allowed the standards of wastewater quality for recharge to be identified. Around the sink, a restricted area was also defined with prohibition of withdrawals, to avoid infection and other risks on human health. [Italian] E' stato condotto uno studio sperimentale in una falda fratturata costiera del Salento (Puglia), interessata da fenomeni di intrusione marina, per valutare gli effetti di un'immissione prolungata di circa 12000 m{sup 3}/d provenienti da impianti di trattamento di scarichi urbani. I valori dei parametri analitici rilevati nei pozzi interessati, in periodi anche precedenti l'avvio dell'immissione (1991), sono stati confrontati con le concentrazioni calcolate con un modello matematico per sistemi fratturati. Dopo circa 10 anni d'immissione, l'acqua sotterranea e' risultata, rispetto a quella preesistente, sicuramente piu' utilizzabile per scopi irrigui e, mediamente, d'uguali potenzialita' per scopi potabili. Il calcolo ha evidenziato un innalzamento medio del livello piezometrico di 1.5 m e un arretramento dell'intrusione marina di circa 2 km. Esso ha, inoltre, permesso di individuare la zona di vietato emungimento nell

  17. Comparison of alternative representations of hydraulic-conductivity anisotropy in folded fractured-sedimentary rock: Modeling groundwater flow in the Shenandoah Valley (USA) (United States)

    Yager, R.M.; Voss, C.I.; Southworth, S.


    A numerical representation that explicitly represents the generalized three-dimensional anisotropy of folded fractured-sedimentary rocks in a groundwater model best reproduces the salient features of the flow system in the Shenandoah Valley, USA. This conclusion results from a comparison of four alternative representations of anisotropy in which the hydraulic-conductivity tensor represents the bedrock structure as (model A) anisotropic with variable strikes and dips, (model B) horizontally anisotropic with a uniform strike, (model C) horizontally anisotropic with variable strikes, and (model D) isotropic. Simulations using the US Geological Survey groundwater flow and transport model SUTRA are based on a representation of hydraulic conductivity that conforms to bedding planes in a three-dimensional structural model of the valley that duplicates the pattern of folded sedimentary rocks. In the most general representation, (model A), the directions of maximum and medium hydraulic conductivity conform to the strike and dip of bedding, respectively, while the minimum hydraulic-conductivity direction is perpendicular to bedding. Model A produced a physically realistic flow system that reflects the underlying bedrock structure, with a flow field that is significantly different from those produced by the other three models. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  18. A critical review of the risks to water resources from unconventional shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing in the United States. (United States)

    Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B; Warner, Nathaniel; Darrah, Thomas H; Kondash, Andrew


    The rapid rise of shale gas development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded the extraction of hydrocarbon resources in the U.S. The rise of shale gas development has triggered an intense public debate regarding the potential environmental and human health effects from hydraulic fracturing. This paper provides a critical review of the potential risks that shale gas operations pose to water resources, with an emphasis on case studies mostly from the U.S. Four potential risks for water resources are identified: (1) the contamination of shallow aquifers with fugitive hydrocarbon gases (i.e., stray gas contamination), which can also potentially lead to the salinization of shallow groundwater through leaking natural gas wells and subsurface flow; (2) the contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater from spills, leaks, and/or the disposal of inadequately treated shale gas wastewater; (3) the accumulation of toxic and radioactive elements in soil or stream sediments near disposal or spill sites; and (4) the overextraction of water resources for high-volume hydraulic fracturing that could induce water shortages or conflicts with other water users, particularly in water-scarce areas. Analysis of published data (through January 2014) reveals evidence for stray gas contamination, surface water impacts in areas of intensive shale gas development, and the accumulation of radium isotopes in some disposal and spill sites. The direct contamination of shallow groundwater from hydraulic fracturing fluids and deep formation waters by hydraulic fracturing itself, however, remains controversial.

  19. Modelling of root ABA synthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration and potato production under water saving irrigation regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Abrahamsen, Per; Gjettermann, Birgitte


    Application of water saving irrigation strategies in agriculture has become increasingly important. Both modelling and experimental work are needed to gain more insights into the biological and physical mechanisms in the soil-plant system, which regulates water flow in the system and plays...... a central role in reducing crop transpiration. This paper presented a mechanistic model (Daisy) developed based on data obtained in the SAFIR project on measured leaf gas exchange and soil water dynamics in irrigated potato crops grown in a semi-field environment subjected to different irrigation regimes....... Experimental data was compared to simulated results from the new enhanced Daisy model which include modelling 2D soil water flow, abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and its effect on stomatal conductance and hence on transpiration and assimilation, and finally crop yield. The results demonstrated that the enhanced...

  20. Characterizing Hydraulic Properties and Ground-Water Chemistry in Fractured-Rock Aquifers: A User's Manual for the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3) (United States)

    Shapiro, Allen M.


    packers, the submersible pump, and other downhole components to land surface. Borehole geophysical logging must be conducted prior to deploying the Multifunction BAT3 in bedrock boreholes. In particular, it is important to identify the borehole diameter as a function of depth to avoid placing the packers over rough sections of the borehole, where they may be damaged during inflation. In addition, it is advantageous to identify the location of fractures intersecting the borehole wall, for example, using an acoustic televiewer log or a borehole camera. A knowledge of fracture locations is helpful in designing the length of the test interval and the locations where hydraulic tests and geochemical sampling are to be conducted. The Multifunction BAT3 is configured to conduct both fluid-injection and fluid-withdrawal tests. Fluid-injection tests are used to estimate the hydraulic properties of low-permeability fractures intersecting the borehole. The lower limit of the transmissivity that can be estimated using the configuration of the Multifunction BAT3 described in this report is approximately 10-3 square feet per day (ft2/d). Fluid-withdrawal tests are used to collect water samples for geochemical analyses and estimate the hydraulic properties of high-permeability fractures intersecting the borehole. The Multifunction BAT3 is configured with a submersible pump that can support pumping rates ranging from approximately 0.05 to 2.5 gallons per minute, and the upper limit of the of the transmissivity that can be estimated is approximately 104 ft2/d. The Multifunction BAT3 also can be used to measure the ambient hydraulic head of a section of a bedrock borehole, and to conduct single-hole tracer tests by injecting and later withdrawing a tracer solution.

  1. Determination of Monochloroacetic Acid in Swimming Pool Water by Ion Chromatography-Conductivity Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pythias B. Espino


    Full Text Available In this study, an analytical method involving ion chromatography with conductivity detection was developed and optimized for the determination of monochloroacetic acid in swimming pool water. The ion chromatographic method has a detection limit of 0.02 mg L-1 and linear range of 0.05 to 1.0 mg L-1 with correlation coeff icient of 0.9992. The method is reproducible with percent RSD of 0.052% (n=10. The recovery of monochloroacetic acid spiked in different water types (bottled, tap and swimming pool water ranged from 28 to 122%. In dilute solutions, chloride and bromide were simultaneously analyzed along with monochloroacetic acid using the optimized method. Chloride and bromide have detection limits of 0.01 to 0.05 mg L-1, respectively. The usefulness of the ion chromatographic method was demonstrated in the analysis of monochloroacetic acid in swimming pool water samples. In such highly-chlorinated samples, an Ag/H cartridge was used prior to the ion chromatographic determination so as to minimize the signal due to chloride ion. Monochloroacetic acid was detected in concentrations between 0.020 and 0.093 mg L-1 in three of the six swimming pool water samples studied. The presence of monochloroacetic acid in the swimming pool water samples suggests the possible occurrence of other disinfection by-products in these waters.

  2. Leaf hydraulic conductance, measured in situ, declines and recovers daily: leaf hydraulics, water potential and stomatal conductance in four temperate and three tropical tree species (United States)

    Daniel M. Johnson; David R. Woodruff; Katherien A. McCulloh; Frederick C. Meinzer


    The objectives of this study were to measure Kleaf, using a rehydration kinetics method, (1) in the laboratory (under controlled conditions) across a range of water potentials to construct vulnerability curves (VC) and (2) over the course of the day in the field along with leaf water potential and stomatal conductance. The results presented here...

  3. Cardio-respirometry disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos exposed to hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water. (United States)

    Folkerts, Erik J; Blewett, Tamzin A; He, Yuhe; Goss, Greg G


    Hydraulic fracturing to extract oil and natural gas reserves is an increasing practice in many international energy sectors. Hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water (FPW) is a hyper saline wastewater returned to the surface from a fractured well containing chemical species present in the initial fracturing fluid, geogenic contaminants, and potentially newly synthesized chemicals formed in the fracturing well environment. However, information on FPW toxicological mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Both cardiotoxic and respirometric responses were explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos after either an acute sediment-free (FPW-SF) or raw/sediment containing (FPW-S) fraction exposure of 24 and 48 h at 2.5% and 5% dilutions. A 48 h exposure to either FPW fraction in 24-72 h post fertilization zebrafish embryos significantly increased occurrences of pericardial edema, yolk-sac edema, and tail/spine curvature. In contrast, larval heart rates significantly decreased after FPW fraction exposures. FPW-S, but not FPW-SF, at 2.5% doses significantly reduced embryonic respiration/metabolic rates (MO 2 ), while for 5% FPW, both fractions reduced MO 2 . Expression of select cardiac genes were also significantly altered in each FPW exposure group, implicating a cardiovascular system compromise as the potential cause for reduced embryonic MO 2 . Collectively, these results support our hypothesis that organics are major contributors to cardiac and respiratory responses to FPW exposure in zebrafish embryos. Our study is the first to investigate cardiac and respiratory sub-lethal effects of FPW exposure, demonstrating that FPW effects extend beyond initial osmotic stressors and verifies the use of respirometry as a potential marker for FPW exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heterogeneous anion conducting membranes based on linear and crosslinked KOH doped polybenzimidazole for alkaline water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Hansen, Martin Kalmar; Renzaho, Richard Fulgence


    Polybenzimidazole is a highly hygroscopic polymer that can be doped with aqueous KOH to give a material with high ion conductivity in the 10−2Scm−1 range, which in combination with its low gas permeability makes it an interesting electrolyte material for alkaline water electrolysis. In this study...... on their linear counterpart. The technical feasibility of the membranes was evaluated by the preliminary water electrolysis tests showing performance comparable to that of commercially available cell separators with great potential of further improvement....

  5. Canopy Stomatal Conductance Unlocks Partitioning of Ecosystem-Atmosphere Carbon and Water Exchanges (United States)

    Wehr, R. A.; Munger, J. W.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Davidson, E. A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Saleska, S. R.


    Stomata are a key nexus in biosphere-atmosphere interactions: the gateway for both carbon gain and water loss by plant canopies. Accurate quantification of canopy stomatal conductance enables partitioning of both evapotranspiration (ET) and net ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE)—the latter via CO2 isotope flux measurements. To those ends, we determined the behavior of canopy stomatal conductance in a temperate deciduous forest based on heat and water vapor flux measurements, and validated that determination based on uptake of carbonyl sulfide, which also passes through the stomata. We found that the canopy stomatal conductance followed a simple empirical function of leaf area index, light intensity, diffuse light fraction, and leaf-air water vapor gradient. The dependence on light intensity was highly linear, in contrast to the leaf scale, and in contrast to the behavior of canopy photosynthesis. Using canopy stomatal conductance, we partitioned ET and found that evaporation in this ecosystem peaks at the time of the year when soils are driest and atmospheric vapor pressure deficit is low—because soil temperature is an important driver. As stomatal conductance impacts not only the rate of photosynthesis but also the fractionation of carbon isotopes by photosynthesis, we were also able to combine canopy stomatal conductance with CO2 isotope flux measurements in order to partition NEE. We found that: (1) canopy respiration is much less during the day than at night, likely due to the inhibition of leaf respiration by light (that is, the Kok effect), and (2) canopy photosynthetic light-use efficiency does not decline through the summer, in contrast to standard estimates. These results clarify how leaf-level physiological dynamics impact ecosystem-atmosphere gas exchange, and demonstrate the utility of combining multiple tracers to constrain the processes underlying that exchange.

  6. Highly Water-Stable Lanthanide-Oxalate MOFs with Remarkable Proton Conductivity and Tunable Luminescence. (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Xie, Xiaoji; Li, Hongyu; Gao, Jiaxin; Nie, Li; Pan, Yue; Xie, Juan; Tian, Dan; Liu, Wenlong; Fan, Quli; Su, Haiquan; Huang, Ling; Huang, Wei


    Although proton conductors derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are highly anticipated for various applications including solid-state electrolytes, H2 sensors, and ammonia synthesis, they are facing serious challenges such as poor water stability, fastidious working conditions, and low proton conductivity. Herein, we report two lanthanide-oxalate MOFs that are highly water stable, with so far the highest room-temperature proton conductivity (3.42 × 10-3 S cm-1 ) under 100% relative humidity (RH) among lanthanide-based MOFs and, most importantly, luminescent. Moreover, the simultaneous response of both the proton conductivity and luminescence intensity to RH allows the linkage of proton conductivity with luminescence intensity. This way, the electric signal of proton conductivity variation versus RH will be readily translated to optical signal of luminescence intensity, which can be directly visualized by the naked eye. If proper lanthanide ions or even transition-metal ions are used, the working wavelengths of luminescence emissions can be further extended from visible to near infrared light for even wider-range applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Proton conducting membranes for high temperature fuel cells with solid state water free membranes (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor)


    A water free, proton conducting membrane for use in a fuel cell is fabricated as a highly conducting sheet of converted solid state organic amine salt, such as converted acid salt of triethylenediamine with two quaternized tertiary nitrogen atoms, combined with a nanoparticulate oxide and a stable binder combined with the converted solid state organic amine salt to form a polymeric electrolyte membrane. In one embodiment the membrane is derived from triethylenediamine sulfate, hydrogen phosphate or trifiate, an oxoanion with at least one ionizable hydrogen, organic tertiary amine bisulfate, polymeric quaternized amine bisulfate or phosphate, or polymeric organic compounds with quaternizable nitrogen combined with Nafion to form an intimate network with ionic interactions.

  8. Water and salt dynamics and the hydraulic conductivity feedback: irreversible soil degradation and reclamation opportunities (United States)

    Mau, Yair; Porporato, Amilcare


    We present a model for the dynamics of soil water, salt concentration and exchangeable sodium fraction in the root zone, driven by irrigation water of various qualities and stochastic rainfall. The main nonlinear feedback is the decrease in hydraulic conductivity for low salinity and/or high sodicity levels. The three variables have quite disparate characteristic time scales: soil water can vary two or three orders of magnitude faster than the exchangeable sodium fraction. In certain limiting cases in which the input of water is constant, the system can be simplified by eliminating the equation for soil water, allowing a full description of the dynamics in the two-dimensional salinity-sodicity phase space. We estimate soil structure degradation time scales for high sodium-adsorption-ratio irrigation water, and delineate the regions in the salinity-sodicity phase space where sodium-induced degradation is effectively irreversible. This apparent irreversibility is the result of relatively long evolution time scales with respect to human activity. When we take into account stochastic rainfall—and the accompanying wetting and drying cycles—the system produces a myriad of statistical steady states. This means that equal environmental conditions can produce different outcomes, accessible to each other only by large interventions, such as temporary changes in the quality of irrigation water or one-time amendment use. Our characterization of the dynamics of water and salt in the root zone, and how it depends on environmental parameters, offers us opportunities to control and reclaim degraded states making optimal resource use. We show an example of sodic soil reclamation through calcium-based fertigation, with minimal time (and applied water) expenditure.

  9. Water temperature, conductivity, and others collected from moorings in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-08-18 to 2012-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0164585) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A set of eight moorings were set up across the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone to measure the intermediate and deep water variability for a two-year period, from a depth...

  10. Water-vapor conductance of testudinian and crocodilian eggs (class reptilia). (United States)

    Packard, G C; Taigen, T L; Packard, M J; Shuman, R D


    Flexible-shelled eggs of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) have conductances to water vapor that are 55 times higher than predicted for avian eggs of similar size, whereas rigid-shelled eggs of softshell turtles (Trionyx spiniferus) and American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) have conductances that are only five times higher than expected for comparable eggs of birds. The differences between empirical and predicted values result from the much higher effective pore areas in reptilian eggshells than in those of birds. The relatively high porosities of these reptilian eggs presumably facilitate the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide eggshells in later stages of incubation when air trapped inside nest chambers may become hypoxic and hypercapnic, yet seem not to lead to excessive transpiration of water vapor owing to the high humidities in nests where incubation occurs.

  11. Comparative Investigation on the Heat Transfer Characteristics of Gaseous CO2 and Gaseous Water Flowing Through a Single Granite Fracture (United States)

    He, Yuanyuan; Bai, Bing; Li, Xiaochun


    CO2 and water are two commonly employed heat transmission fluids in several fields. Their temperature and pressure determine their phase states, thus affecting the heat transfer performance of the water/CO2. The heat transfer characteristics of gaseous CO2 and gaseous water flowing through fractured hot dry rock still need a great deal of investigation, in order to understand and evaluate the heat extraction in enhanced geothermal systems. In this work, we develop a 2D numerical model to compare the heat transfer performance of gaseous CO2 and gaseous water flowing through a single fracture aperture of 0.2 mm in a φ 50 × 50 mm cylindrical granite sample with a confining temperature of 200°C under different inlet mass flow rates. Our results indicate that: (1) the final outlet temperatures of the fluid are very close to the outer surface temperature under low inlet mass flow rate, regardless of the sample length. (2) Both the temperature of the fluid (gaseous CO2/gaseous water) and inner surface temperature rise sharply at the inlet, and the inner surface temperature is always higher than the fluid temperature. However, their temperature difference becomes increasingly small. (3) Both the overall heat transfer coefficient (OHTC) and local heat transfer coefficient (LHTC) of gaseous CO2 and gaseous water increase with increasing inlet mass flow rates. (4) Both the OHTC and LHTC of gaseous CO2 are lower than those of gaseous water under the same conditions; therefore, the heat mining performance of gaseous water is superior to gaseous CO2 under high temperature and low pressure.

  12. Laboratory hydraulic fracturing experiments in intact and pre-fractured rock (United States)

    Zoback, M.D.; Rummel, F.; Jung, R.; Raleigh, C.B.


    Laboratory hydraulic fracturing experiments were conducted to investigate two factors which could influence the use of the hydrofrac technique for in-situ stress determinations; the possible dependence of the breakdown pressure upon the rate of borehole pressurization, and the influence of pre-existing cracks on the orientation of generated fractures. The experiments have shown that while the rate of borehole pressurization has a marked effect on breakdown pressures, the pressure at which hydraulic fractures initiate (and thus tensile strength) is independent of the rate of borehole pressurization when the effect of fluid penetration is negligible. Thus, the experiments indicate that use of breakdown pressures rather than fracture initiation pressures may lead to an erroneous estimate of tectonic stresses. A conceptual model is proposed to explain anomalously high breakdown pressures observed when fracturing with high viscosity fluids. In this model, initial fracture propagation is presumed to be stable due to large differences between the borehole pressure and that within the fracture. In samples which contained pre-existing fractures which were 'leaky' to water, we found it possible to generate hydraulic fractures oriented parallel to the direction of maximum compression if high viscosity drilling mud was used as the fracturing fluid. ?? 1977.

  13. Time-Lapse Monitoring of Soil Water Content Using Electromagnetic Conductivity Imaging (United States)

    Triantafilis, J.; Huang, J.


    The volumetric soil water content (θ) is fundamental to agriculture because its spatio-temporal variation in soil affects plant growth. The universally accepted thermogravimetric method for estimating θ is labour intensive and time-consuming to use for field-scale monitoring. Electromagnetic (EM) induction has proven useful in mapping spatio-temporal variation of θ. However, depth-specific variation, which is important for irrigation management has been little explored. In this study we develop a relationship between θ and estimates of true electrical conductivity (σ) and use this to develop time-lapse images of θ beneath a center-pivot irrigated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) field in San Jacinto, California, USA. We measure the bulk apparent electrical conductivity (ECa - mS/m) using a DUALEM-421 over a period of 12 days after an irrigation event (i.e., days 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12). We use EM4Soil to generate electromagnetic conductivity images (EMCI). Testing the scenario where no soil information is available, we used a 3-parameter exponential model to relate θ to σ and then to map θ along the transect on different days. The results allow us to monitor the spatio-temporal variations of θ over the 12-day period. In this regard we were able to map the soil close to field capacity (0.27 cm3/cm3) and approaching permanent wilting point (0.03 cm3/cm3). The time-lapse θ monitoring approach, has implications for soil and water-use and management and allows farmers to identify inefficiencies in water application rates and use. It can also be used as a research tool to potentially assist precision irrigation practices and to test the efficacy of different methods of irrigation in terms of water delivery and efficiency in water use in near real-time.

  14. Regulation of Water Pollution from Hydraulic Fracturing in Horizontally-Drilled Wells in the Marcellus Shale Region, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Hatzenbuhler


    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is an industrial process used to extract fossil fuel reserves that lie deep underground. With the introduction of horizontal drilling, new commercial sources of energy have become available. Wells are drilled and injected with large quantities of water mixed with specially selected chemicals at high pressures that allow petroleum reserves to flow to the surface. While the increased economic activities and the outputs of domestic energy are welcomed, there is growing concern over negative environmental impacts from horizontal drilling in shale formations. The potential for water contamination, land destruction, air pollution, and geologic disruption has raised concerns about the merits of production activities used during extraction. This paper looks at the impacts of horizontal drilling using hydraulic fracturing on water supplies and takes a comprehensive look at legislative and regulatory approaches to mitigate environmental risks in the Marcellus shale region. The overview identifies shortcomings associated with regulatory controls by local and state governments and offers two policy suggestions to better protect waters of the region.

  15. Assessment of Surface Water Contamination from Coalbed Methane Fracturing-Derived Volatile Contaminants in Sullivan County, Indiana, USA. (United States)

    Meszaros, Nicholas; Subedi, Bikram; Stamets, Tristan; Shifa, Naima


    There is a growing concern over the contamination of surface water and the associated environmental and public health consequences from the recent proliferation of hydraulic fracturing in the USA. Petroleum hydrocarbon-derived contaminants of concern [benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] and various dissolved cations and anions were spatially determined in surface waters around 15 coalbed methane fracking wells in Sullivan County, IN, USA. At least one BTEX compound was detected in 69% of sampling sites (n = 13) and 23% of sampling sites were found to be contaminated with all of the BTEX compounds. Toluene was the most common BTEX compound detected across all sampling sites, both upstream and downstream from coalbed methane fracking wells. The average concentration of toluene at a reservoir and its outlet nearby the fracking wells was ~2× higher than other downstream sites. However, one of the upstream sites was found to be contaminated with BTEX at similar concentrations as in a reservoir site nearby the fracking well. Calcium (~60 ppm) and sulfates (~175 ppm) were the dominant cations and anions, respectively, in surface water around the fracking sites. This study represents the first report of BTEX contamination in surface water from coalbed methane hydraulic fracturing wells.

  16. Modeling Flow Rate to Estimate Hydraulic Conductivity in a Parabolic Ceramic Water Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Wald


    Full Text Available In this project we model volumetric flow rate through a parabolic ceramic water filter (CWF to determine how quickly it can process water while still improving its quality. The volumetric flow rate is dependent upon the pore size of the filter, the surface area, and the height of water in the filter (hydraulic head. We derive differential equations governing this flow from the conservation of mass principle and Darcy's Law and find the flow rate with respect to time. We then use methods of calculus to find optimal specifications for the filter. This work is related to the research conducted in Dr. James R. Mihelcic's Civil and Environmental Engineering Lab at USF.

  17. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Controllable Electrical Conductivity and Water Adhesion. (United States)

    Ye, Lijun; Guan, Jipeng; Li, Zhixiang; Zhao, Jingxin; Ye, Cuicui; You, Jichun; Li, Yongjin


    A facile and versatile strategy for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces with controllable electrical conductivity and water adhesion is reported. "Vine-on-fence"-structured and cerebral cortex-like superhydrophobic surfaces are constructed by filtering a suspension of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), using polyoxymethylene nonwovens as the filter paper. The nonwovens with micro- and nanoporous two-tier structures act as the skeleton, introducing a microscale structure. The MWCNTs act as nanoscale structures, creating hierarchical surface roughness. The surface topography and the electrical conductivity of the superhydrophobic surfaces are controlled by varying the MWCNT loading. The vine-on-fence-structured surfaces exhibit "sticky" superhydrophobicity with high water adhesion. The cerebral cortex-like surfaces exhibit self-cleaning properties with low water adhesion. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces are chemically resistant to acidic and alkaline environments of pH 2-12. They therefore have potential in applications such as droplet-based microreactors and thin-film microextraction. These findings aid our understanding of the role that surface topography plays in the design and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with different water-adhesion properties.

  18. Simulating soil-water movement through loess-veneered landscapes using nonconsilient saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lee, Brad D.; Schoeneberger, Philip J.; McCauley, W. M.; Indorante, Samuel J.; Owens, Phillip R.


    Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) data are available for the entire United States, so are incorporated in many regional and national models of hydrology and environmental management. However, SSURGO does not provide an understanding of spatial variability and only includes saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) values estimated from particle size analysis (PSA). This study showed model sensitivity to the substitution of SSURGO data with locally described soil properties or alternate methods of measuring Ksat. Incorporation of these different soil data sets significantly changed the results of hydrologic modeling as a consequence of the amount of space available to store soil water and how this soil water is moved downslope. Locally described soil profiles indicated a difference in Ksat when measured in the field vs. being estimated from PSA. This, in turn, caused a difference in which soil layers were incorporated in the hydrologic simulations using TOPMODEL, ultimately affecting how soil water storage was simulated. Simulations of free-flowing soil water, the amount of water traveling through pores too large to retain water against gravity, were compared with field observations of water in wells at five slope positions along a catena. Comparison of the simulated data with the observed data showed that the ability to model the range of conditions observed in the field varied as a function of three soil data sets (SSURGO and local field descriptions using PSA-derived Ksat or field-measured Ksat) and that comparison of absolute values of soil water storage are not valid if different characterizations of soil properties are used.

  19. 40 CFR 141.211 - Special notice for repeated failure to conduct monitoring of the source water for Cryptosporidium... (United States)


    ... conduct monitoring of the source water for Cryptosporidium and for failure to determine bin classification... of the source water for Cryptosporidium and for failure to determine bin classification or mean... operator of a community or non-community water system that is required to monitor source water under § 141...

  20. Conductive 3D sponges for affordable and highly-efficient water purification. (United States)

    Liu, Yanbiao; Li, Fang; Xia, Qin; Wu, Jiawei; Liu, Jianshe; Huang, Mingzhi; Xie, Jianping


    Effective, affordable and low energy water purification technologies are highly desirable to address the current environmental issues. In this study, we developed a low-cost method to achieve efficient organic pollutants degradation by incorporating conductive nanomaterials (i.e., carbon nanotubes, CNTs) to assist electro-oxidation, leading to an efficient conductive nano-sponge filtration device. The integration of electrochemistry has significantly improved the performance of the sponge-based device to adsorb and oxidize organic compounds in aqueous solution. In particular, CNT materials could serve as both high-performance electro-catalysts for pollutant degradation and conductive additives that make polyurethane sponges highly conductive. On the other hand, the polyurethane sponge could work as a low-cost and highly porous matrix that could effectively host these CNT conductors. The conductive sponge can be easily fabricated by a simple dying based approach. The as-fabricated gravity fed device could effectively oxidize two model organic compounds (i.e., >92% antibiotic tetracycline and >94% methyl orange) via a single pass through the conductive sponge under the optimized experimental conditions (e.g., [Na 2 SO 4 ] = 10 mmol L -1 , [CNT] = 0.3 mg mL -1 , and [SDBS] = 2.0 mg mL -1 ). We have achieved >88% degradation efficiency for the antibiotic tetracycline within 6 h of continuous operation with an average electro-oxidation flux of 0.82 ± 0.05 mol h -1 m -2 and an energy requirement of 1.0 kW h kg -1 COD or <0.02 kW h m -3 . These promising data make our CNT-sponge filtration device attractive for affordable and effective water purification.

  1. The Finite Element Analysis for a Mini-Conductance Probe in Horizontal Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihang Kong


    Full Text Available Oil-water two-phase flow is widespread in petroleum industry processes. The study of oil-water two-phase flow in horizontal pipes and the liquid holdup measurement of oil-water two-phase flow are of great importance for the optimization of the oil production process. This paper presents a novel sensor, i.e., a mini-conductance probe (MCP for measuring pure-water phase conductivity of oil-water segregated flow in horizontal pipes. The MCP solves the difficult problem of obtaining the pure-water correction for water holdup measurements by using a ring-shaped conductivity water-cut meter (RSCWCM. Firstly, using the finite element method (FEM, the spatial sensitivity field of the MCP is investigated and the optimized MCP geometry structure is determined in terms of the characteristic parameters. Then, the responses of the MCP for the oil-water segregated flow are calculated, and it is found that the MCP has better stability and sensitivity to the variation of water-layer thickness in the condition of high water holdup and low flow velocity. Finally, the static experiments for the oil-water segregated flow were carried out and a novel calibration method for pure-water phase conductivity measurements was presented. The validity of the pure-water phase conductivity measurement with segregated flow in horizontal pipes was verified by experimental results.

  2. Fluorine follows water: Effect on electrical conductivity of silicate minerals by experimental constraints from phlogopite (United States)

    Li, Yan; Jiang, Haotian; Yang, Xiaozhi


    mantle, and if they form connected networks as observed for some natural samples, regionally high electrical conductivities could be produced. It has been recently proposed that the transition zone is probably a major reservoir for fluorine in the mantle, due to the significant dissolution of fluorine in wadsleyite and ringwoodite and the coupled incorporation with hydroxyl groups. As such, geophysically-resolved high electrical conductivities in the transition zone may be accounted for by fluorine in the dominant minerals, rather than by hydroxyl groups. The results of this work would stimulate a wide scope of future studies on the deep fluorine cycle, the deep water cycle and the geodynamical properties of the mantle.

  3. Abiogenic and Microbial Controls on Volatile Fatty Acids in Precambrian Crustal Fracture Waters (United States)

    McDermott, J. M.; Heuer, V.; Tille, S.; Moran, J.; Slater, G.; Sutcliffe, C. N.; Glein, C. R.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Sherwood Lollar, B.


    Saline fracture waters within the Precambrian Shield rocks of Canada and South Africa have been sequestered underground over geologic timescales up to 1.1-1.8 Ga [1, 2]. These fluids are rich in H2 derived from radiolysis and hydration of mafic and ultramafic rocks [1, 2, 3] and host a low-biomass, low-diversity microbial ecosystem at some sites [2]. The abiogenic or biogenic nature of geochemical processes has important implications for bioavailable carbon sources and the role played by abiotic organic synthesis in sustaining a chemosynthetic deep biosphere. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are simple carboxylic acids that may support microbial communities in such environments, such as those found in terrestrial [4] and deep-sea [5] hot springs. We present abundance and δ13C analysis for VFAs in a spectrum of Canadian Shield fluids characterized by varying dissolved H2, CH4, and C2+ n-alkane compositions. Isotope mass balance indicates that microbially mediated fermentation of carbon-rich graphitic sulfides may produce the elevated levels of acetate (39-273 μM) found in Birchtree and Thompson mine. In contrast, thermodynamic considerations and isotopic signatures of the notably higher acetate (1.2-1.9 mM), as well as formate and propionate abundances (371-816 μM and 20-38 μM, respectively) found at Kidd Creek mine suggest a role for abiogenic production via reduction of dissolved inorganic carbon with H2 for formate, and oxidation of C2+ n-alkanes for acetate and propionate, along with possible microbial cycling. VFAs comprise the bulk of dissolved and total organic carbon in the mines surveyed, and as such represent a potential key substrate for life. [1] Holland et al. (2013) Nature 497: 367-360. [2] Lin et al. (2006) Science 314: 479-482. [3] Sherwood Lollar et al. (2014) Nature 516: 379-382. [4] Windman et al. (2007) Astrobiology 7(6): 873-890. [5] Lang et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 92: 82-99.

  4. Three dimensional numerical modeling for investigation of fracture zone filled with water by borehole radar; Borehole radar ni yoru gansui hasaitai kenshutsu no sanjigen suchi modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hasegawa, K.; Yabuuchi, S. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Water bearing fracture zones existing in rock mass largely influence the underground water flow and dynamic property of rock mass. The detailed survey of the location and size of water bearing fracture zones is an important task in the fields such as civil engineering, environment and disaster prevention. Electromagnetic waves of high frequency zones can be grasped as a wave phenomenon, and the record obtained in the actual measurement is wave forms of time series. In the exploration using borehole radar, this water bearing fracture zone becomes the reflection surface, and also becomes a factor of damping in the transmitted wave. By examining changes which these give to the observed wave forms, therefore, water bearing fracture zones can be detected. This study made three dimensional numerical modeling using the time domain finite difference method, and obtained the same output as the observed wave form obtained using borehole radar. By using this program and changing each of the parameters such as frequency and resistivity in the homogeneous medium, changes of the wave forms were observed. Further, examples were shown of modeling of detection of water bearing fracture zones. 5 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface ground water: background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas and water transport (United States)

    Researchers examined gas and water transport between a deep tight shale gas reservoir and a shallow overlying aquifer in the two years following hydraulic fracturing, assuming a pre-existing connecting pathway.

  6. Diagnostic value of "bedside ultrasonography" and the "water bath technique" in distal forearm, wrist, and hand bone fractures. (United States)

    Javadzadeh, Hamid Reza; Davoudi, Amir; Davoudi, Farnoush; Ghane, Mohammad Reza; Khajepoor, Hojatolla; Goodarzi, Hasan; Faraji, Mehrdad; Mahmoudi, Sadrollah; Shariat, Somayeh Sadat; Emami Meybodi, Kazem


    Bedside ultrasonography (BUS) has been widely used in many emergency evaluations, but the technique was not thoroughly evaluated for use in adult fractures. The water bath technique (WBT) is a modality which overcomes some important limitations of using BUS in extremity fractures. The study aims to evaluate and compare diagnostic values of BUS and WBT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-), and accuracy of BUS and WBT were calculated and compared by the McNemar chi-square test. BUS had the highest sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and LR+ in the distal forearm. The highest NPV and LR- of BUS were seen in phalangeal and wrist injuries, respectively. The WBT examination had the highest sensitivity in phalangeal injuries and the highest specificity, PPV, and LR+ in the distal forearm. The highest NPV and LR- of the WBT examination were seen in phalangeal and wrist injuries, respectively. The McNemar χ (2) values for the comparison of BUS and WBT indicate that the two techniques provide statistically different results. The ultrasound revealed excellent diagnostic values which make it a favorable alternative in evaluating upper extremity fractures in adults. The WBT provides even better results.

  7. The Pennsylvania Experience with Hydraulic Fracturing for Shale Gas Development: Relatively Infrequent Water Quality Incidents with Lots of Public Attention (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Li, Z.; Yoxtheimer, D.; Vidic, R.


    New techniques of hydraulic fracturing - "fracking" - have changed the United States over the last 10 years into a leading producer of natural gas extraction from shale. The first such gas well in Pennsylvania was drilled and completed using high-volume hydraulic fracturing in 2004. By late 2014, more than 8500 of these gas wells had been drilled in the Marcellus Shale gas field in Pennsylvania alone. Almost 1000 public complaints about groundwater quality were logged by the PA Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP) between 2008 and 2012. Only a fraction of these were attributed to unconventional gas development. The most common problem was gas migration into drinking water, but contamination incidents also included spills, seepage, or leaks of fracking fluids, brine salts, or very occasionally, radioactive species. Many problems of gas migration were from a few counties in the northeastern part of the state. However, sometimes one gas well contaminated multiple water wells. For example, one gas well was reported by the state regulator to have contaminated 18 water wells with methane near Dimock PA. It can be argued that such problems at a relatively small fraction of gas wells initiated pockets of pushback against fracking worldwide. This resistance to fracking has grown even though fracking has been in use in the U.S.A. since the 1940s. We have worked as part of an NSF-funded project (the Shale Network) to share water quality data and publish it online using the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System. Sharing data has led to collaborative investigation of specific contamination incidents to understand how problems can occur, and to efforts to quantify the frequency of impacts. The Shale Network efforts have also highlighted the need for more transparency with water quality data in the arena related to the energy-water nexus. As more data are released, new techniques of data analysis will allow better understanding of how to tune best practices to be

  8. Numerical modeling of the effects of roughness on flow and eddy formation in fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Briggs


    Full Text Available The effect of roughness on flow in fractures was investigated using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM. Simulations were conducted for both statistically generated hypothetical fractures and a natural dolomite fracture. The effect of increasing roughness on effective hydraulic aperture, Izbash and Forchheimer parameters with increasing Reynolds number (Re ranging from 0.01 to 500 was examined. The growth of complex flow features, such as eddies arising near the fracture surface, was directly associated with changes in surface roughness. Rapid eddy growth above Re values of 1, followed by less rapid growth at higher Re values, suggested a three-zone nonlinear model for flow in rough fractures. This three-zone model, relating effective hydraulic conductivity to Re, was also found to be appropriate for the simulation of water flow in the natural dolomite fracture. Increasing fracture roughness led to greater eddy volumes and lower effective hydraulic conductivities for the same Re values.

  9. Conducting thermomechanical fatigue test in air at light water reactor relevant temperature intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, Mageshwaran [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Leber, Hans J., E-mail: [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Diener, Markus; Spolenak, Ralph [Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)


    In Light Water Reactors (LWR), many structural components are made of austenitic stainless steels (SS). These components are subject to extreme conditions, such as large temperature gradients and pressure loads during service. Hence, the fatigue and fracture behavior of austenitic SS under these conditions has evoked consistent interest over the years. Most studies dealing with this problem in the past, investigated the isothermal fatigue (IF) condition, which is not the case in the service, and less attention has been paid to thermomechanical fatigue (TMF). Moreover, the existing codes of practice and standards for TMF testing are mainly derived from the high temperature TMF tests (T{sub mean} > 400 deg. C). This work presents the development of a facility to perform TMF tests under LWR relevant temperature interval in air. The realized testing parameters and tolerances are compared with the recommendations of existing codes of practice and standards from high temperature tests. The effectiveness of the testing facility was verified with series of TMF and IF tests performed on specimens made out of a commercial austenitic SS TP347 pipe material. The results revealed that the existing tolerances in standards are quite strict for the application of lower temperature ranges TMF tests. It was found that the synchronous, in-phase (IP) TMF tested specimens possess a higher lifetime than those subjected to the asynchronous, out-of-phase (OP) TMF and IF at T{sub max} in the investigated strain range for austenitic SS. Nevertheless, the fatigue lifetime of all the test conditions was similar in the engineering scale.

  10. Water sources for cyanobacteria below desert rocks in the Negev Desert determined by conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. McKay


    Full Text Available We present year round meteorological and conductivity measurements of colonized hypolithic rocks in the Arava Valley, Negev Desert, Israel. The data indicate that while dew is common in the Negev it is not an important source of moisture for hypolithic organisms at this site. The dominance of cyanobacteria in the hypolithic community is consistent with predictions that cyanobacteria are confined to habitats supplied by rain. To monitor the presence of liquid water under the small Negev rocks we developed and tested a simple field conductivity system based on two wires placed about 0.5 cm apart. Based on 21 replicates recorded for one year in the Negev we conclude that in natural rains (0.25 mm to 6 mm the variability between sensor readings is between 20 and 60% decreasing with increasing rain amount. We conclude that the simple small electrical conductivity system described here can be used effectively to monitor liquid water levels in lithic habitats. However, the natural variability of these sensors indicates that several replicates should be deployed. The results and method presented have use in arid desert reclamation programs.

  11. Water Sources for Cyanobacteria Below Desert Rocks in the Negev Desert Determined by Conductivity (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.


    We present year round meteorological and conductivity measurements of colonized hypolithic rocks in the Arava Valley, Negev Desert, Israel. The data indicate that while dew is common in the Negev it is not an important source of moisture for hypolithic organisms at this site. The dominance of cyanobacteria in the hypolithic community are consistent with predictions that cyanobacteria are confined to habitats supplied by rain. To monitor the presence of liquid water under the small Negev rocks we developed and tested a simple field conductivity system based on two wires placed about 0.5 cm apart. Based on 21 replicates recorded for one year in the Negev we conclude that in natural rains (0.25 mm to 6 mm) the variability between sensor readings is between 20 and 60% decreasing with increasing rain amount. We conclude that the simple small electrical conductivity system described here can be used effectively to monitor liquid water levels in lithic habitats. However, the natural variability of these sensors indicates that several replicates should be deployed. The results and method presented have use in arid desert reclamation programs.

  12. Thermal Effusivity and Thermal Conductivity of Biodiesel/Diesel and Alcohol/Water Mixtures (United States)

    Guimarães, A. O.; Machado, F. A. L.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.


    The photopyroelectric (PPE) technique was used for the determination of the thermal effusivity and thermal conductivity of biodiesel in diesel and other binary liquid mixtures, precisely, ethanol, and ethylene glycol in water. The front configuration (FPPE) has been explored in the frequency scan approach for obtaining thermal-effusivity values. Measurements show good reproducibility, with uncertainties around 1 % to 2 %, and the results for reference samples, such as ethanol and water, are in good agreement with literature values. The thermal-conductivity values of all samples were determined using the thermal-effusivity data presented here and the thermal-diffusivity data of exactly the same set of samples, reported elsewhere. Based on these results, the different strengths in the molecular interactions related to the several mixtures were evidenced, as proposed by Dadarlat et al. It was shown that, indeed, the thermal effusivity is the property presenting the smallest sensitivity for the molecular association phenomenon, while the thermal conductivity presents an intermediate sensitivity. Nevertheless, the analysis of both properties revealed the existence of weak cohesive interactions among the hydrocarbons of diesel and the esters of biodiesel.

  13. Discrete Fracture Network Characterization of Fractured Shale Reservoirs with Implications to Hydraulic Fracturing Optimization (United States)

    Jin, G.


    Shales are important petroleum source rocks and reservoir seals. Recent developments in hydraulic fracturing technology have facilitated high gas production rates from shale and have had a strong impact on the U.S. gas supply and markets. Modeling of effective permeability for fractured shale reservoirs has been challenging because the presence of a fracture network significantly alters the reservoir hydrologic properties. Due to the frequent occurrence of fracture networks, it is of vital importance to characterize fracture networks and to investigate how these networks can be used to optimize the hydraulic fracturing. We have conducted basic research on 3-D fracture permeability characterization and compartmentization analyses for fractured shale formations, which takes the advantages of the discrete fracture networks (DFN). The DFN modeling is a stochastic modeling approach using the probabilistic density functions of fractures. Three common scenarios of DFN models have been studied for fracture permeability mapping using our previously proposed techniques. In DFN models with moderately to highly concentrated fractures, there exists a representative element volume (REV) for fracture permeability characterization, which indicates that the fractured reservoirs can be treated as anisotropic homogeneous media. Hydraulic fracturing will be most effective if the orientation of the hydraulic fracture is perpendicular to the mean direction of the fractures. A DFN model with randomized fracture orientations, on the other hand, lacks an REV for fracture characterization. Therefore, a fracture permeability tensor has to be computed from each element. Modeling of fracture interconnectivity indicates that there exists no preferred direction for hydraulic fracturing to be most effective oweing to the interconnected pathways of the fracture network. 3-D fracture permeability mapping has been applied to the Devonian Chattanooga Shale in Alabama and the results suggest that an

  14. Microbial mats as a biological treatment approach for saline wastewaters: the case of produced water from hydraulic fracturing. (United States)

    Akyon, Benay; Stachler, Elyse; Wei, Na; Bibby, Kyle


    Treatment of produced water, i.e. wastewater from hydraulic fracturing, for reuse or final disposal is challenged by both high salinity and the presence of organic compounds. Organic compounds in produced water may foul physical-chemical treatment processes or support microbial corrosion, fouling, and sulfide release. Biological approaches have potential applications in produced water treatment, including reducing fouling of physical-chemical treatment processes and decreasing biological activity during produced water holding; however, conventional activated sludge treatments are intolerant of high salinity. In this study, a biofilm treatment approach using constructed microbial mats was evaluated for biodegradation performance, microbial community structure, and metabolic potential in both simulated and real produced water. Results demonstrated that engineered microbial mats are active at total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations up to at least 100,000 mg/L, and experiments in real produced water showed a biodegradation capacity of 1.45 mg COD/gramwet-day at a TDS concentration of 91,351 mg/L. Additionally, microbial community and metagenomic analyses revealed an adaptive microbial community that shifted based upon the sample being treated and has the metabolic potential to degrade a wide array of contaminants, suggesting the potential of this approach to treat produced waters with varying composition.

  15. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and surface and ground water in a drilling-dense region (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Davis, J. Wade; Hormann, Anette M.; Nagel, Susan C.


    The rapid rise in natural gas extraction using hydraulic fracturing increases the potential for contamination of surface and ground water from chemicals used throughout the process. Hundreds of products containing more than 750 chemicals and components are potentially used throughout the extraction process, including more than 100 known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We hypothesized thataselected subset of chemicalsusedin natural gas drilling operationsandalso surface and ground water samples collected in a drilling-dense region of Garfield County, Colorado, would exhibit estrogen and androgen receptor activities. Water samples were collected, solid-phase extracted, and measured for estrogen and androgen receptor activities using reporter gene assays in human cell lines. Of the 39 unique water samples, 89%, 41%, 12%, and 46% exhibited estrogenic, antiestrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic activities, respectively. Testing of a subset of natural gas drilling chemicals revealed novel antiestrogenic, novel antiandrogenic, and limited estrogenic activities. The Colorado River, the drainage basin for this region, exhibited moderate levels of estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and antiandrogenic activities, suggesting that higher localized activity at sites with known natural gas–related spills surrounding the river might be contributing to the multiple receptor activities observed in this water source. The majority of water samples collected from sites in a drilling-dense region of Colorado exhibited more estrogenic, antiestrogenic, or antiandrogenic activities than reference sites with limited nearby drilling operations. Our data suggest that natural gas drilling operationsmayresult in elevated endocrine-disrupting chemical activity in surface and ground water.

  16. Impact of the water salinity on the hydraulic conductivity of fen peat (United States)

    Gosch, Lennart; Janssen, Manon; Lennartz, Bernd


    Coastal peatlands represent an interface between marine and terrestrial ecosystems; their hydrology is affected by salt and fresh water inflow alike. Previous studies on bog peat have shown that pore water salinity can have an impact on the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of peat because of chemical pore dilation effects. In this ongoing study, we are aiming at quantifying the impact of higher salinities (up to 3.5 %) on Ks of fen peat to get a better understanding of the water and solute exchange between coastal peatlands and the adjacent sea. Two approaches differing in measurement duration employing a constant-head upward-flow permeameter were conducted. At first, Ks was measured at an initial salinity for several hours before the salinity was abruptly increased and the measurement continued. In the second approach, Ks was measured for 15 min at the salt content observed during sampling. Then, samples were completely (de)salinized via diffusion for several days/weeks before a comparison measurement was carried out. The results for degraded fen peats show a decrease of Ks during long-term measurements which does not depend on the water salinity. A slow, diffusion-controlled change in salinity does not modify the overall outcome that the duration of measurements has a stronger impact on Ks than the salinity. Further experiments will show if fen peat soils differing in their state of degradation exhibit a different behavior. A preliminary conclusion is that salinity might have a less important effect on hydraulic properties of fen peat than it was observed for bog peat.

  17. Highly Conductive Semitransparent Graphene Circuits Screen-Printed from Water-Based Graphene Oxide Ink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Marc H.; Kuhnel, Martin; Hvidsten, Rasmus


    The use of graphene materials as conductive inks for flexible and transparent electronics is promising, but challenged by the need for stabilizers, specialized organic solvents, and/or high temperature annealing, severely limiting performance or compatibility with substrates and printing techniques....... Here, the development of a scalable water-based graphene oxide ink is reported that can be screen-printed on flexible plastic substrates and subsequently reduced using a 1: 1 mixture of trifluoroacetic acid and hydroiodic acid, thereby creating an electric circuit. The reduced prints exhibit low sheet...

  18. Use of a New Simltaneous Absorbance-Fluorescene Instrument to Monitor Hydraluic Fracture Mining Waste Water to Prevent Drinking Water Contamination (United States)

    Gilmore, A. M.


    Recently, the issue of waste water effuse from oil and gas mining, especially that including hydraulic fracturing, has resurfaced on the news and the political atmosphere as an area of concern. One of the key concerns is drinking water contamination from the hydraulic fracturing chemicals and chemicals contained in the water introduced into the well at high-pressure and the flowback and produced water associate with the petroleum product extraction. The key to successfully meeting drinking water safety requirements lies in the drinking water treatment plant's ability to deal with often dramatic source-water variations in natural organic matter (NOM) content that can react during disinfection with high levels of chloride and bromide found in hydraulic facture waste water to form toxc disinfection by-products (DBPs). Importantly, the brominated DBP species are particularly dangerous. Whereas the regulated levels of NOM can roughly determined by measuring total organic carbon (TOC), often this parameter does not provide rapid or cost-effective qualitative or quantitative assessment of the various humic, fulvic and other aromatic NOM components associated with DBP formation. However, two main optical techniques namely UV absorbance and fluorescence excitation-emission mapping can be used for rapid assessment with precise identification of humic and fulvic components that cause DBPs. This study presents data from a new type of instrument which simultaneously measures the UV-VIS absorbance spectrum and EEM. The rapid absorbance-EEM is facilitated by a single system that is more than 100 time faster than conventional scanning absorbance and fluorescence optical benches. The new system can continuously collect EEMs and absorbance spectra at a rate often greater than 1 per min with the extra capacity to monitor the UV254 absorbance and fluorescence emission spectrum excited at 254 nm in 4 ms intervals (an equivalent scan rate of 5.5 million nm/min). The EEM spectral data is

  19. Reliable yields of public water-supply wells in the fractured-rock aquifers of central Maryland, USA (United States)

    Hammond, Patrick A.


    Most studies of fractured-rock aquifers are about analytical models used for evaluating aquifer tests or numerical methods for describing groundwater flow, but there have been few investigations on how to estimate the reliable long-term drought yields of individual hard-rock wells. During the drought period of 1998 to 2002, many municipal water suppliers in the Piedmont/Blue Ridge areas of central Maryland (USA) had to institute water restrictions due to declining well yields. Previous estimates of the yields of those wells were commonly based on extrapolating drawdowns, measured during short-term single-well hydraulic pumping tests, to the first primary water-bearing fracture in a well. The extrapolations were often made from pseudo-equilibrium phases, frequently resulting in substantially over-estimated well yields. The methods developed in the present study to predict yields consist of extrapolating drawdown data from infinite acting radial flow periods or by fitting type curves of other conceptual models to the data, using diagnostic plots, inverse analysis and derivative analysis. Available drawdowns were determined by the positions of transition zones in crystalline rocks or thin-bedded consolidated sandstone/limestone layers (reservoir rocks). Aquifer dewatering effects were detected by type-curve matching of step-test data or by breaks in the drawdown curves constructed from hydraulic tests. Operational data were then used to confirm the predicted yields and compared to regional groundwater levels to determine seasonal variations in well yields. Such well yield estimates are needed by hydrogeologists and water engineers for the engineering design of water systems, but should be verified by the collection of long-term monitoring data.

  20. Reliable yields of public water-supply wells in the fractured-rock aquifers of central Maryland, USA (United States)

    Hammond, Patrick A.


    Most studies of fractured-rock aquifers are about analytical models used for evaluating aquifer tests or numerical methods for describing groundwater flow, but there have been few investigations on how to estimate the reliable long-term drought yields of individual hard-rock wells. During the drought period of 1998 to 2002, many municipal water suppliers in the Piedmont/Blue Ridge areas of central Maryland (USA) had to institute water restrictions due to declining well yields. Previous estimates of the yields of those wells were commonly based on extrapolating drawdowns, measured during short-term single-well hydraulic pumping tests, to the first primary water-bearing fracture in a well. The extrapolations were often made from pseudo-equilibrium phases, frequently resulting in substantially over-estimated well yields. The methods developed in the present study to predict yields consist of extrapolating drawdown data from infinite acting radial flow periods or by fitting type curves of other conceptual models to the data, using diagnostic plots, inverse analysis and derivative analysis. Available drawdowns were determined by the positions of transition zones in crystalline rocks or thin-bedded consolidated sandstone/limestone layers (reservoir rocks). Aquifer dewatering effects were detected by type-curve matching of step-test data or by breaks in the drawdown curves constructed from hydraulic tests. Operational data were then used to confirm the predicted yields and compared to regional groundwater levels to determine seasonal variations in well yields. Such well yield estimates are needed by hydrogeologists and water engineers for the engineering design of water systems, but should be verified by the collection of long-term monitoring data.

  1. Stability and electrical conductivity of water-base Al2O3 nanofluids for different applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Zawrah


    Full Text Available In this study, Al2O3–H2O nanofluids were synthesized using sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS dispersant agent by ultra-sonication method. Different amounts of SDBS i.e. 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 wt.% were tested to stabilize the prepared nanofluids. The stability of nanofluids was verified using optical microscope, transmission electron microscope and Zeta potential. After selecting the suitable amount of dispersant, nanofluids with different volume fractions of Al2O3 were prepared. Zeta potential measurement of nanofluids with low alumina and intermediate fractions showed good dispersion of Al2O3 nanoparticles in water, but nanofluids with high mass fraction were easier to aggregate. The stabilized nanofluids were subjected for measuring of rheological behavior and electrical conductivity. The electrical conductivity was correlated to the thermal conductivity according to Wiedemann–Franz law. The results revealed that the nanofluid containing 1% SDBS was the most stable one and settling was observed for the fluid contained 0.75 vol.% of Al2O3 nanoparticles which gave higher viscosity. The rheological measurements indicated that the viscosity of nanofluids decreased firstly with increasing shear rate (shear thinning behavior. Addition of nanoparticles into the base liquid enhanced the electrical conductivity up to 0.2 vol.% of Al2O3 nano-particles after which it decreased.

  2. Calibration of a modified temperature-light intensity logger for quantifying water electrical conductivity (United States)

    Gillman, M. A.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Lafrenière, M. J.


    The Stream Temperature, Intermittency, and Conductivity (STIC) electrical conductivity (EC) logger as presented by Chapin et al. (2014) serves as an inexpensive (˜50 USD) means to assess relative EC in freshwater environments. This communication demonstrates the calibration of the STIC logger for quantifying EC, and provides examples from a month long field deployment in the High Arctic. Calibration models followed multiple nonlinear regression and produced calibration curves with high coefficient of determination values (R2 = 0.995 - 0.998; n = 5). Percent error of mean predicted specific conductance at 25°C (SpC) to known SpC ranged in magnitude from -0.6% to 13% (mean = -1.4%), and mean absolute percent error (MAPE) ranged from 2.1% to 13% (mean = 5.3%). Across all tested loggers we found good accuracy and precision, with both error metrics increasing with increasing SpC values. During 10, month-long field deployments, there were no logger failures and full data recovery was achieved. Point SpC measurements at the location of STIC loggers recorded via a more expensive commercial electrical conductivity logger followed similar trends to STIC SpC records, with 1:1.05 and 1:1.08 relationships between the STIC and commercial logger SpC values. These results demonstrate that STIC loggers calibrated to quantify EC are an economical means to increase the spatiotemporal resolution of water quality investigations.

  3. A review on risk assessment techniques for hydraulic fracturing water and produced water management implemented in onshore unconventional oil and gas production. (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak


    The objective of this paper is to review different risk assessment techniques applicable to onshore unconventional oil and gas production to determine the risks to water quantity and quality associated with hydraulic fracturing and produced water management. Water resources could be at risk without proper management of water, chemicals, and produced water. Previous risk assessments in the oil and gas industry were performed from an engineering perspective leaving aside important social factors. Different risk assessment methods and techniques are reviewed and summarized to select the most appropriate one to perform a holistic and integrated analysis of risks at every stage of the water life cycle. Constraints to performing risk assessment are identified including gaps in databases, which require more advanced techniques such as modeling. Discussions on each risk associated with water and produced water management, mitigation strategies, and future research direction are presented. Further research on risks in onshore unconventional oil and gas will benefit not only the U.S. but also other countries with shale oil and gas resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Antolović


    Full Text Available The interest and performance of horizontal drilling and completions has increased during the last two decades. Horizontal wells are advantageous compared to vertical wells in thin reservoirs, reservoirs with favorable vertical permeability and reservoirs with water and gas coning problems. In many reservoirs, the ratio of horizontal permeability to the vertical permeability is substantially larger than one and often is close to 10. Thus, these reservoirs are very good candidates for hydraulic fracturing. By hydraulic fracturing one or more fractures are created, which can be longitudinal or orthogonal. By that, flow is altered and it mostly conducts horizontally through reservoir toward horizontal wellbore. With this altered flow, fluid is produced faster, with less pressure loss by fluid unit of produced fluid. Some of the existing mathematical models to determine the productivity of multifractured horizontal wells are presented in this work (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. Variation among Soybean Cultivars in Mesophyll Conductance and Leaf Water Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bunce


    Full Text Available Improving water use efficiency (WUE may prove a useful way to adapt crop species to drought. Since the recognition of the importance of mesophyll conductance to CO2 movement from inside stomatal pores to the sites of photosynthetic carboxylation, there has been interest in how much intraspecific variation in mesophyll conductance (gm exists, and how such variation may impact leaf WUE within C3 species. In this study, the gm and leaf WUE of fifteen cultivars of soybeans grown under controlled conditions were measured under standardized environmental conditions. Leaf WUE varied by a factor of 2.6 among the cultivars, and gm varied by a factor of 8.6. However, there was no significant correlation (r = −0.047 between gm and leaf WUE. Leaf WUE was linearly related to the sub-stomatal CO2 concentration. The value of gm affected the ratio of maximum Rubisco carboxylation capacity calculated from the sub-stomatal CO2 concentration to that calculated from the CO2 concentration at the site of carboxylation. That is, variation in gm affected the efficiency of Rubisco carboxylation, but not leaf WUE. Nevertheless, there is considerable scope for genetically improving soybean leaf water use efficiency.

  6. Bridging the connection between effective viscosity and electrical conductivity through water content in the upper mantle. (United States)

    Xu, Yixian; Zhang, Anqi; Yang, Bo; Bao, Xuewei; Wang, Qinyan; Xia, Jianghai; Yang, Wencai


    Upper mantle viscosity plays a key role in understanding plate tectonics and is usually extrapolated from laboratory-based creep measurements of upper mantle conditions or constrained by modeling geodetic and post-seismic observations. At present, an effective method to obtain a high-resolution viscosity structure is still lacking. Recently, a promising estimation of effective viscosity was obtained from a transform derived from the results of magnetotelluric imaging. Here, we build a relationship between effective viscosity and electrical conductivity in the upper mantle using water content. The contribution of water content to the effective viscosity is isolated in a flow law with reference to relatively dry conditions in the upper mantle. The proposed transform is robust and has been verified by application to data synthesized from an intraoceanic subduction zone model. We then apply the method to transform an electrical conductivity cross-section across the Yangtze block and the North China Craton. The results show that the effective viscosity structure coincides well with that estimated from other independent datasets at depths of 40 to 80 km but differs slightly at depths of 100 to 200 km. We briefly discussed the potentials and associated problems for application.

  7. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, L. A.; Veselka, T. D.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B. (Decision and Information Sciences); (Western Area Power Administration)


    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2011. It is the third report in a series examining financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), and a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011). An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes both that operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and the experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP powerplant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases, the GTMax model was also used to gain insights into the interplay among ROD operating criteria, exceptions that were made to criteria to accommodate the

  8. 3D soil water nowcasting using electromagnetic conductivity imaging and the ensemble Kalman filter (United States)

    Huang, Jingyi; McBratney, Alex B.; Minasny, Budiman; Triantafilis, John


    Mapping and immediate forecasting of soil water content (θ) and its movement can be challenging. Although inversion of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) measured by electromagnetic induction to calculate depth-specific electrical conductivity (σ) has been used, it is difficult to apply it across a field. In this paper we use a calibration established along a transect, across a 3.94-ha field with varying soil texture, using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to monitor and nowcast the 3-dimensional θ dynamics on 16 separate days over a period of 38 days. The EnKF combined a physical model fitted with θ measured by soil moisture sensors and an Artificial Neural Network model comprising σ generated by quasi-3d inversions of DUALEM-421S ECa data. Results showed that the distribution of θ was controlled by soil texture, topography, and vegetation. Soil water dried fastest at the beginning after the initial irrigation event and decreased with time and soil depth, which was consistent with classical soil drying theory and experiments. It was also found that the soil dried fastest in the loamy and duplex soils present in the field, which was attributable to deep drainage and preferential flow. It was concluded that the EnKF approach can be used to improve the irrigation efficiency by applying variable irrigation rates across the field. In addition, soil water status can be nowcasted across large spatial extents using this method with weather forecast information, which will provide guidance to farmers for real-time irrigation management.

  9. Application of oil-water discrimination technology in fractured reservoirs using the differences between fast and slow shear-waves (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Li, Xiangyang; Huang, Guangtan


    Oil-water discrimination is of great significance in the design and adjustment of development projects in oil fields. For fractured reservoirs, based on anisotropic S-wave splitting information, it becomes possible to effectively solve such problems which are difficult to deal with in traditional longitudinal wave exploration, due to the similar bulk modulus and density of these two fluids. In this paper, by analyzing the anisotropic character of the Chapman model (2009 Geophysics 74 97-103), the velocity and reflection coefficient differences between the fast and slow S-wave caused by fluid substitution have been verified. Then, through a wave field response analysis of the theoretical model, we found that water saturation causes a longer time delay, a larger time delay gradient and a lower amplitude difference between the fast and slow S-wave, while the oil case corresponds to a lower time delay, a lower gradient and a higher amplitude difference. Therefore, a new class attribute has been proposed regarding the amplitude energy of the fast and slow shear wave, used for oil-water distinction. This new attribute, as well as that of the time delay gradient, were both applied to the 3D3C seismic data of carbonate fractured reservoirs in the Luojia area of the Shengli oil field in China. The results show that the predictions of the energy attributes are more consistent with the well information than the time delay gradient attribute, hence demonstrating the great advantages and potential of this new attribute in oil-water recognition.

  10. Weathering, Fractures and Water in the deep Critical Zone: Geophysical investigations in the U.S. Critical Zone Observatories (United States)

    Holbrook, W. S.; Carr, B.; Moon, S.; Perron, J. T.; Hayes, J. L.; Flinchum, B. A.; St Clair, J. T.; Riebe, C. S.; Richter, D., Jr.; Leone, J.


    The Critical Zone (CZ) is Earth's breathing skin: the thin layer from treetop to bedrock that supports most terrestrial life. Key hydrological, biogeochemical, and physical processes occur in the CZ, including physical and chemical weathering, soil production, erosion, nutrient cycling, and surface/groundwater exchange. These processes in turn influence subsurface water storage capacity, landscape evolution, ecological stability, aquifer recharge and stream flow. Because the deep CZ is hidden from direct observation, it can only be studied by drilling and/or geophysical measurements. Given the relative scarcity of such data, we lack a complete understanding of the architecture of the CZ, how it varies across landscapes, and what controls that variation. We present geophysical data that address these questions at six Critical Zone Observatories (CZO): Calhoun, Boulder Creek, Eel River, Reynolds Creek, Catalina-Jemez, and Southern Sierra. Conclusions include: (1) Regolith depth is influenced by the opening of fractures due to the release of regional and topographic stress as rocks are exhumed toward the surface. Stress models at Calhoun and Boulder Creek show remarkable agreement with seismic velocities in the shallow subsurface, suggesting that stress release controls the development of fracture porosity in the CZ. (2) Chemical weathering (plagioclase dissolution) begins at depths where fractures open (~40 m at Calhoun), implying that fracturing and chemical weathering are intimately paired in the deep CZ. (3) Volumetric strain is an underappreciated contributor to porosity in the CZ. In the Southern Sierra, strain dominates over chemical weathering in the upper 10 m, consistent with the stress-release model. (4) Geological structure and lithology can trump environmental controls (e.g., aspect and climate) on regolith development. At Catalina, strongly contrasting regolith thickness on north- and south-facing slopes, is not due to "northness", but rather to

  11. Shape Dependent Thermal Conductivity of TiO2-Deionized Water and Ethylene Glycol Dispersion. (United States)

    Pal, Bhupender; Mallick, Soumya Suddha; Pal, Bonamali


    This paper presents the importance of different shapes and crystal phases of TiO2 nanostructures such as TiO2 P-25 (70:30 anatase and rutile), as-prepared nanorods (pure anatase) and sodium titanate nanotubes (orthorhombic Na2Ti2O5 x H2O crystal) on the thermal conductivity of de-ionized water and ethylene glycol. It revealed that TiO2 nanorods (L x W = 81-134 nm x 8-13 nm and surface area = 79 m2 g(-1)) showed always higher thermal conductivity than porous nanotubes (L x W = 85-115 nm x 9-12 nm and surface area = 176 m2 g(-1)) and commercial TiO2 P-25 (30-55 nm surface area = 56 m2 g(-1)), which was explained by their differences in crystallinity, crystal phases, compactness, surface exposed atoms, surface area and much greater mean free path of longitudinal phonon vibrations along its lateral dimensions. The subsequent effect of sonication time from 5-10 h results into the breakdown of TiO2 nanorods cluster (42 to 28 nm) with the instantaneous increase in negative zeta potential values from -31 to -45 mV, respectively, seems to be an additional cause for enhancement in its thermal conductivity.

  12. Validation data for the determination of perchlorate in water using ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. (United States)

    Seiler, Maike A; Jensen, Detlef; Neist, Udo; Deister, Ursula K; Schmitz, Franz


    Perchlorate salts are relatively stable, soluble in water, and migrate into groundwater sources. Groundwater is an essential source for drinking water suppliers. Perchlorate bears health risks as it is identified to impair normal thyroid function by interfering with iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. The development of a sensitive analytical method for the determination of perchlorate is therefore of the highest interest or public health. Ion chromatography is a sensitive method suitable for perchlorate determinations. This manuscript describes the validation of an ion chromatographic method. Perchlorate is determined by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity detection after suppression (CD) applying isocratic elution. In this study, the suitability of IC-CD was tested for synthetic samples, selected environmental water, drinking water, and swimming pool water in order to evaluate potential matrix effects on the perchlorate signal even after sample preparation. A sample injection volume of 750 μL was applied to the selected 2-mm-IC column. In untreated samples, the perchlorate peak can be interfered by neighbouring signals from matrix ions like chloride, nitrate, carbonate, and sulphate. Depending on the concentration of the matrix ions, the perchlorate peak can show asymmetric shape in particular when the perchlorate concentration is low. Recovery is reduced with increasing matrix ion concentrations. Dedicated matrix elimination was applied to minimize such effects. A reporting limit of 1.5 μg/L perchlorate and an expanded measurement uncertainty of 13.2 % were achieved. The extended method validation proves the applicability of IC based on the EPA 314.0 method for the determination of trace amounts of perchlorate in water samples of different origin. The results support the development of a respective international standard pursued by ISO. The approach evidenced its working robustness and ease of use in terms of eluent preparation, chromatographic

  13. Study on Water's view and C. T. scan in the classification of malar fractures by Knight and North in facial injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchima, Kazuo; Sakugawa, Tetsu; Hisada, Tomonori (Okinawa Cubu Hospital, Gushikawa (Japan))


    Recently an increasing number of facial injuries are due to traffic accidents. Zygomatic bone fracture is one of the most common facial injuries. However, it is difficult to find and diagnose, as a result of the swelling due to the impact of the traffic accident. In fact, Water's view is the most popular technique for projection the zygomatic bone. The best way of diagnosing is Water's 3-angle ways projection method. It is the result of our experiment in the classification of malar fracture, by Knigth and North. Likewise, we have reported on the evaluation of facial injuries using CT.

  14. In vivo total body water assessment by total body electrical conductivity in rats suffering perturbations of water compartment equilibrium. (United States)

    Battistini, N; Virgili, F; Bedogni, G; Gambella, G R; Bini, A


    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) is a simple and non-invasive method for the assessment of body composition in vivo. Information regarding the applicability of TOBEC in the condition of abnormal fluid balance is scarce. In the present paper we give the results of the comparison between TOBEC and total body water (TBW; assessed by the tritium dilution technique) in three groups of animals: (1) healthy (n 17), (2) expanded fluid volume by secondary biliary cirrhosis (SBC; n 9) and (3) Furosemide-treated rats (n 9). The TOBEC score and TBW by tritium dilution were found to be highly correlated in the pooled sample (r 0.90) and in normal (r 0.87), SBC (r 0.73) and Furosemide-treated (r 0.89) rats. However, the relationship between TOBEC and TBW, described by least-squares regression analysis, was found to be similar for SBC and normal rats but was significantly different for Furosemide-treated and normal rats. These findings suggest that TOBEC is unable to track TBW accurately when the ratio between intracellular and extracellular water is chronically or acutely altered.

  15. Analytic Theory of Titans Schumann Resonance: Constraints on Ionospheric Conductivity and Buried Water Ocean (United States)

    Beghin, Christian; Randriamboarison, Orelien; Hamelin, Michel; Karkoschka, Erich; Sotin, Christophe; Whitten, Robert C.; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Grard, Rejean; Simoes, Fernando


    This study presents an approximate model for the atypical Schumann resonance in Titan's atmosphere that accounts for the observations of electromagnetic waves and the measurements of atmospheric conductivity performed with the Huygens Atmospheric Structure and Permittivity, Wave and Altimetry (HASI-PWA) instrumentation during the descent of the Huygens Probe through Titan's atmosphere in January 2005. After many years of thorough analyses of the collected data, several arguments enable us to claim that the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) wave observed at around 36 Hz displays all the characteristics of the second harmonic of a Schumann resonance. On Earth, this phenomenon is well known to be triggered by lightning activity. Given the lack of evidence of any thunderstorm activity on Titan, we proposed in early works a model based on an alternative powering mechanism involving the electric current sheets induced in Titan's ionosphere by the Saturn's magnetospheric plasma flow. The present study is a further step in improving the initial model and corroborating our preliminary assessments. We first develop an analytic theory of the guided modes that appear to be the most suitable for sustaining Schumann resonances in Titan's atmosphere. We then introduce the characteristics of the Huygens electric field measurements in the equations, in order to constrain the physical parameters of the resonating cavity. The latter is assumed to be made of different structures distributed between an upper boundary, presumably made of a succession of thin ionized layers of stratospheric aerosols spread up to 150 km and a lower quasi-perfect conductive surface hidden beneath the non-conductive ground. The inner reflecting boundary is proposed to be a buried water-ammonia ocean lying at a likely depth of 55-80 km below a dielectric icy crust. Such estimate is found to comply with models suggesting that the internal heat could be transferred upwards by thermal conduction of the crust, while

  16. Patterns of leaf conductance and water potential of five Himalayan tree species. (United States)

    Poudyal, K; Jha, P K; Zobel, D B; Thapa, C B


    We studied variations in water relations and drought response in five Himalayan tree species (Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth. (chilaune) and Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq. (dhale katus) at an elevation of 1400 m, Quercus lanata Smith (banjh) and Rhododendron arboreum Smith (lali gurans) at 2020 m, and Quercus semecarpifolia Smith (khasru) at 2130 m) at Phulchowki Hill, Kathmandu, Nepal. Soil water potential at 15 (Psi(s15)) and 30 cm (Psi(s30)) depths, tree water potential at predawn (Psi(pd)) and midday (Psi(md)), and leaf conductance during the morning (g(wAM)) and afternoon (g(wPM)) were observed from December 1998 to April 2001, except during the monsoon months. There was significant variation among sites, species and months in Psi(pd), Psi(md), g(wAM) and g(wPM), and among months for all species for Psi(s15). Mean Psi(pd) and Psi(md) were lowest in Q. semecarpifolia (-0.40 and -1.18 MPa, respectively) and highest in S. wallichii (-0.20 and -0.63 MPa, respectively). The minimum Psi value for all species (-0.70 to -1.79 MPa) was observed in March 1999, after 4 months of unusually low rainfall. Some patterns of Psi(pd) were related to phenology and leaf damage. During leafing, Psi(pd) often increased. Mean g(wAM) and g(wPM) were highest in Q. semecarpifolia (172 and 190 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) and lowest in C. indica (78 and 74 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). Soil water potential (Psi) at 15 cm depth correlated with plant Psi in all species, but rarely with g(wAM) and not with g(wPM). Plant Psi declined with increasing elevation, whereas g(w) increased. As Psi(pd) declined, so did maximal g(w), but overall, g(w) was correlated with Psi(pd) only for R. arboreum. Schima wallichii maintained high Psi, with low stomatal conductance, as did Castanopsis indica, except that C. indica had low Psi during dry months. Rhododendron arboreum maintained high Psi(pd) and g(w), despite low soil Psi. Quercus lanata had low g(w) and low Psi(pd) in some months, but showed

  17. An Assessment of Risk of Migration of Hydrocarbons or Fracturing Fluids to Fresh Water Aquifers: Wattenberg Field, CO (United States)

    Eustes, A. W.; Fleckenstein, W. W.; Stone, C.; Howell, P.


    The United States National Science Foundation, engaging 29 researchers at nine institutions, has funded a Sustainability Research Network (SRN) focused on natural gas development. The mission of this Sustainability Research Network is to provide a logical, science-based framework for evaluating the environmental, economic, and social trade-offs between development of natural gas resources and protection of water and air resources and to convey the results of these evaluations to the public in a way that improves the development of policies and regulations governing natural gas and oil development. Currently, there are a wide range of estimates of the probability of shallow aquifer contamination. There are a series of independent events that must occur to allow hydrocarbon migration and estimates were made of these probabilities. An analysis of data from drilling in the Wattenberg field, CO was made to quantify the probability of contamination. It has been determined that there are five events that must each independently happen to allow the migration of fracturing fluids, and there are three events that must occur independently for the migration of hydrocarbons. The lower number of independent events, which must arise for hydrocarbon migration to occur, explains the infrequent, but well publicized natural gas migrations in poorly constructed wellbores, and the lack of such publicized events of hydraulic fracturing fluid contamination, which was confirmed by our analysis. The significance of these results is to help quantify the risks associated with natural gas development, as related to the contamination of surface aquifers. These results will help shape the discussion of the risks of natural gas development and will assist in identifying areas of improved well construction and hydraulic fracturing practices to minimize risk.

  18. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Veselka, T. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year (WY) 2015. It is the seventh report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined WYs 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011); a report released in August 2011 examined WYs 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011); a report released June 2012 examined WY 2011 (Poch et al. 2012); a report released April 2013 examined WY 2012 (Poch et al. 2013); a report released June 2014 examined WY 2013 (Graziano et al. 2014); and a report released September 2015 examined WY 2014 (Graziano et al. 2015). An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. Only one experimental release was conducted at GCD in WY 2015; specifically, a high flow experimental (HFE) release conducted in November 2014. For this experimental release, financial costs of approximately $2.1 million were incurred because the HFE required sustained water releases that exceeded the powerplant’s maximum flow rate. In addition, during the month of the experiment, operators were not allowed to shape GCD power production to either follow firm power customer loads or to respond to market prices. This study identifies the main factors that contribute to HFE costs and examines the interdependencies among these factors. It applies an integrated set of tools to estimate financial impacts by simulating the GCD operations under two scenarios: (1) a baseline scenario that mimics both HFE operations during the experiment and during the rest of the year when it complies with the 1996 ROD operating criteria, and (2) a “without experiments” scenario that is identical to the baseline except it assumes that the HFE did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the

  19. Monitoring percolation of a conductive tracer, as a proxy for nitrate transport, through glacial till and fractured sandstone in the vadose zone underlying a potato field, using 3D cross-hole electrical resistivity imaging (United States)

    Wang, S.; Butler, K. E.; Serban, D.; Petersen, B.; Grimmett, M.


    Nitrate is a necessary nutrient for crops, but high surface water and groundwater concentrations can negatively affect aquatic ecosystem and human health. At AAFC-AAC Harrington Research Farm (PEI, Canada), 3D cross-hole electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is being used to investigate the percolation of a conductive tracer (KCl) through a 17 m thick vadose zone as a proxy for the transport of nitrate under natural recharge conditions. The objectives are to investigate the effect of heterogeneity on transport pathways and infer how long it would take for changes in farming practices at the surface to affect nitrate loading to the underlying aquifer. The resistivity array consists of 96 permanently installed electrodes - 24 at 0.68 m spacing in each of three 16 m deep boreholes arranged in a triangle with 9 m sides, and 24 at 1 m spacing buried in shallow trenches connecting the boreholes. A background survey revealed five sub-horizontal layers of alternating resistivity in general agreement with the geology of 6 m soil and glacial till overburden overlying interbedded sandstone and shaley sandstone layers. On March 27th, 2015, 1.1 m of snow was removed from a 15.2 m2 area positioned symmetrically inside the triangular array and 100 kg of granular KCl was distributed on the ground surface. The removed snow was immediately replaced to await the spring thaw. Post-tracer surveys indicate tracer had percolated to depths of 1 m, 1.2 m, 3.0 m and 3.5 m by the 4th, 26th, 30th, and 46th days after tracer application. Its movement slowed significantly by early May, 2015, with the end of snow melt. Tracer spread laterally very slowly through the summer and early fall, 2015, but has remained within the triangular array. The shallow conductivity anomaly produced by the tracer diminished significantly over the winter and spring of 2016 but showed little evidence of bulk matrix flow below 3.5 m depth. It is speculated that fractures in the glacial till, too thin to be resolved by

  20. Preparation of water-soluble graphene nanoplatelets and highly conductive films

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu


    This paper tackles the challenge of preparation stable, highly concentrated aqueous graphene dispersions. Despite tremendous recent interest, there has been limited success in developing a method that ensures the total dispersion of non-oxidized, defect-free graphene nanosheets in water. This study successfully demonstrates that few-layer graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can form highly concentrated aqueous colloidal solutions after they have been pretreated in a low-concentration inorganic sodium-hypochlorite and sodium-bromide salted aqueous solvent. This method retains the graphitic structure as evidenced by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Vacuum-filtrated freestanding films demonstrate an electrical conductivity as high as 3000 S m−1. This dispersion technique is believed to be applicable not only for GNPs, but also for dispersing other types of graphitic materials, including fullerenes, single/double/multi-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoribbons and etc.

  1. Total body water estimated by measuring total-body electrical conductivity. (United States)

    Cochran, W J; Wong, W W; Fiorotto, M L; Sheng, H P; Klein, P D; Klish, W J


    A second-generation total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) instrument for adults (HA-2) was evaluated against isotope dilution of 2H and 18O for its ability to estimate total body water (TBW) in 20 healthy adults. The highest correlation coefficient (0.997) and the lowest standard error of the estimate (0.68 kg) were obtained using the first (FC0) and third (FC2) Fourier coefficients of the transformed TOBEC signals and the variables height (m) times average lean circumference (m) and age (y) in the prediction equation of TBW as follows: TBW (H218O) in kg = 10.8 + (0.0724.FC0) - (0.221.FC2) + (0.0398.age) + (9.2.height.average lean circumference) where average lean circumference is the average of the lean chest, abdomen, and thigh circumferences. The TOBEC instrument for adults provides a suitable alternative for the estimation of TBW.

  2. Concurrent temporal stability of the apparent electrical conductivity and soil water content (United States)

    Pedrera-Parrilla, Aura; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Giráldez, Juan V.; Vanderlinden, Karl


    Knowledge of spatio-temporal soil-water content (SWC) variability in agricultural fields is useful for improving crop management. Spatial patterns of SWC can be characterized using temporal stability analysis of difficult-to-obtain data from high spatial density and temporal frequency. Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) measurements with high spatial density have been widely used to infer the spatial variability of SWC. The objective of this work is to test the hypothesis that temporal stability of ECa can be demonstrated and that relationships between temporal stability characteristics of SWC and ECa can be established. Apparent electrical conductivity and topsoil gravimetric SWC (θ) were periodically measured in an olive orchard in southwest Spain on 6 and 18 occasions, respectively. A temporal stability analysis of ECa elucidated three zones where ECa was close to, consistently substantially smaller than, and substantially larger than the spatial average ECa throughout the study period. Representative locations for θ were found with a chance of 75% within the representative zone for ECa. Yet, the driest locations, with consistently smaller θ than the field average (), could be successfully identified (89%) within the zone with consistently smaller ECa than average. The θ - relations showed generally a linear behaviour, although a better fit was obtained at the highest θ using either exponential or power law equations at half of the locations. The former provided the best fit within the zone with ECa consistently smaller than average, while the latter performed best in the zone with ECa consistently larger than average. The linear equation provided the best fit within the representative ECa zone. This study demonstrates that temporal stability characteristics of ECa and SWC are linked and that ECa surveys can be used to delimit zones with representative locations for SWC measurement or estimation. Such information is of importance for a range of

  3. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention properties across a soil-slope transition (United States)

    Mohanty, Binayak P.; Mousli, Zak


    The hydraulic properties of soil and their spatial structures are important for understanding soil moisture dynamics, land surface and subsurface hydrology, and contaminant transport. We investigated whether landscape features, including relative position on a slope, contribute to the variability of soil hydraulic properties in a complex terrain of a glacial till material. Using 396 undisturbed soil cores collected along two orthogonal transects, we measured saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) and soil water retention functions at two (15 and 30 cm) depths across a glacial till landscape in central Iowa that encompassed two soil types (Nicollet loam with 1-3% slope on the hilltop position and Clarion loam with 2-5% slope on the shoulder position). The van Genuchten-Mualem model was fitted to the experimental data using the RETC optimization computer code. At the 15 cm depth a statistical comparison indicated significant differences in Ksat, saturated water content (θs), water content at permanent wilting point (θ15,000) and van Genuchten fitting parameters (α and n) between soil types and landscape positions. At the 30 cm depth, θs, θ15,000, and residual water content (θr) were found to be significantly different across the soil-slope transition. Available water content (θ333-15,000) did not show any significant difference across the soil-slope transition for either depth. No clear directional trend was observed, with some exceptions for Ksat, θs, and α on specific transect limbs and depths. Drifts in the soil hydraulic parameters due to soil-slope transition were removed using a mean-polishing approach. Geostatistical analyses of these parameters showed several important characteristics including the following: (1) The spatial correlation lengths and semivariogram patterns of the independently measured (or estimated) loge Ksat and θs at 30-cm depth matched extremely well; (2) better spatial structures with large correlation lengths were observed for


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukul M. Sharma


    The primary objective of this research was to improve completion and fracturing practices in gas reservoirs in marginal plays in the continental United States. The Bossier Play in East Texas, a very active tight gas play, was chosen as the site to develop and test the new strategies for completion and fracturing. Figure 1 provides a general location map for the Dowdy Ranch Field, where the wells involved in this study are located. The Bossier and other tight gas formations in the continental Unites States are marginal plays in that they become uneconomical at gas prices below $2.00 MCF. It was, therefore, imperative that completion and fracturing practices be optimized so that these gas wells remain economically attractive. The economic viability of this play is strongly dependent on the cost and effectiveness of the hydraulic fracturing used in its well completions. Water-fracs consisting of proppant pumped with un-gelled fluid is the type of stimulation used in many low permeability reservoirs in East Texas and throughout the United States. The use of low viscosity Newtonian fluids allows the creation of long narrow fractures in the reservoir, without the excessive height growth that is often seen with cross-linked fluids. These low viscosity fluids have poor proppant transport properties. Pressure transient tests run on several wells that have been water-fractured indicate a long effective fracture length with very low fracture conductivity even when large amounts of proppant are placed in the formation. A modification to the water-frac stimulation design was needed to transport proppant farther out into the fracture. This requires suspending the proppant until the fracture closes without generating excessive fracture height. A review of fracture diagnostic data collected from various wells in different areas (for conventional gel and water-fracs) suggests that effective propped lengths for the fracture treatments are sometimes significantly shorter than those

  5. WO3/Conducting Polymer Heterojunction Photoanodes for Efficient and Stable Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting. (United States)

    Jeon, Dasom; Kim, Nayeong; Bae, Sanghyun; Han, Yujin; Ryu, Jungki


    An efficient and stable heterojunction photoanode for solar water oxidation was fabricated by hybridization of WO 3 and conducting polymers (CPs). Organic/inorganic hybrid photoanodes were readily prepared by the electropolymerization of various CPs and the codeposition of tetraruthenium polyoxometalate (Ru 4 POM) water-oxidation catalysts (WOCs) on the surface of WO 3 . The deposition of CPs, especially polypyrrole (PPy) doped with Ru 4 POM (PPy:Ru 4 POM), resulted in a remarkably improved photoelectrochemical performance by the formation of a WO 3 /PPy p-n heterojunction and the incorporation of efficient Ru 4 POM WOCs. In addition, there was also a significant improvement in the photostability of the WO 3 -based photoanode after the deposition of the PPy:Ru 4 POM layer due to the suppression of the formation of hydrogen peroxide, which was responsible for corrosion. This study provides insight into the design and fabrication of novel photosynthetic and photocatalytic systems with excellent performance and stability through the hybridization of organic and inorganic materials.

  6. Hydraulic conductivity of a sandy soil at low water content after compaction by various methods (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.; Akstin, Katherine C.


    To investigate the degree to which compaction of a sandy soil influences its unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K, samples of Oakley sand (now in the Delhi series; mixed, thermic, Typic Xeropsamments) were packed to various densities and K was measured by the steady-state centrifuge method. The air-dry, machine packing was followed by centrifugal compression with the soil wet to about one-third saturation. Variations in (i) the impact frequency and (ii) the impact force during packing, and (iii) the amount of centrifugal force applied after packing, produced a range of porosity from 0.333 to 0.380. With volumetric water content θ between 0.06 and 0.12, K values were between 7 × 10−11 and 2 × 10−8 m/s. Comparisons of K at a single θ value for samples differing in porosity by about 3% showed as much as fivefold variation for samples prepared by different packing procedures, while there generally was negligible variation (within experimental error of 8%) where the porosity difference resulted from a difference in centrifugal force. Analysis involving capillary-theory models suggests that the differences in K can be related to differences in pore-space geometry inferred from water retention curves measured for the various samples.

  7. Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics Analysis of Boling Water Reactor Vessel for Cool-Down and Low Temperature Over-Pressurization Transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Soon Park


    Full Text Available The failure probabilities of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV for low temperature over-pressurization (LTOP and cool-down transients are calculated in this study. For the cool-down transient, a pressure–temperature limit curve is generated in accordance with Section XI, Appendix G of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME code, from which safety margin factors are deliberately removed for the probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis. Then, sensitivity analyses are conducted to understand the effects of some input parameters. For the LTOP transient, the failure of the RPV mostly occurs during the period of the abrupt pressure rise. For the cool-down transient, the decrease of the fracture toughness with temperature and time plays a main role in RPV failure at the end of the cool-down process. As expected, the failure probability increases with increasing fluence, Cu and Ni contents, and initial reference temperature-nil ductility transition (RTNDT. The effect of warm prestressing on the vessel failure probability for LTOP is not significant because most of the failures happen before the stress intensity factor reaches the peak value while its effect reduces the failure probability by more than one order of magnitude for the cool-down transient.

  8. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management. (United States)


    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management. (a) A person who violates this subpart is liable for a civil penalty in an amount not...

  9. Experimental study on density, thermal conductivity, specific heat, and viscosity of water-ethylene glycol mixture dispersed with carbon nanotubes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganeshkumar Jayabalan; Kathirkaman Durai; Raja Kandhaswamy; Kumaresan Vellisamy; Velraj Ramalingam


    This article presents the effect of adding multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in water – ethylene glycol mixture on density and various thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, specific heat and viscosity...

  10. Fracture zones in the Mid Atlantic Ridge lead to alterations in prokaryotic and viral parameters in deep-water masses (United States)

    Muck, Simone; Griessler, Thomas; Köstner, Nicole; Klimiuk, Adam; Winter, Christian; Herndl, Gerhard J.


    We hypothesized that mixing zones of deep-water masses act as ecotones leading to alterations in microbial diversity and activity due to changes in the biogeochemical characteristics of these boundary systems. We determined the changes in prokaryotic and viral abundance and production in the Vema Fracture Zone (VFZ) of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, where North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) are funneled through this narrow canyon and therefore, are subjected to intense vertical mixing. Consequently, salinity, potential temperature, oxygen, PO4, SiO4, NO3 were altered in the NADW inside the VFZ as compared to the NADW outside of the VFZ. Also, viral abundance, lytic viral production (VP) and the virus-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR) were elevated in the NADW in the VFZ as compared to the NADW outside the VFZ. In contrast to lytic VP, lysogenic VP and both the frequency of lytically (FIC) and lysogenically infected cells (FLC) did not significantly differ between in- and outside the VFZ. Generally, FIC was higher than FLC throughout the water column. Prokaryotic (determined by T-RFLP) and viral (determined by RAPD-PCR) community composition was depth-stratified inside and outside the VFZ. The viral community was more modified both with depth and over distance inside the VFZ as compared to the northern section and to the prokaryotic communities. However, no clusters of prokaryotic and viral communities characteristic for the VFZ were identified. Based on our observations, we conclude that turbulent mixing of the deep water masses impacts not only the physico-chemical parameters of the mixing zone but also the interaction between viruses and prokaryotes due to a stimulation of the overall activity. However, only minor effects of deep water mixing were observed on the community composition of the dominant prokaryotes and viruses. PMID:24917857

  11. Development of a small-sized generator of ozonated water using an electro-conductive diamond electrode. (United States)

    Sekido, Kota; Kitaori, Noriyuki


    A small-sized generator of ozonated water was developed using an electro-conductive diamond. We studied the optimum conditions for producing ozonated water. As a result, we developed a small-sized generator of ozonated water driven by a dry-cell for use in the average household. This generator was easily able to produce ozonated water with an ozone concentration (over 4 mg/L) sufficient for disinfection. In addition, we verified the high disinfecting performance of the water produced in an actual hospital.

  12. Quantifying Groundwater and Contaminant Flux in Fractured Rock Systems (United States)

    Cho, J.; Newman, M. A.; Klammler, H.; Hatfield, K.; Annable, M. D.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J.; Kroeker, R.; Pedler, W. H.


    Complex hydrogeologic conditions such as fractured and karst bedrock settings pose substantial economic and technical challenges both to the characterization and remediation of DNAPL source zones. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and validate the fractured rock passive flux meter (FRPFM) as new technology for measuring the magnitudes and directions of cumulative water and contaminant fluxes in fractured rock aquifers. The sensor consists of an inflatable core that compresses a reactive fabric against the wall of a borehole and to any water-filled fractures intersected by a borehole. The reactive fabric is designed to intercept and retain target groundwater contaminants (e.g. TCE, DCE, VC); in addition, the fabric releases non-toxic tracers, some of which visibly indicate active fracture location, aperture, orientation, and direction of fracture flow along a borehole, while others quantify cumulative groundwater discharge within the fractures. Field demonstration tests are ongoing at a site in Guelph, Ontario and at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in West Trenton, NJ. The tests are comparing multiple technologies including fractured rock passive flux meters, hydrophysical logging, temperature logging, and borehole dilution tests. The technologies are being evaluated based upon their ability to: identify flowing fractures, determine flow direction, and quantify both water and contaminant mass flux in flowing fractures. Laboratory tests comparing the capabilities of each technology were previously performed in two separate flow simulators representing a range of likely field conditions: a planar single fracture simulator (fracture aperture = 0.5 mm; specific discharge range 25 - 2500 cm/day) and a large-scale three-dimensional aquifer box with layered high contrast flow zones simulating fractured zones (physical flow domain 2 m length, 0.5 m width, and 1 m height; specific discharge range 25 to 4000 cm/day (per layer)). Based upon initial field and

  13. Characteristics and management of flowback/produced water from hydraulically fractured wells in California - findings from the California SB 4 assessment (United States)

    Varadharajan, C.; Cooley, H.; Heberger, M. G.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Domen, J. K.; Sandelin, W.; Camarillo, M. K.; Jordan, P. D.; Reagan, M. T.; Donnelly, K.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Long, J. C. S.


    As part of a recent assessment of well stimulation in California, we analyzed the hazards and potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing (the primary form of well stimulation in California) on water resources, which included an analysis of the quantity and quality of flowback/produced water generated, current management and disposal practices, associated potential release mechanisms and transport pathways that can lead to contaminants being released into the environment, and practices to mitigate or avoid impacts from produced water on water resources. The wastewater returned after stimulation includes "recovered fluids" (flowback fluids collected into tanks following stimulation, but before the start of production) and "produced water" (water extracted with oil and gas during production). In contrast to hydraulic fracturing in regions with primarily gas production, the quantities of recovered fluids from hydraulically fractured wells in California are small in comparison to the fluids injected (typically irrigation and discharge into sewer systems. Each of these disposal and reuse methods presents its own unique set of concerns that need to be considered together, in designing a produced water management plan.

  14. A comparison of the diagnostic ability between waters' radiograph and computed tomography in the diagnosis of midfacial fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Seong; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This study was intended to compare the diagnostic ability between Waters' radiograph and CT in the diagnosis of midfacial fracture. The study group included 44 patients (male:32, female:12, age range: 16-74 years old) with facial injury who underwent surgery. Waters' radiograph and both axial and coronal scanning were performed before surgery, Three oral radiologists and three non-oral radiologist interpreted 44 waters' radiographs and 88 CT in three ways : 1) interpretation using waters' radiograph only, 2) interpretation using CT only, 3) interpretation using Waters' radiograph and CT. The interpretation sites were confined to the walls of maxillary sinus; anterior, posterior, medial, lateral and superior wall. ROC curves were made with the findings during surgery as a gold standard except the posterior wall, where the joint evaluation of Waters' radiograph and CT by other three oral radiologists was used. ROC areas were compared according to the interpreting methods, the interpretation sites, and groups (R group; oral radiologist group, N group; non-oral radiologist group). The obtained results were as followed : 1. The diagnostic ability of CT only and Waters' radiograph and CT was higher than Waters' radiograph only in both groups (P<0.05). but there was no difference between CT only and waters' radiograph and CT. 2. Generally, the diagnostic ability for the lateral antral wall was the highest and that for the posterior antral wall was the lowest in both groups (P<0.05) 3. In R group, for the anterior antral wall the diagnostic ability using CT only was increased but for the medial, lateral and superior antral walls the diagnostic ability was increased in only using Waters' radiograph and CT. 4. In N group, for the anterior and medial walls the diagnostic ability using CT only was increased, But for the posterior, lateral and superior antral walls there were no difference among three interpreting methods. 5

  15. Fertilization intensifies drought stress: water use and stomatal conductance of Pinus taeda in a midrotation fertilization and throughfall reduction experiment (United States)

    Eric J. Ward; Jean-Christophe Domec; Marshall A. Laviner; Thomas R. Fox; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; John King; Asko Noormets


    While mid-rotation fertilization increases productivity in many southern pine forests, it remains unclear what impact such management may have on stand water use. We examined the impact of nutrient and water availability on stem volume, leaf area, transpiration per unit ground area (EC) and canopy conductance per unit leaf area (GS...

  16. Sublethal and Reproductive Effects of Acute and Chronic Exposure to Flowback and Produced Water from Hydraulic Fracturing on the Water Flea Daphnia magna. (United States)

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Delompré, Perrine L M; He, Yuhe; Folkerts, Erik J; Flynn, Shannon L; Alessi, Daniel S; Goss, Greg G


    Hydraulic fracturing is an industrial process allowing for the extraction of gas or oil. To fracture the rocks, a proprietary mix of chemicals is injected under high pressure, which later returns to the surface as flowback and produced water (FPW). FPW is a complex chemical mixture consisting of trace metals, organic compounds, and often, high levels of salts. FPW toxicity to the model freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna was characterized utilizing acute (48 h median lethal concentrations; LC50) and chronic (21 day) exposures. A decrease in reproduction was observed, with a mean value of 18.5 neonates produced per replicate over a 21 day chronic exposure to 0.04% FPW, which was a significant decrease from the average of 64 neonates produced in the controls. The time to first brood was delayed in the highest FPW (0.04%) treatment. Neonates exhibited an LC50 of 0.19% of full-strength FPW, making them more sensitive than adults, which displayed an LC50 value of 0.75%. Quantitative PCR highlighted significant changes in expression of genes encoding xenobiotic metabolism (cyp4) and moulting (cut). This study is the first to characterize chronic FPW toxicity and will help with the development of environmental monitoring and risk assessment of FPW spills.

  17. Geophysical investigation on the fracture distribution of iwo-olupona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sunmonu L. A. Suleman K. O. Bello I. T. Tijani L. O.


    May 1, 2017 ... 116m indicates conducting or weak area due to fracture distribution which may be good ground water development While, negative from o to 22m and sharp curves peaks from 58m to 84m indicate non conducting areas which may be due to fresh rock basement, hard rock or near surface material. Fig.7.

  18. An experimental correlation approach for predicting thermal conductivity of water-EG based nanofluids of zinc oxide (United States)

    Ahmadi Nadooshan, Afshin


    In this study, the effects of temperature (20 °Cethylene glycol-water nanofluid have been presented. Nanofluid samples were prepared by a two-step method and thermal conductivity measurements were performed by a KD2 pro instrument. Results showed that the thermal conductivity increases uniformly with increasing solid volume fraction and temperature. The results also revealed that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids significantly increases with increasing solid volume fraction at higher temperatures. Moreover, it can be seen that for more concentrated samples, the effect of temperature was more tangible. Experimental thermal conductivity enhancement of the nanofluid in comparison with the Maxwell model indicated that Maxwell model was unable to predict the thermal conductivity of the present nanofluid. Therefore, a new correlation was presented for predicting the thermal conductivity of ZnO/EG-water nanofluid.

  19. Effect of high-temperature water and hydrogen on the fracture behavior of a low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roychowdhury, S., E-mail: [Paul Scherrer Institut, Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, 5232 Villigen, PSI (Switzerland); Materials Processing & Corrosion Engineering Division, Mod-Lab, D-Block, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Seifert, H.-P.; Spätig, P.; Que, Z. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, 5232 Villigen, PSI (Switzerland)


    Structural integrity of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is critical for safety and lifetime. Possible degradation of fracture resistance of RPV steel due to exposure to coolant and hydrogen is a concern. In this study tensile and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) tests in air (hydrogen pre-charged) and EFPM tests in hydrogenated/oxygenated high-temperature water (HTW) was done, using a low-alloy RPV steel. 2–5 wppm hydrogen caused embrittlement in air tensile tests at room temperature (25 °C) and at 288 °C, effects being more significant at 25 °C and in simulated weld coarse grain heat affected zone material. Embrittlement at 288 °C is strain rate dependent and is due to localized plastic deformation. Hydrogen pre-charging/HTW exposure did not deteriorate the fracture resistance at 288 °C in base metal, for investigated loading rate range. Clear change in fracture morphology and deformation structures was observed, similar to that after air tests with hydrogen. - Highlights: • Hydrogen content, microstructure of LAS, and strain rate affects tensile properties at 288 °C. • Strength affects hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility to a greater extent than grain size. • Hydrogen in LAS leads to strain localization and restricts cross-slip at 288 °C. • Possible hydrogen pickup due to exposure to 288 °C water alters fracture surface appearance without affecting fracture toughness in bainitic base material. • Simulated weld heat affected zone microstructure shows unstable crack propagation in 288 °C water.

  20. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration


    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a ''without experiments'' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental

  1. Numerical study on criteria for design and operation of water curtain system in underground oil storage cavern using site descriptive fracture networks (United States)

    Moon, Jiwon; Yeo, In Wook


    Underground unlined caverns have been constructed in fractured rocks to stockpile oil and petroleum products, where they are hydraulically contained by natural groundwater pressure. However, for the case that natural groundwater pressure is not maintained at the required level, water curtain boreholes, through which water is injected, are often constructed above the cavern as engineering barrier to secure water pressure enough to overwhelm the operational pressure of the cavern. For secure containment of oil and petroleum products inside the cavern, it is essential to keep water pressure around the cavern higher than operational pressure of the cavern using either natural groundwater pressure or engineering barrier. In the Republic of Korea, a number of underground stockpile bases are being operated by Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) and private companies, most of which have water curtain system. The criterion that KNOC adopts for water curtain system design and operation such as the vertical distance from the cavern and operational injection rate is based on the Åberg hypothesis that the vertical hydraulic gradient should be larger than one. The criterion has been used for maintaining oil storage cavern without its thorough review. In this study, systematic numerical works have been done for reviewing the Åberg criterion. As groundwater predominantly takes places through fractures in underground caverns, discrete fracture modeling approach is essential for this study. Fracture data, obtained from boreholes drilled at the stage of site investigation at the Yeosu stockpile base in Korea, were statistically analyzed in terms of orientation and intensity, which were used to generate the site descriptive three dimensional fracture networks. Then, groundwater flow modeling has been carried out for the fracture networks. Constant head boundaries were applied along the circumference of the cavern and water curtain boreholes. Main flow channel and hydraulic

  2. Studies on the defluoridation of water using conducting polymer/montmorillonite composites. (United States)

    Karthikeyan, M; Kumar, K K Satheesh; Elango, K P


    Conducting polymer/inorganic hybrid composites have large surface areas, which makes the adsorbent properties of the polymer composites as good the constituents. Polyaniline/montmorilonite (PANi-MMT) and polypyrrole/montmorillonite (PPy-MMT) composites were prepared, characterized (Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction patterns) and were employed as adsorbents for the removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution by the batch sorption method. The spectral studies of the adsorbents before and after the adsorption are recorded to get better insight into the mechanism of the adsorption process. The results indicated that the removal of fluoride ions from water by these composites occurs via the combined effect of both the constituents, that is, through a physico-chemical mechanism. The amount of fluoride ion adsorbed by PANi-MMT and PPy-MMT at 30 degrees C is observed to be 2.3 and 5.1 mg g(-1), respectively, when compared to 0.77 and 2.66 mg g(-1), respectively, for the polymers alone. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms were used to describe the adsorption equilibrium.

  3. Interrelations among the soil-water retention, hydraulic conductivity, and suction-stress characteristic curves (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Kaya, Murat; Godt, Jonathan W.


    The three fundamental constitutive relations that describe fluid flow, strength, and deformation behavior of variably saturated soils are the soil-water retention curve (SWRC), hydraulic conductivity function (HCF), and suction-stress characteristic curve (SSCC). Until recently, the interrelations among the SWRC, HCF, and SSCC have not been well established. This work sought experimental confirmation of interrelations among these three constitutive functions. Results taken from the literature for six soils and those obtained for 11 different soils were used. Using newly established analytical relations among the SWRC, HCF, and SSCC and these test results, the authors showed that these three constitutive relations can be defined by a common set of hydromechanical parameters. The coefficient of determination for air-entry pressures determined independently using hydraulic and mechanical methods is >0.99, >0.98 for the pore size parameter, and 0.94 for the residual degree of saturation. One practical implication is that one of any of the four experiments (axis-translation, hydraulic, shear-strength, or deformation) is sufficient to quantify all three constitutive relations.

  4. Impacts of water stress, environment and rootstock on the diurnal behaviour of stem water potential and leaf conductance in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssem Memmi


    Full Text Available Little information is available on the diurnal behaviour of water potential and leaf conductance on pistachio trees despite their relevance to fine tune irrigation strategies. Mature pistachio trees were subject to simultaneous measurements of stem water potential (Ψx and leaf conductance (gl during the day, at three important periods of the irrigation season. Trees were grown on three different rootstocks and water regimes. An initial baseline relating Ψx to air vapor pressure deficit (VPD is presented for irrigation scheduling in pistachio. Ψx was closely correlated with VPD but with a different fit according to the degree of water stress. No evidence of the variation of Ψx in relation to the phenology of the tree was observed. Furthermore, midday Ψx showed more accuracy to indicate a situation of water stress than predawn water potential. Under well irrigated conditions, gl was positively correlated with VPD during stage II of growth reaching its peak when VPD reached its maximum value (around 4 kPa. This behaviour changed during stage III of fruit growth suggesting a reliance of stomatal behaviour to the phenological stage independently to the tree water status. The levels of water stress reached were translated in a slow recovery of tree water status and leaf conductance (more than 40 days. Regarding rootstocks, P. integerrima showed little adaptation to water shortage compared to the two other rootstocks under the studied conditions.

  5. Quality Assurance Project Plan - Modeling the Impact of Hydraulic Fracturing on Water Resources Based on Water Acquisition Scenarios (United States)

    This planning document describes the quality assurance/quality control activities and technical requirements that will be used during the research study. The goal of this project is to evaluate the potential impacts of large volume water withdrawals.

  6. EPA's Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Its Potential Impact on Drinking Water Resources (United States)

    EPA released the final report for the study of fracking's impact on drinking water in December 2016. Here you can find a summary of the report, the full report, some frequent questions and answers and fact sheets.

  7. Borehole sampling of fracture populations - compensating for borehole sampling bias in crystalline bedrock aquifers, Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire (United States)

    McDonald, G.D.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Barton, C.C.; Johnson, C.D.


    The clustering of orientations of hydraulically conductive fractures in bedrock at the Mirror Lake, New Hampshire fractured rock study site was investigated by comparing the orientations of fracture populations in two subvertical borehole arrays with those mapped on four adjacent subvertical roadcuts. In the boreholes and the roadcuts, the orientation of fracture populations appears very similar after borehole data are compensated for undersampling of steeply dipping fractures. Compensated borehole and pavement fracture data indicate a northeast-striking population of fractures with varying dips concentrated near that of the local foliation in the adjacent rock. The data show no correlation between fracture density (fractures/linear meter) and distance from lithologic contacts in both the boreholes and the roadcuts. The population of water-producing borehole fractures is too small (28 out of 610 fractures) to yield meaningful orientation comparisons. However, the orientation of large aperture fractures (which contains all the producing fractures) contains two or three subsidiary clusters in orientation frequency that are not evident in stereographic projections of the entire population containing all aperture sizes. Further, these subsidiary orientation clusters do not coincide with the dominant (subhorizontal and subvertical) regional fracture orientations.

  8. Novel Conductive Water Removal Membrane (CWRM) for PEM Passive Fuel Cell Operation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Too much water, resulting in flooding, or too little water, resulting in electrolyte dryout, have both had negative impact upon fuel cell performance. ElectroChem...

  9. Inter-lab testing of Hyalella azteca water and sediment methods: 3 Results from 10- to 42-d tests conducted with the new water-only method (United States)

    Over the past four years, USEPA-Duluth, USGS-Columbia, the Illinois Natural History Survey, and Environment Canada have been conducting studies to refine the USEPA and ASTM International methods for conducting 10- to 42-d water or sediment toxicity exposures with the amphipod Hya...

  10. Frequent and regular conducted water quality analysis - key for health human population


    Nedeljkovik, Bojana; Gorgieva, Pale; Velickova, Nevenka


    Introduction: The water represent a very important factor in natural life of the people. From a biological standpoint, water has many differences, features that are important for reproduction of the species, which differs from other substances. Water security in our town it is not a real problem, but it is emerging as a possible unifying concept for the different things water managers are trying to achieve. Aim of the study: The main goal of this research is to prove and determine purity and ...

  11. Water-table and discharge changes associated with the 2016-2017 seismic sequence in central Italy: hydrogeological data and a conceptual model for fractured carbonate aquifers (United States)

    Petitta, Marco; Mastrorillo, Lucia; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Banzato, Francesca; Barberio, Marino Domenico; Billi, Andrea; Cambi, Costanza; De Luca, Gaetano; Di Carlo, Giuseppe; Di Curzio, Diego; Di Salvo, Cristina; Nanni, Torquato; Palpacelli, Stefano; Rusi, Sergio; Saroli, Michele; Tallini, Marco; Tazioli, Alberto; Valigi, Daniela; Vivalda, Paola; Doglioni, Carlo


    A seismic sequence in central Italy from August 2016 to January 2017 affected groundwater dynamics in fractured carbonate aquifers. Changes in spring discharge, water-table position, and streamflow were recorded for several months following nine Mw 5.0-6.5 seismic events. Data from 22 measurement sites, located within 100 km of the epicentral zones, were analyzed. The intensity of the induced changes were correlated with seismic magnitude and distance to epicenters. The additional post-seismic discharge from rivers and springs was found to be higher than 9 m3/s, totaling more than 0.1 km3 of groundwater release over 6 months. This huge and unexpected contribution increased streamflow in narrow mountainous valleys to previously unmeasured peak values. Analogously to the L'Aquila 2009 post-earthquake phenomenon, these hydrogeological changes might reflect an increase of bulk hydraulic conductivity at the aquifer scale, which would increase hydraulic heads in the discharge zones and lower them in some recharge areas. The observed changes may also be partly due to other mechanisms, such as shaking and/or squeezing effects related to intense subsidence in the core of the affected area, where effects had maximum extent, or breaching of hydraulic barriers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the work of the laboratories of the Department of Water Supply of MGSU. The laboratory of pipe-lines, pumping equipment and sanitary equipment operates in MGSU affiliated to the department of water supply. A hydraulic stand for testing and defining the the hydraulic characteristics of pressure and free-flow pipelines of water supply and sewerage systems is installed there. There are also stands for investigating the sanitary equipment of the buildings, the fire and hot water supply systems. The main research directions of the department of water supply are diverse: hydraulics of water supply systems, recon-struction of pipelines using trenchless technologies, reliable water supply and distribution systems, purification of natural water for drinking and industrial water supply, post-treatment of natural water for domestic water supply, resource conservation in domes-tic water supply systems, etc. The laboratory also has a computer lab, able to simultane-ously hold up to 30 students. In collaboration with the laboratory there operates a scien-tific circle for students and Master students, which provides a lot of interesting and useful information on the latest developments.

  13. Comparisons of the composition and biogeographic distribution of the bacterial communities occupying South African thermal springs with those inhabiting deep subsurface fracture water. (United States)

    Magnabosco, Cara; Tekere, Memory; Lau, Maggie C Y; Linage, Borja; Kuloyo, Olukayode; Erasmus, Mariana; Cason, Errol; van Heerden, Esta; Borgonie, Gaetan; Kieft, Thomas L; Olivier, Jana; Onstott, Tullis C


    South Africa has numerous thermal springs that represent topographically driven meteoric water migrating along major fracture zones. The temperature (40-70°C) and pH (8-9) of the thermal springs in the Limpopo Province are very similar to those of the low salinity fracture water encountered in the South African mines at depths ranging from 1.0 to 3.1 km. The major cation and anion composition of these thermal springs are very similar to that of the deep fracture water with the exception of the dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved O2, both of which are typically higher in the springs than in the deep fracture water. The in situ biological relatedness of such thermal springs and the subsurface fracture fluids that feed them has not previously been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the microbial diversity of six thermal spring and six subsurface sites in South Africa using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions. Proteobacteria were identified as the dominant phylum within both subsurface and thermal spring environments, but only one genera, Rheinheimera, was identified among all samples. Using Morisita similarity indices as a metric for pairwise comparisons between sites, we found that the communities of thermal springs are highly distinct from subsurface datasets. Although the Limpopo thermal springs do not appear to provide a new window for viewing subsurface bacterial communities, we report that the taxonomic compositions of the subsurface sites studied are more similar than previous results would indicate and provide evidence that the microbial communities sampled at depth are more correlated to subsurface conditions than geographical distance.

  14. Multi-Phase Fracture-Matrix Interactions Under Stress Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Grader; D. Elsworth; P.M. Halleck; F. Alvarao; A. Alajmi; Z. Karpyn; N. Mohammed; S. Al-Enezi


    The main objectives of this project are to quantify the changes in fracture porosity and multi-phase transport properties as a function of confining stress. These changes will be integrated into conceptual and numerical models that will improve our ability to predict and optimize fluid transport in fractured system. This report details our progress on: (a) developing the direct experimental measurements of fracture aperture and topology and fluid occupancy using high-resolution x-ray micro-tomography, (b) counter-current fluid transport between the matrix and the fracture, (c) studying the effect of confining stress on the distribution of fracture aperture and two-phase flow, and (d) characterization of shear fractures and their impact on multi-phase flow. The three-dimensional surface that describes the large-scale structure of the fracture in the porous medium can be determined using x-ray micro-tomography with significant accuracy. Several fractures have been scanned and the fracture aperture maps have been extracted. The success of the mapping of fracture aperture was followed by measuring the occupancy of the fracture by two immiscible phases, water and decane, and water and kerosene. The distribution of fracture aperture depends on the effective confining stress, on the nature of the rock, and the type and distribution of the asperities that keep the fracture open. Fracture apertures at different confining stresses were obtained by micro-tomography covering a range of about two thousand psig. Initial analysis of the data shows a significant aperture closure with increase in effective confining stress. Visual and detailed descriptions of the process are shown in the report. Both extensional and shear fractures have been considered. A series of water imbibition tests were conducted in which water was injected into a fracture and its migration into the matrix was monitored with CT and DR x-ray techniques. The objective was to understand the impact of the

  15. Water electrolysis with a conducting carbon cloth: subthreshold hydrogen generation and superthreshold carbon quantum dot formation. (United States)

    Biswal, Mandakini; Deshpande, Aparna; Kelkar, Sarika; Ogale, Satishchandra


    A conducting carbon cloth, which has an interesting turbostratic microstructure and functional groups that are distinctly different from other ordered forms of carbon, such as graphite, graphene, and carbon nanotubes, was synthesized by a simple one-step pyrolysis of cellulose fabric. This turbostratic disorder and surface chemical functionalities had interesting consequences for water splitting and hydrogen generation when such a cloth was used as an electrode in the alkaline electrolysis process. Importantly, this work also gives a new twist to carbon-assisted electrolysis. During electrolysis, the active sites in the carbon cloth allow slow oxidation of its surface to transform the surface groups from COH to COOH and so forth at a voltage as low as 0.2 V in a two-electrode system, along with platinum as the cathode, instead of 1.23 V (plus overpotential), which is required for platinum, steel, or even graphite anodes. The quantity of subthreshold hydrogen evolved was 24 mL cm(-2)  h(-1) at 1 V. Interestingly, at a superthreshold potential (>1.23 V+overpotential), another remarkable phenomenon was found. At such voltages, along with the high rate and quantity of hydrogen evolution, rapid exfoliation of the tiny nanoscale (5-7 nm) units of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are found in copious amounts due to an enhanced oxidation rate. These CQDs show bright-blue fluorescence under UV light. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Marsh soil responses to tidal water nitrogen additions contribute to creek bank fracturing and slumping (United States)

    Large-scale dissolved nutrient enrichment can cause a reduction in belowground biomass, increased water content of soils, and increased microbial decomposition, which has been linked with slumping of low marsh Spartina vegetation into creeks, and ultimately marsh loss. Our study ...

  17. Impact of the Microstructure of Polymer Drag Reducer on Slick-Water Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yu Liu


    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the drag reduction performance of slick-water, but the microdrag reduction mechanism remains unclear since the microstructure of the drag reducer and its effect on this mechanism have not been well studied. In this study, the microstructure of the drag reducer in slick-water was effectively characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The viscoelasticity and drag reduction performance of the drag reducer with different microstructures were then investigated. Further, the effects of the microstructure of the drag reducer on the viscoelasticity and drag reduction performance of slick-water were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the viscoelasticity of slick-water is governed by the microstructure of the drag reducer, which exhibits a network structure. In addition, the drag reduction performance is related to the viscoelasticity. At low flow rates, the drag reduction performance is dominantly influenced by viscosity, whereas, at high flow rates, it is governed mainly by elasticity. Furthermore, the drag reducer with a uniformly distributed network structure exhibits the most stable drag reduction performance. This drag reducer was used in a field test and the obtained results were consistent with those of a laboratory experiment.

  18. A comparison of the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of commercially pure titanium grade 4 in Ringer's solution and in distilled water: a fracture mechanics approach. (United States)

    Roach, Michael D; Williamson, R Scott; Thomas, Joseph A; Griggs, Jason A; Zardiackas, Lyle D


    From the results of laboratory investigations reported in the literature, it has been suggested that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms may contribute to early failures in titanium alloys that have elevated oxygen concentrations. However, the susceptibility of titanium alloys to SCC in physiological environments remains unclear. In this study, a fracture mechanics approach was used to examine the SCC susceptibility of CP titanium grade 4 in Ringer's solution and distilled de-ionized (DI) water, at 37°C. The study duration was 26 weeks, simulating the non-union declaration of a plated fracture. Four wedge loads were used corresponding to 86-95% of the alloy's ligament yield load. The longest cracks were measured to be 0.18 mm and 0.10 mm in Ringer's solution and DI water, respectively. SEM analysis revealed no evidence of extensive fluting and quasi-cleavage fracture features which, in literature reports, were attributed to SCC. We thus postulate that the Ringer's solution accelerated the wedge-loaded crack growth without producing the critical stresses needed to change the fracture mechanism. Regression analysis of the crack length results led to a significant best-fit relationship between crack growth velocity (independent variable) and test electrolyte, initial wedge load, and time of immersion of specimen in electrolyte (dependent variables). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Modeling stomatal conductance in the Earth system: linking leaf water-use efficiency and water transport along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (United States)

    Bonan, G. B.; Williams, M.; Fisher, R. A.; Oleson, K. W.


    The empirical Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model is commonly used in Earth system models to simulate biotic regulation of evapotranspiration. However, the dependence of stomatal conductance (gs) on vapor pressure deficit (Ds) and soil moisture must both be empirically parameterized. We evaluated the Ball-Berry model used in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and an alternative stomatal conductance model that links leaf gas exchange, plant hydraulic constraints, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPA) to numerically optimize photosynthetic carbon gain per unit water loss while preventing leaf water potential dropping below a critical minimum level. We evaluated two alternative optimization algorithms: intrinsic water-use efficiency (Δ An/Δ gs, the marginal carbon gain of stomatal opening) and water-use efficiency (Δ An/Δ El, the marginal carbon gain of water loss). We implemented the stomatal models in a multi-layer plant canopy model, to resolve profiles of gas exchange, leaf water potential, and plant hydraulics within the canopy, and evaluated the simulations using: (1) leaf analyses; (2) canopy net radiation, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and gross primary production at six AmeriFlux sites spanning 51 site-years; and (3) parameter sensitivity analyses. Without soil moisture stress, the performance of the SPA stomatal conductance model was generally comparable to or somewhat better than the Ball-Berry model in flux tower simulations, but was significantly better than the Ball-Berry model when there was soil moisture stress. Functional dependence of gs on soil moisture emerged from the physiological theory linking leaf water-use efficiency and water flow to and from the leaf along the soil-to-leaf pathway rather than being imposed a priori, as in the Ball-Berry model. Similar functional dependence of gs on Ds emerged from the water-use efficiency optimization. Sensitivity analyses showed that two parameters (stomatal efficiency and

  20. Enhancements of thermal conductivities with Cu, CuO, and carbon nanotube nanofluids and application of MWNT/water nanofluid on a water chiller system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Mark


    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, enhancements of thermal conductivities of ethylene glycol, water, and synthetic engine oil in the presence of copper (Cu, copper oxide (CuO, and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT are investigated using both physical mixing method (two-step method and chemical reduction method (one-step method. The chemical reduction method is, however, used only for nanofluid containing Cu nanoparticle in water. The thermal conductivities of the nanofluids are measured by a modified transient hot wire method. Experimental results show that nanofluids with low concentration of Cu, CuO, or carbon nanotube (CNT have considerably higher thermal conductivity than identical base liquids. For CuO-ethylene glycol suspensions at 5 vol.%, MWNT-ethylene glycol at 1 vol.%, MWNT-water at 1.5 vol.%, and MWNT-synthetic engine oil at 2 vol.%, thermal conductivity is enhanced by 22.4, 12.4, 17, and 30%, respectively. For Cu-water at 0.1 vol.%, thermal conductivity is increased by 23.8%. The thermal conductivity improvement for CuO and CNT nanofluids is approximately linear with the volume fraction. On the other hand, a strong dependence of thermal conductivity on the measured time is observed for Cu-water nanofluid. The system performance of a 10-RT water chiller (air conditioner subject to MWNT/water nanofluid is experimentally investigated. The system is tested at the standard water chiller rating condition in the range of the flow rate from 60 to 140 L/min. In spite of the static measurement of thermal conductivity of nanofluid shows only 1.3% increase at room temperature relative to the base fluid at volume fraction of 0.001 (0.1 vol.%, it is observed that a 4.2% increase of cooling capacity and a small decrease of power consumption about 0.8% occur for the nanofluid system at a flow rate of 100 L/min. This result clearly indicates that the enhancement of cooling capacity is not just related to thermal conductivity alone. Dynamic effect, such as

  1. Elevated ozone concentration decreases whole-plant hydraulic conductance and disturbs water use regulation in soybean plants. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Miao; Wang, Ai-Ying; Yin, Xiao-Han; Feng, Zhao-Zhong; Hao, Guang-You


    Elevated tropospheric ozone (O3 ) concentration has been shown to affect many aspects of plant performance including detrimental effects on leaf photosynthesis and plant growth. However, it is not known whether such changes are accompanied by concomitant responses in plant hydraulic architecture and water relations, which would have great implications for plant growth and survival in face of unfavorable water conditions. A soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivar commonly used in Northeast China was exposed to non-filtered air (NF, averaged 24.0 nl l-1 ) and elevated O3 concentrations (eO3 , 40 nl l-1 supplied with NF air) in six open-top chambers for 50 days. The eO3 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in whole-plant hydraulic conductance that is mainly attributable to the reduced hydraulic conductance of the root system and the leaflets, while stem and leaf petiole hydraulic conductance showed no significant response to eO3 . Stomatal conductance of plants grown under eO3 was lower during mid-morning but significantly higher at midday, which resulted in substantially more negative daily minimum water potentials. Moreover, excised leaves from the eO3 treated plants showed significantly higher rates of water loss, suggesting a lower ability to withhold water when water supply is impeded. Our results indicate that, besides the direct detrimental effects of eO3 on photosynthetic carbon assimilation, its influences on hydraulic architecture and water relations may also negatively affect O3 -sensitive crops by deteriorating the detrimental effects of unfavorable water conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a Conductivity Sensor for Monitoring Groundwater Resources to Optimize Water Management in Smart City Environments. (United States)

    Parra, Lorena; Sendra, Sandra; Lloret, Jaime; Bosch, Ignacio


    The main aim of smart cities is to achieve the sustainable use of resources. In order to make the correct use of resources, an accurate monitoring and management is needed. In some places, like underground aquifers, access for monitoring can be difficult, therefore the use of sensors can be a good solution. Groundwater is very important as a water resource. Just in the USA, aquifers represent the water source for 50% of the population. However, aquifers are endangered due to the contamination. One of the most important parameters to monitor in groundwater is the salinity, as high salinity levels indicate groundwater salinization. In this paper, we present a specific sensor for monitoring groundwater salinization. The sensor is able to measure the electric conductivity of water, which is directly related to the water salinization. The sensor, which is composed of two copper coils, measures the magnetic field alterations due to the presence of electric charges in the water. Different salinities of the water generate different alterations. Our sensor has undergone several tests in order to obtain a conductivity sensor with enough accuracy. First, several prototypes are tested and are compared with the purpose of choosing the best combination of coils. After the best prototype was selected, it was calibrated using up to 30 different samples. Our conductivity sensor presents an operational range from 0.585 mS/cm to 73.8 mS/cm, which is wide enough to cover the typical range of water salinities. With this work, we have demonstrated that it is feasible to measure water conductivity using solenoid coils and that this is a low cost application for groundwater monitoring.

  3. Communication: Is a coarse-grained model for water sufficient to compute Kapitza conductance on non-polar surfaces? (United States)

    Ardham, Vikram Reddy; Leroy, Frédéric


    Coarse-grained models have increasingly been used in large-scale particle-based simulations. However, due to their lack of degrees of freedom, it is a priori unlikely that they straightforwardly represent thermal properties with the same accuracy as their atomistic counterparts. We take a first step in addressing the impact of liquid coarse-graining on interfacial heat conduction by showing that an atomistic and a coarse-grained model of water may yield similar values of the Kapitza conductance on few-layer graphene with interactions ranging from hydrophobic to mildly hydrophilic. By design the water models employed yield similar liquid layer structures on the graphene surfaces. Moreover, they share common vibration properties close to the surfaces and thus couple with the vibrations of graphene in a similar way. These common properties explain why they yield similar Kapitza conductance values despite their bulk thermal conductivity differing by more than a factor of two.

  4. Influence of mashed potato dielectric properties and circulating water electric conductivity on radio frequency heating at 27 MHz. (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Olsen, Robert G; Tang, Juming; Tang, Zhongwei


    Experiments and computer simulations were conducted to systematically investigate the influence of mashed potato dielectric properties and circulating water electric conductivity on electromagnetic field distribution, heating rate, and heating pattern in packaged food during radio frequency (RF) heating processes in a 6 kW, 27 MHz laboratory scale RF heating system. Both experimental and simulation results indicated that for the selected food (mashed potato) in this study, the heating rate decreased with an increase of electric conductivity of circulating water and food salt content. Simplified analytical calculations were carried out to verify the simulation results, which further indicated that the electric field distribution in the mashed potato samples was also influenced by their dielectric properties and the electric conductivity of the surrounding circulating water. Knowing the influence of water electric conductivity and mashed potato dielectric properties on the heating rate and heating pattern is helpful in optimizing the radio frequency heating process by properly adjusting these factors. The results demonstrate that computer simulation has the ability to demonstrate influence on RF heat pattern caused by the variation of material physical properties and the potential to aid the improvement on construction and modification of RF heating systems.

  5. Voltage Gated Ion Channel Function: Gating, Conduction, and the Role of Water and Protons (United States)

    Kariev, Alisher M.; Green, Michael E.


    Ion channels, which are found in every biological cell, regulate the concentration of electrolytes, and are responsible for multiple biological functions, including in particular the propagation of nerve impulses. The channels with the latter function are gated (opened) by a voltage signal, which allows Na+ into the cell and K+ out. These channels have several positively charged amino acids on a transmembrane domain of their voltage sensor, and it is generally considered, based primarily on two lines of experimental evidence, that these charges move with respect to the membrane to open the channel. At least three forms of motion, with greatly differing extents and mechanisms of motion, have been proposed. There is a “gating current”, a capacitative current preceding the channel opening, that corresponds to several charges (for one class of channel typically 12–13) crossing the membrane field, which may not require protein physically crossing a large fraction of the membrane. The coupling to the opening of the channel would in these models depend on the motion. The conduction itself is usually assumed to require the “gate” of the channel to be pulled apart to allow ions to enter as a section of the protein partially crosses the membrane, and a selectivity filter at the opposite end of the channel determines the ion which is allowed to pass through. We will here primarily consider K+ channels, although Na+ channels are similar. We propose that the mechanism of gating differs from that which is generally accepted, in that the positively charged residues need not move (there may be some motion, but not as gating current). Instead, protons may constitute the gating current, causing the gate to open; opening consists of only increasing the diameter at the gate from approximately 6 Å to approximately 12 Å. We propose in addition that the gate oscillates rather than simply opens, and the ion experiences a barrier to its motion across the channel that is tuned

  6. Optimizing the electrical conductivity of marinade solution for water-holding capacity of broiler breast meat. (United States)

    Kaewthong, P; Wattanachant, S


    This study explored the possibility of forecasting the performance of marinade solutions in improving the water-holding capacity (WHC; weight gain, drip loss, cooking loss, and total yield) of marinated broiler breast meat based upon the electrical conductivity (EC) of the marinade solution. Normal- (50 ≤ L* ≤ 56) and light-colored samples (L* > 56), obtained from a production line, were marinated with 1 to 6% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), 0.5 to 3% sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), 1 to 6% sodium chloride (NaCl), and 0.05 to 0.5% acetic acid (CH3COOH) solutions. EC of all solutions increased with increasing solute concentration, and high EC of any salt solution correlated with increased weight gain and decreased drip loss and cooking loss, leading to increased total yield. CH3COOH had the least effect on the WHC of marinated breast meat. The effect of increasing EC of marinade solutions on drip loss was similar in the light- and normal-colored samples, but light-colored samples consistently had higher cooking losses and lower total yields compared with the normal-colored samples. At the same EC, NaHCO3 and STPP solutions had greater abilities to improve the total yield of marinated breast meat than the NaCl solution. Therefore, the WHC of the sample did not depend on the EC of the solution alone. However, increasing EC had a high correlation with gains in WHC of marinated breast meat for all marinade solutions (r > 0.96 for total yield). The total yield of both normal- and light-colored samples of broiler breast meat could be improved to a value higher than 75% when samples were marinated in salt solutions with EC ≥ 8.79 mS/cm for NaHCO3 or ≥ 9.91 mS/cm for STPP. NaCl solutions with EC ≥70.08 and ≥44.58 mS/cm could be used to improve total yield to values higher than 75% for light- and normal-colored samples, respectively. Our results revealed that EC could be used to forecast the performance of marinade solution in improving the WHC of marinated breast

  7. Grapevine acclimation to water deficit: the adjustment of stomatal and hydraulic conductance differs from petiole embolism vulnerability. (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Bonel, Andrea Giulia; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Degu, Asfaw; Fait, Aaron; Cochard, Hervé; Peterlunger, Enrico; Herrera, Jose Carlos


    Drought-acclimated vines maintained higher gas exchange compared to irrigated controls under water deficit; this effect is associated with modified leaf turgor but not with improved petiole vulnerability to cavitation. A key feature for the prosperity of plants under changing environments is the plasticity of their hydraulic system. In the present research we studied the hydraulic regulation in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) that were first acclimated for 39 days to well-watered (WW), sustained water deficit (SD), or transient-cycles of dehydration-rehydration-water deficit (TD) conditions, and then subjected to varying degrees of drought. Vine development under SD led to the smallest leaves and petioles, but the TD vines had the smallest mean xylem vessel and calculated specific conductivity (k ts). Unexpectedly, both the water deficit acclimation treatments resulted in vines more vulnerable to cavitation in comparison to WW, possibly as a result of developmental differences or cavitation fatigue. When exposed to drought, the SD vines maintained the highest stomatal (g s) and leaf conductance (k leaf) under low stem water potential (Ψs), despite their high xylem vulnerability and in agreement with their lower turgor loss point (ΨTLP). These findings suggest that the down-regulation of k leaf and g s is not associated with embolism, and the ability of drought-acclimated vines to maintain hydraulic conductance and gas exchange under stressed conditions is more likely associated with the leaf turgor and membrane permeability.

  8. Water free proton conducting membranes based on poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate for fuel cells (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor)


    Disclosed are methods for forming a water-free electrolyte membrane useful in fuel cells. Also provided is a water-free electrolyte membrane comprising a quaternized amine salt including poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate, a poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate silica composite, and a combination thereof and a fuel cell comprising the membrane.

  9. Concurrent temporal stability of the apparent electrical conductivity and soil water content (United States)

    Knowledge of spatio-temporal soil water content (SWC) variability within agricultural fields is useful to improve crop management. Spatial patterns of soil water contents can be characterized using the temporal stability analysis, however high density sampling is required. Soil apparent electrical c...

  10. Constructed wetlands for water pollution management of aquaculture farms conducting earthen pond culture. (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan; Chang, Yih-Feng; Sui, Hsuan-Yu


    This study established farm-scale constructed wetlands integrated to shrimp ponds, using existing earthern pond areas, with a wetland-to-pond ratio of only 0.086 for shrimp culture. The constructed wetlands were used as practice for aquaculture water and wastewater treatment, to regulate the water quality of shrimp ponds and manage pollution from pond effluents. The results of water quality monitoring for influent and effluent showed that constructed wetlands significantly reduced total suspended solids (59 to 72%), turbidity (55 to 65%), chlorophyll a (58 to 72%), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (29 to 40%), and chemical oxygen demand (13 to 24%) from pond water. The wetland treatment sufficiently regulated water quality of the recirculating shrimp pond, which was significantly (p aquaculture farms (R.O.C. Environmental Protection Administration, 2007). Accordingly, wetland treatment applications were proposed to implement the best management practices to reduce pollution from aquaculture farms in Taiwan.

  11. Photosynthetic response of an alpine plant, Rhododendron delavayi Franch, to water stress and recovery: the role of mesophyll conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei eCai


    Full Text Available Rhododendron delavayi Franch is an evergreen shrub or small tree with large scarlet flowers that makes it highly attractive as an ornamental species. The species is native to southwest China and southeast Asia, especially the Himalayan region, showing good adaptability and tolerance to drought. To understand the water stress coping mechanisms of R. delavayi, we analysed the plant’s photosynthetic performance during water stress and recovery. In particular, we looked at the regulation of stomatal (gs and mesophyll conductance (gm, and maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax. After four days of water stress treatment, the net CO2 assimilation rate (AN declined slightly while gs and gm were not affected and stomatal limitation (SL was therefore negligible. At this stage mesophyll conductance limitation (MCL and biochemical limitation (BL constituted the main limitation factors. After eight days of water stress treatment, AN, gs and gm had decreased notably. At this stage SL increased markedly and MCL even more so, while BL remained relatively constant. After re-watering, the recovery of AN, gs and gm was rapid, although remaining below the levels of the control plants, while Vcmax fully regained control levels after three days of re-watering. MCL remained the main limitation factor irrespective of the degree of photosynthetic recovery. In conclusion, in our experiment MCL was the main photosynthetic limitation factor of R. delavayi under water stress and during the recovery phase, with the regulation of gm probably being the result of interactions between the environment and leaf anatomical features.

  12. Tree level hydrodynamic approach for resolving aboveground water storage and stomatal conductance and modeling the effects of tree hydraulic strategy (United States)

    Mirfenderesgi, Golnazalsadat; Bohrer, Gil; Matheny, Ashley M.; Fatichi, Simone; de Moraes Frasson, Renato Prata; Schäfer, Karina V. R.


    The finite difference ecosystem-scale tree crown hydrodynamics model version 2 (FETCH2) is a tree-scale hydrodynamic model of transpiration. The FETCH2 model employs a finite difference numerical methodology and a simplified single-beam conduit system to explicitly resolve xylem water potentials throughout the vertical extent of a tree. Empirical equations relate water potential within the stem to stomatal conductance of the leaves at each height throughout the crown. While highly simplified, this approach brings additional realism to the simulation of transpiration by linking stomatal responses to stem water potential rather than directly to soil moisture, as is currently the case in the majority of land surface models. FETCH2 accounts for plant hydraulic traits, such as the degree of anisohydric/isohydric response of stomata, maximal xylem conductivity, vertical distribution of leaf area, and maximal and minimal xylem water content. We used FETCH2 along with sap flow and eddy covariance data sets collected from a mixed plot of two genera (oak/pine) in Silas Little Experimental Forest, NJ, USA, to conduct an analysis of the intergeneric variation of hydraulic strategies and their effects on diurnal and seasonal transpiration dynamics. We define these strategies through the parameters that describe the genus level transpiration and xylem conductivity responses to changes in stem water potential. Our evaluation revealed that FETCH2 considerably improved the simulation of ecosystem transpiration and latent heat flux in comparison to more conventional models. A virtual experiment showed that the model was able to capture the effect of hydraulic strategies such as isohydric/anisohydric behavior on stomatal conductance under different soil-water availability conditions.

  13. Tree-Level Hydrodynamic Approach for Modeling Aboveground Water Storage and Stomatal Conductance Highlights the Effects of Tree Hydraulic Strategy (United States)

    Mirfenderesgi, G.; Bohrer, G.; Matheny, A. M.; Fatichi, S.; Frasson, R. P. M.; Schafer, K. V.


    The Finite-difference Ecosystem-scale Tree-Crown Hydrodynamics model version 2 (FETCH2) is a novel tree-scale hydrodynamic model of transpiration. The FETCH2 model employs a finite difference numerical methodology and a simplified single-beam conduit system and simulates water flow through the tree as a continuum of porous media conduits. It explicitly resolves xylem water potential throughout the tree's vertical extent. Empirical equations relate water potential within the stem to stomatal conductance of the leaves at each height throughout the crown. While highly simplified, this approach brings additional realism to the simulation of transpiration by linking stomatal responses to stem water potential rather than directly to soil moisture, as is currently the case in the majority of land-surface models. FETCH2 accounts for plant hydraulic traits, such as the degree of anisohydric/isohydric response of stomata, maximal xylem conductivity, vertical distribution of leaf area, and maximal and minimal stemwater content. We used FETCH2 along with sap flow and eddy covariance data sets collected from a mixed plot of two genera (oak/pine) in Silas Little Experimental Forest, NJ, USA, to conduct an analysis of the inter-genera variation of hydraulic strategies and their effects on diurnal and seasonal transpiration dynamics. We define these strategies through the parameters that describe the genus-level transpiration and xylem conductivity responses to changes in stem water potential. A virtual experiment showed that the model was able to capture the effect of hydraulic strategies such as isohydric/anisohydric behavior on stomatal conductance under different soil-water availability conditions. Our evaluation revealed that FETCH2 considerably improved the simulation of ecosystem transpiration and latent heat flux than more conventional models.

  14. Stability and electrical conductivity of water-base Al2O3 nanofluids for different applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zawrah, M.F; Khattab, R.M; Girgis, L.G; El Daidamony, H; Abdel Aziz, Rehab E


    .... Zeta potential measurement of nanofluids with low alumina and intermediate fractions showed good dispersion of Al2O3 nanoparticles in water, but nanofluids with high mass fraction were easier to aggregate...

  15. A complete soil hydraulic model accounting for capillary and adsorptive water retention, capillary and film conductivity, and hysteresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakai, Masaru; Van Genuchten, Martinus Th; Alazba, A. A.; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Minasny, Budiman


    A soil hydraulic model that considers capillary hysteretic and adsorptive water retention as well as capillary and film conductivity covering the complete soil moisture range is presented. The model was obtained by incorporating the capillary hysteresis model of Parker and Lenhard into the hydraulic

  16. Toward developing long-life water quality sensors for the ISS using planar REDOX and conductivity sensors (United States)

    Buehler, M. G.; Kuhlman, G. M.; Keymeulen, D.; Myung, N.; Kounaves, S. P.


    REDOX and conductivity sensors are metal electrodes that are used to detect ionic species in solution by measuring the electrochemical cell current as the voltage is scanned. This paper describes the construction of the sensors, the potentiostat electronics, the measurement methodology, and applications to water quality measurements.

  17. Electrical conductivity and permittivity maps of brain tissues derived from water content based on T1 -weighted acquisition. (United States)

    Michel, Eric; Hernandez, Daniel; Lee, Soo Yeol


    To develop an electrical properties tomography (EPT) technique that can provide in vivo electrical conductivity and permittivity images of biological tissue without performing complex-valued radiofrequency field measurements. Electrical conductivity and permittivity images are modeled as a monotonic function of tissues' water content (W) under the principle of Maxwell's mixture theory. Water content maps are estimated from two spin-echo images having different repetition times (TRs). For the modeling functions, physically measured parameters (electrical properties, water content, and T1 ) of brain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter, and white matter are used as landmark literature references. The formulations are validated by a developed electrolyte-protein phantom and by human brain studies at 3 Tesla (T). The electrical properties (EPs) of the phantom estimated by the proposed method match well with the values measured on the bench. The conductivity and permittivity maps from all experiments show uncompromised spatial resolution without boundary artifacts and higher contrast when compared with water content maps. Human brain and phantom EP images suggest that water content is a dominating factor in determining the electrical properties of tissues. Despite possible literature inaccuracies, the proposed method offers EP maps that can provide complementary information to current approaches, to facilitate EPT scans in clinical applications. Magn Reson Med 77:1094-1103, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Arsenic evolution in fractured bedrock wells in central Maine, USA (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Zheng, Y.; Culbertson, C.; Schalk, C.; Nielsen, M. G.; Marvinney, R.


    Elevated arsenic concentration in fractured bedrock wells has emerged as an important and challenging health problem, especially in rural areas without public water supply and mandatory monitoring of private wells. This has posed risks of skin, bladder, prostate diseases and cancers to private well users. In central Maine, including the study site, 31% of bedrock wells in meta-sedimentary formations have been reported of elevated arsenic concentrations of > 10 µg/L. Geophysical logging and fracture specific water sampling in high arsenic wells have been conducted to understand how water flowing through the aquifers enters the boreholes and how arsenic evolves in the fracture bedrock wells. Two domestic wells in Manchester, Maine, located 50 meter apart with 38 µg/L and 73 µg/L of arsenic in unfiltered water, were investigated to characterize fractures by geophysical logging and to determine flow rates by pumping test. Water samples, representing the bore hole and the fractures, were collected and analyzed for arsenic under ambient and pumping conditions. Transmissivity of the fractures was estimated at 0.23-10.6 m2/day. Water with high dissolved arsenic was supplied primarily by high yielding fractures near the bottom of the borehole. Dissolved arsenic concentrations in borehole water increased as fracture water with high arsenic was replacing borehole water with initially low dissolved arsenic in response to pumping. The precipitation of iron particulates enriched in arsenic was common during and after pumping. Laboratory experiment on well water samples over a period of 16 days suggested that in the borehole arsenic was mainly settled with iron enriched particles, likely amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides, with possibly minor adsorption on the iron minerals. Another bedrock well in Litchfield, Maine, with 478 µg/L of arsenic in the unfiltered well water, is being investigated to quantify and reconstruct of the groundwater flow under ambient and pumping conditions

  19. Zero-valent iron for the abatement of arsenate and selenate from flowback water of hydraulic fracturing. (United States)

    Sun, Yuqing; Chen, Season S; Tsang, Daniel C W; Graham, Nigel J D; Ok, Yong Sik; Feng, Yujie; Li, Xiang-Dong


    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was tested for the removal of 150 μg L-1 As(V) and 350 μg L-1 Se(VI) in high-salinity (ionic strength 0.35-4.10 M) flowback water of hydraulic fracturing. Over 90% As(V) and Se(VI) was removed by 2.5 g L-1 ZVI in Day-14 flowback water up to 96-h reaction, with the remaining concentration below the maximum contaminant level for As(V) and criterion continuous concentration for Se(VI) recommended by US EPA. The kinetics of As(V) and Se(VI) removal followed a pseudo-second-order rate expression with the observed rates of 4.51 × 10-2-4.91 × 10-1 and 3.48 × 10-2-6.58 × 10-1 h-1 (with 0.5-10 g L-1 ZVI), respectively. The results showed that Se(VI) removal significantly decreased with increasing ionic strength, while As(V) removal showed little variation. Common competing anions (nitrate, bicarbonate, silicate, and phosphate), present in shallow groundwater and stormwater, caused marginal Se(VI) desorption (2.42 ± 0.13%) and undetectable As(V) desorption from ZVI. The competition between As(V) and Se(VI) for ZVI removal depended on the initial molar ratio and surface sites, which occurred when the Se(VI) concentration was higher than the As(V) concentration in this study. The characterization of As(V)- and Se(VI)-loaded ZVI by X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis revealed that ZVI gradually converted to magnetite/maghemite corrosion products with lepidocrocite in flowback water over 30 days. Similar corrosion compositions were confirmed in aerobic and anaerobic conditions regardless of the molar ratio of As(V) to Se(VI). The high reactivity and stability of ZVI showed its suitability for in-situ prevention of As(V) and Se(VI) migration due to accidental leakage, spillage, or overflow of flowback water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Electrical Conductivity, Chlorophyll and Seed ‎Yield of Wheat under Water Stress with Zeolite Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ‎ Mohammad Mirzakhani ‎


    Full Text Available Electrical conductivity of wheat cell sap and chlorophyll concentration of its leaves under drought stress and application of zeolite were evaluated in a split plot experiment, by using a RCBD with three at Arak Payam-Noor University in 2010. Treatments were four levels of water stress (I0= control irrigation, I1= irrigation at 85% of I0, I2= irrigation at 70% of I0, I3= irrigation at 55% of I0 assigned to the main plots and four levels of zeolite applications (Z0= without zeolite application, Z1= 3 t.ha-1, Z2= 6 t.ha-1, Z3= 9 t. ha-1 to the sub plots. Sub plots consisted of 4 rows of 5 m long spaced 50 cm apart and 20 plants per meter on the rows. In this study traits like peduncle length, awn length, number of spike per m-2, grain yield, electrical conductivity by using water with 50and 60oC were assessed. Results indicated that intraction effect of water stress and zeolit application on number of spike per m2, seed yield, and electrical conductivity at 50and 60oC water were significant. Mean comparisons of intraction effects showed that electrical conductivity of water with 50 and 60 oC (447 and 476 respectively resulted in the least detrimental effect on cell membrane. Results also revealed that electrical conductivity at control irrigation (554 µ and application of 9 t.ha-1 of zeolit produced highest seed yield (4901 kg.ha-1 at wheat.

  1. 33 CFR 151.2037 - If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or... (United States)


    ... ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or safety concerns, will I be prohibited from..., MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2037 If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water management...

  2. Data regarding hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010 (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.


    Comprehensive, published, and publicly available data regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States are scarce. The objective of this data series is to publish data related to hydraulic fracturing in the public domain. The spreadsheets released with this data series contain derivative datasets aggregated temporally and spatially from the commercial and proprietary IHS database of U.S. oil and gas production and well data (IHS Energy, 2011). These datasets, served in 21 spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel (.xlsx) format, outline the geographical distributions of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells (including well drill-hole directions) as well as water volumes, proppants, treatment fluids, and additives used in hydraulic fracturing treatments in the United States from 1947 through 2010. This report also describes the data—extraction/aggregation processing steps, field names and descriptions, field types and sources. An associated scientific investigation report (Gallegos and Varela, 2014) provides a detailed analysis of the data presented in this data series and comparisons of the data and trends to the literature.

  3. Effects of thermal conduction and convection on temperature profile in a water calorimeter for proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargioni, E.; Manfredotti, C. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Laitano, R.F.; Guerra, A.S. [Ist. Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA, Roma (Italy)


    In water calorimetry, in addition to the temperature increase due to beam energy deposition in water, unwanted thermal effects occur during and after calorimeter irradiation. This should be accounted for by applying proper corrections to the experimental results. In order to determine such corrections heat flow calculations were performed using the `finite element` method. This method applies even to complex 3D geometries with not necessarily symmetric conditions. Some preliminary results of these calculations are presented together with a description of the analytical method for the evaluation of the correction factors that should be applied to the experimental results to account for the above thermal effects. (orig.)

  4. Trends in hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010: data analysis and comparison to the literature (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.


    Hydraulic fracturing is presently the primary stimulation technique for oil and gas production in low-permeability, unconventional reservoirs. Comprehensive, published, and publicly available information regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States is scarce. This national spatial and temporal analysis of data on nearly 1 million hydraulically fractured wells and 1.8 million fracturing treatment records from 1947 through 2010 (aggregated in Data Series 868) is used to identify hydraulic fracturing trends in drilling methods and use of proppants, treatment fluids, additives, and water in the United States. These trends are compared to the literature in an effort to establish a common understanding of the differences in drilling methods, treatment fluids, and chemical additives and of how the newer technology has affected the water use volumes and areal distribution of hydraulic fracturing. Historically, Texas has had the highest number of records of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells in the United States documented in the datasets described herein. Water-intensive horizontal/directional drilling has also increased from 6 percent of new hydraulically fractured wells drilled in the United States in 2000 to 42 percent of new wells drilled in 2010. Increases in horizontal drilling also coincided with the emergence of water-based “slick water” fracturing fluids. As such, the most current hydraulic fracturing materials and methods are notably different from those used in previous decades and have contributed to the development of previously inaccessible unconventional oil and gas production target areas, namely in shale and tight-sand reservoirs. Publicly available derivative datasets and locations developed from these analyses are described.

  5. Design and Implementation of Energized Fracture Treatment in Tight Gas Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukul Sharma; Kyle Friehauf


    Hydraulic fracturing is essential for producing gas and oil at an economic rate from low permeability sands. Most fracturing treatments use water and polymers with a gelling agent as a fracturing fluid. The water is held in the small pore spaces by capillary pressure and is not recovered when drawdown pressures are low. The un-recovered water leaves a water saturated zone around the fracture face that stops the flow of gas into the fracture. This is a particularly acute problem in low permeability formations where capillary pressures are high. Depletion (lower reservoir pressures) causes a limitation on the drawdown pressure that can be applied. A hydraulic fracturing process can be energized by the addition of a compressible, sometimes soluble, gas phase into the treatment fluid. When the well is produced, the energized fluid expands and gas comes out of solution. Energizing the fluid creates high gas saturation in the invaded zone, thereby facilitating gas flowback. A new compositional hydraulic fracturing model has been created (EFRAC). This is the first model to include changes in composition, temperature, and phase behavior of the fluid inside the fracture. An equation of state is used to evaluate the phase behavior of the fluid. These compositional effects are coupled with the fluid rheology, proppant transport, and mechanics of fracture growth to create a general model for fracture creation when energized fluids are used. In addition to the fracture propagation model, we have also introduced another new model for hydraulically fractured well productivity. This is the first and only model that takes into account both finite fracture conductivity and damage in the invaded zone in a simple analytical way. EFRAC was successfully used to simulate several fracture treatments in a gas field in South Texas. Based on production estimates, energized fluids may be required when drawdown pressures are smaller than the capillary forces in the formation. For this field

  6. Enhanced thermal conductivity of nano-SiC dispersed water based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticle dispersed water based nanofluids were prepared using up to 0·1 vol% of nanoparticles. Use of suitable stirring routine ensured uniformity and stability of dispersion. Thermal conduc- tivity ratio of nanofluid measured using transient hot wire device shows a significant increase of ...

  7. Assessment of electrical conductivity as a surrogate measurement for water samples in a tracer injection experiment (United States)

    The transport behavior of solutes in streams depends on chemical, physical, biological, and hydrodynamic processes. Although it is a very complex system, it is known that this behavior is greatly influenced by surface and subsurface flows. For this reason, tracer injection in the water flows is one ...

  8. Time-lapse monitoring of soil water content using electromagnetic conductivity imaging (United States)

    The volumetric soil water content (VWC) is fundamental to agriculture. Unfortunately, the universally accepted thermogravimetric method is labour intensive and time-consuming to use for field-scale monitoring. Electromagnetic (EM) induction instruments have proven to be useful in mapping the spatio-...

  9. Conductivity as a tracer of agricultural and urban runoff to delineate water quality impacts in the northern Everglades. (United States)

    Harwell, Matthew C; Surratt, Donatto D; Barone, Dorianne M; Aumen, Nicholas G


    Agricultural and urban runoff pumped into the perimeter canals of the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), a 58,320-ha soft-water wetland, has elevated nutrients which impact the Refuge interior marsh. To best manage the Refuge, linkages between inflows to the perimeter canals and environmental conditions within the marsh need to be understood. Conductivity, which typically is high in the canals and lowest at the most interior sites, was used as a surrogate tracer to characterize patterns of constituent transport. The Refuge was initially classified into four zones based upon patterns and variability in conductivity data: Canal Zone; Perimeter Zone (canal to 2.5 km into the interior); Transition Zone (2.5 to 4.5 km from the canal); Interior Zone (>4.5 km from the canal). Conductivity variability declined from the Perimeter to the Interior Zone, with the highest variability in the marsh observed in the Perimeter Zone and the lowest variability observed in the Interior Zone. Analysis of other water quality parameters indicated that conditions in the Perimeter and Transition Zones were different, and more impacted, than in the Interior Zone. In general, there was a positive relationship between structure inflows and canal phosphorus concentrations, including discharges from treatment wetlands and bypasses of untreated water. This classification approach is applicable for stratified sampling designs, resolving spatial bias in water quality models, and in aiding in management decisions about resource allocation.

  10. Classification of Spanish Unifloral Honeys by Discriminant Analysis of Electrical Conductivity, Color, Water Content, Sugars, and pH. (United States)

    Mateo; Bosch-Reig


    To ascertain the most discriminant variables for seven types of Spanish commercial unifloral honeys, stepwise discriminant analysis was performed. Fifteen parameters [pH; water content; electrical conductivity; x, y, and L, chromatic coordinates from the CIE-1931 (xyL) color space; fructose; glucose; sucrose; maltose; isomaltose; maltulose; kojibiose; and the fructose/glucose and glucose/water ratios] were considered. The studied honey types were rosemary, citrus, lavender, sunflower, eucalyptus, heather, and forest. The most discriminant variables, as selected by the multivariate program, were electrical conductivity, color (x, y, L), water content, fructose, and sucrose. All sunflower, eucalyptus, and honeydew honey samples and >90% of the samples from the remaining honey types were correctly classified by using the classification functions devised by the program. The overall proportion of accurately arranged samples was 95.7%. Results were validated by the "jackknifed" procedure and showed that electrical conductivity, color, water content, fructose, and sucrose are highly useful parameters to classify unifloral honeys, although microscopical analysis of honey sediment remains the fundamental tool.

  11. Water quality studied in areas of unconventional oil and gas development, including areas where hydraulic fracturing techniques are used, in the United States (United States)

    Susong, David D.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.


    Domestic oil and gas production and clean water are critical for economic growth, public health, and national security of the United States. As domestic oil and gas production increases in new areas and old fields are enhanced, there is increasing public concern about the effects of energy production on surface-water and groundwater quality. To a great extent, this concern arises from the improved hydraulic fracturing techniques being used today, including horizontal drilling, for producing unconventional oil and gas in low-permeability formations.

  12. Monitoring of sap flow, leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, and latex yield of rubber trees under irrigation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapaporn Tongsawang


    Full Text Available To investigate the physiological responses and latex yield of rubber trees under irrigation management, an experiment was established at Songkhla Province, southern Thailand. The sap flow of rubber trees was measured by heat-pulse technique. First, the anatomy of sapwood and the optimum depth for implanting the sap flow sensor probe were determined. Then, the diurnal changes of the physiological responses (sap flow, leaf water potential, and stomatal conductance and latex yield under three regimes of irrigation (T1: no irrigation, T2: irrigation at 1.0 crop evapotranspiration (ETc and T3: irrigation at0.5 ETc were determined. The results showed that xylem vessels in sapwood were homogeneous and the optimum depth for implanting the sap flow sensor probes was 10 mm beneath the cambium. In the measurements of diurnal changes of the physiological responses, it was found that stomatal conductance and sap flow rates were related to radiation. Sap flow and stomatal conductance increased from the morning to the midday. Then they decreased slowly during the afternoon. However,leaf water potential changes showed an opposite effect. Among the three treatments, the results showed that sap flow, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance in T2 were highest. The trees in T2 also exhibited the highest latex yield from April to July 2006, which was significantly different from those of T3 and T1. This implied that latex yield increased with an increase of sap flow.

  13. Fat-free mass and total body water of infants estimated from total body electrical conductivity measurements. (United States)

    Fiorotto, M L; Cochran, W J; Klish, W J


    Total body electrical conductivity measurements can be used in conjunction with suitable calibration curves to quantitate fat-free mass and total body water. A study was designed to evaluate whether calibration curves, derived from miniature piglets, can be used to translate total body electrical conductivity measurements of human infants into estimates of total body water and fat-free mass. Thirty-four, healthy 2-, 4-, 8-, and 12-wk-old infants were studied. A comparison of the physical dimensions of infants and piglets indicated no large discrepancies in their body geometries that would invalidate the calibration from this standpoint. Estimates of fat-free mass, fat, and total body water were evaluated by comparison with the body composition of reference infants of comparable description. There was excellent agreement between the total body electrical conductivity-derived estimates and reference body composition values, suggesting that the calibration procedure is adequate. Thus, the total body electrical conductivity technique can be used to estimate the body composition of normal young infants without subjecting them to risk or discomfort.

  14. Canopy conductance of Pinus taeda, Liquidambar styraciflua and Quercus phellos under varying atmospheric and soil water conditions. (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.; Oren, R.; Katul, G.; Sigmon, J.


    Sap flow, and atmospheric and soil water data were collected in closed-top chambers under conditions of high soil water potential for saplings of Liquidambar styraciflua L., Quercus phellos L. and Pinus taeda L., three co-occurring species in the southeastern USA. Responses of canopy stomatal conductance (g(t)) to water stress induced by high atmospheric water vapor demand or transpiration rate were evaluated at two temporal scales. On a diurnal scale, the ratio of canopy stomatal conductance to maximum conductance (g(t)/g(t,max)) was related to vapor pressure deficit (D), and transpiration rate per unit leaf area (E(l)). High D or E(l) caused large reductions in g(t)/g(t,max) in L. styraciflua and P. taeda. The response of g(t)/g(t,max) to E(l) was light dependent in L. styraciflua, with higher g(t)/g(t,max) on sunny days than on cloudy days. In both L. styraciflua and Q. phellos, g(t)/g(t,max) decreased linearly with increasing D (indicative of a feed-forward mechanism of stomatal control), whereas g(t)/g(t,max) of P. taeda declined linearly with increasing E(l) (indicative of a feedback mechanism of stomatal control). Longer-term responses to depletion of soil water were observed as reductions in mean midday g(t)/g(t,max), but the reductions did not differ significantly between species. Thus, species that employ contrasting methods of stomatal control may show similar responses to soil water depletion in the long term.

  15. Cr(VI) and Conductivity as Indicators of Surface Water Pollution from Ferrochrome Production in South Africa: Four Case Studies (United States)

    Loock-Hattingh, M. M.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Tiedt, L. R.


    South Africa is one of the largest ferrochromium (FeCr) producers. Most FeCr is exported to developed countries. Therefore the impact of this industry is of national and international importance. Cr(VI) and conductivity of surface water in four case study areas, near five FeCr smelters were monitored for approximately 1 year. Results indicated that FeCr production in three case study areas had a negative influence on the Cr(VI) concentration and/or the conductivity of surface waters. In the remaining case study areas, drinking water, originating from groundwater, was severely polluted with Cr(VI). The main factors causing pollution were surface run-off and/or seepage, while atmospheric deposition did not seem to contribute significantly. The extinction of diatoms during a severe Cr(VI) surface water pollution event (concentrations up to 216 µg/L) in one of the case study areas was also observed, which clearly indicates the ecological impact of such surface water pollution events.

  16. A Novel Low-Cost Instrumentation System for Measuring the Water Content and Apparent Electrical Conductivity of Soils. (United States)

    Rêgo Segundo, Alan Kardek; Martins, José Helvecio; Monteiro, Paulo Marcos de Barros; de Oliveira, Rubens Alves; Freitas, Gustavo Medeiros


    The scarcity of drinking water affects various regions of the planet. Although climate change is responsible for the water availability, humanity plays an important role in preserving this precious natural resource. In case of negligence, the likely trend is to increase the demand and the depletion of water resources due to the increasing world population. This paper addresses the development, design and construction of a low cost system for measuring soil volumetric water content (θ), electrical conductivity (σ) and temperature (T), in order to optimize the use of water, energy and fertilizer in food production. Different from the existing measurement instruments commonly deployed in these applications, the proposed system uses an auto-balancing bridge circuit as measurement method. The proposed models to estimate θ and σ and correct them in function of T are compared to the ones reported in literature. The final prototype corresponds to a simple circuit connected to a pair of electrode probes, and presents high accuracy, high signal to noise ratio, fast response, and immunity to stray capacitance. The instrument calibration is based on salt solutions with known dielectric constant and electrical conductivity as reference. Experiments measuring clay and sandy soils demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the instrument.

  17. A Novel Low-Cost Instrumentation System for Measuring the Water Content and Apparent Electrical Conductivity of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kardek Rêgo Segundo


    Full Text Available The scarcity of drinking water affects various regions of the planet. Although climate change is responsible for the water availability, humanity plays an important role in preserving this precious natural resource. In case of negligence, the likely trend is to increase the demand and the depletion of water resources due to the increasing world population. This paper addresses the development, design and construction of a low cost system for measuring soil volumetric water content (θ, electrical conductivity (σ and temperature (T, in order to optimize the use of water, energy and fertilizer in food production. Different from the existing measurement instruments commonly deployed in these applications, the proposed system uses an auto-balancing bridge circuit as measurement method. The proposed models to estimate θ and σ and correct them in function of T are compared to the ones reported in literature. The final prototype corresponds to a simple circuit connected to a pair of electrode probes, and presents high accuracy, high signal to noise ratio, fast response, and immunity to stray capacitance. The instrument calibration is based on salt solutions with known dielectric constant and electrical conductivity as reference. Experiments measuring clay and sandy soils demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the instrument.

  18. The effects of water absorption and roasting conditions on fracture properties and internal structure of sesame seeds. (United States)

    Katsuno, Nakako; Fujimura, Makoto; Hanya, Akira; Nishizu, Takahisa


    We investigated the effects of soaking, residence time before roasting and roasting conditions on the fracture properties and structure of the cross-section of sesame seeds. Soaking time affected only the size of the side voids of the seed cross-section. The fracture force and strain of the roasted seeds decreased as residence time increased. The center void of the roasted seeds, important for seed crispness increased as residence time increased. In contrast, the side void of the roasted seeds only increased with residence time during the first 10 min. Seeds roasted at higher temperatures had smaller fracture forces and larger central voids than those roasted at lower temperatures. During roasting at 300 °C, the fracture force and strain decreased as the center void ratio increased. Overall, both a sufficient time for moisture diffusion in the seeds and a high roasting temperature were necessary to produce crisp roasted seeds.

  19. High proton conductivity in cyanide-bridged metal-organic frameworks: understanding the role of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Y.; Broersen, R.; Hageman, W.; Yan, N.; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, M.; Rothenberg, G.; Tanase, S.


    We investigate and discuss the proton conductivity properties of the cyanide-bridged metal–organic framework (MOF) [Nd(mpca)2Nd(H2O)6Mo(CN)8]·nH2O (where mpca is 5-methyl-2-pyrazinecarboxylate). This MOF is one of an exciting class of cyanide-bridged materials that can combine porosity with

  20. Electrical and Magnetic Imaging of Proppants in Shallow Hydraulic Fractures (United States)

    Denison, J. L. S.; Murdoch, L. C.; LaBrecque, D. J.; Slack, W. W.


    Hydraulic fracturing is an important tool to increase the productivity of wells used for oil and gas production, water resources, and environmental remediation. Currently there are relatively few tools available to monitor the distribution of proppants within a hydraulic fracture, or the propagation of the fracture itself. We have been developing techniques for monitoring hydraulic fractures by injecting electrically conductive, dielectric, or magnetically permeable proppants. We then use the resulting contrast with the enveloping rock to image the proppants using geophysical methods. Based on coupled laboratory and numerical modeling studies, three types of proppants were selected for field evaluation. Eight hydraulic fractures were created near Clemson, SC in May of 2015 by injecting specialized proppants at a depth of 1.5 m. The injections created shallow sub-horizontal fractures extending several meters from the injection point.Each cell had a dense array of electrodes and magnetic sensors on the surface and four shallow vertical electrode arrays that were used to obtain data before and after hydraulic fracturing. Net vertical displacement and transient tilts were also measured. Cores from 130 boreholes were used to characterize the general geometries, and trenching was used to characterize the forms of two of the fractures in detail. Hydraulic fracture geometries were estimated by inverting pre- and post-injection geophysical data. Data from cores and trenching show that the hydraulic fractures were saucer-shaped with a preferred propagation direction. The geophysical inversions generated images that were remarkably similar in form, size, and location to the ground truth from direct observation. Displacement and tilt data appear promising as a constraint on fracture geometry.

  1. Heat Conduction in Nano-Environment Observed in Cooling Processes of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles in Water (United States)

    Harata, Akira; Taura, Jyunya; Ogawa, Teiichiro


    Ultrafast dynamics of colloidal silver nanoparticles in an aqueous solution was investigated by observing the ultrafast lensing effects caused by a photo-induced refractive index change. The ultrafast response consisted of an instantaneous peak by the optical Kerr effect and a subsequent bi-exponential decay component. The decay component was independent of the relative polarization planes of pump and probe beams and had temperature-dependent time constants ranging from 0.4 to 2.2 ps and from 10 to 100 ps. A minimum at around 7°C was found for the time constant of the fast component. The results suggest that the structure of water molecules adjacent to the silver surface is affected by hydrogen bonds in a temperature-dependent manner similar to that of the molecular structure of bulk water.

  2. Modified cation conductivity[Monitoring water/steam chemistry]; Modifierad sur konduktivitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staalenheim, Annika [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)


    A commercially available instrument for monitoring of cation conductivity after removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) has been investigated. The sample is first treated in an acid cation exchanger. The carbon dioxide is removed in a degasser consisting of a heater and a column and the sample is cooled to ambient temperature. The cation conductivity is measured before as well as after degassing and cooling, so called 'degassed' cation conductivity. The cause of the interest for monitoring degassed cation conductivity is that the high content of CO{sub 2} in certain plants makes it difficult to use conventional cation conductivity to estimate if the level of more aggressive impurities like chloride and sulphate is acceptable. A high content of CO{sub 2} provides a high background level, overshadowing the contribution from the more aggressive compounds. There are alternative methods designed to provide information regarding the content of aggressive anions, usually based on analysis of the composition of the sample, like ion chromatography. These alternative methods are, however, often too expensive and/or too labour intensive to be used in smaller plants. Methods by which the influence of CO{sub 2} on the cation conductivity can be separated from the corresponding influence of more aggressive impurities are therefore of interest. Such alternative methods are usually based on removal of CO{sub 2}. The most common method involves heating as described in ASTM D4519-94. The method investigated follows this ASTM standard, except for the fact that the sample is cooled before the final conductivity measurement. The removal of CO{sub 2} is not the only critical factor. Another is that aggressive impurities like chloride and sulphate must not be removed. The effect on organic acids may also be of interest. Tests have been performed to determine the influence of the flow and temperature as well as of the influence of addition of varying levels and combinations of

  3. Cr(VI) and conductivity as Indicators of surface water pollution from ferrochrome production in South Africa: four case studies


    Loock-Hattingh, M.M.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; L.R. Tiedt


    South Africa is one of the largest ferrochromium (FeCr) producers. Most FeCr is exported to developed countries. Therefore the impact of this industry is of national and international importance. Cr(VI) and conductivity of surface water in four case study areas, near five FeCr smelters were monitored for approximately 1 year. Results indicated that FeCr production in three case study areas had a negative influence on the Cr(VI) concentration and/or the conductivity of surface w...

  4. Insights into the subsurface transport of As(V) and Se(VI) in produced water from hydraulic fracturing using soil samples from Qingshankou Formation, Songliao Basin, China. (United States)

    Chen, Season S; Sun, Yuqing; Tsang, Daniel C W; Graham, Nigel J D; Ok, Yong Sik; Feng, Yujie; Li, Xiang-Dong


    Produced water is a type of wastewater generated from hydraulic fracturing, which may pose a risk to the environment and humans due to its high ionic strength and the presence of elevated concentrations of metals/metalloids that exceed maximum contamination levels. The mobilization of As(V) and Se(VI) in produced water and selected soils from Qingshankou Formation in the Songliao Basin in China were investigated using column experiments and synthetic produced water whose quality was representative of waters arising at different times after well creation. Temporal effects of produced water on metal/metalloid transport and sorption/desorption were investigated by using HYDRUS-1D transport modelling. Rapid breakthrough and long tailings of As(V) and Se(VI) transport were observed in Day 1 and Day 14 solutions, but were reduced in Day 90 solution probably due to the elevated ionic strength. The influence of produced water on the hydrogeological conditions (i.e., change between equilibrium and non-equilibrium transport) was evidenced by the change of tracer breakthrough curves before and after the leaching of produced water. This possibly resulted from the sorption of polyacrylamide (PAM (-CH2CHCONH2-)n) onto soil surfaces, through its use as a friction reducer in fracturing solutions. The sorption was found to be reversible in this study. Minimal amounts of sorbed As(V) were desorbed whereas the majority of sorbed Se(VI) was readily leached out, to an extent which varied with the composition of the produced water. These results showed that the mobilization of As(V) and Se(VI) in soil largely depended on the solution pH and ionic strength. Understanding the differences in metal/metalloid transport in produced water is important for proper risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal Conductivity and Water Vapor Stability of Ceramic HfO2-Based Coating Materials (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.


    HfO2-Y2O3 and La2Zr2O7 are candidate thermal/environmental barrier coating materials for gas turbine ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor liner applications because of their relatively low thermal conductivity and high temperature capability. In this paper, thermal conductivity and high temperature phase stability of plasma-sprayed coatings and/or hot-pressed HfO2-5mol%Y2O3, HfO2-15mol%Y2O3 and La2Zr2O7 were evaluated at temperatures up to 1700 C using a steady-state laser heat-flux technique. Sintering behavior of the plasma-sprayed coatings was determined by monitoring the thermal conductivity increases during a 20-hour test period at various temperatures. Durability and failure mechanisms of the HfO2-Y2O3 and La2Zr2O7 coatings on mullite/SiC Hexoloy or CMC substrates were investigated at 1650 C under thermal gradient cyclic conditions. Coating design and testing issues for the 1650 C thermal/environmental barrier coating applications will also be discussed.

  6. Hydrologic conditions, stream-water quality, and selected groundwater studies conducted in the Lawrenceville area, Georgia, 2003-2008 (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Williams, Lester J.


    Hydrologic studies conducted during 2003-2008 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Water Program with the City of Lawrenceville, Georgia, provide important data for the management of water resources. The Cooperative Water Program includes (1) hydrologic monitoring (precipitation, streamflow, and groundwater levels) to quantify baseline conditions in anticipation of expanded groundwater development, (2) surface-water-quality monitoring to provide an understanding of how stream quality is affected by natural (such as precipitation) and anthropogenic factors (such as impervious area), and (3) geologic studies to better understand groundwater flow and hydrologic processes in a crystalline rock setting. The hydrologic monitoring network includes each of the two watersheds projected for groundwater development?the Redland-Pew Creek and upper Alcovy River watersheds?and the upper Apalachee River watershed, which serves as a background or control watershed because of its similar hydrologic and geologic characteristics to the other two watersheds. In each watershed, precipitation was generally greater during 2003-2005 than during 2006-2008, and correspondingly streamflow and groundwater levels decreased. In the upper Alcovy River and Redland-Pew Creek watersheds, groundwater level declines during 2003-2008 were mostly between 2 and 7 feet, with maximum observed declines of as much as 28.5 feet in the upper Alcovy River watershed, and 49.1 feet in the Redland-Pew Creek watershed. Synoptic base-flow measurements were used to locate and quantify gains or losses to streamflow resulting from groundwater interaction (groundwater seepage). In September 2006, seepage gains were measured at five of nine reaches evaluated in the upper Alcovy River watershed, with losses in the other four. The four losing reaches were near the confluence of the Alcovy River and Cedar Creek where the stream gradient is low and bedrock is at or near the land surface. In the Redland

  7. Superacidity in Nafion/MOF Hybrid Membranes Retains Water at Low Humidity to Enhance Proton Conduction for Fuel Cells. (United States)

    Patel, Hasmukh A; Mansor, Noramalina; Gadipelli, Srinivas; Brett, Dan J L; Guo, Zhengxiao


    A hybrid membrane of superacid sulfated Zr-MOF (SZM) and Nafion shows much superior performance to Nafion, particularly for fuel cell operating under low humidity. The Brønsted acidic sites in SZM networks retain an ample amount of water which facilitated proton conduction under low humidity. The water retention properties of Nafion-SZM hybrid membranes with 1 wt % loading of SZM increased at 35% relative humidity and outperformed commercial unfilled Nafion membrane. The proton conductivity increases by 23% for Nafion-SZM hybrid compared to unfilled Nafion membrane. The Nafion-SZM membrane also shows higher performance stability at 35% relative humidity than Nafion, as confirmed by close monitoring of the change of open circuit voltage for 24 h.

  8. Simulation studies to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The second year of this three-year research program to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the recovery of oil and gas from naturally fractured reservoirs has been completed. The overall objectives of the study are to: (1) evaluate the reservoir conditions where fracture closure is significant, and (2) evaluate innovative fluid injection techniques capable of maintaining pressure within the reservoir. Simulation studies have been conducted with a dual porosity simulator capable of simulating the performance of vertical and horizontal wells. Each simulation model has been initialized with properties typical of the Austin Chalk reservoir in Pearsall Field, Texas. During year one, simulations of both vertical and horizontal well performance were made assuming that fracture permeability was insensitive to pressure charge. The results confirmed that horizontal wells could increase both rate of oil recovery and total oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs. During the second year the performances of the same vertical and horizontal wells were evaluated with the assumption that fracture permeability was a function of reservoir pressure. This required repetition of most of the natural depletion cases simulated in year one while invoking the pressure-sensitive fracture permeability option. To investigate sensitivity to in situ stress, two stress conditions were simulated for each primary variable. The water injection cases, begun in year one, were extended to include most of the reservoir parameters investigated for natural depletion, including fracture permeability as a function of net stress and the use of horizontal wells. The results thus far confirm that pressure-sensitive fractures degrade well performance and that the degradation is reduced by water injection pressure maintenance. Furthermore, oil recovery can be significantly increased by water injection pressure maintenance.

  9. Fractured Petroleum Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firoozabadi, Dr. Abbas


    In this report the results of experiments of water injection in fractured porous media comprising a number of water-wet matrix blocks are reported for the first time. The blocks experience an advancing fracture-water level (FWL). Immersion-type experiments are performed for comparison; the dominant recovery mechanism changed from co-current to counter-current imbibition when the boundary conditions changed from advancing FWL to immersion-type. Single block experiments of co-current and counter-current imbibition was performed and co-current imbibition leads to more efficient recovery was found.

  10. fracture criterion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fracture in metallic glasses. What are the connections between nano- and micro- mechanisms and toughness? Metallic glasses are schizophrenic in the fracture sense. PDF Create! 5 Trial ...

  11. Shoulder Fractures (United States)

    ... arm bone), the scapula (shoulder blade) and the clavicle (collarbone) (Figure 1). The upper end of the humerus ... age. Most fractures in children occur in the clavicle bone. In adults, the most common fracture is ...

  12. Hand Fractures (United States)

    ... lead to arthritis down the road. In addition, fractures in children occasionally affect future growth of that bone. Figure 1: Examples of fractures in fingers Figure 2: Examples of plates, pins ...

  13. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios


    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Because of the decrease in fossil fuel resources and the continuous increase in energy demands, clean energy requirements become extremely important for future energy generation systems. Hydrogen is well known as an efficient and environmentally friendly energy carrier. Highly catalytic active and low-cost electrocatalysts for hydrogen production are key issues for sustainable energy technologies. Here we report an aluminium electrode modified with polypyrrole (PPy-chitosan (Chi composite film decorated with Pt nanoparticles for hydrogen production from water. Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER is examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV, Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS in 0.5M H2SO4. The structural properties of the modified surfaces analyses were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The stability tests also performed for aluminium electrode coted with PPy-Chi/Pt composite film.

  15. An analysis of chemicals and other constituents found in produced water from hydraulically fractured wells in California and the challenges for wastewater management. (United States)

    Chittick, Emily A; Srebotnjak, Tanja


    As high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HF) has grown substantially in the United States over the past decade, so has the volume of produced water (PW), i.e., briny water brought to the surface as a byproduct of oil and gas production. According to a recent study (Groundwater Protection Council, 2015), more than 21 billion barrels of PW were generated in 2012. In addition to being high in TDS, PW may contain hydrocarbons, PAH, alkylphenols, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), metals, and other organic and inorganic substances. PW from hydraulically fractured wells includes flowback water, i.e., injection fluids containing chemicals and additives used in the fracturing process such as friction reducers, scale inhibitors, and biocides - many of which are known to cause serious health effects. It is hence important to gain a better understanding of the chemical composition of PW and how it is managed. This case study of PW from hydraulically fractured wells in California provides a first aggregate chemical analysis since data collection began in accordance with California's 2013 oil and gas well stimulation law (SB4, Pavley). The results of analyzing one-time wastewater analyses of 630 wells hydraulically stimulated between April 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015 show that 95% of wells contained measurable and in some cases elevated concentrations of BTEX and PAH compounds. PW from nearly 500 wells contained lead, uranium, and/or other metals. The majority of hazardous chemicals known to be used in HF operations, including formaldehyde and acetone, are not reported in the published reports. The prevalent methods for dealing with PW in California - underground injection and open evaporation ponds - are inadequate for this waste stream due to risks from induced seismicity, well integrity failure, well upsets, accidents and spills. Beneficial reuse of PW, such as for crop irrigation, is as of yet insufficiently safety tested for consumers and agricultural workers as

  16. Stress Fractures (United States)

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  17. Assessment of surface water chloride and conductivity trends in areas of unconventional oil and gas development-Why existing national data sets cannot tell us what we would like to know (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.; Cade, Brian S.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Farag, Aïda M.; Mott, David N.; Potter, Christopher J.; Cinotto, Peter J.; Clark, Melanie L.; Kappel, William M.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Paschke, Suzanne; Susong, David D.; Varela, Brian A.


    Heightened concern regarding the potential effects of unconventional oil and gas development on regional water quality has emerged, but the few studies on this topic are limited in geographic scope. Here we evaluate the potential utility of national and publicly available water-quality data sets for addressing questions regarding unconventional oil and gas development. We used existing U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data sets to increase understanding of the spatial distribution of unconventional oil and gas development in the U.S. and broadly assess surface water quality trends in these areas. Based on sample size limitations, we were able to estimate trends in specific conductance (SC) and chloride (Cl-) from 1970 to 2010 in 16% (n=155) of the watersheds with unconventional oil and gas resources. We assessed these trends relative to spatiotemporal distributions of hydraulically fractured wells. Results from this limited analysis suggest no consistent and widespread trends in surface water quality for SC and Cl- in areas with increasing unconventional oil and gas development and highlight limitations of existing national databases for addressing questions regarding unconventional oil and gas development and water quality.

  18. Linked reactivity at mineral-water interfaces through bulk crystal conduction. (United States)

    Yanina, Svetlana V; Rosso, Kevin M


    The semiconducting properties of a wide range of minerals are often ignored in the study of their interfacial geochemical behavior. We show that surface-specific charge density accumulation reactions combined with bulk charge carrier diffusivity create conditions under which interfacial electron transfer reactions at one surface couple with those at another via current flow through the crystal bulk. Specifically, we observed that a chemically induced surface potential gradient across hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) crystals is sufficiently high and the bulk electrical resistivity sufficiently low that dissolution of edge surfaces is linked to simultaneous growth of the crystallographically distinct (001) basal plane. The apparent importance of bulk crystal conduction is likely to be generalizable to a host of naturally abundant semiconducting minerals playing varied key roles in soils, sediments, and the atmosphere.

  19. Forsmark site investigation. Monitoring of brook water levels, electrical conductivities, temperatures and discharges January-December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult (Sweden)); Juston, John (Juston Konsult (Sweden))


    This document reports the monitoring of water levels, electrical conductivities, temperatures and discharges at four brook discharge gauging stations, and the monitoring of water electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden in the Forsmark area. The report presents data from 1 January through 31 December 2010 and is a continuation of reporting from Johansson and Juston (2007, 2009, 2011), which covered the periods from 1 April 2004 through 31 March 2007, 1 April 2007 through 31 December 2008, and 1 January through 31 December 2009, respectively. Long-throated flumes equipped with automatically recording devices were used for the discharge measurements. Every c. 14 days the water depths at the upstream edge of the flumes were measured manually by a ruler as a check. Electrical conductivity and temperature were automatically recorded and these parameters were also measured manually every c. 14 days with the site investigation field devices. SKB's Hydro Monitoring System (HMS) was used to collect and store all data. From HMS quality assured data were transferred to SKB's primary database Sicada. Measurements of levels, electrical conductivities and temperatures were made every 10 minutes (every 30 minutes for electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden). For the calculation of discharge, quality assured water level data from the flumes were used. The calculation procedure included consolidation of the time series to hourly averages, screening of data for removal of short-term spikes, noise and other data that were judged erroneous. After the calculations were performed, the results were delivered to Sicada. The amplitudes of water level variations during this reporting period were 0.41-0.55 m and the mean electrical conductivities varied between 23 and 39 mS/m at the four discharge stations. However, due to mal-function of measuring devices for electrical conductivity, data were missing for relatively long time periods. Due

  20. Thermal shock fracture mechanics analysis of a semi-infinite medium based on the dual-phase-lag heat conduction model (United States)

    Wang, B.; Li, J. E.; Yang, C.


    The generalized lagging behaviour in solids is very important in understanding heat conduction in small-scale and high-rate heating. In this paper, an edge crack in a semi-infinite medium subjected to a heat shock on its surface is studied under the framework of the dual-phase-lag (DPL) heat conduction model. The transient thermal stress in the medium without crack is obtained first. This stress is used as the crack surface traction with an opposite sign to formulate the crack problem. Numerical results of thermal stress intensity factor are obtained as the functions of crack length and thermal shock time. Crack propagation predictions are conducted and results based on the DPL model and those based on the classical Fourier heat conduction model are compared. The thermal shock strength that the medium can sustain without catastrophic failure is established according to the maximum local stress criterion and the stress intensity factor criterion. PMID:25663805

  1. [Comparison of conductivity-water content curve and visual methods for ascertaintation of the critical water content of O/W microemulsions formation]. (United States)

    Xiang, Da-wei; Tang, Tian-tian; Peng, Jin-fei; Li, Lan-lin; Sun, Xiao-bo; Xiang, Da-xiong


    This study is to screen 23 blank O/W type microemulsion (ME) samples, that is 15 samples from our laboratory, and 8 samples from literature; compare the conductivity-water content curve (CWCC) method and visual method in determining the critical water content during O/W type MEs' formation, to analyze the deficiency and the feasibility of visual method and to exploxe scientific meanings of CWCC method in judging the critical water content of O/W type MEs during formation. The results show that there is a significant difference between the theoretical feasible CWCC method and visual method in determining the critical water content (Pcontent. Therefore, this article firmly confirmed the shortcomings of visual method and suggested that the eye-base "critical water content" may falls into continuous ME stage during O/W MEs' formation. Further more, the CWCC method has theoretical feasibility and scientific meanings in determining the critical water content of O/W type MEs during formation.

  2. Microstructure, porosity and mineralogy around fractures in Olkiluoto bedrock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuva, J. (ed.); Myllys, M.; Timonen, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland); Kelokaski, M.; Ikonen, J.; Siitari-Kauppi, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland); Lindberg, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Aaltonen, I.


    3D distributions of minerals and porosities were determined for samples that included waterconducting fractures. The analysis of these samples was performed using conventional petrography methods, electron microscopy, C-14-PMMA porosity analysis and X-ray tomography. While X-ray tomography proved to be a very useful method when determining the inner structure of the samples, combining tomography results with those obtained by other methods turned out to be difficult without very careful sample preparation design. It seems that the properties of rock around a water-conducting fracture depend on so many uncorrelated factors that no clear pattern emerged even for rock samples with a given type of fracture. We can conclude, however, that a combination of different analysis methods can be useful and used to infer novel structural information about alteration zones adjacent to fracture surfaces. (orig.)

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of triflic acid and triflate ion/water mixtures: a proton conducting electrolytic component in fuel cells. (United States)

    Sunda, Anurag Prakash; Venkatnathan, Arun


    Triflic acid is a functional group of perflourosulfonated polymer electrolyte membranes where the sulfonate group is responsible for proton conduction. However, even at extremely low hydration, triflic acid exists as a triflate ion. In this work, we have developed a force-field for triflic acid and triflate ion by deriving force-field parameters using ab initio calculations and incorporated these parameters with the Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations - All Atom (OPLS-AA) force-field. We have employed classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with the developed force field to characterize structural and dynamical properties of triflic acid (270-450 K) and triflate ion/water mixtures (300 K). The radial distribution functions (RDFs) show the hydrophobic nature of CF(3) group and presence of strong hydrogen bonding in triflic acid and temperature has an insignificant effect. Results from our MD simulations show that the diffusion of triflic acid increases with temperature. The RDFs from triflate ion/water mixtures shows that increasing hydration causes water molecules to orient around the SO(3)(-) group of triflate ions, solvate the hydronium ions, and other water molecules. The diffusion of triflate ions, hydronium ion, and water molecules shows an increase with hydration. At λ = 1, the diffusion of triflate ion is 30 times lower than the diffusion of triflic acid due to the formation of stable triflate ion-hydronium ion complex. With increasing hydration, water molecules break the stability of triflate ion-hydronium ion complex leading to enhanced diffusion. The RDFs and diffusion coefficients of triflate ions, hydronium ions and water molecules resemble qualitatively the previous findings using per-fluorosulfonated membranes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Water chemistry and electrical conductivity database for rivers in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (United States)

    Clor, Laura E.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Huebner, Mark A.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Heasler, Henry P.; Mahony, Dan L.; Maloney, Tim; Evans, William C.


    Chloride flux has been used to estimate heat flow in volcanic environments since the method was developed in New Zealand by Ellis and Wilson (1955). The method can be applied effectively at Yellowstone, because nearly all of the water discharged from its thermal features enters one of four major rivers (the Madison, Yellowstone, Snake, and Falls Rivers) that drain the park, and thus integration of chloride fluxes from all these rivers provides a means to monitor the total heat flow from the entire Yellowstone volcanic system (Fournier and others, 1976; Fournier, 1979). Fournier (1989) summarized the results and longterm heat-flow trends from Yellowstone, and later efforts that applied the chloride inventory method to estimate heat flow were described by Ingebritsen and others (2001) and Friedman and Norton (2007). Most recently, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in conjunction with the National Park Service, has provided publicly accessible reports on solute flux, based on periodic sampling at selected locations (Hurwitz and others, 2007a,b). While these studies have provided a wealth of valuable data, winter travel restrictions and the great distances between sites present significant logistical challenges and have limited collection to a maximum of 28 samples per site annually.

  5. A Fracture Decoupling Experiment (United States)

    Stroujkova, A. F.; Bonner, J. L.; Leidig, M.; Ferris, A. N.; Kim, W.; Carnevale, M.; Rath, T.; Lewkowicz, J.


    Multiple observations made at the Semipalatinsk Test Site suggest that conducting nuclear tests in the fracture zones left by previous explosions results in decreased seismic amplitudes for the second nuclear tests (or "repeat shots"). Decreased seismic amplitudes reduce both the probability of detection and the seismically estimated yield of a "repeat shot". In order to define the physical mechanism responsible for the amplitude reduction and to quantify the degree of the amplitude reduction in fractured rocks, Weston Geophysical Corp., in collaboration with Columbia University's Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, conducted a multi-phase Fracture Decoupling Experiment (FDE) in central New Hampshire. The FDE involved conducting explosions of various yields in the damage/fracture zones of previously detonated explosions. In order to quantify rock damage after the blasts we performed well logging and seismic cross-hole tomography studies of the source region. Significant seismic velocity reduction was observed around the source regions after the initial explosions. Seismic waves produced by the explosions were recorded at near-source and local seismic networks, as well as several regional stations throughout northern New England. Our analysis confirms frequency dependent seismic amplitude reduction for the repeat shots compared to the explosions in un-fractured rocks. The amplitude reduction is caused by pore closing and/or by frictional losses within the fractured media.

  6. Understanding the Geometry of Connected Fracture Flow with Multiperiod Oscillatory Hydraulic Tests. (United States)

    Sayler, Claire; Cardiff, Michael; Fort, Michael D


    An understanding of the spatial and hydraulic properties of fast preferential flow pathways in the subsurface is necessary in applications ranging from contaminant fate and transport modeling to design of energy extraction systems. One method for the characterization of fracture properties over interwellbore scales is Multiperiod Oscillatory Hydraulic (MOH) testing, in which the aquifer response to oscillatory pressure stimulations is observed. MOH tests were conducted on isolated intervals of wells in siliciclastic and carbonate aquifers in southern Wisconsin. The goal was to characterize the spatial properties of discrete fractures over interwellbore scales. MOH tests were conducted on two discrete fractured intervals intersecting two boreholes at one field site, and a nest of three piezometers at another field site. Fracture diffusivity estimates were obtained using analytical solutions that relate diffusivity to observed phase lag and amplitude decay. In addition, MOH tests were used to investigate the spatial extent of flow using different conceptual models of fracture geometry. Results indicated that fracture geometry at both field sites can be approximated by permeable two-dimensional fracture planes, oriented near-horizontally at one site, and near-vertically at the other. The technique used on MOH field data to characterize fracture geometry shows promise in revealing fracture network characteristics important to groundwater flow and transport. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  7. Microbial processes in fractured rock environments (United States)

    Kinner, Nancy E.; Eighmy, T. Taylor; Mills, M.; Coulburn, J.; Tisa, L.

    Little is known about the types and activities of microbes in fractured rock environments, but recent studies in a variety of bedrock formations have documented the presence of a diverse array of prokaryotes (Eubacteria and Archaea) and some protists. The prokaryotes appear to live in both diffusion-dominated microfractures and larger, more conductive open fractures. Some of the prokaryotes are associated with the surfaces of the host rock and mineral precipitates, while other planktonic forms are floating/moving in the groundwater filling the fractures. Studies indicate that the surface-associated and planktonic communities are distinct, and their importance in microbially mediated processes occurring in the bedrock environment may vary, depending on the availability of electron donors/acceptors and nutrients needed by the cells. In general, abundances of microbes are low compared with other environments, because of the paucity of these substances that are transported into the deeper subsurface where most bedrock occurs, unless there is significant pollution with an electron donor. To obtain a complete picture of the microbes present and their metabolic activity, it is usually necessary to sample formation water from specific fractures (versus open boreholes), and fracture surfaces (i.e., cores). Transport of the microbes through the major fracture pathways can be rapid, but may be quite limited in the microfractures. Very low abundances of small ( 2-3 μm) flagellated protists, which appear to prey upon planktonic bacteria, have been found in a bedrock aquifer. Much more research is needed to expand the understanding of all microbial processes in fractured rock environments.

  8. Forsmark site investigation. Monitoring of brook water levels, electrical conductivities, temperatures and discharges January-December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult (Sweden)); Juston, John (Juston Konsult (Sweden))


    This document reports the monitoring of water levels, electrical conductivities, temperatures and discharges at four brook discharge gauging stations, and the monitoring of water electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden in the Forsmark area. The report presents data from 1 January through 31 December 2009 and is a continuation of reporting from Johansson and Juston (2007, 2009), which covered the periods from 1 April 2004 through 31 March 2007 and 1 April 2007 through 31 December 2008, respectively. Long-throated flumes equipped with automatically recording devices were used for the discharge measurements. Every c. 14 days the water depths at the upstream edge of the flumes were measured manually by a ruler as a check. Electrical conductivity and temperature were automatically recorded and these parameters were also measured manually every c. 14 days with the site investigation field devices. SKB's Hydro Monitoring System (HMS) was used to collect and store all data. From HMS quality assured data were transferred to SKB's primary database Sicada. Measurements of levels, electrical conductivities and temperatures were made every 10 minutes (every 30 minutes for electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden). For the calculation of discharge, quality assured water level data from the flumes were used. The calculation procedure included consolidation of the time series to hourly averages, screening of data for removal of short-term spikes, noise and other data that were judged erroneous. After the calculations were performed, the results were delivered to Sicada. The amplitudes of water level variations during this reporting period were 0.26-0.33 m at the four stations. The mean electrical conductivities varied between 26 and 41 mS/m at the four discharge stations. The electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden varied between 53 and 188 mS/m during the period with the higher values at the end of the

  9. Hydrogeochemical and Isotopic Indicators of Hydraulic Fracturing Flowback Fluids in Shallow Groundwater and Stream Water, derived from Dameigou Shale Gas Extraction in the Northern Qaidam Basin. (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoxian; Zhang, Hongda; Chen, Zongyu; Li, Xufeng; Zhu, Pucheng; Cui, Xiaoshun


    Most of the shale gas production in northwest China is from continental shale. Identifying hydrogeochemical and isotopic indicators of toxic hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) has great significance in assessing the safety of drinking water from shallow groundwater and streamwater. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic data for HFFF from the Dameigou shale formations (Cl/Br ratio (1.81 × 10-4-6.52 × 10-4), Ba/Sr (>0.2), δ11B (-10-1‰), and εSWSr (56-65, where εSWSr is the deviation of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 104)) were distinct from data for the background saline shallow groundwater and streamwater before fracturing. Mixing models indicated that inorganic elemental signatures (Br/Cl, Ba/Sr) and isotopic fingerprints (δ11B, εSWSr) can be used to distinguish between HFFF and conventional oil-field brine in shallow groundwater and streamwater. These diagnostic indicators were applied to identify potential releases of HFFF into shallow groundwater and streamwater during fracturing, flowback and storage. The monitored time series data for shallow groundwater and streamwater exhibit no clear trends along mixing curves toward the HFFF end member, indicating that there is no detectable release occurring at present.

  10. Volume fracturing of deep shale gas horizontal wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingxue Jiang


    Full Text Available Deep shale gas reservoirs buried underground with depth being more than 3500 m are characterized by high in-situ stress, large horizontal stress difference, complex distribution of bedding and natural cracks, and strong rock plasticity. Thus, during hydraulic fracturing, these reservoirs often reveal difficult fracture extension, low fracture complexity, low stimulated reservoir volume (SRV, low conductivity and fast decline, which hinder greatly the economic and effective development of deep shale gas. In this paper, a specific and feasible technique of volume fracturing of deep shale gas horizontal wells is presented. In addition to planar perforation, multi-scale fracturing, full-scale fracture filling, and control over extension of high-angle natural fractures, some supporting techniques are proposed, including multi-stage alternate injection (of acid fluid, slick water and gel and the mixed- and small-grained proppant to be injected with variable viscosity and displacement. These techniques help to increase the effective stimulated reservoir volume (ESRV for deep gas production. Some of the techniques have been successfully used in the fracturing of deep shale gas horizontal wells in Yongchuan, Weiyuan and southern Jiaoshiba blocks in the Sichuan Basin. As a result, Wells YY1HF and WY1HF yielded initially 14.1 × 104 m3/d and 17.5 × 104 m3/d after fracturing. The volume fracturing of deep shale gas horizontal well is meaningful in achieving the productivity of 50 × 108 m3 gas from the interval of 3500–4000 m in Phase II development of Fuling and also in commercial production of huge shale gas resources at a vertical depth of less than 6000 m.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Fracture Propagation in Naturally Fractured Formations (United States)

    Wang, W.; Prodanovic, M.; Olson, J. E.; Schultz, R.


    Hydraulic fracturing consists of injecting fluid at high pressure and high flowrate to the wellbore for the purpose of enhancing production by generating a complex fracture network. Both tensile failure and shear failure occur during the hydraulic fracturing treatment. The shear event can be caused by slip on existing weak planes such as faults or natural fractures. From core observation, partially cemented and fully cemented opening mode natural fractures, often with considerable thickness are widely present. Hydraulic fractures can propagate either within the natural fracture (tensile failure) or along the interface between the natural fracture and the rock matrix (tensile/shear failure), depending on the relative strength of cement and rock matrix materials, the bonding strength of interface, as well as the presence of any heterogeneities. In this study, we evaluate the fracture propagation both experimentally and numerically. We embed one or multiple inclusions of different mechanical properties within synthetic hydrostone samples in order to mimic cemented natural fractures and rock. A semi-circular bending test is performed for each set of properties. A finite element model built with ABAQUS is used to mimic the semi-circular bending test and study the fracture propagation path, as well as the matrix-inclusion bonding interface status. Mechanical properties required for the numerical model are measured experimentally. The results indicate that the match between experiment and modeling fracture path are extremely sensitive to the chosen interface (bonding) model and related parameters. The semi-circular bending test is dry and easily conducted, providing a good platform for validating numerical approaches. A validated numerical model will enable us to add pressurized fluid within the crack and simulate hydraulic fracture-natural fracture interaction in the reservoir conditions, ultimately providing insights into the extent of the fracture network.

  12. Thermal conductivity enhancements and viscosity properties of water based Nanofluid containing carbon nanotubes decorated with ag nanoparticles (United States)

    Gu, Yanni; Xu, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoshan


    The water based nanofluid containing carbon nanotube (CNT) decorated with Ag nanoparticles (Ag/CNT) is prepared. Its thermal conductivity (k) enhancement increases with the thermal filler loading and the decoration quantity of Ag nanoparticles. The low absolute CNT content will decrease the tangles or aggregations among the CNTs, and it will be good at the Brownian motion of CNTs in the water. It has positive effects on the thermal conductivity of nanofluid. With the increase of Ag loading, the average size of Ag nanoparticles increased, and further results in the decrease of dispersing amount of Ag/CNT as the weight of Ag/CNT is fixed. Little dispersing quantity of Ag/CNT makes it possible that the Ag/CNT particles disperse well in the fluid. So it is not easy for CNTs to form aggregation. The high intrinsic k of CNT and the effective thermal conductive networks forming by CNTs and Ag nanoparticles are good at the k enhancement. With temperature increase the k of Ag/CNT nanofluid appears improvement. The study results make it possible to develop high-efficiency nanofluid for advanced thermal management regions.

  13. Calculation of electric conductivity of water of the Aral Sea and correction of the sound salinity of 2002-2009 (United States)

    Stunzhas, P. A.


    The Aral Sea is an important water area both for monitoring and oceanological studies, because its salinity and salt composition strongly differ from the oceanic. We offer a semiempiric calculation method of electric conductivity and the coefficient of its temperature dependence k judging from the ionic composition of water. The properties of the solution are considered as the sum of properties of seven binary salts taken based on the ionic composition of the solution. The MgSO4 concentration is thought to be the highest possible, which makes the salt concentration nearly unambiguous. In a salinity range of 46-120‰ and temperature range of 5-25°C (2002-2009), the standard deviation of the calculated and measured electric conductivity was 2.9%. To refine the calculation of salinity from electric conductivity measurements using the "oceanic" formula, we suggest its preliminary reduction to a constant temperature (20°C) using the measured or calculated coefficient k.

  14. Pressure-Sensitive and Conductive Carbon Aerogels from Poplars Catkins for Selective Oil Absorption and Oil/Water Separation. (United States)

    Li, Lingxiao; Hu, Tao; Sun, Hanxue; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin


    Multifunctional carbon aerogels that are both highly compressible and conductive have broad potential applications in the range of sound insulator, sensor, oil absorption, and electronics. However, the preparation of such carbon aerogels has been proven to be very challenging. Here, we report fabrication of pressure-sensitive and conductive (PSC) carbon aerogels by pyrolysis of cellulose aerogels composed of poplars catkin (PC) microfibers with a tubular structure. The wet PC gels can be dried directly in an oven without any deformation, in marked contrast to the brittle nature of traditional carbon aerogels. The resultant PSC aerogels exhibit ultralow density (4.3 mg cm-3), high compressibility (80%), high electrical conductivity (0.47 S cm-1), and high absorbency (80-161 g g-1) for oils and organic liquids. The PSC aerogels have potential applications in various fields such as elastomeric conductors, absorption of oils from water and oil/water separation, as the PSC aerogels feature simple preparation process with low-cost biomass as the precursor.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of carbon dioxide and boiling water stable proton conducting double perovskite-type metal oxides (United States)

    Bhella, Surinderjit Singh; Thangadurai, Venkataraman

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, chemical stability and electrical properties of three new Ta-substituted double perovskite-type Ba 2Ca 2/3Nb 4/3O 6 (BCN). The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) confirms the formation of double perovskite-like structure Ba 2(Ca 0.75Nb 0.59Ta 0.66)O 6- δ, Ba 2(Ca 0.75Nb 0.66Ta 0.59)O 6- δ and Ba 2(Ca 0.79Nb 0.66Ta 0.55)O 6- δ. The PXRD of CO 2 treated (800 °C; 7 days) and water boiled (7 days) samples remain the same as the as-prepared samples, suggesting a long-term structural stability against the chemical reaction. The electrical conductivity of the investigated perovskites was found to vary in different atmospheres (air, dry N 2, wet N 2, H 2 and D 2O + N 2). The AC impedance investigations show bulk, grain-boundary and electrode contributions in the frequency range of 0.01 Hz to 7 MHz. Below 600 °C, the bulk conductivity in wet H 2 and wet N 2 was higher than in air, dry H 2 and dry N 2. However, an opposite trend was observed at high temperatures, which may be ascribed to p-type electronic conduction. The electrical conductivity of the investigated perovskites was decreased in D 2O + N 2 compared to that of H 2O + N 2 atmosphere. This clearly shows that the investigated Ta-doped BCN compounds exhibit proton conduction in wet atmosphere which was found to be consistent with water uptake. The water uptake was further confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) characterization. Among the samples investigated, Ba 2(Ca 0.79Nb 0.66Ta 0.55)O 6- δ shows the highest proton conductivity of 4.8 × 10 -4 S cm -1 (at 1 MHz) at 400 °C in wet (3% H 2O) N 2 or H 2, which is about an order of magnitude higher than the recently reported 1% Ca-doped LaNbO 4 at the same atmosphere and at 10 kHz.

  16. Use of silica-encapsulated Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 in biodegradation of novel hydrocarbon ring structures found in hydraulic fracturing waters. (United States)

    Aukema, Kelly G; Kasinkas, Lisa; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P


    The most problematic hydrocarbons in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) wastewaters consist of fused, isolated, bridged, and spiro ring systems, and ring systems have been poorly studied with respect to biodegradation, prompting the testing here of six major ring structural subclasses using a well-characterized bacterium and a silica encapsulation system previously shown to enhance biodegradation. The direct biological oxygenation of spiro ring compounds was demonstrated here. These and other hydrocarbon ring compounds have previously been shown to be present in flow-back waters and waters produced from hydraulic fracturing operations. Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4, containing naphthalene dioxygenase, was selected for its broad substrate specificity, and it was demonstrated here to oxidize fundamental ring structures that are common in shale-derived waters but not previously investigated with this or related enzymes. Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816-4 was tested here in the presence of a silica encasement, a protocol that has previously been shown to protect bacteria against the extremes of salinity present in fracking wastewaters. These studies demonstrate the degradation of highly hydrophobic compounds by a silica-encapsulated model bacterium, demonstrate what it may not degrade, and contribute to knowledge of the full range of hydrocarbon ring compounds that can be oxidized using Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816-4. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Use of Silica-Encapsulated Pseudomonas sp. Strain NCIB 9816-4 in Biodegradation of Novel Hydrocarbon Ring Structures Found in Hydraulic Fracturing Waters (United States)

    Aukema, Kelly G.; Kasinkas, Lisa; Aksan, Alptekin


    The most problematic hydrocarbons in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) wastewaters consist of fused, isolated, bridged, and spiro ring systems, and ring systems have been poorly studied with respect to biodegradation, prompting the testing here of six major ring structural subclasses using a well-characterized bacterium and a silica encapsulation system previously shown to enhance biodegradation. The direct biological oxygenation of spiro ring compounds was demonstrated here. These and other hydrocarbon ring compounds have previously been shown to be present in flow-back waters and waters produced from hydraulic fracturing operations. Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4, containing naphthalene dioxygenase, was selected for its broad substrate specificity, and it was demonstrated here to oxidize fundamental ring structures that are common in shale-derived waters but not previously investigated with this or related enzymes. Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816-4 was tested here in the presence of a silica encasement, a protocol that has previously been shown to protect bacteria against the extremes of salinity present in fracking wastewaters. These studies demonstrate the degradation of highly hydrophobic compounds by a silica-encapsulated model bacterium, demonstrate what it may not degrade, and contribute to knowledge of the full range of hydrocarbon ring compounds that can be oxidized using Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816-4. PMID:24907321

  18. Determination of major sodium iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors in drinking waters using ion chromatography with conductivity detector. (United States)

    Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Bilgin, Ayse Kevser


    Goiter is an important health problem all over the world and iodine deficiency is its most common cause. Perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate (called as major NIS inhibitors) are known to competitively inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid gland and thus, human exposure to major NIS inhibitors is a public health concern. In this study, an ion chromatographic method for the determination of most common NIS inhibitor ions in drinking waters was developed and validated. This is the first study where an analytical method is used for the determination of major NIS inhibitors in drinking water by an ion chromatography system in a single run. Chromatographic separations were achieved with an anion-exchange column and separated ions were identified by a conductivity detector. The method was found to be selective, linear, precise accurate and true for all of interested ions. The limits of the detections (LOD) were estimated at 0.003, 0.004 and 0.025mgL(-1) for perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate, respectively. Possible interference ions in drinking waters were examined for the best separation of NIS inhibitors. The excellent method validation data and proficiency test result (Z-score for nitrate: -0.1) of the FAPAS(®) suggested that the developed method could be applied for determination of NIS inhibitor residues in drinking waters. To evaluate the usefulness of the method, 75 drinking water samples from Antalya/Turkey were analyzed for NIS inhibitors. Perchlorate concentrations in the samples ranged from not detected (less than LOD) to 0.07±0.02mgL(-1) and the range of nitrate concentrations were found to be 3.60±0.01mgL(-1) and 47.42±0.40mgL(-1). No thiocyanate residues were detected in tested drinking water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A solid phase extraction-ion chromatography with conductivity detection procedure for determining cationic surfactants in surface water samples. (United States)

    Olkowska, Ewa; Polkowska, Żaneta; Namieśnik, Jacek


    A new analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of individual cationic surfactants (alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides) in surface water samples has been developed. We describe this methodology for the first time: it involves the application of solid phase extraction (SPE-for sample preparation) coupled with ion chromatography-conductivity detection (IC-CD-for the final determination). Mean recoveries of analytes between 79% and 93%, and overall method quantification limits in the range from 0.0018 to 0.038 μg/mL for surface water and CRM samples were achieved. The methodology was applied to the determination of individual alkyl benzyl quaternary ammonium compounds in environmental samples (reservoir water) and enables their presence in such types of waters to be confirmed. In addition, it is a simpler, less time-consuming, labour-intensive, avoiding use of toxic chloroform and significantly less expensive methodology than previously described approaches (liquid-liquid extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Crushing and Fracture of Lightweight Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper


    . Crushing experiments conducted on full-scale aluminum plate intersections reveal that the crushing behaviour is highly affected by material fracture during the deformation. Several fracture criteria from the literature have been reviewed and three fracture models have been compared with material...... on these two fracture models a new fracture criterion, denoted RTCL fracture criterion, is proposed and the fracture criterion is implemented in the FE-program LS-DYNA as a user subroutine. The crushing behaviours of the full-scale aluminum plate intersections have been simulated with LS......-DYNA and the implemented fracture criterion and the simulations agree well with the experiments. New closed form solutions for the dissipated energy during axial compression of aluminum plate intersections have been developed and the effect of fracture is included analytically based of the fracture criterion by Cockcroft...

  1. [Seasonal differences in the leaf hydraulic conductance of mature Acacia mangium in response to its leaf water use and photosynthesis]. (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Sun, Gu-Chou; Ni, Guang-Yan; Zeng, Xiao-Ping


    In this study, measurements were made on the leaf water potential (psi1), stomatal conductance (g(s)), transpiration rate, leaf area index, and sapwood area of mature Acacia mangium, aimed to understand the relationships of the leaf hydraulic conductance (K1) with the leaf water use and photosynthetic characteristics of the A. mangium in wet season (May) and dry season (November). The ratio of sapwood area to leaf area (A(sp)/A(cl)) of the larger trees with an average height of 20 m and a diameter at breast height (DBH) of 0.26 m was 8.5% higher than that of the smaller trees with an average height of 14.5 m and a DBH of 0.19 m, suggesting that the larger trees had a higher water flux in their leaf xylem, which facilitated the water use of canopy leaf. The analysis on the vulnerability curve of the xylem showed that when the K1 decreased by 50%, the psi1 in wet season and dry season was -1.41 and -1.55 MPa, respectively, and the vulnerability of the xylem cavitation was higher in dry season than in wet season. The K1 peak value in wet season and dry season was 5.5 and 4.5 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1) x MPa(-1), and the maximum transpiration rate (T(r max)) was 3.6 and 1.8 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. Both the K1 and T(r max), were obviously higher in wet season than in dry season. Within a day, the K1 and T(r), fluctuated many times, reflecting the reciprocated cycle of the xylem cavitation and refilling. The leaf stomatal closure occurred when the K1 declined over 50% or the psi1 reached -1.6 MPa. The g(s) would be maintained at a high level till the K1 declined over 50%. The correlation between the hydraulic conductance and photosynthetic rate was more significant in dry season than in wet season. The loss of leaf hydraulic conductance induced by seasonal change could be the causes of the decrease of T(r) and CO2 gas exchange.

  2. Chickpea Genotypes Contrasting for Vigor and Canopy Conductance Also Differ in Their Dependence on Different Water Transport Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliamoorthy Sivasakthi


    Full Text Available Lower plant transpiration rate (TR under high vapor pressure deficit (VPD conditions and early plant vigor are proposed as major traits influencing the rate of crop water use and possibly the fitness of chickpea lines to specific terminal drought conditions—this being the major constraint limiting chickpea productivity. The physiological mechanisms underlying difference in TR under high VPD and vigor are still unresolved, and so is the link between vigor and TR. Lower TR is hypothesized to relate to hydraulic conductance differences. Experiments were conducted in both soil (Vertisol and hydroponic culture. The assessment of the TR response to increasing VPD showed that high vigor genotypes had TR restriction under high VPD, and this was confirmed in the early vigor parent and progeny genotype (ICC 4958 and RIL 211 having lower TR than the late vigor parent and progeny genotype (ICC 1882 and RIL 022. Inhibition of water transport pathways [apoplast and symplast (aquaporins] in intact plants led to a lower transpiration inhibition in the early vigor/low TR genotypes than in the late vigor/high TR genotypes. De-rooted shoot treatment with an aquaporin inhibitor led to a lower transpiration inhibition in the early vigor/low TR genotypes than in the late vigor/high TR genotypes. Early vigor genotypes had lower root hydraulic conductivity than late vigor/high TR genotypes. Under inhibited conditions (apoplast, symplast, root hydraulic conductivity was reduced more in the late vigor/high TR genotypes than in the early vigor/low TR genotypes. We interpret that early vigor/low TR genotypes have a lower involvement of aquaporins in water transport pathways and may also have a smaller apoplastic pathway than high TR genotypes, which could explain the transpiration restriction under high VPD and would be helpful to conserve soil water under high evaporative demand. These findings open an opportunity for breeding to tailor genotypes with different

  3. Hip fracture - discharge (United States)

    Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - ...

  4. Acetabular Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Correa


    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 77-year-old female presented to her primary care physician (PCP with right hip pain after a mechanical fall. She did not lose consciousness or have any other traumatic injuries. She was unable to ambulate post-fall, so X-rays were ordered by her PCP. Her X-rays were concerning for a right acetabular fracture (see purple arrows, so the patient was referred to the emergency department where a computed tomography (CT scan was ordered. Significant findings: The non-contrast CT images show a minimally displaced comminuted fracture of the right acetabulum involving the acetabular roof, medial and anterior walls (red arrows, with associated obturator muscle hematoma (blue oval. Discussion: Acetabular fractures are quite rare. There are 37 pelvic fractures per 100,000 people in the United States annually, and only 10% of these involve the acetabulum. They occur more frequently in the elderly totaling an estimated 4,000 per year. High-energy trauma is the primary cause of acetabular fractures in younger individuals and these fractures are commonly associated with other fractures and pelvic ring disruptions. Fractures secondary to moderate or minimal trauma are increasingly of concern in patients of advanced age.1 Classification of acetabular fractures can be challenging. However, the approach can be simplified by remembering the three basic types of acetabular fractures (column, transverse, and wall and their corresponding radiologic views. First, column fractures should be evaluated with coronally oriented CT images. This type of fracture demonstrates a coronal fracture line running caudad to craniad, essentially breaking the acetabulum into two halves: a front half and a back half. Secondly, transverse fractures should be evaluated by sagittally oriented CT images. By definition, a transverse fracture separates the acetabulum into superior and inferior halves with the fracture line extending from anterior to posterior

  5. Nuclide Transport and Diffusion for Vein and Fracture Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heer, W


    Modelling radionuclide transport through crystalline rock is usually based on a small water flow in a system of narrow fractures. This flow is denoted as fracture flow. In our model, it implies planar water-conducting channels and adjacent zones of dominant matrix diffusion. According to the constitution of the rock, it can be necessary to consider additionally a vein flow being characterized by cylindrical water-conducting channels and adjacent zones of dominant matrix diffusion. Transport calculations, based on a dual porosity concept, were performed for vein as well as for fracture flow. An extensive discussion of the results provides an overview on important parameter dependencies and on the major vein flow effects. Formulae for quick estimates are given to guide quantitative interpretation of break-through curves. The discussion of analytical results for nuclide diffusion from a planar and from a cylindrical boundary backs up the comments on matrix diffusion. The following effects of vein flow onto the break-through curves are illustrative examples of useful findings: (1) The peak height can be very strongly reduced compared to fracture flow. The peak arrival time, however, is only slightly changed. (2) The asymptotic part of the tail is flatter than the well-known t{sup -3/2} decrease for fracture flow. (3) The bump at the end of the tail, generated by the limitation of the diffusion zones, is substantially larger than for fracture flow. A double-peak break-through curve, therefore, can emerge from many cases of nuclide transport. (4) Sorption on the surfaces of diffusion-accessible pores can substantially change the break-through curves. The vein to fracture flow ratios of the break-through peak data, however, remain essentially equal. This holds for the whole range of investigated retardation factors from 7 to 27'000. The investigations presented contribute to sophisticated interpretations of break-through curves and improve the physical understanding

  6. Water vapour solubility and conductivity study of the proton conductor BaCe(0.9 − x)ZrxY0.1O(3 − δ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricote, Sandrine; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Caboche, G:


    in the sample. The direct current conductivity has been measured as a function of oxygen partial pressure, at a water vapour partial pressure of 0.015 atm. The total conductivity has been resolved into a p-type and an ionic component using a fitting procedure appropriate to the assumed defect model....... An estimation of the protonic component was made by assuming a conductivity isotope effect between 1.4 and 1.8. The total conductivity, obtained using impedance spectroscopy has been measured as a function of temperature in the water and heavy water exchanged states. The activation energy has been found to be 0...

  7. Prospective study of ankle and foot fractures in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadagiri Surender Rao


    Full Text Available The epidemiology of ankle fractures in old people is changing as time passes on. The incidence of ankle fractures increases with advancing age. The study conducted was among a rural popula-tion which comprised of 68 women (32 women with ankle fractures & 36 women with foot fractures. Patients studied were in the age group more than 50 years. The study highlights the etiological & risk factors for fractures of ankle & foot. The commonest ankle fracture was the lateral malleolar fracture & the commonest foot fracture was the 5th Metatarsal fracture. Diabetes is a risk factor which increases the occurrence of ankle and foot injuries.

  8. Simulating nectarine tree transpiration and dynamic water storage from responses of leaf conductance to light and sap flow to stem water potential and vapor pressure deficit. (United States)

    Paudel, Indira; Naor, Amos; Gal, Yoni; Cohen, Shabtai


    For isohydric trees mid-day water uptake is stable and depends on soil water status, reflected in pre-dawn leaf water potential (Ψpd) and mid-day stem water potential (Ψmd), tree hydraulic conductance and a more-or-less constant leaf water potential (Ψl) for much of the day, maintained by the stomata. Stabilization of Ψl can be represented by a linear relationship between canopy resistance (Rc) and vapor pressure deficit (D), and the slope (BD) is proportional to the steady-state water uptake. By analyzing sap flow (SF), meteorological and Ψmd measurements during a series of wetting and drying (D/W) cycles in a nectarine orchard, we found that for the range of Ψmd relevant for irrigated orchards the slope of the relationship of Rc to D, BD is a linear function of Ψmd. Rc was simulated using the above relationships, and its changes in the morning and evening were simulated using a rectangular hyperbolic relationship between leaf conductance and photosynthetic irradiance, fitted to leaf-level measurements. The latter was integrated with one-leaf, two-leaf and integrative radiation models, and the latter gave the best results. Simulated Rc was used in the Penman-Monteith equation to simulate tree transpiration, which was validated by comparing with SF from a separate data set. The model gave accurate estimates of diurnal and daily total tree transpiration for the range of Ψmds used in regular and deficit irrigation. Diurnal changes in tree water content were determined from the difference between simulated transpiration and measured SF. Changes in water content caused a time lag of 90-105 min between transpiration and SF for Ψmd between -0.8 and -1.55 MPa, and water depletion reached 3 l h(-1) before noon. Estimated mean diurnal changes in water content were 5.5 l day(-1) tree(-1) at Ψmd of -0.9 MPa and increased to 12.5 l day(-1) tree(-1) at -1.45 MPa, equivalent to 6.5 and 16.5% of daily tree water use, respectively. Sixteen percent

  9. A fracture prevention service reduces further fractures two years after incident minimal trauma fracture. (United States)

    Van der Kallen, John; Giles, Michelle; Cooper, Kerry; Gill, Kerry; Parker, Vicki; Tembo, Agness; Major, Gabor; Ross, Linda; Carter, Jan


    To evaluate the impact of a fracture prevention clinic service on initiation of treatment, continuing treatment and subsequent minimal trauma fractures (MTF). Participants were people aged 50 and over, with a minimal trauma fracture presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) in a large tertiary referral hospital in New South Wales, Australia, between February 2007 and March 2009. A cohort of patients who attended a Fracture Prevention Clinic (clinic group) were compared with a cohort who did not attend the clinic (non-clinic group). A telephone questionnaire was conducted with participants or their carers between December 2010 and April 2011 at least 12 months post-fracture presentation. Questionnaire items included demographics, fracture types, osteoporosis treatment, recurrent fractures and smoking and dietary habits. Data were compared using chi-squared test for categorical variables and Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables. Two hundred and fourteen clinic attendees and 220 non-clinic attendees were surveyed between 12 and 40 months (mean 24 months) post-initial fracture. New fracture rates were lower in the clinic group (5.1%) than the non-clinic group (16.4%, P fracture prevention clinic service following a MTF have fewer new fractures and are more likely to be on treatment for bone fragility. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Inferring the heterogeneity, transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of crystalline aquifers from a detailed water-table map (United States)

    Dewandel, Benoît; Jeanpert, Julie; Ladouche, Bernard; Join, Jean-Lambert; Maréchal, Jean-Christophe


    Estimating the transmissivity or hydraulic conductivity field to characterize the heterogeneity of a crystalline aquifer is particularly difficult because of the wide variations of the parameters. We developed a new approach based on the analysis of a dense network of water-table data. It is based on the concept that large-scale variations in hydraulic head may give information on large-scale aquifer parameters. The method assumes that flux into the aquifer is mainly sub-horizontal and that the water table is mostly controlled by topography, rather than recharge. It is based on an empirical statistical relationship between field data on transmissivity and the inverse slope values of a topography-reduced water-table map. This relationship is used to compute a transmissivity map that must be validated with field measurements. The proposed approach can provide a general pattern of transmissivity, or hydraulic conductivity, but cannot correctly reproduce strong variations at very local scale (less than10 m), and will face of some uncertainties where vertical flows cannot be neglected. The method was tested on a peridotite (ultramafic rock) aquifer of 3.5 km2 in area located in New Caledonia. The resulting map shows transmissivity variations over about 5 orders of magnitude (average LogT: -5.2 ± 0.7). Comparison with a map based on measured water-level data (n = 475) shows that the comparison between LogT-computed values and LogT data deduced from 28 hydraulic tests is estimated with an error less than 20% in 71% of cases (LogT ± 0.4), and with an error less than 10% (LogT ± 0.2 on average) in 39% of cases. From this map a hydraulic-conductivity map has been computed showing values ranging over 8 orders of magnitude. The repeatability of the approach was tested on a second data set of hydraulic-head measurements (n = 543); the mean deviation between both LogT maps is about 11%. These encouraging results show that the method can give valuable parameter estimates, and

  11. Diurnal depression in leaf hydraulic conductance at ambient and elevated [CO2] reveals anisohydric water management in field-grown soybean (United States)

    Diurnal cycles of photosynthesis and water use in field-grown soybean (Glycine max) are tied to light intensity and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). At high mid-day VPD, transpiration rates can lead to a decline in leaf water potential if leaf hydraulic conductance is insufficient to supply water to in...

  12. Numerical Modeling of Gas and Water Flow in Shale Gas Formations with a Focus on the Fate of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid. (United States)

    Edwards, Ryan W J; Doster, Florian; Celia, Michael A; Bandilla, Karl W


    Hydraulic fracturing in shale gas formations involves the injection of large volumes of aqueous fluid deep underground. Only a small proportion of the injected water volume is typically recovered, raising concerns that the remaining water may migrate upward and potentially contaminate groundwater aquifers. We implement a numerical model of two-phase water and gas flow in a shale gas formation to test the hypothesis that the remaining water is imbibed into the shale rock by capillary forces and retained there indefinitely. The model includes the essential physics of the system and uses the simplest justifiable geometrical structure. We apply the model to simulate wells from a specific well pad in the Horn River Basin, British Columbia, where there is sufficient available data to build and test the model. Our simulations match the water and gas production data from the wells remarkably closely and show that all the injected water can be accounted for within the shale system, with most imbibed into the shale rock matrix and retained there for the long term.

  13. Characterisation of hydraulically-active fractures in a fractured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the initial stage of a site investigation to select the optimal site location or to evaluate the hydrogeological properties of fractures in underground exploration studies, such as those related geothermal reservoir evaluation and radioactive waste disposal. Keywords: self-potential method, hydraulically-conductive fractures, ...

  14. Numerical simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in naturally fractured geothermal reservoir using DFN method with matrix flow (United States)

    Lee, Taehun; Lee, Kyungbook; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Wonsuk


    Natural fractures have an effect on the fluid flow and heat transfer in the naturally fractured geothermal reservoir. However, most of the previous works in this area assumed that reservoir systems are continuum model whether it is single continuum or dual continuum. Moreover, some people have studied without continuum model but, it was just pipeline model or didn't calculate heat and fluid flow from matrix. In this paper, we developed a generalized discrete fracture network (DFN) geothermal reservoir simulator consiering fluid flow and heat transfer from matrix. In the model, 2D flow is possible within a rectangular fracture, which is important in thick naturally fractured reservoirs. Also, it can calculate heat conduction between matrix and fracture and matrix can increase temperature of injected water. The DFN model developed in this study was validated for two synthetic fracture systems using a commercial thermal model, TETRAD. Comparison results showed an excellent matching between both models. However, this model is conducted at simple fracture network. Therefore, developed model will be conducted a test in realistic fracture network.

  15. Polyamine-functionalized perylene bisimide for dispersion of graphene in water with high effectiveness and little impact on electrical conductivity (United States)

    Cui, Junshuo; Zhou, Shuxue


    Dispersion of graphene with high effectiveness is a great challenging task. In this paper, a series of water-soluble polyamine-functionalized perylene bisimide derivatives (HAPBI) were synthesized and further used as the stabilizer of graphene in water. It was found that the number of amine group strongly determined the water solubility of HAPBI and its effectiveness on stabilizing graphene. With triethylenetetramine-functionalized perylene bisimide (HAPBI-3), high concentration of aqueous graphene dispersion up to 1.0 mg mL-1 was obtained at the weight ratio of HAPBI-3 to graphene even down to 1:3, demonstrating its higher efficiency to the common surfactants, polymer, and other perylene bisimide derivatives reported. Moreover, graphene's electrical conductivity is less impacted compared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), particularly favoring for its further application. Careful inspection indicated that HAPBI-3 molecules strongly interacted with graphene in a process of de-assembly of their self-aggregates and subsequently irreversible restacking on graphene sheets.

  16. Realistic Electric Field Mapping of Anisotropic Muscle During Electrical Stimulation Using a Combination of Water Diffusion Tensor and Electrical Conductivity. (United States)

    Choi, Bup Kyung; Oh, Tong In; Sajib, Saurav Zk; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je


    To realistically map the electric fields of biological tissues using a diffusion tensor magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (DT-MREIT) method to estimate tissue response during electrical stimulation. Imaging experiments were performed using chunks of bovine muscle. Two silver wire electrodes were positioned inside the muscle tissue for electrical stimulation. Electric pulses were applied with a 100-V amplitude and 100-μs width using a voltage stimulator. During electrical stimulation, we collected DT-MREIT data from a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We adopted the projected current density method to calculate the electric field. Based on the relation between the water diffusion tensor and the conductivity tensor, we computed the position-dependent scale factor using the measured magnetic flux density data. Then, a final conductivity tensor map was reconstructed using the multiplication of the water diffusion tensor and the scale factor. The current density images from DT-MREIT data represent the internal current flows that exist not only in the electrodes but also in surrounding regions. The reconstructed electric filed map from our anisotropic conductivity tensor with the projected current density shows coverage that is more than 2 times as wide, and higher signals in both the electrodes and surrounding tissues, than the previous isotropic method owing to the consideration of tissue anisotropy. An electric field map obtained by an anisotropic reconstruction method showed different patterns from the results of the previous isotropic reconstruction method. Since accurate electric field mapping is important to correctly estimate the coverage of the electrical treatment, future studies should include more rigorous validations of the new method through in vivo and in situ experiments.

  17. Numerical analysis of fracture propagation during hydraulic fracturing operations in shale gas systems (United States)

    Researchers used the TOUGH+ geomechanics computational software and simulation system to examine the likelihood of hydraulic fracture propagation (the spread of fractures) traveling long distances to connect with drinking water aquifers.

  18. Hip Fractures. (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise R; Kaufmann, Judith; Drahnak, Gwendolen

    Hip fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and a major health problem in the United States (). Eighty percent of hip fractures are experienced by 80-year-old women. Plain radiographs usually confirm the diagnosis, but if there is a high level of suspicion of an occult hip fracture, magnetic resonance imaging or bone scan is the next step to confirm the diagnosis. Areas of the hip bone have varied bone strength and blood supply, making the femoral neck one of the most vulnerable areas for fracture. A consultation to an orthopedic surgeon will determine surgical interventions.

  19. Hamate fractures. (United States)

    Sarabia Condés, J M; Ibañez Martínez, L; Sánchez Carrasco, M A; Carrillo Julia, F J; Salmerón Martínez, E L


    The purpose of this paper is to present our experience in the treatment of the fractures of the hamate and to make a review of the literature on this topic. We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients treated in our clinic between 2005-2012 suffering from fractures of the hamate. Six cases were fractures of the body and four were fractures of the hamate. Five cases were of associated injuries. Diagnostic delay ranged from 30 days to 2 years. Patient follow-up ranged from 1 to 10 years. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using the DASH questionnaire. Five patients with a fracture of the body underwent surgery, and one was treated conservatively. Two patients with fracture of the hook of the hamate were treated with immobilization, and two more patients had the fragment removed. The grip strength and the digital clip were reduced in 2 cases. Flexion and extension of the wrist was limited in 3 cases. The mobility of the fingers was normal in all the cases, except in one. The results obtained from the DASH questionnaire were normal in all the cases, except in one case of fracture of the hamate, and in two cases of fracture of the body. The surgical treatment should reduce the dislocation and stabilize the injuries with osteosynthesis. The fractures of the hamate are usually diagnosed late, and the most recommended treatment is removal of the fragment, although it cannot be deduced from this study. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Colles Fracture


    Sánchez León, Belisario; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú


    Our expertise is the study of more than 2,000 cases of Colles' fractures. Colles name should in this case to synthesize the type of fractures of the lower end of the radius. There have been various proposed classifications according to the different fracture lines can be demonstrated radiologically in the region of the wrist. We believe that these ratings should only be retained if the concept of the articular fracture or not in the classical sense, since it has great value in the functional ...

  1. Highly conductive single-walled carbon nanotube thin film preparation by direct alignment on substrates from water dispersions. (United States)

    Azoz, Seyla; Exarhos, Annemarie L; Marquez, Analisse; Gilbertson, Leanne M; Nejati, Siamak; Cha, Judy J; Zimmerman, Julie B; Kikkawa, James M; Pfefferle, Lisa D


    A safe, scalable method for producing highly conductive aligned films of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) from water suspensions is presented. While microfluidic assembly of SWNTs has received significant attention, achieving desirable SWNT dispersion and morphology in fluids without an insulating surfactant or toxic superacid is challenging. We present a method that uniquely produces a noncorrosive ink that can be directly applied to a device in situ, which is different from previous fabrication techniques. Functionalized SWNTs (f-SWNTs) are dispersed in an aqueous urea solution to leverage binding between the amine group of urea and the carboxylic acid group of f-SWNTs and obtain urea-SWNT. Compared with SWNTs dispersed using conventional methods (e.g., superacid and surfactants), the dispersed urea-SWNT aggregates have a higher aspect ratio with a rodlike morphology as measured by light scattering. The Mayer rod technique is used to prepare urea-SWNT, highly aligned films (two-dimensional nematic order parameter of 0.6, 5 μm spot size, via polarized Raman) with resistance values as low as 15-1700 Ω/sq in a transmittance range of 2-80% at 550 nm. These values compete with the best literature values for conductivity of SWNT-enabled thin films. The findings offer promising opportunities for industrial applications relying on highly conductive thin SWNT films.

  2. Gas and water flow in an excavation-induced fracture network around an underground drift: A case study for a radioactive waste repository in clay rock (United States)

    de La Vaissière, Rémi; Armand, Gilles; Talandier, Jean


    The Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) surrounding a drift, and in particular its evolution, is being studied for the performance assessment of a radioactive waste underground repository. A specific experiment (called CDZ) was designed and implemented in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in France to investigate the EDZ. This experiment is dedicated to study the evolution of the EDZ hydrogeological properties (conductivity and specific storage) of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone under mechanical compression and artificial hydration. Firstly, a loading cycle applied on a drift wall was performed to simulate the compression effect from bentonite swelling in a repository drift (bentonite is a clay material to be used to seal drifts and shafts for repository closure purpose). Gas tests (permeability tests with nitrogen and tracer tests with helium) were conducted during the first phase of the experiment. The results showed that the fracture network within the EDZ was initially interconnected and opened for gas flow (particularly along the drift) and then progressively closed with the increasing mechanical stress applied on the drift wall. Moreover, the evolution of the EDZ after unloading indicated a self-sealing process. Secondly, the remaining fracture network was resaturated to demonstrate the ability to self-seal of the COx claystone without mechanical loading by conducting from 11 to 15 repetitive hydraulic tests with monitoring of the hydraulic parameters. During this hydration process, the EDZ effective transmissivity dropped due to the swelling of the clay materials near the fracture network. The hydraulic conductivity evolution was relatively fast during the first few days. Low conductivities ranging at 10-10 m/s were observed after four months. Conversely, the specific storage showed an erratic evolution during the first phase of hydration (up to 60 days). Some uncertainty remains on this parameter due to volumetric strain during the

  3. Potential impact of flowback water from hydraulic fracturing on agricultural soil quality: Metal/metalloid bioaccessibility, Microtox bioassay, and enzyme activities. (United States)

    Chen, Season S; Sun, Yuqing; Tsang, Daniel C W; Graham, Nigel J D; Ok, Yong Sik; Feng, Yujie; Li, Xiang-Dong


    Hydraulic fracturing has advanced the development of shale gas extraction, while inadvertent spills of flowback water may pose a risk to the surrounding environment due to its high salt content, metals/metalloids (As, Se, Fe and Sr), and organic additives. This study investigated the potential impact of flowback water on four representative soils from shale gas regions in Northeast China using synthetic flowback solutions. The compositions of the solutions were representative of flowback water arising at different stages after fracturing well establishment. The effects of solution composition of flowback water on soil ecosystem were assessed in terms of metal mobility and bioaccessibility, as well as biological endpoints using Microtox bioassay (Vibrio fischeri) and enzyme activity tests. After one-month artificial aging of the soils with various flowback solutions, the mobility and bioaccessibility of As(V) and Se(VI) decreased as the ionic strength of the flowback solutions increased. The results inferred a stronger binding affinity of As(V) and Se(VI) with the soils. Nevertheless, the soil toxicity to Vibrio fischeri only presented a moderate increase after aging, while dehydrogenase and phosphomonoesterase activities were significantly suppressed with increasing ionic strength of flowback solutions. On the contrary, polyacrylamide in the flowback solutions led to higher dehydrogenase activity. These results indicated that soil enzyme activities were sensitive to the composition of flowback solutions. A preliminary human health risk assessment related to As(V) suggested a low level of cancer risk through exposure via ingestion, while holistic assessment of environmental implications is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors for distal radius fracture in postmenopausal women. (United States)

    Xu, Wenting; Ni, Cheng; Yu, Ren; Gu, Guoqing; Wang, Zheren; Zheng, Guoqing


    The aim of this work was to explore the risk factors for distal radius fracture in postmenopausal women. A total of 611 postmenopausal women with distal radius fractures were included. In all, 173 patients with unstable distal radius fractures were included (unstable fracture group), while there were 438 patients with stable distal radius fractures (stable fracture group). The control group comprised 800 postmenopausal women with no fracture. A questionnaire survey was conducted. Compared with the control group, the 611 postmenopausal women with distal radius fractures had a higher body mass index (BMI). Advanced age and higher BMI were more common in the unstable fracture group than in the stable fracture group (P Osteoporosis in the two fracture groups (P obesity, falls, unknown osteoporosis status, and osteoporosis are associated with high risk of distal radius fracture. If comorbidities and advanced age are also present, this group of persons may be at higher risk for unstable distal radius fractures.

  5. The effect of electrical conductivity on nanosecond discharges in distilled water and in methanol with argon bubbles

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad


    We investigated the effect of a liquid\\'s electrical conductivity (EC) on the physical characteristics of electrical discharges in liquids with gaseous bubbles. Argon gas was supplied into the liquid to form an array of gaseous bubbles in between two electrodes (a pin-to-hollow electrode setup). Methanol and water were considered as base liquids, representing a low and a high dielectric permittivity (ϵ) liquid respectively, while potassium chloride (KCl) was added to control the EC of the liquids. When increasing the EC of the liquids, we found that the discharge probability was reduced by 46% for in-water and 38% for in-methanol discharges. We also found that the injected charge decreased by ∼4 μC as the EC increased. Moreover, as the gap distance increased from 1 to 2.5 mm, the injected charge decreased by 2 μC for in-water discharge and by 4 μC for in-methanol discharge. The plasma emission is another important parameter in characterizing discharges. With increasing the EC, the plasma emission volume decreased linearly by a factor of ∼5. The plasma lifetime was shortened by around 33% for in-water and 20% for in-methanol discharges in the case of d = 1 mm, while the decrease was 40% for in-water and 30% for in-methanol discharges in the case of d = 2.5 mm. Using the broadening characteristics of the Hα line, the electron density was estimated during the first 100 ns by ∼3 × 10 cm for in-water discharges and by ∼2 × 10 cm for in-methanol discharges, and it decreased by about one order of magnitude after 800 ns; note that n dependence on the EC was not significant. The reported findings provide further understanding of electrical discharges in bubbled liquids and highlight the influence of a liquid\\'s EC, which are useful in the development and optimization of the applications based on such process.

  6. Implementation of Linear Pipe Channel Network to Estimate Hydraulic Parameters of Fractured Rock Masses (United States)

    Han, J.; Um, J. G.; Wang, S.


    Modeling of fluid flow is important in geological, petroleum, environmental, civil and mining engineering. Fluid flow through fractured hard rock is very much dependent on the fracture network pattern in the rock mass and on the flow behavior through these fractures. This research deals with fluid flow behavior through fractures at an abandoned copper mine in southeast Korea. An injection well and three observation wells were installed at the mine site to monitor the hydraulic heads induced by injection of fresh water. A series of packer tests were performed to estimate the rock mass permeability and corresponding effective hydraulic aperture of the fractures. The three dimensional stochastic fracture network model was built and validated for the mine site. The two dimensional linear pipe network systems were constructed in directions of the observation wells using the fracture network model. A procedure of the fluid flow analysis on two dimensional discrete domain was applied to estimate the conductance, flow quantity and nodal head in the 2-D linear pipe channel network. The present results indicate that fracture geometry parameters (orientation, density and size) play an important role in the hydraulic characteristics of fractured rock masses.

  7. Temporal dynamics of stomatal conductance of plants under water deficit: can homeostasis be improved by more complex dynamics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Maia Souza


    Full Text Available In this study we hypothesized that chaotic or complex behavior of stomatal conductance could improve plant homeostasis after water deficit. Stomatal conductance of sunflower and sugar beet leaves was measured in plants grown either daily irrigation or under water deficit using an infrared gas analyzer. All measurements were performed under controlled environmental conditions. In order to measure a consistent time series, data were scored with time intervals of 20s during 6h. Lyapunov exponents, fractal dimensions, KS entropy and relative LZ complexity were calculated. Stomatal conductance in both irrigated and non-irrigated plants was chaotic-like. Plants under water deficit showed a trend to a more complex behaviour, mainly in sunflower that showed better homeostasis than in sugar beet. Some biological implications are discussed.Este estudo testou a hipótese de que a condutância estomática de uma população de estômatos em uma folha poderia apresentar um comportamento caótico ou complexo sob diferentes condições hídricas, o que poderia favorecer a capacidade homeostática das plantas. A condutância estomática em folhas de girassol e de beterraba cultivadas com irrigação diária e sob deficiência hídrica foi medida com um analisador de gás por infra-vermelho em condições controladas. Os dados foram registrados a cada 20s durante 6h. As séries temporais obtidas foram analisadas por meio dos coeficientes de Lyapunov, dimensão fractal, entropia KS e complexidade LZ relativa. A condutância estomática nas plantas cultivadas com e sem deficiência hídrica exibiu um comportamento provavelmente caótico. As plantas sob estresse hídrico mostraram uma tendência para um comportamento mais complexo, principalmente as plantas de girassol cuja capacidade homeostática foi superior. Algumas implicações biológicas destes comportamentos são discutidas no texto.

  8. Thermal drawdown and recovery of singly and multiply fractured hot dry rock reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunder, R.; Murphy, H.


    To calculate heat extraction and thermal recovery in hot dry rock geothermal reservoirs, a computer code was written to solve the differential equations for rock-water heat conduction and convection by finite differences. Temperature versus time functions for multiple fractures separated by various spacings are presented in dimensional and in nondimensional plots. The results were specialized for the limiting case of a single fracture in unbounded rock and for the other limiting case where the rock is so extensively fractured that thermal breakthrough phenomena can occur. Fracture temperatures were calculated during the thermal recovery following various extraction periods. For the single-fracture case these temperature recoveries could, with slight approximation, be represented as a single curve depending only upon the ratio of the total elapsed time and the extraction time.

  9. Use of borehole radar reflection logging to monitor steam-enhanced remediation in fractured limestone-results of numerical modelling and a field experiment (United States)

    Gregoire, C.; Joesten, P.K.; Lane, J.W.


    Ground penetrating radar is an efficient geophysical method for the detection and location of fractures and fracture zones in electrically resistive rocks. In this study, the use of down-hole (borehole) radar reflection logs to monitor the injection of steam in fractured rocks was tested as part of a field-scale, steam-enhanced remediation pilot study conducted at a fractured limestone quarry contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons at the former Loring Air Force Base, Limestone, Maine, USA. In support of the pilot study, borehole radar reflection logs were collected three times (before, during, and near the end of steam injection) using broadband 100 MHz electric dipole antennas. Numerical modelling was performed to predict the effect of heating on radar-frequency electromagnetic (EM) wave velocity, attenuation, and fracture reflectivity. The modelling results indicate that EM wave velocity and attenuation change substantially if heating increases the electrical conductivity of the limestone matrix. Furthermore, the net effect of heat-induced variations in fracture-fluid dielectric properties on average medium velocity is insignificant because the expected total fracture porosity is low. In contrast, changes in fracture fluid electrical conductivity can have a significant effect on EM wave attenuation and fracture reflectivity. Total replacement of water by steam in a fracture decreases fracture reflectivity of a factor of 10 and induces a change in reflected wave polarity. Based on the numerical modelling results, a reflection amplitude analysis method was developed to delineate fractures where steam has displaced water. Radar reflection logs collected during the three acquisition periods were analysed in the frequency domain to determine if steam had replaced water in the fractures (after normalizing the logs to compensate for differences in antenna performance between logging runs). Analysis of the radar reflection logs from a borehole where the temperature

  10. Influence of Pore-Fluid Pressure on Elastic Wave Velocity and Electrical Conductivity in Water-Saturated Rocks (United States)

    Higuchi, A.; Watanabe, T.


    Pore-fluid pressure in seismogenic zones can play a key role in the occurrence of earthquakes (e.g., Sibson, 2009). Its evaluation via geophysical observations can lead to a good understanding of seismic activities. The evaluation requires a thorough understanding of the influence of the pore-fluid pressure on geophysical observables like seismic velocity and electrical conductivity. We have studied the influence of pore-fluid pressure on elastic wave velocity and electrical conductivity in water-saturated rocks. Fine grained (100-500μm) biotite granite (Aji, Kagawa pref., Japan) was used as rock samples. The density is 2.658-2.668 g/cm3, and the porosity 0.68-0.87%. The sample is composed of 52.8% plagioclase, 36.0% Quartz, 3.0% K-feldspar, 8.2% biotite. SEM images show that a lot of grain boundaries are open. Few intracrystalline cracks were observed. Following the method proposed by David and Zimmerman (2012), the distribution function of crack aspect ratio was evaluated from the pressure dependence of compressional and shear wave velocities in a dry sample. Cylindrical sample has dimensions of 25 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and saturated with 0.01 mol/l KCl aqueous solution. Compressional and shear wave velocities were measured with the pulse transmission technique (PZT transducers, f=2 MHz), and electrical conductivity the two-electrode method (Ag-AgCl electrodes, f=1 Hz-100 kHz). Simultaneous measurements of velocities and conductivity were made using a 200 MPa hydrostatic pressure vessel, in which confining and pore-fluid pressures can be separately controlled. The pore-fluid is electrically insulated from the metal work of the pressure vessel by using a newly designed plastic device (Watanabe and Higuchi, 2013). The confining pressure was progressively increased up to 25 MPa, while the pore-fluid pressure was kept at 0.1 MPa. It took five days or longer for the electrical conductivity to become stationary after increasing the confining pressure

  11. Relative permeability through fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diomampo, Gracel, P.


    The mechanism of two-phase flow through fractures is of importance in understanding many geologic processes. Currently, two-phase flow through fractures is still poorly understood. In this study, nitrogen-water experiments were done on both smooth and rough parallel plates to determine the governing flow mechanism for fractures and the appropriate methodology for data analysis. The experiments were done using a glass plate to allow visualization of flow. Digital video recording allowed instantaneous measurement of pressure, flow rate and saturation. Saturation was computed using image analysis techniques. The experiments showed that gas and liquid phases flow through fractures in nonuniform separate channels. The localized channels change with time as each phase path undergoes continues breaking and reforming due to invasion of the other phase. The stability of the phase paths is dependent on liquid and gas flow rate ratio. This mechanism holds true for over a range of saturation for both smooth and rough fractures. In imbibition for rough-walled fractures, another mechanism similar to wave-like flow in pipes was also observed. The data from the experiments were analyzed using Darcy's law and using the concept of friction factor and equivalent Reynold's number for two-phase flow. For both smooth- and rough-walled fractures a clear relationship between relative permeability and saturation was seen. The calculated relative permeability curves follow Corey-type behavior and can be modeled using Honarpour expressions. The sum of the relative permeabilities is not equal one, indicating phase interference. The equivalent homogeneous single-phase approach did not give satisfactory representation of flow through fractures. The graphs of experimentally derived friction factor with the modified Reynolds number do not reveal a distinctive linear relationship.

  12. Greenstick Fractures (United States)

    ... small, "green" branch on a tree. Most greenstick fractures occur in children younger than 10 years of age. This type ... mistaken for sprains or bruises. More-severe greenstick fractures may cause an obvious ... your doctor if your child has persistent pain in an injured limb. Seek ...

  13. Measurements of the conduction of heat in water vapor, nitrogen and mixtures of these gases in an extended temperature range (United States)

    Frohn, A.; Westerdorf, M.

    Experimental and analytical results are presented from trials with heat conduction in water vapor, nitrogen, and mixtures of the two in a cylindrical heat transfer cell. The pressures examined ranged from 100-0.01 mbar, corresponding to Knudsen numbers of 0.01-100. Formulations are defined for the continuum conditions, the free molecule conditions, the transition region, and the momentum equation solution. Experimentation with an instrumented configuration of an inner and outer cylinder over the temperature range 300-725 K is described, noting the use of a vacuum around the inner, gas-filled container in order to measure the radiative heat losses. The results are useful for predicting heat transfer in high altitude flight or among small droplets in natural fogs, cooling towers, and combustion chambers.

  14. Mediterranean water structure in the central Atlantic: Results of remote acoustic and conductivity-temperature-depth measurements (United States)

    Berezutskii, V.; Maximov, S. E.; Rodionov, V. B.; Sklyarov, V. E.


    In March 1990, combined acoustic and conductivity-temperature-depth measurements were carried out in the central Atlantic (29°-35°N, 20°-26°W) to study volume sound backscattering (VSB) at depths of Mediterranean Intermediate Water (MIW). Spatial variability of VSB in the presence of MIW was found. The influence of the intermittent character of the MIW structure on VSB at depths of 700-1900 m was revealed and examined. The possibility of acoustic detection and monitoring of both meddies and thermohaline fine structure features directly from the sea surface was discovered. This paper presents the first acoustic imaging of the MIW structure and dynamics in the central Atlantic.

  15. Fracture Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zehnder, Alan T


    Fracture mechanics is a vast and growing field. This book develops the basic elements needed for both fracture research and engineering practice. The emphasis is on continuum mechanics models for energy flows and crack-tip stress- and deformation fields in elastic and elastic-plastic materials. In addition to a brief discussion of computational fracture methods, the text includes practical sections on fracture criteria, fracture toughness testing, and methods for measuring stress intensity factors and energy release rates. Class-tested at Cornell, this book is designed for students, researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and contributing to a diverse and vital field of knowledge. Alan Zehnder joined the faculty at Cornell University in 1988. Since then he has served in a number of leadership roles including Chair of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and Director of the Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.  He teaches applied mechanics and his research t...

  16. Ankle fracture - aftercare (United States)

    Malleolar fracture; Tri-malleolar; Bi-malleolar; Distal tibia fracture; Distal fibula fracture; Malleolus fracture ... Some ankle fractures may require surgery when: The ends of the bone are out of line with each other (displaced). The ...

  17. Determination of tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate in commercial formulations and cooling water by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. (United States)

    Marques, Thaís Tamye; Shiroma, Letícia Sayuri; de Jesus, Dosil Pereira


    A novel capillary electrophoresis method using capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection is proposed for the determination of the biocide tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate. The feasibility of the electrophoretic separation of this biocide was attributed to the formation of an anionic complex between the biocide and borate ions in the background electrolyte. Evidence of this complex formation was provided by (11) B NMR spectroscopy. A linear relationship (R(2) = 0.9990) between the peak area of the complex and the biocide concentration (50-900 μmol/L) was found. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 15.0 and 50.1 μmol/L, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate in commercial formulations, and the results were in good agreement with those obtained by the standard iodometric titration method. The method was also evaluated for the analysis of tap water and cooling water samples treated with the biocide. The results of the recovery tests at three concentration levels (300, 400, and 600 μmol/L) varied from 75 to 99%, with a relative standard deviation no higher than 9%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Estimation of the water retention curve from the soil hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity in an upward infiltration process (United States)

    Moret-Fernández, David; Angulo, Marta; Latorre, Borja; González-Cebollada, César; López, María Victoria


    Determination of the saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, and the α and n parameters of the van Genuchten (1980) water retention curve, θ(h), are fundamental to fully understand and predict soil water distribution. This work presents a new procedure to estimate the soil hydraulic properties from the inverse analysis of a single cumulative upward infiltration curve followed by an overpressure step at the end of the wetting process. Firstly, Ks is calculated by the Darcy's law from the overpressure step. The soil sorptivity (S) is then estimated using the Haverkamp et al., (1994) equation. Next, a relationship between α and n, f(α,n), is calculated from the estimated Sand Ks. The α and n values are finally obtained by the inverse analysis of the experimental data after applying the f(α,n) relationship to the HYDRUS-1D model. The method was validated on theoretical synthetic curves for three different soils (sand, loam and clay), and subsequently tested on experimental sieved soils (sand, loam, clay loam and clay) of known hydraulic properties. A robust relationship was observed between the theoretical α and nvalues (R2 > 0.99) of the different synthetic soils and those estimated from inverse analysis of the upward infiltration curve. Consistent results were also obtained for the experimental soils (R2 > 0.85). These results demonstrated that this technique allowed accurate estimates of the soil hydraulic properties for a wide range of textures, including clay soils.

  19. Experimental study on density, thermal conductivity, specific heat, and viscosity of water-ethylene glycol mixture dispersed with carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganeshkumar Jayabalan


    Full Text Available This article presents the effect of adding multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT in water – ethylene glycol mixture on density and various thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, specific heat and viscosity. Density of nanofluids was measured using standard volumetric flask method and the data showed a good agreement with the mixing theory. The maximum thermal conductivity enhancement of 11 % was noticed for the nanofluids with 0.9 wt. %. Due to lower specific heat of the MWCNT, the specific heat of the nanofluids decreased in proportion with the MWCNT concentration. The rheological analysis showed that the transition region from shear thinning to Newtonian extended to the higher shear stress range compared to that of base fluids. Viscosity ratio of the nanofluids augmented anomalously with respect to increase in temperature and about 2.25 fold increase was observed in the temperature range of 30 – 40 ˚C. The modified model of Maron and Pierce predicted the viscosity of the nanofluids with the inclusion of effect of aspect ratio of MWCNT and nanoparticle aggregates.

  20. A road damage and life-cycle greenhouse gas comparison of trucking and pipeline water delivery systems for hydraulically fractured oil and gas field development in Colorado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray C Duthu

    Full Text Available The process of hydraulic fracturing for recovery of oil and natural gas uses large amounts of fresh water and produces a comparable amount of wastewater, much of which is typically transported by truck. Truck transport of water is an expensive and energy-intensive process with significant external costs including roads damages, and pollution. The integrated development plan (IDP is the industry nomenclature for an integrated oil and gas infrastructure system incorporating pipeline-based transport of water and wastewater, centralized water treatment, and high rates of wastewater recycling. These IDP have been proposed as an alternative to truck transport systems so as to mitigate many of the economic and environmental problems associated with natural gas production, but the economic and environmental performance of these systems have not been analyzed to date. This study presents a quantification of lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and road damages of a generic oil and gas field, and of an oil and gas development sited in the Denver-Julesburg basin in the northern Colorado region of the US. Results demonstrate that a reduction in economic and environmental externalities can be derived from the development of these IDP-based pipeline water transportation systems. IDPs have marginal utility in reducing GHG emissions and road damage when they are used to replace in-field water transport, but can reduce GHG emissions and road damage by factors of as much as 6 and 7 respectively, when used to replace fresh water transport and waste-disposal routes for exemplar Northern Colorado oil and gas fields.

  1. The influence on response of axial rotation of a six-group local-conductance probe in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow (United States)

    Weihang, Kong; Lingfu, Kong; Lei, Li; Xingbin, Liu; Tao, Cui


    Water volume fraction is an important parameter of two-phase flow measurement, and it is an urgent task for accurate measurement in horizontal oil field development and optimization of oil production. The previous ring-shaped conductance water-cut meter cannot obtain the response values corresponding to the oil field water conductivity for oil-water two-phase flow in horizontal oil-producing wells characterized by low yield liquid, low velocity and high water cut. Hence, an inserted axisymmetric array structure sensor, i.e. a six-group local-conductance probe (SGLCP), is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the electric field distributions generated by the exciting electrodes of SGLCP are investigated by the finite element method (FEM), and the spatial sensitivity distributions of SGLCP are analyzed from the aspect of different separations between two electrodes and different axial rotation angles respectively. Secondly, the numerical simulation responses of SGLCP in horizontal segregated flow are calculated from the aspect of different water cut and heights of the water layer, respectively. Lastly, an SGLCP-based well logging instrument was developed, and experiments were carried out in a horizontal pipe with an inner diameter of 125 mm on the industrial-scale experimental multiphase flow setup in the Daqing Oilfield, China. In the experiments, the different oil-water two-phase flow, mineralization degree, temperature and pressure were tested. The results obtained from the simulation experiments and simulation well experiments demonstrate that the designed and developed SGLCP-based instrument still has a good response characteristic for measuring water conductivity under the different conditions mentioned above. The validity and reliability of obtaining the response values corresponding to the water conductivity through the designed and developed SGLCP-based instrument are verified by the experimental results. The significance of this work can provide an effective

  2. Fractured rock aquifer tests in the Western Siberian Basin, Ozyorsk, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R.L.; Looney, B.B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A. [and others


    A series of multi-zone pumping tests was conducted in a contaminated fractured rock aquifer in the Western Siberian Basin, Ozyorsk, Russia. The tests were conducted adjacent to the Mishelyak River floodplain in fractured Paleozoic porphyrites, tufts, tuff breccia, and lava typical of the Ural mountain complex. Geophysical logs, borehole photography, core samples, and results from previous borehole contamination studies were used to identify the zones to be tested. A network of three uncased wells was tested using a system of inflatable packers, pressure transducers and data loggers. Seven zones were isolated and monitored in two of the uncased wells. A straddle packer assembly was used to isolate individual zones within the pumping well. Eight constant rate pumping tests were conducted. Results of the testing indicate that shallow groundwater migrates primarily in two intervals that are separated by an interval with low lateral conductivity. The water bearing intervals have moderate to high specific capacities (1.3 and 30 L/min/m). Several processes are responsible for fracturing present in the lower interval. The network of compound fractures produced a complex array of fracture intersections yielding a fractured media with hydraulic behavior similar to porous media. Models used for the analysis of pumping tests in porous media provide a good estimation of the hydraulic response of the lower interval to pumping. Future work will include more complex analysis of the data to determine hydraulic conductivity ellipses.

  3. Solute transport along preferential flow paths in unsaturated fractures (United States)

    Su, G.W.; Geller, J.T.; Pruess, K.; Hunt, J.R.


    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study solute transport along preferential flow paths in unsaturated, inclined fractures. Qualitative aspects of solute transport were identified in a miscible dye tracer experiment conducted in a transparent replica of a natural granite fracture. Additional experiments were conducted to measure the breakthrough curves of a conservative tracer introduced into an established preferential flow path in two different fracture replicas and a rock-replica combination. The influence of gravity was investigated by varying fracture inclination. The relationship between the travel times of the solute and the relative influence of gravity was substantially affected by two modes of intermittent flow that occurred: the snapping rivulet and the pulsating blob modes. The measured travel times of the solute were evaluated with three transfer function models: the axial dispersion, the reactors-in-series, and the lognormal models. The three models described the solute travel times nearly equally well. A mechanistic model was also formulated to describe transport when the pulsating blob mode occurred which assumed blobs of water containing solute mixed with residual pools of water along the flow path.

  4. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2013 (NCEI Accession 0161327) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across American Samoa in 2015 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...