WorldWideScience

Sample records for water cloud properties

  1. Liquid Water Cloud Properties During the Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Wasilewski, Andrzei P.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; McGill, Matthew J.; Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, George; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; hide

    2015-01-01

    We present retrievals of water cloud properties from the measurements made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) during the Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX) held between January 14 and February 6, 2013. The RSP was onboard the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft based at NASA Dryden Aircraft Operation Facility in Palmdale, California. The retrieved cloud characteristics include cloud optical thickness, effective radius and variance of cloud droplet size distribution derived using a parameter-fitting technique, as well as the complete droplet size distribution function obtained by means of Rainbow Fourier Transform. Multi-modal size distributions are decomposed into several modes and the respective effective radii and variances are computed. The methodology used to produce the retrieval dataset is illustrated on the examples of a marine stratocumulus deck off California coast and stratus/fog over California's Central Valley. In the latter case the observed bimodal droplet size distributions were attributed to two-layer cloud structure. All retrieval data are available online from NASA GISS website.

  2. Retrieval of liquid water cloud properties from ground-based remote sensing observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knist, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate ground-based remotely sensed microphysical and optical properties of liquid water clouds are essential references to validate satellite-observed cloud properties and to improve cloud parameterizations in weather and climate models. This requires the evaluation of algorithms for retrieval of

  3. Development of EarthCARE/MSI ice and water cloud properties products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, S.; Nagao, T. M.; Ishida, H.; Letu, H.; Hashimoto, M.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds and aerosols are the major uncertainty in the understanding of the Earth's climate system. An improvement of understanding and better modeling of the relationship of clouds, aerosols and radiation are therefore prominent part in climate research and weather prediction. It is important to obtain the global data of clouds and aerosols occurrence, structure and physical properties that are derived from measurements of solar and thermal radiation. EarthCARE (Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer) is one of the future earth observation mission of ESA and JAXA. The satellite will carry four instruments for observation of clouds and aerosols; Atmospheric Lidar (ATLID), Cloud Profiling Rader (CPR), Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI), and Broad-Band Radiometer (BBR). This mission aims at understanding of the role that clouds and aerosols play in reflecting incident solar radiation back into space and trapping infrared radiation emitted from Earth's surface. These observations are needed to improve the precision of climate variability prediction. MSI provides across-track information on cloud with channels in the visible, near infrared, shortwave and thermal infrared. Water cloud optical properties are derived in using EarthCARE/MSI standard product based on CLAUDIA [Ishida and Nakajima, 2009] and CAPCOM [Nakajima and Nakajima, 1995; Kawamoto et al., 2001]. Research product based on MWP method [M. Hashimoto, 2015. PhD Thesis] is advanced to obtain the ice cloud optical properties. In this presentation, development of the products and retrieved cloud properties will be introduced.

  4. Characterization of Cloud Water and Drop Residual Particle Properties in Northeastern Pacific Ocean Stratocumulus Clouds: Airborne Measurements during the E-PEACE 2012 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, A.; Wang, Z.; Coggon, M.; Craven, J. S.; Metcalf, A. R.; Lin, J. J.; Nenes, A.; Jonsson, H.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J.

    2012-12-01

    During the July-August 2012 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE), the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter carried out thirty flights off the California coast with a payload focused on detailed characterization of aerosol and cloud properties. A counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI) inlet was used in cloud to study the physical and chemical properties of drop residual particles in the climatically-important stratocumulus cloud deck over the northeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of 82 cloud water samples were also collected and examined with ion chromatography (17 anion species) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (> 50 elements). The pH of the cloud water samples ranged widely between 2.92 and 7.58. This work focuses on inter-relationships between the chemical signatures of cloud water and drop residual particles, in addition to the influence of numerous regional sources on these measurements. Of interest will be to look critically at the influence of biogenic oceanic sources, shipping traffic, and entrainment of free tropospheric aerosol.

  5. Understanding the drivers of marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties with global observations using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Andersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of aerosols, clouds and their interactions with radiation remain among the largest unknowns in the climate system. Even though the processes involved are complex, aerosol–cloud interactions are often analyzed by means of bivariate relationships. In this study, 15 years (2001–2015 of monthly satellite-retrieved near-global aerosol products are combined with reanalysis data of various meteorological parameters to predict satellite-derived marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties by means of region-specific artificial neural networks. The statistical models used are shown to be capable of predicting clouds, especially in regions of high cloud variability. On this monthly scale, lower-tropospheric stability is shown to be the main determinant of cloud fraction and droplet size, especially in stratocumulus regions, while boundary layer height controls the liquid-water amount and thus the optical thickness of clouds. While aerosols show the expected impact on clouds, at this scale they are less relevant than some meteorological factors. Global patterns of the derived sensitivities point to regional characteristics of aerosol and cloud processes.

  6. Combined retrieval of Arctic liquid water cloud and surface snow properties using airborne spectral solar remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehrlich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The passive solar remote sensing of cloud properties over highly reflecting ground is challenging, mostly due to the low contrast between the cloud reflectivity and that of the underlying surfaces (sea ice and snow. Uncertainties in the retrieved cloud optical thickness τ and cloud droplet effective radius reff, C may arise from uncertainties in the assumed spectral surface albedo, which is mainly determined by the generally unknown effective snow grain size reff, S. Therefore, in a first step the effects of the assumed snow grain size are systematically quantified for the conventional bispectral retrieval technique of τ and reff, C for liquid water clouds. In general, the impact of uncertainties of reff, S is largest for small snow grain sizes. While the uncertainties of retrieved τ are independent of the cloud optical thickness and solar zenith angle, the bias of retrieved reff, C increases for optically thin clouds and high Sun. The largest deviations between the retrieved and true original values are found with 83 % for τ and 62 % for reff, C.In the second part of the paper a retrieval method is presented that simultaneously derives all three parameters (τ, reff, C, reff, S and therefore accounts for changes in the snow grain size. Ratios of spectral cloud reflectivity measurements at the three wavelengths λ1 = 1040 nm (sensitive to reff, S, λ2 = 1650 nm (sensitive to τ, and λ3 = 2100 nm (sensitive to reff, C are combined in a trispectral retrieval algorithm. In a feasibility study, spectral cloud reflectivity measurements collected by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART during the research campaign Vertical Distribution of Ice in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012 were used to test the retrieval procedure. Two cases of observations above the Canadian Beaufort Sea, one with dense snow-covered sea ice and another with a distinct snow-covered sea ice

  7. Combined retrieval of Arctic liquid water cloud and surface snow properties using airborne spectral solar remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Istomina, Larysa; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    The passive solar remote sensing of cloud properties over highly reflecting ground is challenging, mostly due to the low contrast between the cloud reflectivity and that of the underlying surfaces (sea ice and snow). Uncertainties in the retrieved cloud optical thickness τ and cloud droplet effective radius reff, C may arise from uncertainties in the assumed spectral surface albedo, which is mainly determined by the generally unknown effective snow grain size reff, S. Therefore, in a first step the effects of the assumed snow grain size are systematically quantified for the conventional bispectral retrieval technique of τ and reff, C for liquid water clouds. In general, the impact of uncertainties of reff, S is largest for small snow grain sizes. While the uncertainties of retrieved τ are independent of the cloud optical thickness and solar zenith angle, the bias of retrieved reff, C increases for optically thin clouds and high Sun. The largest deviations between the retrieved and true original values are found with 83 % for τ and 62 % for reff, C. In the second part of the paper a retrieval method is presented that simultaneously derives all three parameters (τ, reff, C, reff, S) and therefore accounts for changes in the snow grain size. Ratios of spectral cloud reflectivity measurements at the three wavelengths λ1 = 1040 nm (sensitive to reff, S), λ2 = 1650 nm (sensitive to τ), and λ3 = 2100 nm (sensitive to reff, C) are combined in a trispectral retrieval algorithm. In a feasibility study, spectral cloud reflectivity measurements collected by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART) during the research campaign Vertical Distribution of Ice in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) were used to test the retrieval procedure. Two cases of observations above the Canadian Beaufort Sea, one with dense snow-covered sea ice and another with a distinct snow-covered sea ice edge are analysed. The retrieved values of τ, reff

  8. Water ice cloud property retrievals at Mars with OMEGA:Spatial distribution and column mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kevin S.; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Szantai, Andre; Audouard, Joachim; Geminale, Anna; Altieri, Francesca; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Montabone, Luca; Wolff, Michael J.; Forget, Francois

    2017-04-01

    Spectral images of Mars recorded by OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité) on Mars Express can be used to deduce the mean effective radius (r_eff) and optical depth (τ_i) of water ice particles in clouds. Using new data sets for a priori surface temperature, vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature, dust opacity, and multi-spectral surface albedo, we have analyzed over 40 OMEGA image cubes over the Tharsis, Arabia, and Syrtis Major quadrangles, and mapped the spatial distribution of r_eff, τ_i, and water ice column mass. We also explored the parameter space of r_eff and τ_i, which are inversely proportional, and the ice cloud index (ICI), which is the ratio of the reflectance at 3.4 and 3.52 μm, and indicates the thickness of water ice clouds. We found that the ICI, trivial to calculate for OMEGA image cubes, can be a proxy for column mass, which is very expensive to compute, requiring accurate retrievals of surface albedo, r_eff, and τ_i. Observing the spatial distribution, we find that within each cloud system, r_eff varies about a mean of 2.1 μm, that τi is closely related to r_eff, and that the values allowed for τ_i, given r_eff, are related to the ICI. We also observe areas where our retrieval detects very thin clouds made of very large particles (mean of 12.5 μm), which are still under investigation.

  9. Low-Power, Lightweight Cloud Water Content Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The measurement of cloud water content is of great importance in understanding the formation of clouds, their structure, and their radiative properties which in turn...

  10. Multilayer cloud detection and retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties from thermal infrared measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, H.; Tokoro, Y.; Saito, M.; Putri, N. S.; Katagiri, S.; Sekiguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies using active remote sensing have revealed significant occurrence of multi-layer cloud. Detection of multi-layer cloud is important in passive remote sensing for quality assessment of cloud property retrieval and identification of uncertain retrievals. An algorithm using several thermal infrared (TIR) bands at 6-13.5 micron wavelengths to detect multilayer cloud and retrieve cloud physical and optical properties including cloud thermodynamic phase is developed. This significantly extends applicability of passive remote sensing and improves accuracy of cloud property retrieval. The method uses the split window bands as well as the carbon dioxide and water vapor absorption bands. The forward model uses the two-stream approximation to solve radiative transfer with gaseous absorption treated by the correlated-k distribution method. Brightness temperature errors are evaluated by model-to-model and model-to-measurement comparisons. Top pressure of lower cloud in multi-layer cloud column can be retrieved if the upper cloud optical thickness is less than 6. The optimal estimation method is used to simultaneously infer several cloud properties including water path, effective particle radius and cloud-top pressure. The method is applied to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) using 10 TIR bands and compared to MODIS operational product and active remote sensing measurements, showing promising results. The TIR method well detects optically thin clouds and retrieve their properties with relatively high accuracy. Particularly, cloud-top of optically thin cloud is estimated well. Multi-layer cloud detection works usually, while the TIR measurements miss very thin cloud that appears near the tropopause. The algorithm will be applied to frequent observation data from a new Japanese geostationary satellite, Himawari-8.

  11. Simultaneous retrieval of water vapour, temperature and cirrus clouds properties from measurements of far infrared spectral radiance over the Antarctic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Natale, Gianluca; Palchetti, Luca; Bianchini, Giovanni; Del Guasta, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    The possibility separating the contributions of the atmospheric state and ice clouds by using spectral infrared measurements is a fundamental step to quantifying the cloud effect in climate models. A simultaneous retrieval of cloud and atmospheric parameters from infrared wideband spectra will allow the disentanglement of the spectral interference between these variables. In this paper, we describe the development of a code for the simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric state and ice cloud parameters, and its application to the analysis of the spectral measurements acquired by the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared - Prototype for Applications and Development (REFIR-PAD) spectroradiometer, which has been in operation at Concordia Station on the Antarctic Plateau since 2012. The code performs the retrieval with a computational time that is comparable with the instrument acquisition time. Water vapour and temperature profiles and the cloud optical and microphysical properties, such as the generalised effective diameter and the ice water path, are retrieved by exploiting the 230-980 cm-1 spectral band. To simulate atmospheric radiative transfer, the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) has been integrated with a specifically developed subroutine based on the δ-Eddington two-stream approximation, whereas the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds have been derived from a database for hexagonal column habits. In order to detect ice clouds, a backscattering and depolarisation lidar, co-located with REFIR-PAD has been used, allowing us to infer the position and the cloud thickness to be used in the retrieval. A climatology of the vertical profiles of water vapour and temperature has been performed by using the daily radiosounding available at the station at 12:00 UTC. The climatology has been used to build an a priori profile correlation to constrain the fitting procedure. An optimal estimation method with the Levenberg-Marquardt approach has been

  12. Macrophysical cloud properties simulated by two-moment microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud-resolving model (CRM) is becoming useful tool for climate. Recently, two-moment cloud microphysics which additionally predicts number concentration of water species and thus realizes more flexible representation for cloud properties has been widely used in CRM. The two-moment representation is also suitable for long-range CRM simulation, since cloud-radiation interaction is affected by number concentration of cloud droplet through aerosol indirect effects. In spite of the advancement in microphysical modeling, cloud properties simulated by CRM is dependent on microphysical parameterization and the resulting properties remains unknown until model's sensitivity has been confirmed. In order to clarify dependence of microphysical parametezation on cloud macrophysical outcome, especially focusing on two-moment representation of cloud microphysics, sensitivity experiments were performed in two idealized experiments, i.e., squall line and radiative convective quasi-equilibrium. The former experiment showed that predicting number concentration of large ice water species was necessary for simulating more realistic precipitation trends. A distinct difference between strong convective and weak stratiform precipitations in squall line was found to be dependent on the microphysical parameterization. The latter experiments showed a consistent trends with that of the former experiment, i.e., prediction of number concentration of large ice water species affects long-range, macrophysical cloud properties such as resulting heat and water budget in cloud-radiation interaction, and the budgets were greatly controlled by the behaviors of large ice water species. The vertical profiles of cloud mass flux were different and it was found to be derived from production rate of ice water species which was affected by number concentration of ice water species. The present results indicate that macrophysics of cloud properties depend on behaviors of ice water species rather than liquid

  13. MAGIC Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, J. -Y.C. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Gregory, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wagener, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cloud droplet size and optical depth are the most fundamental properties for understanding cloud formation, dissipation and interactions with aerosol and drizzle. They are also a crucial determinant of Earth’s radiative and water-energy balances. However, these properties are poorly predicted in climate models. As a result, the response of clouds to climate change is one of the major sources of uncertainty in climate prediction.

  14. Study of cloud properties using airborne and satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscornea, Andreea; Stefan, Sabina; Vajaiac, Sorin Nicolae

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigates cloud microphysics properties using aircraft and satellite measurements. Cloud properties were drawn from data acquired both from in situ measurements with state of the art airborne instrumentation and from satellite products of the MODIS06 System. The used aircraft was ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research, property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS), Bucharest, Romania, which is specially equipped for this kind of research. The main tool of the airborne laboratory is a Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer - CAPS (30 bins, 0.51- 50 μm). The data was recorded during two flights during the winter 2013-2014, over a flat region in the south-eastern part of Romania (between Bucharest and Constanta). The analysis of cloud particle size variations and cloud liquid water content provided by CAPS can explain cloud processes, and can also indicate the extent of aerosols effects on clouds. The results, such as cloud coverage and/or cloud types, microphysical parameters of aerosols on the one side and the cloud microphysics parameters obtained from aircraft flights on the other side, was used to illustrate the importance of microphysics cloud properties for including the radiative effects of clouds in the regional climate models.

  15. Impact of Cloud Vertical and Horizontal Inhomogeneity on Multi-Spectral Retrieval of Liquid Water Cloud Properties: A Study for the GCOM-C/SGLI Cloud Product by Using A-Train and Landsat-8 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, T. M.; Letu, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud droplet effective radius (re) and optical thickness (τc) of liquid water cloud retrieved from multi-spectral measurement of satellite-borne sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are important parameters for understanding of cloud microphysics and droplet growth process. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is scheduling to launch a new earth observation satellite, the Global Change Observation Mission - Climate (GCOM-C), in Japan fiscal year 2016. The GCOC-C consists the Second Generation Global Imager (SGLI) instrument, which is a radiometer providing near-ultraviolet-to-thermal-infrared multi-spectral measurements at 250m-1km resolution with 1150-1400km swath. Motivated by the importance of re and τc retrievals, the GCOM-C/SGLI cloud product also provides them. However, it is pointed out by previous studies that multi-spectral-retrieved re and τc are impacted by cloud vertical and horizontal inhomogeneity. This study investigates the impacts by using A-Train and Landsat-8 data. First, we interpret three re retrievals from 1.6, 2.1, and 3.7µm-band measurements (re,1.6, re,2.1, and re,3.7) in terms of cloud vertical inhomogeneity by using synergistic measurements from the CloudSat/CPR and Aqua/MODIS. For this interpretation, we use an approach called Contoured Frequency by Optical Depth Diagram (CFODD), which is a joint frequency diagram of CloudSat/CPR radar reflectivity profile as a function of in-cloud optical depth profile as classified according to retrieved re (Nakajima et al., 2010; Suzuki et al., 2010). The CFODD approach visualizes the linkage of re,1.6, re,2.1, and re,3.7 to cloud droplet vertical profile. Second, we simulate the biases in re and τc retrievals at 1km resolution from the MODIS and SGLI induced by cloud horizontal inhomogeneity by using high-spatial resolution measurements of Landsat-8. And then we suggest two inversion models which estimate the biases in re and τc retrievals by using co

  16. Contrasting ice microphysical properties of wintertime frontal clouds and summertime convective clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W.; McFarquhar, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    The microphysical and optical properties of ice clouds were derived from measurements collected during the Colorado Airborne Multi-phase Cloud Study (CAMPS) and the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX) conducted in the winter of 2010-2011 over the Rocky Mountains and during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) conducted in the summer of 2011 over Oklahoma. A two-dimensional cloud (2DC) probe, two-dimensional precipitation (2DP) probe and Fast 2DC probe were installed on the University of Wyoming King Air aircraft during CAMPS and a Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP) and Precipitation Imaging Probe were operated on the ground at the Storm Peak Laboratory during STORMVEX. A 2DC, CIP and a high volume precipitation spectrometer were installed in the University of North Dakota Citation aircraft during MC3E. The distributions of particle habits, number distribution functions, total number concentrations, ice water contents, precipitation rates, extinction and effective radius from four cases of wintertime frontal clouds sampled during CAMPS/STORMVEX and from four cases of the stratiform region of summer convective systems from MC3E are compared. It is found that there is higher percentage of pristine ice particles, such as dendrites and columns, in the wintertime frontal clouds than in the summertime convective clouds, where the dominant habits are rimed particles. The number distribution functions are generally broader in the summertime clouds than in the wintertime frontal clouds. In addition, the number concentrations and ice water contents are generally lower in the wintertime frontal clouds than in the summertime convective clouds when comparing the same temperature ranges. Implications about the potential microphysical processes that are acting in these two types of ice clouds are discussed. The results in this study are also compared with previous studies using data from other field campaigns.

  17. Using SEVIRI radiances to retrieve cloud optical properties of convective cloud systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jennifer; Fischer, Jürgen; Hünerbein, Anja; Deneke, Hartwig; Macke, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    In this case study the development of cloud properties (cloud optical depth, effective radius and cloud top height) during the life-cycle of a convective cloud system over Europe was analyzed. To retrieve the properties we developed a retrieval scheme based on the radiative transfer code MOMO and an optimal estimation procedure. Input data are the visible to short-wavelength infrared channels from SEVIRI. In contrast to many other retrieval schemes we used 4 channels simultaneously. Especially the 3,9μm channel provides additional information due to the fact that it measures solar reflectance and thermal emission and allows the inclusion of cloud top height into the retrieval. By using a time series of SEVIRI measurements we want to provide and examine the microphysical development of the cloud over life-time. We monitored the growth of the system and found the most active parts of the convection with the highest water content and optical depth in those regions where the cloud top height is largest, too. The effective radius of the cloud particles is largest in older regions of the cloud system, where the cloud is already decaying.

  18. Global cloud liquid water path simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, L. [Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Rikus, L. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Martin, C.; Platt, R. [CSIRO, Aspendale, Victoria (Australia)

    1997-01-01

    A new parameterization of cloud liquid water and ice content has been included in the Bureau of Meteorology Global Assimilation and Prediction System. The cloud liquid water content is derived from the mean cloud temperatures in the model using an empirical relationship based on observations. The results from perpetual January and July simulations are presented and show that the total cloud water path steadily decreases toward high latitudes, with two relative maxima at midlatitudes and a peak at low latitudes. To validate the scheme, the simulated fields need to be processed to produce liquid water paths that can be directly compared with the corresponding field derived from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. This requires the identification of cloud ice water content within the parameterization and a prescription to account for the treatment of strongly precipitating subgrid-scale cloud. The resultant cloud liquid water paths agree qualitatively with the SSM/I data but show some systematic errors that are attributed to corresponding errors in the model`s simulation of cloud amounts. Given that a more quantitative validation requires substantial improvement in the model`s diagnostic cloud scheme, the comparison with the SSM/I data indicates that the cloud water path, derived from the cloud liquid water content parameterization introduced in this paper, is consistent with the observations and can be usefully incorporated in the prediction system. 40 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Measurement errors in cirrus cloud microphysical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Larsen

    Full Text Available The limited accuracy of current cloud microphysics sensors used in cirrus cloud studies imposes limitations on the use of the data to examine the cloud's broadband radiative behaviour, an important element of the global energy balance. We review the limitations of the instruments, PMS probes, most widely used for measuring the microphysical structure of cirrus clouds and show the effect of these limitations on descriptions of the cloud radiative properties. The analysis is applied to measurements made as part of the European Cloud and Radiation Experiment (EUCREX to determine mid-latitude cirrus microphysical and radiative properties.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · Radiative processes · Instruments and techniques

  20. Radiative properties of ice clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.L.; Koracin, D.; Carter, E. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A new treatment of cirrus cloud radiative properties has been developed, based on anomalous diffraction theory (ADT), which does not parameterize size distributions in terms of an effective radius. Rather, is uses the size distribution parameters directly, and explicitly considers the ice particle shapes. There are three fundamental features which characterize this treatment: (1) the ice path radiation experiences as it travels through an ice crystal is parameterized, (2) only determines the amount of radiation scattered and absorbed, and (3) as in other treatments, the projected area of the size distribution is conserved. The first two features are unique to this treatment, since it does not convert the ice particles into equivalent volume or area spheres in order to apply Mie theory.

  1. Cloud property datasets retrieved from AVHRR, MODIS, AATSR and MERIS in the framework of the Cloud_cci project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Martin; Stapelberg, Stefan; Sus, Oliver; Schlundt, Cornelia; Poulsen, Caroline; Thomas, Gareth; Christensen, Matthew; Carbajal Henken, Cintia; Preusker, Rene; Fischer, Jürgen; Devasthale, Abhay; Willén, Ulrika; Karlsson, Karl-Göran; McGarragh, Gregory R.; Proud, Simon; Povey, Adam C.; Grainger, Roy G.; Fokke Meirink, Jan; Feofilov, Artem; Bennartz, Ralf; Bojanowski, Jedrzej S.; Hollmann, Rainer

    2017-11-01

    New cloud property datasets based on measurements from the passive imaging satellite sensors AVHRR, MODIS, ATSR2, AATSR and MERIS are presented. Two retrieval systems were developed that include components for cloud detection and cloud typing followed by cloud property retrievals based on the optimal estimation (OE) technique. The OE-based retrievals are applied to simultaneously retrieve cloud-top pressure, cloud particle effective radius and cloud optical thickness using measurements at visible, near-infrared and thermal infrared wavelengths, which ensures spectral consistency. The retrieved cloud properties are further processed to derive cloud-top height, cloud-top temperature, cloud liquid water path, cloud ice water path and spectral cloud albedo. The Cloud_cci products are pixel-based retrievals, daily composites of those on a global equal-angle latitude-longitude grid, and monthly cloud properties such as averages, standard deviations and histograms, also on a global grid. All products include rigorous propagation of the retrieval and sampling uncertainties. Grouping the orbital properties of the sensor families, six datasets have been defined, which are named AVHRR-AM, AVHRR-PM, MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, ATSR2-AATSR and MERIS+AATSR, each comprising a specific subset of all available sensors. The individual characteristics of the datasets are presented together with a summary of the retrieval systems and measurement records on which the dataset generation were based. Example validation results are given, based on comparisons to well-established reference observations, which demonstrate the good quality of the data. In particular the ensured spectral consistency and the rigorous uncertainty propagation through all processing levels can be considered as new features of the Cloud_cci datasets compared to existing datasets. In addition, the consistency among the individual datasets allows for a potential combination of them as well as facilitates studies on the

  2. Impacts of Aerosol, Surface and Meteorological Conditions on Polar Cloud Properties: Use of In-Situ Cloud Probe Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarquhar, Greg; Wu, Wei; Maahn, Maximilian

    2017-04-01

    Over the Southern Oceans, models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) almost universally underestimate sunlight reflected by near surface cloud in the Austral summer compared to Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. These and other biases in radiative fluxes over the Arctic are believed to be associated with the poorly modeled properties of low-level clouds that are frequently composed of supercooled water. Because changes in cloud macrophysical (heights, coverage) and microphysical (sizes, shapes and phases of particles) can alter the radiative impact of clouds, it is important to understand the processes that control cloud properties. In this presentation, in-situ microphysical observations obtained in prior arctic field campaigns (e.g., the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign ISDAC, the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment M-PACE, and the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Carbon Measurements Program-V ACME-V) are discussed. Strategies for comparing data collected in campaigns with different probes and processed with varying algorithms are introduced, along with procedures for using cloud probe data to refine assumptions about cloud properties in model schemes (e.g., size distributions, mass-dimension, and velocity-dimension relations) that affect rates at which mass and number are transferred between hydrometeor categories and hence estimates of latent and radiative heating, which feeds back on dynamics and hence cloud properties. Such observations from past arctic field experiments have enhanced our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions acting in single-layer mixed phase clouds that are ubiquitous in the Arctic. But, it is still unknown what controls the amount of supercooled water in polar clouds (especially in frequently occurring complex multi-layer clouds), how probability distributions of cloud properties vary with aerosol loading and composition in different surface and meteorological conditions, and how

  3. Improvements in Night-Time Low Cloud Detection and MODIS-Style Cloud Optical Properties from MSG SEVIRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Galina (Gala); Platnick, Steven; Riedi, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    The MODIS cloud optical properties algorithm (MOD06IMYD06 for Terra and Aqua MODIS, respectively) slated for production in Data Collection 6 has been adapted to execute using available channels on MSG SEVIRI. Available MODIS-style retrievals include IR Window-derived cloud top properties, using the new Collection 6 cloud top properties algorithm, cloud optical thickness from VISINIR bands, cloud effective radius from 1.6 and 3.7Jlm and cloud ice/water path. We also provide pixel-level uncertainty estimate for successful retrievals. It was found that at nighttime the SEVIRI cloud mask tends to report unnaturally low cloud fraction for marine stratocumulus clouds. A correction algorithm that improves detection of such clouds has been developed. We will discuss the improvements to nighttime low cloud detection for SEVIRI and show examples and comparisons with MODIS and CALIPSO. We will also show examples of MODIS-style pixel-level (Level-2) cloud retrievals for SEVIRI with comparisons to MODIS.

  4. Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteway, J A; Komguem, L; Dickinson, C; Cook, C; Illnicki, M; Seabrook, J; Popovici, V; Duck, T J; Davy, R; Taylor, P A; Pathak, J; Fisher, D; Carswell, A I; Daly, M; Hipkin, V; Zent, A P; Hecht, M H; Wood, S E; Tamppari, L K; Renno, N; Moores, J E; Lemmon, M T; Daerden, F; Smith, P H

    2009-07-03

    The light detection and ranging instrument on the Phoenix mission observed water-ice clouds in the atmosphere of Mars that were similar to cirrus clouds on Earth. Fall streaks in the cloud structure traced the precipitation of ice crystals toward the ground. Measurements of atmospheric dust indicated that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) on Mars was well mixed, up to heights of around 4 kilometers, by the summer daytime turbulence and convection. The water-ice clouds were detected at the top of the PBL and near the ground each night in late summer after the air temperature started decreasing. The interpretation is that water vapor mixed upward by daytime turbulence and convection forms ice crystal clouds at night that precipitate back toward the surface.

  5. Cloud microphysics and surface properties in climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamnes, K. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Cloud optical thickness is determined from ground-based measurements of broadband incoming solar irradiance using a radiation model in which the cloud optical depth is adjusted until computed irradiance agrees with the measured value. From spectral measurements it would be feasible to determine both optical thickness and mean drop size, which apart from cloud structure and morphology, are the most important climatic parameters of clouds. A radiative convective model is used to study the sensitivity of climate to cloud liquid water amount and cloud drop size. This is illustrated in Figure 21.1 which shows that for medium thick clouds a 10 % increase in drop size yields a surface warming of 1.5{degrees}C, which is the same as that due to a doubling of carbon dioxide. For thick clouds, a 5% decrease in drop size is sufficient to offset the warming due to doubling of carbon dioxide. A radiative transfer model for the coupled atmosphere/sea ice/ocean system is used to study the partitioning of radiative energy between the three strata, and the potential for testing such a model in terms of planned experiments in the Arctic is discussed.

  6. Liquid water content variation with altitude in clouds over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreea, Boscornea; Sabina, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Cloud water content is one of the most fundamental measurements in cloud physics. Knowledge of the vertical variability of cloud microphysical characteristics is important for a variety of reasons. The profile of liquid water content (LWC) partially governs the radiative transfer for cloudy atmospheres, LWC profiles improves our understanding of processes acting to form and maintain cloud systems and may lead to improvements in the representation of clouds in numerical models. Presently, in situ airborne measurements provide the most accurate information about cloud microphysical characteristics. This information can be used for verification of both numerical models and cloud remote sensing techniques. The aim of this paper was to analyze the liquid water content (LWC) measurements in clouds, in time of the aircraft flights. The aircraft and its platform ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research is property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS), Bucharest, Romania. The airborne laboratory equipped for special research missions is based on a Hawker Beechcraft - King Air C90 GTx aircraft and is equipped with a sensors system CAPS - Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (30 bins, 0.51-50 m). The processed and analyzed measurements are acquired during 4 flights from Romania (Bucharest, 44°25'57″N 26°06'14″E) to Germany (Berlin 52°30'2″N 13°23'56″E) above the same region of Europe. The flight path was starting from Bucharest to the western part of Romania above Hungary, Austria at a cruse altitude between 6000-8500 m, and after 5 hours reaching Berlin. In total we acquired data during approximately 20 flight hours and we presented the vertical and horizontal LWC variations for different cloud types. The LWC values are similar for each type of cloud to values from literature. The vertical LWC profiles in the atmosphere measured during takeoff and landing of the aircraft have shown their

  7. Comparison between observed and modelled radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhian; Pethick, David

    2002-10-01

    Measurements of radiative and microphysical characteristics of stratocumulus clouds in a coastal region of South Australia are reported. The measurements were taken on 14 April 1999 using two aircraft from Airborne Research Australia based at the Flinders University of South Australia during the Kangaroo Island Radiation and Cloud Experiments (KIRCE). The measurements include radiation, cloud liquid-water content, ambient temperature and humidity. A new method to process the measurements is described. Cloud albedo and absorption were determined using the observed solar irradiances at the cloud top and base and the results were compared with theoretical calculations. Five water-cloud optical parametrization schemes were tested against the observations. In addition, some observational data from the Joint Air-Sea Interaction (JASIN) experiment were used in the comparisons. It has been found that measured cloud properties from the KIRCE experiment are very similar to those of the JASIN experiment. The modelled results from most schemes are compatible and generally in good agreement with the measurements.

  8. Ice cloud microphysical properties in tropical Pacific regions derived from CloudSat and CALIPSO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Naoya; Hayasaka, Tadahiro; Okamoto, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    We revealed the difference in tropical ice cloud microphysical properties between the western Pacific (WP) and the eastern Pacific (EP), based on satellite retrievals. Vertical profile of effective particle radius of ice cloud (re) was estimated from active sensors on board CloudSat and CALIPSO satellites. In this study, we focused only on ice cloud which is defined as clouds with the cloud top temperature lower than 0°C. To investigate the relationship between cloud optical properties and cloud vertical structures, these ice clouds were classified into five types based on cloud optical thickness values. Compared the vertical profile of re in WP with that in the EP, re around the freezing level within convective cloud in EP slightly larger than that in WP. This analysis also shows that re of optically thick cloud is larger than that of optically thin cloud. The difference in re may be caused by differences in moisture convergence, upward motion, aerosols.

  9. Cloud property datasets retrieved from AVHRR, MODIS, AATSR and MERIS in the framework of the Cloud_cci project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stengel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available New cloud property datasets based on measurements from the passive imaging satellite sensors AVHRR, MODIS, ATSR2, AATSR and MERIS are presented. Two retrieval systems were developed that include components for cloud detection and cloud typing followed by cloud property retrievals based on the optimal estimation (OE technique. The OE-based retrievals are applied to simultaneously retrieve cloud-top pressure, cloud particle effective radius and cloud optical thickness using measurements at visible, near-infrared and thermal infrared wavelengths, which ensures spectral consistency. The retrieved cloud properties are further processed to derive cloud-top height, cloud-top temperature, cloud liquid water path, cloud ice water path and spectral cloud albedo. The Cloud_cci products are pixel-based retrievals, daily composites of those on a global equal-angle latitude–longitude grid, and monthly cloud properties such as averages, standard deviations and histograms, also on a global grid. All products include rigorous propagation of the retrieval and sampling uncertainties. Grouping the orbital properties of the sensor families, six datasets have been defined, which are named AVHRR-AM, AVHRR-PM, MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, ATSR2-AATSR and MERIS+AATSR, each comprising a specific subset of all available sensors. The individual characteristics of the datasets are presented together with a summary of the retrieval systems and measurement records on which the dataset generation were based. Example validation results are given, based on comparisons to well-established reference observations, which demonstrate the good quality of the data. In particular the ensured spectral consistency and the rigorous uncertainty propagation through all processing levels can be considered as new features of the Cloud_cci datasets compared to existing datasets. In addition, the consistency among the individual datasets allows for a potential combination of them as well as

  10. Cirrus Cloud Optical and Microphysical Property Retrievals from eMAS During SEAC4RS Using Bi-Spectral Reflectance Measurements Within the 1.88 micron Water Vapor Absorption Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K.; Platnick, S.; Arnold, G. T.; Holz, R. E.; Veglio, P.; Yorks, J.; Wang, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or midwave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASAs SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 micron water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 micron channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy TOA reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption, as well as reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  11. Thin Liquid Water Clouds: Their Importance and Our Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Austin, Richard T.; Barnard, James C.; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Chiu, C.; Clough, Shepard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Liljegren, James C.; Johnson, Karen L.; Lin, B.; Long, Charles N.; Marshak, A.; Matrosov, S. Y.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Miller, Mark A.; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; O' Hirok, William; Wang, Zhien; Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2007-02-19

    Many of the clouds important to the Earth’s energy balance, from the tropics to the Arctic, are optically thin and contain liquid water. Longwave and shortwave radiative fluxes are very sensitive to small perturbations of the cloud liquid water path (LWP) when the LWP is small (i.e., <100 gm-2) and, thus, the radiative properties of these clouds must be well understood to capture them correctly in climate models. Here we review the importance of these thin clouds to the Earth’s energy balance, and explain the difficulties in observing them. In particular, because these clouds are optically thin, potentially mixed-phase, and often broken (i.e., have large 3-D variability), it is challenging to retrieve their microphysical properties accurately. We describe a retrieval algorithm intercomparison that was conducted to evaluate the issues involved. Seventeen different algorithms participated and their retrieved LWP, optical depth, and effective radii are evaluated using data from several case studies. Surprisingly, evaluation of the simplest case, a single-layer overcast cloud, revealed that huge discrepancies exist among the various techniques, even among different algorithms that are in the same general classification. This suggests that, despite considerable advances that have occurred in the field, much more work must be done, and we discuss fruitful avenues for future research.

  12. Impact of Cloud Model Microphysics on Passive Microwave Retrievals of Cloud Properties. Part I: Model Comparison Using EOF Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Michael I.; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.; Kim, Kwang-Yul

    2006-07-01

    The impact of model microphysics on the relationships among hydrometeor profiles, latent heating, and derived satellite microwave brightness temperatures TB have been examined using a nonhydrostatic, adaptive-grid cloud model to simulate a mesoscale convective system over water. Two microphysical schemes (each employing three-ice bulk parameterizations) were tested for two different assumptions in the number of ice crystals assumed to be activated at 0°C to produce simulations with differing amounts of supercooled cloud water. The model output was examined using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, which provided a quantitative framework in which to compare the simulations. Differences in the structure of the vertical anomaly patterns were related to physical processes and attributed to different approaches in cloud microphysical parameterizations in the two schemes. Correlations between the first EOF coefficients of cloud properties and TB at frequencies associated with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) showed additional differences between the two parameterization schemes that affected the relationship between hydrometeors and TB. Classified in terms of TB, the microphysical schemes produced significantly different mean vertical profiles of cloud water, cloud ice, snow, vertical velocity, and latent heating. The impact of supercooled cloud water on the 85-GHz TB led to a 15% variation in mean convective rain mass at the surface. The variability in mean profiles produced by the four simulations indicates that the retrievals of cloud properties, especially latent heating, based on TMI frequencies are dependent on the particular microphysical parameterizations used to construct the retrieval database.

  13. Atmospheric Water-Cycle Regimes and Cloud Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S.; Fetzer, E. J.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between the atmospheric water vapor budget and cloud properties is investigated by collocated reanalysis fields from Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite instrument. Intensities of surface water exchange (precipitation minus evaporation) are analyzed in the space of 'dynamical regimes', which are defined by combination of large-scale water vapor advection and convergence calculated from the MERRA. The atmospheric water vapor sinks associated with mid-latitude storm systems and precipitation in the west coast of United States are mainly driven by the large-scale dynamical advection, while those associated with tropical deep convection and summertime monsoons are mainly driven by water vapor convergence. Subtropical subsidence area over the eastern ocean basins is dominated by strong water vapor divergence. These dynamical regimes are then connected to the collocated MODIS cloud top pressure and cloud optical thickness. Probability density distributions of these MODIS cloud properties associated with each dynamical regime will be presented.

  14. The interpretation of remotely sensed cloud properties from a model parameterization perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The goals of ISCCP and FIRE are, broadly speaking, to provide methods for the retrieval of cloud properties from satellites, and to improve cloud radiation models and the parameterization of clouds in GCMs. This study suggests a direction for GCM cloud parameterizations based on analysis of Landsat and ISCCP satellite data. For low level single layer clouds it is found that the mean retrieved liquid water pathe in cloudy pixels is essentially invariant to the cloud fraction, at least in the range 0.2 - 0.8. This result is very important since it allows the cloud fraction to be estimated if the mean liquid water path of cloud in a general circulation model gridcell is known. 3 figs.

  15. Jets and Water Clouds on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yuan; Showman, A. P.

    2012-10-01

    Ground-based and spacecraft observations show that Jupiter exhibits multiple banded zonal jet structures. These banded jets correlate with dark and bright clouds, often called "belts" and "zones". The mechanisms that produce these banded zonal jets and clouds are poorly understood. Our previous studies showed that the latent heat released by condensation of water vapor could produce equatorial superrotation along with multiple zonal jets in the mid-to-high latitudes. However, that previous work assumed complete and instant removal of condensate and therefore could not predict the cloud formation. Here we present an improved 3D Jupiter model to investigate some effects of cloud microphysics on large-scale dynamics using a closed water cycle that includes condensation, three-dimensional advection of cloud material by the large-scale circulation, evaporation and sedimentation. We use a dry convective adjustment scheme to adjust the temperature towards a dry adiabat when atmospheric columns become convectively unstable, and the tracers are mixed within the unstable layers accordingly. Other physics parameterizations included in our model are the bottom drag and internal heat flux as well as the choices of either Newtonian heating scheme or gray radiative transfer. Given the poorly understood cloud microphysics, we perform case studies by treating the particle size and condensation/evaporation time scale as free parameters. We find that, in some cases, the active water cycle can produce multiple banded jets and clouds. However, the equatorial jet is generally very weak in all the cases because of insufficient supply of eastward eddy momentum fluxes. These differences may result from differences in the overall vertical stratification, baroclinicity, and moisture distribution in our new models relative to the older ones; we expect to elucidate the dynamical mechanisms in continuing work.

  16. The CM SAF CLAAS-2 cloud property data record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benas, Nikos; Finkensieper, Stephan; Stengel, Martin; van Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan; Hanschmann, Timo; Hollmann, Rainer; Fokke Meirink, Jan

    2017-04-01

    A new cloud property data record was lately released by the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF), based on measurements from geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensors, spanning the period 2004-2015. The CLAAS-2 (Cloud property dAtAset using SEVIRI, Edition 2) data record includes cloud fractional coverage, thermodynamic phase, cloud top height, water path and corresponding optical thickness and particle effective radius separately for liquid and ice clouds. These variables are available at high resolution 15-minute, daily and monthly basis. In this presentation the main improvements in the retrieval algorithms compared to the first edition of the data record (CLAAS-1) are highlighted along with their impact on the quality of the data record. Subsequently, the results of extensive validation and inter-comparison efforts against ground observations, as well as active and passive satellite sensors are summarized. Overall good agreement is found, with similar spatial and temporal characteristics, along with small biases caused mainly by differences in retrieval approaches, spatial/temporal samplings and viewing geometries.

  17. FAME-C: cloud property retrieval using synergistic AATSR and MERIS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Carbajal Henken

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed daytime cloud property retrieval algorithm, FAME-C (Freie Universität Berlin AATSR MERIS Cloud, is presented. Synergistic observations from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR and the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS, both mounted on the polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite (Envisat, are used for cloud screening. For cloudy pixels two main steps are carried out in a sequential form. First, a cloud optical and microphysical property retrieval is performed using an AATSR near-infrared and visible channel. Cloud phase, cloud optical thickness, and effective radius are retrieved, and subsequently cloud water path is computed. Second, two cloud top height products are retrieved based on independent techniques. For cloud top temperature, measurements in the AATSR infrared channels are used, while for cloud top pressure, measurements in the MERIS oxygen-A absorption channel are used. Results from the cloud optical and microphysical property retrieval serve as input for the two cloud top height retrievals. Introduced here are the AATSR and MERIS forward models and auxiliary data needed in FAME-C. Also, the optimal estimation method, which provides uncertainty estimates of the retrieved property on a pixel basis, is presented. Within the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI project, the first global cloud property retrievals have been conducted for the years 2007–2009. For this time period, verification efforts are presented, comparing, for four selected regions around the globe, FAME-C cloud optical and microphysical properties to cloud optical and microphysical properties derived from measurements of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on the Terra satellite. The results show a reasonable agreement between the cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals. Biases are generally smallest for marine stratocumulus clouds: −0.28, 0.41 μm and

  18. Overlap Properties of Clouds Generated by a Cloud Resolving Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Khairoutdinov, M.

    2002-01-01

    In order for General Circulation Models (GCMs), one of our most important tools to predict future climate, to correctly describe the propagation of solar and thermal radiation through the cloudy atmosphere a realistic description of the vertical distribution of cloud amount is needed. Actually, one needs not only the cloud amounts at different levels of the atmosphere, but also how these cloud amounts are related, in other words, how they overlap. Currently GCMs make some idealized assumptions about cloud overlap, for example that contiguous cloud layers overlap maximally and non-contiguous cloud layers overlap in a random fashion. Since there are difficulties in obtaining the vertical profile of cloud amount from observations, the realism of the overlap assumptions made in GCMs has not been yet rigorously investigated. Recently however, cloud observations from a relatively new type of ground radar have been used to examine the vertical distribution of cloudiness. These observations suggest that the GCM overlap assumptions are dubious. Our study uses cloud fields from sophisticated models dedicated to simulate cloud formation, maintenance, and dissipation called Cloud Resolving Models . These models are generally considered capable of producing realistic three-dimensional representation of cloudiness. Using numerous cloud fields produced by such a CRM we show that the degree of overlap between cloud layers is a function of their separation distance, and is in general described by a combination of the maximum and random overlap assumption, with random overlap dominating as separation distances increase. We show that it is possible to parameterize this behavior in a way that can eventually be incorporated in GCMs. Our results seem to have a significant resemblance to the results from the radar observations despite the completely different nature of the datasets. This consistency is encouraging and will promote development of new radiative transfer codes that will

  19. CCN Properties of Organic Aerosol Collected Below and within Marine Stratocumulus Clouds near Monterey, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akua Asa-Awuku

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition of aerosol from cloud droplets differs from that below cloud. Its implications for the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN activity are the focus of this study. Water-soluble organic matter from below cloud, and cloud droplet residuals off the coast of Monterey, California were collected; offline chemical composition, CCN activity and surface tension measurements coupled with Köhler Theory Analysis are used to infer the molar volume and surfactant characteristics of organics in both samples. Based on the surface tension depression of the samples, it is unlikely that the aerosol contains strong surfactants. The activation kinetics for all samples examined are consistent with rapid (NH42SO4 calibration aerosol. This is consistent with our current understanding of droplet kinetics for ambient CCN. However, the carbonaceous material in cloud drop residuals is far more hygroscopic than in sub-cloud aerosol, suggestive of the impact of cloud chemistry on the hygroscopic properties of organic matter.

  20. Water clouds in Y dwarfs and exoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Caroline V.; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Marley, Mark S.; Lupu, Roxana; Greene, Tom [NASA Ames Research Center, Naval Air Station, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lodders, Katharina, E-mail: cmorley@ucolick.org [Washington University in St Louis, 1 Brookings Drive, St Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    The formation of clouds affects brown dwarf and planetary atmospheres of nearly all effective temperatures. Iron and silicate condense in L dwarf atmospheres and dissipate at the L/T transition. Minor species such as sulfides and salts condense in mid- to late T dwarfs. For brown dwarfs below T {sub eff} ∼ 450 K, water condenses in the upper atmosphere to form ice clouds. Currently, over a dozen objects in this temperature range have been discovered, and few previous theoretical studies have addressed the effect of water clouds on brown dwarf or exoplanetary spectra. Here we present a new grid of models that include the effect of water cloud opacity. We find that they become optically thick in objects below T {sub eff} ∼ 350-375 K. Unlike refractory cloud materials, water-ice particles are significantly nongray absorbers; they predominantly scatter at optical wavelengths through the J band and absorb in the infrared with prominent features, the strongest of which is at 2.8 μm. H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} CIA are dominant opacity sources; less abundant species may also be detectable, including the alkalis, H{sub 2}S, and PH{sub 3}. PH{sub 3}, which has been detected in Jupiter, is expected to have a strong signature in the mid-infrared at 4.3 μm in Y dwarfs around T {sub eff} = 450 K; if disequilibrium chemistry increases the abundance of PH{sub 3}, it may be detectable over a wider effective temperature range than models predict. We show results incorporating disequilibrium nitrogen and carbon chemistry and predict signatures of low gravity in planetary mass objects. Finally, we make predictions for the observability of Y dwarfs and planets with existing and future instruments, including the James Webb Space Telescope and Gemini Planet Imager.

  1. Polarized View of Supercooled Liquid Water Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Wasilewski, Andrzej P.; McGill, Matthew J.; Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Platnick, Steven E.; Arnold, G. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Supercooled liquid water (SLW) clouds, where liquid droplets exist at temperatures below 0 C present a well known aviation hazard through aircraft icing, in which SLW accretes on the airframe. SLW clouds are common over the Southern Ocean, and climate-induced changes in their occurrence is thought to constitute a strong cloud feedback on global climate. The two recent NASA field campaigns POlarimeter Definition EXperiment (PODEX, based in Palmdale, California, January-February 2013) and Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS, based in Houston, Texas in August- September 2013) provided a unique opportunity to observe SLW clouds from the high-altitude airborne platform of NASA's ER-2 aircraft. We present an analysis of measurements made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) during these experiments accompanied by correlative retrievals from other sensors. The RSP measures both polarized and total reflectance in 9 spectral channels with wavelengths ranging from 410 to 2250 nm. It is a scanning sensor taking samples at 0.8deg intervals within 60deg from nadir in both forward and backward directions. This unique angular resolution allows for characterization of liquid water droplet size using the rainbow structure observed in the polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg. Simple parametric fitting algorithms applied to the polarized reflectance provide retrievals of the droplet effective radius and variance assuming a prescribed size distribution shape (gamma distribution). In addition to this, we use a non-parametric method, Rainbow Fourier Transform (RFT),which allows retrieval of the droplet size distribution without assuming a size distribution shape. We present an overview of the RSP campaign datasets available from the NASA GISS website, as well as two detailed examples of the retrievals. In these case studies we focus on cloud fields with spatial features

  2. Simultaneous and synergistic profiling of cloud and drizzle properties using ground-based observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Rusli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of radar reflectivity (Z measurements in the retrieval of liquid water cloud properties, it remains nontrivial to interpret Z due to the possible presence of drizzle droplets within the clouds. So far, there has been no published work that utilizes Z to identify the presence of drizzle above the cloud base in an optimized and a physically consistent manner. In this work, we develop a retrieval technique that exploits the synergy of different remote sensing systems to carry out this task and to subsequently profile the microphysical properties of the cloud and drizzle in a unified framework. This is accomplished by using ground-based measurements of Z, lidar attenuated backscatter below as well as above the cloud base, and microwave brightness temperatures. Fast physical forward models coupled to cloud and drizzle structure parameterization are used in an optimal-estimation-type framework in order to retrieve the best estimate for the cloud and drizzle property profiles. The cloud retrieval is first evaluated using synthetic signals generated from large-eddy simulation (LES output to verify the forward models used in the retrieval procedure and the vertical parameterization of the liquid water content (LWC. From this exercise it is found that, on average, the cloud properties can be retrieved within 5 % of the mean truth. The full cloud–drizzle retrieval method is then applied to a selected ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques campaign dataset collected in Cabauw, the Netherlands. An assessment of the retrieval products is performed using three independent methods from the literature; each was specifically developed to retrieve only the cloud properties, the drizzle properties below the cloud base, or the drizzle fraction within the cloud. One-to-one comparisons, taking into account the uncertainties or limitations of each retrieval, show that our results are consistent

  3. Evaluation of Cloud Physical Properties of ECMWF Analysis and Re-Analysis (ERA-40 and ERA Interim) against CERES Tropical Deep Convective Cloud Object Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2008-01-01

    This study presents an approach that converts the vertical profiles of grid-averaged cloud properties from large-scale models to probability density functions (pdfs) of subgrid-cell cloud physical properties measured at satellite footprints. Cloud physical and radiative properties, rather than just cloud and precipitation occurrences, of assimilated cloud systems by the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis (EOA) and ECMWF Re-Analyses (ERA-40 and ERA Interim) are validated against those obtained from Earth Observing System satellite cloud object data for January-August 1998 and March 2000 periods. These properties include ice water path (IWP), cloud-top height and temperature, cloud optical depth and solar and infrared radiative fluxes. Each cloud object, a contiguous region with similar cloud physical properties, is temporally and spatially matched with EOA and ERA-40 data. Results indicate that most pdfs of EOA and ERA-40 cloud physical and radiative properties agree with those of satellite observations of the tropical deep convective cloud-object type for the January-August 1998 period. There are, however, significant discrepancies in selected ranges of the cloud property pdfs such as the upper range of EOA cloud top height. A major discrepancy is that the dependence of the pdfs on the cloud object size for both EOA and ERA-40 is not as strong as in the observations. Modifications to the cloud parameterization in ECMWF that occurred in October 1999 eliminate the clouds near the tropopause but shift power of the pdf to lower cloud-top heights and greatly reduce the ranges of IWP and cloud optical depth pdfs. These features persist in ERA-40 due to the use of the same cloud parameterizations. The downgrade of data assimilation technique and the lack of snow water content information in ERA-40, not the coarser horizontal grid resolution, are also responsible for the disagreements with observed pdfs of cloud physical

  4. Microphysical Properties of Single and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Derived from AERI Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2003-06-01

    A novel new approach to retrieve cloud microphysical properties from mixed-phase clouds is presented. This algorithm retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective size of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance observations. The theoretical basis is that the absorption coefficient of ice is stronger than that of liquid water from 10-13 mm, whereas liquid water is more absorbing than ice from 16-25 um. However, due to strong absorption in the rotational water vapor absorption band, the 16-25 um spectral region becomes opaque for significant water vapor burdens (i.e., for precipitable water vapor amounts over approximately 1 cm). The Arctic is characterized by its dry and cold atmosphere, as well as a preponderance of mixed-phase clouds, and thus this approach is applicable to Arctic clouds. Since this approach uses infrared observations, cloud properties are retrieved at night and during the long polar wintertime period. The analysis of the cloud properties retrieved during a 7 month period during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment demonstrates many interesting features. These results show a dependence of the optical depth on cloud phase, differences in the mode radius of the water droplets in liquid-only and mid-phase clouds, a lack of temperature dependence in the ice fraction for temperatures above 240 K, seasonal trends in the optical depth with the clouds being thinner in winter and becoming more optically thick in the late spring, and a seasonal trend in the effective size of the water droplets in liquid-only and mixed-phase clouds that is most likely related to aerosol concentration.

  5. Ten Years of Cloud Properties from MODIS: Global Statistics and Use in Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts, began Earth observations on February 24, 2000 and June 24,2002, respectively. Among the algorithms developed and applied to this sensor, a suite of cloud products includes cloud masking/detection, cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure), and optical properties (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path, and thermodynamic phase). All cloud algorithms underwent numerous changes and enhancements between for the latest Collection 5 production version; this process continues with the current Collection 6 development. We will show example MODIS Collection 5 cloud climatologies derived from global spatial . and temporal aggregations provided in the archived gridded Level-3 MODIS atmosphere team product (product names MOD08 and MYD08 for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively). Data sets in this Level-3 product include scalar statistics as well as 1- and 2-D histograms of many cloud properties, allowing for higher order information and correlation studies. In addition to these statistics, we will show trends and statistical significance in annual and seasonal means for a variety of the MODIS cloud properties, as well as the time required for detection given assumed trends. To assist in climate model evaluation, we have developed a MODIS cloud simulator with an accompanying netCDF file containing subsetted monthly Level-3 statistical data sets that correspond to the simulator output. Correlations of cloud properties with ENSO offer the potential to evaluate model cloud sensitivity; initial results will be discussed.

  6. Retrieval of Boundary Layer 3D Cloud Properties Using Scanning Cloud Radar and 3D Radiative Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, Roger [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Retrievals of cloud optical and microphysical properties for boundary layer clouds, including those widely used by ASR investigators, frequently assume that clouds are sufficiently horizontally homogeneous that scattering and absorption (at all wavelengths) can be treated using one dimensional (1D) radiative transfer, and that differences in the field-of-view of different sensors are unimportant. Unfortunately, most boundary layer clouds are far from horizontally homogeneous, and numerous theoretical and observational studies show that the assumption of horizontal homogeneity leads to significant errors. The introduction of scanning cloud and precipitation radars at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sites presents opportunities to move beyond the horizontally homogeneous assumption. The primary objective of this project was to develop a 3D retrieval for warm-phase (liquid only) boundary layer cloud microphysical properties, and to assess errors in current 1D (non-scanning) approaches. Specific research activities also involved examination of the diurnal cycle of hydrometeors as viewed by ARM cloud radar, and continued assessment of precipitation impacts on retrievals of cloud liquid water path using passive microwaves.

  7. Progress in Understanding the Impacts of 3-D Cloud Structure on MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals for Marine Boundary Layer Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Werner, Frank; Miller, Daniel; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Andrew; DiGirolamo, Larry; Meyer, Kerry; Marshak, Alexander; Wind, Galina; Zhao, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    Theory: A novel framework based on 2-D Tayler expansion for quantifying the uncertainty in MODIS retrievals caused by sub-pixel reflectance inhomogeneity. (Zhang et al. 2016). How cloud vertical structure influences MODIS LWP retrievals. (Miller et al. 2016). Observation: Analysis of failed MODIS cloud property retrievals. (Cho et al. 2015). Cloud property retrievals from 15m resolution ASTER observations. (Werner et al. 2016). Modeling: LES-Satellite observation simulator (Zhang et al. 2012, Miller et al. 2016).

  8. Observed correlations between aerosol and cloud properties in an Indian Ocean trade cumulus regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Kristina; Praveen, Puppala S.; Thomas, Rick M.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Wilcox, Eric M.; Bender, Frida A.-M.

    2017-04-01

    There are multiple factors which affect the micro- and macrophysical properties of clouds, including the atmospheric vertical structure and dominant meteorological conditions in addition to aerosol concentration, all of which may be coupled to one another. In the quest to determine aerosol effects on clouds, these potential relationships must be understood. As bio- and fossil fuel combustion has increased in southeast Asia, corresponding increases in atmospheric aerosol pollution have been seen over the surrounding regions. These emissions notably include black carbon (BC) aerosols, which absorb rather than reflect solar radiation, affecting the atmosphere over the Indian Ocean through direct warming in addition to modifying cloud microphysical properties. The CARDEX (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiative forcing, Dynamics EXperiment) field campaign was conducted during the winter monsoon season (February and March) of 2012 in the northern Indian Ocean, a region dominated by trade cumulus clouds. During CARDEX, small unmanned aircraft were deployed, measuring aerosol, radiation, cloud, water vapor fluxes, and meteorological properties while a surface observatory collected continuous measurements of atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV), water vapor fluxes, surface and total-column aerosol, and cloud liquid water path (LWP). We present observations which indicate a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud LWP only when considering cases with low atmospheric water vapor (PWV)

  9. Intercomparisons of marine boundary layer cloud properties from the ARM CAP-MBL campaign and two MODIS cloud products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Song, Hua; Ma, Po-Lun; Ghan, Steven J.; Platnick, Steven; Minnis, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    From April 2009 to December 2010, the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program carried out an observational field campaign on Graciosa Island, targeting the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds over the Azores region. In this paper, we present an intercomparison of the MBL cloud properties, namely, cloud liquid water path (LWP), cloud optical thickness (COT), and cloud-droplet effective radius (CER), among retrievals from the ARM mobile facility and two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud products (Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-MODIS and Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System-MODIS). A total of 63 daytime single-layer MBL cloud cases are selected for intercomparison. Comparison of collocated retrievals indicates that the two MODIS cloud products agree well on both COT and CER retrievals, with the correlation coefficient R > 0.95, despite their significant difference in spatial sampling. In both MODIS products, the CER retrievals based on the 2.1 µm band (CER2.1) are significantly larger than those based on the 3.7 µm band (CER3.7). The GSFC-MODIS cloud product is collocated and compared with ground-based ARM observations at several temporal-spatial scales. In general, the correlation increases with more precise collocation. For the 63 selected MBL cloud cases, the GSFC-MODIS LWP and COT retrievals agree reasonably well with the ground-based observations with no apparent bias and correlation coefficient R around 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. However, GSFC-MODIS CER3.7 and CER2.1 retrievals have a lower correlation (R 0.5) with the ground-based retrievals. For the 63 selected cases, they are on average larger than ground observations by about 1.5 µm and 3.0 µm, respectively. Taking into account that the MODIS CER retrievals are only sensitive to cloud top reduces the bias only by 0.5 µm.

  10. The ESA Cloud_cci project: generation of multi-decadal consistent global data sets for GCOS cloud property ECVs using an optimal estimation approch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlundt, Cornelia; Sus, Oliver; Stapelberg, Stefan; Stengel, Martin; Hollmann, Rainer; Poulsen, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    In 2010 the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Cloud project was started along with 12 other CCI projects covering atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial ECV data products. The main goal is the generation of satellite-based climate data records that meet the challenging requirements of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). The objective target within the ESA Cloud_cci project is the investigation of synergetic capabilities of past, existing and upcoming European and American satellite missions and thus, the generation of long-term coherent cloud property datasets covering 33 years. The cloud properties considered are cloud mask, cloud top estimates, cloud optical thickness, cloud effective radius and post processed parameters such as cloud liquid and ice water path. In this presentation we will discuss the benefit of using an optimal estimation retrieval framework, which provides consistence among the retrieved cloud variables and pixel-based uncertainty estimates based on different passive instruments such as AVHRR, MODIS and AATSR. We will summarize the results of the first phase of the project along with further developments and improvements in the retrieval scheme and hence the quality of the cloud products carried out in the second phase of the project. Moreover, we will show exemplary results of comprehensive validation with other well established satellite data records, surface observations and cloud climatologies (e.g., PATMOS-X, ISCCP, CLARA-A2, MODIS collection 6). These inter-comparison results will show the strengths and weaknesses of the Cloud_cci datasets.

  11. Effect of CALIPSO Cloud Aerosol Discrimination (CAD) Confidence Levels on Observations of Aerosol Properties near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Liu, Zhaoyan

    2012-01-01

    CALIPSO aerosol backscatter enhancement in the transition zone between clouds and clear sky areas is revisited with particular attention to effects of data selection based on the confidence level of cloud-aerosol discrimination (CAD). The results show that backscatter behavior in the transition zone strongly depends on the CAD confidence level. Higher confidence level data has a flatter backscatter far away from clouds and a much sharper increase near clouds (within 4 km), thus a smaller transition zone. For high confidence level data it is shown that the overall backscatter enhancement is more pronounced for small clear-air segments and horizontally larger clouds. The results suggest that data selection based on CAD reduces the possible effects of cloud contamination when studying aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds.

  12. Comparison of statistical properties of simulated and observed cumulus clouds during GoMACCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Feingold, G.; Jonsson, H.; Lu, M.; Chuang, P. Y.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2007-12-01

    We present comparisons of the statistical properties of clouds generated by Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with aircraft observations of non-precipitating, warm cumulus clouds made during the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS). Aircraft data were sampled with the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter airplane. Five flights that are most suitable for studying aerosol-cloud interactions are selected. The model simulations are initiated with observed environmental profiles. The simulations are used to generate an ensemble of thousands of cumulus clouds for statistically meaningful evaluations. Comparison focuses on the statistical properties of a set of dynamical and thermodynamical variables: cloud liquid water content, number mixing ratio of cloud droplets, drop effective radius, updraft velocity, and the distribution of cloud sizes. In general, good agreement between the simulated and observed clouds is achieved, despite big differences in sample size between the model output and the aircraft data. These comparisons, together with the excellent agreement between observed and simulated cloud size distributions, suggest that the LES is able to successfully generate the cumulus cloud populations that were present during GoMACCS.

  13. Aerosol impacts on radiative and microphysical properties of clouds and precipitation formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, O.; Gharaylou, M.

    2017-03-01

    Through modifying the number concentration and size of cloud droplets, aerosols have intricate impacts on radiative and microphysical properties of clouds, which together influence precipitation processes. Aerosol-cloud interactions for a mid-latitude convective cloud system are investigated using a two-moment aerosol-aware bulk microphysical scheme implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Three sensitivity experiments with initial identical dynamic and thermodynamic conditions, but different cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations were conducted. Increased aerosol number concentration has resulted in more numerous cloud droplets of overall smaller sizes, through which the optical properties of clouds have been changed. While the shortwave cloud forcing is significantly increased in more polluted experiments, changes in the aerosol number concentration have negligible impacts on the longwave cloud forcing. For the first time, it is found that polluted clouds have higher cloud base heights, the feature that is caused by more surface cooling due to a higher shortwave cloud forcing, as well as a drier boundary layer in the polluted experiment compared to the clean. The polluted experiment was also associated with a higher liquid water content (LWC), caused by an increase in the number of condensation of water vapor due to higher concentration of hygroscopic aerosols acting as condensation nuclei. The domain-averaged accumulated precipitation is little changed under both polluted and clean atmosphere. Nevertheless, changes in the rate of precipitation are identified, such that under polluted atmosphere light rain is reduced, while both moderate and heavy rain are intensified, confirming the fact that if an ample influx of water vapor exists, an increment of hygroscopic aerosols can increase the amount of precipitation.

  14. Long Term Cloud Property Datasets From MODIS and AVHRR Using the CERES Cloud Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Doelling, David R.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Yost, Christopher R.; Trepte, Qing Z.; Bedka, Sarah T.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Scarino, Benjamin R.; Chen, Yan; hide

    2015-01-01

    Cloud properties play a critical role in climate change. Monitoring cloud properties over long time periods is needed to detect changes and to validate and constrain models. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project has developed several cloud datasets from Aqua and Terra MODIS data to better interpret broadband radiation measurements and improve understanding of the role of clouds in the radiation budget. The algorithms applied to MODIS data have been adapted to utilize various combinations of channels on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the long-term time series of NOAA and MetOp satellites to provide a new cloud climate data record. These datasets can be useful for a variety of studies. This paper presents results of the MODIS and AVHRR analyses covering the period from 1980-2014. Validation and comparisons with other datasets are also given.

  15. Characterization of cumulus cloud fields using trajectories in the center of gravity versus water mass phase space: 1. Cloud tracking and phase space description: CENTER OF GRAVITY VERSUS WATER MASS 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiblum, Reuven H. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Altaratz, Orit [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Koren, Ilan [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Feingold, Graham [Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder Colorado USA; Kostinski, Alexander B. [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton Michigan USA; Khain, Alexander P. [The Institute of Earth Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem Israel; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail [Atmosphere Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Fredj, Erick [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Dagan, Guy [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Pinto, Lital [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Yaish, Ricki [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Chen, Qian [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel

    2016-06-07

    We study the evolution of warm convective cloud fields using large eddy simulations of continental and trade cumulus. Individual clouds are tracked a posteriori from formation to dissipation using a 3D cloud tracking algorithm and results are presented in the phase- space of center of gravity altitude versus cloud liquid water mass (CvM space). The CvM space is shown to contain rich information on cloud field characteristics, cloud morphology, and common cloud development pathways, together facilitating a comprehensive understanding of the cloud field. In this part we show how the meteorological (thermodynamic) conditions that determine the cloud properties are projected on the CvM phase space and how changes in the initial conditions affect the clouds' trajectories in this space. This part sets the stage for a detailed microphysical analysis that will be shown in part II.

  16. Some Technical Aspects of a CALIOP and MODIS Data Analysis that Examines Near-Cloud Aerosol Properties as a Function of Cloud Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas; Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    CALIOP shows stronger near-cloud changes in aerosol properties at higher cloud fractions. Cloud fraction variations explain a third of near-cloud changes in overall aerosol statistics. Cloud fraction and aerosol particle size distribution have a complex relationship.

  17. NAMMA CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the NAMMA CVI Cloud Condensed Water Content dataset the counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in...

  18. Discrimination of water, ice and aerosols by light polarisation in the CLOUD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichman, L.; Fuchs, C.; Järvinen, E.; Ignatius, K.; Höppel, N. F.; Dias, A.; Heinritzi, M.; Simon, M.; Tröstl, J.; Wagner, A. C.; Wagner, R.; Williamson, C.; Yan, C.; Bianchi, F.; Connolly, P. J.; Dorsey, J. R.; Duplissy, J.; Ehrhart, S.; Frege, C.; Gordon, H.; Hoyle, C. R.; Kristensen, T. B.; Steiner, G.; Donahue, N. M.; Flagan, R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Kirkby, J.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Stratmann, F.; Tomé, A.

    2015-11-01

    Cloud microphysical processes involving the ice phase in tropospheric clouds are among the major uncertainties in cloud formation, weather and General Circulation Models (GCMs). The simultaneous detection of aerosol particles, liquid droplets, and ice crystals, especially in the small cloud-particle size range below 50 μm, remains challenging in mixed phase, often unstable ice-water phase environments. The Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarisation (CASPOL) is an airborne instrument that has the ability to detect such small cloud particles and measure their effects on the backscatter polarisation state. Here we operate the versatile Cosmics-Leaving-OUtdoor-Droplets (CLOUD) chamber facility at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) to produce controlled mixed phase and other clouds by adiabatic expansions in an ultraclean environment, and use the CASPOL to discriminate between different aerosols, water and ice particles. In this paper, optical property measurements of mixed phase clouds and viscous Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) are presented. We report observations of significant liquid - viscous SOA particle polarisation transitions under dry conditions using CASPOL. Cluster analysis techniques were subsequently used to classify different types of particles according to their polarisation ratios during phase transition. A classification map is presented for water droplets, organic aerosol (e.g., SOA and oxalic acid), crystalline substances such as ammonium sulphate, and volcanic ash. Finally, we discuss the benefits and limitations of this classification approach for atmospherically relevant concentration and mixtures with respect to the CLOUD 8-9 campaigns and its potential contribution to Tropical Troposphere Layer (TTL) analysis.

  19. Use of Field Observations for Understanding Controls of Polar Low Cloud Microphysical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarquhar, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Although arctic clouds have a net warming effect on the Arctic surface, their radiative effect is sensitive to cloud microphysical properties, namely the sizes, phases and shapes of cloud particles. Such cloud properties are influenced by the numbers, compositions and sizes of aerosols, meteorological conditions, and surface characteristics. Uncertainty in representing cloud-aerosol interactions in varying environmental conditions and associated feedbacks is a major cause in our lack of understanding of why the Arctic is warming faster than the rest of the Earth. Here, the understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions gained from past arctic field experiments is reviewed. Such studies have characterized the structure of single-layer mixed phase clouds that are ubiquitous in the Arctic and investigated different aerosol indirect effect mechanisms acting in these clouds. But, it is still unknown what controls the amount of supercooled water in arctic clouds (especially in complex frequently occurring multi-layer clouds), how probability distributions of cloud properties and radiative heating and their subsequent impact on temperature profiles and underlying snow and sea ice cover vary with aerosol loading and composition in different surface and meteorological conditions, how the composition and concentration of arctic aerosols and cloud microphysical properties vary annually and interannually, and how cloud-aerosol-radiative interactions can be better represented in models with varying temporal and spatial scales. These needs can be addressed in two ways. First, there is a need for comprehensive and routine aircraft, UAV and tethered balloon measurements in the presence of ground, air or space-based remote sensors over a variety of surface and meteorological conditions. Second, planned observational campaigns (the Measurements of Aerosols Radiation and Clouds over the Southern Oceans MARCUS and the Southern Oceans Cloud Radiation Transport Experimental Study SOCRATES

  20. Retrieval of cloud and drizzle microphysical properties using ground-based radar, lidar, and microwave radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Stephanie; Donovan, David; Russchenberg, Herman

    2017-04-01

    Owing to their large aerial extent, low-level liquid water clouds have a strong impact on the Earth's energy balance. Observations of these clouds to characterize the microphysical and radiative processes are therefore needed for climate studies. In such clouds, drizzle is recognized to be a common occurence and an accurate retrieval of the cloud physical properties has to account for its possible presence. We develop a retrieval technique that exploits the synergy of different remote sensing systems to simultaneously profile the cloud and drizzle properties using ground-based measurements of radar reflectivity, lidar attenuated backscatter and microwave brightness temperatures. This technique first identifies the presence of drizzle above the cloud base in an optimized and a physically-consistent manner. Subsequently, physical forward models, coupled to cloud and drizzle structure parametrization are used in an optimal-estimation type framework to derive the best-estimate for the cloud and drizzle properties as a function of height. The cloud retrieval is evaluated using simulated signals generated from large-eddy simulation output, from which it is found that the cloud properties can be retrieved within 5% of the mean truth. The full cloud-drizzle retrieval method is then applied to a selected ACCEPT campaign that took place in the Fall of 2014 in Cabauw, the Netherlands. One-to-one comparisons with three independent cloud-only or drizzle-only retrieval methods from the literature show that the results of our method are generally consistent with what is derived using the three independent methods.

  1. Impact of Cloud Model Microphysics on Passive Microwave Retrievals of Cloud Properties. Part II: Uncertainty in Rain, Hydrometeor Structure, and Latent Heating Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Biggerstaff, Michael I.

    2006-07-01

    The impact of model microphysics on the retrieval of cloud properties based on passive microwave observations was examined using a three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic, adaptive-grid cloud model to simulate a mesoscale convective system over ocean. Two microphysical schemes, based on similar bulk two-class liquid and three-class ice parameterizations, were used to simulate storms with differing amounts of supercooled cloud water typical of both the tropical oceanic environment, in which there is little supercooled cloud water, and midlatitude continental environments in which supercooled cloud water is more plentiful. For convective surface-level rain rates, the uncertainty varied between 20% and 60% depending on which combination of passive and active microwave observations was used in the retrieval. The uncertainty in surface rain rate did not depend on the microphysical scheme or the parameter settings except for retrievals over stratiform regions based on 85-GHz brightness temperatures TB alone or 85-GHz TB and radar reflectivity combined. In contrast, systematic differences in the treatment of the production of cloud water, cloud ice, and snow between the parameterization schemes coupled with the low correlation between those properties and the passive microwave TB examined here led to significant differences in the uncertainty in retrievals of those cloud properties and latent heating. The variability in uncertainty of hydrometeor structure and latent heating associated with the different microphysical parameterizations exceeded the inherent variability in TB cloud property relations. This was true at the finescales of the cloud model as well as at scales consistent with satellite footprints in which the inherent variability in TB cloud property relations are reduced by area averaging.

  2. Observations of regional and local variability in the optical properties of maritime clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.B. [Univ. of Colorado at Boulder/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States); Fairall, C.W. [Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    White and Fairall (1995) calculated the optical properties of the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds observed during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) and compared their results with the results obtained by Fairall et al. for the MBL clouds observed during the First International Satellite Climatology Program (ISSCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE). They found a factor of two difference in the optical depth versus liquid water relationship that applies to the clouds observed in each case. In the present study, we present evidence to support this difference. We also investigate the local variability exhibited in the ASTEX optical properties using measurements of the boundary layer aerosol concentration.

  3. Subseasonal variability of low cloud radiative properties over the southeast Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. George

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Subseasonal variability of cloud radiative properties in the persistent southeast Pacific stratocumulus deck is investigated using MODIS satellite observations and NCEP reanalysis data. A once-daily albedo proxy is derived based on the fractional coverage of low cloud (a macrophysical field and the cloud albedo, with the latter broken down into contributions from microphysics (cloud droplet concentration and macrophysics (liquid water path. Subseasonal albedo variability is dominated by the contribution of low cloud fraction variability, except within 10–15° of the South American coast, where cloud albedo variability contributes significantly. Covariance between cloud fraction and cloud albedo also contributes significantly and positively to the variance in albedo, which highlights how complex and inseparable the factors controlling albedo are. Droplet concentration variability contributes only weakly to the subseasonal variability of albedo, which emphasizes that attributing albedo variability to the indirect effects of aerosols against the backdrop of natural meteorological variability is extremely challenging.

    The dominant large scale meteorological variability is associated with the subtropical high pressure system. Two indices representing changes in the subtropical high strength and extent explain 80–90% of this variability, and significantly modulate the cloud microphysical, macrophysical, and radiative cloud properties. Variations in droplet concentration of up to 50% of the mean are associated with the meteorological driving. We hypothesize that these fluctuations in droplet concentration are a result of the large scale meteorology and their correlation with cloud macrophysical properties should not be used as evidence of aerosol effects. Mechanisms by which large scale meteorology affects cloud properties are explored. Our results support existing hypotheses linking cloud cover variability to changes in cold advection

  4. Cloud Computing Services: Benefits, Risks and Intellectual Property Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA BĂLŢĂTESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Major software players of the global market, such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft are developing cloud computing solutions, providing cloud services on demand: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS, Platform as a Service (PaaS and Software as a service (SaaS. In software industry and also in ICT services market, cloud computing is playing an increasingly important role. Moreover, the expansion of cloud services indirectly contributed to the development and improvement of other types of services on the market – financial and accounting services, human resources services, educational services etc. – in terms of quality and affordability. Given the fact that cloud computing applications proved to be more affordable for small and medium enterprises (SME, an increasing number of companies in almost all the fields of activity have chosen cloud based solutions, such as Enterprise Resource Management (ERP software and Customer Relationship Management (CRM software. However, cloud computing services involve also some risks concerning privacy, security of data and lack of interoperability between cloud platforms. Patent strategy of certain proprietary software companies leaded to a veritable “patent war” and “patent arm race” endangering the process of standardization in software industry, especially in cloud computing. Intellectual property (IP legislation and court ruling in patent litigations is likely to have a significant impact on the development of cloud computing industry and cloud services.

  5. Cloud water measurements of glyoxal and methylglyoxal during the Whistler Aerosol and Cloud Study (WACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, P.; Ervens, B.; Wang, Y.; Eagar, J.; Leaitch, R.; Macdonald, A.; Sjostedt, S.; Abbatt, J.

    2011-12-01

    Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are produced in high yields from both anthropogenic (aromatics) and biogenic (isoprene) precursors. The role of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the aqueous phase of cloud water and aerosols has received great attention over the past years. In addition, gas phase oxidation and photolysis of these compounds yield radicals and, thus, impact the oxidant budgets. While the reactivity of methylglyoxal and glyoxal in both the gas and aqueous phases is nearly identical, the much higher solubility of glyoxal leads to its more efficient removal in the presence of clouds. Thus, the amount of cloud water (liquid water content, LWC) and cloud processing time will affect the concentration ratios and thus the reaction rates of oxidation processes in the gas and aqueous phase, respectively. The Whistler Aerosol and Cloud Study (WACS) investigated the interactions between clouds and biogenic aerosol in summer 2010 in Whistler (Canada). During this study, cloud samples were collected at two locations, Whistler peak and a mid mountain station Raven's Nest. Cloud samples were extensively chemically characterized including the measurements of glyoxal and methylglyoxal using liquid chromatography coupled to UV and mass spectrometric detection after derivatization. Concentrations were variable on the order of micromoles, accounting for 1% of the dissolved organic matter in clouds. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal concentrations at both locations are predicted by means of model studies using VOC measurements and liquid water contents as input data. These concentrations and their ratios are compared to those in different regions. It will be discussed how cloud liquid water content, cloud processing time and amount and mixture of precursors (emissions) affect these concentration ratios. Finally, the role of different emission scenarios and the presence of clouds for SOA formation and radical budgets will be briefly assessed.

  6. Radiative Effect of Clouds on Tropospheric Chemistry: Sensitivity to Cloud Vertical Distributions and Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Pierce, R. B.; Considine, D. B.; Logan, J. A.; Duncan, B. N.; Norris, P.; Platnick, S. E.; Chen, G.; Yantosca, R. M.; Evans, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Representation of clouds in global models poses a significant challenge since most cloud processes occur on sub-grid scales and must be parameterized. Uncertainties in cloud distributions and optical properties are therefore a limiting factor in model assessments of the radiative effect of clouds on global tropospheric chemistry. We present an analysis of the sensitivity of the radiative effect of clouds to cloud vertical distributions and optical properties with the use of the GEOS-CHEM global 3-D chemistry transport model coupled with the Fast-J radiative transfer algorithm. GEOS-CHEM was driven with a series of meteorological archives (GEOS1-STRAT, GEOS-3, and GEOS-4) generated by the Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation system (GEOS DAS) at the NASA global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), which have significantly different cloud optical depths and vertical distributions. The column cloud optical depths in GEOS-3 generally agree with the satellite retrieval products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) within ±10%, while those in GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-4 are too low by factors of about 5 and 2, respectively. With respect to vertical distribution, clouds in GEOS-4 are optically much thinner in the tropical upper troposphere compared to those in GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-3. Assuming linear scaling of cloud optical depth with cloud fraction in a grid-box, our model calculations indicate that the changes in global mean hydroxyl radical (OH) due to the radiative effect of clouds in June are about -1% (GEOS1-STRAT), 1% (GEOS-3), and 14% (GEOS-4), respectively. The effects on global mean OH are similar for GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-3 due to similar vertical distributions of clouds, even though the column cloud optical depths in the two archives differ by a factor of about 5. Clouds in GEOS-4 have a much larger impact on global mean OH because more solar radiation is

  7. Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Nigel; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Surprisingly the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (less than or equal to3 km...

  8. Warming Ancient Mars with Water Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwick, V. L.; Toon, O. B.

    2017-10-01

    High altitude clouds in the present day Mars atmosphere may form on interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Paleo fluences of IDPs were likely higher, and similar clouds are expected to influence the Mars paleo-climate.

  9. Investigation of the MBL Cloud Macro- and Micro-physical Properties over Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, B.; Dong, X.

    2013-12-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud is an important cloud type in global climate system, and its macro- and micro- physical properties relate with not only the radiation budgets but also affect the sea surface temperature. Two DOE ARM Mobile Facilities (AMF1 and AMF2) were recently deployed at both Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. One was at the Graciosa Island, Azores in context of the Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) field campaign and the AMF1 collected the most continuous, valuable and comprehensive data of MBL clouds from Jun. 2009 to Dec. 2010. The other filed campaign is the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) IOP, which will provide a great opportunity for us to do the analysis of MBL over Pacific Ocean. The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) has been deployed on the Horizon Line cargo ship Spirit traversing the route between Los Angeles, CA and Honolulu, HI for one full year (Oct. 2012 to Sept. 2013) with two additional 2-week intensive observational periods in January and July 2013, such as including additional instruments and more soundings (3-hr). The AMF2 has very similar data sets as the AMF1 over Azores but will not focus on one single point. The AMF2 observations, as well as retrievals for MBL clouds during MAGIC will allow us to compare the MBL cloud properties between North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In this study, we will compare the MBL clouds macro- and micro- physical properties over two Oceans. These macro- and micro- physical properties of MBL clouds are derived from AMF1 and AMF2 measurements. In details, the cloud heights are derived from radar/lidar pairs; the cloud temperatures are from linearly interpreted soundings; liquid water path (LWP) is retrieved from microwave radiometer; cloud condensation nuclei are derived from AOS measurements under super-saturation ratio at 0.2. The MBL cloud microphysical properties at daytime ( cloud effective radius, optical thickness, and number concentration

  10. The ESA Cloud_cci project: generation of multi-decadal, consistent, global data sets of cloud properties with uncertainty information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelberg, Stefan; Finkensieper, Stephan; Stengel, Martin; Schlundt, Cornelia; Sus, Oliver; Hollmann, Rainer; Poulsen, Caroline; ESA Cloud cci Team

    2016-04-01

    In 2010 the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Cloud project was started along with 12 other CCI projects covering atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial "essential climate variables (ECV)". The main goal is the generation of satellite-based climate data records that meet the challenging requirements of the Global Climate Observing System. The objective target within the ESA Cloud_cci project is the generation of long-term coherent cloud property datasets covering 33 years that also provide mathematically consistent uncertainty information following the optimal estimation (OE) retrieval theory. The cloud properties considered are cloud mask, cloud top level estimates, cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical thickness, cloud effective radius and post processed parameters such as cloud liquid and ice water path. In this presentation we will discuss the benefit of using an optimal estimation retrieval framework, which provides consistence among the retrieved cloud variables and pixel-based uncertainty estimates based on different passive instruments such as AVHRR, MODIS and AATSR. We will summarize the results of the project so far along with ongoing further developments that currently take place. Our results will be compared with other well-established satellite data records, surface observations and cloud climatologies (e.g., PATMOS-X, ISCCP, CLARA-A2, MODIS collection 6, SYNOP). These inter-comparison results will indicate the strengths and weaknesses of the Cloud_cci datasets. Finally, we will present long-term time series of the retrieved cloud variables for AVHRR (1982-2014) that enable global, multi-decadal analyses of clouds.

  11. Investigating three-dimensional cloud properties in a large hot Jupiter sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Baldwin, Taylor; Knutson, Heather; Wakeford, Hannah; Mawet, Dimitri; Sing, David K.

    2017-10-01

    Observations of exoplanet atmospheres have shown that clouds and hazes are ubiquitous, but can vary widely over a range of physical properties. In the case of hot Jupiters, previous Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescope observations of a nine-planet sample show a range of alkali/water abundances, as well as Rayleigh scattering at near-UV and optical wavelengths, that suggest a continuum of atmospheres from clear to cloudy. Three-dimensional general circulation models (GCMs) of these planets show that the circulation and temperature structure, both of which influence cloud formation and transport, varies as a function of planet radius, gravity, orbital period, and equilibrium temperature. However, which physical properties most strongly influence cloud formation in hot Jupiters has been largely unexplored over a large sample. Here we utilize previous 3D GCM results of this nine-planet sample to produce 3D cloud maps using a simplified cloud scheme by Ackerman and Marley (2000). We examine trends in cloud types and cloud distributions that arise from differences in each planet’s physical properties. We use these 3D temperature and cloud maps to derive ‘cloudy’ transmission spectra that we then compare to existing Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope data. In particular, we focus on differences in cloud properties between leading and trailing limbs, each of which contribute equally to a planet’s overall transmission spectrum. These and future analyses will have large implications for the cloud properties that can be explored with future facilities, such as the James Webb Space Telescope.

  12. NAMMA CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  13. CAMEX-4 CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  14. Remote Sensing of Ice Cloud Properties Using Combined Airborne Lidar-Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, F.; Gross, S.; Delanoë, J.; Cazenave, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Ice clouds play an essential role in the climate system since they have a large direct effect on the Earth's radiation budget. Their reaction to changes in water vapor concentrations and their interaction with aerosols still constitutes one of the largest uncertainties in climate change predictions. These uncertainties arise from uncertainties associated with the optical and microphysical properties of ice clouds as well as from insufficient knowledge about their spatial and temporal distribution. Substantial improvement of our understanding of the interconnection of aerosols, clouds and radiation is expected from the combination of multiple instruments exploiting sensitivities at different wavelengths. To this end, the upcoming ESA/JAXA satellite mission EarthCARE will combine a new generation spaceborne lidar system, a cloud radar, and a multi-spectral imager on one single platform. In our work, we investigate the potential to combine lidar and radar measurements to retrieve ice cloud microphysics. For the first time, this study combines the high spectral resolution (HSRL) and differential absorption (DIAL) lidar system WALES and the 35 GHz cloud radar onboard the German High Altitude and LOng range research aircraft to retrieve ice cloud properties. During flight experiments over Europe and over the extra-tropical North-Atlantic, collocated measurements with the spaceborne CALIPSO/CALIOP lidar and CloudSat radar are used to investigate the influence of different wavelengths and spatial resolutions on retrieved ice cloud properties. In our presentation, we will give first results of the synergistic approach using the differential sensitivity of the WALES lidar and the cloud radar to retrieve ice particle size and their concentration. Here, the central focus will be on the coordinated airborne and satellite measurements and on the comparison of retrieved ice cloud microphysics in preparation for the EarthCARE mission.

  15. Water ice clouds on Mars: Exploring processes through modeling and laboratory work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Materese, Delia Liza

    Water ice clouds on Mars are an important component of the hydrologic cycle as well as the overall climate system of the planet. The goal of this research is to better understand water ice cloud formation and behavior on Mars. We use modeling and laboratory experiments to explore different processes related to water ice cloud formation and evolution. The first goal of this work is to examine how well the Martian water cycle is simulated by the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model. The simulation predicts atmospheric water vapor amounts approximately half of those observed, globally. We identify water ice clouds as being a major contributor to this discrepancy. The model closely reproduces the convective aphelion cloud belt at the equator, but deviates substantially from observations over the North Polar Cap region. Modifying the nucleation scheme within the cloud microphysical model brings model results closer to observations and affects the surface radiative balance, which affects the annual cycle of sublimation and deposition of water ice at the residual North Polar Cap. The most realistic global water vapor and cloud patterns come from limiting the nucleation rate of particles at the poles. Our simulations show that the North Polar Cap region exhibits atmospheric dynamics where stratiform clouds form. We hypothesize that the modified nucleation scheme compensates for biases in the radiative properties of the stratiform clouds expected over the North Polar Cap. More broadly, this study illustrates the strong sensitivity of the Martian global water cycle to clouds over the North Polar Cap region. The second goal of this work is to assess the ability of various salts to serve as water ice cloud condensation nuclei under Martian conditions. We use a vacuum chamber to simulate the cold, lower pressure atmospheric conditions on Mars and find the critical saturation ratios at which the substrates nucleate water ice. We find no significant difference between sodium

  16. Leaf Water Repellency as an Adaptation to Cloud Forest Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    Fog persistency and high precipitation totals contribute to the unique ecohydrology of tropical montane cloud forests. The persistence of water droplets on leaf surfaces in cloud forests inhibits photosynthetic carbon exchange because carbon dioxide diffuses slower in water than air. Adaptations that reduce water retention on leaf surfaces may increase photosynthetic capacity of cloud forests. The hypothesis of this study was that 12 cloud forest species from the Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala have a higher degree of leaf water repellency than 12 species from tropical dry forests in Chiquimula, Guatemala and 12 species from foothills-grassland vegetation in Colorado (USA). Leaf water repellency was measured as the contact angle between the leaf surface and the line tangent to the water droplet passing through the point of contact between the droplet and the leaf surface. Leaf water repellency was significantly different between the three study areas; however, leaf water repellency of 12 species in the Sierra de las Minas was lower than 12 species in Chiquimula and 12 species in Colorado. Leaf water repellency of abaxial surfaces of all species in the cloud forest was greater than leaf water repellency of adaxial surfaces. The low values of leaf water repellency in cloud forest species may be influenced by presence of epiphylls or the loss of epicuticular wax on the leaf surfaces because of high precipitation totals and longer leaf life-span. High leaf water repellency in dry climates may be an adaptation to increase hydrological inputs underneath the canopy.

  17. Seasonal and diurnal variability of Mars water-ice clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Philip R.; Zurek, Richard W.; Jaramillo, L. L.

    1988-01-01

    The diurnal and seasonal behavior of cloud opacity and frequency of occurrence was studied using an atlas of cloud occurrences compiled from the Viking IRTM (Infrared Thermal Mapper) data set. It was found that in some areas the behavior of water appeared to repeat in the zonal mean. However, this interpretation is complicated by both poor coverage and the variability of dust and clouds. As a result, the extent and nature of interannual variability remains unclear.

  18. Comparing parameterized versus measured microphysical properties of tropical convective cloud bases during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Braga, Ramon; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Weigel, Ralf; Jurkat, Tina; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Wendisch, Manfred; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Klimach, Thomas; Pöschl, Ulrich; Pöhlker, Christopher; Voigt, Christiane; Mahnke, Christoph; Borrmann, Stephan; Albrecht, Rachel I.; Molleker, Sergej; Vila, Daniel A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Artaxo, Paulo

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to validate parameterizations that were recently developed for satellite retrievals of cloud condensation nuclei supersaturation spectra, NCCN(S), at cloud base alongside more traditional parameterizations connecting NCCN(S) with cloud base updrafts and drop concentrations. This was based on the HALO aircraft measurements during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign over the Amazon region, which took place in September 2014. The properties of convective clouds were measured with a cloud combination probe (CCP), a cloud and aerosol spectrometer (CAS-DPOL), and a CCN counter onboard the HALO aircraft. An intercomparison of the cloud drop size distributions (DSDs) and the cloud water content (CWC) derived from the different instruments generally shows good agreement within the instrumental uncertainties. To this end, the directly measured cloud drop concentrations (Nd) near cloud base were compared with inferred values based on the measured cloud base updraft velocity (Wb) and NCCN(S) spectra. The measurements of Nd at cloud base were also compared with drop concentrations (Na) derived on the basis of an adiabatic assumption and obtained from the vertical evolution of cloud drop effective radius (re) above cloud base. The measurements of NCCN(S) and Wb reproduced the observed Nd within the measurements uncertainties when the old (1959) Twomey's parameterization was used. The agreement between the measured and calculated Nd was only within a factor of 2 with attempts to use cloud base S, as obtained from the measured Wb, Nd, and NCCN(S). This underscores the yet unresolved challenge of aircraft measurements of S in clouds. Importantly, the vertical evolution of re with height reproduced the observation-based nearly adiabatic cloud base drop concentrations, Na. The combination of these results provides aircraft observational support for the various components of the satellite-retrieved methodology that was recently developed to retrieve NCCN

  19. The MSG-SEVIRI-based cloud property data record CLAAS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benas, Nikos; Finkensieper, Stephan; Stengel, Martin; van Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan; Hanschmann, Timo; Hollmann, Rainer; Fokke Meirink, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Clouds play a central role in the Earth's atmosphere, and satellite observations are crucial for monitoring clouds and understanding their impact on the energy budget and water cycle. Within the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF), a new cloud property data record was derived from geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) measurements for the time frame 2004-2015. The resulting CLAAS-2 (CLoud property dAtAset using SEVIRI, Edition 2) data record is publicly available via the CM SAF website (https://doi.org/10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/CLAAS/V002). In this paper we present an extensive evaluation of the CLAAS-2 cloud products, which include cloud fractional coverage, thermodynamic phase, cloud top properties, liquid/ice cloud water path and corresponding optical thickness and particle effective radius. Data validation and comparisons were performed on both level 2 (native SEVIRI grid and repeat cycle) and level 3 (daily and monthly averages and histograms) with reference datasets derived from lidar, microwave and passive imager measurements. The evaluation results show very good overall agreement with matching spatial distributions and temporal variability and small biases attributed mainly to differences in sensor characteristics, retrieval approaches, spatial and temporal samplings and viewing geometries. No major discrepancies were found. Underpinned by the good evaluation results, CLAAS-2 demonstrates that it is fit for the envisaged applications, such as process studies of the diurnal cycle of clouds and the evaluation of regional climate models. The data record is planned to be extended and updated in the future.

  20. The MSG-SEVIRI-based cloud property data record CLAAS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play a central role in the Earth's atmosphere, and satellite observations are crucial for monitoring clouds and understanding their impact on the energy budget and water cycle. Within the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF, a new cloud property data record was derived from geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI measurements for the time frame 2004–2015. The resulting CLAAS-2 (CLoud property dAtAset using SEVIRI, Edition 2 data record is publicly available via the CM SAF website (https://doi.org/10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/CLAAS/V002. In this paper we present an extensive evaluation of the CLAAS-2 cloud products, which include cloud fractional coverage, thermodynamic phase, cloud top properties, liquid/ice cloud water path and corresponding optical thickness and particle effective radius. Data validation and comparisons were performed on both level 2 (native SEVIRI grid and repeat cycle and level 3 (daily and monthly averages and histograms with reference datasets derived from lidar, microwave and passive imager measurements. The evaluation results show very good overall agreement with matching spatial distributions and temporal variability and small biases attributed mainly to differences in sensor characteristics, retrieval approaches, spatial and temporal samplings and viewing geometries. No major discrepancies were found. Underpinned by the good evaluation results, CLAAS-2 demonstrates that it is fit for the envisaged applications, such as process studies of the diurnal cycle of clouds and the evaluation of regional climate models. The data record is planned to be extended and updated in the future.

  1. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  2. The Effect of Asian Dust Aerosols on Cloud Properties and Radiative Forcing from MODIS and CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Wang, Tianhe; Yi, Yuhong; Hu, Yongxiang; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Ayers, Kirk

    2005-01-01

    The effects of dust storms on cloud properties and radiative forcing are analyzed over northwestern China from April 2001 to June 2004 using data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on the Aqua and Terra satellites. On average, ice cloud effective particle diameter, optical depth and ice water path of the cirrus clouds under dust polluted conditions are 11%, 32.8%, and 42% less, respectively, than those derived from ice clouds in dust-free atmospheric environments. The humidity differences are larger in the dusty region than in the dust-free region, and may be caused by removal of moisture by wet dust precipitation. Due to changes in cloud microphysics, the instantaneous net radiative forcing is reduced from -71.2 W/m2 for dust contaminated clouds to -182.7 W/m2 for dust-free clouds. The reduced cooling effects of dusts may lead to a net warming of 1 W/m2, which, if confirmed, would be the strongest aerosol forcing during later winter and early spring dust storm seasons over the studied region.

  3. Low-Power, Lightweight Cloud Water Content Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The water content of clouds, whether in liquid or ice form, is a key variable to be measured when either calibrating remote sensing systems or when calculating the...

  4. Changes in cloud properties over East Asia deduced from the CLARA-A2 satellite data record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benas, Nikos; Fokke Meirink, Jan; Hollmann, Rainer; Karlsson, Karl-Göran; Stengel, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Studies on cloud properties and processes, and their role in the Earth's changing climate, have advanced during the past decades. A significant part of this advance was enabled by satellite measurements, which offer global and continuous monitoring. Lately, a new satellite-based cloud data record was released: the CM SAF cLoud, Albedo and surface RAdiation dataset from AVHRR data - second edition (CLARA-A2) includes high resolution cloud macro- and micro-physical properties derived from the AVHRR instruments on board NOAA and MetOp polar orbiters. Based on this data record, an analysis of cloud property changes over East Asia during the 12-year period 2004-2015 was performed. Significant changes were found in both optical and geometric cloud properties, including increases in cloud liquid water path and top height. The Cloud Droplet Number Concentration (CDNC) was specifically studied in order to gain further insight into possible connections between aerosol and cloud processes. To this end, aerosol and cloud observations from MODIS, covering the same area and period, were included in the analysis.

  5. Importance of light scattering properties of cloud particles on calculating the earth energy cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letu, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Nagao, T. M.; Ishimoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth is an open system, and the energy cycle of the Earth is not always a certain amount. In other words, the energy cycle in the nature is imbalance. A better understanding of the earth energy cycle is very important to study global climate change. the IPCC-AR4 reported that the cloud in the atmosphere are still characterized by large uncertainties in the estimation of their effects on energy sysle of the Earth's atmosphere. There are two types of cloud in the atmosphere, which are Cirrus and warm water cloud. In order to strongly reflect visible wavelength from sun light, thick water cloud has the effect of cooling the earth surface. When Cirrus is compared to water cloud, temperature is almost lower. Thus, there is a feature that Cirrus is easy to absorb long-wave radiation than warm water cloud. However, in order to quantitatively evaluate the reflection and absorption characteristics of cloud on remote senssing application and energy cycle of the imbalance of nature, it is necessary to obtain the scattering properties of cloud particles. Since the shapes of the water cloud particle are close to spherical, scattering properties of the particles can be calculated accurately by the Mie theory. However, Cirrus particles have a complex shape, including hexagonal, plate, and other non- spherical shapes. Different from warm water cloud partical, it is required to use several different light scattering methods when calculating the light scattering properties of the non-spherical Cirrus cloud particals. Ishimoto et al. [2010, 2012] and Masuda et al. [2012] developed the Finite-Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and Improved Geometrical-Optics Method (IGOM) for the solution of light scattering by non-spherical particles. Nakajima et al [1997,2009] developed the LIght Scattering solver for Arbitral Shape particle (Lisas)-Geometrical-Optics Method (GOM) and Surface Integral Equations Method of Müller-type (SIEMM) to calculate the light scattering properties for

  6. Rainfall and cloud water interception in mature and secondary lower montane cloud forests of central Veracruz, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, F; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Muñoz-Villers, L.E.; Equihua, M.; Asbjornsen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Rainfall and cloud water interception (CWI) were determined for a mature and a 19-year old secondary lower montane cloud forest in central Veracruz, Mexico. Cloud water was measured using a passive fog gauge, and consisted most likely of a mixture of fog and wind-driven drizzle. CWI by the canopy

  7. Water Properties Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II project, Kaitech proposes to develop and demonstrate a Water Properties Sensor (WPS) sensing system to synchronously measure the spectral inherent...

  8. Water Properties Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I project, Kaitech proposes to design a Water Properties Sensor (WPS) sensing system to synchronously measure the spectral inherent and apparent...

  9. Ice Cloud Property Retrievals Using Far Infrared Upwelling Radiance Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrelli, A. J.; Turner, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Spectral measurements of the upwelling radiance in the mid-infrared (MIR, 8 - 12 μm wavelength) have proven sensitivity to microphysical and macrophysical parameters of ice clouds. This sensitivity is caused by the spectrally varying index of refraction, as well as the ice crystal shape and particle size parameter. Many methods have been demonstrated that utilize this sensitivity to retrieve bulk ice cloud microphysical properties such as effective ice particle size, and macrophysical properties such as optical depth and height. By extending the spectral observations into the far-infrared (FIR, 17 - 50 μm wavelength), additional information can be retrieved due to the different sensitivities exhibited by cloud ice at these longer wavelengths. Typically, in the far-infrared, ice exhibits stronger scattering across all particle sizes, due to a smaller complex index of refraction, and weaker forward scattering due to the smaller size parameter. In this research, a modeling framework is used to quantify the information content of the FIR spectrum for ice cloud property retrieval. The information content is quantitatively compared to the MIR, to show how ice cloud retrievals could be improved with FIR spectral measurements. For cases where the MIR spectrum contains a high amount of information (e.g., moderate optical depths with small particle size), the FIR spectrum adds only a marginal amount of information. In other cases where the MIR spectrum contains low information (e.g., high optical depth clouds), the FIR spectrum is shown to add significant information. The FIR spectrum can thus be shown to extend the region in state space where passive infrared measurements can effectively constrain ice cloud properties.

  10. Chemical Speciation of Water Soluble Ions and Metals of Cloud and Rain Water During the Puerto Rico African Dust and Clouds Study (PRADACS) Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E.; Valle Diaz, C. J.; Lee, T.; Collett, J. L.; Fitzgerald, E.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Prather, K. A.; Sánchez, M.; McDowell, W. H.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

    2013-05-01

    The underlying physico-chemical processes of dust particles interactions are poorly understood; even less understood is how aging impacts cloud properties and climate as the particles travel from Africa to the Caribbean region. Caribbean landmasses have tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) that are tightly coupled to the atmospheric hydrologic cycle. TMCFs are ecosystems to study the effects African Dust (AD) on cloud formation and precipitation as these are very sensitive ecosystems that respond to small changes in climate. As part of the Puerto Rico African Dust and Clouds Study (PRADACS), chemical analyses were performed on cloud and rain water samples collected at Pico del Este (PE) station in Luquillo, PR (1051 masl) during campaigns held from 2010 to 2012. At PE, two cloud collectors (i.e., single stage (Aluminum version), a 2-stage (Teflon version) Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collector (CASCC)), a rainwater collector, and anAerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) were operated. Chemical analyses performed on collected samples include pH, conductivity, ion chromatography (IC), and inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Results from these campaigns showed that on days that had air masses with the influence of AD, cloud water samples had higher conductivity and pH values on average (up to 5.7 and 180μS/cm, respectively) than those with air masses without AD influence. An increase in the concentrations of water-soluble ions like non-sea salt calcium and magnesium, and metals like magnesium, calcium and aluminum was observed and the appearance of iron was seen on ICP analyses. The ATOFMS, showed an increase on the amount of particles during AD influence with composition of aluminum, silicates, potassium, iron and titanium aerosols. The increase on the aforementioned species was constant in the three years of sampling, which give us confidence in the identification of the chemical species that are present during the influence of AD.

  11. Statistical Comparison of Cloud and Aerosol Vertical Properties between Two Eastern China Regions Based on CloudSat/CALIPSO Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cloud and aerosol properties was investigated over two 4° × 4° adjacent regions in the south (R1 and in the north (R2 in eastern China. The CloudSat/CALIPSO data were used to extract the cloud and aerosol profiles properties. The mean value of cloud occurrence probability (COP was the highest in the mixed cloud layer (−40°C~0°C and the lowest in the warm cloud layer (>0°C. The atmospheric humidity was more statistically relevant to COP in the warm cloud layer than aerosol condition. The differences in COP between the two regions in the mixed cloud layer and ice cloud layer (<−40°C had good correlations with those in the aerosol extinction coefficient. A radar reflectivity factor greater than −10 dBZ occurred mainly in warm cloud layers and mixed cloud layers. A high-COP zone appeared in the above-0°C layer with cloud thicknesses of 2-3 km in both regions and in all the four seasons, but the distribution of the zonal layer in R2 was more continuous than that in R1, which was consistent with the higher aerosol optical thickness in R2 than in R1 in the above-0°C layer, indicating a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud probability.

  12. Detection of supercooled liquid water-topped mixed-phase clouds >from shortwave-infrared satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOH, Y. J.; Miller, S. D.; Heidinger, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the utility of multispectral information from satellite passive radiometers for detecting and retrieving the properties of cloud globally, which conventionally utilizes shortwave- and thermal-infrared bands. However, the satellite-derived cloud information comes mainly from cloud top or represents a vertically integrated property. This can produce a large bias in determining cloud phase characteristics, in particular for mixed-phase clouds which are often observed to have supercooled liquid water at cloud top but a predominantly ice phase residing below. The current satellite retrieval algorithms may report these clouds simply as supercooled liquid without any further information regarding the presence of a sub-cloud-top ice phase. More accurate characterization of these clouds is very important for climate models and aviation applications. In this study, we present a physical basis and preliminary results for the algorithm development of supercooled liquid-topped mixed-phase cloud detection using satellite radiometer observations. The detection algorithm is based on differential absorption properties between liquid and ice particles in the shortwave-infrared bands. Solar reflectance data in narrow bands at 1.6 μm and 2.25 μm are used to optically probe below clouds for distinction between supercooled liquid-topped clouds with and without an underlying mixed phase component. Varying solar/sensor geometry and cloud optical properties are also considered. The spectral band combination utilized for the algorithm is currently available on Suomi NPP Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Himawari-8 Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI), and the future GOES-R Advance Baseline Imager (ABI). When tested on simulated cloud fields from WRF model and synthetic ABI data, favorable results were shown with reasonable threat scores (0.6-0.8) and false alarm rates (0.1-0.2). An ARM/NSA case study applied to VIIRS data also indicated promising

  13. Effective cloud optical depth and enhancement effects for broken liquid water clouds in Valencia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, M. J.; Serrano, D.; Utrillas, M. P.; Núñez, M.; Martínez-Lozano, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Partly cloudy skies with liquid water clouds have been analysed, founding that it is essential to distinguish data if the Sun is obstructed or not by clouds. Both cases can be separated considering simultaneously the Cloud Modification Factor (CMF) and the clearness index (kt). For partly cloudy skies and the Sun obstructed the effective cloud optical depth (τ) has been obtained by the minimization method for overcast skies. This method was previously developed by the authors but, in this case, taking into account partial cloud cover. This study has been conducted for the years 2011-2015 with the multiple scattering model SBDART and irradiance measurements for the UV Erythemal Radiation (UVER) and the broadband ranges. Afterwards a statistical analysis of τ has shown that the maximum value is much lower than for overcast skies and there is more discrepancy between the two spectral ranges regarding the results for overcast skies. In order to validate these results the effective cloud optical depth has been correlated with several transmission factors, giving similar fit parameters to those obtained for overcast skies except for the clearness index in the UVER range. As our method is not applicable for partly cloudy skies with the visible Sun, the enhancement of radiation caused by clouds when the Sun is visible has been studied. Results show that the average enhancement CMF values are the same for both ranges although enhancement is more frequent for low cloud cover in the UVER and medium-high cloud cover in the broadband range and it does not depend on the solar zenith angle.

  14. Observed correlations between aerosol and cloud properties in an Indian Ocean trade cumulus regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pistone

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many contributing factors which determine the micro- and macrophysical properties of clouds, including atmospheric vertical structure, dominant meteorological conditions, and aerosol concentration, all of which may be coupled to one another. In the quest to determine aerosol effects on clouds, these potential relationships must be understood. Here we describe several observed correlations between aerosol conditions and cloud and atmospheric properties in the Indian Ocean winter monsoon season.In the CARDEX (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiative forcing, Dynamics EXperiment field campaign conducted in February and March 2012 in the northern Indian Ocean, continuous measurements were made of atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV and the liquid water path (LWP of trade cumulus clouds, concurrent with measurements of water vapor flux, cloud and aerosol vertical profiles, meteorological data, and surface and total-column aerosol from instrumentation at a ground observatory and on small unmanned aircraft. We present observations which indicate a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud LWP only when considering cases with low atmospheric water vapor (PWV  < 40 kg m−2, a criterion which acts to filter the data to control for the natural meteorological variability in the region.We then use the aircraft and ground-based measurements to explore possible mechanisms behind this observed aerosol–LWP correlation. The increase in cloud liquid water is found to coincide with a lowering of the cloud base, which is itself attributable to increased boundary layer humidity in polluted conditions. High pollution is found to correlate with both higher temperatures and higher humidity measured throughout the boundary layer. A large-scale analysis, using satellite observations and meteorological reanalysis, corroborates these covariations: high-pollution cases are shown to originate as a highly polluted boundary layer air mass approaching the

  15. Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Karalidi, T.; Stam, D.M.; Hovenier, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. Looking for the primary rainbow in starlight that is reflected by exoplanets appears to be a promising method to search for liquid water clouds in exoplanetary atmospheres. Ice water clouds, that consist of water crystals instead of water droplets, could potentially mask the rainbow feature in the planetary signal by covering liquid water clouds. Here, we investigate the strength of the rainbow feature for exoplanets that have liquid and icy water clouds in their atmosphere, and calcula...

  16. Satellite retrieval of the liquid water fraction in tropical clouds between −20 and −38 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Mitchell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a satellite remote sensing method for directly retrieving the liquid water fraction in mixed phase clouds, and appears unique in this respect. The method uses MODIS split-window channels for retrieving the liquid fraction from cold clouds where the liquid water fraction is less than 50% of the total condensate. This makes use of the observation that clouds only containing ice exhibit effective 12-to-11 μm absorption optical thickness ratios (βeff that are quasi-constant with retrieved cloud temperature T. This observation was made possible by using two CO2 channels to retrieve T and then using the 12 and 11 μm channels to retrieve emissivities and βeff. Thus for T < −40 °C, βeff is constant, but for T > −40 °C, βeff slowly increases due to the presence of liquid water, revealing mean liquid fractions of ~ 10% around −22 °C from tropical clouds identified as cirrus by the cloud mask. However, the uncertainties for these retrievals are large, and extensive in situ measurements are needed to refine and validate these retrievals. Such liquid levels are shown to reduce the cloud effective diameter De such that cloud optical thickness will increase by more than 50% for a given water path, relative to De corresponding to pure ice clouds. Such retrieval information is needed for validation of the cloud microphysics in climate models. Since low levels of liquid water can dominate cloud optical properties, tropical clouds between −25 and −20 °C may be susceptible to the first aerosol indirect effect.

  17. Cold Water Vapor in the Barnard 5 Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirstrom, E. S.; Charnley, S. B.; Persson, C. M.; Buckle, J. V.; Cordiner, M. A.; Takakuwa, S.

    2014-01-01

    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold ((is) approximately 10 K) water vapor has been detected-L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work-likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H2O (J = 110-101) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  18. The retrieval of cloud microphysical properties using satellite measurements and an in situ database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Poix

    Full Text Available By combining AVHRR data from the NOAA satellites with information from a database of in situ measurements, large-scale maps can be generated of the microphysical parameters most immediately significant for the modelling of global circulation and climate. From the satellite data, the clouds can be classified into cumuliform, stratiform and cirrus classes and then into further sub-classes by cloud top temperature. At the same time a database of in situ measurements made by research aircraft is classified into the same sub-classes and a statistical analysis is used to derive relationships between the sub-classes and the cloud microphysical properties. These two analyses are then linked to give estimates of the microphysical properties of the satellite observed clouds. Examples are given of the application of this technique to derive maps of the probability of occurrence of precipitating clouds and of precipitating water content derived from a case study within the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE held in 1989 over the North Sea.

  19. Stable water isotopologue ratios in fog and cloud droplets of liquid clouds are not size-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Spiegel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the first observations of stable water isotopologue ratios in cloud droplets of different sizes collected simultaneously. We address the question whether the isotope ratio of droplets in a liquid cloud varies as a function of droplet size. Samples were collected from a ground intercepted cloud (= fog during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 campaign (HCCT-2010 using a three-stage Caltech Active Strand Cloud water Collector (CASCC. An instrument test revealed that no artificial isotopic fractionation occurs during sample collection with the CASCC. Furthermore, we could experimentally confirm the hypothesis that the δ values of cloud droplets of the relevant droplet sizes (μm-range were not significantly different and thus can be assumed to be in isotopic equilibrium immediately with the surrounding water vapor. However, during the dissolution period of the cloud, when the supersaturation inside the cloud decreased and the cloud began to clear, differences in isotope ratios of the different droplet sizes tended to be larger. This is likely to result from the cloud's heterogeneity, implying that larger and smaller cloud droplets have been collected at different moments in time, delivering isotope ratios from different collection times.

  20. First Transmitted Hyperspectral Light Measurements and Cloud Properties from Recent Field Campaign Sampling Clouds Under Biomass Burning Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, S.; Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Yohei; Flynn, Connor J.; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe Shenandoah; Pistone, Kristina Marie Myers; Schmidt, Sebastian; Cochrane, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    We present a first view of data collected during a recent field campaign aimed at measuring biomass burning aerosol above clouds from airborne platforms. The NASA ObseRvations of CLouds above Aerosols and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign recently concluded its first deployment sampling clouds and overlying aerosol layer from the airborne platform NASA P3. We present results from the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR), in conjunction with the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometers (SSFR). During this deployment, 4STAR sampled transmitted solar light either via direct solar beam measurements and scattered light measurements, enabling the measurement of aerosol optical thickness and the retrieval of information on aerosol particles in addition to overlying cloud properties. We focus on the zenith-viewing scattered light measurements, which are used to retrieve cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and thermodynamic phase of clouds under a biomass burning layer. The biomass burning aerosol layer present above the clouds is the cause of potential bias in retrieved cloud optical depth and effective radius from satellites. We contrast the typical reflection based approach used by satellites to the transmission based approach used by 4STAR during ORACLES for retrieving cloud properties. It is suspected that these differing approaches will yield a change in retrieved properties since light transmitted through clouds is sensitive to a different cloud volume than reflected light at cloud top. We offer a preliminary view of the implications of these differences in sampling volumes to the calculation of cloud radiative effects (CRE).

  1. Active microorganisms thrive among extremely diverse communities in cloud water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Amato

    Full Text Available Clouds are key components in Earth's functioning. In addition of acting as obstacles to light radiations and chemical reactors, they are possible atmospheric oases for airborne microorganisms, providing water, nutrients and paths to the ground. Microbial activity was previously detected in clouds, but the microbial community that is active in situ remains unknown. Here, microbial communities in cloud water collected at puy de Dôme Mountain's meteorological station (1465 m altitude, France were fixed upon sampling and examined by high-throughput sequencing from DNA and RNA extracts, so as to identify active species among community members. Communities consisted of ~103-104 bacteria and archaea mL-1 and ~102-103 eukaryote cells mL-1. They appeared extremely rich, with more than 28 000 distinct species detected in bacteria and 2 600 in eukaryotes. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes largely dominated in bacteria, while eukaryotes were essentially distributed among Fungi, Stramenopiles and Alveolata. Within these complex communities, the active members of cloud microbiota were identified as Alpha- (Sphingomonadales, Rhodospirillales and Rhizobiales, Beta- (Burkholderiales and Gamma-Proteobacteria (Pseudomonadales. These groups of bacteria usually classified as epiphytic are probably the best candidates for interfering with abiotic chemical processes in clouds, and the most prone to successful aerial dispersion.

  2. Biological Ice Nucleation Activity in Cloud Water (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delort, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ice nucleation active (INA) biological particles, in particular microorganisms, were studied in cloud water. Twelve cloud samples were collected over a period of 16 months from the puy de Dôme summit (1465 m, France) using sterile cloud droplet impactors. The samples were characterized through biological (cultures, cell counts) and physico-chemical measurements (pH, ion concentrations, carbon content...), and biological ice nuclei were investigated by droplet-freezing assays from -3°C to -13°C. The concentration of total INA particles within this temperature range typically varied from ~1 to ~100 per mL of cloud water; the concentrations of biological IN were several orders of magnitude higher than the values previously reported for precipitations. At -12°C, at least 76% of the IN were biological in origin, i.e. they were inactivated by heating at 95°C, and at temperatures above -8°C only biological material could induce ice. By culture, 44 Pseudomonas-like strains of bacteria were isolated from cloud water samples; 16% of them were found INA at the temperature of -8°C and they were identified as Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas sp. and Pseudoxanthomonas sp.. Two strains induced freezing at as warm as -2°C, positioning them among the most active ice nucleators described so far. We estimated that, in average, 0.18% and more than 1%.of the bacterial cells present in clouds (~104 mL-1) are INA at the temperatures of -8°C and -12°C, respectively.

  3. Microphysical properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, B.; Wendling, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The radiative properties of a condensation trail (contrail) are determined by its microphysical properties. Therefore an understanding of the concentration, size distribution, and shapes of the particles is necessary for an estimation of the climatic impact of contrails. In-situ particle measurements by use of an ice replicator are presented for several contrail and cirrus events. Contrail particles aged about 2 minutes show shapes which are nearly spherical. Typical sizes are 5 to 10 {mu}m. Concentration values reach up to the order of 1000 cm{sup -3}. Aged contrail size distributions are within the variability of those found in natural cirrus clouds. (author) 2 refs.

  4. Impacts of aerosol particles on the microphysical and radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds over the southeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohy, C. H.; Anderson, J. R.; Toohey, D. W.; Andrejczuk, M.; Adams, A.; Lytle, M.; George, R. C.; Wood, R.; Saide, P.; Spak, S.; Zuidema, P.; Leon, D.

    2013-03-01

    The southeast Pacific Ocean is covered by the world's largest stratocumulus cloud layer, which has a strong impact on ocean temperatures and climate in the region. The effect of anthropogenic sources of aerosol particles on the stratocumulus deck was investigated during the VOCALS field experiment. Aerosol measurements below and above cloud were made with a ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer and analytical electron microscopy. In addition to more standard in-cloud measurements, droplets were collected and evaporated using a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI), and the non-volatile residual particles were analyzed. Many flights focused on the gradient in cloud properties on an E-W track along 20° S from near the Chilean coast to remote areas offshore. Mean statistics, including their significance, from eight flights and many individual legs were compiled. Consistent with a continental source of cloud condensation nuclei, below-cloud accumulation-mode aerosol and droplet number concentration generally decreased from near shore to offshore. Single particle analysis was used to reveal types and sources of the enhanced particle number that influence droplet concentration. While a variety of particle types were found throughout the region, the dominant particles near shore were partially neutralized sulfates. Modeling and chemical analysis indicated that the predominant source of these particles in the marine boundary layer along 20° S was anthropogenic pollution from central Chilean sources, with copper smelters a relatively small contribution. Cloud droplets were smaller in regions of enhanced particles near shore. However, physically thinner clouds, and not just higher droplet number concentrations from pollution, both contributed to the smaller droplets. Satellite measurements were used to show that cloud albedo was highest 500-1000 km offshore, and actually slightly lower closer to shore due to the generally thinner clouds and lower liquid water paths

  5. Impacts of aerosol particles on the microphysical and radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds over the southeast Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Twohy

    2013-03-01

    liquid water paths there. Thus, larger scale forcings that impact cloud macrophysical properties, as well as enhanced aerosol particles, are important in determining cloud droplet size and cloud albedo. Differences in the size distribution of droplet residual particles and ambient aerosol particles were observed. By progressively excluding small droplets from the CVI sample, we were able to show that the larger drops, some of which may initiate drizzle, contain the largest aerosol particles. Geometric mean diameters of droplet residual particles were larger than those of the below-cloud and above cloud distributions. However, a wide range of particle sizes can act as droplet nuclei in these stratocumulus clouds. A detailed LES microphysical model was used to show that this can occur without invoking differences in chemical composition of cloud-nucleating particles.

  6. Determination of Chemical Composition of Marine Aerosol Particles and its Effects on Aerosol and Cloud Properties During the 2005 MASE Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Jayne, J.; Alexander, M.; Springston, S.; Wang, J.; Senum, G.; Hubbe, J.; Daum, P.

    2005-12-01

    Marine stratus clouds play an important role in Earth's radiation budget. Cloud microphysical properties such as size distribution and liquid water concentration which govern the aerosol indirect radiative effects are influenced in part by chemical composition of the pre-cloud aerosol particles. To investigate the role aerosol particles play in the properties of marine stratus clouds, we measured aerosol and cloud properties on board the DOE G1 aircraft in the marine atmosphere between Point Reyes and Monterey Peninsula, California in the month of July as part of the 2005 Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE, http://www.asp.bnl.gov/MASE/, supported by the DOE Atmospheric Science and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs). Aerosol chemical composition was measured using a PILS-IC and an Aerodyne AMS. The PILS-IC measured sodium, chloride, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, methanesulfonic acid, and format/acetate with a time resolution of 4 minutes and a limit of detection of ca. 0.2 microgram per cubic meter. The AMS measured size-resolved total organic compounds as well as ammonium, nitrate and sulfate at a one-minute time resolution. Other aerosol properties measured included size distribution, light scattering, light absorption and cloud condensation nuclei concentration. Measured cloud properties were cloud droplet size spectrum and liquid water concentration. We will report the chemical composition of aerosol particles and discuss the mechanisms governing their distributions and the relationships between aerosol chemical composition and aerosol and cloud properties.

  7. Hydrodynamics and Water Quality forecasting over a Cloud Computing environment: INDIGO-DataCloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Gómez, Fernando; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; García, Daniel; Monteoliva, Agustín

    2017-04-01

    Algae Bloom due to eutrophication is an extended problem for water reservoirs and lakes that impacts directly in water quality. It can create a dead zone that lacks enough oxygen to support life and it can also be human harmful, so it must be controlled in water masses for supplying, bathing or other uses. Hydrodynamic and Water Quality modelling can contribute to forecast the status of the water system in order to alert authorities before an algae bloom event occurs. It can be used to predict scenarios and find solutions to reduce the harmful impact of the blooms. High resolution models need to process a big amount of data using a robust enough computing infrastructure. INDIGO-DataCloud (https://www.indigo-datacloud.eu/) is an European Commission funded project that aims at developing a data and computing platform targeting scientific communities, deployable on multiple hardware and provisioned over hybrid (private or public) e-infrastructures. The project addresses the development of solutions for different Case Studies using different Cloud-based alternatives. In the first INDIGO software release, a set of components are ready to manage the deployment of services to perform N number of Delft3D simulations (for calibrating or scenario definition) over a Cloud Computing environment, using the Docker technology: TOSCA requirement description, Docker repository, Orchestrator, AAI (Authorization, Authentication) and OneData (Distributed Storage System). Moreover, the Future Gateway portal based on Liferay, provides an user-friendly interface where the user can configure the simulations. Due to the data approach of INDIGO, the developed solutions can contribute to manage the full data life cycle of a project, thanks to different tools to manage datasets or even metadata. Furthermore, the cloud environment contributes to provide a dynamic, scalable and easy-to-use framework for non-IT experts users. This framework is potentially capable to automatize the processing of

  8. Size-resolved Chemical Composition of Cloud and Rain Water Collected during the Puerto Rico African Dust and Clouds Study (PRADACS) Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E.; Valle Diaz, C. J.; Zurcher, F.; Lee, T.; Collett, J. L.; Fitzgerald, E.; Cuadra, L.; Prather, K. A.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

    2011-12-01

    The underlying physico-chemical processes of dust-aerosol interactions are poorly understood; even less understood is how aging impacts cloud properties and climate as the particles travel from Africa to the Caribbean region. Caribbean landmasses have tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) that are tightly coupled to the atmospheric hydrologic cycle. Small-scale shifts in temperature and precipitation could have serious ecological consequences. Therefore, this makes TMCFs an interesting ecosystem to see the effects African Dust (AD) might have on cloud formation and precipitation. As part of the Puerto Rico African Dust and Clouds Study (PRADACS) cloud and rain water samples for subsequent chemical analysis were collected at Pico del Este (PE) station in Luquillo, PR (1051 masl) during summer 2011. At PE, two cloud collectors (i.e., single stage (Aluminum version) and 2-stage (Teflon version) Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collector (CASCC)), and a rainwater collector were operated. Measurements such as the liquid water content (LWC), pH, conductivity., and composition of single particles using an aerosol time of flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) were performed. Preliminary results showed that days with the influence of African dust (AD), had LWC values that ranged from 300 to 500 mg/m3, pH values up to 5.7,, and conductivity up to 180 μS/cm. The ATOFMS showed titanium and iron ions, suggesting the presence of AD as well as, occasionally, sulfate and nitrate ions suggesting the influence of anthropogenic pollution. Results on the chemical composition and the physical properties of cloud, rainwater, and aerosol for the inorganic as well as the organic fraction and how these properties change for the different air masses observed will also be presented.

  9. Some physical and thermodynamic properties of rocket exhaust clouds measured with infrared scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, R. I.; Kantsios, A. G.; Rosensteel, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements using infrared scanners were made of the radiation from exhaust clouds from liquid- and solid-propellant rocket boosters. Field measurements from four launches were discussed. These measurements were intended to explore the physical and thermodynamic properties of these exhaust clouds during their formation and subsequent dispersion. Information was obtained concerning the initial cloud's buoyancy, the stabilized cloud's shape and trajectory, the cloud volume as a function of time, and it's initial and stabilized temperatures. Differences in radiation intensities at various wavelengths from ambient and stabilized exhaust clouds were investigated as a method of distinguishing between the two types of clouds. The infrared remote sensing method used can be used at night when visible range cameras are inadequate. Infrared scanning techniques developed in this project can be applied directly to natural clouds, clouds containing certain radionuclides, or clouds of industrial pollution.

  10. Retrieval of radiative and microphysical properties of clouds from multispectral infrared measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Saito, Masanori; Tokoro, Yuka; Putri, Nurfiena Sagita; Sekiguchi, Miho

    2016-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of the macroscopic, microphysical, and optical properties of clouds are useful for studying spatial and temporal variations of clouds at various scales and constraining cloud physical processes in climate and weather prediction models. Instead of using separate independent algorithms for different cloud properties, a unified, optimal estimation-based cloud retrieval algorithm is developed and applied to moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations using ten thermal infrared bands. The model considers sensor configurations, background surface and atmospheric profile, and microphysical and optical models of ice and liquid cloud particles and radiative transfer in a plane-parallel, multilayered atmosphere. Measurement and model errors are thoroughly quantified from direct comparisons of clear-sky observations over the ocean with model calculations. Performance tests by retrieval simulations show that ice cloud properties are retrieved with high accuracy when cloud optical thickness (COT) is between 0.1 and 10. Cloud-top pressure is inferred with uncertainty lower than 10 % when COT is larger than 0.3. Applying the method to a tropical cloud system and comparing the results with the MODIS Collection 6 cloud product shows good agreement for ice cloud optical thickness when COT is less than about 5. Cloud-top height agrees well with estimates obtained by the CO2 slicing method used in the MODIS product. The present algorithm can detect optically thin parts at the edges of high clouds well in comparison with the MODIS product, in which these parts are recognized as low clouds by the infrared window method. The cloud thermodynamic phase in the present algorithm is constrained by cloud-top temperature, which tends not to produce results with an ice cloud that is too warm and liquid cloud that is too cold.

  11. Masses, Radii, and Cloud Properties of the HR 8799 Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Cushing, Michael; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Freedman, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The near-infrared colors of the planets directly imaged around the A star HR 8799 are much redder than most field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. Previous theoretical studies of these objects have compared the photometric and limited spectral data of the planets to the predictions of various atmosphere and evolution models and concluded that the atmospheres of planets b, c, and d are unusually cloudy or have unusual cloud properties. Most studies have also found that the inferred radii of some or all of the planets disagree with expectations of standard giant planet evolution models. Here we compare the available data to the predictions of our own set of atmospheric and evolution models that have been extensively tested against field L and T dwarfs, including the reddest L dwarfs. Unlike almost all previous studies we specify mutually self-consistent choices for effective temperature, gravity, cloud properties, and planetary radius. This procedure yields plausible and self-consistent values for the masses, effective temperatures, and cloud properties of all three planets. We find that the cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets are in fact not unusual but rather follow previously recognized trends including a gravity dependence on the temperature of the L to T spectral transition, some reasons for which we discuss. We find that the inferred mass of planet b is highly sensitive to the H and K band spectrum. Solutions for planets c and particularly d are less certain but are consistent with the generally accepted constraints on the age of the primary star and orbital dynamics. We also confirm that as for L and T dwarfs and solar system giant planets, non-equilibrium chemistry driven by atmospheric mixing is also important for these objects. Given the preponderance of data suggesting that the L to T spectral type transition is gravity dependent, we present a new evolution calculation that predicts cooling tracks on the near-infrared color

  12. Physico-chemical properties of cloud drop residual and interstitial particles sampled inside hill capped clouds during a field experiment in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertes, S.; Schneider, J.; Merkel, M.; Roth, A.; Van Pinxteren, D.; Wiedensohler, A.; Herrmann, H.

    2011-12-01

    ) and forward scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP), like liquid water content, effective drop diameter and drop concentration varied between 0.2 - 0.6 g m-3, 4 - 10 μm and 200 - 500 cm-3, respectively. First results from the AMS phase partitioning comparison shows that the activated mass fraction of the inorganic ions (about 0.9) is significantly higher than that of the organic mass (about 0.8). This finding will be discussed in combination with other chemical composition measurements mentioned above, the analysis of cloud water samples, and the microphysical properties of CDR and IP from which the activation diameter in the different cloud events will be inferred. BC phase partitioning was found to be about 0.5. At south-westerly winds a connected flow between a further cloud-free upwind and downwind measurement site is expected (with the mountain station in between), so that in this special meteorological situation the in-cloud aerosol characterization will be correlated with the physic-chemical properties of the ambient aerosol in the inflow and outflow of the clouds.

  13. Electrically controlled cloud of bulk nanobubbles in water solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V Postnikov

    Full Text Available Using different experimental techniques we visualize a cloud of gas in water that is produced electrochemically by the alternating polarity process. Liquid enriched with gas does not contain bubbles strongly scattering visible light but its refractive index changes significantly near the electrodes. The change of the refractive index is a collective effect of bulk nanobubbles with a diameter smaller than 200 nm. Any alternative explanation fails to explain the magnitude of the effect. Spatial structure of the cloud is investigated with the optical lever method. Its dynamics is visualised observing optical distortion of the electrode images or using differential interference contrast method. The cloud covers concentric electrodes, in a steady state it is roughly hemispherical with a size two times larger than the size of the electrode structure. When the electrical pulses are switched off the cloud disappears in less than one second. The total concentration of gases can reach very high value estimated as 3.5 × 1020 cm-3 that corresponds to an effective supersaturation of 500 and 150 for hydrogen and oxygen, respectively.

  14. Cloud droplets to drizzle: Contribution of transition drops to microphysical and optical properties of marine stratocumulus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, S.; Kostinski, A.; Fugal, J.; Shaw, R. A.; Borrmann, S.; Stith, J.

    2017-08-01

    Aircraft measurements of the ubiquitous marine stratocumulus cloud type, with over 3000 km of in situ data from the Pacific during the Cloud System Evolution in the Trades experiment, show the ability of the Holographic Detector for Clouds (HOLODEC) instrument to smoothly interpolate the small and large droplet data collected with Cloud Droplet Probe and 2DC instruments. The combined, comprehensive instrument suite reveals a surprisingly large contribution in the predrizzle size range of 40-80 μm (transition droplets, or drizzlets), a range typically not measured and assumed to reside in a condensation-to-collision minimum between cloud droplet and drizzle modes. Besides shedding light on the onset of collision coalescence, drizzlets are essential contributors to optical and chemical properties because of a substantial contribution to the total surface area. When adjusted to match spatial resolution of spaceborne remote sensing, the missing drizzlets bring in situ measurements to closer agreement with satellite observations.

  15. Atmospheric parameterization schemes for satellite cloud property retrieval during FIRE IFO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlow, James; Baum, Bryan A.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite cloud retrieval algorithms generally require atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles to determine such cloud properties as pressure and height. For instance, the CO2 slicing technique called the ratio method requires the calculation of theoretical upwelling radiances both at the surface and a prescribed number (40) of atmospheric levels. This technique has been applied to data from, for example, the High Resolution Infrared Radiometer Sounder (HIRS/2, henceforth HIRS) flown aboard the NOAA series of polar orbiting satellites and the High Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS). In this particular study, four NOAA-11 HIRS channels in the 15-micron region are used. The ratio method may be applied to various channel combinations to estimate cloud top heights using channels in the 15-mu m region. Presently, the multispectral, multiresolution (MSMR) scheme uses 4 HIRS channel combination estimates for mid- to high-level cloud pressure retrieval and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data for low-level (is greater than 700 mb) cloud level retrieval. In order to determine theoretical upwelling radiances, atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles must be provided as well as profiles of other radiatively important gas absorber constituents such as CO2, O3, and CH4. The assumed temperature and humidity profiles have a large effect on transmittance and radiance profiles, which in turn are used with HIRS data to calculate cloud pressure, and thus cloud height and temperature. For large spatial scale satellite data analysis, atmospheric parameterization schemes for cloud retrieval algorithms are usually based on a gridded product such as that provided by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) or the National Meteorological Center (NMC). These global, gridded products prescribe temperature and humidity profiles for a limited number of pressure levels (up to 14) in a vertical atmospheric column. The FIRE IFO 2

  16. Colligative properties of anomalous water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, D H; Haynes, J M; McElroy, P J

    1970-06-13

    Investigations of the phase behaviour on freezing and subsequent melting and of other properties indicate that anomalous water is a solution containing a fixed amount of relatively involatile material in normal water. There seems to be no need to postulate the existence of a new polymer of water in such solutions. If only water and silica are present, the properties are consistent with those of a silicic acid gel.

  17. A method for comparing properties of cirrus clouds in global climate models with those retrieved from IR sounder satellite observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, Johannes; Emde, Claudia [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Falb, Andreas [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Augsburg (Germany); Stubenrauch, Claudia J. [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique

    2010-12-15

    A methodology to compare cloud properties simulated by global climate models with those retrieved from observations by satellite-based infrared (IR) sounders has been developed. The relatively high spectral resolution in the CO{sub 2} absorption band of these instruments leads to especially reliable cirrus properties, day and night. Additionally, bulk microphysical properties can be retrieved for semi-transparent cirrus, based on the observed spectral emissivity differences between 8 and 11 {mu}m. The particular intention of this study is to compare macro- and microphysical properties of high cloudiness as represented by the model simulations and the satellite data. For this purpose, a method has been developed to process the model output to be comparable to the satellite measurements, as in other observational simulator packages (for example the ISCCP-simulator). This simulator method takes into account (i) the differences in horizontal resolution of the model and the observations, (ii) the specific observation time windows, (iii) the determination of the pressure of a cloud system, identified with the pressure at the middle of the uppermost cloud, and (iv) the selection of high clouds with specific cloud optical thickness ranges for the microphysical property retrieval using IR sounder data. Applying this method to simulations by the global climate model ECHAM and TOVS satellite observations has important effects. The frequency of high clouds selected from the model output by using the method is significantly smaller than the total frequency of high cloudiness in the model. Largest differences occur around the equator where the zonal mean frequency of high cloudiness is reduced by about 30 % (relative change). The selection method is essential for the comparison of modelled and observed microphysical properties of high clouds. The selection of high clouds from the ECHAM simulation according to the optical thickness range of the TOVS data results in a reduction of

  18. Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karalidi, T.; Stam, D.M.; Hovenier, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. Looking for the primary rainbow in starlight that is reflected by exoplanets appears to be a promising method to search for liquid water clouds in exoplanetary atmospheres. Ice water clouds, that consist of water crystals instead of water droplets, could potentially mask the rainbow feature in

  19. Seasonal Variability of Warm Boundary Layer Cloud and Precipitation Properties in the Southern Ocean as Diagnosed from A-Train and Ship-based Remote Sensing Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    The extensive cloudiness and resulting high albedo of the Southern Oceans (SO) are predominantly due to the occurrence of widespread marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds. Recent work finds correlations between biogenically enhanced cloud condensation nuclei concentrations and cloud droplet number concentrations derived from passive satellite data. The active remote sensors in the A-Train have created a unique and long-term record of these clouds that include vertical profiles of radar reflectivity and microwave brightness temperature from CloudSat that can be combined with solar reflectances from MODIS. We examine this data record to infer warm-topped cloud and precipitation properties. We find seasonal variations in cloud properties where summer season clouds demonstrate higher cloud droplet number concentrations on average and require higher liquid water contents to produce similar precipitation rates. We compare the properties and processes implied by the A-Train data with a unique cloud and precipitation remote sensing data set collected on board the Australian RV Investigator during March and April, 2016 during a 5-week voyage into the Southern Ocean.

  20. Statistical comparison of properties of simulated and observed cumulus clouds in the vicinity of Houston during the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongli; Feingold, Graham; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Lu, Miao-Ling; Chuang, Patrick Y.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2008-07-01

    We present statistical comparisons of properties of clouds generated by Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with aircraft observations of nonprecipitating, warm cumulus clouds made in the vicinity of Houston, TX during the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS), carried out in the summer of 2006. Aircraft data were sampled with the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter airplane. Five flights (days) that are most suitable for studying aerosol-cloud interactions are selected from the 22 flights. The model simulations are initiated with observed environmental profiles. The simulations are used to generate an ensemble of thousands of cumulus clouds for statistically meaningful evaluations. Statistical comparisons focus on the properties of a set of dynamical and thermodynamical variables, sampled either in the cloud or the cloud updraft core. The set of variables includes cloud liquid water content (LWC), number mixing ratio of cloud droplets (Nd), cloud effective radius (re), updraft velocity (w), and the distribution of cloud sizes. In general, good agreement between the simulated and observed clouds is achieved in the normalized frequency distribution functions, the profiles averaged over the cloudy regions, the cross-cloud averages, and the cloud size distributions, despite big differences in sample size between the model output and the aircraft data. Some unresolved differences in frequency distributions of w and possible differences in cloud fraction are noted. These comparisons suggest that the LES is able to successfully generate the cumulus cloud populations that were present during GoMACCS. The extent to which this is true will depend on the specific application.

  1. Mars dust and cloud opacities and scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. T.; Lee, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    We have recently completed an analysis of the visible emission-phase function (EPF) sequences obtained with the solar-band channel of the Infrared Thermal Mapping (IRTM) instrument onboard the two Viking Orbiters. Roughly 100 of these EPF sequences were gathered during the 1977-1980 period, in which the total broadband (.3-3.0 microns) reflectances of the atmosphere/surface above specific locations on Mars were measured versus emission angle as the spacecraft passed overhead. A multiple scattering radiative transfer program was employed to model the EPF observations in terms of the optical depths of dust/clouds, their single scattering albedos and phase functions, and the Lambert albedos and phase coefficient of the underlying surfaces. Due to the predominance of atmospheric scattering at large atmospheric pathlengths and/or large dust opacities, we were able to obtain strong constraints on the scattering properties of dust/clouds and their opacities for a wide range of latitudes, longitudes, and seasons on Mars.

  2. Solar radiation absorption in the atmosphere due to water and ice clouds: Sensitivity experiments with plane-parallel clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, C. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    One cloud radiation issue that has been troublesome for several decades is the absorption of solar radiation by clouds. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the discrepancies between observations and modeling results. A good review of these often-competing hypotheses has been provided by Stephens and Tsay. They characterize the available hypotheses as failing into three categories: (1) those linked to cloud microphysical and consequent optical properties; (2) those linked to the geometry and heterogeneity of clouds; and (3) those linked to atmospheric absorption.Current modeling practice is seriously inconsistent with new observational inferences concerning absorption of solar radiation in the atmosphere. The author and her colleagues contend that an emphasis on R may, therefore, not be the optimal way of addressing the cloud solar absorption issue. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Cluster analysis of midlatitude oceanic cloud regimes: mean properties and temperature sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Gordon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play an important role in the climate system by reducing the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and the amount of longwave radiation escaping to space. Accurate simulation of clouds in computer models remains elusive, however, pointing to a lack of understanding of the connection between large-scale dynamics and cloud properties. This study uses a k-means clustering algorithm to group 21 years of satellite cloud data over midlatitude oceans into seven clusters, and demonstrates that the cloud clusters are associated with distinct large-scale dynamical conditions. Three clusters correspond to low-level cloud regimes with different cloud fraction and cumuliform or stratiform characteristics, but all occur under large-scale descent and a relatively dry free troposphere. Three clusters correspond to vertically extensive cloud regimes with tops in the middle or upper troposphere, and they differ according to the strength of large-scale ascent and enhancement of tropospheric temperature and humidity. The final cluster is associated with a lower troposphere that is dry and an upper troposphere that is moist and experiencing weak ascent and horizontal moist advection.

    Since the present balance of reflection of shortwave and absorption of longwave radiation by clouds could change as the atmosphere warms from increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, we must also better understand how increasing temperature modifies cloud and radiative properties. We therefore undertake an observational analysis of how midlatitude oceanic clouds change with temperature when dynamical processes are held constant (i.e., partial derivative with respect to temperature. For each of the seven cloud regimes, we examine the difference in cloud and radiative properties between warm and cold subsets. To avoid misinterpreting a cloud response to large-scale dynamical forcing as a cloud response to temperature, we require horizontal and vertical

  4. The effect of aerosol-derived changes in the warm phase on the properties of deep convective clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Koren, Ilan; Altaratz, Orit; Heiblum, Reuven; Dagan, Guy

    2017-04-01

    The aerosol impact on deep convective clouds starts in an increased number of cloud droplets in higher aerosol loading environment. This change drives many others, like enhanced condensational growth, delay in collision-coalescence and others. Since the warm processes serve as the initial and boundary conditions for the mixed and cold-phase processes in deep clouds, it is highly important to understand the aerosol effect on them. The weather research and forecasting model (WRF) with spectral bin microphysics was used to study a deep convective system over the Marshall Islands, during the Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX). Three simulations were conducted with aerosol concentrations of 100, 500 and 2000 cm-3, to reflect clean, semipolluted, and polluted conditions. The results of the clean run agreed well with the radar profiles and rain rate observations. The more polluted simulations resulted in larger total cloud mass, larger upper level cloud fraction and rain rates. There was an increased mass both below and above the zero temperature level. It indicates of more efficient growth processes both below and above the zero level. In addition the polluted runs showed an increased upward transport (across the zero level) of liquid water due to both stronger updrafts and larger droplet mobility. In this work we discuss the transport of cloud mass crossing the zero temperature level (in both directions) in order to gain a process level understanding of how aerosol effects on the warm processes affect the macro- and micro-properties of deep convective clouds.

  5. Validation of quasi-invariant ice cloud radiative quantities with MODIS satellite-based cloud property retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiachen; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.; King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry G.

    2017-06-01

    Similarity relations applied to ice cloud radiance calculations are theoretically analyzed and numerically validated. If τ(1-ϖ) and τ(1-ϖg) are conserved where τ is optical thickness, ϖ the single-scattering albedo, and g the asymmetry factor, it is possible that substantially different phase functions may give rise to similar radiances in both conservative and non-conservative scattering cases, particularly in the case of large optical thicknesses. In addition to theoretical analysis, this study uses operational ice cloud optical thickness retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 2 Collection 5 (C5) and Collection 6 (C6) cloud property products to verify radiative similarity relations. It is found that, if the MODIS C5 and C6 ice cloud optical thickness values are multiplied by their respective (1-ϖg) factors, the resultant products referred to as the effective optical thicknesses become similar with their ratio values around unity. Furthermore, the ratios of the C5 and C6 ice cloud effective optical thicknesses display an angular variation pattern similar to that of the corresponding ice cloud phase function ratios. The MODIS C5 and C6 values of ice cloud similarity parameter, defined as [(1-ϖ)/(1-ϖg)]1/2, also tend to be similar.

  6. PROPERTIES OF SWIMMING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun KIR

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Swimming waters may be hazardous on human health. So, The physicians who work in the facilities, which include swimming areas, are responsible to prevent risks. To ensure hygiene of swimming water, European Swimming Water Directive offers microbiological, physical, and chemical criteria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(5.000: 103-104

  7. Observed and simulated temperature dependence of the liquid water path of low clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Genio, A.D.; Wolf, A.B. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Data being acquired at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site can be used to examine the factors determining the temperature dependence of cloud optical thickness. We focus on cloud liquid water and physical thickness variations which can be derived from existing ARM measurements.

  8. Cloud Computing Services: Benefits, Risks and Intellectual Property Issues

    OpenAIRE

    IONELA BĂLŢĂTESCU

    2014-01-01

    Major software players of the global market, such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft are developing cloud computing solutions, providing cloud services on demand: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a service (SaaS). In software industry and also in ICT services market, cloud computing is playing an increasingly important role. Moreover, the expansion of cloud services indirectly contributed to the development and improvement of other types of ser...

  9. Climatological and radiative properties of midlatitude cirrus clouds derived by automatic evaluation of lidar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kienast-Sjögren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus, i.e., high, thin clouds that are fully glaciated, play an important role in the Earth's radiation budget as they interact with both long- and shortwave radiation and affect the water vapor budget of the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Here, we present a climatology of midlatitude cirrus clouds measured with the same type of ground-based lidar at three midlatitude research stations: at the Swiss high alpine Jungfraujoch station (3580 m a.s.l., in Zürich (Switzerland, 510 m a.s.l., and in Jülich (Germany, 100 m a.s.l.. The analysis is based on 13 000 h of measurements from 2010 to 2014. To automatically evaluate this extensive data set, we have developed the Fast LIdar Cirrus Algorithm (FLICA, which combines a pixel-based cloud-detection scheme with the classic lidar evaluation techniques. We find mean cirrus optical depths of 0.12 on Jungfraujoch and of 0.14 and 0.17 in Zürich and Jülich, respectively. Above Jungfraujoch, subvisible cirrus clouds (τ < 0.03 have been observed during 6 % of the observation time, whereas above Zürich and Jülich fewer clouds of that type were observed. Cirrus have been observed up to altitudes of 14.4 km a.s.l. above Jungfraujoch, whereas they have only been observed to about 1 km lower at the other stations. These features highlight the advantage of the high-altitude station Jungfraujoch, which is often in the free troposphere above the polluted boundary layer, thus enabling lidar measurements of thinner and higher clouds. In addition, the measurements suggest a change in cloud morphology at Jungfraujoch above ∼ 13 km, possibly because high particle number densities form in the observed cirrus clouds, when many ice crystals nucleate in the high supersaturations following rapid uplifts in lee waves above mountainous terrain. The retrieved optical properties are used as input for a radiative transfer model to estimate the net cloud radiative forcing, CRFNET, for the

  10. Super-cooled liquid water topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation - investigation based on combination of ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsikko, Anne; Brus, David; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Filioglou, Maria; Komppula, Mika; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2017-04-01

    In the high and mid latitudes super-cooled liquid water layers are frequently observed on top of clouds. These layers are difficult to forecast with numerical weather prediction models, even though, they have strong influence on atmospheric radiative properties, cloud microphysical properties, and subsequently, precipitation. This work investigates properties of super-cooled liquid water layer topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation observed with ground-based in-situ (cloud probes) and remote-sensing (a cloud radar, Doppler and multi-wavelength lidars) instrumentation during two-month long Pallas Cloud Experiment (PaCE 2015) in autumn 2015. Analysis is based on standard Cloudnet scheme supplemented with new retrieval products of the specific clouds and their properties. Combination of two scales of observation provides new information on properties of clouds and precipitation in the sub-arctic Pallas region. Current status of results will be presented during the conference. The authors acknowledge financial support by the Academy of Finland (Centre of Excellence Programme, grant no 272041; and ICINA project, grant no 285068), the ACTRIS2 - European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654109, the KONE foundation, and the EU FP7 project BACCHUS (grant no 603445).

  11. Impacts of aerosol particles on the microphysical and radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds over the Southeast Pacific ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohy, C. H.; Anderson, J. R.; Toohey, D. W.; Andrejczuk, M.; Adams, A.; Lytle, M.; George, R. C.; Wood, R.; Saide, P.; Spak, S.; Zuidema, P.; Leon, D.

    2012-08-01

    The Southeast Pacific Ocean is covered by the world's largest stratocumulus cloud layer, which has a strong impact on ocean temperatures and climate in the region. The effect of anthropogenic sources of aerosol particles such as power plants, urban pollution and smelters on the stratocumulus deck was investigated during the VOCALS field experiment. Aerosol measurements below and above cloud were made with a ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer and analytical electron microscopy. In addition to more standard in-cloud measurements, droplets were collected and evaporated using a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI), and the non-volatile residual particles were analyzed. Many flights focused on the gradient in cloud properties on an E-W track along 20° S from near the Chilean coast to remote areas offshore. Mean statistics from seven flights and many individual legs were compiled. Consistent with a continental source of cloud condensation nuclei, below-cloud accumulation-mode aerosol and droplet number concentration generally decreased from near shore to offshore. Single particle analysis was used to reveal types and sources of the enhanced particle number. While a variety of particle types were found throughout the region, the dominant particles near shore were partially neutralized sulfates. Modeling and chemical analysis indicated that the predominant source of these particles in the marine boundary layer along 20° S was anthropogenic pollution from central Chilean sources, with copper smelters a relatively small contribution. Cloud droplets were more numerous and smaller near shore, and there was less drizzle. Higher droplet number concentration and physically thinner clouds both contributed to the smaller droplets near shore. Satellite measurements were used to show that cloud albedo was highest 500-1000 km offshore, and actually lower closer to shore due to the generally thinner clouds and lower liquid water paths there. Differences in the size

  12. Detecting High Ice Water Content Cloud Regions Using Airborne and Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheyrollah Pour, H.; Korolev, A.; Barker, H.; Wolde, M.; Heckman, I.; Duguay, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical mesoscale convective systems (MCS) have significant impacts on local and global hydrological cycles and radiation budgets. Moreover, high ice water content (HIWC) found inside MCS clouds at altitudes above 7 km have been identified as hazardous for aviation safety. The environment inside HIWC cloud regions may cause icing of aircraft engines resulting in uncontrolled engine power loss or damage. This phenomenon is known as ice crystal icing (ICI). International aviation regulatory agencies are now attempting to define techniques that enable prediction and detection of potential ICI environments. Such techniques range from on-board HIWC detection to nowcasting of ice crystal weather using satellite data and numerical weather prediction models. The most practical way to monitor continuously for areas of HIWC is by remote sensing with passive radiometers on geostationary satellites. Establishing correlations between HIWC cloud regions and radiances is, however, a challenging problem. This is because regions of HIWC can occur several kilometers below cloud top, while passive satellite radiometers response mainly to the upper kilometers of MCS clouds. The High Altitude Ice Crystals - High Ice Water Content (HAIC-HIWC) field campaigns in Cayenne, French Guiana collected a rich dataset from aboard the Canadian NRC Convair-580 that was equipped with a suite of in-situ microphysical instruments and Dopplerized W- and X-band radars with vertically- and horizontally-directed antenna. This paper aims to describe an algorithm that has been developed to establish relationships between satellite radiances and locations of HIWC regions identified from in-situ measurements of microphysical properties, Doppler velocities, and vertical and horizontal radar reflectivity.

  13. Indications of Water Clouds in the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Tinney, C. G.; Skemer, Andrew; Monson, Andrew J.

    2014-09-01

    We present a deep near-infrared image of the newly discovered brown dwarf WISE J085510.83-071442.5 (W0855) using the FourStar imager at Las Campanas Observatory. Our detection of J3 = 24.8^{+0.53}_{-0.35} (J MKO = 25.0^{+0.53}_{-0.35}) at 2.6σ—or equivalently an upper limit of J3 > 23.8 (J MKO > 24.0) at 5σ makes W0855 the reddest brown dwarf ever categorized (J MKO - W2 = 10.984^{+0.53}_{-0.35} at 2.6σ—or equivalently an upper limit of J MKO - W2 > 9.984 at 5σ) and refines its position on color-magnitude diagrams. Comparing the new photometry with chemical equilibrium model atmosphere predictions, we demonstrate that W0855 is 2.7σ from models using a cloudless atmosphere and well reproduced by partly cloudy models (50%) containing sulfide and water ice clouds. Non-equilibrium chemistry or non-solar metallicity may change predictions, however using currently available model approaches, this is the first candidate outside our own solar system to have direct evidence for water clouds. This Letter includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  14. Investigation of the ice cloud properties derived from Himawari-8/AHI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letu, Husi; Nakajima, Takashi Y.; Nagao, Takashi M.; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Shang, Huazhe; Chen, Liangfu

    2017-04-01

    Himawari-8 is a new-generational geostationary meteorological satellite, which is successfully launched by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) on 7 October 2014. The Himawari-8 carries a multi-spectral sensor of Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI). The AHI has 16 observational bands from visible to thermal infrared spectral regions with nadir spatial resolutions of 500 m (one band), 1000-m (two bands) and 2000 m (13 bands). Performance of the spatial and spectral resolution of the AHI is close to the low orbit satellite e. g. MODIS instrument in the nadir observations. In this study, optical and microphysical properties of the ice cloud are retrieved from AHI satellite measurements. The Voronoi ice particle scattering model is employed to retrieve the ice cloud properties from AHI measurements. Retrieval results from AHI are compared to MODIS C6 cloud property product. Furthermore, scattering property of the Voronoi model is compared to scattering model used in the MODIS C6 ice cloud product. AHI can observe the cloud frequently, which is useful to investigate the quick variation cloud such as deep convective (DC) cloud. Finally, cloud property from AHI measurements and ground based radar rainfall observation data with 1km grid mesh are collected to investigate the generation process of the DC cloud in Kyushu island Japan.

  15. Global Weather States and Their Properties from Passive and Active Satellite Cloud Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselioudis, George; Rossow, William; Zhang, Yuanchong; Konsta, Dimitra

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors apply a clustering algorithm to International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud optical thickness-cloud top pressure histograms in order to derive weather states (WSs) for the global domain. The cloud property distribution within each WS is examined and the geographical variability of each WS is mapped. Once the global WSs are derived, a combination of CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) vertical cloud structure retrievals is used to derive the vertical distribution of the cloud field within each WS. Finally, the dynamic environment and the radiative signature of the WSs are derived and their variability is examined. The cluster analysis produces a comprehensive description of global atmospheric conditions through the derivation of 11 WSs, each representing a distinct cloud structure characterized by the horizontal distribution of cloud optical depth and cloud top pressure. Matching those distinct WSs with cloud vertical profiles derived from CloudSat and CALIPSO retrievals shows that the ISCCP WSs exhibit unique distributions of vertical layering that correspond well to the horizontal structure of cloud properties. Matching the derived WSs with vertical velocity measurements shows a normal progression in dynamic regime when moving from the most convective to the least convective WS. Time trend analysis of the WSs shows a sharp increase of the fair-weather WS in the 1990s and a flattening of that increase in the 2000s. The fact that the fair-weather WS is the one with the lowest cloud radiative cooling capability implies that this behavior has contributed excess radiative warming to the global radiative budget during the 1990s.

  16. Analysis of geostationary satellite-derived cloud parameters associated with environments with high ice water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Adrianus; Defer, Eric; Delanoë, Julien; Dezitter, Fabien; Gounou, Amanda; Grandin, Alice; Guignard, Anthony; Fokke Meirink, Jan; Moisselin, Jean-Marc; Parol, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    We present an evaluation of the ability of passive broadband geostationary satellite measurements to detect high ice water content (IWC > 1 g m-3) as part of the European High Altitude Ice Crystals (HAIC) project for detection of upper-atmospheric high IWC, which can be a hazard for aviation. We developed a high IWC mask based on measurements of cloud properties using the Cloud Physical Properties (CPP) algorithm applied to the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). Evaluation of the high IWC mask with satellite measurements of active remote sensors of cloud properties (CLOUDSAT/CALIPSO combined in the DARDAR (raDAR-liDAR) product) reveals that the high IWC mask is capable of detecting high IWC values > 1 g m-3 in the DARDAR profiles with a probability of detection of 60-80 %. The best CPP predictors of high IWC were the condensed water path, cloud optical thickness, cloud phase, and cloud top height. The evaluation of the high IWC mask against DARDAR provided indications that the MSG-CPP high IWC mask is more sensitive to cloud ice or cloud water in the upper part of the cloud, which is relevant for aviation purposes. Biases in the CPP results were also identified, in particular a solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence that reduces the performance of the high IWC mask for SZAs > 60°. Verification statistics show that for the detection of high IWC a trade-off has to be made between better detection of high IWC scenes and more false detections, i.e., scenes identified by the high IWC mask that do not contain IWC > 1 g m-3. However, the large majority of these detections still contain IWC values between 0.1 and 1 g m-3. Comparison of the high IWC mask against results from the Rapidly Developing Thunderstorm (RDT) algorithm applied to the same geostationary SEVIRI data showed that there are similarities and differences with the high IWC mask: the RDT algorithm is very capable of detecting young

  17. On the Influence of Air Mass History on Low Cloud Properties in the Southeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, J.; Cermak, J.; Andersen, H.; Schwarz, K.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the impacts of air mass histories on cloud properties in the Southeast Atlantic (SEA) during the biomass burning season using geostationary satellite and reanalysis data. The understanding of clouds and their determinants at the process level is an important aspect of climate system research and estimates of the Earth's radiation budget. In this study cloud properties are observed not only as the result of local environmental conditions but as affected by external dynamics and spatial origins of air masses entering the study area.In order to clarify to what extent cloud properties are impacted by synoptical conditions of contrasting air masses, case studies are conducted using the temporally highly resolved SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) satellite, MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and ERA-Interim reanalysis products. The representativity of the case studies is tested within a cluster analysis of air mass trajectories during september 2004 to 2011 using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT). Results show that advected air masses of long distances are connected to marine cold air outbreaks leading to rapid changes of cloud properties in the otherwise thermodynamically stable SEA. Air mass history is found to be a relevant, but often overlooked determinant of cloud properties.Including information on air mass history in analyses leads to a better understanding of the physical processes behind observed cloud properties and promotes a more dynamical perspective on experimental and theoretical settings of aerosol-cloud interactions.

  18. The variability of tropical ice cloud properties as a function of the large-scale context from ground-based radar-lidar observations over Darwin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Protat

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The high complexity of cloud parameterizations now held in models puts more pressure on observational studies to provide useful means to evaluate them. One approach to the problem put forth in the modelling community is to evaluate under what atmospheric conditions the parameterizations fail to simulate the cloud properties and under what conditions they do a good job. It is the ambition of this paper to characterize the variability of the statistical properties of tropical ice clouds in different tropical "regimes" recently identified in the literature to aid the development of better process-oriented parameterizations in models. For this purpose, the statistical properties of non-precipitating tropical ice clouds over Darwin, Australia are characterized using ground-based radar-lidar observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Program. The ice cloud properties analysed are the frequency of ice cloud occurrence, the morphological properties (cloud top height and thickness, and the microphysical and radiative properties (ice water content, visible extinction, effective radius, and total concentration. The variability of these tropical ice cloud properties is then studied as a function of the large-scale cloud regimes derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP, the amplitude and phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO, and the large-scale atmospheric regime as derived from a long-term record of radiosonde observations over Darwin.

    The vertical variability of ice cloud occurrence and microphysical properties is largest in all regimes (1.5 order of magnitude for ice water content and extinction, a factor 3 in effective radius, and three orders of magnitude in concentration, typically. 98 % of ice clouds in our dataset are characterized by either a small cloud fraction (smaller than 0.3 or a very large cloud fraction (larger than 0.9. In the ice part of the troposphere three distinct

  19. Disk Evolution, Element Abundances and Cloud Properties of Young Gas Giant Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Helling

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form, in particular discussing the effects of unusual, non-solar carbon and oxygen abundances. Large deviations between the abundances of the host star and its gas giants seem likely to occur if the planet formation follows the core-accretion scenario. These deviations stem from the separate evolution of gas and dust in the disk, where the dust forms the planet cores, followed by the final run-away accretion of the left-over gas. This gas will contain only traces of elements like C, N and O, because those elements have frozen out as ices. PRODIMO protoplanetary disk models are used to predict the chemical evolution of gas and ice in the midplane. We find that cosmic rays play a crucial role in slowly un-blocking the CO, where the liberated oxygen forms water, which then freezes out quickly. Therefore, the C/O ratio in the gas phase is found to gradually increase with time, in a region bracketed by the water and CO ice-lines. In this regions, C/O is found to approach unity after about 5 Myrs, scaling with the cosmic ray ionization rate assumed. We then explore how the atmospheric chemistry and cloud properties in young gas giants are affected when the non-solar C/O ratios predicted by the disk models are assumed. The DRIFT cloud formation model is applied to study the formation of atmospheric clouds under the influence of varying premordial element abundances and its feedback onto the local gas. We demonstrate that element depletion by cloud formation plays a crucial role in converting an oxygen-rich atmosphere gas into carbon-rich gas when non-solar, premordial element abundances are considered as suggested by disk models.

  20. The effect of cloud liquid water on temperature retrievals from microwave measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, Leonie; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2017-04-01

    Ground-based microwave radiometry provides atmospheric profiles for both clear sky and cloudy weather conditions. The effect of clouds on measurements from microwave radiometers is low compared to other remote sensing techniques but cannot be neglected at certain frequencies. In this study, clouds have been characterized and included in microwave retrievals in order to investigate their effect on tropospheric temperature profiles measured by the TEMPERA microwave radiometer. TEMPERA retrieves atmospheric temperature profiles by measuring emitted radiation of molecular oxygen at around 60 GHz. Because cloud liquid water also absorbs and emits radiation at the used frequency range, it is important to analyse the influence of liquid water on the microwave retrieval. In order to characterize the clouds, data from various instruments have been used, all located at the aerological station of MeteoSwiss at Payerne (Switzerland). Cloud base altitudes were detected using ceilometer measurements while the integrated liquid water (ILW) was measured by a HATPRO radiometer. Additional cloud information was obtained from a co-located sky camera and using an automatic partial cloud amount detection algorithm (APCADA). All this information has been used to characterize the clouds by means of a Liquid Water Content (LWC) profile. Different LWC profiles (shapes and values) have been tested to find the best cloud characterization depending on cloud type, altitude and ILW. Temperature profiles have been obtained incorporating this liquid water profile in the inversion algorithm and they have been evaluated against retrievals without considering clouds, in order to assess the liquid water effect on microwave measurements. The results have been compared with the temperature profiles from radiosondes which are regularly launched twice a day at the aerological station. Two years of data have been analyzed and almost 300 non-precipitating cloud cases were studied. The statistical analysis

  1. Estimates of cloud water deposition at mountain acid deposition program sites in the Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph E. Baumgardner, Jr.; Selma S. Isil; Thomas F. Lavery; Christopher M. Rogers; Volker A. Mohnen [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)

    2003-03-01

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high-elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY; Whitetop Mountain, VA; and Clingman s Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). This paper provides a summary of cloud water chemistry, cloud liquid water content, cloud frequency, estimates of cloud water deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species, and estimates of total deposition of sulfur and nitrogen at these sites. Other cloud studies in the Appalachians and their comparison to MADPro are also summarized. Whiteface Mountain exhibited the lowest mean and median concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen ions in cloud water, while Clingman s Dome exhibited the highest mean and median concentrations. This geographic gradient is partly an effect of the different meteorological conditions experienced at northern versus southern sites in addition to the difference in pollution content of air masses reaching the sites. All sites measured seasonal cloud water deposition rates of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} greater than 50 kg/ha and NO{sub 3}{sup -} rates of greater than 25 kg/ha. These high-elevation sites experienced additional deposition loading of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} on the order of 6 20 times greater compared with lower elevation Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) sites. Approximately 80 90% of this extra loading is from cloud deposition. 56 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs., 1 app.

  2. The GOES I-M Imagers: New Tools for Studying Microphysical Properties of Boundary Layer Stratiform Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Thomas J.; Christopher, Sundar A.

    2000-11-01

    This study reviews the capability of the advanced imagers on Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) I-M to provide quantitative information about bulk microphysical properties of low-level stratiform clouds, namely, cloud liquid water path (LWP) and droplet effective radius (re). Previous studies show that accurate estimates of cloud LWP from GOES imagers are possible, as evaluated from both ground-based and spaceborne passive microwave measurements, provided care is taken in vicarious calibration of the visible channel. GOES estimates of re have yet to be validated. However, the re versus LWP relationship derived from GOES and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data shows good agreement with theory. The unique high-temporal sampling of the imager allows for detailed study of daytime characteristics of cloud microphysical properties and, possibly, indirect aerosol effect. Microphysical information for drizzling marine stratocumuli was also obtained, which was confirmed by direct comparison to ship-based C-band radar during the 1997 Tropical Eastern Pacific Process Study. From the promising results obtained thus far, GOES I-M imager data should be of great value in future field experiments involving low-level stratiform clouds.

  3. Exploring Properties of HI Clouds in Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Clara; Hunter, Deidre Ann

    2018-01-01

    Dwarf Irregular galaxies form stars and maintain exponential stellar disks at extremely low gas densities. One proposed method of maintaining such regular outer disks is scattering stars off of HI clouds. In order to understand the processes present in dwarf irregular stellar disks, we present a survey of atomic hydrogen clouds in and around a subset of representative galaxies from the LITTLE THINGS survey. We apply a cloud identification program to the 21 cm HI line emission cubes and extract masses, radii, surface densities, and distances from the center of the galaxy in the plane of the galaxy of each cloud. Our data show a wide range of clouds characterized by low surface densities but varied in mass and size. The number of clouds found and the mass of the most massive cloud show no correlation to integrated star forming rates or luminosity in these galaxies. However, they will be used as input for models of stars scattering off of HI clouds to better understand the regular stellar disks in dwarf Irregular galaxies.We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation grant AST-1461200 to Northern Arizona University for Research Experiences for Undergraduates summer internships.

  4. Investigating cloud absorption effects: Global absorption properties of black carbon, tar balls, and soil dust in clouds and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2012-03-01

    This study examines modeled properties of black carbon (BC), tar ball (TB), and soil dust (SD) absorption within clouds and aerosols to understand better Cloud Absorption Effects I and II, which are defined as the effects on cloud heating of absorbing inclusions in hydrometeor particles and of absorbing aerosol particles interstitially between hydrometeor particles at their actual relative humidity (RH), respectively. The globally and annually averaged modeled 550 nm aerosol mass absorption coefficient (AMAC) of externally mixed BC was 6.72 (6.3-7.3) m2/g, within the laboratory range (6.3-8.7 m2/g). The global AMAC of internally mixed (IM) BC was 16.2 (13.9-18.2) m2/g, less than the measured maximum at 100% RH (23 m2/g). The resulting AMAC amplification factor due to internal mixing was 2.41 (2-2.9), with highest values in high RH regions. The global 650 nm hydrometeor mass absorption coefficient (HMAC) due to BC inclusions was 17.7 (10.6-19) m2/g, ˜9.3% higher than that of the IM-AMAC. The 650 nm HMACs of TBs and SD were half and 1/190th, respectively, that of BC. Modeled aerosol absorption optical depths were consistent with data. In column tests, BC inclusions in low and mid clouds (CAE I) gave column-integrated BC heating rates ˜200% and 235%, respectively, those of interstitial BC at the actual cloud RH (CAE II), which itself gave heating rates ˜120% and ˜130%, respectively, those of interstitial BC at the clear-sky RH. Globally, cloud optical depth increased then decreased with increasing aerosol optical depth, consistent with boomerang curves from satellite studies. Thus, CAEs, which are largely ignored, heat clouds significantly.

  5. Cloud Condensation Nuclei properties of model and atmospheric HULIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dinar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Humic like substances (HULIS have been identified as a major fraction of the organic component of atmospheric aerosols. These large multifunctional compounds of both primary and secondary sources are surface active and water soluble. Hence, it is expected that they could affect activation of organic aerosols into cloud droplets. We have compared the activation of aerosols containing atmospheric HULIS extracted from fresh, aged and pollution particles to activation of size fractionated fulvic acid from an aquatic source (Suwannee River Fulvic Acid, and correlated it to the estimated molecular weight and measured surface tension. A correlation was found between CCN-activation diameter of SRFA fractions and number average molecular weight of the fraction. The lower molecular weight fractions activated at lower critical diameters, which is explained by the greater number of solute species in the droplet with decreasing molecular weight. The three aerosol-extracted HULIS samples activated at lower diameters than any of the size-fractionated or bulk SRFA. The Köhler model was found to account for activation diameters, provided that accurate physico-chemical parameters are known.

  6. The effect of cloud liquid water on tropospheric temperature retrievals from microwave measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, Leonie; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2017-11-01

    Microwave radiometry is a suitable technique to measure atmospheric temperature profiles with high temporal resolution during clear sky and cloudy conditions. In this study, we included cloud models in the inversion algorithm of the microwave radiometer TEMPERA (TEMPErature RAdiometer) to determine the effect of cloud liquid water on the temperature retrievals. The cloud models were built based on measurements of cloud base altitude and integrated liquid water (ILW), all performed at the aerological station (MeteoSwiss) in Payerne (Switzerland). Cloud base altitudes were detected using ceilometer measurements while the ILW was measured by a HATPRO (Humidity And Temperature PROfiler) radiometer. To assess the quality of the TEMPERA retrieval when clouds were considered, the resulting temperature profiles were compared to 2 years of radiosonde measurements. The TEMPERA instrument measures radiation at 12 channels in the frequency range from 51 to 57 GHz, corresponding to the left wing of the oxygen emission line complex. When the full spectral information with all the 12 frequency channels was used, we found a marked improvement in the temperature retrievals after including a cloud model. The chosen cloud model influenced the resulting temperature profile, especially for high clouds and clouds with a large amount of liquid water. Using all 12 channels, however, presented large deviations between different cases, suggesting that additional uncertainties exist in the lower, more transparent channels. Using less spectral information with the higher, more opaque channels only also improved the temperature profiles when clouds where included, but the influence of the chosen cloud model was less important. We conclude that tropospheric temperature profiles can be optimized by considering clouds in the microwave retrieval, and that the choice of the cloud model has a direct impact on the resulting temperature profile.

  7. The Operational MODIS Cloud Optical and Microphysical Property Product: Overview of the Collection 6 Algorithm and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Wind, Galina; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Marchant, Benjamin; Arnold, G. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Operational Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of cloud optical and microphysical properties (part of the archived products MOD06 and MYD06, for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively) are currently being reprocessed along with other MODIS Atmosphere Team products. The latest "Collection 6" processing stream, which is expected to begin production by summer 2012, includes updates to the previous cloud retrieval algorithm along with new capabilities. The 1 km retrievals, based on well-known solar reflectance techniques, include cloud optical thickness, effective particle radius, and water path, as well as thermodynamic phase derived from a combination of solar and infrared tests. Being both global and of high spatial resolution requires an algorithm that is computationally efficient and can perform over all surface types. Collection 6 additions and enhancements include: (i) absolute effective particle radius retrievals derived separately from the 1.6 and 3.7 !-lm bands (instead of differences relative to the standard 2.1 !-lm retrieval), (ii) comprehensive look-up tables for cloud reflectance and emissivity (no asymptotic theory) with a wind-speed interpolated Cox-Munk BRDF for ocean surfaces, (iii) retrievals for both liquid water and ice phases for each pixel, and a subsequent determination of the phase based, in part, on effective radius retrieval outcomes for the two phases, (iv) new ice cloud radiative models using roughened particles with a specified habit, (v) updated spatially-complete global spectral surface albedo maps derived from MODIS Collection 5, (vi) enhanced pixel-level uncertainty calculations incorporating additional radiative error sources including the MODIS L1 B uncertainty index for assessing band and scene-dependent radiometric uncertainties, (v) and use of a new 1 km cloud top pressure/temperature algorithm (also part of MOD06) for atmospheric corrections and low cloud non-unity emissivity temperature adjustments.

  8. The effect of solar zenith angle on MODIS cloud optical and microphysical retrievals within marine liquid water clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Grosvenor

    2014-07-01

    better predictor of τ biases at high θ0 than σCTT. For a given θ0, large decreases in re were observed as the cloud top heterogeneity changed from low to high values, although it is possible that physical changes to the clouds associated with cloud heterogeneity variation may account for some of this. However, for a given cloud top heterogeneity we find that the value of θ0 affects the sign and magnitude of the relative differences between re1.6, re2.1 and re3.7, which has implications for attempts to retrieve vertical cloud information using the different MODIS bands. The relatively larger decrease in re3.7 and the lack of change of re1.6 with both θ0 and cloud top heterogeneity suggest that re3.7 is more prone to retrieval biases due to high θ0 than the other bands. We discuss some possible reasons for this. Our results have important implications for individual MODIS swaths at high θ0, which may be used for case studies for example. θ0 values > 65° can occur at latitudes as low as 28° in mid-winter and for higher latitudes the problem will be more acute. Also, Level-3 daily averaged MODIS cloud property data consist of the averages of several overpasses for the high latitudes, which will occur at a range of θ0 values. Thus, some biased data are likely to be included. It is also likely that some of the θ0 effects described here would apply to τ and re retrievals from satellite instruments that use visible light at similar wavelengths along with forward retrieval models that assume plane parallel clouds, such as the GOES imagers, SEVIRI, etc.

  9. The observed influence of local anthropogenic pollution on northern Alaskan cloud properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maahn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their importance for the radiation budget, liquid-containing clouds are a key component of the Arctic climate system. Depending on season, they can cool or warm the near-surface air. The radiative properties of these clouds depend strongly on cloud drop sizes, which are governed in part by the availability of cloud condensation nuclei. Here, we investigate how cloud drop sizes are modified in the presence of local emissions from industrial facilities at the North Slope of Alaska. For this, we use aircraft in situ observations of clouds and aerosols from the 5th Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE ARM Program's Airborne Carbon Measurements (ACME-V campaign obtained in summer 2015. Comparison of observations from an area with petroleum extraction facilities (Oliktok Point with data from a reference area relatively free of anthropogenic sources (Utqiaġvik/Barrow represents an opportunity to quantify the impact of local industrial emissions on cloud properties. In the presence of local industrial emissions, the mean effective radii of cloud droplets are reduced from 12.2 to 9.4 µm, which leads to suppressed drizzle production and precipitation. At the same time, concentrations of refractory black carbon and condensation nuclei are enhanced below the clouds. These results demonstrate that the effects of anthropogenic pollution on local climate need to be considered when planning Arctic industrial infrastructure in a warming environment.

  10. Comparison of microphysical cloud properties from the FSSP and CDP during the CAMPS field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, A. J.; Hallar, A. G.; Salazar, V.; Chirokova, G.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding and accurately sampling microphysical cloud properties for orographic-forced mixed-phase is of crucial importance for an enhanced representation of mixed-phase clouds in global climate models. The Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP) has been the most widely used instrument to measure cloud microphysical characteristics for over three decades. The Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) is a new instrument that was introduced to address mechanical issues the FSSP experienced (e.g. ice shattering). In current work, in-situ cloud data from 9 January 2011 of the Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study (CAMPS) field campaign were used to compare measurements by the FSSP and CDP. For all cloud penetrations considered, the FSSP measured a mean cloud droplet concentration of 131.66 cm-3 while the CDP measured a mean concentration of 110.89 cm-3. From calibration data, the CDP showed to undersize cloud particles. Results show concentrations measured by the FSSP and CDP, in general, do not agree in clouds comprised mostly of ice. In conclusion, on the considered day, data from the FSSP were significantly affected by ice particle shattering while the CDP undersized particles by 2-3.5 μm.

  11. Cloud properties derived from two lidars over the ARM SGP site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Morille, Y.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Flynn, Connor J.; Long, Charles N.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Newsom, Rob K.

    2011-02-16

    [1] Active remote sensors such as lidars or radars can be used with other data to quantify the cloud properties at regional scale and at global scale (Dupont et al., 2009). Relative to radar, lidar remote sensing is sensitive to very thin and high clouds but has a significant limitation due to signal attenuation in the ability to precisely quantify the properties of clouds with a 20 cloud optical thickness larger than 3. In this study, 10-years of backscatter lidar signal data are analysed by a unique algorithm called STRucture of ATmosphere (STRAT, Morille et al., 2007). We apply the STRAT algorithm to data from both the collocated Micropulse lidar (MPL) and a Raman lidar (RL) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site between 1998 and 2009. Raw backscatter lidar signal is processed and 25 corrections for detector deadtime, afterpulse, and overlap are applied. (Campbell et al.) The cloud properties for all levels of clouds are derived and distributions of cloud base height (CBH), top height (CTH), physical cloud thickness (CT), and optical thickness (COT) from local statistics are compared. The goal of this study is (1) to establish a climatology of macrophysical and optical properties for all levels of clouds observed over the ARM SGP site 30 and (2) to estimate the discrepancies induced by the two remote sensing systems (pulse energy, sampling, resolution, etc.). Our first results tend to show that the MPLs, which are the primary ARM lidars, have a distinctly limited range where all of these cloud properties are detectable, especially cloud top and cloud thickness, but even actual cloud base especially during summer daytime period. According to the comparisons between RL and MPL, almost 50% of situations show a signal to noise ratio too low (smaller than 3) for the MPL in order to detect clouds higher than 7km during daytime period in summer. Consequently, the MPLderived annual cycle of cirrus cloud base (top) altitude is

  12. Thermodynamic constraint on the cloud liquid water feedback in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Alan K.; HARSHVARDHAN

    1987-01-01

    The cloud liquid water feedback in climate models consists of the increase (decrease) in optical depth of clouds resulting from higher (lower) liquid water contents that might accompany tropospheric warming (cooling). The change in cloud liquid water with temperature is shown to depend on the rate of change of the slope of the moist adiabat with respect to temperature, and it is a strong function of temperature. The value of this rate of change in the tropics is about half that in mid and high latitudes and is much less than the value obtained by assuming that liquid water scales with the saturation mixing ratio.

  13. Exploring the differences in cloud properties observed by the Terra and Aqua MODIS Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol-cloud interaction in different parts of the globe is examined here using multi-year statistics of remotely sensed data from two MODIS sensors aboard NASA's Terra (morning and Aqua (afternoon satellites. Simultaneous retrievals of aerosol loadings and cloud properties by the MODIS sensor allowed us to explore morning-to-afternoon variation of liquid cloud fraction (CF and optical thickness (COT for clean, moderately polluted and heavily polluted clouds in different seasons. Data analysis for seven-years of MODIS retrievals revealed strong temporal and spatial patterns in morning-to-afternoon variation of cloud fraction and optical thickness over different parts of the global oceans and the land. For the vast areas of stratocumulus cloud regions, the data shows that the days with elevated aerosol abundance were also associated with enhanced afternoon reduction of CF and COT pointing to the possible reduction of the indirect climate forcing. A positive correlation between aerosol optical depth and morning-to-afternoon variation of trade wind cumulus cloud cover was also found over the northern Indian Ocean, though no clear relationship between the concentration of Indo-Asian haze and morning-to-afternoon variation of COT was established. Over the Amazon region during wet conditions, aerosols are associated with an enhanced convective process in which morning shallow warm clouds are organized into afternoon deep convection with greater ice cloud coverage. Analysis presented here demonstrates that the new technique for exploring morning-to-afternoon variability in cloud properties by using the differences in data products from the two daily MODIS overpasses is capable of capturing some of the major features of diurnal variations in cloud properties and can be used for better understanding of aerosol radiative effects.

  14. Fast methods of computing bulk radiative properties of inhomogeneous clouds illuminated by solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, P. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The use of cloud fraction as a means of incorporating horizontal cloud inhomogeneity in radiative transfer calculations is widespread in the atmospheric science community. This research attempts to bypass the use of cloud fraction in radiative transfer modeling for two-dimensional media. Gabriel describes two approximation techniques useful in calculating the domain averaged bulk radiative properties such as albedo, flux divergence and mean radiance that dispense with the need to use cloud fraction as a specifier of cloud inhomogeneity. The results suggest that the variability of the medium can largely be accounted for through the pseudo-source term, offering hope of parameterizing the equation of transfer in terms of the statistical properties of the medium. 1 fig.

  15. A 19-Month Climatology of Marine Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Properties Derived From DOE ARM AMF Deployment at the Azores: Part I: Cloud Fraction and Single-Layered MBL Cloud Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Kennedy, Aaron; Minnis, Patrick; Wood, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A 19-month record of total, and single-layered low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high (> 6 km) cloud fractions (CFs), and the single-layered marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties has been generated from ground-based measurements taken at the ARM Azores site between June 2009 and December 2010. It documents the most comprehensive and longest dataset on marine cloud fraction and MBL cloud properties to date. The annual means of total CF, and single-layered low, middle, and high CFs derived from ARM radar-lidar observations are 0.702, 0.271, 0.01 and 0.106, respectively. More total and single-layered high CFs occurred during winter, while single-layered low CFs were greatest during summer. The diurnal cycles for both total and low CFs are stronger during summer than during winter. The CFs are bimodally distributed in the vertical with a lower peak at approx. 1 km and higher one between 8 and 11 km during all seasons, except summer, when only the low peak occurs. The persistent high pressure and dry conditions produce more single-layered MBL clouds and fewer total clouds during summer, while the low pressure and moist air masses during winter generate more total and multilayered-clouds, and deep frontal clouds associated with midlatitude cyclones.

  16. Cloud Computing Services: Benefits, Risks and Intellectual Property Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ionela Baltatescu

    2014-01-01

    ...: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a service (SaaS). In software industry and also in ICT services market, cloud computing is playing an increasingly important role...

  17. Aqueous Processing of Atmospheric Organic Particles in Cloud Water Collected via Aircraft Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, Eric J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Wirth, Christopher; Shepson, Paul B.; Stirm, Brian H.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2015-07-21

    Cloud water and below-cloud atmospheric particle samples were collected onboard a research aircraft during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) over a forested region of Alabama in June 2013. The organic molecular composition of the samples was studied to gain insights into the aqueous-phase processing of organic compounds within cloud droplets. High resolution mass spectrometry with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization and direct infusion electrospray ionization were utilized to compare the organic composition of the particle and cloud water samples, respectively. Isoprene and monoterpene-derived organosulfates and oligomers were identified in both the particles and cloud water, showing the significant influence of biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation above the forested region. While the average O:C ratios of the organic compounds were similar between the atmospheric particle and cloud water samples, the chemical composition of these samples was quite different. Specifically, hydrolysis of organosulfates and formation of nitrogen-containing compounds were observed for the cloud water when compared to the atmospheric particle samples, demonstrating that cloud processing changes the composition of organic aerosol.

  18. Sensitivity of Simulated Global Climate to Perturbations in Low-Cloud Microphysical Properties. Part I: Globally Uniform Perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-T.; Ramaswamy, V.

    1996-06-01

    The sensitivity of the global climate to perturbations in the microphysical properties of low clouds is investigated using a general circulation model coupled to a static mixed layer ocean with fixed cloud distributions and incorporating a new broadband parameterization for cloud radiative properties. A series of GCM experiments involving globally uniform perturbations in cloud liquid water path or effective radius (albedo perturbations), along with one for a doubling of carbon dioxide (greenhouse perturbation), lead to the following results: 1) The model's climate sensitivity (ratio of global-mean surface temperature response to the global-mean radiative forcing) is virtually independent (to {10%) of the sign, magnitude, and the spatial pattern of the forcings considered, thus revealing a linear and invariant nature of the model's global-mean response. 2) Although the total climate feedback is very similar in all the experiments, the strengths of the individual feedback mechanisms (e.g., water vapor, albedo) are different for positive and negative forcings. 3) Changes in moisture, tropospheric static stability, and sea ice extent govern the vertical and zonal patterns of the temperature response, with the spatial distribution of the response being quite different from that of the radiative forcing. 4) The zonal surface temperature response pattern, normalized with respect to the global mean, is different for experiments with positive and negative forcings, particularly in the polar regions of both hemispheres, due to differing changes in sea ice. 5) The change in the surface radiative fluxes is different for the carbon dioxide doubling and cloud liquid water path decrease experiments, even though both cases have the same radiative forcing and a similar global-mean surface temperature response; this leads to differences in the vigor of the hydrologic cycle (evaporation and precipitation rates) in these two experiments.

  19. Impacts of the Manaus pollution plume on the microphysical properties of Amazonian warm-phase clouds in the wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Micael A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Wang, Jian; Fan, Jiwen; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Schmid, Beat; Albrecht, Rachel; Martin, Scot T.; Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    of the droplet size distribution (DSD) does not appear to be predominantly determined by updraught strength, especially beyond the 20 µm range. The aerosol conditions play a major role in that case. However, the updraughts modulate the DSD concentrations and are responsible for the vertical transport of water in the cloud. The larger droplets found in background clouds are associated with weak water vapour competition and a bimodal distribution of droplet sizes in the lower levels of the cloud, which enables an earlier initiation of the collision-coalescence process. This study shows that the pollution produced by Manaus significantly affects warm-phase microphysical properties of the surrounding clouds by changing the initial DSD formation. The corresponding effects on ice-phase processes and precipitation formation will be the focus of future endeavours.

  20. Impacts of the Manaus pollution plume on the microphysical properties of Amazonian warm-phase clouds in the wet season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchini, Micael A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Wang, Jian; Fan, Jiwen; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Schmid, Beat; Albrecht, Rachel; Martin, Scot T.; Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    coalescence process. The overall shape of the droplet size distribution (DSD) does not appear to be predominantly determined by updraught strength, especially beyond the 20 µm range. The aerosol conditions play a major role in that case. However, the updraughts modulate the DSD concentrations and are responsible for the vertical transport of water in the cloud. The larger droplets found in background clouds are associated with weak water vapour competition and a bimodal distribution of droplet sizes in the lower levels of the cloud, which enables an earlier initiation of the collision–coalescence process. This study shows that the pollution produced by Manaus significantly affects warm-phase microphysical properties of the surrounding clouds by changing the initial DSD formation. The corresponding effects on ice-phase processes and precipitation formation will be the focus of future endeavours.

  1. Impacts of the Manaus pollution plume on the microphysical properties of Amazonian warm-phase clouds in the wet season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Cecchini

    2016-06-01

    collision–coalescence process. The overall shape of the droplet size distribution (DSD does not appear to be predominantly determined by updraught strength, especially beyond the 20 µm range. The aerosol conditions play a major role in that case. However, the updraughts modulate the DSD concentrations and are responsible for the vertical transport of water in the cloud. The larger droplets found in background clouds are associated with weak water vapour competition and a bimodal distribution of droplet sizes in the lower levels of the cloud, which enables an earlier initiation of the collision–coalescence process. This study shows that the pollution produced by Manaus significantly affects warm-phase microphysical properties of the surrounding clouds by changing the initial DSD formation. The corresponding effects on ice-phase processes and precipitation formation will be the focus of future endeavours.

  2. Dynamics of Particle Clouds in Ambient Currents with Application to Open-Water Sediment Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Dynamics of Particle Clouds in Ambient Currents with Application to Open-Water Sediment Disposal by Robert James Gensheimer III B.S. Ocean...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamics Of Particle Clouds In Ambient Currents With Application To Open-Water Sediment Disposal 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... Ambient Currents with Application to Open-Water Sediment Disposal by Robert James Gensheimer III Submitted to the Department of Civil and

  3. Flux and polarisation spectra of water clouds on exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karalidi, T.; Stam, D.M.; Hovenier, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Context. A crucial factor for a planet’s habitability is its climate. Clouds play an important role in planetary climates. Detecting and characterising clouds on an exoplanet is therefore crucial when addressing this planet’s habitability. Aims. We present calculated flux and polarisation spectra of

  4. Cloud-Driven Changes in Aerosol Optical Properties - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2007-09-30

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  5. Cloud Liquid Water, Mean Droplet Radius and Number Density Measurements Using a Raman Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. Harvey

    1999-01-01

    A new technique for measuring cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and droplet number density is outlined. The technique is based on simultaneously measuring Raman and Mie scattering from cloud liquid droplets using a Raman lidar. Laboratory experiments on liquid micro-spheres have shown that the intensity of Raman scattering is proportional to the amount of liquid present in the spheres. This fact is used as a constraint on calculated Mie intensity assuming a gamma function particle size distribution. The resulting retrieval technique is shown to give stable solutions with no false minima. It is tested using Raman lidar data where the liquid water signal was seen as an enhancement to the water vapor signal. The general relationship of retrieved average radius and number density is consistent with traditional cloud physics models. Sensitivity to the assumed maximum cloud liquid water amount and the water vapor mixing ratio calibration are tested. Improvements to the technique are suggested.

  6. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties during the MILAGRO field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Knobelspiesse

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of Direct Climate Forcing (DCF due to aerosols in cloudy areas has historically been a difficult task, mainly because of a lack of appropriate measurements. Recently, passive remote sensing instruments have been developed that have the potential to retrieve both cloud and aerosol properties using polarimetric, multiple view angle, and multi spectral observations, and therefore determine DCF from aerosols above clouds. One such instrument is the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP, an airborne prototype of a sensor on the NASA Glory satellite, which unfortunately failed to reach orbit during its launch in March of 2011. In the spring of 2006, the RSP was deployed on an aircraft based in Veracruz, Mexico, as part of the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO field campaign. On 13 March, the RSP over flew an aerosol layer lofted above a low altitude marine stratocumulus cloud close to shore in the Gulf of Mexico. We investigate the feasibility of retrieving aerosol properties over clouds using these data. Our approach is to first determine cloud droplet size distribution using the angular location of the cloud bow and other features in the polarized reflectance. The selected cloud was then used in a multiple scattering radiative transfer model optimization to determine the aerosol optical properties and fine tune the cloud size distribution. In this scene, we were able to retrieve aerosol optical depth, the fine mode aerosol size distribution parameters and the cloud droplet size distribution parameters to a degree of accuracy required for climate modeling. This required assumptions about the aerosol vertical distribution and the optical properties of the coarse aerosol size mode. A sensitivity study was also performed to place this study in the context of future systematic scanning polarimeter observations, which found that the aerosol complex refractive index can also be observed accurately if the aerosol

  7. A method for the parameterization of cloud optical properties in bulk and bin microphysical models. Implications for arctic cloudy boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Jerry Y.; Olsson, Peter Q.

    Computationally efficient and numerically accurate methods for computing band-averaged cloud optical properties for radiative transfer interactions with various microphysical parameterizations are described. Parameterizations for bulk microphysical models employing generalized gamma distribution representations of the size spectra and binned representations, in which the size spectra fluctuate with time, are discussed. It is shown that simple exponential fits and look-up tables may be used with minimal computational cost and high accuracy for bulk microphysical models. Binned microphysical representations may be parameterized using mean properties for each bin, if averaged appropriately. The implications for the radiative scheme are discussed in comparison with the computed radiative budget of fall/spring season mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds (ASC). Compared to liquid clouds of the same water path, mixed-phase ASC absorb and reflect less radiation, and transmit more radiation to the surface. This results in greater cooling (warming) of the surface, by up to 60 W m -2, in the infrared (solar) by mixed-phase clouds. The radiative properties of mixed-phase clouds show a significant sensitivity to crystal habit for clouds with ice water paths ≳25 g m -2. Surface net fluxes and cloud absorption may vary by up to 15 W m -2, depending on the ice habit. It is also shown that mixed-phase clouds are more sensitive to the choice of ice effective radius ( re,i) than liquid clouds are to re. Using values of from the literature, it is shown that the surface net fluxes can vary by as much as 50 W m -2 depending on the value of re,i. Furthermore, it is shown that the sign of the surface net flux (i.e. warming or cooling) may be dependent on the value of re,i selected.

  8. Final Technical Report for "Ice nuclei relation to aerosol properties: Data analysis and model parameterization for IN in mixed-phase clouds" (DOE/SC00002354)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenni, Anthony [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Kreidenweis, Sonia M. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2012-09-28

    Clouds play an important role in weather and climate. In addition to their key role in the hydrologic cycle, clouds scatter incoming solar radiation and trap infrared radiation from the surface and lower atmosphere. Despite their importance, feedbacks involving clouds remain as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate models. To better simulate cloud processes requires better characterization of cloud microphysical processes, which can affect the spatial extent, optical depth and lifetime of clouds. To this end, we developed a new parameterization to be used in numerical models that describes the variation of ice nuclei (IN) number concentrations active to form ice crystals in mixed-phase (water droplets and ice crystals co-existing) cloud conditions as these depend on existing aerosol properties and temperature. The parameterization is based on data collected using the Colorado State University continuous flow diffusion chamber in aircraft and ground-based campaigns over a 14-year period, including data from the DOE-supported Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The resulting relationship is shown to more accurately represent the variability of ice nuclei distributions in the atmosphere compared to currently used parameterizations based on temperature alone. When implemented in one global climate model, the new parameterization predicted more realistic annually averaged cloud water and ice distributions, and cloud radiative properties, especially for sensitive higher latitude mixed-phase cloud regions. As a test of the new global IN scheme, it was compared to independent data collected during the 2008 DOE-sponsored Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). Good agreement with this new data set suggests the broad applicability of the new scheme for describing general (non-chemically specific) aerosol influences on IN number concentrations feeding mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds. Finally, the parameterization was implemented into a regional

  9. FINAL REPORT FOR THE DOE/ARM PROJECT TITLED Representation of the Microphysical and Radiative Properties of Ice Clouds in SCMs and GCMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, David L.

    2005-08-08

    The broad goal of this research is to improve climate prediction through better representation of cirrus cloud microphysical and radiative properties in global climate models (GCMs). Clouds still represent the greatest source of uncertainty in climate prediction, and the representation of ice clouds is considerably more challenging than liquid water clouds. While about 40% of cloud condensate may be in the form of ice by some estimates, there have been no credible means of representing the ice particle size distribution and mass removal rates from ice clouds in GCMs. Both factors introduce large uncertainties regarding the global net flux, the latter factor alone producing a change of 10 W/m2 in the global net flux due to plausible changes in effective ice particle fallspeed. In addition, the radiative properties of ice crystals themselves are in question. This research provides GCMs with a credible means of representing the full (bimodal) ice particle size distribution (PSD) in ice clouds, including estimates of the small crystal (D < 65 microns) mode of the PSD. It also provides realistic estimates of mass sedimentation rates from ice clouds, which have a strong impact on their ice contents and radiative properties. This can be done through proper analysis of ice cloud microphysical data from ARM and other field campaigns. In addition, this research tests the ice cloud radiation treatment developed under two previous ARM projects by comparing it against laboratory measurements of ice cloud extinction efficiency and by comparing it with explicit theoretical calculations of ice crystal optical properties. The outcome of this project includes two PSD schemes for ice clouds; one appropriate for mid-latitude cirrus clouds and another for tropical anvil cirrus. Cloud temperature and ice water content (IWC) are the inputs for these PSD schemes, which are based on numerous PSD observations. The temperature dependence of the small crystal mode of the PSD for tropical

  10. Cloud optical thickness and liquid water path – does the k coefficient vary with droplet concentration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Geoffroy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud radiative transfer calculations in general circulation models involve a link between cloud microphysical and optical properties. Indeed, the liquid water content expresses as a function of the mean volume droplet radius, while the light extinction is a function of their mean surface radius. There is a small difference between these two parameters because of the droplet spectrum width. This issue has been addressed by introducing an empirical multiplying correction factor to the droplet concentration. Analysis of in situ sampled data, however, revealed that the correction factor decreases when the concentration increases, hence partially mitigating the aerosol indirect effect. Five field experiments are reanalyzed here, in which standard and upgraded versions of the droplet spectrometer were used to document shallow cumulus and stratocumulus topped boundary layers. They suggest that the standard probe noticeably underestimates the correction factor compared to the upgraded versions. The analysis is further refined to demonstrate that the value of the correction factor derived by averaging values calculated locally along the flight path overestimates the value derived from liquid water path and optical thickness of a cloudy column, and that there is no detectable relationship between the correction factor and the droplet concentration. It is also shown that the droplet concentration dilution by entrainment-mixing after CCN activation is significantly stronger in shallow cumuli than in stratocumulus layers. These various effects are finally combined to produce the today best estimate of the correction factor to use in general circulation models.

  11. Modeling of cloud liquid water structure and the associated radiation field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiscombe, W. [Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A 0.5{degrees}C global warming should result from every 1% decrease in global albedo. It is therefore necessary to accurately quantify the cloud radiation interaction. Most radiation calculations are one-dimensional and attempt to deal with horizontal variability using a horizontally-averaged optical depth. This study presents detailed scale-by-scale statistical analysis of the cloud liquid water content (LWC) field. The aim is to use this information to provide radiation calculations with more adequate information about inhomogeneity in cloud fields. The radiation community needs to carefully specify the minimum requirements which GCMs must include in order to treat cloud-radiation interaction correctly. This may involve GCMs predicting not only mean cloud quantities but also cloud variability. 3 figs.

  12. Short-range precipitation forecasts using assimilation of simulated satellite water vapor profiles and column cloud liquid water amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Diak, George R.; Hayden, Cristopher M.; Young, John A.

    1995-01-01

    These observing system simulation experiments investigate the assimilation of satellite-observed water vapor and cloud liquid water data in the initialization of a limited-area primitive equations model with the goal of improving short-range precipitation forecasts. The assimilation procedure presented includes two aspects: specification of an initial cloud liquid water vertical distribution and diabatic initialization. The satellite data is simulated for the next generation of polar-orbiting satellite instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), which are scheduled to be launched on the NOAA-K satellite in the mid-1990s. Based on cloud-top height and total column cloud liquid water amounts simulated for satellite data a diagnostic method is used to specify an initial cloud water vertical distribution and to modify the initial moisture distribution in cloudy areas. Using a diabatic initialization procedure, the associated latent heating profiles are directly assimilated into the numerical model. The initial heating is estimated by time averaging the latent heat release from convective and large-scale condensation during the early forecast stage after insertion of satellite-observed temperature, water vapor, and cloud water formation. The assimilation of satellite-observed moisture and cloud water, together withy three-mode diabatic initialization, significantly alleviates the model precipitation spinup problem, especially in the first 3 h of the forecast. Experimental forecasts indicate that the impact of satellite-observed temperature and water vapor profiles and cloud water alone in the initialization procedure shortens the spinup time for precipitation rates by 1-2 h and for regeneration of the areal coverage by 3 h. The diabatic initialization further reduces the precipitation spinup time (compared to adiabatic initialization) by 1 h.

  13. Near-Cloud Aerosol Properties from the 1 Km Resolution MODIS Ocean Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study examines aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds by analyzing high-resolution atmospheric correction parameters provided in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color product. The study analyzes data from a 2 week long period of September in 10 years, covering a large area in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that on the one hand, the Quality Assessment (QA) flags of the ocean color product successfully eliminate cloud-related uncertainties in ocean parameters such as chlorophyll content, but on the other hand, using the flags introduces a sampling bias in atmospheric products such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent. Therefore, researchers need to select QA flags by balancing the risks of increased retrieval uncertainties and sampling biases. Using an optimal set of QA flags, the results reveal substantial increases in optical thickness near clouds-on average the increase is 50% for the roughly half of pixels within 5 km from clouds and is accompanied by a roughly matching increase in particle size. Theoretical simulations show that the 50% increase in 550nm AOT changes instantaneous direct aerosol radiative forcing by up to 8W/m2 and that the radiative impact is significantly larger if observed near-cloud changes are attributed to aerosol particles as opposed to undetected cloud particles. These results underline that accounting for near-cloud areas and understanding the causes of near-cloud particle changes are critical for accurate calculations of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  14. The Relationship Between Infrared Dark Cloud and Stellar Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calahan, Jenny; Hora, Joseph L.

    2018-01-01

    Massive stars are known to form within infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), but many details about how molecular clouds collapse and form stars remain poorly understood.We determine the relationship between the dark cloud mass and the population of young stellar objects (YSOs) associated with the cloud to shed light on the physical processes occurring within these star forming regions. We chose to use a sample of IRDCs and YSOs within the Cygnus-X region, a close-by giant star formation complex that has every stage of star formation represented. Using observations from IRAC, MIPS, PACS, and SPIRE on Spitzer and Herschel we identified a sample of 30,903 YSOs and 167 IRDCs. We derived the class of each YSO as well as the mass of YSO and IRDCs from the flux information. Using these parameters, as well as their locations in the cloud, we were sorted IRDC fragments into larger filaments and associate a set of YSOs with each IRDC. By measuring and comparing parameters such as YSO total mass, number of YSOs, Class 0, Class I, and Class II populations, distance from host filament, and filament mass we tested for correlations between the YSO and IRDC parameters. Using this treasure trove of information, we find that Class 0 and I objects are located more closely to their host IRDC than their Class II counterparts. We also find that high-density IRDCs are better environments for star formation than low-density IRDCs. However, we find no correlation between the total mass of the IRDC and the largest YSO mass in the IRDC, suggesting that IRDCs of any mass can have massive YSOs associated with them.The SAO REU program is funded by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant AST-1659473, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  15. Low cloud investigations for project FIRE: Island studies of cloud properties, surface radiation, and boundary layer dynamics. A simulation of the reflectivity over a stratocumulus cloud deck by the Monte Carlo method. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Lin, Ruei-Fong

    1993-01-01

    The radiation field over a broken stratocumulus cloud deck is simulated by the Monte Carlo method. We conducted four experiments to investigate the main factor for the observed shortwave reflectively over the FIRE flight 2 leg 5, in which reflectivity decreases almost linearly from the cloud center to cloud edge while the cloud top height and the brightness temperature remain almost constant through out the clouds. From our results, the geometry effect, however, did not contribute significantly to what has been observed. We found that the variation of the volume extinction coefficient as a function of its relative position in the cloud affects the reflectivity efficiently. Additional check of the brightness temperature of each experiment also confirms this conclusion. The cloud microphysical data showed some interesting features. We found that the cloud droplet spectrum is nearly log-normal distributed when the clouds were solid. However, whether the shift of cloud droplet spectrum toward the larger end is not certain. The decrease of number density from cloud center to cloud edges seems to have more significant effects on the optical properties.

  16. Microphysical and radiative effects of aerosols on warm clouds during the Amazon biomass burning season as observed by MODIS: impacts of water vapor and land cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Ten Hoeve

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol, cloud, water vapor, and temperature profile data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS are utilized to examine the impact of aerosols on clouds during the Amazonian biomass burning season in Rondônia, Brazil. It is found that increasing background column water vapor (CWV throughout this transition season between the Amazon dry and wet seasons likely exerts a strong effect on cloud properties. As a result, proper analysis of aerosol-cloud relationships requires that data be stratified by CWV to account better for the influence of background meteorological variation. Many previous studies of aerosol-cloud interactions over Amazonia have ignored the systematic changes to meteorological factors during the transition season, leading to possible misinterpretation of their results. Cloud fraction (CF is shown to increase or remain constant with aerosol optical depth (AOD, depending on the value of CWV, whereas the relationship between cloud optical depth (COD and AOD is quite different. COD increases with AOD until AOD ~ 0.3, which is assumed to be due to the first indirect (microphysical effect. At higher values of AOD, COD is found to decrease with increasing AOD, which may be due to: (1 the inhibition of cloud development by absorbing aerosols (radiative effect/semi-direct effect and/or (2 a possible retrieval artifact in which the measured reflectance in the visible is less than expected from a cloud top either from the darkening of clouds through the addition of carbonaceous biomass burning aerosols within or above clouds or subpixel dark surface contamination in the measured cloud reflectance. If (1 is a contributing mechanism, as we suspect, then an empirically-derived increasing function between cloud drop number and aerosol concentration, assumed in a majority of global climate models, is inaccurate since these models do not include treatment of aerosol absorption in and around clouds. The relationship between

  17. Providing Access and Visualization to Global Cloud Properties from GEO Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, T.; Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Spangenberg, D.; Palikonda, R.; Ayers, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Providing public access to cloud macro and microphysical properties is a key concern for the NASA Langley Research Center Cloud and Radiation Group. This work describes a tool and method that allows end users to easily browse and access cloud information that is otherwise difficult to acquire and manipulate. The core of the tool is an application-programming interface that is made available to the public. One goal of the tool is to provide a demonstration to end users so that they can use the dynamically generated imagery as an input into their own work flows for both image generation and cloud product requisition. This project builds upon NASA Langley Cloud and Radiation Group's experience with making real-time and historical satellite cloud product imagery accessible and easily searchable. As we see the increasing use of virtual supply chains that provide additional value at each link there is value in making satellite derived cloud product information available through a simple access method as well as allowing users to browse and view that imagery as they need rather than in a manner most convenient for the data provider. Using the Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Processing Service as our access method, we describe a system that uses a hybrid local and cloud based parallel processing system that can return both satellite imagery and cloud product imagery as well as the binary data used to generate them in multiple formats. The images and cloud products are sourced from multiple satellites and also "merged" datasets created by temporally and spatially matching satellite sensors. Finally, the tool and API allow users to access information that spans the time ranges that our group has information available. In the case of satellite imagery, the temporal range can span the entire lifetime of the sensor.

  18. Impacts of cloud heterogeneities on cirrus optical properties retrieved from spatial thermal infrared radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchez, T.; Dubuisson, P.; Cornet, C.; Szczap, F.; Garnier, A.; Pelon, J.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a study, based on simulations, of the impact of cirrus cloud heterogeneities on the retrieval of cloud parameters (optical thickness and effective diameter) for the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) on board CALIPSO. Cirrus clouds are generated by the stochastic model 3DCLOUD for two different cloud fields and for several averaged cloud parameters. One is obtained from a cirrus observed on the 25 May 2007 during the airborne campaign CIRCLE-2 and the other is a cirrus uncinus. The radiative transfer is simulated with the code 3DMCPOL. To assess the errors due to cloud heterogeneities, two related retrieval algorithms are used: (i) The split window technique to retrieve the ice crystal effective diameter and (ii) an algorithm similar to the IIR operational algorithm to retrieve the effective emissivity and the effective optical thickness. Differences between input parameters and retrieved parameters are compared as a function of different cloud properties such as the mean optical thickness, the heterogeneity parameter and the effective diameter. The optical thickness heterogeneity for each 1 km × 1 km observation pixel is represented by the optical thickness standard deviation computed using 100 m × 100 m subpixels. We show that optical thickness heterogeneity may have a strong impact on the retrieved parameters, mainly due to the Plane Parallel Approximation (PPA). In particular, for cirrus cloud with ice crystal size of approximately 10 μm, the averaged error on the retrieved effective diameter is about 2.5 μm (~ 25%) and on the effective optical thickness of about -0.20 (~ 12%). Then, these biases decrease with the increase of the ice effective size due to a decrease of the cloud absorption and thus of the PPA bias. Cloud heterogeneity effects are much more higher than other possible sources of error. They become larger than the retrieval incertitude of the IIR algorithm from a standard deviation of the optical thickness, inside the

  19. Neural Network (NN) retrievals of Stratocumulus cloud properties using multi-angle polarimetric observations during ORACLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Redemann, J.; Cairns, B.; Alexandrov, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    The ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) campaign is taking place in the South-East Atlantic during the Austral Spring for three consecutive years from 2016-2018. The study area encompasses one of the Earth's three semi-permanent subtropical Stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks, and experiences very large aerosol optical depths, mainly biomass burning, originating from Africa. Over time, cloud optical depth (COD), lifetime and cloud microphysics (number concentration, effective radii Reff and precipitation) are expected to be influenced by indirect aerosol effects. These changes play a key role in the energetic balance of the region, and are part of the core investigation objectives of the ORACLES campaign, which acquires measurements of clean and polluted scenes of above cloud aerosols (ACA). Simultaneous retrievals of aerosol and cloud optical properties are being developed (e.g. MODIS, OMI), but still challenging, especially for passive, single viewing angle instruments. By comparison, multiangle polarimetric instruments like RSP (Research Scanning Polarimeter) show promise for detection and quantification of ACA, however, there are no operational retrieval algorithms available yet. Here we describe a new algorithm to retrieve cloud and aerosol optical properties from observations by RSP flown on the ER-2 and P-3 during the 2016 ORACLES campaign. The algorithm is based on training a NN, and is intended to retrieve aerosol and cloud properties simultaneously. However, the first step was to establish the retrieval scheme for low level Sc cloud optical properties. The NN training was based on simulated RSP total and polarized radiances for a range of COD, Reff, and effective variances, spanning 7 wavelength bands and 152 viewing zenith angles. Random and correlated noise were added to the simulations to achieve a more realistic representation of the signals. Before introducing the input variables to the network, the signals are projected

  20. Characteristics of cloud microphysical properties observed at the Cloud Physical Observation System (CPOS) site in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, J.; Yum, S.; Chang, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Cloud Physics Observation Site (CPOS) site was established in 2004 over the mountainous area in the eastern part of Korea to collect cloud physics data on a long term basis. The instruments installed included a Micro Rain Radar (MRR), a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP), a Microwave radiometer (MWR), and a disdrometer. This study mainly focuses on the bright band and raindrop size distribution (RDSD) characteristics of precipitating clouds measured at the CPOS site for the three year period of 2004-2006. As a comparison we also analyzed the MRR data measured at a western coastal site in Korea, Hae-Nam, HN. First we classified the vertical equivalent reflectivity factor profiles from MRR into three types, low level rain (Type 1), rain with a distinct bright band (Type 2), and convective rain (Type 3). It was found that the mountainous site (CPOS) had more proportion of Types 1 and 2 profiles while Type 3 covered 51% of the coastal site (HN) precipitation, suggesting the prevalence of orographically induced stratiform precipitation at the CPOS and convective precipitation at HN. Furthermore, the bright band appeared to be thicker but the sharpness of the band is weaker for the CPOS Type 2 profiles than those of HN. It was argued that the contrast was due to the dominant growth and melting of unrimed snow particles at HN and the prevailing rimmed ice crystals with the supercooled drops at the CPOS in stratiform precipitation. Preliminary analysis showed that on average the RDSD of HN is larger than those of the CPOS. The difference in RDSD was prominent for the diameter greater than 2.5 mm, where the RDSD of HN was definitely larger than those of the CPOS. As discussed above, these results might be due to the differences in geographical settings between the CPOS and HN; HN was generally affected by convective precipitation and the CPOS has more occurrence of straitform precipitation. Further analyses of the date from other instruments will be presented

  1. Large-Scale Analysis of Relationships between Mineral Dust, Ice Cloud Properties, and Precipitation from Satellite Observations Using a Bayesian Approach: Theoretical Basis and First Results for the Tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Klüser

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust and ice cloud observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI are used to assess the relationships between desert dust aerosols and ice clouds over the tropical Atlantic Ocean during the hurricane season 2008. Cloud property histograms are first adjusted for varying cloud top temperature or ice water path distributions with a Bayesian approach to account for meteorological constraints on the cloud variables. Then, histogram differences between dust load classes are used to describe the impact of dust load on cloud property statistics. The analysis of the histogram differences shows that ice crystal sizes are reduced with increasing aerosol load and ice cloud optical depth and ice water path are increased. The distributions of all three variables broaden and get less skewed in dusty environments. For ice crystal size the significant bimodality is reduced and the order of peaks is reversed. Moreover, it is shown that not only are distributions of ice cloud variables simply shifted linearly but also variance, skewness, and complexity of the cloud variable distributions are significantly affected. This implies that the whole cloud variable distributions have to be considered for indirect aerosol effects in any application for climate modelling.

  2. The Influence of Sea Ice on Arctic Low Cloud Properties and Radiative Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic is one of the most climatically sensitive regions of the Earth. Climate models robustly project the Arctic to warm 2-3 times faster than the global mean surface temperature, termed polar warming amplification (PWA), but also display the widest range of surface temperature projections in this region. The response of the Arctic to increased CO2 modulates the response in tropical and extra-tropical regions through teleconnections in the atmospheric circulation. An increased frequency of extreme precipitation events in the northern mid-latitudes, for example, has been linked to the change in the background equator-to-pole temperature gradient implied by PWA. Understanding the Arctic climate system is therefore important for predicting global climate change. The ice albedo feedback is the primary mechanism driving PWA, however cloud and dynamical feedbacks significantly contribute. These feedback mechanisms, however, do not operate independently. How do clouds respond to variations in sea ice? This critical question is addressed by combining sea ice, cloud, and radiation observations from satellites, including CERES, CloudSAT, CALIPSO, MODIS, and microwave radiometers, to investigate sea ice-cloud interactions at the interannual timescale in the Arctic. Cloud characteristics are strongly tied to the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic state. Therefore, the sensitivity of Arctic cloud characteristics, vertical distribution and optical properties, to sea ice anomalies is computed within atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic regimes. Results indicate that the cloud response to changes in sea ice concentration differs significantly between atmospheric state regimes. This suggests that (1) the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics and (2) the characteristics of the marginal ice zone are important for determining the seasonal forcing by cloud on sea ice variability.

  3. Characterization of optical and micro-physical properties of cirrus clouds using a wideband thermal infrared spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchetti, Luca; Di Natale, Gianluca; Bianchini, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    High-altitude ice clouds such as cirrus clouds play a key role in the Earth's radiation budget since they cover permanently about 20-30% of the surface of the planet, reaching even to 60-70% in the tropics. The modulation of the incoming solar radiation and the outgoing Earth's thermal emission due to cirrus can contribute to heat or to cool the atmosphere, according to their optical properties, which must be characterised with great accuracy and over the whole spectral range involved in the scattering and emission processes. Here we present the infrared measurements over the wide spectral range from 9 to 50 micron performed by the Fourier transform spectrometer REFIR-PAD (Radiation Explorer in Far InfraRed - Prototype for Application and Development) during many field campaigns that have taken place since 2007 from different high-altitude ground-based stations: Testa Grigia Station, Cervinia-Italy, (3480 m asl), Cerro Toco, Atacama-Chile, (5380 m asl), Concordia Base, Dome C-Antarctica (3230 m asl). These measurements show for the first time the spectral effect of cirrus clouds in the long-wave part of the emission spectrum above 15 micron of wavelength. To characterise these measurements over the wide spectral range as a function of the optical properties of ice particles, a model of the radiative transfer, that integrates the well known numerical code LBLRTM, which simulates the radiative transfer in the atmosphere, with a specific code which simulates the propagation of the radiation through the cloud, was developed. The optical properties of clouds have been modelled using the δ-scaled Eddington approximation for a single layer and the Ping Yang's database for the single-scattering properties of ice crystals. The preliminary results of the fit procedure used for the determination of the micro-physical parameters of ice crystals, such as the effective diameter, ice water path, effective temperature and optical thickness will be shown in the presentation. The

  4. Scattering Properties of Jovian Tropospheric Cloud Particles Inferred from Cassini/ISS: Mie Scattering Phase Function and Particle Size in South Tropical Zone III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Satoh, T.; Kasaba, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The three distinct cloud layers were predicted by an equilibrium cloud condensation model (ECCM) of Jupiter. An ammonia ice cloud (NH3), an ammonia hydrosulfide cloud (NH4SH), and a water ice (H2O) cloud would be based at altitudes corresponding to pressures of about 0.7, 2.2 and 6 bars, respectively. However, there are significant gaps in our knowledge of the vertical cloud structure, despite the continuing effort by numerous ground-based, space-based, and in-situ observations and theory. Methane (CH4) is considered that its altitude distribution is globally uniform because it does not condense in Jovian atmosphere. Therefore, it is possible to derive the vertical cloud structure and the optical properties of clouds (i.e., optical thickness and single scattering albedo) by observing reflected sunlight in CH4 bands (727, 890 nm) and continuum in visible to near-infrared spectral ranges. Since we need to consider multiple scattering by clouds, it is essential to know scattering properties (e.g., scattering phase function) of clouds for determination of vertical cloud structure. However, we cannot derive those from ground-based and Earth-orbit observations because of the limitation of solar phase angle as viewed from the Earth. Then, most previous studies have used the scattering phase function deduced from the Pioneer 10/IPP data (blue: 440 nm, red: 640nm) [Tomasko et al., 1978]. There are two shortcomings in the Pioneer scattering phase function. One is that we have to use this scattering phase function at red as a substitute for analyses of imaging photometry using CH4 bands (center: 727 and 890 nm), although clouds should have wavelength dependency. The other is that the red pass band of IPP was so broad (595-720 nm) that this scattering phase function in red just show wavelength-averaged scattering properties of clouds. To provide a new reference scattering phase function with wavelength dependency, we have analyzed the Cassini/ISS data in BL1 (451 nm), CB1 (619

  5. Ship impacts on the marine atmosphere: insights into the contribution of shipping emissions to the properties of marine aerosol and clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, M. M.; Sorooshian, A.; Wang, Z.; Metcalf, A. R.; Frossard, A. A.; Lin, J. J.; Craven, J. S.; Nenes, A.; Jonsson, H. H.; Russell, L. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2012-09-01

    We report properties of marine aerosol and clouds measured in the shipping lanes between Monterey Bay and San Francisco off the coast of Central California. Using a suite of aerosol instrumentation onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft, these measurements represent a unique set of data contrasting the properties of clean and ship-impacted marine air masses in dry aerosol and cloud droplet residuals. Below-cloud aerosol exhibited average mass and number concentrations of 2 μg m-3 and 510 cm-3, respectively, which are consistent with previous studies performed off the coast of California. Enhancements in vanadium and cloud droplet number concentrations are observed concurrently with a decrease in cloud water pH, suggesting that periods of high aerosol loading are primarily linked to increased ship influence. Mass spectra from a compact time-of-flight Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer reveal an enhancement in the fraction of organic at m/z 42 (f42) and 99 (f99) in ship-impacted clouds. These ions are well correlated to each other (R2>0.64) both in and out of cloud and constitute 14% (f44) and 3% (f99) of organic mass during periods of enhanced sulfate. High-resolution mass spectral analysis of these masses from ship measurements suggests that the ions responsible for this variation were oxidized, possibly due to cloud processing. We propose that the organic fractions of these ions be used as a metric for determining the extent to which cloud-processed ship emissions impact the marine atmosphere where (f42 > 0.15; f99 > 0.04) would imply heavy influence from shipping emissions, (0.05 < f42 < 0.15; 0.01 < f99 < 0.04) would imply moderate, but persistent, influences from ships, and (f42 < 0.05; f99 < 0.01) would imply clean, non-ship-influenced air.

  6. Using CO line ratios to trace the physical properties of molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Camilo H.; Clark, Paul C.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Shetty, Rahul; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2017-02-01

    The carbon monoxide (CO) rotational transition lines are the most common tracers of molecular gas within giant molecular clouds (MCs). We study the ratio (R2-1/1-0) between CO's first two emission lines and examine what information it provides about the physical properties of the cloud. To study R2-1/1-0, we perform smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations with time-dependent chemistry (using GADGET-2), along with post-process radiative transfer calculations on an adaptive grid (using RADMC-3D) to create synthetic emission maps of a MC. R2-1/1-0 has a bimodal distribution that is a consequence of the excitation properties of each line, given that J = 1 reaches local thermal equilibrium while J = 2 is still sub-thermally excited in the considered clouds. The bimodality of R2-1/1-0 serves as a tracer of the physical properties of different regions of the cloud, and it helps constrain local temperatures, densities and opacities. Additionally, this bimodal structure shows an important portion of the CO emission comes from diffuse regions of the cloud, suggesting that the commonly used conversion factor of R2-1/1-0 ˜ 0.7 between both lines may need to be studied further.

  7. Remote Sensing of Radiative and Microphysical Properties of Clouds During TC (sup 4): Results from MAS, MASTER, MODIS, and MISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina; Arnold, G. Thomas; Dominguez, Roseanne T.

    2010-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS) and MODIS/Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Airborne Simulator (MASTER) were used to obtain measurements of the bidirectional reflectance and brightness temperature of clouds at 50 discrete wavelengths between 0.47 and 14.2 microns (12.9 microns for MASTER). These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment conducted over Central America and surrounding Pacific and Atlantic Oceans between 17 July and 8 August 2007. Multispectral images in eleven distinct bands were used to derive a confidence in clear sky (or alternatively the probability Of cloud) over land and ocean ecosystems. Based on the results of individual tests run as part of the cloud mask, an algorithm was developed to estimate the phase of the clouds (liquid water, ice, or undetermined phase). The cloud optical thickness and effective radius were derived for both liquid water and ice clouds that were detected during each flight, using a nearly identical algorithm to that implemented operationally to process MODIS Cloud data from the Aqua and Terra satellites (Collection 5). This analysis shows that the cloud mask developed for operational use on MODIS, and tested using MAS and MASTER data in TC(sup 4), is quite capable of distinguishing both liquid water and ice clouds during daytime conditions over both land and ocean. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals use five distinct bands of the MAS (or MASTER), and these results were compared with nearly simultaneous retrievals of marine liquid water clouds from MODIS on the Terra spacecraft. Finally, this MODIS-based algorithm was adapted to Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) data to infer the cloud optical thickness Of liquid water clouds from MISR. Results of this analysis are compared and contrasted.

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis data for cloud-water particulate samples, Mount Bamboo, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud water was sampled on Mount Bamboo in northern Taiwan during March 22-24, 2002. Cloud-water samples were filtered using 0.45-micron filters to remove particulate material from the water samples. Filtered particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the U.S. Geological Survey National Reactor Facility in Denver, Colorado, in February 2012. INAA elemental composition data for the particulate materials are presented. These data complement analyses of the aqueous portion of the cloud-water samples, which were performed earlier by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taiwan. The data are intended for evaluation of atmospheric transport processes and air-pollution sources in Southeast Asia.

  9. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    A correlation between a global average of low cloud cover and the flux of cosmic rays incident in the atmosphere has been observed during the last solar cycle. The ionising potential of Earth bound cosmic rays are modulated by the state of the heliosphere, while clouds play an important role...... between cosmic ray flux and low cloud top temperature. The temperature of a cloud depends on the radiation properties determined by its droplet distribution. Low clouds are warm (> 273 K) and therefore consist of liquid water droplets. At typical atmospheric supersaturations (similar to1%) a liquid cloud...... drop will only form in the presence of an aerosol, which acts as a condensation site. The droplet distribution of a cloud will then depend on the number of aerosols activated as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and the level of super saturation. Based on observational evidence it is argued...

  10. In situ measurements of tropical cloud properties in the West African Monsoon: upper tropospheric ice clouds, Mesoscale Convective System outflow, and subvisual cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Frey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions in tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS clouds were performed during the SCOUT-AMMA campaign over West Africa in August 2006. The cloud properties were measured with a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP-100 and a Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP operated aboard the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica with the mission base in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 117 ice particle size distributions were obtained from the measurements in the vicinity of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS. Two to four modal lognormal size distributions were fitted to the average size distributions for different potential temperature bins. The measurements showed proportionately more large ice particles compared to former measurements above maritime regions. With the help of trace gas measurements of NO, NOy, CO2, CO, and O3 and satellite images, clouds in young and aged MCS outflow were identified. These events were observed at altitudes of 11.0 km to 14.2 km corresponding to potential temperature levels of 346 K to 356 K. In a young outflow from a developing MCS ice crystal number concentrations of up to (8.3 ± 1.6 cm−3 and rimed ice particles with maximum dimensions exceeding 1.5 mm were found. A maximum ice water content of 0.05 g m−3 was observed and an effective radius of about 90 μm. In contrast the aged outflow events were more diluted and showed a maximum number concentration of 0.03 cm−3, an ice water content of 2.3 × 10−4 g m−3, an effective radius of about 18 μm, while the largest particles had a maximum dimension of 61 μm.

    Close to the tropopause subvisual cirrus were encountered four times at altitudes of 15 km to 16.4 km. The mean ice particle number concentration of these encounters was 0.01 cm−3 with maximum particle sizes of 130

  11. Aerosol effect on the evolution of the thermodynamic properties of warm convective cloud fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Guy; Koren, Ilan; Altaratz, Orit; Heiblum, Reuven H.

    2016-12-01

    Convective cloud formation and evolution strongly depend on environmental temperature and humidity profiles. The forming clouds change the profiles that created them by redistributing heat and moisture. Here we show that the evolution of the field’s thermodynamic properties depends heavily on the concentration of aerosol, liquid or solid particles suspended in the atmosphere. Under polluted conditions, rain formation is suppressed and the non-precipitating clouds act to warm the lower part of the cloudy layer (where there is net condensation) and cool and moisten the upper part of the cloudy layer (where there is net evaporation), thereby destabilizing the layer. Under clean conditions, precipitation causes net warming of the cloudy layer and net cooling of the sub-cloud layer (driven by rain evaporation), which together act to stabilize the atmosphere with time. Previous studies have examined different aspects of the effects of clouds on their environment. Here, we offer a complete analysis of the cloudy atmosphere, spanning the aerosol effect from instability-consumption to enhancement, below, inside and above warm clouds, showing the temporal evolution of the effects. We propose a direct measure for the magnitude and sign of the aerosol effect on thermodynamic instability.

  12. Canopy water balance of windward and leeward Hawaiian cloud forests on Haleakalā, Maui, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; DeLay, John K.; Nullet, Michael A.; Scholl, Martha A.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of intercepted cloud water to precipitation at windward and leeward cloud forest sites on the slopes of Haleakalā, Maui was assessed using two approaches. Canopy water balance estimates based on meteorological monitoring were compared with interpretations of fog screen measurements collected over a 2-year period at each location. The annual incident rainfall was 973 mm at the leeward site (Auwahi) and 2550 mm at the windward site (Waikamoi). At the leeward, dry forest site, throughfall was less than rainfall (87%), and, at the windward, wet forest site, throughfall exceeded rainfall (122%). Cloud water interception estimated from canopy water balance was 166 mm year−1 at Auwahi and 1212 mm year−1 at Waikamoi. Annual fog screen measurements of cloud water flux, corrected for wind-blown rainfall, were 132 and 3017 mm for the dry and wet sites respectively. Event totals of cloud water flux based on fog screen measurements were poorly correlated with event cloud water interception totals derived from the canopy water balance. Hence, the use of fixed planar fog screens to estimate cloud water interception is not recommended. At the wet windward site, cloud water interception made up 32% of the total precipitation, adding to the already substantial amount of rainfall. At the leeward dry site, cloud water interception was 15% of the total precipitation. Vegetation at the dry site, where trees are more exposed and isolated, was more efficient at intercepting the available cloud water than at the rainy site, but events were less frequent, shorter in duration and lower in intensity. A large proportion of intercepted cloud water, 74% and 83%, respectively for the two sites, was estimated to become throughfall, thus adding significantly to soil water at both sites

  13. Disk Evolution, Element Abundances and Cloud Properties of Young Gas Giant Planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helling, Christiane; Woitke, Peter; Rimmer, Paul B.; Kamp, Inga; Thi, Wing-Fai; Meijerink, Rowin

    We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form, in particular discussing the

  14. Terahertz Remote Sensing of Ice Clouds - Sensitivity on Ice Dielectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrok, J.; Baron, P.; Kasai, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Initiated by current developments in terahertz sensor technology the application of instruments operating in the spectral region between 0.1 - 30 THz is considered for a number of remote sensing issues. Accounting for more than 50 percent of the outgoing longwave radiation and with the major component of cirrus radiative forcing in the far-infrared, satellite measurements in this spectral region will significantly support the determination of the radiation budget of the Earth. Furthermore, spanning the whole range of particle sizes found in tropospheric ice clouds, the Terahertz region bears the potential to complement existing methods and improve our knowlegde and understanding of those clouds. Both, determination of the Earth's radiation budget as well as retrieving ice cloud properties require appropriately accurate calculations of radiative transfer. Hence, a good knowledge of the input parameters to the radiative transfer models is needed. In particular, this includes spectrally dependent properties of the molecular as well as particulate atmospheric matter, i.e., spectroscopic parameters of the molecular absorption lines and continua as well as the dielectric properties of aerosol and cloud particle material. Due to the lack of Terahertz light source and receiver technology in the past, measurements of these parameters have been sparse and the knowledge about them is rather poor. In preparation to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring tropospheric ice clouds using passive Terahertz observations, we study the modeling uncertainties due to the unconfident knowledge of the complex refractive index of ice. We give an overview of the consistency and discrepancies, respectively, of the existing measurements and models for ice refractive index in the Terahertz region. Using calculations of particle optical properties according to Mie theory as well as the radiative transfer models Moliere and SARTre, we estimate the deviations in particle optical properties and

  15. Organic Carbon in Cloud Water and Aerosols from a Tropical Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioda, A.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Rodriguez, G. J.; Figueroa, G. S.; Morales-de Jesus, R. J.; Collett, J.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, M. C.; Finessi, E.

    2006-12-01

    Chemical characterization was performed on cloud water and aerosol samples collected as part of the Rain In Cumulus over the Ocean Experiment (RICO) experiment, in a new intensive field campaign that took place in Puerto Rico from July to August 2006. The main objective of this study is to seek a better understanding of the impact of tropical marine aerosol on clouds and climate, with particular interest in the organic fraction. Cloud water samples were collected at the East Peak (EP) mountain site (1051 m.a.s.l), using a single-stage Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collector. Aerosol samples were collected in our reference site, Cabezas de San Juan (CSJ), using stacked-filter units with Teflon and quartz filters. Meteorological data were collected at both sites. pH measurements were performed in cloud water samples immediately after collection and before analyses. The analyses performed on both cloud and aerosol samples were total organic carbon (TOC analyzer, Shimadzu 5500) and thermal/optical analyses (EC/OC Analyzer, Sunset Lab.). Preliminary results showed an average pH of 5.8 for the cloud water samples. Concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in cloud water samples were 1.8 ppmC and 0.3 ppmC, respectively. Particulate matter was visible in the cloud water samples and the content of total carbon (TC) obtained after filtration was on average 1 ug per mL. Back trajectories calculated with the NOAA HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) transport and dispersion model showed that the origin of the air masses was predominantly from the northeast (Atlantic Ocean and the northwest African coast). A more complete set of results that will include ion chromatography and total nitrogen analyses for aerosol and cloud water samples, the comparisons between the two sampling sites, more information about the concentrations of the carbonaceous species of interest (i.e., elemental carbon, total carbon, TOC

  16. Online Monitoring and Controlling Water Plant System Based on IoT Cloud Computing and Arduino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Najim Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is basis of the existence of life on earth and its invaluable because it’s an essential requirement for all the human beings but, presently water preparation and processing systems are suffering from different problems such as real-time operations problems, loss of large amounts of water in the liquidation and distribution operations, less amount of water sources, i.e. The increase in water problems coincides with the increase in population numbers and residential areas such as (water distribution, consumption, Interrupted water sources problems as well as water quality. Therefore, to eliminate these problems and make more efficient water systems, effective and reliable there is necessity for accurate monitoring and proper controlling system. In this paper, we are focusing on the design of water system in real-time and on the continuous monitoring of water based on IoT cloud computing and Arduino microcontroller. Water system with proper control algorithm and continuous monitoring any place and any time makes a stable distribution so that, we can have a record of height of water in tanks and we can change the devices status in the plant. Internet of things is a network of physical connected objects equipped with software, electronics circuits, sensors, and network connection part which allow monitoring and controlling anywhere around the world. Through using cloud computing proved by free severs, the water system’s data continuously is uploaded to cloud allowing the real time monitoring operation by the use of sensors and microcontroller (Arduino as Minicomputer to control and monitor the system operation from cloud with efficient (client to server connection.

  17. Relating tropical ocean clouds to moist processes using water vapor isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the co-variations of tropospheric water vapor, its isotopic composition and cloud types and relate these distributions to tropospheric mixing and distillation models using satellite observations from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES over the summertime tropical ocean. Interpretation of these process distributions must take into account the sensitivity of the TES isotope and water vapor measurements to variations in cloud, water, and temperature amount. Consequently, comparisons are made between cloud-types based on the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISSCP classification; these are clear sky, non-precipitating (e.g., cumulus, boundary layer (e.g., stratocumulus, and precipitating clouds (e.g. regions of deep convection. In general, we find that the free tropospheric vapor over tropical oceans does not strictly follow a Rayleigh model in which air parcels become dry and isotopically depleted through condensation. Instead, mixing processes related to convection as well as subsidence, and re-evaporation of rainfall associated with organized deep convection all play significant roles in controlling the water vapor distribution. The relative role of these moisture processes are examined for different tropical oceanic regions.

  18. Water Ice Clouds and Dust in the Martian Atmosphere Observed by Mars Climate Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jennifer L.; Kass, David; Heavens, Nicholas; Kleinbohl, Armin

    2011-01-01

    The water ice clouds are primarily controlled by the temperature structure and form at the water condensation level. Clouds in all regions presented show day/night differences. Cloud altitude varies between night and day in the SPH and tropics: (1) NPH water ice opacity is greater at night than day at some seasons (2) The diurnal thermal tide controls the daily variability. (3) Strong day/night changes indicate that the amount of gas in the atmosphere varies significantly. See significant mixtures of dust and ice at the same altitude planet-wide (1) Points to a complex radiative and thermal balance between dust heating (in the visible) and ice heating or cooling in the infrared. Aerosol layering: (1) Early seasons reveal a zonally banded spatial distribution (2) Some localized longitudinal structure of aerosol layers (3) Later seasons show no consistent large scale organization

  19. Towards More Consistent Retrievals of Ice Cloud Optical and Microphysical Properties from Polar Orbiting Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, B. A.; Heymsfield, A.; Yang, P.

    2011-12-01

    Differences exist in the ice cloud optical thickness and effective particle size products provided by teams working with data from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of the Earth Reflectance), Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR), and CALIOP (Cloud Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization). The issue is in large part due to the assumed ice cloud single-scattering properties that each team uses in their retrievals. To gain insight into this problem, we are developing ice cloud single-scattering properties consistently from solar through far-infrared wavelengths by merging ice cloud microphysical data from in situ measurements with the very latest light scattering calculations for ice habits that include droxtals, solid/hollow columns, plates, solid/hollow bullet rosettes, aggregates of columns, and small/large aggregates of plates. The in-situ measurements are from a variety of field campaigns, including ARM-IOP, CRYSTAL-FACE, ACTIVE, SCOUT, MidCiX, pre-AVE, TC-4, and MACPEX. Among other advances, the light scattering calculations include the full phase matrix (i.e., polarization), incorporate a new treatment of forward scattering, and three levels of surface roughness from smooth to severely roughened. This talk will focus on improvements to our methodology for building both spectral and narrowband bulk scattering optical models appropriate for satellite imagers and hyperspectral infrared sensors. The new models provide a basis for investigating retrieval differences in the products from the sensor teams. We will discuss recent work towards improving the consistency of ice cloud microphysical/optical property retrievals between solar, polarimetric, and infrared retrieval approaches. It will be demonstrated that severely roughened ice particles correspond best in comparisons to polarization measurements. Further discussion will provide insight as to the

  20. NIR properties of Be stars in star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, K. T.; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Mathew, Blesson; Shruthi, S. B.

    2017-10-01

    Magellanic Clouds are the nearby galaxies which are ideal to study the properties of metal poor stellar population. In this study, we explore the near-IR properties of optically identified classical Be stars in 19 star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds. From an optically identified sample of 835 Be stars we obtained the J, H, K magnitudes of 389 stars from the IRSF MCPS catalog. Among these, 247 stars (36.4%) are found in 9 clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud and 142 stars (55.5%) in 10 clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud. After correcting for reddening, we studied their NIR properties in the (H - K)0 vs (J - H)0 diagram. We identified 14 stars with abnormally large near IR excesses, which were removed from the analysis, there by restricting our study to 355 classical Be stars. We propose an extended area in the near-IR (H - K)0 vs (J - H)0 diagram as the diagnostic location of Classical Be stars in the Magellanic Clouds. We identified 14 stars to have near-IR excess, higher than those seen in classical Be stars. From the analysis based on spectral energy distribution and luminosity estimate, we found that 8 candidate Be stars may be Herbig Ae/Be stars. We identified a new sample of 6 sgB[e] stars, which when added to the sparse existing sample of 15 sgB[e] stars in the Magellanic Clouds can provide insight to understand the evolutionary link between sgB[e] stars and Luminous Blue variables.

  1. The Structure of Ice Nanoclusters and Thin-films of Water Ice: Implications for Icy Grains in Cold Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance; Blake, David; Uffindell, Christine; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The cubic to hexagonal phase transformation in water ice (I(sub c) yields I(sub h)) is used to measure the extent to which surface structure and impurities control bulk properties. In pure crystalline (I(sub c)) water ice nanoclusters and in thin-films of impure water ice, I(sub c) yields I(sub h) occurs at lower temperatures than in thin-films of pure water ice. The disordered surface of the 20 nm diameter nanoclusters promotes transformations or reactions which would otherwise be kinetically hindered. Likewise, impurities such as methanol introduce defects into the ice network, thereby allowing sluggish structural transitions to proceed. Such surface-related phenomena play an important role in promoting chemical reactions on interstellar ice grains within cold molecular clouds, where the first organic compounds are formed.

  2. Ice nucleation and cloud microphysical properties in tropical tropopause layer cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Jensen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In past modeling studies, it has generally been assumed that the predominant mechanism for nucleation of ice in the uppermost troposphere is homogeneous freezing of aqueous aerosols. However, recent in situ and remote-sensing measurements of the properties of cirrus clouds at very low temperatures in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL are broadly inconsistent with theoretial predictions based on the homogeneous freezing assumption. The nearly ubiquitous occurence of gravity waves in the TTL makes the predictions from homogeneous nucleation theory particularly difficult to reconcile with measurements. These measured properties include ice number concentrations, which are much lower than theory predicts; ice crystal size distributions, which are much broader than theory predicts; and cloud extinctions, which are much lower than theory predicts. Although other explanations are possible, one way to limit ice concentrations is to have on the order of 50 L−1 effective ice nuclei (IN that could nucleate ice at relatively low supersaturations. We suggest that ammonium sulfate particles, which would be dry much of the time in the cold TTL, are a potential IN candidate for TTL cirrus. However, this mechanism remains to be fully quantified for the size distribution of ammonium sulfate (possibly internally mixed with organics actually present in the upper troposphere. Possible implications of the observed cloud microphysical properties for ice sedimentation, dehydration, and cloud persistence are also discussed.

  3. A Two-Habit Ice Cloud Optical Property Parameterization for GCM Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Minnis, Patrick; Loeb, Norman; Kato, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel ice cloud optical property parameterization based on a two-habit ice cloud model that has been proved to be optimal for remote sensing applications. The two-habit ice model is developed with state-of-the-art numerical methods for light scattering property calculations involving individual columns and column aggregates with the habit fractions constrained by in-situ measurements from various field campaigns. Band-averaged bulk ice cloud optical properties including the single-scattering albedo, the mass extinction/absorption coefficients, and the asymmetry factor are parameterized as functions of the effective particle diameter for the spectral bands involved in the broadband radiative transfer models. Compared with other parameterization schemes, the two-habit scheme generally has lower asymmetry factor values (around 0.75 at the visible wavelengths). The two-habit parameterization scheme was widely tested with the broadband radiative transfer models (i.e. Rapid Radiative Transfer Model, GCM version) and global circulation models (GCMs, i.e. Community Atmosphere Model, version 5). Global ice cloud radiative effects at the top of the atmosphere are also analyzed from the GCM simulation using the two-habit parameterization scheme in comparison with CERES satellite observations.

  4. Water Ice Clouds in the Martian Atmosphere: A View from MGS TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, A. S.; Tamppari, L. K.; Christensen, P. R.; Smith, M. D.; Bass, Deborah; Qu, Zheng; Pearl, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    We use the method of Tamppari et al. to map water ice clouds in the Martian atmosphere. This technique was originally developed to analyze the broadband Viking IRTM channels and we have now applied it to the TES data. To do this, the TES spectra are convolved to the IRTM bandshapes and spatial resolutions, enabling use of the same processing techniques as were used in Tamppari et al.. This retrieval technique relies on using the temperature difference recorded in the 20 micron and 11 micron IRTM bands (or IRTM convolved TES bands) to map cold water ice clouds above the warmer Martian surface. Careful removal of surface contributions to the observed radiance is therefore necessary, and we have used both older Viking-derived basemaps of the surface emissivity and albedo, and new MGS derived basemaps in order the explore any possible differences on cloud retrieval due to differences in surface contribution removal. These results will be presented in our poster. Our previous work has concentrated primarily on comparing MGS TES to Viking data; that work saw that large-scale cloud features, such as the aphelion cloud belt, are quite repeatable from year to year, though small scale behavior shows some variation. Comparison of Viking and MGS era cloud maps will be presented in our poster. In the current stage of our study, we have concentrated our efforts on close analysis of water ice cloud behavior in the northern summer of the three MGS mapping years on relatively small spatial scales, and present our results below. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  5. Cloud Formation and Water Transport on Mars after Major Outflow Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, D. L.; Colaprete, A.; Kreslavsky, M.; Kahre, M. A.; Asphaug, E.

    2012-01-01

    The triggering of a robust water cycle on Mars might have been caused by the gigantic flooding events evidenced by outflow channels. We use the Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) to test this hypothesis, studying how these presumably abrupt eruptions of water might have affected the climate of Mars in the past. We model where the water ultimately went as part of a transient atmospheric water cycle, to answer questions including: (1) Can sudden introductions of large amounts of water on the Martian surface lead to a new equilibrated water cycle? (2) What are the roles of water vapor and water ice clouds to sudden changes in the water cycle on Mars? (3) How are radiative feedbacks involved with this? (4) What is the ultimate fate of the outflow water? (5) Can we tie certain geological features to outflow water redistributed by the atmosphere?

  6. Volcano and Ship Tracks Indicate Excessive Aerosol-Induced Cloud Water Increases in a Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Velle; Christensen, Matthew; Gassó, Santiago; Bellouin, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction is the most uncertain mechanism of anthropogenic radiative forcing of Earth's climate, and aerosol-induced cloud water changes are particularly poorly constrained in climate models. By combining satellite retrievals of volcano and ship tracks in stratocumulus clouds, we compile a unique observational data set and confirm that liquid water path (LWP) responses to aerosols are bidirectional, and on average the increases in LWP are closely compensated by the decreases. Moreover, the meteorological parameters controlling the LWP responses are strikingly similar between the volcano and ship tracks. In stark contrast to observations, there are substantial unidirectional increases in LWP in the Hadley Centre climate model, because the model accounts only for the decreased precipitation efficiency and not for the enhanced entrainment drying. If the LWP increases in the model were compensated by the decreases as the observations suggest, its indirect aerosol radiative forcing in stratocumulus regions would decrease by 45%.

  7. Responses of Cloud Type Distributions to the Large-Scale Dynamical Circulation: Water Budget-Related Dynamical Phase Space and Dynamical Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sun; Del Genio, Anthony; Wang, Tao; Kahn, Brian; Fetzer, Eric J.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2015-01-01

    Goals: Water budget-related dynamical phase space; Connect large-scale dynamical conditions to atmospheric water budget (including precipitation); Connect atmospheric water budget to cloud type distributions.

  8. Trace Metals in Cloud Water Sampled at the Puy De Dôme Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Bianco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of 33 metal elements were determined by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis for 24 cloud water samples (corresponding to 10 cloud events collected at the puy de Dôme station. Clouds present contrasted chemical composition with mainly marine and continental characteristics; for some cloud events, a further anthropogenic source can be superimposed on the background level. In this context, measurements of trace metals may help to evaluate the impact of anthropogenic and natural sources on the cloud and to better discriminate the origin of the air masses. The metal concentrations in the samples are low (between 16.4 µg L−1 and 1.46 mg L−1. This could be explained by the remoteness of the puy de Dôme site from local sources. Trace metals are then used to confirm and refine a previous sample classification. A principal component analysis (PCA using the pH value and the concentrations of Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Na+ and NH4+ is performed considering 24 cloud samples. This first analysis shows that 18 samples are of marine origin and 6 samples are classified as continental. The same statistical approach is used adding trace metal concentration. Zn and Mg elements are the most abundant trace metals for all clouds. A higher concentration of Cd is mainly associated to clouds from marine origins. Cu, As, Tl and Sb elements are rather found in the continental samples than in the marine ones. Mg, V, Mn and Rb elements mainly found in soil particles are also more concentrated in the samples from continental air mass. This new PCA including trace metal confirms the classification between marine and continental air masses but also indicates that one sample presenting low pH and high concentrations of SO42−, Fe, Pb and Cu could be rather attributed to a polluted event.

  9. Synoptic Traveling Weather Systems on Mars: Effects of Radiatively-Active Water Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, Melinda A.; Haberle, Robert; Atsuki Urata, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosols on Mars are critical in determining the nature of its thermal structure, its large-scale circulation, and hence the overall climate of the planet. We conduct multi-annual simulations with the latest version of the NASA Ames Mars global climate model (GCM), gcm2.3+, that includes a modernized radiative-transfer package and complex water-ice cloud microphysics package which permit radiative effects and interactions of suspended atmospheric aerosols (e.g., water ice clouds, water vapor, dust, and mutual interactions) to influence the net diabatic heating. Results indicate that radiatively active water ice clouds profoundly affect the seasonal and annual mean climate. The mean thermal structure and balanced circulation patterns are strongly modified near the surface and aloft. Warming of the subtropical atmosphere at altitude and cooling of the high latitude atmosphere at low levels takes place, which increases the mean pole-to-equator temperature contrast (i.e., "baroclinicity"). With radiatively active water ice clouds (RAC) compared to radiatively inert water ice clouds (nonRAC), significant changes in the intensity of the mean state and forced stationary Rossby modes occur, both of which affect the vigor and intensity of traveling, synoptic period weather systems. Such weather systems not only act as key agents in the transport of heat and momentum beyond the extent of the Hadley circulation, but also the transport of trace species such as water vapor, water ice-clouds, dust and others. The northern hemisphere (NH) forced Rossby waves and resultant wave train are augmented in the RAC case: the modes are more intense and the wave train is shifted equatorward. Significant changes also occur within the subtropics and tropics. The Rossby wave train sets up, combined with the traveling synoptic-period weather systems (i.e., cyclones and anticyclones), the geographic extent of storm zones (or storm tracks) within the NH. A variety of circulation

  10. Synoptic Traveling Weather Systems on Mars: Effects of Radiatively-Active Water Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery; Kahre, Melinda; Haberle, Robert; Urata, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols on Mars are critical in determining the nature of its thermal structure, its large-scale circulation, and hence the overall climate of the planet. We conduct multi-annual simulations with the latest version of the NASA Ames Mars global climate model (GCM), gcm2.3+, that includes a modernized radiative-transfer package and complex water-ice cloud microphysics package which permit radiative effects and interactions of suspended atmospheric aerosols (e.g., water ice clouds, water vapor, dust, and mutual interactions) to influence the net diabatic heating. Results indicate that radiatively active water ice clouds profoundly affect the seasonal and annual mean climate. The mean thermal structure and balanced circulation patterns are strongly modified near the surface and aloft. Warming of the subtropical atmosphere at altitude and cooling of the high latitude atmosphere at low levels takes place, which increases the mean pole-to-equator temperature contrast (i.e., "baroclinicity"). With radiatively active water ice clouds (RAC) compared to radiatively inert water ice clouds (nonRAC), significant changes in the intensity of the mean state and forced stationary Rossby modes occur, both of which affect the vigor and intensity of traveling, synoptic period weather systems.Such weather systems not only act as key agents in the transport of heat and momentum beyond the extent of the Hadley circulation, but also the transport of trace species such as water vapor, water ice-clouds, dust and others. The northern hemisphere (NH) forced Rossby waves and resultant wave train are augmented in the RAC case: the modes are more intense and the wave train is shifted equatorward. Significant changes also occur within the subtropics and tropics. The Rossby wave train sets up, combined with the traveling synoptic period weather systems (i.e., cyclones and anticyclones), the geographic extent of storm zones (or storm tracks) within the NH. A variety of circulation

  11. A 10-Year Cloud Fraction Climatology of Liquid Water Clouds over Bern Observed by a Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Cossu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud fraction (CF is known as the dominant modulator of Earth’s radiative fluxes. Ground-based CF observations are useful to characterize the cloudiness of a specific site and are valuable for comparison with satellite observations and numerical models. We present for the first time CF statistics (relative to liquid clouds only for Bern, Switzerland, derived from the observations of a ground-based microwave radiometer. CF is derived with a new method involving the analysis of the integrated liquid water distribution measured by the radiometer. The 10-year analyzed period (2004–2013 allowed us to compute a CF climatology for Bern, showing a maximum CF of 60.9% in winter and a minimum CF of 42.0% in summer. The CF monthly anomalies are identified with respect to the climatological mean values, and they are confirmed through MeteoSwiss yearly climatological bulletins. The CF monthly mean variations are similar to the observations taken at another Swiss location, Payerne, suggesting a large-scale correlation between different sites on the Swiss Plateau. A CF diurnal cycle is also computed, and large intraseasonal variations are found. The overall mean CF diurnal cycle, however, shows a typical sinusoidal cycle, with higher values in the morning and lower values in the afternoon.

  12. Systematic Satellite Observations of the Impact of Aerosols from Passive Volcanic Degassing on Local Cloud Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebmeier, S.K.; Sayer, Andrew M.; Grainger, R. G.; Mather, T. A.; Carboni, E.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of volcanic emissions, especially from passive degassing and minor explosions, is a source of uncertainty in estimations of aerosol indirect effects. Observations of the impact of volcanic aerosol on clouds contribute to our understanding of both present-day atmospheric properties and of the pre-industrial baseline necessary to assess aerosol radiative forcing. We present systematic measurements over several years at multiple active and inactive volcanic islands in regions of low present-day aerosol burden. The timeaveraged indirect aerosol effects within 200 kilometers downwind of island volcanoes are observed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, 2002-2013) and Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR, 2002- 2008) data. Retrievals of aerosol and cloud properties at Kilauea (Hawaii), Yasur (Vanuatu) and Piton de la Fournaise (la Reunion) are rotated about the volcanic vent to be parallel to wind direction, so that upwind and downwind retrievals can be compared. The emissions from all three volcanoes - including those from passive degassing, Strombolian activity and minor explosions - lead to measurably increased aerosol optical depth downwind of the active vent. Average cloud droplet effective radius is lower downwind of the volcano in all cases, with the peak difference ranging from 2 - 8 micrometers at the different volcanoes in different seasons. Estimations of the difference in Top of Atmosphere upward Short Wave flux upwind and downwind of the active volcanoes from NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) suggest a downwind elevation of between 10 and 45 Watts per square meter at distances of 150 - 400 kilometers from the volcano, with much greater local (less than 80 kilometers) effects. Comparison of these observations with cloud properties at isolated islands without degassing or erupting volcanoes suggests that these patterns are not purely orographic in origin. Our observations of unpolluted

  13. Water balances of old-growth and regenerating montane cloud forests in central Veracruz, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz-Villers, L.E.; Holwerda, F.; Gomez, M.; Equihua, M.; Asbjornsen, H.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Marin-Castro, B.E.; Tobon, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the water budgets of two adjacent micro-catchments covered by mature (MAT) and 20-year-old secondary (SEC) lower montane cloud forests, respectively, in central Veracruz, Mexico over a 2-year period. Rainfall (P) and streamflow (Q) were measured continuously, whereas dry canopy

  14. Accessing Cloud Properties and Satellite Imagery: A tool for visualization and data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, T.; Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Spangenberg, D.; Palikonda, R.

    2016-12-01

    Providing public access to imagery of cloud macro and microphysical properties and the underlying satellite imagery is a key concern for the NASA Langley Research Center Cloud and Radiation Group. This work describes a tool and system that allows end users to easily browse cloud information and satellite imagery that is otherwise difficult to acquire and manipulate. The tool has two uses, one to visualize the data and the other to access the data directly. It uses a widely used access protocol, the Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map and Processing Services, to encourage user to access the data we produce. Internally, we leverage our practical experience with large, scalable application practices to develop a system that has the largest potential for scalability as well as the ability to be deployed on the cloud. One goal of the tool is to provide a demonstration of the back end capability to end users so that they can use the dynamically generated imagery and data as an input to their own work flows or to set up data mining constraints. We build upon NASA Langley Cloud and Radiation Group's experience with making real-time and historical satellite cloud product information and satellite imagery accessible and easily searchable. Increasingly, information is used in a "mash-up" form where multiple sources of information are combined to add value to disparate but related information. In support of NASA strategic goals, our group aims to make as much cutting edge scientific knowledge, observations and products available to the citizen science, research and interested communities for these kinds of "mash-ups" as well as provide a means for automated systems to data mine our information. This tool and access method provides a valuable research tool to a wide audience both as a standalone research tool and also as an easily accessed data source that can easily be mined or used with existing tools.

  15. The Coupled Mars Dust and Water Cycles: Understanding How Clouds Affect the Vertical Distribution and Meridional Transport of Dust and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The dust and water cycles are crucial to the current Martian climate, and they are coupled through cloud formation. Dust strongly impacts the thermal structure of the atmosphere and thus greatly affects atmospheric circulation, while clouds provide radiative forcing and control the hemispheric exchange of water through the modification of the vertical distributions of water and dust. Recent improvements in the quality and sophistication of both observations and climate models allow for a more comprehensive understanding of how the interaction between the dust and water cycles (through cloud formation) affects the dust and water cycles individually. We focus here on the effects of clouds on the vertical distribution of dust and water, and how those vertical distributions control the net meridional transport of water. For this study, we utilize observations of temperature, dust and water ice from the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) combined with the NASA ARC Mars Global Climate Model (MGCM). We demonstrate that the magnitude and nature of the net meridional transport of water between the northern and southern hemispheres during NH summer is sensitive to the vertical structure of the simulated aphelion cloud belt. We further examine how clouds influence the atmospheric thermal structure and thus the vertical structure of the cloud belt. Our goal is to identify and understand the importance of radiative/dynamic feedbacks due to the physical processes involved with cloud formation and evolution on the current climate of Mars.

  16. The Mars Dust and Water Cycles: Investigating the Influence of Clouds on the Vertical Distribution and Meridional Transport of Dust and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Brecht, A. S.; Urata, R.

    2015-01-01

    The dust and water cycles are critical to the current Martian climate, and they interact with each other through cloud formation. Dust modulates the thermal structure of the atmosphere and thus greatly influences atmospheric circulation. Clouds provide radiative forcing and control the net hemispheric transport of water through the alteration of the vertical distributions of water and dust. Recent advancements in the quality and sophistication of both climate models and observations enable an increased understanding of how the coupling between the dust and water cycles (through cloud formation) impacts the dust and water cycles. We focus here on the effects of clouds on the vertical distributions of dust and water and how those vertical distributions control the net meridional transport of water. We utilize observations of temperature, dust and water ice from the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and the NASA ARC Mars Global Climate Model (MGCM) to show that the magnitude and nature of the hemispheric exchange of water during NH summer is sensitive to the vertical structure of the simulated aphelion cloud belt. Further, we investigate how clouds influence atmospheric temperatures and thus the vertical structure of the cloud belt. Our goal is to isolate and understand the importance of radiative/dynamic feedbacks due to the physical processes involved with cloud formation and evolution on the current climate of Mars.

  17. Role of aerosols in modulating cloud properties during active-break cycle of Indian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Chakraborty, A.; Venugopal, V.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the weather research and forecast model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem), is used to understand the impact of aerosol-cloud interaction during the active-break cycles of the Indian summer monsoon. Two sets of simulations are performed, one with a fixed aerosol concentration ( ConstantAero) and the other with an observation-based prescription of the rate of change of aerosol concentration as a function of precipitation ( VaryingAero). This prescription is derived based on satellite-retrieved daily rainrate and concurrent observations of aerosol optical depth from aerosol robotic network. The proposed modification is necessitated by the lack of realistic emission estimates over the Indian region as well as the presence of inherent biases in monsoon simulation in WRF-Chem. In the VaryingAero simulation, unlike in the ConstantAero run, we find that the break-to-active monsoon phase has more cloud liquid water (CLW) and less rain efficiency than in the active-to-break phase. This is primarily due to the indirect effect of increased aerosol loading in the break phase. This result is in accordance with the observed behaviour of CLW estimtes from microwave imager (TRMM 2A12) and radar reflectivity (TRMM precipitation radar). We also find that the proposed interactive aerosol loading results in higher spatial variability in CLW and enhances the likelihood of increased cloud cover via formation of larger clouds. The modification also alters the diurnal cycle of clouds in break and break-to-active phases as compared to other phases due to aerosol loading, with a stronger diurnal cycle of upper level clouds in these phases in the VaryingAero model as compared to ConstantAero model.

  18. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in Amazonia derived from 1 year of ground-based lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Diego A.; Barja, Boris; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Seifert, Patric; Baars, Holger; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Artaxo, Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Cirrus clouds cover a large fraction of tropical latitudes and play an important role in Earth's radiation budget. Their optical properties, altitude, vertical and horizontal coverage control their radiative forcing, and hence detailed cirrus measurements at different geographical locations are of utmost importance. Studies reporting cirrus properties over tropical rain forests like the Amazon, however, are scarce. Studies with satellite profilers do not give information on the diurnal cycle, and the satellite imagers do not report on the cloud vertical structure. At the same time, ground-based lidar studies are restricted to a few case studies. In this paper, we derive the first comprehensive statistics of optical and geometrical properties of upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds in Amazonia. We used 1 year (July 2011 to June 2012) of ground-based lidar atmospheric observations north of Manaus, Brazil. This dataset was processed by an automatic cloud detection and optical properties retrieval algorithm. Upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds were observed more frequently than reported previously for tropical regions. The frequency of occurrence was found to be as high as 88 % during the wet season and not lower than 50 % during the dry season. The diurnal cycle shows a minimum around local noon and maximum during late afternoon, associated with the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The mean values of cirrus cloud top and base heights, cloud thickness, and cloud optical depth were 14.3 ± 1.9 (SD) km, 12.9 ± 2.2 km, 1.4 ± 1.1 km, and 0.25 ± 0.46, respectively. Cirrus clouds were found at temperatures down to -90 °C. Frequently cirrus were observed within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which are likely associated to slow mesoscale uplifting or to the remnants of overshooting convection. The vertical distribution was not uniform, and thin and subvisible cirrus occurred more frequently closer to the tropopause. The mean lidar ratio was 23.3 ± 8.0 sr. However, for

  19. Studying the influence of temperature and pressure on microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds using airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreea, Boscornea; Sabina, Stefan; Sorin-Nicolae, Vajaiac; Mihai, Cimpuieru

    2015-04-01

    One cloud type for which the formation and evolution process is not well-understood is the mixed-phase type. In general mixed-phase clouds consist of liquid droplets and ice crystals. The temperature interval within both liquid droplets and ice crystals can potentially coexist is limited to 0 °C and - 40 °C. Mixed-phase clouds account for 20% to 30% of the global cloud coverage. The need to understand the microphysical characteristics of mixed-phase clouds to improve numerical forecast modeling and radiative transfer calculation is of major interest in the atmospheric community. In the past, studies of cloud phase composition have been significantly limited by a lack of aircraft instruments capable of discriminating between the ice and liquid phase for a wide range of particle sizes. Presently, in situ airborne measurements provide the most accurate information about cloud microphysical characteristics. This information can be used for verification of both numerical models and cloud remote-sensing techniques. The knowledge of the temperature and pressure variation during the airborne measurements is crucial in order to understand their influence on the cloud dynamics and also their role in the cloud formation processes like accretion and coalescence. Therefore, in this paper is presented a comprehensive study of cloud microphysical properties in mixed-phase clouds in focus of the influence of temperature and pressure variation on both, cloud dynamics and the cloud formation processes, using measurements performed with the ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research in property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS). The airborne laboratory equipped for special research missions is based on a Hawker Beechcraft - King Air C90 GTx aircraft and is equipped with a sensors system CAPS - Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (30 bins, 0.51-50 µm) and a HAWKEYE cloud probe. The analyzed data in this

  20. Water-soluble material on aerosols collected within volcanic eruption clouds ( Fuego, Pacaya, Santiaguito, Guatamala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.B.; Zielinski, R.A.; Rose, W.I.; Huebert, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    In Feb. and March of 1978, filter samplers mounted on an aircraft were used to collect the aerosol fraction of the eruption clouds from three active Guatemalan volcanoes (Fuego, Pacaya, and Santiaguito). The elements dissolved in the aqueous extracts represent components of water-soluble material either formed directly in the eruption cloud or derived from interaction of ash particles and aerosol components of the plume. Calculations of enrichment factors, based upon concentration ratios, showed the elements most enriched in the extracts relative to bulk ash composition were Cd, Cu, V, F, Cl, Zn, and Pb.-from Authors

  1. Venus cloud structure and water vapor abundance from Mariner 10 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F. W.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of the Venus atmosphere with the infrared radiometer on Mariner 10 have been analyzed by Taylor (1975) in terms of the vertical distribution of opacity at wavelengths near 11 microns and 45 microns in the thermal infrared. In this paper, we discuss models of the Venus atmosphere which are consistent with the inferred opacity structure. Either a two-layer cloud structure, or a single cloud deck overlaid by a layer containing approximately 40 precipitable microns of water vapor, would have the required limb-darkening characteristics at the wavelengths of observation.

  2. Fungal spores as potential ice nuclei in fog/cloud water and snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Heidi; Goncalves, Fabio L. T.; Schueller, Elisabeth; Puxbaum, Hans

    2010-05-01

    INTRODUCTION: In discussions about climate change and precipitation frequency biological ice nucleation has become an issue. While bacterial ice nucleation (IN) is already well characterized and even utilized in industrial processes such as the production of artificial snow or to improve freezing processes in food industry, less is known about the IN potential of fungal spores which are also ubiquitous in the atmosphere. A recent study performed at a mountain top in the Rocky Mountains suggests that fungal spores and/or pollen might play a role in increased IN abundance during periods of cloud cover (Bowers et al. 2009). In the present work concentrations of fungal spores in fog/cloud water and snow were determined. EXPERIMENTAL: Fog samples were taken with an active fog sampler in 2008 in a traffic dominated area and in a national park in São Paulo, Brazil. The number concentrations of fungal spores were determined by microscopic by direct enumeration by epifluorescence microscopy after staining with SYBR Gold nucleic acid gel stain (Bauer et al. 2008). RESULTS: In the fog water collected in the polluted area at a junction of two highly frequented highways around 22,000 fungal spores mL-1 were counted. Fog in the national park contained 35,000 spores mL-1. These results were compared with cloud water and snow samples from Mt. Rax, situated at the eastern rim of the Austrian Alps. Clouds contained on average 5,900 fungal spores mL-1 cloud water (1,300 - 11,000) or 2,200 spores m-3 (304 - 5,000). In freshly fallen snow spore concentrations were lower than in cloud water, around 1,000 fungal spores mL-1 were counted (Bauer et al. 2002). In both sets of samples representatives of the ice nucleating genus Fusarium could be observed. REFERENCES: Bauer, H., Kasper-Giebl, A., Löflund, M., Giebl, H., Hitzenberger, R., Zibuschka, F., Puxbaum, H. (2002). The contribution of bacteria and fungal spores to the organic carbon content of cloud water, precipitation and aerosols

  3. Cloud optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, A

    2006-01-01

    Clouds affect the climate of the Earth, and they are an important factor in the weather. Therefore, their radiative properties must be understood in great detail. This book summarizes current knowledge on cloud optical properties, for example their ability to absorb, transmit, and reflect light, which depends on the clouds' geometrical and microphysical characteristics such as sizes of droplets and crystals, their shapes, and structures. In addition, problems related to the image transfer through clouds and cloud remote sensing are addressed in this book in great detail. This book can be an im

  4. Cloud-enabled microscopy and droplet microfluidic platform for specific detection of Escherichia coli in water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Golberg

    Full Text Available We report an all-in-one platform - ScanDrop - for the rapid and specific capture, detection, and identification of bacteria in drinking water. The ScanDrop platform integrates droplet microfluidics, a portable imaging system, and cloud-based control software and data storage. The cloud-based control software and data storage enables robotic image acquisition, remote image processing, and rapid data sharing. These features form a "cloud" network for water quality monitoring. We have demonstrated the capability of ScanDrop to perform water quality monitoring via the detection of an indicator coliform bacterium, Escherichia coli, in drinking water contaminated with feces. Magnetic beads conjugated with antibodies to E. coli antigen were used to selectively capture and isolate specific bacteria from water samples. The bead-captured bacteria were co-encapsulated in pico-liter droplets with fluorescently-labeled anti-E. coli antibodies, and imaged with an automated custom designed fluorescence microscope. The entire water quality diagnostic process required 8 hours from sample collection to online-accessible results compared with 2-4 days for other currently available standard detection methods.

  5. Investigation of diverse bacteria in cloud water at Mt. Tai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Caihong; Wei, Min; Chen, Jianmin; Sui, Xiao; Zhu, Chao; Li, Jiarong; Zheng, Lulu; Sui, Guodong; Li, Weijun; Wang, Wenxing; Zhang, Qingzhu; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2017-02-15

    Bacteria are abundant in atmospheric water phase with the potential to influence atmospheric processes and human health, yet relatively little information is known about the bacterial characteristics at high altitudes. Here we investigated the bacterial community by high throughput sequencing in 24 cloud water samples collected from September 26 to October 31, at the summit of Mt. Tai (36°15' N, 117°06' E, 1534m a.s.l) in China. Diverse bacterial population were identified and the gram-negative bacteria contributed the majority of total bacteria including Proteobacteria (81.6%) and Bacteroidetes (3.9%), followed by gram-positive bacteria Firmicutes (7.1%) and Actinobacteria (2.3%). These gram-negative taxa mainly inhabited in leaf-surface and cold environments. Meanwhile bacteria involved in the cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei formation were observed such as Sphingomonas (6.7%), Pseudomonas (4.1%), and Bacillus (1.1%). In addition, Sphingmonas was more active than that in daytime and participated in the cloud chemistry process. Meanwhile O 3 and SO 2 critically contributed to the variation of bacterial community. It is the first report on the bacterial community structure of cloud water over Asian area. Our results can serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, and biologists. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Scale-dependent analyses of precipitation forecasts and cloud properties using the Dynamic State Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Névir Claussnitzer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is a scale-dependent analysis of precipitation forecasts of the German Weather Service's (DWD non-hydrostatic Lokal-Modell (LM, COSMO-DE with regard to dynamical-statistical parameters and cloud properties. We propose a newly designed Dynamic State Index (DSI to evaluate precipitation processes. The DSI is presented in the context of a case study in the synoptic scale and in a statistical approach. The DSI quantitatively describes the deviation from a stationary, adiabatic and reversible solution of the primitive equations. As demonstrated by the example of the winter storm "Kyrill", the analysis of the vertical structure of the DSI gives a relation to the IPV-Thinking, introduced by Hoskins et al. (1985. Furthermore, the DSI-pattern features the characteristic filament-like structure of rainbands with embedded convective cells. In a next step the DSI is not only correlated with modelled precipitation but also with observed precipitation as well as cloud types. The absolute value of the DSI shows moderate correlations with hourly LM and high correlations with hourly COSMO-DE forecast data, based on 24 hour predictions. The statistical analysis of clouds with the index reveals a DSI-threshold, which is used to introduce a novel precipitation activity index of different cloud classes. In conclusion, the results highlight the importance of dynamical processes for the generation of rainfall.

  7. The CREW intercomparison of SEVIRI cloud retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, U.; Walther, A.; Bennartz, R.; Thoss, A.; Meirink, J. M.; Roebeling, R.

    2012-12-01

    About 70% of the earth's surface is covered with clouds. They strongly influence the radiation balance and the water cycle of the earth. Hence the detailed monitoring of cloud properties - such as cloud fraction, cloud top temperature, cloud particle size, and cloud water path - is important to understand the role of clouds in the weather and the climate system. The remote sensing with passive sensors is an essential mean for the global observation of the cloud parameters, but is nevertheless challenging. This presentation focuses on the inter-comparison and validation of cloud physical properties retrievals from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) onboard METEOSAT. For this study we use retrievals from 12 state-of-art algorithms (Eumetsat, KNMI, NASA Langley, NASA Goddard, University Madison/Wisconsin, DWD, DLR, Meteo-France, KMI, FU Berlin, UK MetOffice) that are made available through the common database of the CREW (Cloud Retrieval Evaluation Working) group. Cloud detection, cloud top phase, height, and temperature, as well as optical properties and water path are validated with CLOUDSAT, CALIPSO, MISR, and AMSR-E measurements. Special emphasis is given to challenging retrieval conditions. Semi-transparent clouds over the earth's surface or another cloud layer modify the measured brightness temperature and increase the retrieval uncertainty. The consideration of the three-dimensional radiative effects is especially important for large viewing angles and broken cloud fields. Aerosols might be misclassified as cloud and may increase the retrieval uncertainty, too. Due to the availability of the high number of sophisticated retrieval datasets, the advantages of different retrieval approaches can be examined and suggestions for future retrieval developments can be made. We like to thank Eumetsat for sponsoring the CREW project including this work.nstitutes that participate in the CREW project.

  8. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Daytime Cloud Optical and Microphysical Properties (DCOMP) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a high quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) of daytime cloud optical and microphysical properties (DCOMP) from the Visible Infrared Imaging...

  9. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Nighttime Cloud Optical Microphysical Properties (NCOMP) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a high quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) of nighttime cloud optical and microphysical properties (NCOMP) from the Visible Infrared...

  10. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Cloud and Clear-Sky Radiation Properties, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA LaRC cloud and clear sky radiation properties dataset is generated using algorithms initially developed for application to TRMM and MODIS imagery within the...

  11. Properties of Water Bound in Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir M. Gun’ko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the importance of water in hydrogel (HG properties and structure is analyzed. A variety of methods such as 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, XRD (X-ray powder diffraction, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, thermally stimulated depolarization current, quasi-elastic neutron scattering, rheometry, diffusion, adsorption, infrared spectroscopy are used to study water in HG. The state of HG water is rather non-uniform. According to thermodynamic features of water in HG, some of it is non-freezing and strongly bound, another fraction is freezing and weakly bound, and the third fraction is non-bound, free water freezing at 0 °C. According to structural features of water in HG, it can be divided into two fractions with strongly associated and weakly associated waters. The properties of the water in HG depend also on the amounts and types of solutes, pH, salinity, structural features of HG functionalities.

  12. A new retrieval method for the ice water content of cirrus using data from the CloudSat and CALIPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Honglin; Bu, Lingbing; Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Gao, Haiyang; Huang, Xingyou; Zhang, Wentao

    2017-08-01

    The CloudSat and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) are the members of satellite observation system of A-train to achieve the quasi-synchronization observation on the same orbit. With the help of active (CALIOP and CPR) and passive payloads from these two satellites, respectively, unprecedented detailed information of microphysical properties of ice cloud can be retrieved. The ice water content (IWC) is regarded as one of the most important microphysical characteristics of cirrus for its prominent role in cloud radiative forcing. In this paper, we proposed a new joint (Combination) retrieval method using the full advantages of different well established retrieval methods, namely the LIDAR method (for the region Lidar-only), the MWCR method (for the region Radar-only), and Wang method (for the region Lidar-Radar) proposed by Wang et al. (2002). In retrieval of cirrus IWC, empirical formulas of the exponential type were used for both thinner cirrus (detected by Lidar-only), thicker cirrus (detected by radar-only), and the part of cirrus detected by both, respectively. In the present study, the comparison of various methods verified that our proposed new joint method is more comprehensive, rational and reliable. Further, the retrieval information of cirrus is complete and accurate for the region that Lidar cannot penetrate and Radar is insensitive. On the whole, the retrieval results of IWC showed certain differences retrieved from the joint method, Ca&Cl, and ICARE which can be interpreted from the different hypothesis of microphysical characteristics and parameters used in the retrieval method. In addition, our joint method only uses the extinction coefficient and the radar reflectivity factor to calculate the IWC, which is simpler and reduces to some extent the accumulative error. In future studies, we will not only compare the value of IWC but also explore the detailed macrophysical and microphysical characteristics of

  13. Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation during CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Singh, Balwinder; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tomlinson, Jason M.; White, Allen B.; Prather, Kimberly; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Qilong

    2014-01-03

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on February 16 (FEB16) and March 02 (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. In both cases, observations show the presence of dust and biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust and biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountains for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a ~40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology including the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet, and cloud dynamics. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental conditions for

  14. Comparison of Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Properties from CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and DOE ARM AMF Measurements at the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, Patrick; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud properties derived from the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project using Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are compared with observations taken at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility at the Azores (AMF-Azores) site from June 2009 through December 2010. Cloud properties derived from ARM ground-based observations were averaged over a 1 h interval centered at the satellite overpass time, while the CERES-MODIS (CM) results were averaged within a 30 km×30 km grid box centered over the Azores site. A total of 63 daytime and 92 nighttime single-layered overcast MBL cloud cases were selected from 19 months of ARM radar-lidar and satellite observations. The CM cloud top/base heights (Htop/Hbase) were determined from cloud top/base temperatures (Ttop/Tbase) using a regional boundary layer lapse rate method. For daytime comparisons, the CM-derived Htop (Hbase), on average, is 0.063 km (0.068 km) higher (lower) than its ARM radar-lidar-observed counterpart, and the CM-derived Ttop and Tbase are 0.9 K less and 2.5 K greater than the surface values with high correlations (R(sup 2) = 0.82 and 0.84, respectively). In general, the cloud top comparisons agree better than the cloud base comparisons, because the CM cloud base temperatures and heights are secondary products determined from cloud top temperatures and heights. No significant day-night difference was found in the analyses. The comparisons of MBL cloud microphysical properties reveal that when averaged over a 30 km× 30 km area, the CM-retrieved cloud droplet effective radius (re) at 3.7 micrometers is 1.3 micrometers larger than that from the ARM retrievals (12.8 micrometers), while the CM-retrieved cloud liquid water path (LWP) is 13.5 gm( exp -2) less than its ARM counterpart (114.2 gm( exp-2) due to its small optical depth (9.6 versus 13.7). The differences are reduced by 50

  15. Effect of the secondary organic aerosol coatings on black carbon water uptake, cloud condensation nuclei activity, and particle collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of black carbon aerosols to absorb water and act as a cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) directly controls their lifetime in the atmosphere as well as their impact on cloud formation, thus impacting the earth’s climate. Black carbon emitted from most combustion pro...

  16. STORMVEX: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment Science and Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, J; Matrosov, S; Shupe, M; Lawson, P; Hallar, G; McCubbin, I; Marchand, R; Orr, B; Coulter, R; Sedlacek, A; Avallone, L; Long, C

    2010-09-29

    During the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), a substantial correlative data set of remote sensing observations and direct in situ measurements from fixed and airborne platforms will be created in a winter season, mountainous environment. This will be accomplished by combining mountaintop observations at Storm Peak Laboratory and the airborne National Science Foundation-supported Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study campaign with collocated measurements from the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2). We describe in this document the operational plans and motivating science for this experiment, which includes deployment of AMF2 to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The intensive STORMVEX field phase will begin nominally on 1 November 2010 and extend to approximately early April 2011.

  17. Roles of Wind Shear at Different Vertical Levels, Part I: Cloud System Organization and Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qian; Fan, Jiwen; Hagos, Samson M.; Gustafson, William I.; Berg, Larry K.

    2015-07-07

    Understanding of critical processes that contribute to the organization of mesoscale convective systems is important for accurate weather forecast and climate prediction. In this study, we investigate the effects of wind shear at different vertical levels on the organization and properties of cloud systems using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model with a spectral-bin microphysical scheme. The sensitivity experiments are performed by increasing wind shear at the lower (0-5 km), middle (5-10 km), upper (> 10 km) and the entire troposphere, respectively, based on a control run for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) with weak wind shear. We find that increasing wind shear at the both lower and middle vertical levels reduces the domain-accumulated precipitation and the occurrence of heavy rain, while increasing wind shear at the upper levels changes little on precipitation. Although increasing wind shear at the lower-levels is favorable for a more organized quasi-line system which leads to enlarged updraft core area, and enhanced updraft velocities and vertical mass fluxes, the precipitation is still reduced by 18.6% compared with the control run due to stronger rain evaporation induced by the low-level wind shear. Strong wind shear in the middle levels only produces a strong super-cell over a narrow area, leading to 67.3% reduction of precipitation over the domain. By increasing wind shear at the upper levels only, the organization of the convection is not changed much, but the increased cloudiness at the upper-levels leads to stronger surface cooling and then stabilizes the atmosphere and weakens the convection. When strong wind shear exists over the entire vertical profile, a deep dry layer (2-9 km) is produced and convection is severely suppressed. There are fewer very-high (cloud top height (CTH) > 15 km) and very-deep (cloud thickness > 15 km) clouds, and the precipitation is only about 11.8% of the control run. The changes in cloud microphysical

  18. Reanalysis of Uranus' cloud scattering properties from IRTF/SpeX observations using a self-consistent scattering cloud retrieval scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, P. G. J.; Tice, D. S.; Fletcher, L. N.; Barstow, J. K.; Teanby, N. A.; Orton, G. S.; Davis, G. R.

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a new retrieval approach to modelling near-infrared spectra of Uranus that represents a significant improvement over previous modelling methods. We reanalysed IRTF/SpeX observations of Uranus observed in 2009 covering the wavelength range 0.8-1.8 μm and reported by Tice et al. (Tice, D.S., Irwin, P.G.J., Fletcher, L.N., Teanby, N.A., Hurley, J., Orton, G.S., Davis, G.R. [2013]. Icarus 223, 684-698). By retrieving the imaginary refractive index spectra of cloud particles we are able to consistently define the real part of the refractive index spectra, through a Kramers-Kronig analysis, and thus determine self-consistent extinction cross-section, single-scattering and phase-function spectra for the clouds and hazes in Uranus' atmosphere. We tested two different cloud-modelling schemes used in conjunction with the temperature/methane profile of Baines et al. (Baines, K.H., Mickelson, M.E., Larson, L.E., Ferguson, D.W. [1995]. Icarus 114, 328-340), a reanalysis of the Voyager-2 radio-occultation observations performed by Sromovsky, Fry and Kim (Sromovsky, L.A., Fry, P.M., Kim, J.H. [2011]. Icarus 215, 292-312), and a recent determination from Spitzer (Orton, G.S., Fletcher, L.N., Moses, J.I., Mainzer, A.K., Hines, D., Hammel, H.B., Martin-Torres, F.J., Burgdorf, M., Merlet, C., Line, M.R. [2014]. Icarus 243, 494-513). We find that both cloud-modelling schemes represent the observed centre-of-disc spectrum of Uranus well, and both require similar cloud scattering properties of the main cloud residing at ∼2 bars. However, a modified version of the Sromovsky, Fry and Kim (2011) model, with revised spectral properties of the lowest cloud layer, fits slightly better at shorter wavelengths and is more consistent with the expected vertical position of Uranus' methane cloud. We find that the bulk of the reflected radiance from Uranus arises from a thick cloud at approximately the 2 bar level, composed of particles that are significantly more absorbing at

  19. The Seasonal Behavior of Water Ice Clouds in the Tharsis and Valles Marineris Regions of Mars: Mars Orbiter Camera Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, J. L.; Bonev, B. P.; James, P. B.; Shan, K. J.; Cantor, B. A.; Caplinger, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) was used to obtain global maps of the Martian surface. The maps used were acquired between March 15, 1999 (LS = 110 ) and July 31, 2001 (L(sub s) = 110), corresponding to approximately one and a quarter martian years. In this work we focused on water ice clouds associated with the surface features of Olympus Mons, Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons, Arsia Mons, Alba Patera, and the Valles Marineris canyon system. Using these data, we have made three types of quantitative measurements to characterize the cloud activity: 1) cloud area and location, 2) cloud height, and 3) cloud optical depth. We have also searched for short period variations in the cloud areas.

  20. Ship impacts on the marine atmosphere: insights into the contribution of shipping emissions to the properties of marine aerosol and clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Coggon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report properties of marine aerosol and clouds measured in the shipping lanes between Monterey Bay and San Francisco off the coast of Central California. Using a suite of aerosol instrumentation onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft, these measurements represent a unique set of data contrasting the properties of clean and ship-impacted marine air masses in dry aerosol and cloud droplet residuals. Below-cloud aerosol exhibited average mass and number concentrations of 2 μg m−3 and 510 cm−3, respectively, which are consistent with previous studies performed off the coast of California. Enhancements in vanadium and cloud droplet number concentrations are observed concurrently with a decrease in cloud water pH, suggesting that periods of high aerosol loading are primarily linked to increased ship influence. Mass spectra from a compact time-of-flight Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer reveal an enhancement in the fraction of organic at m/z 42 (f42 and 99 (f99 in ship-impacted clouds. These ions are well correlated to each other (R2>0.64 both in and out of cloud and constitute 14% (f44 and 3% (f99 of organic mass during periods of enhanced sulfate. High-resolution mass spectral analysis of these masses from ship measurements suggests that the ions responsible for this variation were oxidized, possibly due to cloud processing. We propose that the organic fractions of these ions be used as a metric for determining the extent to which cloud-processed ship emissions impact the marine atmosphere where (f42 > 0.15; f99 > 0.04 would imply heavy influence from shipping emissions, (0.05 < f42 < 0.15; 0.01 < f99 < 0.04 would imply moderate, but persistent, influences from ships, and (f42 < 0.05; f99 < 0.01 would imply clean, non

  1. Analysis of Aircraft, Radiosonde and Radar Observations in Cirrus Clouds Observed During FIRE II: The Interactions Between Environmental Structure, Turbulence and Cloud Microphysical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samantha A.; DelGenio, Anthony D.

    1999-01-01

    Ways to determine the turbulence intensity and the horizontal variability in cirrus clouds have been investigated using FIRE-II aircraft, radiosonde and radar data. Higher turbulence intensities were found within some, but not all, of the neutrally stratified layers. It was also demonstrated that the stability of cirrus layers with high extinction values decrease in time, possibly as a result of radiative destabilization. However, these features could not be directly related to each other in any simple manner. A simple linear relationship was observed between the amount of horizontal variability in the ice water content and its average value. This was also true for the extinction and ice crystal number concentrations. A relationship was also suggested between the variability in cloud depth and the environmental stability across the depth of the cloud layer, which requires further investigation.

  2. Importance of Physico-Chemical Properties of Aerosols in the Formation of Arctic Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, S. A.; Girard, E.

    2014-12-01

    Ice clouds play an important role in the Arctic weather and climate system but interactions between aerosols, clouds and radiation are poorly understood. Consequently, it is essential to fully understand their properties and especially their formation process. Extensive measurements from ground-based sites and satellite remote sensing reveal the existence of two Types of Ice Clouds (TICs) in the Arctic during the polar night and early spring. TIC-1 are composed by non-precipitating very small (radar-unseen) ice crystals whereas TIC-2 are detected by both sensors and are characterized by a low concentration of large precipitating ice crystals. It is hypothesized that TIC-2 formation is linked to the acidification of aerosols, which inhibit the ice nucleating properties of ice nuclei (IN). As a result, the IN concentration is reduced in these regions, resulting to a smaller concentration of larger ice crystals. Over the past 10 years, several parameterizations of homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation have been developed to reflect the various physical and chemical properties of aerosols. These parameterizations are derived from laboratory studies on aerosols of different chemical compositions. The parameterizations are also developed according to two main approaches: stochastic (that nucleation is a probabilistic process, which is time dependent) and singular (that nucleation occurs at fixed conditions of temperature and humidity and time-independent). This research aims to better understand the formation process of TICs using a newly-developed ice nucleation parameterizations. For this purpose, we implement some parameterizations (2 approaches) into the Limited Area version of the Global Multiscale Environmental Model (GEM-LAM) and use them to simulate ice clouds observed during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Arctic Cloud (ISDAC) in Alaska. We use both approaches but special attention is focused on the new parameterizations of the singular approach. Simulation

  3. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of fraser fir in a temperate mountain cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reinhardt; William K. Smith

    2010-01-01

    The red spruce-Fraser fir ecosystem (Picea rubens Sarg.-Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) of the southern Appalachian mountains is a temperate zone cloud forest immersed in clouds for 30 to 40 percent of a typical summer day, and experiencing immersion on about 65 percent of all days annually. We compared the microclimate,...

  4. The July 2016 Study of the water VApour in the polar AtmosPhere (SVAAP) campaign at Thule, Greenland: surface radiation budget and role of clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Daniela; Di Iorio, Tatiana; di Sarra, Alcide; Iaccarino, Antonio; Pace, Giandomenico; Mevi, Gabriele; Muscari, Giovanni; Cacciani, Marco; Gröbner, Julian

    2017-04-01

    The Study of the water VApour in the polar AtmosPhere (SVAAP) project, funded by the Italian Programme for Antarctic Research, is aimed at investigating the surface radiation budget (SRB), the variability of atmospheric water vapour, and the long-term variations in stratospheric composition and structure at Thule, Greenland, in the framework of the international Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). Thule High Arctic Atmospheric Observatory (THAAO, 76.5° N, 68.8° W) is devoted to study climate change and has been operational since 1990, with the contribution of different international institutions: DMI, NCAR, ENEA, INGV, Universities of Roma and Firenze (http://www.thuleatmos-it.it). As part of SVAAP an intensive field campaign was held at Thule from 5 to 28 July 2016. The campaign was also aimed at supporting the installation of VESPA-22, a new microwave radiometer for water vapour profiling in the upper atmosphere and integrated water vapour (IWV), and offered the possibility to study the cloud physical and optical properties and their impact on the SRB. Measurements of downward shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) irradiance were already available since 2009. Additional observations were added to obtain the SRB and to characterize the atmospheric state: upward SW and LW irradiance, upwelling and downwelling photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), downward irradiance in the 8-14 µm infrared window, temperature and relative humidity tropospheric profiles, IWV, liquid water path (LWP), lidar tropospheric backscattering profiles, sky brightness temperature (BT) in the 9.6-11.5 µm spectral range, visible and infrared sky images, surface meteorological parameters. Moreover, 23 radiosonde were launched during the campaign. Data from the period 14-28 July are presented in this study. The first part of the campaign was characterized by stable cloud-free conditions, while alternation of cloudy and cloud-free sky occurred after 18 July. The

  5. Gas Property Demonstrations Using Plastic Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic water bottles are convenient containers for demonstrations of gas properties illustrating Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Avogadro's law. The contents of iron-based disposable hand warmer packets can be used to remove oxygen gas from the air within an unfilled plastic water bottle.

  6. Cloud Detection and Cloud Top Height Determination using the Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer specMACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höppler, Lucas; Gödde, Felix; Kölling, Tobias; Zinner, Tobias; Mayer, Bernhard; Groß, Silke; Gutleben, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Diabatic heat released by clouds sometimes causes numerical weather forecast failures. Climate model predictions depend on radiative effects of tropical clouds in the trade winds. Both climate and global weather forecast models, therefore, need to be improved with respect to a proper representation of cloud microphysical and macrophysical properties. For this purpose, parameters describing the cloud geometry such as cloud fraction, cloud size and cloud top heights are important. These parameters are also important ingredients to accurately validate the results of previous and upcoming studies with cloud resolving models. A hyperspectral imaging spectrometer (specMACS) was operated aboard the research plane HALO in the NARVAL II and NAWDEX experiments. By combining the reflected radiance of the clouds and the signal of the water vapor absorption bands in the infrared part of the solar spectrum, an effective cloud mask was developed which is prerequisite for any further analysis. The method allows detecting clouds even over the bright sunglint. As a next step, cloud top heights are determined by comparing the measured radiance within and outside of the oxygen A-band with radiative transfer model calculations. Subsequently, the calculated cloud top heights are compared to LIDAR measurements. While this method works well for plane-parallel, homogeneous clouds, 3D radiative transfer effects cause artifacts at cloud edges and in cloud free areas which can lead to strongly miscalculated cloud top heights. These effects will be assessed and also evaluated. Deriving quantities such as cloud fraction, cloud size, and cloud structure is the basis for calculating cloud heating and cooling rates in upcoming studies.

  7. The properties of optical lightning flashes and the clouds they illuminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Deierling, Wiebke; Liu, Chuntao; Mach, Douglas; Kalb, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Optical lightning sensors like the Optical Transient Detector and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) measure total lightning across large swaths of the globe with high detection efficiency. With two upcoming missions that employ these sensors - LIS on the International Space Station and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper on the GOES-R satellite - there has been increased interest in what these measurements can reveal about lightning and thunderstorms in addition to total flash activity. Optical lightning imagers are capable of observing the characteristics of individual flashes that include their sizes, durations, and radiative energies. However, it is important to exercise caution when interpreting trends in optical flash measurements because they can be affected by the scene. This study uses coincident measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite to examine the properties of LIS flashes and the surrounding cloud regions they illuminate. These combined measurements are used to assess to what extent optical flash characteristics can be used to make inferences about flash structure and energetics. Clouds illuminated by lightning over land and ocean regions that are otherwise similar based on TRMM measurements are identified. Even when LIS flashes occur in similar clouds and background radiances, oceanic flashes are still shown to be larger, brighter, longer lasting, more prone to horizontal propagation, and to contain more groups than their land-based counterparts. This suggests that the optical trends noted in literature are not entirely the result of radiative transfer effects but rather stem from physical differences in the flashes.

  8. Characteristics of bacterial community in cloud water at Mt Tai: similarity and disparity under polluted and non-polluted cloud episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Xu, Caihong; Chen, Jianmin; Zhu, Chao; Li, Jiarong; Lv, Ganglin

    2017-04-01

    Bacteria are widely distributed in atmospheric aerosols and are indispensable components of clouds, playing an important role in the atmospheric hydrological cycle. However, limited information is available about the bacterial community structure and function, especially for the increasing air pollution in the North China Plain. Here, we present a comprehensive characterization of bacterial community composition, function, variation, and environmental influence for cloud water collected at Mt Tai from 24 July to 23 August 2014. Using Miseq 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the highly diverse bacterial community in cloud water and the predominant phyla of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Firmicutes were investigated. Bacteria that survive at low temperature, radiation, and poor nutrient conditions were found in cloud water, suggesting adaption to an extreme environment. The bacterial gene functions predicted from the 16S rRNA gene using the Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) suggested that the pathways related to metabolism and disease infections were significantly correlated with the predominant genera. The abundant genera Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Empedobacter originated from a wide range of habitats including cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei active species, opportunistic pathogens, and functional species, demonstrating the importance of ecology and health in cloud water. Cluster analysis including hierarchical cluster (Hcluster) and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) indicated a significant disparity between polluted and non-polluted samples. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) demonstrated that potential pathogens were enriched in the polluted cloud samples, whereas the diverse ecological function groups were significant in the non-polluted samples. Discrepant community structure determined by redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that the major ions in

  9. Regional differences in aerosol effects on cloud properties and precipitation using historical long-term satellite records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, J. D.; Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosols are one of the most important but poorly understood factors that influence global climate change, either directly by interaction with radiation or indirectly through interaction with clouds. We investigate changes in cloud properties and precipitation amount related to biomass burning events using multiple satellite data records spanning nearly 30 years. Due to the global variations in biomass burning events, both spatial (area burned) and temporal (decadal, annual and interannual), it is necessary to investigate aerosol effects on a regional basis. In this study we focus on four main regions including western Africa, China and South East Asia, Australia, and South America. The analysis uses TOMS and OMI aerosol optical depths to identify periods of intense burning along with MODIS fire counts, cloud properties from ISCCP, and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data to characterize cloud properties and meteorological conditions. Aerosol-cloud interactions are investigated by analyzing inter-annual, decadal variability, and long-term trend of biomass burning generated aerosols and the corresponding long term trends in cloud properties and precipitation. Regions are compared and differences are investigated.

  10. Cloud Properties Simulated by a Single-Column Model. Part II: Evaluation of Cumulus Detrainment and Ice-phase Microphysics Using a Cloud Resolving Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yali; Krueger, Steven K.; Xu, Kuan-Man

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series in which kilometer-scale-resolving observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and a cloud-resolving model (CRM) are used to evaluate the single-column model (SCM) version of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System model. Part I demonstrated that kilometer-scale cirrus properties simulated by the SCM significantly differ from the cloud radar observations while the CRM simulation reproduced most of the cirrus properties as revealed by the observations. The present study describes an evaluation, through a comparison with the CRM, of the SCM's representation of detrainment from deep cumulus and ice-phase microphysics in an effort to better understand the findings of Part I. It is found that detrainment occurs too infrequently at a single level at a time in the SCM, although the detrainment rate averaged over the entire simulation period is somewhat comparable to that of the CRM simulation. Relatively too much detrained ice is sublimated when first detrained. Snow falls over too deep of a layer due to the assumption that snow source and sink terms exactly balance within one time step in the SCM. These characteristics in the SCM parameterizations may explain many of the differences in the cirrus properties between the SCM and the observations (or between the SCM and the CRM). A possible improvement for the SCM consists of the inclusion of multiple cumulus cloud types as in the original Arakawa-Schubert scheme, prognostically determining the stratiform cloud fraction and snow mixing ratio. This would allow better representation of the detrainment from deep convection, better coupling of the volume of detrained air with cloud fraction, and better representation of snow field.

  11. Polarimetric Retrievals of Surface and Cirrus Clouds Properties in the Region Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Matteo; Cairns, Brian; Chowdhary, Jacek; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Rich; Burton, Sharon; Hair, John; Obland, Michael D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) performed several aerial surveys over the region affected by the oil spill caused by the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon offshore platform. The instrument was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 aircraft together with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), which provides information on the distribution of the aerosol layers beneath the aircraft, including an accurate estimate of aerosol optical depth. This work illustrates the merits of polarization measurements in detecting variations of ocean surface properties linked to the presence of an oil slick. In particular, we make use of the degree of linear polarization in the glint region, which is severely affected by variations in the refractive index but insensitive to the waviness of the water surface. Alterations in the surface optical properties are therefore expected to directly affect the polarization response of the RSP channel at 2264 nm, where both molecular and aerosol scattering are negligible and virtually all of the observed signal is generated via Fresnel reflection at the surface. The glint profile at this wavelength is fitted with a model which can optimally estimate refractive index, wind speed and direction, together with aircraft attitude variations affecting the viewing geometry. The retrieved refractive index markedly increases over oil-contaminated waters, while the apparent wind speed is significantly lower than in adjacent uncontaminated areas, suggesting that the slick dampens high-frequency components of the ocean wave spectrum. The constraint on surface reflectance provided by the short-wave infrared channels is a cornerstone of established procedures to retrieve atmospheric aerosol microphysical parameters based on the inversion of the RSP multispectral measurements. This retrieval, which benefits from the ancillary information provided by the HSRL, was in this specific case hampered by

  12. MODIS/Terra Aerosol, Cloud and Water Vapor Subset 5-Min L2 Swath 5km and 10km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODATML2 contains a selection of the most useful atmosphere Level 2 aerosol, cloud and water vapor parameters at 5 and 10km spatial resolution. Native 1km cloud,...

  13. Airborne Observations of Mixed Phase Clouds in the Southern Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsi, S. W.; Avallone, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Conducted over mountainous regions of Northern Colorado and Southern Wyoming during the 2010-2011 winter, the Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study (CAMPS) was designed to investigate the complex processes within mid-latitude, orographic, mixed-phase clouds. Over the course of 29 flights, instruments aboard the Wyoming King Air research aircraft made observations of cloud properties within diverse wintertime clouds, including many orographic mixed phase clouds. The aircraft carried a suite of in-situ cloud probes, including PMS-FSSP optical particle counter, PMS-2DC and -2DP cloud particle and precipitation imagers, Gerber PVM-100 optical and DMT LWC-100 hotwire liquid content probes, and a Rosemont icing detector. In addition, the research aircraft carried the University of Colorado closed-path laser hygrometer (CLH), which measures total water concentration by sampling the outside airstream, vaporizing condensed water particles in the sample, and observing infrared absorption in water vapor spectrum. The combination of the total water measurement from the CLH and the condensed particle measurements from the optical and hotwire cloud probes provides an opportunity to estimate the relative concentrations of cloud particles by phase. Using this host of cloud probes and the total water measurement, we develop a method for retrieving in-situ cloud water phase and concentration. We present results of this retrieval for several regions of mixed phase cloud, and describe the observed structure and evolution of these clouds.

  14. Quantifying the Role of Cloud Water in the Hydrology of Two Montane Forest Sites on East Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, M. A.; Gingerich, S. B.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Nullet, M. A.; Loope, L. L.

    2003-12-01

    East Maui (Haleakala volcano) rises 3054 m above the ocean, and clouds intercepting the mountain slopes are an integral part of the climate. To what extent do the trees and shrubs on the mountainsides extract cloud water that contributes to soil moisture, groundwater recharge, and stream flow in the watersheds? Two sites, on the windward and leeward sides of the mountain, were instrumented to study this process. Weather stations at each site measured climate parameters, and stable isotopes of fog, rain, soil water, stream flow and tree sap were measured monthly to track the proportion of cloud water in the forest hydrologic system. When clouds envelop a forest, the precipitation ranges from light mist to rain, leading to difficulties in measuring cloud water as opposed to rainfall. Deposition of cloud water depends on wind speed, droplet size, surface area of the vegetation, and many other factors. Cloud water deposition was measured on a continual basis using a vertical screen collector, which did not exclude rainfall. The fog isotope collectors did exclude vertically falling rain, and cumulative monthly fog volumes were compared with volumes from isotope rain collectors. Throughfall collectors provided information on the efficiency of the vegetation in collecting cloud water (fog drip). At the windward site, fog screen/ rain gage volume ratios normalized to collection area ranged from 0.74-4.9, with a median value of 1.5. The median fog/ rain ratio from the isotope collectors (normalized to surface area) was 0.35. The screen collector cannot be directly extrapolated to forest canopy, but the data suggest substantial impaction of cloud water on vegetation surfaces exposed to the wind. Isotopic composition of stream water reflected recent precipitation, including cloud water, while the soil water had a larger proportion of precipitation from large rainstorms. Metrosideros polymorpha tree sap isotopic composition was sometimes identical to fog drip, almost never

  15. A Compact, Backscattering Deplolarization Cloud Spectrometer for Ice and Water Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, David

    2014-05-15

    This project was to develop a compact optical particle spectrometer, small enough for operation on UAVS, that measures the optical diameter of cloud hydrometeors and differentiates their water phase (liquid or solid). To reach this goal, a work plan was laid out that would complete three objectives: 1) Evaluation of designs for an optical particle spectrometer that measures the component of light backscattered at two polarization angles. 2) Testing of selected designs on an optical bench. 3) Construction and preliminary testing of a prototype instrument based on the selected, optimum design. A protoype instrument was developed and tested in an icing wind tunnel where the results showed good measurement of cloud droplets and ice particles.

  16. Impacts of cloud water droplets on the OH production rate from peroxide photolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Costa, M T C; Anglada, J M; Francisco, J S; Ruiz-López, Manuel F

    2017-12-06

    Understanding the difference between observed and modeled concentrations of HOx radicals in the troposphere is a current major issue in atmospheric chemistry. It is widely believed that existing atmospheric models miss a source of such radicals and several potential new sources have been proposed. In recent years, interest has increased on the role played by cloud droplets and organic aerosols. Computer modeling of ozone photolysis, for instance, has shown that atmospheric aqueous interfaces accelerate the associated OH production rate by as much as 3-4 orders of magnitude. Since methylhydroperoxide is a main source and sink of HOx radicals, especially at low NOx concentrations, it is fundamental to assess what is the influence of clouds on its chemistry and photochemistry. In this study, computer simulations for the photolysis of methylhydroperoxide at the air-water interface have been carried out showing that the OH production rate is severely enhanced, reaching a comparable level to ozone photolysis.

  17. Energy and water vapor transport across a simplified cloud-clear air interface

    CERN Document Server

    Gallana, Luca; De Santi, Francesca; Iovieno, Michele; Tordella, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    We consider a simplified physics of the could interface where condensation, evaporation and radiation are neglected and momentum, thermal energy and water vapor transport is represented in terms of the Boussinesq model coupled to a passive scalar transport equation for the vapor. The interface is modeled as a layer separating two isotropic turbulent regions with different kinetic energy and vapor concentration. In particular, we focus on the small scale part of the inertial range as well as on the dissipative range of scales which are important to the micro-physics of warm clouds. We have numerically investigated stably stratified interfaces by locally perturbing at an initial instant the standard temperature lapse rate at the cloud interface and then observing the temporal evolution of the system. When the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial one, we observe a spatial redistribution of the kinetic energy which produce a concomitant pit of kinetic energy within the mixing layer. In this sit...

  18. Water Ice Clouds in the Martian Atmosphere: A Comparison of Two Methods and Eras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, A. S.; Tamppari, L. K.; Christensen, P. R.; Smith, M. D.; Bass, Deborah; Pearl, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    Similar cloud features are seen in maps generated with each method with no obvious outliers. The temperature differencing method appears to possibly be somewhat more sensitive to weaker water ice signatures. We have also generated correlation plots comparing the two methods. At strong delta-T signals, the correlation between the two methods is quite good, and therefore extraction of opacities from earlier Viking data may be possible for these stronger detection levels. Weaker detections do not, however, show such a good correlation. We are currently analyzing why the correlation becomes poor at weak signal levels, though it may be due to the fact that the differencing method may be more sensitive to thin cloud hazes. Results of this ongoing analysis will be presented. A comparison of the Viking and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) eras are also presented.

  19. Water Ice Clouds in the Martian Atmosphere: A Comparison of Two Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, A. S.; Tamppari, L. K.; Christensen, P. R.; Smith, M. D.; Bass, Deborah; Pearl, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    To date, the only two data sets offer the potential to examine year-to-year changes in cloud features over an entire Martian year: the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) data set and the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data set. We have examined the TES data in the same way in which we examined the Viking IRTM data. This provides water-ice cloud information separated in time by 12 Martian years. Since the data are analyzed with the same method, we obtain a very accurate 'apples to apples' comparison, and can generate a historical record of the subtleties of this annual event. Consequently, it is desirable to compare their results to ours to see what differences exist.

  20. Cloud point extraction, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of nickel in water samples using dimethylglyoxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new and simple method for the preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of nickel was developed by cloud point extraction (CPE. In the proposed work, dimethylglyoxime (DMG was used as the chelating agent and Triton X-114 was selected as a non-ionic surfactant for CPE. The parameters affecting the cloud point extraction including the pH of sample solution, concentration of the chelating agent and surfactant, equilibration temperature and time were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 10-150 ng mL-1 with a detection limit of 4 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation for 9 replicates of 100 ng mL-1 Ni(II was 1.04%. The interference effect of some anions and cations was studied. The method was applied to the determination of Ni(II in water samples with satisfactory results.

  1. Daytime Cirrus Cloud Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Forcing Properties at a Midlatitude Site and their Global Consequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James R.; Lolli, Simone; Lewis, Jasper R.; Gu, Yu; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2016-01-01

    One year of continuous ground-based lidar observations (2012) is analyzed for single-layer cirrus clouds at the NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network site at the Goddard Space Flight Center to investigate top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) annual net daytime radiative forcing properties. A slight positive net daytime forcing is estimated (i.e., warming): 0.070.67 W m(exp -2) in sample-relative terms, which reduces to 0.030.27 W m(exp -2) in absolute terms after normalizing to unity based on a 40% midlatitude occurrence frequency rate estimated from satellite data. Results are based on bookend solutions for lidar extinction-to-backscatter (20 and 30 sr) and corresponding retrievals of the 532-nm cloud extinction coefficient. Uncertainties due to cloud under sampling, attenuation effects, sample selection, and lidar multiple scattering are described. A net daytime cooling effect is found from the very thinnest clouds (cloud optical depth of less than or equal to 0.01), which is attributed to relatively high solar zenith angles. A relationship involving positive negative daytime cloud forcing is demonstrated as a function of solar zenith angle and cloud-top temperature. These properties, combined with the influence of varying surface albedos, are used to conceptualize how daytime cloud forcing likely varies with latitude and season, with cirrus clouds exerting less positive forcing and potentially net TOA cooling approaching the summer poles (not ice and snow covered) versus greater warming at the equator. The existence of such a gradient would lead cirrus to induce varying daytime TOA forcing annually and seasonally, making it a far greater challenge than presently believed to constrain the daytime and diurnal cirrus contributions to global radiation budgets.

  2. Observation of the spectrally invariant properties of clouds in cloudy-to-clear transition zones during the MAGIC field campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; McBride, Patrick J.; Chiu, J. Christine; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Flynn, Connor; Lewis, Ernie R.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-12-01

    We use the spectrally invariant method to study the variability of cloud optical thickness τ and droplet effective radius reff in transition zones (between the cloudy and clear sky columns) observed from Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SASZe) during the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. The measurements from the SSFR and the SASZe are different, however inter-instrument differences of self-normalized measurements (divided by their own spectra at a fixed time) are small. The spectrally invariant method approximates the spectra in the cloud transition zone as a linear combination of definitely clear and cloudy spectra, where the coefficients, slope and intercept, character-ize the spectrally invariant properties of the transition zone. Simulation results from the SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model demonstrate that (1) the slope of the visible band is positively correlated with the cloud optical thickness τ while the intercept of the near-infrared band has high negative cor-relation with the cloud drop effective radius reff even without the exact knowledge of τ; (2) the above relations hold for all Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and for cloud-contaminated skies. In observations using redundant measure-ments from SSFR and SASZe, we find that during cloudy-to-clear transitions, (a) the slopes of the visible band de-crease, and (b) the intercepts of the near-infrared band remain almost constant near cloud edges. The findings in simulations and observations suggest that, while the optical thickness decreases during the cloudy-to-clear transition, the cloud drop effective radius does not change when cloud edges are approached. These results sup-port the hypothesis that inhomogeneous mixing dominates near cloud edges in the studied cases.

  3. Observation of the Spectrally Invariant Properties of Clouds in Cloudy-to-Clear Transition Zones During the MAGIC Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; McBride, Patrick; Chiu, J. Christine; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Flynn, Connor; Lewis, Ernie R.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-01-01

    We use the spectrally invariant method to study the variability of cloud optical thickness tau and droplet effective radius r(sub eff) in transition zones (between the cloudy and clear sky columns) observed from Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SASZe) during the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. The measurements from the SSFR and the SASZe are different, however inter-instrument differences of self-normalized measurements (divided by their own spectra at a fixed time) are small. The spectrally invariant method approximates the spectra in the cloud transition zone as a linear combination of definitely clear and cloudy spectra, where the coefficients, slope and intercept, characterize the spectrally invariant properties of the transition zone. Simulation results from the SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model demonstrate that (1) the slope of the visible band is positively correlated with the cloud optical thickness t while the intercept of the near-infrared band has high negative correlation with the cloud drop effective radius r(sub eff)even without the exact knowledge of tau; (2) the above relations hold for all Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and for cloud-contaminated skies. In observations using redundant measurements from SSFR and SASZe, we find that during cloudy-to-clear transitions, (a) the slopes of the visible band decrease, and (b) the intercepts of the near-infrared band remain almost constant near cloud edges. The findings in simulations and observations suggest that, while the optical thickness decreases during the cloudy-to-clear transition, the cloud drop effective radius does not change when cloud edges are approached. These results support the hypothesis that inhomogeneous mixing dominates near cloud edges in the studied cases.

  4. Cirrus clouds. I - A cirrus cloud model. II - Numerical experiments on the formation and maintenance of cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, D. OC.; Cox, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    A simplified cirrus cloud model is presented which may be used to investigate the role of various physical processes in the life cycle of a cirrus cloud. The model is a two-dimensional, time-dependent, Eulerian numerical model where the focus is on cloud-scale processes. Parametrizations are developed to account for phase changes of water, radiative processes, and the effects of microphysical structure on the vertical flux of ice water. The results of a simulation of a thin cirrostratus cloud are given. The results of numerical experiments performed with the model are described in order to demonstrate the important role of cloud-scale processes in determining the cloud properties maintained in response to larger scale forcing. The effects of microphysical composition and radiative processes are considered, as well as their interaction with thermodynamic and dynamic processes within the cloud. It is shown that cirrus clouds operate in an entirely different manner than liquid phase stratiform clouds.

  5. A fate for organic acids, formaldehyde and methanol in cloud water: their biotransformation by micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Amato

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between microbial and chemical contents of cloud water were investigated. First, we observe that the bulk cloud water solution provides a substantial environment where bacteria can develop significantly. Then, a total number of 60 microbial strains originating from seven distinct samples of cloud water and affiliated to various taxonomic groups were examined for their ability to degrade some of the main atmospheric carboxylic compounds: formate, acetate, lactate, succinate, as well as formaldehyde and methanol. Biodegradation tests show that all these compounds can be transformed when used as single carbonaceous substrates, with activities depending on both the strain and the compound. The highest capacities of biodegradation are observed towards formaldehyde, formate and acetate, which are also the more concentrated compounds typically measured in cloud water. Hence, analyses by 1H NMR permitted to establish for instance that compounds like pyruvate or fumarate can be produced and released in the media in relation to the transformation of lactate or succinate. In addition, utilization of 13C labelled formaldehyde showed that it can be transformed through many metabolic pathways, similar to those induced by photochemistry and leading to the production of formate and/or methanol. These results suggest that microorganisms of cloud water can have various behaviours towards the chemical compounds present in the atmosphere: they can represent either a sink or source for organic carbon, and may have to be considered as actors of cloud chemistry.

  6. Cloud management and security

    CERN Document Server

    Abbadi, Imad M

    2014-01-01

    Written by an expert with over 15 years' experience in the field, this book establishes the foundations of Cloud computing, building an in-depth and diverse understanding of the technologies behind Cloud computing. In this book, the author begins with an introduction to Cloud computing, presenting fundamental concepts such as analyzing Cloud definitions, Cloud evolution, Cloud services, Cloud deployment types and highlighting the main challenges. Following on from the introduction, the book is divided into three parts: Cloud management, Cloud security, and practical examples. Part one presents the main components constituting the Cloud and federated Cloud infrastructure(e.g., interactions and deployment), discusses management platforms (resources and services), identifies and analyzes the main properties of the Cloud infrastructure, and presents Cloud automated management services: virtual and application resource management services. Part two analyzes the problem of establishing trustworthy Cloud, discuss...

  7. Characterization of cumulus cloud fields using trajectories in the center of gravity versus water mass phase space: 2. Aerosol effects on warm convective clouds: Center of Gravity Versus Water Mass 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiblum, Reuven H. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Altaratz, Orit [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Koren, Ilan [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Feingold, Graham [Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), Boulder Colorado USA; Kostinski, Alexander B. [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton Michigan USA; Khain, Alexander P. [Institute of Earth Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem Israel; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail [Atmosphere Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Fredj, Erick [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Dagan, Guy [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Pinto, Lital [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Yaish, Ricki [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Chen, Qian [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel

    2016-06-07

    In Part I of this work a 3D cloud tracking algorithm and phase-space of center of gravity altitude versus cloud liquid water mass (CvM space) were introduced and described in detail. We showed how new physical insight can be gained by following cloud trajectories in the CvM space. Here, this approach is used to investigate aerosol effects on cloud fields of warm cumuli. We show a clear effect of the aerosol loading on the shape and size of CvM clusters. We also find fundamental differences in the CvM space between simulations using bin versus bulk microphysical schemes, with the bin scheme precipitation expressing much higher sensitivity to changes in aerosol concentrations. Using the bin microphysical scheme, we find that the increase in cloud center of gravity altitude with increase in aerosol concentrations occurs for a wide range of cloud sizes. This is attributed to reduced sedimentation, increased buoyancy and vertical velocities, and increased environmental instability, all of which are tightly coupled to inhibition of precipitation processes and subsequent feedbacks of clouds on their environment. Many of the physical processes shown here are consistent with processes typically associated with cloud invigoration.

  8. Water transport properties of fuel cell ionomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.; Springer, T.E.; Davey, J.; Valerio, J.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1991-01-01

    We will report transport parameters measured for several available perfluorosulfonate membranes. The water sorption characteristics, diffusion coefficient of water, electroosmotic drag, and conductivity will be compared for these materials. The intrinsic properties of the membranes will be the basis of our comparison. An objective look at transport parameters should enable us to compare membranes without the skewing effects of extensive features such as membrane thickness. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Determination of the chemical properties of residues retained in individual cloud droplets by XRF microprobe at SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C.-J. E-mail: ma@uji.energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tohno, S.; Kasahara, M.; Hayakawa, S

    2004-06-01

    To determine the chemical properties of residue retained in individual cloud droplets is primarily important for the understanding of rainout mechanism and aerosol modification in droplet. The sampling of individual cloud droplets were carried out on the summit of Mt. Taiko located in Tango peninsula, Kyoto prefecture, during Asian dust storm event in March of 2002. XRF microprobe system equipped at SPring-8, BL-37XU was applied to the subsequent quantification analysis of ultra trace elements in residues of individual cloud droplets. It was possible to form the replicas of separated individual cloud droplets on the thin collodion film. The two dimensional XRF maps for the residues in individual cloud droplets were clearly drawn by scanning of micro-beam. Also, XRF spectra of trace elements in residues were well resolved. From the XRF spectra for individual residues, the chemical mixed state of residues could be assumed. The chemical forms of Fe (Fe{sup +++}) and Zn (Zn{sup +}) could be clearly characterized by their K-edge micro-XANES spectra. By comparison of Z/Si mass ratios of residues in cloud droplets and those of the original sands collected in desert areas in China, the aging of ambient dust particles and their in cloud modification were indirectly assumed.

  10. Vertical distribution of microphysical properties of Arctic springtime low-level mixed-phase clouds over the Greenland and Norwegian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioche, Guillaume; Jourdan, Olivier; Delanoë, Julien; Gourbeyre, Christophe; Febvre, Guy; Dupuy, Régis; Monier, Marie; Szczap, Frédéric; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Gayet, Jean-François

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to characterize the microphysical and optical properties of ice crystals and supercooled liquid droplets within low-level Arctic mixed-phase clouds (MPCs). We compiled and analyzed cloud in situ measurements from four airborne spring campaigns (representing 18 flights and 71 vertical profiles in MPCs) over the Greenland and Norwegian seas mainly in the vicinity of the Svalbard archipelago. Cloud phase discrimination and representative vertical profiles of the number, size, mass and shape of ice crystals and liquid droplets are established. The results show that the liquid phase dominates the upper part of the MPCs. High concentrations (120 cm-3 on average) of small droplets (mean values of 15 µm), with an averaged liquid water content (LWC) of 0.2 g m-3 are measured at cloud top. The ice phase dominates the microphysical properties in the lower part of the cloud and beneath it in the precipitation region (mean values of 100 µm, 3 L-1 and 0.025 g m-3 for diameter, particle concentration and ice water content (IWC), respectively). The analysis of the ice crystal morphology shows that the majority of ice particles are irregularly shaped or rimed particles; the prevailing regular habits found are stellars and plates. We hypothesize that riming and diffusional growth processes, including the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) mechanism, are the main growth mechanisms involved in the observed MPCs. The impact of larger-scale meteorological conditions on the vertical profiles of MPC properties was also investigated. Large values of LWC and high concentration of smaller droplets are possibly linked to polluted situations and air mass origins from the south, which can lead to very low values of ice crystal size and IWC. On the contrary, clean situations with low temperatures exhibit larger values of ice crystal size and IWC. Several parameterizations relevant for remote sensing or modeling studies are also determined, such as IWC (and LWC) - extinction

  11. Statistical properties of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Jones

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the complex interaction between aerosol, cloud, and atmospheric properties, it is difficult to extract their individual effects to observed rainfall amount. This research uses principle component analysis (PCA that combines Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aerosol and cloud products, NCEP Reanalysis atmospheric products, and rainrate estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM precipitation radar (PR to assess if aerosols affect warm rain processes. Data collected during September 2006 over the Amazon basin in South America during the biomass-burning season are used. The goal of this research is to combine these observations into a smaller number of variables through PCA with each new variable having a unique physical interpretation. In particular, we are concerned with PC variables whose weightings include aerosol optical thickness (AOT, as these may be an indicator of aerosol indirect effects. If they are indeed occurring, then PC values that include AOT should change as a function of rainrate.

    To emphasize the advantage of PCA, changes in aerosol, cloud, and atmospheric observations are compared to rainrate. Comparing no-rain, rain, and heavy rain only (>5 mm h−1 samples, we find that cloud thicknesses, humidity, and upward motion are all greater during rain and heavy rain conditions. However, no statistically significant difference in AOT exists between each sample, indicating that atmospheric conditions are more important to rainfall than aerosol concentrations as expected. If aerosols are affecting warm process clouds, it would be expected that stratiform precipitation would decrease as a function increasing aerosol concentration through either Twomey and/or semi-direct effects. PCA extracts the latter signal in a variable labeled PC2, which explains 15% of the total variance and is second in importance the variable (PC1 containing the broad atmospheric conditions. PC2

  12. The Mass Distribution and Assembly of the Milky Way from the Properties of the Magellanic Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busha, Michael T.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Zurich U.; Marshall, Philip J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Oxford U.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Klypin, Anatoly; /New Mexico State U.; Primack, Joel; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept.

    2012-02-29

    We present a new measurement of the mass of the Milky Way (MW) based on observed properties of its largest satellite galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), and an assumed prior of a {Lambda}CDM universe. The large, high-resolution Bolshoi cosmological simulation of this universe provides a means to statistically sample the dynamical properties of bright satellite galaxies in a large population of dark matter halos. The observed properties of the MCs, including their circular velocity, distance from the center of the MW, and velocity within the MW halo, are used to evaluate the likelihood that a given halo would have each or all of these properties; the posterior probability distribution function (PDF) for any property of the MW system can thus be constructed. This method provides a constraint on the MW virial mass, 1.2{sup +0.7} - {sub 0.4}(stat.){sup +0.3} - {sub 0.3}(sys.) x 10{sup 12} M {circle_dot} (68% confidence), which is consistent with recent determinations that involve very different assumptions. In addition, we calculate the posterior PDF for the density profile of the MW and its satellite accretion history. Although typical satellites of 10{sup 12} M {circle_dot} halos are accreted over a wide range of epochs over the last 10 Gyr, we find a {approx}72% probability that the MCs were accreted within the last Gyr, and a 50% probability that they were accreted together.

  13. Broken Cloud Field Longwave-Scattering Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, E. E.; Ellingson, R. G.

    2000-05-01

    Throughout most of the shortwave spectrum, atmospheric gases do not absorb the abundant amount of incoming solar radiation. The shortwave-scattering albedo of clouds is very large. The combination of large amounts of incoming solar radiation, low gaseous absorptivity, and large cloud-scattering albedo enables clouds at one level of the atmosphere to affect the shortwave radiative transfer at all other atmospheric levels. Absorption by atmospheric gases is much stronger in the longwave. This localizes the effects of clouds in the longwave. Since longwave absorption is weakest in the window region (8-12 m), cloud effects there will have the greatest chance of propagating to other levels of the atmosphere. In partially overcast conditions, individual cloud geometry and optical properties are important factors. Longwave calculations of most GCMs ignore individual cloud geometry. For liquid water clouds, the optical properties of clouds are also ignored.Previous work in the window region by Takara and Ellingson considered opaque clouds with no absorption or emission by atmospheric gases. Under those conditions, the effect of cloud scattering was comparable to cloud geometry. In this work, the comparison of longwave scattering and geometric effects in the window region is improved by including partially transparent clouds and adding absorption and emission by atmospheric gases. The results show that for optically thick water clouds, it is sufficient to model the geometry; scattering can be neglected. The window region errors are less than 5 W m2 for fluxes and 0.05 K day1 for heating rates. The flat-plate approximation worked for ice clouds; the window region flux errors are less than 3 W m2 with heating rate errors less than 0.05 K day1.

  14. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  15. Long-term changes in the water quality of rainfall, cloud water and stream water for moorland, forested and clear-felled catchments at Plynlimon, mid-Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term changes in the water quality of rainfall, cloud water and stream waters draining acidic and acid sensitive moorland and forested catchments at Plynlimon, mid-Wales, are examined for the period 1983 to 2001. Atmospheric inputs of chloride and sulphate are influenced by the relative inputs of clean maritime and polluted land based air masses. There is no systematic increase or decrease over time for chloride and non-sea-salt sulphate. Rather, there is a decadal scale process possibly representative of the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation that affects the maritime and pollution climate of the Atlantic seaboard of the UK. Over 17 years of study, there may be a small decrease in non-sea-salt sulphate of about 10 μeq l-1 and a small improvement in acid neutralising capacity of about 20 to 30 μeq l-1 in rainfall. There is a clear improvement in cloud water chemistry with respect to pollutant components (ammonium, nitrate, non-sea-salt sulphate and acidity (acid neutralising capacity improved by about 300 μeq l-1 through the study period. Many of the changes in cloud water chemistry are similar to rainfall over the same period except the magnitude of change is larger for the cloud water. Within the streams, there is some evidence for reductions in acidity as reflected by acid neutralising capacity becoming less negative. For one stream, deforestation occurred during the sampling period and this led to large increases in nitrate and smaller increases in aluminium midway through the study period. However, the climate and hydrological variability largely masked out other changes. The current analysis provides only a start to identifying trends for such a complex and variable environmental system. The need for strong statistical tools is emphasised to resolve issues of: (a hydrological induced water quality variability, (b changing soil and groundwater "endmember" chemistry contribution to the stream and (c the non-linear patterns of

  16. Ammonia, Water Clouds and Methane Abundances of Giant Exoplanets and Opportunities for Super-Earth Exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Renyu

    2014-01-01

    Future direct-imaging exoplanet missions such as WFIRST/AFTA, Exo-C, and Exo-S will measure the reflectivity of exoplanets at visible wavelengths. The exoplanets to be observed will be located further away from their parent stars than is Earth from the Sun. These "cold" exoplanets have atmospheric environments conducive for the formation of water and/or ammonia clouds, like Jupiter in the Solar System. We study the science return from direct-imaging exoplanet missions, focusing on the exoplan...

  17. A Cloud-Resolving Modeling Intercomparison Study on Properties of Cloud Microphysics, Convection, and Precipitation for a Squall Line Cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J.; Han, B.; Morrison, H.; Varble, A.; Mansell, E.; Milbrandt, J.; Wang, Y.; Lin, Y.; Dong, X.; Giangrande, S. E.; Jensen, M. P.; Collis, S. M.; North, K.; Kollias, P.

    2015-12-01

    The large spread in CRM model simulations of deep convection and aerosol effects on deep convective clouds (DCCs) makes it difficult (1) to further our understanding of deep convection and (2) to define "benchmarks" and recommendations for their use in parameterization developments. Past model intercomparison studies used different models with different complexities of dynamic-microphysics interactions, making it hard to isolate the causes of differences between simulations. In this intercomparison study, we employed a much more constrained approach - with the same model and same experiment setups for simulations with different cloud microphysics schemes (one-moment, two-moment, and bin models). Both the piggybacking and interactive approaches are employed to explore the major microphysical processes that control the model differences and the significance of their feedback to dynamics through latent heating/cooling and cold pool characteristics. Real-case simulations are conducted for the squall line case 20 May 2011 from the MC3E field campaign. Results from the piggybacking approach show substantially different responses of the microphysics schemes to the same dynamical fields. Although the interactive microphysics-dynamics simulations buffer some differences compared with those from the piggyback runs, large differences still exist and are mainly contributed by ice microphysical processes parameterizations. The presentation will include in-depth analyses of the major microphysical processes for the squall line case, the significance of the feedback of the processes to dynamics, and how those results differ in different cloud microphysics schemes.

  18. Retrieval of Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth under Day and Night Conditions from MODIS Collection 6 Cloud Property Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Heidinger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique to generate cirrus optical depth and particle effective size estimates from the cloud emissivities at 8.5, 11 and 12 μm contained in the Collection-6 (C6 MYD06 cloud product. This technique employs the latest scattering models and scattering radiative transfer approximations to estimate cloud optical depth and particle effective size using efficient analytical formulae. Two scattering models are tested. The first is the same scattering model as that used in the C6 MYD06 solar reflectance products. The second model is an empirical model derived from radiometric consistency. Both models are shown to generate optical depths that compare well to those from constrained CALIPSO retrievals and MYD06. In terms of effective radius retrievals, the results from the radiometric empirical model agree more closely with MYD06 than those from the C6 model. This analysis is applied to AQUA/MODIS data collocated with CALIPSO/CALIOP during January 2010.

  19. The variability of tropical ice cloud properties as a function of the large-scale context from ground-based radar-lidar observations over Darwin, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Protat, Alain; Delanoë, Julien; May, P. T.; Haynes, J.; Jakob, C.; O'Connor, E.; Pope, M.; Wheeler, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    The high complexity of cloud parameterizations now held in models puts more pressure on observational studies to provide useful means to evaluate them. One approach to the problem put forth in the modelling community is to evaluate under what atmospheric conditions the parameterizations fail to simulate the cloud properties and under what conditions they do a good job. It is the ambition of this paper to characterize the variability of the statistical properties of tropical ice clouds in diff...

  20. Water balances of old-growth and regenerating montane cloud forests in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Villers, L. E.; Holwerda, F.; Gómez-Cárdenas, M.; Equihua, M.; Asbjornsen, H.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Marín-Castro, B. E.; Tobón, C.

    2012-09-01

    SummaryThis paper compares the water budgets of two adjacent micro-catchments covered by mature (MAT) and 20-year-old secondary (SEC) lower montane cloud forests, respectively, in central Veracruz, Mexico over a 2-year period. Rainfall (P) and streamflow (Q) were measured continuously, whereas dry canopy evaporation (transpiration Et), wet canopy evaporation (rainfall interception I), and cloud water interception (CWI) were quantified using a combination of field measurements and modeling. Mean annual P was 3467 mm, of which typically 80% fell during the wet season (May-October). Fog interception occurred exclusively during the dry season (November-April), and was ⩽2% of annual P for both forests. Rainfall interception loss was dominated by post-event evaporation of intercepted water rather than by within-event evaporation. Therefore, the higher overall I (i.e. including CWI) by the MAT (16% of P vs. 8% for the SEC) reflects a higher canopy storage capacity, related in turn to higher leaf area index and greater epiphyte biomass. Annual Et totals derived from sapflow measurements were nearly equal for the MAT and SEC (˜790 mm each). Total annual water yield calculated as P minus (Et + I) was somewhat higher for the SEC (2441 mm) than for the MAT (2077 mm), and mainly reflects the difference in I. Mean annual Q was also higher for the SEC (1527 mm) than for the MAT (1338 mm), and consisted mostly of baseflow (˜90%). Baseflow recession rates were nearly equal between the two forests, as were stormflow coefficients (4% and 5% for MAT and SEC, respectively). The very low runoff response to rainfall is attributed to the high infiltration and water retention capacities of the volcanic soils throughout the ˜2 m deep profile. The water budget results indicate that ˜875 and 700 mm year-1 leave the SEC and MAT as deep groundwater leakage, which is considered plausible given the fractured geology in the study area. It is concluded that 20 years of natural regeneration

  1. The albedo properties of four clean stratocumulus clouds studied during the VOCALS-REX field campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, B; Rosenberg, P; Gadian, A.; Blyth, A.; Latham, J

    2012-01-01

    The VOCALS-REx field campaign which took place in 2008 used several platforms to investigate the persistent marine stratocumulus cloud deck off the Chilean and Peruvian coasts. VOCALS-UK was the UK component of the experiment, during which the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft gathered data in the stratocumulus cloud. It flew 13 research flights including investigations along 20° S transects.

    In this paper, the shortwave cloud albedo derived from the Cloud Droplet Probe is compared ...

  2. Spectral Dependence of MODIS Cloud Droplet Effective Radius Retrievals for Marine Boundary Layer Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Platnick, Steven E.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Cho, Hyoun-Myoung

    2014-01-01

    Low-level warm marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds cover large regions of Earth's surface. They have a significant role in Earth's radiative energy balance and hydrological cycle. Despite the fundamental role of low-level warm water clouds in climate, our understanding of these clouds is still limited. In particular, connections between their properties (e.g. cloud fraction, cloud water path, and cloud droplet size) and environmental factors such as aerosol loading and meteorological conditions continue to be uncertain or unknown. Modeling these clouds in climate models remains a challenging problem. As a result, the influence of aerosols on these clouds in the past and future, and the potential impacts of these clouds on global warming remain open questions leading to substantial uncertainty in climate projections. To improve our understanding of these clouds, we need continuous observations of cloud properties on both a global scale and over a long enough timescale for climate studies. At present, satellite-based remote sensing is the only means of providing such observations.

  3. Microphysics and Southern Ocean Cloud Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Daniel T.

    Global climate models (GCMs) change their cloud properties in the Southern Ocean (SO) with warming in a qualitatively consistent fashion. Cloud albedo increases in the mid-latitudes and cloud fraction decreases in the subtropics. This creates a distinctive 'dipole' structure in the SW cloud feedback. However, the shape of the dipole varies from model to model. In this thesis we discuss the microphysical mechanisms underlying the SW cloud feedback over the mid-latitude SO. We will focus on the negative lobe of the dipole. The negative SW cloud feedback in the mid-latitudes is created by transitions from ice to liquid in models. If ice transitions to liquid in mixed-phase clouds the cloud albedo increases because ice crystals are larger than liquid droplets and therefore more reflective for a constant mass of water. Decreases in precipitation efficiency further enhance this effect by decreasing sinks of cloud water. This transition is dependent on the mixed-phase cloud parameterization. Parameterizations vary wildly between models and GCMs disagree by up to 35 K on the temperature where ice and liquid are equally prevalent. This results in a wide spread in the model predictions of the increase in liquid water path (LWP, where the path is the vertically integrated mass of water) with warming that drives the negative optical depth cloud feedback. It is found that this disagreement also results in a wide array of climate mean-states as models that create liquid at lower temperatures have a higher mean-state LWP, lower ice water path (IWP), and higher condensed (ice and liquid) water path (CWP). This presents a problem in climate models. GCMs need to have a reasonable planetary albedo in their climate mean-state. We show evidence that GCMs have tuned cloud fraction to compensate for the variation in mid-latitude cloud albedo driven by the mixed-phase cloud parameterization. This tuning results in mid-latitude clouds that are both too few and too bright as well as a

  4. Cloud/Fog Computing System Architecture and Key Technologies for South-North Water Transfer Project Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoling Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the real-time and distributed features of Internet of Things (IoT safety system in water conservancy engineering, this study proposed a new safety system architecture for water conservancy engineering based on cloud/fog computing and put forward a method of data reliability detection for the false alarm caused by false abnormal data from the bottom sensors. Designed for the South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP, the architecture integrated project safety, water quality safety, and human safety. Using IoT devices, fog computing layer was constructed between cloud server and safety detection devices in water conservancy projects. Technologies such as real-time sensing, intelligent processing, and information interconnection were developed. Therefore, accurate forecasting, accurate positioning, and efficient management were implemented as required by safety prevention of the SNWTP, and safety protection of water conservancy projects was effectively improved, and intelligential water conservancy engineering was developed.

  5. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of water isotope fractionation during ice crystal growth in clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guoping; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a lattice Boltzmann (LB) method for simulating water isotope fractionation during diffusion-limited ice crystal growth by vapor deposition from water-oversaturated air. These conditions apply to the growth of snow crystals in clouds where the vapor composition is controlled by the presence of both ice crystals and water droplets. Modeling of water condensation with the LB method has the advantage of allowing concentration fields to evolve based on local conditions so that the controls on grain shapes of the condensed phase can be studied simultaneously with the controls on isotopic composition and growth rate. Water isotope fractionation during snow crystal growth involves kinetic effects due to diffusion of water vapor in air, which requires careful consideration of the boundary conditions at the ice-vapor interface. The boundary condition is relatively simple for water isotopes because the molecular exchange rate for water at the interface is large compared to the crystal growth rate. Our results for the bulk crystal isotopic composition are consistent with simpler models using analytical solutions for radial geometry. However, the model results are sufficiently different for oxygen isotopes that they could affect the interpretation of D-excess values of snow and ice. The extent of vapor oversaturation plays a major role in determining the water isotope fractionation as well as the degree of dendritic growth. Departures from isotopic equilibrium increase at colder temperatures as diffusivity decreases. Dendritic crystals are isotopically heterogeneous. Isotopic variations within individual snow crystals could yield information on the microphysics of ice condensation as well as on the accommodation or sticking coefficient of water associated with vapor deposition. Our results are ultimately a first step in implementing LB models for kinetically controlled condensation or precipitation reactions, but needs to be extended also to cases where the

  6. Grey water impact on soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel L. Murcia-Sarmiento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing demand for food produced by the increase in population, water as an indispensable element in the growth cycle of plants every day becomes a fundamental aspect of production. The demand for the use of this resource is necessary to search for alternatives that should be evaluated to avoid potential negative impacts. In this paper, the changes in some physical properties of soil irrigated with synthetic gray water were evaluated. The experimental design involved: one factor: home water and two treatments; without treated water (T1 and treated water (T2. The variables to consider in the soil were: electrical conductivity (EC, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, average weighted diameter (MWD and soil moisture retention (RHS. The water used in drip irrigation high frequency was monitored by tensiometer for producing a bean crop (Phaseolous vulgaris L. As filtration system used was employed a unit composed of a sand filter (FLA and a subsurface flow wetland artificial (HFSS. The treatments showed significant differences in the PSI and the RHS. The FLA+HFSS system is an alternative to the gray water treatment due to increased sodium retention.

  7. Comparing lightning polarity and cloud microphysical properties over regions of high ground flash density in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, LA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find a correlation between lightning polarity and microphysical properties of a storm cloud, for events where large amounts of lightning damage have occured and/or there has been a reported lightning-related fatality....

  8. Cloud Water Path Over China: An Analysis Using ISCCP Data During 1984- 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Guo, X.; Zhu, J.

    2006-12-01

    Analysis of cloud water path (CWP) data over China available by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) is performed for the period 1984-2004. The climatology, trends, and variability of CWP are examined. The climatological distribution and variation of CWP are dependent on the circulation, especially the monsoon circulation, topography and atmospheric moisture. Influenced by the Asia monsoon, China's CWP exhibits very large seasonal variations. All-China average shows the maximum CWP in June and the minimum CWP in October. Under the influences of the Tibetan Plateau and the westerly flow, the largest CWP is found in winter and early spring in the southeastern China. Linear regression analysis is used to characterize seasonal and annual trends in CWP. Increasing trends in CWP are observed over much of China. The northwestern China, especially over the Tibetan Plateau, and the Inner Mongolia show significant increases of CWP. The largest increase in CWP is in winter and the increasing trend is weakest in spring. These increases in CWP are primarily dependent on the enhanced updraft deduced by the variation of circulation, including the weakening of the summer monsoon system. According to the EOF analysis, step-like increase in CWP is also found (EOF1) during 1984-2004 and the variation of CWP is statistically significant correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in EOF2. Interannual variation and trends in CWP and water vapor are closely correlated in China, confirming the enhanced hydrological cycle under the background of global warming. The correlations among CWP, water vapor and precipitation in the southeastern and the northwestern China are investigated. In summertime the higher correlation are found between CWP and precipitation than that between water vapor and precipitation in the both regions.

  9. Comparison of the SAWNUC model with CLOUD measurements of sulphuric acid-water nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Sebastian; Ickes, Luisa; Almeida, Joao; Amorim, Antonio; Barmet, Peter; Bianchi, Federico; Dommen, Josef; Dunne, Eimear M; Duplissy, Jonathan; Franchin, Alessandro; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kirkby, Jasper; Kürten, Andreas; Kupc, Agnieszka; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Rondo, Linda; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Steiner, Gerhard; Tomé, António; Wimmer, Daniela; Baltensperger, Urs; Wagner, Paul E; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-10-27

    Binary nucleation of sulphuric acid-water particles is expected to be an important process in the free troposphere at low temperatures. SAWNUC (Sulphuric Acid Water Nucleation) is a model of binary nucleation that is based on laboratory measurements of the binding energies of sulphuric acid and water in charged and neutral clusters. Predictions of SAWNUC are compared for the first time comprehensively with experimental binary nucleation data from the CLOUD chamber at European Organization for Nuclear Research. The experimental measurements span a temperature range of 208-292 K, sulphuric acid concentrations from 1·10(6) to 1·10(9) cm(-3), and distinguish between ion-induced and neutral nucleation. Good agreement, within a factor of 5, is found between the experimental and modeled formation rates for ion-induced nucleation at 278 K and below and for neutral nucleation at 208 and 223 K. Differences at warm temperatures are attributed to ammonia contamination which was indicated by the presence of ammonia-sulphuric acid clusters, detected by an Atmospheric Pressure Interface Time of Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometer. APi-TOF measurements of the sulphuric acid ion cluster distributions ( (H2SO4)i·HSO4- with i = 0, 1, ..., 10) show qualitative agreement with the SAWNUC ion cluster distributions. Remaining differences between the measured and modeled distributions are most likely due to fragmentation in the APi-TOF. The CLOUD results are in good agreement with previously measured cluster binding energies and show the SAWNUC model to be a good representation of ion-induced and neutral binary nucleation of sulphuric acid-water clusters in the middle and upper troposphere.

  10. The effect of spatial resolution upon cloud optical property retrievals. I - Optical thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feind, Rand E.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1992-01-01

    High spectral and spatial resolution Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) imagery is used to study the effects of spatial resolution upon fair weather cumulus cloud optical thickness retrievals. As a preprocessing step, a variation of the Gao and Goetz three-band ratio technique is used to discriminate clouds from the background. The combination of the elimination of cloud shadow pixels and using the first derivative of the histogram allows for accurate cloud edge discrimination. The data are progressively degraded from 20 m to 960 m spatial resolution. The results show that retrieved cloud area increases with decreasing spatial resolution. The results also show that there is a monotonic decrease in retrieved cloud optical thickness with decreasing spatial resolution. It is also demonstrated that the use of a single, monospectral reflectance threshold is inadequate for identifying cloud pixels in fair weather cumulus scenes and presumably in any inhomogeneous cloud field. Cloud edges have a distribution of reflectance thresholds. The incorrect identification of cloud edges significantly impacts the accurate retrieval of cloud optical thickness values.

  11. Effects of Aerosol on Cloud Liquid Water Path: Statistical Method a Potential Source for Divergence in Past Observation Based Correlative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmane Sy Savane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies show a divergence in correlation between aerosol and cloud proxies, which has been thought of in the past as the results of varying physical mechanisms. Though modeling studies have supported this idea, from an observational standpoint it is difficult to attribute with confidence the correlations to specific physical mechanisms. We explore a methodology to assess the correlation between cloud water path and aerosol optical depth using Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aqua retrieved aerosol and cloud properties for absorbing and non-absorbing aerosol types over land and over the Atlantic Ocean for various meteorological conditions. The data covers a three-month period, June through August, during which different aerosol types are predominant in specific regions. Our approach eliminates outliers; sorts the data into aerosol bins; and the mean Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD value for each bin and the corresponding mean Cloud Water Path (CWP value are determined. The mean CWP is plotted against the mean AOD. The response curve for all aerosol types shows a peak CWP value corresponding to an aerosol loading value AODpeak. The peak is used to divide the total range of aerosol loading into two sub ranges. For AOD value below AODpeak, mean CWP and mean AOD are positively correlated. The correlation between mean CWP and mean AOD is negative for aerosol loading above AODpeak. Irrespective of aerosol type, atmospheric water vapor content and lower tropospheric static stability, the peak observed for each aerosol type seems to describe a universal feature that calls for further investigation. It has been observed for a variety of geographical locations and different seasons.

  12. Impact of emissions from shipping, land, and the ocean on stratocumulus cloud water elemental composition during the 2011 E-PEACE field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Sorooshian, A.; Prabhakar, G.; Coggon, M. M.; Jonsson, H. H.

    2014-06-01

    This study reports on cloud water chemical and pH measurements off the California coast during the July-August 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE). Eighty two cloud water samples were collected by a slotted-rod cloud water collector protruding above the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter in boundary layer stratocumulus clouds impacted to varying degrees by ocean-derived emissions, ship exhaust, and land emissions. Cloud water pH ranged between 2.92 and 7.58, with an average of 4.46. Peak pH values were observed north of San Francisco, simultaneous with the highest concentrations of Si, B, and Cs, and air masses originating over land. The lowest pH values were observed south of San Francisco due to ship emissions resulting in the highest concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, V, Fe, Al, P, Cd, Ti, Sb, P, and Mn. Many of these species act as important agents in aqueous-phase reactions in cloud drops and are critical ocean micronutrients after subsequent wet deposition in an ocean system that can be nutrient-limited. E-PEACE measurements suggest that conditions in the California coastal zone region can promote the conversion of micronutrients to more soluble forms, if they are not already, due to acidic cloud water conditions, the ubiquity of important organic agents such as oxalic acid, and the persistence of stratocumulus clouds to allow for continuous cloud processing.

  13. Properties of dust and clouds in the Mars atmosphere: Analysis of Viking IRTM emission phase function sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. T.; Lee, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of emission-phase-function (EPF) observations from the Viking Orbiter Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) yields a wide variety of results regarding dust and cloud scattering in the Mars atmosphere and atmospheric-corrected albedos for the surface of Mars. A multiple scattering radiative transfer model incorporating a bidirectional phase function for the surface and atmospheric scattering by dust and clouds is used to derive surface albedos and dust and ice optical properties and optical depths for these various conditions on Mars.

  14. Microphysical properties of cirrus clouds between 75°N and 25°S derived from extensive airborne in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Martina

    2016-04-01

    Numerous airborne field campaigns were performed in the last decades to record cirrus clouds microphysical properties. Beside the understanding of the processes of cirrus formation and evolution, an additional motivation for those studies is to provide a database to evaluate the representation of cirrus clouds in global climate models. This is of importance for an improved certainty of climate predictions, which are affected by the poor understanding of the microphysical processes of ice clouds (IPCC, 2013). To this end, the observations should ideally cover the complete respective parameter range and not be influenced by instrumental artifacts. However, due to the difficulties in measuring cirrus properties on fast-flying, high-altitude aircraft, some issues with respect to the measurements %evolved have arisen. In particular, concerns about the relative humidity in and around cirrus clouds and the ice crystal number concentrations were under discussion. Too high ice supersaturations as well as ice number concentrations were often reported. These issues have made more challenging the goal of compiling a large database using data from a suite of different instruments that were used on different campaigns. In this study, we have have addressed these challenges and compiled a large data set of cirrus clouds, sampled during eighteen field campaigns between 75°N and 25°S, representing measurements fulfilling the above mentioned requirements. The most recent campaigns were performed in 2014; namely, the ATTREX campaign with the research aircraft Global Hawk and the ML-CIRRUS and ACRIDICON campaigns with HALO. % The observations include ice water content (IWC: 130 hours of observations), ice crystal numbers (N_ice: 83 hours), ice crystal mean mass size (Rice: 83 hours) and relative humidity (RH_ice) in- and outside of cirrus clouds (78 and 140 hours). % We will present the parameters as PDFs versus temperature and derive medians and core ranges (including the most

  15. Estimation of convective entrainment properties from a cloud-resolving model simulation during TWP-ICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang J.; Wu, Xiaoqing; Zeng, Xiping; Mitovski, Toni

    2016-10-01

    The fractional entrainment rate in convective clouds is an important parameter in current convective parameterization schemes of climate models. In this paper, it is estimated using a 1-km-resolution cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulation of convective clouds from TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment). The clouds are divided into different types, characterized by cloud-top heights. The entrainment rates and moist static energy that is entrained or detrained are determined by analyzing the budget of moist static energy for each cloud type. Results show that the entrained air is a mixture of approximately equal amount of cloud air and environmental air, and the detrained air is a mixture of ~80 % of cloud air and 20 % of the air with saturation moist static energy at the environmental temperature. After taking into account the difference in moist static energy between the entrained air and the mean environment, the estimated fractional entrainment rate is much larger than those used in current convective parameterization schemes. High-resolution (100 m) large-eddy simulation of TWP-ICE convection was also analyzed to support the CRM results. It is shown that the characteristics of entrainment rates estimated using both the high-resolution data and CRM-resolution coarse-grained data are similar. For each cloud category, the entrainment rate is high near cloud base and top, but low in the middle of clouds. The entrainment rates are best fitted to the inverse of in-cloud vertical velocity by a second order polynomial.

  16. Is the filamentary dark cloud GF 6 a star forming region? — Stability analysis and infrared properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeheon; Kim, Hyun-Goo; Kim, Sang Joon; Zhang, Bo

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of mapping observations and stability analyses toward the filamentary dark cloud GF 6. We investigate the internal structures of a typical filamentary dark cloud GF 6 to know whether the filamentary dark cloud will form stars. We perform radio observations with both 12CO (J=1-0) and 13CO (J=1-0) emission lines to examine the mass distribution and its evolutionary status. The 13CO gas column density map shows eight subclumps in the GF 6 region with sizes on a sub-pc scale. The resulting local thermodynamic equilibrium masses of all the subclumps are too low to form stars against the turbulent dissipation. We also investigate the properties of embedded infrared point sources to know whether they are newly formed stars. The infrared properties also indicate that these point sources are not related to star forming activities associated with GF 6. Both radio and infrared properties indicate that the filamentary dark cloud GF 6 is too light to contract gravitationally and will eventually be dissipated away.

  17. Retrieval of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Microphysical Properties from Lidar Measurements: Dependence on Particle Shape Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, J.; Reichardt, S.; Yang, P.; McGee, T. J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A retrieval algorithm has been developed for the microphysical analysis of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) optical data obtained using lidar instrumentation. The parameterization scheme of the PSC microphysical properties allows for coexistence of up to three different particle types with size-dependent shapes. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method has been used to calculate optical properties of particles with maximum dimensions equal to or less than 2 mu m and with shapes that can be considered more representative of PSCs on the scale of individual crystals than the commonly assumed spheroids. Specifically. these are irregular and hexagonal crystals. Selection of the optical parameters that are input to the inversion algorithm is based on a potential data set such as that gathered by two of the lidars on board the NASA DC-8 during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 0 p (SAGE) Ozone Loss Validation experiment (SOLVE) campaign in winter 1999/2000: the Airborne Raman Ozone and Temperature Lidar (AROTEL) and the NASA Langley Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). The 0 microphysical retrieval algorithm has been applied to study how particle shape assumptions affect the inversion of lidar data measured in leewave PSCs. The model simulations show that under the assumption of spheroidal particle shapes, PSC surface and volume density are systematically smaller than the FDTD-based values by, respectively, approximately 10-30% and approximately 5-23%.

  18. Energy and water vapor transport across a simplified cloud-clear air interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallana, L.; Di Savino, S.; De Santi, F.; Iovieno, M.; Tordella, D.

    2014-11-01

    We consider a simplified physics of the could interface where condensation, evaporation and radiation are neglected and momentum, thermal energy and water vapor transport is represented in terms of the Boussinesq model coupled to a passive scalar transport equation for the vapor. The interface is modeled as a layer separating two isotropic turbulent regions with different kinetic energy and vapor concentration. In particular, we focus on the small scale part of the inertial range of the atmospheric boundary layer as well as on the dissipative range of scales which are important to the micro-physics of warm clouds. We have numerically investigated stably stratified interfaces by locally perturbing at an initial instant the standard temperature lapse rate at the cloud interface and then observing the temporal evolution of the system. When the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial one, we observe a spatial redistribution of the kinetic energy which produce a concomitant pit of kinetic energy within the mixing layer. In this situation, the mixing layer contains two interfacial regions with opposite kinetic energy gradient, which in turn produces two intermittent sublayers in the velocity fluctuations field. This changes the structure of the field with respect to the corresponding non-stratified shearless mixing: the communication between the two turbulent region is weak, and the growth of the mixing layer stops. These results are discussed with respect to Large Eddy Simulations data for the Planetary Boundary Layers.

  19. Upper tropospheric water vapour and its interaction with cirrus clouds as seen from IAGOS long-term routine in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Andreas; Krämer, Martina; Neis, Patrick; Rolf, Christian; Rohs, Susanne; Berkes, Florian; Smit, Herman G. J.; Gallagher, Martin; Beswick, Karl; Lloyd, Gary; Baumgardner, Darrel; Spichtinger, Peter; Nédélec, Philippe; Ebert, Volker; Buchholz, Bernhard; Riese, Martin; Wahner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) performs long-term routine in-situ observations of atmospheric chemical composition (ozone, CO, NOx, NOy, CO2, CH4), water vapour, aerosols, clouds and temperature on a global scale by operating compact instruments on board of passenger aircraft. The unique characteristics of the IAGOS data set originate from the global-scale sampling on air traffic routes with similar instrumentation such that the observations are truly comparable and well suited for atmospheric research on a statistical basis. Here, we present the analysis of 15 months of simultaneous observations of relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) and ice crystal number concentration in cirrus (Nice) from July 2014 to October 2015. The joint data set of 360 hours of RHice - Nice observations in the global upper troposphere and tropopause region is analysed with respect to the in-cloud distribution of RHice and related cirrus properties. The majority of the observed cirrus is thin with Nice < 0.1 cm-3. The respective fractions of all cloud observations range from 90% over the mid-latitude North Atlantic Ocean and the Eurasian continent to 67% over the subtropical and tropical Pacific Ocean. The in-cloud RHice distributions do not depend on the geographical region of sampling. Types of cirrus origin (in situ origin, liquid origin) are inferred for different Nice regimes and geographical regions. Most important, we found that in-cloud RHice shows a strong correlation to Nice with slightly supersaturated dynamic equilibrium RHice associated to higher Nice values in stronger updrafts.

  20. Cirrus Heterogeneity Effects on Cloud Optical Properties Retrieved with an Optimal Estimation Method from MODIS VIS to TIR Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchez, T.; Platnick, S.; Meyer, K.; Sourdeval, O.; Cornet, C.; Zhang, Z.; Szczap, F.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents preliminary results on the effect of cirrus heterogeneities on top-of-atmosphere (TOA) simulated radiances or reflectances for MODIS channels centered at 0.86, 2.21, 8.56, 11.01 and 12.03 micrometers , and on cloud optical properties retrieved with a research-level optimal estimation method (OEM). Synthetic cirrus cloud fields are generated using a 3D cloud generator (3DCLOUD) and radiances/reflectances are simulated using a 3D radiative transfer code (3DMCPOL). We find significant differences between the heterogeneity effects on either visible and near-infrared (VNIR) or thermal infrared (TIR) radiances. However, when both wavelength ranges are combined, heterogeneity effects are dominated by the VNIR horizontal radiative transport effect. As a result, small optical thicknesses are overestimated and large ones are underestimated. Retrieved effective diameter are found to be slightly affected, contrarily to retrievals using TIR channels only.

  1. Cirrus heterogeneity effects on cloud optical properties retrieved with an optimal estimation method from MODIS VIS to TIR channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchez, T.; Platnick, S.; Sourdeval, O.; Meyer, K.; Cornet, C.; Zhang, Z.; Szczap, F.

    2017-02-01

    This study presents preliminary results on the effect of cirrus heterogeneities on top-of-atmosphere (TOA) simulated radiances or reflectances for MODIS channels centered at 0.86, 2.21, 8.56, 11.01 and 12.03 µm, and on cloud optical properties retrieved with a research-level optimal estimation method (OEM). Synthetic cirrus cloud fields are generated using a 3D cloud generator (3DCLOUD) and radiances/reflectances are simulated using a 3D radiative transfer code (3DMCPOL). We find significant differences between the heterogeneity effects on either visible and near-infrared (VNIR) or thermal infrared (TIR) radiances. However, when both wavelength ranges are combined, heterogeneity effects are dominated by the VNIR horizontal radiative transport effect. As a result, small optical thicknesses are overestimated and large ones are underestimated. Retrieved effective diameter are found to be slightly affected, contrarily to retrievals using TIR channels only.

  2. Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Property Retrievals from High-Resolution ASTER Observations: Case Studies and Comparison with Terra MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Frank; Wind, Galina; Zhang, Zhibo; Platnick, Steven; Di Girolamo, Larry; Zhao, Guangyu; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Meyer, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    A research-level retrieval algorithm for cloud optical and microphysical properties is developed for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra satellite. It is based on the operational MODIS algorithm. This paper documents the technical details of this algorithm and evaluates the retrievals for selected marine boundary layer cloud scenes through comparisons with the operational MODIS Data Collection 6 (C6) cloud product. The newly developed, ASTERspecific cloud masking algorithm is evaluated through comparison with an independent algorithm reported in Zhao and Di Girolamo (2006). To validate and evaluate the cloud optical thickness (tau) and cloud effective radius (r(sub eff)) from ASTER, the high-spatial-resolution ASTER observations are first aggregated to the same 1000m resolution as MODIS. Subsequently, tau(sub aA) and r(sub eff, aA) retrieved from the aggregated ASTER radiances are compared with the collocated MODIS retrievals. For overcast pixels, the two data sets agree very well with Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients of R greater than 0.970. However, for partially cloudy pixels there are significant differences between r(sub eff, aA) and the MODIS results which can exceed 10 micrometers. Moreover, it is shown that the numerous delicate cloud structures in the example marine boundary layer scenes, resolved by the high-resolution ASTER retrievals, are smoothed by the MODIS observations. The overall good agreement between the research-level ASTER results and the operational MODIS C6 products proves the feasibility of MODIS-like retrievals from ASTER reflectance measurements and provides the basis for future studies concerning the scale dependency of satellite observations and three-dimensional radiative effects.

  3. Effect of the droplet activation process on microphysical properties of warm clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Kentaroh; NAKAJIMA, Teruyuki; Nakajima, Takashi Y.; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the droplet activation process on microphysical characteristics of warm clouds represented by correlation statistics between cloud droplet effective radius re and cloud optical thickness τc. The conceptual adiabatic model is first employed to interpret satellite-observed re-τc correlation statistics over two different regions and to reveal distinctively different increasing patterns of droplet number concentration between these regions. This difference is...

  4. Semi-empirical lake level (SELL) model for mapping lake water depths from partially clouded satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N.; Senay, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    Information on the variability in surface water is critical to understand the impact of climate change and global water cycle. Surface water features such as lakes, or reservoirs can affect local weather and regional climate. Hence, there is a widespread demand for accurate and quantitative global observations of surface water variability. Satellite imagery provides a direct way to monitor variations in surface water. However, estimating accurate surface area from satellite imagery can be a problem due to clouds. Hence, the use of optical imagery for operational implementation has been a challenge for monitoring variations in surface water. In this research, a semi-empirical lake level (SELL) model is developed to derive lake/reservoir water levels from partially covered satellite imagery. SRTM elevation combined with bathymetry was used to derive the relationships between lake depth vs. surface area and shore line (L). Using these relationships, lake level/depth (D) was estimated from the surface area (A) and/or shore line (L) delineated from Landsat and MODIS data. The SELL model was applied on Lake Turkana, one of the rift valley lakes in East Africa. First, Lake Turkana water levels were delineated using cloud-free or partially clouded Landsat and MODIS imagery over 1993-2009 and 2002-2009 time periods respectively. Historic lake depths were derived using 1972-1992 Landsat imagery. Lake depths delineated using this approach were validated using TOPEX/Poseidon/Jason satellite altimetry data. It was found that lake depths derived using SELL model matched reasonably well with the satellite altimetry data. The approach presented in this research can be used to (a) simulate lake water level variations in data scarce regions (b) increase the frequency of observation in regions where cloud cover is a problem (c) operationally monitor lake water levels in ungauged basins (d) derive historic lake level information using satellite data.

  5. An energy balance model exploration of the impacts of interactions between surface albedo, water vapour and clouds on polar amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodergren, Helena; McDonald, Adrian; Bodeker, Greg

    2017-04-01

    The interactions between surface albedo, water vapour and clouds, and how these interactions change with carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere, are examined with a newly developed energy balance model. A particular focus is the non-linear interactions of these climate system attributes on polar amplification. Polar amplification is defined here as the ratio of the annual rate of surface warming over the polar regions (latitudes poleward of 60o) to the surface warming over equatorial regions (latitudes equatorward of 30o), and is termed the polar amplification factor. Changes in surface albedo plays a major role in polar amplification as might be expected, due to its amplifying effects of CO2 -induced warming of the polar regions, and relatively small warming effects in the equatorial regions. When considered in isolation from the other climate system components, i.e. when water vapour and cloud cover are prescribed, changes in surface albedo result in a polar amplification factor of 4.83 for a doubling of CO2, compared to 5.54 for the full feedback simulation, i.e. the simulation where all three components are allowed to simultaneously change with temperature. In our simple model framework, changes in surface albedo are responsible for 43% of the polar warming from the full feedback run, and 49% of the equatorial warming. The polar amplification for the simulation with isolated climate feedback from cloud cover variations is smaller than the simulation with isolated surface albedo feedback, mainly due to a weaker warming in the polar regions. The polar amplification factor for the isolated cloud cover feedback simulation is 3.73, contributing 30% of the warming in the polar regions to the full feedback simulation and 45% in the equatorial regions. The amplifying effect from changing surface albedo on polar warming and polar amplification is enhanced when surface albedo interacts with cloud cover or water vapour. The polar amplification factor is

  6. Tropical montane cloud forests in the Orinoco river basin: the role of soil organic layers in water storage and release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez Correal, B.H.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Teuling, Adriaan; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Leemans, H.B.J.

    2017-01-01

    The Tropical Montane Cloud Forest (TMCF) is a hydrologically unique and highly vulnerable ecosystem to changes in land-use and climate. Assessing the impacts of these changes needs to consider soil-water dynamics. In particular, the organic layer and its functioning requires attention because its

  7. Comparison of the SAWNUC model with CLOUD measurements of sulphuric acid-water nucleation

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrhart, Sebastian; Almeida, Joao; Amorim, Antonio; Barmet, Peter; Bianchi, Federico; Dommen, Josef; Dunne, Eimear M; Duplissy, Jonathan; Franchin, Alessandro; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kirkby, Jasper; Kürten, Andreas; Kupc, Agnieszka; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Rondo, Linda; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Steiner, Gerhard; Tomé, António; Wimmer, Daniela; Baltensperger, Urs; Wagner, Paul E; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Binary nucleation of sulphuric acid-water particles is expected to be an important process in the free troposphere at low temperatures. SAWNUC (Sulphuric Acid Water Nucleation) is a model of binary nucleation that is based on laboratory measurements of the binding energies of sulphuric acid and water in charged and neutral clusters. Predictions of SAWNUC are compared for the first time comprehensively with experimental binary nucleation data from the CLOUD chamber at European Organization for Nuclear Research. The experimental measurements span a temperature range of 208–292 K, sulphuric acid concentrations from 1·106 to 1·109 cm−3, and distinguish between ion-induced and neutral nucleation. Good agreement, within a factor of 5, is found between the experimental and modeled formation rates for ion-induced nucleation at 278 K and below and for neutral nucleation at 208 and 223 K. Differences at warm temperatures are attributed to ammonia contamination which was indicated by the presence of ammonia-sulphu...

  8. Linear Contrail Coverage and Cloud Property Retrievals from 2012 MODIS Imagery over the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, D. P.; Minnis, P.; Chee, T.; Khlopenkov, K. V.; Bedka, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    contrail coverage data using a multi-spectral cloud property retrieval method will also be shown. The contrail coverage and physical property data will also be included in radiative transfer calculations to estimate radiative forcing due to linear contrails over the Northern Hemisphere during 2012.

  9. The Radiative Properties of Small Clouds: Multi-Scale Observations and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, Graham [NOAA ESRL; McComiskey, Allison [CIRES, University of Colorado

    2013-09-25

    Warm, liquid clouds and their representation in climate models continue to represent one of the most significant unknowns in climate sensitivity and climate change. Our project combines ARM observations, LES modeling, and satellite imagery to characterize shallow clouds and the role of aerosol in modifying their radiative effects.

  10. Improving Climate Projections by Understanding How Cloud Phase affects Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, Gregory; Storelvmo, Trude

    2017-01-01

    Whether a cloud is predominantly water or ice strongly influences interactions between clouds and radiation coming down from the Sun or up from the Earth. Being able to simulate cloud phase transitions accurately in climate models based on observational data sets is critical in order to improve confidence in climate projections, because this uncertainty contributes greatly to the overall uncertainty associated with cloud-climate feedbacks. Ultimately, it translates into uncertainties in Earth's sensitivity to higher CO2 levels. While a lot of effort has recently been made toward constraining cloud phase in climate models, more remains to be done to document the radiative properties of clouds according to their phase. Here we discuss the added value of a new satellite data set that advances the field by providing estimates of the cloud radiative effect as a function of cloud phase and the implications for climate projections.

  11. Thermodynamic properties and cloud droplet activation of a series of oxo-acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frosch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the thermodynamic properties of four aliphatic oxo-dicarboyxlic acids identified or thought to be present in atmospheric particulate matter: oxosuccinic acid, 2-oxoglutaric acid, 3-oxoglutaric acid, and 4-oxopimelic acid. The compounds were characterized in terms of their cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity, vapor pressure, density, and tendency to decarboxylate in aqueous solution. We deployed a variety of experimental techniques and instruments: a CCN counter, a Tandem Differential Mobililty Analyzer (TDMA coupled with a laminar flow-tube, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The presence of the oxo functional group in the α-position causes the vapor pressure of the compounds to diminish by an order of magnitude with respect to the parent dicarboxylic acid, while the CCN activity is similar or increased. Dicarboxylic acids with an oxo-group in the β-position decarboxylate in aqueous solution. We studied the effects of this process on our measurements and findings.

  12. On the observation of unusual high concentration of small chain-like aggregate ice crystals and large ice water contents near the top of a deep convective cloud during the CIRCLE-2 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Gayet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the CIRCLE-2 experiment carried out over Western Europe in May 2007, combined in situ and remote sensing observations allowed to describe microphysical and optical properties near-top of an overshooting convective cloud (11 080 m/−58 °C. The airborne measurements were performed with the DLR Falcon aircraft specially equipped with a unique set of instruments for the extensive in situ cloud measurements of microphysical and optical properties (Polar Nephelometer, FSSP-300, Cloud Particle Imager and PMS 2-D-C and nadir looking remote sensing observations (DLR WALES Lidar. Quasi-simultaneous space observations from MSG/SEVIRI, CALIPSO/CALIOP-WFC-IIR and CloudSat/CPR combined with airborne RASTA radar reflectivity from the French Falcon aircraft flying above the DLR Falcon depict very well convective cells which overshoot by up to 600 m the tropopause level. Unusual high values of the concentration of small ice particles, extinction, ice water content (up to 70 cm−3, 30 km−1 and 0.5 g m−3, respectively are experienced. The mean effective diameter and the maximum particle size are 43 μm and about 300 μm, respectively. This very dense cloud causes a strong attenuation of the WALES and CALIOP lidar returns. The SEVIRI retrieved parameters confirm the occurrence of small ice crystals at the top of the convective cell. Smooth and featureless phase functions with asymmetry factors of 0.776 indicate fairly uniform optical properties. Due to small ice crystals the power-law relationship between ice water content (IWC and radar reflectivity appears to be very different from those usually found in cirrus and anvil clouds. For a given equivalent reflectivity factor, IWCs are significantly larger for the overshooting cell than for the cirrus. Assuming the same prevalent microphysical properties over the depth of the overshooting cell, RASTA reflectivity profiles scaled into ice water content show that retrieved

  13. Water relations and microclimate around the upper limit of a cloud forest in Maui, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsch, Sybil G; Crausbay, Shelley D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Weintraub, Alexis E; Longman, Ryan J; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Hotchkiss, Sara C; Dawson, Todd E

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effects of atmospheric demand on both plant water relations and daily whole-tree water balance across the upper limit of a cloud forest at the mean base height of the trade wind inversion in the tropical trade wind belt. We measured the microclimate and water relations (sap flow, water potential, stomatal conductance, pressure-volume relations) of Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich. var. polymorpha in three habitats bracketing the cloud forest's upper limit in Hawai'i to understand the role of water relations in determining ecotone position. The subalpine shrubland site, located 100 m above the cloud forest boundary, had the highest vapor pressure deficit, the least amount of rainfall and the highest levels of nighttime transpiration (EN) of all three sites. In the shrubland site, on average, 29% of daily whole-tree transpiration occurred at night, while on the driest day of the study 50% of total daily transpiration occurred at night. While EN occurred in the cloud forest habitat, the proportion of total daily transpiration that occurred at night was much lower (4%). The average leaf water potential (Ψleaf) was above the water potential at the turgor loss point (ΨTLP) on both sides of the ecotone due to strong stomatal regulation. While stomatal closure maintained a high Ψleaf, the minimum leaf water potential (Ψleafmin) was close to ΨTLP, indicating that drier conditions may cause drought stress in these habitats and may be an important driver of current landscape patterns in stand density. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Cloud Nucleating Properties of Aerosols During TexAQS - GoMACCS 2006: Influence of Aerosol Sources, Composition, and Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Coffman, D. J.; Covert, D. S.; Onasch, T. B.; Alllan, J. D.; Worsnop, D.

    2006-12-01

    TexAQS - GoMACCS 2006 was conducted from July to September 2006 in the Gulf of Mexico and Houston Ship Channel to investigate sources and processing of gas and particulate phase species and to determine their impact on regional air quality and climate. As part of the experiment, the NOAA R.V. Ronald H. Brown transited from Charleston, S.C. to the study region. The ship was equipped with a full compliment of gas and aerosol instruments. To determine the cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, measurements were made of the aerosol number size distribution, aerosol chemical composition, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration at five supersaturations. During the transit and over the course of the experiment, a wide range of aerosol sources and types was encountered. These included urban and industrial emissions from the S.E. U.S. as the ship left Charleston, a mixture of Saharan dust and marine aerosol during the transit around Florida and across the Gulf of Mexico, urban emissions from Houston, and emissions from the petrochemical industries, oil platforms, and marine vessels in the Gulf coast region. Highest activation ratios (ratio of CCN to total particle number concentration at 0.4 percent supersaturation) were measured in anthropogenic air masses when the aerosol was composed primarily of ammonium sulfate salts and in marine air masses with an aerosol composed of sulfate and sea salt. A strong gradient in activation ratio was measured as the ship moved from the Gulf of Mexico to the end of the Houston Ship Channel (values decreasing from about 0.8 to less than 0.1) and the aerosol changed from marine to industrial. The activation ratio under these different regimes in addition to downwind of marine vessels and oil platforms will be discussed in the context of the aerosol size distribution and chemical composition. The discussion of composition will include the organic mass fraction of the aerosol, the degree of oxidation of the organics, and the water

  15. Physicochemical properties of concentrated Martian surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosca, Nicholas J.; McLennan, Scott M.; Lamb, Michael P.; Grotzinger, John P.

    2011-05-01

    Understanding the processes controlling chemical sedimentation is an important step in deciphering paleoclimatic conditions from the rock records preserved on both Earth and Mars. Clear evidence for subaqueous sedimentation at Meridiani Planum, widespread saline mineral deposits in the Valles Marineris region, and the possible role of saline waters in forming recent geomorphologic features all underscore the need to understand the physical properties of highly concentrated solutions on Mars in addition to, and as a function of, their distinct chemistry. Using thermodynamic models predicting saline mineral solubility, we generate likely brine compositions ranging from bicarbonate-dominated to sulfate-dominated and predict their saline mineralogy. For each brine composition, we then estimate a number of thermal, transport, and colligative properties using established models that have been developed for highly concentrated multicomponent electrolyte solutions. The available experimental data and theoretical models that allow estimation of these physicochemical properties encompass, for the most part, much of the anticipated variation in chemistry for likely Martian brines. These estimates allow significant progress in building a detailed analysis of physical sedimentation at the ancient Martian surface and allow more accurate predictions of thermal behavior and the diffusive transport of matter through chemically distinct solutions under comparatively nonstandard conditions.

  16. The potential influence of Asian and African mineral dust on ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiacek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This modelling study explores the availability of mineral dust particles as ice nuclei for interactions with ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds, also tracking the particles' history of cloud-processing. We performed 61 320 one-week forward trajectory calculations originating near the surface of major dust emitting regions in Africa and Asia using high-resolution meteorological analysis fields for the year 2007. Dust-bearing trajectories were assumed to be those coinciding with known dust emission seasons, without explicitly modelling dust emission and deposition processes. We found that dust emissions from Asian deserts lead to a higher potential for interactions with high ice clouds, despite being the climatologically much smaller dust emission source. This is due to Asian regions experiencing significantly more ascent than African regions, with strongest ascent in the Asian Taklimakan desert at ~25%, ~40% and 10% of trajectories ascending to 300 hPa in spring, summer and fall, respectively. The specific humidity at each trajectory's starting point was transported in a Lagrangian manner and relative humidities with respect to water and ice were calculated in 6-h steps downstream, allowing us to estimate the formation of liquid, mixed-phase and ice clouds. Downstream of the investigated dust sources, practically none of the simulated air parcels reached conditions of homogeneous ice nucleation (T≲−40 °C along trajectories that have not experienced water saturation first. By far the largest fraction of cloud forming trajectories entered conditions of mixed-phase clouds, where mineral dust will potentially exert the biggest influence. The majority of trajectories also passed through atmospheric regions supersaturated with respect to ice but subsaturated with respect to water, where so-called "warm ice clouds" (T≳−40 °C theoretically may form prior to supercooled water or mixed-phase clouds. The importance of "warm ice

  17. Connecting Tropical Marine Cloud Structures to Boundary Layer Properties and the Effect of Sea State on Whitecap Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-08

    on whitecap coverage Steven Howell Department of Oceanography University of Hawaii 1000 Pope Rd, Honolulu, HI 96822 phone: (808)956-5185 email...efforts to lead to improved modeling and predictability of marine aerosol concentrations and optical properties. 2 Objectives During the PASE project in...Approach It is often difficult to determine whether clouds are organized when one is among them. We used satellite imagery to classify regions we flew

  18. Environmental monitoring of phenolic pollutants in water by cloud point extraction prior to micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stege, Patricia W; Sombra, Lorena L; Messina, Germán A; Martinez, Luis D; Silva, María F

    2009-05-01

    Many aromatic compounds can be found in the environment as a result of anthropogenic activities and some of them are highly toxic. The need to determine low concentrations of pollutants requires analytical methods with high sensitivity, selectivity, and resolution for application to soil, sediment, water, and other environmental samples. Complex sample preparation involving analyte isolation and enrichment is generally necessary before the final analysis. The present paper outlines a novel, simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly method for the simultaneous determination of p-nitrophenol (PNP), p-aminophenol (PAP), and hydroquinone (HQ) by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography after preconcentration by cloud point extraction. Enrichment factors of 180 to 200 were achieved. The limits of detection of the analytes for the preconcentration of 50-ml sample volume were 0.10 microg L(-1) for PNP, 0.20 microg L(-1) for PAP, and 0.16 microg L(-1) for HQ. The optimized procedure was applied to the determination of phenolic pollutants in natural waters from San Luis, Argentina.

  19. Environmental monitoring of phenolic pollutants in water by cloud point extraction prior to micellar electrokinetic chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stege, Patricia W.; Sombra, Lorena L.; Messina, German A.; Martinez, Luis D. [National University of San Luis, CONICET, INQUISAL, Department of Chemistry, San Luis (Argentina); Silva, Maria F. [Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Departamento de Biomatematica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Mendoza (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-05-15

    Many aromatic compounds can be found in the environment as a result of anthropogenic activities and some of them are highly toxic. The need to determine low concentrations of pollutants requires analytical methods with high sensitivity, selectivity, and resolution for application to soil, sediment, water, and other environmental samples. Complex sample preparation involving analyte isolation and enrichment is generally necessary before the final analysis. The present paper outlines a novel, simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly method for the simultaneous determination of p-nitrophenol (PNP), p-aminophenol (PAP), and hydroquinone (HQ) by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography after preconcentration by cloud point extraction. Enrichment factors of 180 to 200 were achieved. The limits of detection of the analytes for the preconcentration of 50-ml sample volume were 0.10{mu}g L{sup -1} for PNP, 0.20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for PAP, and 0.16{mu}g L{sup -1} for HQ. The optimized procedure was applied to the determination of phenolic pollutants in natural waters from San Luis, Argentina. (orig.)

  20. A new airborne Polar Nephelometer for the measurement of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part II: Preliminary tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Crépel

    Full Text Available A new optical sensor, the airborne Polar Nephelometer, has been tested in an open wind tunnel. The wind tunnel was operated in cloudy conditions including either cloud water droplets or ice crystals, or a mixture of these particles. The sensor is designed to measure the optical and microphysical parameters of cloud particles sized from a few micrometers to about 500 µm diameter. Basically, the probe measures the scattering phase function of an ensemble of cloud particles which intersect a collimated laser beam near the focal point of a paraboloidal mirror. From the measured scattering phase function the retrieval of the droplet-size spectra and subsequent derived quantities such as liquid water content and size parameters can be calculated using an inversion method. The particle phase discrimination (water droplets/ice particles can be derived from the shape of the scattering phase function and the sensitivity of the probe allows the detection of small ice crystals (typically of 5 µm diameter. The paper describes the preliminary results obtained by the prototype version of the Polar Nephelometer in various cloudy conditions. These results are compared with direct microphysical measurements obtained by usual PMS probes also mounted in the wind tunnel. Complementary results obtained in a cold chamber are presented in order to illustrate the reliability of the Polar Nephelometer in the presence of small ice crystals.

  1. A new airborne Polar Nephelometer for the measurement of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part II: Preliminary tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Crépel

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A new optical sensor, the airborne Polar Nephelometer, has been tested in an open wind tunnel. The wind tunnel was operated in cloudy conditions including either cloud water droplets or ice crystals, or a mixture of these particles. The sensor is designed to measure the optical and microphysical parameters of cloud particles sized from a few micrometers to about 500 µm diameter. Basically, the probe measures the scattering phase function of an ensemble of cloud particles which intersect a collimated laser beam near the focal point of a paraboloidal mirror. From the measured scattering phase function the retrieval of the droplet-size spectra and subsequent derived quantities such as liquid water content and size parameters can be calculated using an inversion method. The particle phase discrimination (water droplets/ice particles can be derived from the shape of the scattering phase function and the sensitivity of the probe allows the detection of small ice crystals (typically of 5 µm diameter. The paper describes the preliminary results obtained by the prototype version of the Polar Nephelometer in various cloudy conditions. These results are compared with direct microphysical measurements obtained by usual PMS probes also mounted in the wind tunnel. Complementary results obtained in a cold chamber are presented in order to illustrate the reliability of the Polar Nephelometer in the presence of small ice crystals.

  2. WATER ABSORPTION IN GALACTIC TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS: CONDITIONS AND HISTORY OF THE GAS DERIVED FROM HERSCHEL /HIFI PRISMAS OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagey, N.; Goldsmith, P. F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lis, D. C.; Monje, R.; Phillips, T. G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gerin, M.; De Luca, M.; Godard, B. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC and UCP (France); Neufeld, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins Univ. 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sonnentrucker, P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Goicoechea, J. R., E-mail: nflagey@jpl.nasa.gov [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the three ground state transitions of H{sub 2}O (556, 1669, and 1113 GHz) and H{sub 2}{sup 18}O (547, 1655, and 1101 GHz)-as well as the first few excited transitions of H{sub 2}O (987, 752, and 1661 GHz)-toward six high-mass star-forming regions, obtained as part of the PRISMAS (PRobing InterStellar Molecules with Absorption line Studies) Guaranteed Time Key Program. Water vapor associated with the translucent clouds in Galactic arms is detected in absorption along every line of sight in all the ground state transitions. The continuum sources all exhibit broad water features in emission in the excited and ground state transitions. Strong absorption features associated with the source are also observed at all frequencies except 752 GHz. We model the background continuum and line emission to infer the optical depth of each translucent cloud along the lines of sight. We derive the column density of H{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}{sup 18}O for the lower energy level of each transition observed. The total column density of water in translucent clouds is usually about a few 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}. We find that the abundance of water relative to hydrogen nuclei is 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} in agreement with models for oxygen chemistry in which high cosmic ray ionization rates are assumed. Relative to molecular hydrogen, the abundance of water is remarkably constant through the Galactic plane with X(H{sub 2}O) =5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, which makes water a good traced of H{sub 2} in translucent clouds. Observations of the excited transitions of H{sub 2}O enable us to constrain the abundance of water in excited levels to be at most 15%, implying that the excitation temperature, T {sub ex}, in the ground state transitions is below 10 K. Further analysis of the column densities derived from the two ortho ground state transitions indicates that T {sub ex} {approx_equal} 5 K and that the density n(H{sub 2}) in the translucent clouds

  3. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, W. Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.; Hubanks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched aboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties have enabled over twelve years of continuous observations of cloud properties from Terra and over nine years from Aqua. The archived products from these algorithms include 1 km pixel-level (Level-2) and global gridded Level-3 products. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. Results include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties for both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as latitudinal distributions of cloud top pressure and cloud top temperature. MODIS finds the cloud fraction, as derived by the cloud mask, is nearly identical during the day and night, with only modest diurnal variation. Globally, the cloud fraction derived by the MODIS cloud mask is approx.67%, with somewhat more clouds over land during the afternoon and less clouds over ocean in the afternoon, with very little difference in global cloud cover between Terra and Aqua. Overall, cloud fraction over land is approx.55%, with a distinctive seasonal cycle, whereas the ocean cloudiness is much higher, around 72%, with much reduced seasonal variation. Cloud top pressure and temperature have distinct spatial and temporal patterns, and clearly reflect our understanding of the global cloud distribution. High clouds are especially prevalent over the northern hemisphere continents between 30 and 50 . Aqua and Terra have comparable zonal cloud top pressures, with Aqua having somewhat higher clouds (cloud top pressures lower by 100 hPa) over land due to

  4. Investigation of Vortex Clouds and Droplet Sizes in Heated Water Spray Patterns Generated by Axisymmetric Full Cone Nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Naz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hot water sprays are an important part of many industrial processes, where the detailed knowledge of physical phenomena involved in jet transportation, interaction, secondary breakup, evaporation, and coalescence of droplets is important to reach more efficient processes. The objective of the work was to study the water spray jet breakup dynamics, vortex cloud formation, and droplet size distribution under varying temperature and load pressure. Using a high speed camera, the spray patterns generated by axisymmetric full cone nozzles were visualized as a function water temperature and load pressure. The image analysis confirmed that the spray cone angle and width do not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The formation and decay of semitorus like vortex clouds were also noticed in spray structures generated at near water boiling point temperature. For the nozzle with smallest orifice diameter (1.19 mm, these vortex clouds were very clear at 90°C heating temperature and 1 bar water load pressure. In addition, the sauter mean diameter (SMD of the spray droplets was also measured by using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA at different locations downstream of the nozzle exit. It was noticed that SMD varies slightly w.r.t. position when measured at room temperature whereas at higher temperature values, it became almost constant at distance of 55 mm downstream of the nozzle exit.

  5. Macrophysical properties of continental cumulus clouds from active and passive remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Riley, Erin A.; Kleiss, Jessica; Long, Charles N.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Flynn, Donna M.; Flynn, Connor J M.; Berg, Larry K.

    2017-10-06

    Cloud amount is an essential and extensively used macrophysical parameter of cumulus clouds. It is commonly defined as a cloud fraction (CF) from zenith-pointing ground-based active and passive remote sensing. However, conventional retrievals of CF from the remote sensing data with very narrow field-of-view (FOV) may not be representative of the surrounding area. Here we assess its representativeness using an integrated dataset collected at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma, USA. For our assessment with focus on selected days with single-layer cumulus clouds (2005-2016), we include the narrow-FOV ARM Active Remotely Sensed Clouds Locations (ARSCL) and large-FOV Total Sky Imager (TSI) cloud products, the 915-MHz Radar Wind Profiler (RWP) measurements of wind speed and direction, and also high-resolution satellite images from Landsat and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We demonstrate that a root-mean-square difference (RMSD) between the 15-min averaged ARSCL cloud fraction (CF) and the 15-min averaged TSI fractional sky cover (FSC) is large (up to 0.3). We also discuss how the horizontal distribution of clouds can modify the obtained large RMSD using a new uniformity metric. The latter utilizes the spatial distribution of the FSC over the 100° FOV TSI images obtained with high temporal resolution (30 sec sampling). We demonstrate that cases with more uniform spatial distribution of FSC show better agreement between the narrow-FOV CF and large-FOV FSC, reducing the RMSD by up to a factor of 2.

  6. Water-holding Properties of Milk Protein Products - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kneifel, W.; Seiler, A.

    1993-01-01

    Water-holding properties have been well recognized by food technologists among !he diversity of functional properties attributed to milk protein products. In general , water-holding is accomplished by a complexity of interactions between water and milk proteins. Besides the term water-holding, synonyms such as water retention, imbibing and hydration have been used to describe this phenomenon. This paper provides a clearer understanding of this parameter by considering some fundamentals of bot...

  7. On the remote sensing of cloud properties from satellite infrared sounder data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H. Y. M.

    1984-01-01

    A method for remote sensing of cloud parameters by using infrared sounder data has been developed on the basis of the parameterized infrared transfer equation applicable to cloudy atmospheres. The method is utilized for the retrieval of the cloud height, amount, and emissivity in 11 micro m region. Numerical analyses and retrieval experiments have been carried out by utilizing the synthetic sounder data for the theoretical study. The sensitivity of the numerical procedures to the measurement and instrument errors are also examined. The retrieved results are physically discussed and numerically compared with the model atmospheres. Comparisons reveal that the recovered cloud parameters agree reasonably well with the pre-assumed values. However, for cases when relatively thin clouds and/or small cloud fractional cover within a field of view are present, the recovered cloud parameters show considerable fluctuations. Experiments on the proposed algorithm are carried out utilizing High Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS/2) data of NOAA 6 and TIROS-N. Results of experiments show reasonably good comparisons with the surface reports and GOES satellite images.

  8. Uncertainty of Passive Imager Cloud Optical Property Retrievals to Instrument Radiometry and Model Assumptions: Examples from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina; Meyer, Kerry; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Arnold, G. Thomas; Zhang, Zhibo; King, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    The optical and microphysical structure of clouds is of fundamental importance for understanding a variety of cloud radiation and precipitation processes. With the advent of MODIS on the NASA EOS Terra and Aqua platforms, simultaneous global-daily 1 km retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) are provided, as well as the derived water path (WP). The cloud product (MOD06/MYD06 for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively) provides separate retrieval datasets for various two-channel retrievals, typically a VISNIR channel paired with a 1.6, 2.1, and 3.7 m spectral channel. The MOD06 forward model is derived from on a homogeneous plane-parallel cloud. In Collection 5 processing (completed in 2007 with a modified Collection 5.1 completed in 2010), pixel-level retrieval uncertainties were calculated for the following non-3-D error sources: radiometry, surface spectral albedo, and atmospheric corrections associated with model analysis uncertainties (water vapor only). The latter error source includes error correlation across the retrieval spectral channels. Estimates of uncertainty in 1 aggregated (Level-3) means were also provided assuming unity correlation between error sources for all pixels in a grid for a single day, and zero correlation of error sources from one day to the next. I n Collection 6 (expected to begin in late summer 2013) we expanded the uncertainty analysis to include: (a) scene-dependent calibration uncertainty that depends on new band and detector-specific Level 1B uncertainties, (b) new model error sources derived from the look-up tables which includes sensitivities associated with wind direction over the ocean and uncertainties in liquid water and ice effective variance, (c) thermal emission uncertainties in the 3.7 m band associated with cloud and surface temperatures that are needed to extract reflected solar radiation from the total radiance signal, (d) uncertainty in the solar spectral irradiance at 3.7 m, and

  9. Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011: Cloud particles containing ammonia and water ices indicate a deep convective origin. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Baines, K. H.; Fry, P.

    2013-12-01

    Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011 was first detected by amateur astronomers in early December 2010 and later found in Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) images taken on 5 December, when it took the form of a 1000 km wide bright spot. Within a week the head of the storm grew by a factor of ten in width and within a few months created a wake that encircled the planet. This is the sixth Great Saturn Storm in recorded history, all having appeared in the northern hemisphere, and most near northern summer solstice at intervals of roughly 30 years (Sanchez-Lavega et al. 1991, Nature 353, 397-401). That the most recent storm appeared 10 years early proved fortunate because Cassini was still operating in orbit around Saturn and was able to provide unique observations from which we could learn much more about these rare and enormous events. Besides the dramatic dynamical effects displayed at the visible cloud level by high-resolution imaging observations (Sayanagi et al. 2013, Icarus 223, 460-478), dramatic thermal changes also occurred in the stratosphere above the storm (Fletcher et al. 2011, Science 332, 1413), and radio measurements of lightning (Fischer et al., 2011, Nature 475, 75-77) indicated strong convective activity at deeper levels. Numerical models of Saturn's Giant storms (Hueso and Sanchez-Lavega 2004, Icarus 172, 255-271) suggest that they are fueled by water vapor condensation beginning at the 10-12 bar level, some 250 km below the visible cloud tops. That idea is also supported by our detection of water ice near the cloud tops (Sromovsky et al. 2013, Icarus 226, 402-418). From Cassini VIMS spectral imaging taken in February 2011, we learned that the storm's cloud particles are strong absorbers of sunlight at wavelengths from 2.8 to 3.1 microns. Such absorption is not seen on Saturn outside of storm regions, implying a different kind of cloud formation process as well as different cloud composition inside the storm region. We found compelling evidence

  10. Hydration and Hydrogen Bond Network of Water during the Coil-to-Globule Transition in Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Aqueous Solution at Cloud Point Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraga, Keiichiro; Naito, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Tetsuhito; Kondo, Naoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2015-04-30

    Aqueous solutions of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), P-NIPAAm, exhibit a noticeable temperature responsive change in molecular conformation at a cloud point temperature (Tcp). As the temperature rises above Tcp, the extended coil-like P-NIPAAm structure changes into a swollen globule-like conformation as hydration levels decrease and hydrophobic interactions increase. Though water plays an important role in this coil-to-globule transition of P-NIPAAm, the behavior of water molecules and the associated hydrogen-bond (HB) network of the surrounding bulk water are still veiled in uncertainty. In this study, we elucidate changes in the hydration state and the dynamical structure of the water HB network of P-NIPAAm aqueous solutions during the coil-to-globule transition by analyzing the complex dielectric constant in the terahertz region (0.25-12 THz), where bulk water reorientations and intermolecular vibrations of water can be selectively probed. The structural properties of the water HB network were examined in terms of the population of the non-HB water molecules (not directly engaged in the HB network or hydrated to P-NIPAAm) and the tetrahedral coordination of the water molecules engaged in the HB network. We found the hydration number below Tcp (≈10) was decreased to approximately 6.5 as temperature increased, in line with previous studies. The HB network of bulk water becomes more structured as the coil-to-globule phase transition takes place, via decreases in non-HB water and reduction in the orderliness of the tetrahedral HB architecture. Together these results indicate that the coil-to-globule transition is associated with a shift to hydrophobic-dominated interactions that drive thermoresponsive structural changes in the surrounding water molecules.

  11. Dimethylamine as a major alkyl amine species in particles and cloud water: Observations in semi-arid and coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, J.-S.; Crosbie, E.; Maudlin, L. C.; Wang, Z.; Sorooshian, A.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol and cloud water measurements of dimethylamine (DMA), the most abundant amine in this study, were conducted in semi-arid (Tucson, Arizona) and marine (Nucleation in California Experiment, NiCE; central coast of California) areas. In both regions, DMA exhibits a unimodal aerosol mass size distribution with a dominant peak between 0.18 and 0.56 μm. Particulate DMA concentrations increase as a function of marine biogenic emissions, sulfate, BVOC emissions, and aerosol-phase water. Such data supports biogenic sources of DMA, aminium salt formation, and partitioning of DMA to condensed phases. DMA concentrations exhibit positive correlations with various trace elements and most especially vanadium, which warrants additional investigation. Cloud water DMA levels are enhanced significantly during wildfire periods unlike particulate DMA levels, including in droplet residual particles, due to effective dissolution of DMA into cloud water and probably DMA volatilization after drop evaporation. DMA:NH4+ molar ratios peak between 0.18 and 1.0 μm depending on the site and time of year, suggesting that DMA competes better with NH3 in those sizes in terms of reactive uptake by particles.

  12. Retrievals and Comparisons of Various MODIS-Spectrum Inferred Water Cloud Droplet Effective Radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu-Lung, Chang; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bin; Sunny, Sun-Mack; Khaiyer, Mandana M.

    2007-01-01

    Cloud droplet effective radius retrievals from different Aqua MODIS nearinfrared channels (2.1- micrometer, 3.7- micrometer, and 1.6- micrometer) show considerable differences even among most confident QC pixels. Both Collection 004 and Collection 005 MOD06 show smaller mean effective radii at 3.7- micrometer wavelength than at 2.1- micrometer and 1.6- micrometer wavelengths. Differences in effective radius retrievals between Collection 004 and Collection 005 may be affected by cloud top height/temperature differences, which mainly occur for optically thin clouds. Changes in cloud top height and temperature for thin clouds have different impacts on the effective radius retrievals from 2.1- micrometer, 3.7- micrometer, and 1.6- micrometer channels. Independent retrievals (this study) show, on average, more consistency in the three effective radius retrievals. This study is for Aqua MODIS only.

  13. Selective determination of total vanadium in water samples by cloud point extraction of its ternary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filik, Hayati; Yanaz, Zeynep; Apak, Reşat

    2008-07-14

    A highly sensitive micelle-mediated extraction methodology for the preconcentration of trace levels of vanadium as a prior step to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) has been developed. Vanadium was complexed with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) and hydrogen peroxide in acidic medium (0.2 mol L(-1) phosphoric acid) using Triton X-100 as surfactant and quantitatively extracted into a small volume of the surfactant-rich phase after centrifugation. The color reaction of vanadium ions with hydrogen peroxide and PAN in phosphoric acid medium is highly selective. The chemical variables affecting cloud point extraction (CPE) were evaluated and optimized. The R.S.D. for 5 replicate determinations at the 20 microg L(-1)V level was 3.6%. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for vanadium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 0.6 microg L(-1). The method has good sensitivity and selectivity and was applied to the determination of trace amounts of vanadium in water samples with satisfactory result. The proposed method is a rare application of CPE-atomic spectrometry to vanadium assay, and is superior to most other similar methods, because its useful pH range is in the moderately acidic range achieved with phosphoric acid. At this pH, many potential interferents are not chelated with PAN, and iron(III) as the major interferent is bound in a stable phosphate complex.

  14. Development of a Cloud-Point Extraction Method for Cobalt Determination in Natural Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Jamali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, and versatile cloud-point extraction (CPE methodology has been developed for the separation and preconcentration of cobalt. The cobalt ions in the initial aqueous solution were complexed with 4-Benzylpiperidinedithiocarbamate, and Triton X-114 was added as surfactant. Dilution of the surfactant-rich phase with acidified ethanol was performed after phase separation, and the cobalt content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The main factors affecting CPE procedure, such as pH, concentration of ligand, amount of Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature, and incubation time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD for cobalt was 0.5 μg L-1, with sensitivity enhancement factor (EF of 67. Calibration curve was linear in the range of 2–150 μg L-1, and relative standard deviation was 3.2% (c=100 μg L-1; n=10. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trace cobalt in real water samples with satisfactory analytical results.

  15. A new airborne polar Nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part I: Theoretical design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Gayet

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A new optical sensor, the airborne Polar Nephelometer, is described. The sensor is designed to measure the optical and microphysical parameters of clouds containing either water droplets or ice crystals or a mixture of these particles ranging in size from a few micrometers to about 500 µm diameter. The probe measures the scattering phase function of an ensemble of cloud particles intersecting a collimated laser beam near the focal point of a paraboloïdal mirror. The light scattered from polar angles from 3.49° to 169° is reflected onto a circular array of 33 photodiodes. The signal processing electronics and computer storage can provide one measurement of the scattering phase function every 100 ms or every 0.2 ms. The first part of the paper describes the theoretical design of a prototype version of the probe.

  16. A new airborne polar Nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part I: Theoretical design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Gayet

    Full Text Available A new optical sensor, the airborne Polar Nephelometer, is described. The sensor is designed to measure the optical and microphysical parameters of clouds containing either water droplets or ice crystals or a mixture of these particles ranging in size from a few micrometers to about 500 µm diameter. The probe measures the scattering phase function of an ensemble of cloud particles intersecting a collimated laser beam near the focal point of a paraboloïdal mirror. The light scattered from polar angles from 3.49° to 169° is reflected onto a circular array of 33 photodiodes. The signal processing electronics and computer storage can provide one measurement of the scattering phase function every 100 ms or every 0.2 ms. The first part of the paper describes the theoretical design of a prototype version of the probe.

  17. Scattering Properties of Jovian Tropospheric Cloud Particles from Cassini/ISS: Mie Scattering Phase Function and Particle Size in the South Tropical Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takao M.; Satoh, T.; Kasaba, Y.

    2010-10-01

    It is essential to know scattering properties (e.g., scattering phase function) of clouds for determination of vertical cloud structure. However, we cannot derive those from ground-based and Earth-orbit observations because of the limitation of solar phase angle as viewed from the Earth. Then, most previous studies have used the scattering phase function deduced from the Pioneer 10/IPP data (blue: 440 nm, red: 640nm) [Tomasko et al., 1978]. There are two shortcomings in the Pioneer scattering phase function. One is that we have to use this scattering phase function at red as a substitute for analyses of imaging photometry using CH4 bands (center: 727 and 890 nm), although clouds should have wavelength dependency. The other is that the red pass band of IPP was so broad (595-720 nm) that this scattering phase function in red just show wavelength-averaged scattering properties of clouds. To provide a new reference scattering phase function with wavelength dependency, we have analyzed the Cassini/ISS data in BL1 (451 nm), CB1 (619 nm), CB2 (750 nm), and CB3 (938 nm) over wide solar phase angles (3-141 degrees) during its Jovian flyby in 2000-2001. A simple cloud model which consists of a thin stratospheric haze, a semi-infinite cloud, and an intervening Rayleigh gas layers is adopted. Applying Mie theory to scattering by clouds, we deduce the scattering phase function of cloud and effective particle size in the South Tropical Zone. When we use the nominal value of reflective index for ammonia ice (Martonchik et al., 1984), we cannot obtain reasonable fit to the observed limb-darkening profiles. This would imply that we should consider possible effects on the impurity and/or the nonsphericiy of clouds. In this presentation, we will show detail model description and these results. Finally, we discuss scattering properties of clouds through comparison with previous works.

  18. C++ Implementation of IAPWS Water/Steam Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling Zou; Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Qiyue Lu

    2014-02-01

    For the calculations of water-involved systems, such as safety analysis of light water reactors, it is essential to provide accurate water properties. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam is an international non-profit association of national organizations concerned with the properties of water and steam. It provides internationally accepted formulations of water/steam properties for scientific and industrial applications. The purpose of this work is to provide a stand-alone software package in C++ programming language to provide accurate and efficient water/steam properties evaluation, based on the latest IAPWS releases. The discussion on related IAPWS releases, code implementations and verifications are provided in details.

  19. Titan's Aerosol and Condensation Cloud Properties in the Far-IR Between 2005 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of far-IR spectra between 20 and 560 cm(exp -1) (500 to 18 micron) recorded by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) yield the spectral dependence and the vertical distribution of Titan's photochemical aerosol and ice clouds. Titan's aerosol appears to be well mixed between the surface and an altitude of 300 km, with a spectral shape that does not change with latitude or time. The aerosol exhibits an extremely broad emission feature with a spectral peak at 140 cm(exp -1) (71 micron), which is not evident in laboratory simulated Titan aerosols (tholin). This low- energy aerosol emission feature may arise from low-energy molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and/or nitrogenated aromatics. Unlike the vertically well-mixed aerosol, Titan's condensate clouds are located in highly restricted altitudes in the lower stratosphere, ranging between 60 and 100 km at low and moderate latitudes, to between 150 and 165 km at high northern latitudes during northern winter. Such clouds are located at altitudes where nitrile vapors are expected to condense and appear to be dominated by HCN and HC3N, which are the two most abundant nitriles in Titan's atmosphere. Associated with this ice cloud is a broad emission feature that spectrally peaks near 160 cm(exp -1) (62.5 micron). This ice composite appears to chemically change with altitude and latitude, probably as a result of differences in vapor abundance and condensation temperature, and the ice cloud appears to be global in extent. Both CIRS and the Huygens Descent Imager and Spectral Radiometer (DISR) show evidence of cloud layering in Titan's lower stratosphere. The 15 km difference in cloud altitude indicated by the two instruments suggests a difference in ice composition. CIRS also indicates a second ice cloud that exists at isolated latitudes and is consistent with hydrocarbon condensation above the tropopause. This cloud exhibits an emission feature that spectrally peaks near 80 cm(exp -1

  20. The Mars Dust Cycle: Investigating the Effects of Radiatively Active Water Ice Clouds on Surface Stresses and Dust Lifting Potential with the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, Melinda A.; Hollingsworth, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    The dust cycle is a critically important component of Mars' current climate system. Dust is present in the atmosphere of Mars year-round but the dust loading varies with season in a generally repeatable manner. Dust has a significant influence on the thermal structure of the atmosphere and thus greatly affects atmospheric circulation. The dust cycle is the most difficult of the three climate cycles (CO2, water, and dust) to model realistically with general circulation models. Until recently, numerical modeling investigations of the dust cycle have typically not included the effects of couplings to the water cycle through cloud formation. In the Martian atmosphere, dust particles likely provide the seed nuclei for heterogeneous nucleation of water ice clouds. As ice coats atmospheric dust grains, the newly formed cloud particles exhibit different physical and radiative characteristics. Thus, the coupling between the dust and water cycles likely affects the distributions of dust, water vapor and water ice, and thus atmospheric heating and cooling and the resulting circulations. We use the NASA Ames Mars GCM to investigate the effects of radiatively active water ice clouds on surface stress and the potential for dust lifting. The model includes a state-of-the-art water ice cloud microphysics package and a radiative transfer scheme that accounts for the radiative effects of CO2 gas, dust, and water ice clouds. We focus on simulations that are radiatively forced by a prescribed dust map, and we compare simulations that do and do not include radiatively active clouds. Preliminary results suggest that the magnitude and spatial patterns of surface stress (and thus dust lifting potential) are substantial influenced by the radiative effects of water ice clouds.

  1. Automated retrieval of cloud and aerosol properties from the ARM Raman lidar, part 1: feature detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Newsom, Rob K.; Turner, David D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-11-01

    A Feature detection and EXtinction retrieval (FEX) algorithm for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Raman lidar (RL) has been developed. Presented here is part 1 of the FEX algorithm: the detection of features including both clouds and aerosols. The approach of FEX is to use multiple quantities— scattering ratios derived using elastic and nitro-gen channel signals from two fields of view, the scattering ratio derived using only the elastic channel, and the total volume depolarization ratio— to identify features using range-dependent detection thresholds. FEX is designed to be context-sensitive with thresholds determined for each profile by calculating the expected clear-sky signal and noise. The use of multiple quantities pro-vides complementary depictions of cloud and aerosol locations and allows for consistency checks to improve the accuracy of the feature mask. The depolarization ratio is shown to be particularly effective at detecting optically-thin features containing non-spherical particles such as cirrus clouds. Improve-ments over the existing ARM RL cloud mask are shown. The performance of FEX is validated against a collocated micropulse lidar and observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite over the ARM Darwin, Australia site. While we focus on a specific lidar system, the FEX framework presented here is suitable for other Raman or high spectral resolution lidars.

  2. Airborne remote sensing of cloud optical thickness, effective radius, thermodynamic phase and cloud droplet number concentration with SMART-HALO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kevin; Ehrlich, André; Wendisch, Manfred; Crewell, Susanne; Jacob, Marek

    2017-04-01

    Solar spectral measurements of upward and downward irradiance and upward radiance in the wavelength range from 0.3 µm to 2.2 µm by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement system (SMART) on board the High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO) were performed during two campaigns dedicated to investigate cloud properties in different cloud regimes. During NARVAL-II shallow convection in the trade-wind region and deep convection along the ITCZ were investigated over the Atlantic Ocean in August 2016. The NAWDEX campaign focused on clouds along warm-conveyor belts in the North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea in September and October 2016. Applying an iterative retrieval the Liquid Water Path was derived from measurements of the reflected radiation from cloud top at a wavelength of 0.8 µm sensitive to the optical thickness and 1.2 µm, 1.6 µm, and 2.1 µm sensitive to the effective radius with different vertical weighting functions. Using ratios of upward radiance instead of absolute values reduces retrieval uncertainties noticeably. The thermodynamic phase at cloud top was determined by measuring the spectral slopes in the wavelength range between 1.0 µm and 2.2 µm. The statistical cloud situation / frequency of occurrence along the flight track was determined by a cloud discrimination scheme using the different spectral behavior of liquid water clouds and sea surface at wavelengths of 0.8 µm, 1.1 µm and 1.3 µm. All derived cloud properties were used to investigate the spectral cloud top albedo measured simultaneously by SMART-HALO. A statistical analysis of how strong the different cloud properties affect the cloud albedo will be presented. In conjunction with measurements of the Liquid Water Path by the HALO Microwave Package (HAMP) a first estimate of the cloud droplet number concentration for selected flight sections over non-precipitating liquid trade-wind cumulus was achieved.

  3. Size-resolved aerosol water uptake and cloud condensation nuclei measurements as measured above a Southeast Asian rainforest during OP3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irwin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the properties of fine particles on the formation of clouds and precipitation in the tropical atmosphere is of primary importance to their impacts on radiative forcing and the hydrological cycle. Measurements of aerosol number size distribution, hygroscopicity in both sub- and supersaturated regimes and composition were taken between March and July 2008 in the tropical rainforest in Borneo, Malaysia, marking the first study of this type in an Asian tropical rainforest. Hygroscopic growth factors (GF at 90 % relative humidity (RH for the dry diameter range D0 = 32–258 nm, supersaturated water uptake behaviour for the dry diameter range D0 = 45–300 nm and aerosol chemical composition were simultaneously measured using a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (HTDMA, a Droplet Measurement Technologies Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter (CCNc and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS respectively.

    The hygroscopicity parameter κ was derived from both CCNc and HTDMA measurements, with the resulting values of κ ranging from 0.05–0.37, and 0.17–0.37, respectively. Although the total range of κ values is in good agreement, there are inconsistencies between CCNc and HTDMA derived κ values at different dry diameters. Results from a study with similar methodology performed in the Amazon rainforest report values for κ within a similar range to those reported in this work, indicating that the aerosol as measured from both sites shows similar hygroscopic properties. However, the derived number of cloud condensation nuclei (NCCN were much higher in the present experiment than the Amazon, resulting in part from the increased total particle number concentrations observed in the Bornean rainforest. This contrast between the two environments may be of substantial importance in describing the impacts of particles in the tropical atmosphere.

  4. How Often and Why MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals Fail for Liquid-Phase Clouds over Ocean? a Comprehensive Analysis Based on a-Train Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Cho, H. M.; Platnick, S. E.; Meyer, K.; Lebsock, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The cloud optical thickness (τ) and droplet effective radius (re) are two key cloud parameters retrieved by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). These MODIS cloud products are widely used in a broad range of earth system science applications. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of the failed cloud τ and/or re retrievals for liquid-phase clouds over ocean in the Collection 6 MODIS cloud product. The main findings from this study are summarized as follows: MODIS retrieval failure rates for marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds have a strong dependence on the spectral combination used for retrieval (e.g., 0.86 + 2.1 µm vs. 0.8 + 3.7 µm) and the cloud morphology (i.e., "good" pixels vs. partly cloudy (PCL) pixels). Combining all clear-sky-restoral (CSR) categories (CSR=0,1 and 3), the 0.86 + 2.1 µm and 0.86 + 3.7 µm spectral combinations have an overall failure rate of about 20% and 12%, respectively (See figure below). The PCL pixels (CSR=1 & 3) have significantly higher failure rates and contribute more to the total failure population than the "good" (CSR=0) pixels. The majority of the failed retrievals are caused by the re too large failure, which explains about 85% and 70% of the failed 0.86 + 2.1 µm and 0.86 + 3.7 µm retrievals, respectively. The remaining failures are either due to the re too small failure or τ retrieval failure. The geographical distribution of failure rates has a significant dependence on cloud regime, lower over the coastal stratocumulus cloud regime and higher over the broken trade-wind cumulus cloud regime over open oceans. Enhanced retrieval failure rates are found when MBL clouds have high sub-pixel inhomogeneity , or are located at special Sun-satellite viewing geometries, such as sunglint, large viewing or solar zenith angle, or cloudbow and glory angles, or subject to cloud masking, cloud overlapping and/or cloud phase retrieval issues. About 80% of the failure retrievals can be attributed to at

  5. Remote Sensing of Liquid Water and Ice Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius in the Arctic: Application of Airborne Multispectral MAS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Yang, Ping; Arnold, G. Thomas; Gray, Mark A.; Riedi, Jerome C.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    2003-01-01

    A multispectral scanning spectrometer was used to obtain measurements of the reflection function and brightness temperature of clouds, sea ice, snow, and tundra surfaces at 50 discrete wavelengths between 0.47 and 14.0 microns. These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment, conducted over a 1600 x 500 km region of the north slope of Alaska and surrounding Beaufort and Chukchi Seas between 18 May and 6 June 1998. Multispectral images of the reflection function and brightness temperature in 11 distinct bands of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) were used to derive a confidence in clear sky (or alternatively the probability of cloud), shadow, and heavy aerosol over five different ecosystems. Based on the results of individual tests run as part of the cloud mask, an algorithm was developed to estimate the phase of the clouds (water, ice, or undetermined phase). Finally, the cloud optical thickness and effective radius were derived for both water and ice clouds that were detected during one flight line on 4 June. This analysis shows that the cloud mask developed for operational use on MODIS, and tested using MAS data in Alaska, is quite capable of distinguishing clouds from bright sea ice surfaces during daytime conditions in the high Arctic. Results of individual tests, however, make it difficult to distinguish ice clouds over snow and sea ice surfaces, so additional tests were added to enhance the confidence in the thermodynamic phase of clouds over the Beaufort Sea. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals used 3 distinct bands of the MAS, with the newly developed 1.62 and 2.13 micron bands being used quite successfully over snow and sea ice surfaces. These results are contrasted with a MODIS-based algorithm that relies on spectral reflectance at 0.87 and 2.13 micron.

  6. Hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activation of limonene-derived organosulfates and their mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Hong, J.; Raatikainen, T.; Kristensen, K.; Ylisirniö, A.; Virtanen, A.; Petäjä, T.; Glasius, M.; Prisle, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    Organosulfates have been observed as constituents of atmospheric aerosols in a wide range of environments; however their hygroscopic properties remain uncharacterised. Here, limonene-derived organosulfates with a molecular weight of 250 Da (L-OS 250) were synthesised and used for simultaneous measurements with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (H-TDMA) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) to determine the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, for pure L-OS 250 and mixtures of L-OS 250 with ammonium sulfate (AS) over a wide range of humidity conditions. The κ values derived from measurements with H-TDMA decreased with increasing particle dry diameter for all chemical compositions investigated, indicating that κH-TDMA depends on particle diameter and/or surface effects; however, it is not clear if this trend is statistically significant. For pure L-OS 250, κ was found to increase with increasing relative humidity, indicating dilution/solubility effects to be significant. Discrepancies in κ between the sub- and supersaturated measurements were observed for L-OS 250, whereas κ of AS and mixed L-OS 250/AS were similar. This discrepancy was primarily ascribed to limited dissolution of L-OS 250 at subsaturated conditions. In general, hygroscopic growth factor, critical particle diameter and κ for the mixed L-OS 250/AS particles converged towards the values of pure AS for mixtures with ≥ 20 % w / w AS. Surface tension measurements of bulk aqueous L-OS 250/AS solutions showed that L-OS 250 was indeed surface active, as expected from its molecular structure, decreasing the surface tension of solutions with 24 % from the pure water value at a L-OS 250 concentration of 0.0025 mol L-1. Based on these surface tension measurements, we present the first concentration-dependent parametrisation of surface tension for aqueous L-OS 250, which was implemented to different process-level models of L-OS 250 hygroscopicity and CCN activation. The values of κ

  7. Water masses and property distribution in the EEZ of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Singbal, S.Y.S.; George, M.D.

    Water masses and their properties have been studied in the Mauritian during September-October, 1987. Surface water is characterizEd. by two water masses: 1) a warm (temp. 27 degrees C) and relatively saline water (salinity 35.3 x 10 sup(-3)) which...

  8. Impacts of the January 2005 solar particle event on noctilucent clouds and water at the polar summer mesopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Winkler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of noctilucent clouds to the solar particle event in January 2005 is investigated by means of icy particle and ion chemistry simulations. It is shown that the decreasing occurrence rate of noctilucent clouds derived from measurements of the SCIAMACHY/Envisat instrument can be reproduced by one-dimensional model simulations if temperature data from the MLS/Aura instrument are used. The model calculations indicate that the sublimation of noctilucent clouds leads to significant changes of the water distribution in the mesopause region. These model results are compared with H2O measurements from the MLS and the MIPAS/Envisat satellite instruments. The pronounced modelled water enhancement below the icy particle layer and its decrease during the SPE are not observed by the satellite instruments. At altitudes >85 km the satellite measurements show an increase of H2O during the SPE in qualitative agreement with the model predictions. The discrepancies between model H2O and observations at lower altitudes might be attributed to the one-dimensional model approach which in particular neglects inhomogeneities and horizontal transport processes. Additionally, it is revealed that the water depletion due to reactions of proton hydrates during the considered solar particle event has only a minor impact on the icy particles.

  9. Multiwavelength Stellar Polarimetry of the Filamentary Cloud IC5146. I. Dust Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Wei; Lai, Shih-Ping; Eswaraiah, Chakali; Clemens, Dan P.; Chen, Wen-Ping; Pandey, Anil K.

    2017-11-01

    We present optical and near-infrared stellar polarization observations toward the dark filamentary clouds associated with IC5146. The data allow us to investigate the dust properties (this paper) and the magnetic field structure (Paper II). A total of 2022 background stars were detected in the R c , I\\prime , H, and/or K bands to {A}V≲ 25 mag. The ratio of the polarization percentage at different wavelengths provides an estimate of {λ }\\max , the wavelength of the peak polarization, which is an indicator of the small-size cutoff of the grain size distribution. The grain size distribution seems to significantly change at {A}V˜ 3 mag, where both the average and dispersion of {P}{Rc}/{P}H decrease. In addition, we found {λ }\\max ˜ 0.6{--}0.9 μm for {A}V> 2.5 mag, which is larger than the ˜0.55 μm in the general interstellar medium (ISM), suggesting that grain growth has already started in low-A V regions. Our data also reveal that polarization efficiency ({PE}\\equiv {P}λ /{A}V) decreases with A V as a power law in the R c , I\\prime , and K bands with indices of -0.71 ± 0.10, -1.23 ± 0.10, and -0.53 ± 0.09. However, H-band data show a power index change; the PE varies with A V steeply (index of -0.95 ± 0.30) when {A}Vsoftly (index of -0.25 ± 0.06) for greater A V values. The soft decay of PE in high-A V regions is consistent with the radiative alignment torque model, suggesting that our data trace the magnetic field to {A}V˜ 20 mag. Furthermore, the breakpoint found in the H band is similar to that for A V , where we found the {P}{Rc}/{P}H dispersion significantly decreased. Therefore, the flat PE-A V in high-A V regions implies that the power-index changes result from additional grain growth.

  10. Thermodynamic properties and cloud droplet activation of a series of oxo-acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Mia; Platt, Stephen; Zardini, Alessandro; Bilde, Merete

    2010-05-01

    Submicron sized aerosol particles in the Earth's atmosphere influence visibility, human health, and global climate (IPCC, 2007). The organic mass fraction of the atmospheric aerosol has been estimated at 20-90% of the total aerosol mass mass (Kanakidou et al., 2005). Many of the organic species found in the particle phase in the atmosphere are produced via the oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbon emissions such as terpenes and sesquiterpenes (Hallquist et al. 2009). We have investigated the thermodynamic properties of four aliphatic oxo-dicarboyxlic acids identified or thought to be present in atmospheric particulate matter: oxosuccinic acid, 2-oxoglutaric acid, 3-oxoglutaric acid, and 4-oxopimelic acid. The compounds were characterized in terms of their cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, vapor pressure, density, and tendency to decarboxylate in aqueous solution. We deployed a variety of experimental techniques and instruments: a CCN counter, a Tandem Differential Mobililty Analyzer (TDMA) coupled with a laminar flow tube (Bilde, 2003), and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Generally, the presence of the oxo functional group causes the vapor pressure of the compounds to diminish by an order of magnitude with respect to the parent dicarboxylic acid, and it tends to increase the CCN activity. Dicarboxylic acids with an oxo-group in the β-position were found to decarboxylate in aqueous solution. IPCC: Climate Change (2007): The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Kanakidou, M., Seinfeld, J. H., Pandis, S. N., Barnes, I., Dentener, F. J., Facchini, M. C., Van Dingenen, R., Ervens, B., Nenes, A., Nielsen, C. J., Swietlicki, E., Putaud, J. P., Balkanski, Y., Fuzzi, S., Horth, J., Moortgat, G. K., Winterhalter, R., Myhre, C. E. L., Tsigaridis, K., Vignati, E., Stephanou, E. G., and Wilson, J (2005). Atmos

  11. An energy balance model exploration of the impacts of interactions between surface albedo, cloud cover and water vapor on polar amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södergren, A. Helena; McDonald, Adrian J.; Bodeker, Gregory E.

    2017-11-01

    We examine the effects of non-linear interactions between surface albedo, water vapor and cloud cover (referred to as climate variables) on amplified warming of the polar regions, using a new energy balance model. Our simulations show that the sum of the contributions to surface temperature changes due to any variable considered in isolation is smaller than the temperature changes from coupled feedback simulations. This non-linearity is strongest when all three climate variables are allowed to interact. Surface albedo appears to be the strongest driver of this non-linear behavior, followed by water vapor and clouds. This is because increases in longwave radiation absorbed by the surface, related to increases in water vapor and clouds, and increases in surface absorbed shortwave radiation caused by a decrease in surface albedo, amplify each other. Furthermore, our results corroborate previous findings that while increases in cloud cover and water vapor, along with the greenhouse effect itself, warm the polar regions, water vapor also significantly warms equatorial regions, which reduces polar amplification. Changes in surface albedo drive large changes in absorption of incoming shortwave radiation, thereby enhancing surface warming. Unlike high latitudes, surface albedo change at low latitudes are more constrained. Interactions between surface albedo, water vapor and clouds drive larger increases in temperatures in the polar regions compared to low latitudes. This is in spite of the fact that, due to a forcing, cloud cover increases at high latitudes and decreases in low latitudes, and that water vapor significantly enhances warming at low latitudes.

  12. Cloud MicroAtlas∗

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We begin by outlining the life cycle of a tall cloud, and then briefly discuss cloud systems. We choose one aspect of this life cycle, namely, the rapid growth of water droplets in ice- free clouds, to then discuss in greater detail. Taking a single vortex to be a building block of turbulence, we demonstrate one mechanism by ...

  13. Life in the Treetops: Drought Tolerance and Water Balance of Canopy Epiphytes in a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsch, S. G.; Nadkarni, N.; Darby, A.; Dix, M.; Glunk, A.; Davidson, K.; Dawson, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) inhabit regions rich in biodiversity that play an important role in the local and regional water cycle. Canopy plants such as epiphytes and hemiepiphytes are an important component of the biodiversity in the TMCF and therefore play a significant role in the carbon, nutrient and water cycles. With only partial or no access to resources on the ground, canopy plants may be vulnerable to changes in climate that increase canopy temperatures and decrease atmospheric humidity or precipitation inputs. Despite their importance in the TMCF, there is little information regarding drought tolerance and water balance in this community. In this study we quantified variation in functional traits and water relations in 12 species of epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in a Costa Rican TMCF. We also generated pressure-volume curves and xylem vulnerability curves that we used as indicators of drought tolerance. Lastly, we determined the capacity for foliar water uptake in the laboratory and measured whole-plant transpiration in the field. We found that all species had a high turgor loss point (ψTLP), high vulnerability to cavitation (P50), and low bulk elastic modulus (ɛmax, i.e. high cell wall elasticity). These results indicate that capacitance may be high in canopy plants and that stored water may help to maintain high leaf water potentials during dry periods. We also found that all species had the capacity for foliar uptake and that this process contributed substantially to their water status and water balance. On average, foliar uptake contributed to the reabsorption of 70% of the water transpired over a 34-day period at the beginning of the dry season. Our results indicate that canopy plants can mitigate water loss substantially, but they may be vulnerable to changes in the overall precipitation patterns or increases in cloud base heights.

  14. Cloud Droplet Size and Liquid Water Path Retrievals From Zenith Radiance Measurements: Examples From the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and the Aerosol Robotic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, J. C.; Marshak, A.; Huang, C.-H.; Varnai, T.; Hogan, R. J.; Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Knyazikhin, Y.; O'Connor, E. J.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) routinely monitor clouds using zenith radiances at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using the transmittance calculated from such measurements, we have developed a new retrieval method for cloud effective droplet size and conducted extensive tests for non-precipitating liquid water clouds. The underlying principle is to combine a water-absorbing wavelength (i.e. 1640 nm) with a nonwater-absorbing wavelength for acquiring information on cloud droplet size and optical depth. For simulated stratocumulus clouds with liquid water path less than 300 g/sq m and horizontal resolution of 201m, the retrieval method underestimates the mean effective radius by 0.8 m, with a root-mean-squared error of 1.7 m and a relative deviation of 13 %. For actual observations with a liquid water path less than 450 gm.2 at the ARM Oklahoma site during 2007-2008, our 1.5 min-averaged retrievals are generally larger by around 1 m than those from combined ground-based cloud radar and microwave radiometer at a 5min temporal resolution. We also compared our retrievals to those from combined shortwave flux and microwave observations for relatively homogeneous clouds, showing that the bias between these two retrieval sets is negligible, but the error of 2.6 m and the relative deviation of 22% are larger than those found in our simulation case. Finally, the transmittance-based cloud effective droplet radii agree to better than 11% with satellite observations and have a negative bias of 1 m. Overall, the retrieval method provides reasonable cloud effective radius estimates, which can enhance the cloud products of both ARM and AERONET.

  15. The Impact of Surface Albedo on the Retrievals of Low-Level Stratus Cloud Properties: An Updated Parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan

    2005-01-01

    An updated version of Dong et al. (1998, hereafter D98) parameterization is developed from a total of 40 hours of data with a broad range of surface albedos (0.1-0.8) during the 2000-2002 winter seasons at the DOE ARM SGP site. The updated parameterization includes the impact of surface albedo on the retrievals of stratus cloud microphysical and radiative properties, and has a significant improvement over D98 when surface albedo is high. Comparing the retrievals, the cloud-droplet effective radii (r(sub e)) calculated from the updated parameterization have a higher correlation coefficient (0.733) and lower Root-Mean-Square (RMS) error (1.74 m or 17.4%) than those (0.602, 4.0 m or 40%) from the D98. The cloud albedos also have a much higher correlation coefficient (0.983) and lower RMS (3%) than those 0.465, 26%) from the D98. The upper limit of surface albedo is 0.3 in applying the D98.

  16. Assessing the retrieval of cloud properties from radiation measurements over snow and ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831891; Reijmer, C.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229345956; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643

    2011-01-01

    We critically review and improve a simple method to extract year-round records of cloud optical thickness from radiation measurements made by automatic weather stations (AWSs) over snow and ice surfaces. A ‘longwave-equivalent cloudiness’, Nε, obtained from longwave radiation measurements, is

  17. Climate feedbacks in a general circulation model incorporating prognostic clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colman, R.; Fraser, J. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia); Rotstayn, L. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale (Australia)

    2001-11-01

    This study performs a comprehensive feedback analysis on the Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre General Circulation Model, quantifying all important feedbacks operating under an increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The individual feedbacks are analysed in detail, using an offline radiation perturbation method, looking at long- and shortwave components, latitudinal distributions, cloud impacts, non-linearities under 2xCO{sub 2} and 4xCO{sub 2} warmings and at interannual variability. The water vapour feedback is divided into terms due to moisture height and amount changes. The net cloud feedback is separated into terms due to cloud amount, height, water content, water phase, physical thickness and convective cloud fraction. Globally the most important feedbacks were found to be (from strongest positive to strongest negative) those due to water vapour, clouds, surface albedo, lapse rate and surface temperature. For the longwave (LW) response the most important term of the cloud 'optical property' feedbacks is due to the water content. In the shortwave (SW), both water content and water phase changes are important. Cloud amount and height terms are also important for both LW and SW. Feedbacks due to physical cloud thickness and convective cloud fraction are found to be relatively small. All cloud component feedbacks (other than height) produce conflicting LW/SW feedbacks in the model. Furthermore, the optical property and cloud fraction feedbacks are also of opposite sign. The result is that the net cloud feedback is the (relatively small) product of conflicting physical processes. Non-linearities in the feedbacks are found to be relatively small for all but the surface albedo response and some cloud component contributions. The cloud impact on non-cloud feedbacks is also discussed: greatest impact is on the surface albedo, but impact on water vapour feedback is also significant. The analysis method here proves to be a powerful tool for detailing the

  18. Studies on remote sensing method of particle size and water density distribution in mists and clouds using laser radar techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H.; Kobayasi, T.; Inaba, H.

    1979-01-01

    A method of remote measurement of the particle size and density distribution of water droplets was developed. In this method, the size of droplets is measured from the Mie scattering parameter which is defined as the total-to-backscattering ratio of the laser beam. The water density distribution is obtained by a combination of the Mie scattering parameter and the extinction coefficient of the laser beam. This method was examined experimentally for the mist generated by an ultrasonic mist generator and applied to clouds containing rain and snow. Compared with the conventional sampling method, the present method has advantages of remote measurement capability and improvement in accuracy.

  19. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Water Isotope Fractionation During Growth of Ice Crystals in Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G.; Depaolo, D.; Kang, Q.; Zhang, D.

    2006-12-01

    The isotopic composition of precipitation, especially that of snow, plays a special role in the global hydrological cycle and in reconstruction of past climates using polar ice cores. The fractionation of the major water isotope species (HHO, HDO, HHO-18) during ice crystal formation is critical to understanding the global distribution of isotopes in precipitation. Ice crystal growth in clouds is traditionally treated with a spherically- symmetric steady state diffusion model, with semi-empirical modifications added to account for ventilation and for complex crystal morphology. Although it is known that crystal growth rate, which depends largely on the degree of vapor over-saturation, determines crystal morphology, there are no existing quantitative models that directly relate morphology to the vapor saturation factor. Since kinetic (vapor phase diffusion-controlled) isotopic fractionation also depends on growth rate, there should be a direct relationship between vapor saturation, crystal morphology, and crystal isotopic composition. We use a 2D Lattice-Boltzmann model to simulate diffusion-controlled ice crystal growth from vapor- oversaturated air. In the model, crystals grow solely according to the diffusive fluxes just above the crystal surfaces, and hence crystal morphology arises from the initial and boundary conditions in the model and does not need to be specified a priori. The input parameters needed are the isotope-dependent vapor deposition rate constant (k) and the water vapor diffusivity in air (D). The values of both k and D can be computed from kinetic theory, and there are also experimentally determined values of D. The deduced values of k are uncertain to the extent that the sticking coefficient (or accommodation coefficient) for ice is uncertain. The ratio D/k is a length that determines the minimum scale of dendritic growth features and allows us to scale the numerical calculations to atmospheric conditions using a dimensionless Damkohler number

  20. The Survey of Water and Ammonia in the Galactic Center (SWAG): Molecular Cloud Evolution in the Central Molecular Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nico; Ott, Jürgen; Beuther, Henrik; Walter, Fabian; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Meier, David S.; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Contreras, Yanett; Edwards, Phil; Ginsburg, Adam; Henkel, Christian; Henshaw, Jonathan; Jackson, James; Kauffmann, Jens; Longmore, Steven; Martín, Sergio; Morris, Mark R.; Pillai, Thushara; Rickert, Matthew; Rosolowsky, Erik; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Walsh, Andrew; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Zhang, Qizhou

    2017-11-01

    The Survey of Water and Ammonia in the Galactic Center (SWAG) covers the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) of the Milky Way at frequencies between 21.2 and 25.4 GHz obtained at the Australia Telescope Compact Array at ˜0.9 pc spatial and ˜2.0 km s-1 spectral resolution. In this paper, we present data on the inner ˜250 pc (1.°4) between Sgr C and Sgr B2. We focus on the hyperfine structure of the metastable ammonia inversion lines (J, K) = (1, 1)-(6, 6) to derive column density, kinematics, opacity, and kinetic gas temperature. In the CMZ molecular clouds, we find typical line widths of 8-16 km s-1 and extended regions of optically thick (τ > 1) emission. Two components in kinetic temperature are detected at 25-50 K and 60-100 K, both being significantly hotter than the dust temperatures throughout the CMZ. We discuss the physical state of the CMZ gas as traced by ammonia in the context of the orbital model by Kruijssen et al. that interprets the observed distribution as a stream of molecular clouds following an open eccentric orbit. This allows us to statistically investigate the time dependencies of gas temperature, column density, and line width. We find heating rates between ˜50 and ˜100 K Myr-1 along the stream orbit. No strong signs of time dependence are found for column density or line width. These quantities are likely dominated by cloud-to-cloud variations. Our results qualitatively match the predictions of the current model of tidal triggering of cloud collapse, orbital kinematics, and the observation of an evolutionary sequence of increasing star formation activity with orbital phase.

  1. Tomographic retrieval of cloud liquid water fields from a single scanning microwave radiometer aboard a moving platform – Part 1: Field trial results from the Wakasa Bay experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Huang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomographic methods offer great potential for retrieving three-dimensional spatial distributions of cloud liquid water from radiometric observations by passive microwave sensors. Fixed tomographic systems require multiple radiometers, while mobile systems can use just a single radiometer. Part 1 (this paper examines the results from a limited cloud tomography trial with a single-radiometer airborne system carried out as part of the 2003 AMSR-E validation campaign over Wakasa Bay of the Sea of Japan. During this trial, the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR and Microwave Imaging Radiometer (MIR aboard the NASA P-3 research aircraft provided a useful dataset for testing the cloud tomography method over a system of low-level clouds. We do tomographic retrievals with a constrained inversion algorithm using three configurations: PSR, MIR, and combined PSR and MIR data. The liquid water paths from the PSR retrieval are consistent with those from the MIR retrieval. The retrieved cloud field based on the combined data appears to be physically plausible and consistent with the cloud image obtained by a cloud radar. We find that some vertically-uniform clouds appear at high altitudes in the retrieved field where the radar shows clear sky. This is likely due to the sub-optimal data collection strategy. This sets the stage for Part 2 of this study that aims to define optimal data collection strategies using observation system simulation experiments.

  2. submitter Modeling the thermodynamics and kinetics of sulfuric acid-dimethylamine-water nanoparticle growth in the CLOUD chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlm, L; Schobesberger, S; Praplan, A P; Kim, J; Tikkanen, O -P; Lawler, M J; Smith, J N; Tröstl, J; Acosta Navarro, J C; Baltensperger, U; Bianchi, F; Donahue, N M; Duplissy, J; Franchin, A; Jokinen, T; Keskinen, H; Kirkby, J; Kürten, A; Laaksonen, A; Lehtipalo, K; Petäjä, T; Riccobono, F; Rissanen, M P; Rondo, L; Schallhart, S; Simon, M; Winkler, P M; Worsnop, D R; Virtanen, A; Riipinen, I

    2016-01-01

    Dimethylamine (DMA) has a stabilizing effect on sulfuric acid (SA) clusters, and the SA and DMA molecules and clusters likely play important roles in both aerosol particle formation and growth in the atmosphere. We use the monodisperse particle growth model for acid-base chemistry in nanoparticle growth (MABNAG) together with direct and indirect observations from the CLOUD4 and CLOUD7 experiments in the cosmics leaving outdoor droplets (CLOUD) chamber at CERN to investigate the size and composition evolution of freshly formed particles consisting of SA, DMA, and water as they grow to 20 nm in dry diameter. Hygroscopic growth factors are measured using a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA), which combined with simulations of particle water uptake using the thermodynamic extended-aerosol inorganics model (E-AIM) constrain the chemical composition. MABNAG predicts a particle-phase ratio between DMA and SA molecules of 1.1–1.3 for a 2 nm particle and DMA gas-phase mixing ratio...

  3. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of cloud-containing coastal zone color scanner images of northeastern North American coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, David L.; O'Brien, James J.; Iverson, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    Empirical-orthogonal-function (EOF) analyses were carried out on 36 images of the Mid-Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Maine, obtained by the CZCS aboard Nimbus 7 for the time period from February 28 through July 9, 1979, with the purpose of determining pigment concentrations in coastal waters. The EOF procedure was modified so as to include images with significant portions of data missing due to cloud obstruction, making it possible to estimate pigment values in areas beneath clouds. The results of image analyses explained observed variances in pigment concentrations and showed a south-to-north pattern corresponding to an April Mid-Atlantic Bight bloom and a June bloom over Nantucket Shoals and Platts Bank.

  4. Mechanisms behind low-cloud optical depth response to temperature in ARM site observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Christopher; Zhang, Yunyan; Klein, Stephen; Zelinka, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Most state-of-the-art climate models predict the cloud optical depth increases with warming in the mid- and high-latitudes. Proposed mechanisms exist in the literature to support this increase in cloud optical depth, and the cloud processes driving the negative cloud feedback have been identified in several climate models. However, recent studies find that this negative cloud feedback in the mid- and high-latitudes is likely overestimated in climate models. For example, an analysis of satellite retrievals suggests that the optical depth of low-level clouds decreases with warming. Less attention has been placed on understanding the cloud processes that drive cloud optical depth changes in observations. In this study, we use ground-based observations from three mid- and high-latitude sites, managed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, to determine the mechanisms that drive cloud changes at those sites. We test whether there is evidence in the observations that support three mechanisms that have been proposed to drive a cloud optical depth response to warming. We test a) whether cloud liquid water content increases with warming following changes in the adiabatic lapse rate of the saturated water vapor, as determined by the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship, b) whether the change in phase-partitioning of clouds due to warming increase the optical depth by changing the cloud optical and microphysical properties and processes, and c) whether warming leads to a thinning of clouds by enhancing the drying efficiency of cloud top mixing. We find that although increases in cloud liquid content with warming is consistent with the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship at the one oceanic site, they do not hold over the two continental sites. We also find that the liquid-ice partitioning of total cloud water differs between sites and find evidence that increasing ice fraction leads to clouds with lower LWP. We also test whether the

  5. The influence of organic-containing soil dust on ice nucleation and cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Matthias; Grini, Alf; Berntsen, Terje K.; Ekman, Annica

    2017-04-01

    Natural mineral dust from desert regions is known to be the most important contributor to atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (INP) which induce heterogeneous ice nucleation in mixed-phase clouds. Its ability to nucleate ice effectively is shown by various laboratory (Hoose and Möhler 2012) and field results (DeMott et al. 2015) and its abundance in ice crystal residuals has also been shown (Cziczo et al. 2013). Thus it is an important player when representing mixed-phase clouds in climate models. MODIS satellite data indicate that 1 /4 of the global dust emission originates from semi-arid areas rather than from arid deserts (Ginoux et al. 2012). Here, organic components can mix with minerals within the soil and get into the atmosphere. These so-called 'soil dust' particles are ice-nucleating active at high sub-zero temperatures, i.e. at higher temperatures than pure desert dust (Steinke et al. 2016). In this study, soil dust is incorporated into the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM, Bentsen et al. 2013) and applied to a modified ice nucleation parameterization (Steinke et al. 2016). Its influence on the cloud ice phase is evaluated by comparing a control run, where only pure desert dust is considered, and a sensitivity experiment, where a fraction of the dust emissions are classified as soil dust. Both simulations are nudged to ERA-interim meteorology and they have the same loading of dust emissions. NorESM gives a lower annual soil dust emission flux compared to Ginoux et al. (2012), but the desert dust flux is similar to the MODIS-retrieved data. Although soil dust concentrations are much lower than desert dust, the NorESM simulations indicate that the annual INP concentrations from soil dust are on average lower by a just a factor of 4 than INP concentrations from pure desert dust. The highest soil dust INP concentrations occur at a lower height than for desert dust, i.e at warmer temperatures inside mixed-phase clouds. Furthermore, soil dust INP

  6. Retrieval of Ice Cloud Properties Using an Optimal Estimation Algorithm and MODIS Infrared Observations. Part I: Forward Model, Error Analysis, and Information Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxi; Platnick, Steven; Zhang, Zhibo; Meyer, Kerry; Yang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    An optimal estimation (OE) retrieval method is developed to infer three ice cloud properties simultaneously: optical thickness (tau), effective radius (r(sub eff)), and cloud top height (h). This method is based on a fast radiative transfer (RT) model and infrared (IR) observations from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This study conducts thorough error and information content analyses to understand the error propagation and performance of retrievals from various MODIS band combinations under different cloud/atmosphere states. Specifically, the algorithm takes into account four error sources: measurement uncertainty, fast RT model uncertainty, uncertainties in ancillary data sets (e.g., atmospheric state), and assumed ice crystal habit uncertainties. It is found that the ancillary and ice crystal habit error sources dominate the MODIS IR retrieval uncertainty and cannot be ignored. The information content analysis shows that for a given ice cloud, the use of four MODIS IR observations is sufficient to retrieve the three cloud properties. However, the selection of MODIS IR bands that provide the most information and their order of importance varies with both the ice cloud properties and the ambient atmospheric and the surface states. As a result, this study suggests the inclusion of all MODIS IR bands in practice since little a priori information is available.

  7. Neptune's clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The bright cirrus-like clouds of Neptune change rapidly, often forming and dissipating over periods of several to tens of hours. In this sequence Voyager 2 observed cloud evolution in the region around the Great Dark Spot (GDS). The surprisingly rapid changes which occur separating each panel shows that in this region Neptune's weather is perhaps as dynamic and variable as that of the Earth. However, the scale is immense by our standards -- the Earth and the GDS are of similar size -- and in Neptune's frigid atmosphere, where temperatures are as low as 55 degrees Kelvin (-360 F), the cirrus clouds are composed of frozen methane rather than Earth's crystals of water ice. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications

  8. Development of Cloud and Precipitation Property Retrieval Algorithms and Measurement Simulators from ASR Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Gerald G. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2016-02-10

    What has made the ASR program unique is the amount of information that is available. The suite of recently deployed instruments significantly expands the scope of the program (Mather and Voyles, 2013). The breadth of this information allows us to pose sophisticated process-level questions. Our ASR project, now entering its third year, has been about developing algorithms that use this information in ways that fully exploit the new capacity of the ARM data streams. Using optimal estimation (OE) and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion techniques, we have developed methodologies that allow us to use multiple radar frequency Doppler spectra along with lidar and passive constraints where data streams can be added or subtracted efficiently and algorithms can be reformulated for various combinations of hydrometeors by exchanging sets of empirical coefficients. These methodologies have been applied to boundary layer clouds, mixed phase snow cloud systems, and cirrus.

  9. Properties of Anomalous and Type II Cepheids in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurkovic Monika I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC give us the possibility to study individual variable star types in a new way. Literature data provide us with photometric information about objects from the ultraviolet to the infrared. Here we would like to show the results of our study of 335 Anomalous and Type II Cepheids in the SMC and LMC detected by OGLE. Using the code More of DUSTY (MoD, a modified version of the DUSTY radiative transfer code, and the assumption that our objects are at a known distance, luminosity and effective temperature were determined. From these data the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of these objects was compared with the theoretical models. The radius and masses of the examined stars was estimated, too. In the end, we have given the period-luminosity relations for the Anomalous and Type II Cepheids.

  10. Investigation of Photochemical Properties of C60 Aggregates in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    As an emerging new material with unique structure and properties, the behavior and fate of Buckminster fullerene (C60) in natural waters has gained increasing attention. Although the water solubility of C60 is extremely low, the formation of C60 aggregates in water could alter th...

  11. A CloudSat Perspective of the Atmospheric Water Cycle and Precipitation: Recent Progress and Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Im, Eastwood; Vane, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Global - mean precipitation - is controlled by Earth's energy balance and is a quantifiable consequence of the water vapor feedback. Predictability rests on the degree to which the water vapor feedback is predictable. Regional scale - to a significant extent, changes are shaped by atmospheric circulation changes but we do not know the extent to which regional scale changes are predictable. The impacts of changes to atmospheric circulation on regional scale water cycle changes can be dramatic. Process - scale - significant biases to the CHARACTER of precipitation (frequency and intensity) is related to how the precipitation process is parameterized in models. Aerosol - We still do not know the extent to which the water cycle is influenced by aerosol but anecdotal evidence is building. The character of precipitation is affected by the way aerosol influence clouds and thus affects the forcing of the climate system through the albedo effect. Observations - we still have a way to go and need to approach the problem in a more integrated way (tie clouds, aerosol and precipitation together and then link to soil moisture, etc). Globally our capabilities seriously lag behind the science and model development.

  12. The trade of virtual water: do property rights matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ankai

    2016-04-01

    My paper examines the determinants of the virtual water trade - embodied in the trade of agriculture products - by estimating a structural gravity model. In particular, it tests the relationship between property rights and the export of water-intensive agricultural products based on water footprint data in Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2011, 2012). Using two different measures of property rights protection, I show that countries with weaker property rights have an apparent comparative advantage in the trade of water-intensive products. After controlling for the economic size, natural resource endowments, and possible effects of reverse causality, the trade flow of virtual water is negatively and significantly correlated with the property rights index of the exporting country. Holding other factors constant, one point increase in the property rights index of a country is associated with a 24% - 36% decrease in its virtual water export, whereas a 1% increase in the natural resource protection index of a country is associated with a 16% decrease in its virtual water export. This paper is the first empirical work that tests the relationship between property rights and trade of water-intensive products, offering a new perceptive in the debate of virtual water trade. The findings provide a possible explanation on the paradoxical evidence that some countries with scarce water resources export water-intensive products. The result is important not only in terms of its theoretical relevance, but also its policy implications. As prescribed by the model of trade and property rights, when countries with weaker property rights open to international trade, they are more likely to over-exploit and thus expedite the depletion of natural resources.

  13. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice

  14. Physical attributes of some clouds amid a forest ecosystem's trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelice, Thomas P.

    2002-01-01

    Cloud or fog water collected by forest canopies of any elevation could represent significant sources of required moisture and nutrients for forest ecosystems, human consumption, and as an alternative source of water for agriculture and domestic use. The physical characteristics of fogs and other clouds have been well studied, and this information can be useful to water balance or canopy–cloud interaction model verification and to calibration or training of satellite-borne sensors to recognize atmospheric attributes, such as optical thickness, albedo, and cloud properties. These studies have taken place above-canopy or within canopy clearings and rarely amid the canopy. Simultaneous physical and chemical characteristics of clouds amid and above the trees of a mountain forest, located about 3.3 km southwest of Mt. Mitchell, NC, were collected between 13 and 22 June 1993. This paper summarizes the physical characteristics of the cloud portions amid the trees. The characteristic cloud amid the trees (including cloud and precipitation periods) contained 250 droplet/cm3 with a mean diameter of 9.5 μm and liquid water content (LWC) of 0.11 g m−3. The cloud droplets exhibited a bimodal distribution with modes at about 2 and 8 μm and a mean diameter near 5 μm during precipitation-free periods, whereas the concurrent above-canopy cloud droplets had a unimodal distribution with a mode near 6 μm and a mean diameter of 6 μm. The horizontal cloud water flux is nonlinearly related to the rate of collection onto that surface amid the trees, especially for the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) sampling device, whereas it is linear when the forward scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP) are is used. These findings suggest that statements about the effects clouds have on surfaces they encounter, which are based on above-canopy or canopy-clearing data, can be misleading, if not erroneous.

  15. First correlated measurements of the shape and light scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdelmonem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires knowledge of the relationship between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of cloud particles. Usually, this relationship is obtained by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS designed to measure simultaneously the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles. Clouds containing particles ranging from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter in size can be characterized systematically with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10° and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°. The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced size distributions and images comparable to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF program. PHIPS is a highly promising novel airborne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurement instruments.

  16. Martian Clouds Data Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steven

    The major topics covered were a discussion of the structure of relational data base systems and features of the Britton Lee Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS); a discussion of the workshop's objectives, approach, and research scenarios; and an overview of the Atmospheres Node User's Guide, which details the datasets stored on the Britton Lee, the structure of the query and data analysis system, and examples of the exact menu screens encountered. Also discussed were experience with the system, review of the system performance, and a strategy to produce queries and performance data retrievals of mutual interest. The goals were defined as examining correlations between cloud occurrence, water vapor abundance, and surface properties.

  17. A Comparison between Airborne and Mountaintop Cloud Microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, R.; Lowenthal, D. H.; Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I.; Avallone, L. M.; Mace, G. G.; Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Complex terrain has a large impact on cloud dynamics and microphysics. Several studies have examined the microphysical details of orographically-enhanced clouds from either an aircraft or from a mountain top location. However, further research is needed to characterize the relationships between mountain top and airborne microphysical properties. During the winter of 2011, an airborne study, the Colorado Airborne Mixed-Phase Cloud Study (CAMPS), and a ground-based field campaign, the Storm Peak Lab (SPL) Cloud Property Validation Experiment (StormVEx) were conducted in the Park Range of the Colorado Rockies. The CAMPS study utilized the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) to provide airborne cloud microphysical and meteorological data on 29 flights totaling 98 flight hours over the Park Range from December 15, 2010 to February 28, 2011. The UWKA was equipped with instruments that measured both cloud droplet and ice crystal size distributions, liquid water content, total water content (vapor, liquid, and ice), and 3-dimensional wind speed and direction. The Wyoming Cloud Radar and Lidar were also deployed during the campaign. These measurements are used to characterize cloud structure upwind and above the Park Range. StormVEx measured cloud droplet, ice crystal, and aerosol size distributions at SPL, located on the west summit of Mt. Werner at 3220m MSL. The observations from SPL are used to determine mountain top cloud microphysical properties at elevations lower than the UWKA was able to sample in-situ. Comparisons showed that cloud microphysics aloft and at the surface were consistent with respect to snow growth processes while small crystal concentrations were routinely higher at the surface, suggesting ice nucleation near cloud base. The effects of aerosol concentrations and upwind stability on mountain top and downwind microphysics are considered.

  18. International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) focuses on the distribution and variation of cloud radiative properties to improve the understanding of the...

  19. Impacts of Different Aerosol Types on Convective Cloud as Observed by CALIPSO/CloudSat Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J. H.; Huang, L.; Su, H.

    2016-12-01

    A major uncertainty in the study of aerosol effects on climate is how different types of aerosol affect the properties of different types of clouds. This study takes full advantage of collocated measurements over the globe from CloudSat/CALIPSO and other A-Train satellites to characterize the influence of various aerosol types on convective clouds. The occurrence frequency of six different types of aerosol (i.e., clean marine, dust, polluted continental, clean continental, polluted dust, and smoke) in each target region, as well as their probability density function, vertical and seasonal variations are determined using CALIPSO observations. The effects of different aerosol types on cloud vertical structure, cloud water content and cloud particle effective radius are investigated using collocated CloudSat and CALIPSO profile data. The influence of meteorological conditions on clouds is distinguished from aerosol effects using multi-variable composite analysis. The results will improve our understanding of the aerosol-cloud-climate interactions and potentially help to reduce uncertainties in climate change predictions.

  20. Ten Years of Cloud Optical and Microphysical Retrievals from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Wind, Galina; Hubanks, Paul; Arnold, G. Thomas; Amarasinghe, Nandana

    2010-01-01

    The MODIS cloud optical properties algorithm (MOD06/MYD06 for Terra and Aqua MODIS, respectively) has undergone extensive improvements and enhancements since the launch of Terra. These changes have included: improvements in the cloud thermodynamic phase algorithm; substantial changes in the ice cloud light scattering look up tables (LUTs); a clear-sky restoral algorithm for flagging heavy aerosol and sunglint; greatly improved spectral surface albedo maps, including the spectral albedo of snow by ecosystem; inclusion of pixel-level uncertainty estimates for cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and water path derived for three error sources that includes the sensitivity of the retrievals to solar and viewing geometries. To improve overall retrieval quality, we have also implemented cloud edge removal and partly cloudy detection (using MOD35 cloud mask 250m tests), added a supplementary cloud optical thickness and effective radius algorithm over snow and sea ice surfaces and over the ocean, which enables comparison with the "standard" 2.1 11m effective radius retrieval, and added a multi-layer cloud detection algorithm. We will discuss the status of the MOD06 algorithm and show examples of pixellevel (Level-2) cloud retrievals for selected data granules, as well as gridded (Level-3) statistics, notably monthly means and histograms (lD and 2D, with the latter giving correlations between cloud optical thickness and effective radius, and other cloud product pairs).

  1. Foggy days and dry nights determine crown-level water balance in a seasonal tropical Montane cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsch, Sybil G; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Holwerda, Friso; Goldsmith, Gregory R; Weintraub, Alexis E; Dawson, Todd E

    2014-01-01

    The ecophysiology of tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) trees is influenced by crown-level microclimate factors including regular mist/fog water inputs, and large variations in evaporative demand, which in turn can significantly impact water balance. We investigated the effect of such microclimatic factors on canopy ecophysiology and branch-level water balance in the dry season of a seasonal TMCF in Veracruz, Mexico, by quantifying both water inputs (via foliar uptake, FU) and outputs (day- and night-time transpiration, NT). Measurements of sap flow, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and pressure-volume relations were obtained in Quercus lanceifolia, a canopy-dominant tree species. Our results indicate that FU occurred 34% of the time and led to the recovery of 9% (24 ± 9.1 L) of all the dry-season water transpired from individual branches. Capacity for FU was independently verified for seven additional common tree species. NT accounted for approximately 17% (46 L) of dry-season water loss. There was a strong correlation between FU and the duration of leaf wetness events (fog and/or rain), as well as between NT and the night-time vapour pressure deficit. Our results show the clear importance of fog and NT for the canopy water relations of Q. lanceifolia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Interannual and Diurnal Variability in Water Ice Clouds Observed from MSL Over Two Martian Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, J. L.; Moores, J. E.; Whiteway, J. A.; Aggarwal, M.

    2018-01-01

    We update the results of cloud imaging sequences from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity to complete two Mars years of observations (LS=160° of Mars year (MY) 31 to LS=160° of MY 33). Relatively good seasonal coverage is achieved within the study period, with just over 500 observations obtained, averaging one observation every 2-3 sols. Cloud opacity measurements are made using differential photometry and a simplified radiative transfer method. These opacity measurements are used to assess the interannual variability of the aphelion cloud belt (ACB) for MY 32 and 33. Upon accounting for a statistical bias in the data set, the variation is found to be <30% within uncertainty. Diurnal variation of the ACB is also able to be examined in MY 33 owing to an increased number of early morning observations in this year. Although a gap in data around local noon prevents a complete assessment, we find that cloud opacity is moderately increased in the morning hours (07:00-09:00) compared to the late afternoon (15:00-17:00).

  3. Exploiting interfacial water properties for desalination and purification applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongwu (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Varma, Sameer; Nyman, May Devan; Alam, Todd Michael; Thuermer, Konrad; Holland, Gregory P.; Leung, Kevin; Liu, Nanguo (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Xomeritakis, George K. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Frankamp, Benjamin L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Cygan, Randall Timothy; Hartl, Monika A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Travesset, Alex (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Anderson, Joshua A. (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Huber, Dale L.; Kissel, David J. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Major, Ryan C. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); McGrath, Matthew J. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Farrow, Darcie; Cecchi, Joseph L. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); van Swol, Frank B.; Singh, Seema; Rempe, Susan B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Feibelman, Peter Julian; Houston, Jack E.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Chen, Zhu (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Zhu, Xiaoyang (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Dunphy, Darren Robert (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Orendorff, Christopher J.; Pless, Jason D.; Daemen, Luke L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Gerung, Henry (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Ockwig, Nathan W.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Stevens, Mark Jackson

    2008-09-01

    A molecular-scale interpretation of interfacial processes is often downplayed in the analysis of traditional water treatment methods. However, such an approach is critical for the development of enhanced performance in traditional desalination and water treatments. Water confined between surfaces, within channels, or in pores is ubiquitous in technology and nature. Its physical and chemical properties in such environments are unpredictably different from bulk water. As a result, advances in water desalination and purification methods may be accomplished through an improved analysis of water behavior in these challenging environments using state-of-the-art microscopy, spectroscopy, experimental, and computational methods.

  4. Properties of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN in the trade wind marine boundary layer of the western North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Kristensen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud optical properties in the trade winds over the eastern Caribbean Sea have been shown to be sensitive to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations. The objective of the current study was to investigate the CCN properties in the marine boundary layer (MBL in the tropical western North Atlantic, in order to assess the respective roles of inorganic sulfate, organic species, long-range transported mineral dust and sea-salt particles. Measurements were carried out in June–July 2013, on the east coast of Barbados, and included CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and offline analysis of sampled particulate matter (PM and sampled accumulation mode particles for an investigation of composition and mixing state with transmission electron microscopy (TEM in combination with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. During most of the campaign, significant mass concentrations of long-range transported mineral dust was present in the PM, and influence from local island sources can be ruled out. The CCN and particle number concentrations were similar to what can be expected in pristine marine environments. The hygroscopicity parameter κ was inferred, and values in the range 0.2–0.5 were found during most of the campaign, with similar values for the Aitken and the accumulation mode. The accumulation mode particles studied with TEM were dominated by non-refractory material, and concentrations of mineral dust, sea salt and soot were too small to influence the CCN properties. It is highly likely that the CCN were dominated by a mixture of sulfate species and organic compounds.

  5. Property of Kozai Dynamics of Inner Oort Cloud Objects with a Hypothetical Planet Beyond Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sie, Zong-Fu; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2015-11-01

    The origin of a number of Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with large perihelion and semi-major axis are difficult to explain by current models. In addition to Sedna, these include 2010 GB174 (Chen et al., 2013) and 2012 VP113 (Trujillo and Sheppard, 2014) which might represent members of the Inner Oort Cloud objects (IOCOs). One thing of particular interest has to do with the clustering of the argument of perihelion (ω) of the discovered IOCSs near 340o. Trujillo and Sheppard (2014) suggested that this effect could be caused by the Kozai mechanism induced by a distant planet. We have performed parametric studies of the orbital motion of hypothetical IOCOs under the influence of this distant planet. Our preliminary results indicate that this distant planet with a perihelion distance of about 150 AU, if exists, should have a mass larger than 2 Earth masses. The observed clustering in the argument of perihelion at around 340o can not be reproduced by our simulations. Instead, the distribution of ω of the test particles in the inner Oort cloud is characterized by concentration around 0 o or 180o and, on the other hand, 90o or 270o (for smaller perihelion and lower inclination).

  6. Astrophysical properties of star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds homogeneously estimated by ASteCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, G. I.; Piatti, A. E.; Vázquez, R. A.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: We seek to produce a homogeneous catalog of astrophysical parameters of 239 resolved star clusters, located in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds, observed in the Washington photometric system. Methods: The cluster sample was processed with the recently introduced Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis (ASteCA) package, which ensures both an automatized and a fully reproducible treatment, together with a statistically based analysis of their fundamental parameters and associated uncertainties. The fundamental parameters determined for each cluster with this tool, via a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis, are metallicity, age, reddening, distance modulus, and total mass. Results: We generated a homogeneous catalog of structural and fundamental parameters for the studied cluster sample and performed a detailed internal error analysis along with a thorough comparison with values taken from 26 published articles. We studied the distribution of cluster fundamental parameters in both Clouds and obtained their age-metallicity relationships. Conclusions: The ASteCA package can be applied to an unsupervised determination of fundamental cluster parameters, which is a task of increasing relevance as more data becomes available through upcoming surveys. A table with the estimated fundamental parameters for the 239 clusters analyzed is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/602/A89

  7. Effects of radiation and turbulence on the diabatic heating and water budget of the stratiform region of a tropical cloud cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Dean D.; Houze, Robert A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A twi-dimensional kinematic model has been used to diagnose the thermodynamic, water vapor, and hydrometeor fields of the stratiform clouds associated with a mesoscale tropical cloud cluster. The model incorporates ice- and water-cloud microphysics, visible and infrared radiation, and convective adjustment. It is intended to determine the relative contributions of radiation, mycrophysics, and turbulence to diabatic heating, and the effects that radiation has on the water budget of the cluster in the absence of dynamical interactions. The model has been initialized with thermodynamic fields and wind velocities diagnosed from a GATE tropical squall line. It is found that radiation does not directly affect the water budget of the stratiform region, and any radiative effect on hydrometeors must involve interaction with dynamics.

  8. Physical properties, chemical composition, and cloud forming potential of particulate emissions from a marine diesel engine at various load conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, A; Weingartner, E; Hasselbach, J; Lauer, P; Kurok, C; Fleischer, F

    2010-05-15

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from one serial 4-stroke medium-speed marine diesel engine were measured for load conditions from 10% to 110% in test rig studies using heavy fuel oil (HFO). Testing the engine across its entire load range permitted the scaling of exhaust PM properties with load. Emission factors for particle number, particle mass, and chemical compounds were determined. The potential of particles to form cloud droplets (cloud condensation nuclei, CCN) was calculated from chemical composition and particle size. Number emission factors are (3.43 +/- 1.26) x 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) at 85-110% load and (1.06 +/- 0.10) x 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) at 10% load. CCN emission factors of 1-6 x 10(14) (kg fuel)(-1) are at the lower bound of data reported in the literature. From combined thermal and optical methods, black carbon (BC) emission factors of 40-60 mg/(kg fuel) were determined for 85-100% load and 370 mg/(kg fuel) for 10% load. The engine load dependence of the conversion efficiency for fuel sulfur into sulfate of (1.08 +/- 0.15)% at engine idle to (3.85 +/- 0.41)% at cruise may serve as input to global emission calculations for various load conditions.

  9. The effects of the nonsphericity and size distribution of ice crystals on the radiative properties of cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Stefan; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    1989-01-01

    Hexagonal ice crystal and equivalent ice spheres have significantly different single-scattering properties. Although the extinction cross-section for spheres with equivalent surface areas is about the same as that for nonspherical ice crystals randomly oriented in space, equivalent spheres produce more forward scattering and have smaller single-scattering albedos. On the basis of broad-band radiative transfer calculations, in this note we will illustrate that the assumption that ice particles are spheres with equivalent surface areas leads to an underestimate to the solar albedo of cirrus clouds. Furthermore, we show that, for a given optical thickness, small ice particles reflect more solar flux than large ice particles. This implies that the ice crystal size distribution could be extremely important in the determination of the solar albedo of cirrus clouds due to external radiative forcing in climatic perturbation experiments. In the thermal infrared region, absorption by ice crystals predominates and the effects of the nonsphericity and size distribution of ice crystals on infrared radiative transfer appear to be secondary.

  10. Derivation of Physical and Optical Properties of Midlatitude Cirrus Ice Crystals for a Size-Resolved Cloud Microphysics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Um, Junshik; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Moyer, Elisabeth J.; Lawson, R. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystal images collected in mid-latitude cirrus are analyzed to provide internally consistent ice physical and optical properties for a size-resolved cloud microphysics model, including single-particle mass, projected area, fall speed, capacitance, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Using measurements gathered during two flights through a widespread synoptic cirrus shield, bullet rosettes are found to be the dominant identifiable habit among ice crystals with maximum dimension (Dmax) greater than 100µm. Properties are therefore first derived for bullet rosettes based on measurements of arm lengths and widths, then for aggregates of bullet rosettes and for unclassified (irregular) crystals. Derived bullet rosette masses are substantially greater than reported in existing literature, whereas measured projected areas are similar or lesser, resulting in factors of 1.5-2 greater fall speeds, and, in the limit of large Dmax, near-infrared single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter (g) greater by approx. 0.2 and 0.05, respectively. A model that includes commonly imaged side plane growth on bullet rosettes exhibits relatively little difference in microphysical and optical properties aside from approx. 0:05 increase in mid-visible g primarily attributable to plate aspect ratio. In parcel simulations, ice size distribution, and g are sensitive to assumed ice properties.

  11. Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of Water Around Small Hydrophobic Solutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Maria; Sterpone, Fabio; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the structural, dynamical and spectroscopic properties of water molecules around a solvated methane by means of Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. Despite their mobility, in the first-shell water molecules are dynamically displaced in a clathrate-like cage around the hydrophobic solute. No significant differences in water geometrical parameters, in molecular dipole moments or in hydrogen bonding properties are observed between in-shell and out-shell molecules, indicating that liquid water can accommodate a small hydrophobic solute without altering its structural properties. The calculated contribution of the first shell water molecules to the infrared spectra does not show significant differences with respect the bulk signal once the effects of the missing polarization of second-shell molecules has been taken into account. Small fingerprints of the clathrate-like structure appear in the vibrational density of states in the libration and OH stretching regions. PMID:22946539

  12. A model predicting the evolution of ice particle size spectra and radiative properties of cirrus clouds. Part 2: Dependence of absorption and extinction on ice crystal morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David L.; Arnott, W. Patrick

    1994-01-01

    This study builds upon the microphysical modeling described in Part 1 by deriving formulations for the extinction and absorption coefficients in terms of the size distribution parameters predicted from the micro-physical model. The optical depth and single scatter albedo of a cirrus cloud can then be determined, which, along with the asymmetry parameter, are the input parameters needed by cloud radiation models. Through the use of anomalous diffraction theory, analytical expressions were developed describing the absorption and extinction coefficients and the single scatter albedo as functions of size distribution parameters, ice crystal shapes (or habits), wavelength, and refractive index. The extinction coefficient was formulated in terms of the projected area of the size distribution, while the absorption coefficient was formulated in terms of both the projected area and mass of the size distribution. These properties were formulated as explicit functions of ice crystal geometry and were not based on an 'effective radius.' Based on simulations of the second cirrus case study described in Part 1, absorption coefficients predicted in the near infrared for hexagonal columns and rosettes were up to 47% and 71% lower, respectively, than absorption coefficients predicted by using equivalent area spheres. This resulted in single scatter albedos in the near-infrared that were considerably greater than those predicted by the equivalent area sphere method. Reflectances in this region should therefore be underestimated using the equivalent area sphere approach. Cloud optical depth was found to depend on ice crystal habit. When the simulated cirrus cloud contained only bullet rosettes, the optical depth was 142% greater than when the cloud contained only hexagonal columns. This increase produced a doubling in cloud albedo. In the near-infrared (IR), the single scatter albedo also exhibited a significant dependence on ice crystal habit. More research is needed on the

  13. Seasonal Variations in Physicochemical Properties of Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of some physicochemical parameters in the dam water were determined in wet and dry seasons while the concentrations of Na, K and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn) were determined in sediment, Tilapia fish (Cichlid sp) and Cat fish (Synod onus sp) during the dry season when fishing activities were high.

  14. Annotated Bibliography of Water Optical Properties of Ocean Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Discovery II Expedition, August and Sept. 1959) Yale Univ., New Haven, Conn., Contract No. NR6.0923. The optical work included measurements of the... thermohaline mesostructure, structure of currents at the equator, equatorial upwelling, optical characteristics of the waters in the up- welling

  15. submitter Phase transition observations and discrimination of small cloud particles by light polarization in expansion chamber experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Nichman, Leonid; Järvinen, Emma; Ignatius, Karoliina; Höppel, Niko Florian; Dias, Antonio; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Tröstl, Jasmin; Wagner, Andrea Christine; Wagner, Robert; Williamson, Christina; Yan, Chao; Connolly, Paul James; Dorsey, James Robert; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Hoyle, Christopher Robert; Kristensen, Thomas Bjerring; Steiner, Gerhard; McPherson Donahue, Neil; Flagan, Richard; Gallagher, Martin William; Kirkby, Jasper; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, António

    2016-01-01

    Cloud microphysical processes involving the ice phase in tropospheric clouds are among the major uncertainties in cloud formation, weather, and general circulation models. The detection of aerosol particles, liquid droplets, and ice crystals, especially in the small cloud particle-size range below 50 μm, remains challenging in mixed phase, often unstable environments. The Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarization (CASPOL) is an airborne instrument that has the ability to detect such small cloud particles and measure the variability in polarization state of their backscattered light. Here we operate the versatile Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) to produce controlled mixed phase and other clouds by adiabatic expansions in an ultraclean environment, and use the CASPOL to discriminate between different aerosols, water, and ice particles. In this paper, optical property measurements of mixed-phase clouds and viscous secondary ...

  16. The impact of flue gas cleaning technologies in coal-fired power plants on the CCN distribution and cloud properties in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, M.; Vogel, B.; Junkermann, W.; Brachert, L.; Schaber, K.

    2013-05-01

    Gas-cleaning technologies used in modern coal-fired power plants cause an unintended nucleation of H2SO4 aerosol droplets during the cleaning process. As a result, high concentrations of ultra-fine aerosol droplets are emitted into the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of these emissions on the atmospheric aerosol distribution, on the cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, and consequently on cloud properties is investigated. Therefore, a sophisticated modeling framework is used combining regional simulations of the atmospheric aerosol distribution and its impact on cloud properties with detailed process simulations of the nucleation during the cleaning process inside the power plant. Furthermore, the simulated aerosol size distributions downwind of the coal-fired power plants are compared with airborne aerosol measurements performed inside the plumes.

  17. Properties of Single-Layer Boron Sheets: First-Principle Study through MatCloud Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zong-Guo; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Qin, Shao-Jing; Wang, Chui-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Electronic structures in two kinds of boron structures are investigated by the first-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations. One structure is from theoretical prediction, and the other is from experimental investigation. Binding energy calculations suggest that the boron structure designed from theory is more stable than that made by experiment. Elastic constants calculations show that both structures are mechanically stable. The electronic structure results show that the theoretical designed structure exhibits semi-metal behavior, while the other structure exhibits metallic character. No magnetic phenomenal is discovered from them. All the calculations are carried out by the first principles calculation through the MatCloud platform, which is developed by our research group. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11547177

  18. Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectrc property sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500 MHz at 25oC. Dielectric constants of pure honeys ...

  19. Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties of Drinking Water at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality drinking water is of basic importance to human physiology and man's continued existence depends much on its availability. Water samples from different outlets and homes in Ado Odo - Ota Local Government, Ogun state, Nigeria were analyzed for their microbiological and physiochemical properties. Total viable ...

  20. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND WATER ACTIVITY OF TRANSFERRED CHEESE (UF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dalvi Esfahan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Few data are available on the thermophysical properties of cheese in the ripening process.The main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of brining and temperature on the thermophysical properties, i.e., thermal conductivity, specific heat, density and water activity of UF cheese and finally we measure surface heat transfer coefficient .Then we develop models for thermophysical properties based on physical and multiple regression concept .

  1. Particles in water properties and processes

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, John

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Particles in the Aquatic Environment Colloidal Aspects PARTICLE SIZE AND RELATED PROPERTIES Particle Size and Shape Particle Size Distributions Particle Transport Light Scattering and Turbidity Measurement of Particle Size SURFACE CHARGE Origin of Surface Charge The Electrical Double Layer Electrokinetic Phenomena COLLOID INTERACTIONS AND COLLOID STABILITY Colloid Interactions - General Concepts van der Waals Interaction Electrical Double Layer Interaction Combined Interaction - DLVO Theory Non-DLVO Interactions AGGREGATION KINETICS Collision Frequency - Smoluchow

  2. Galactic cosmic ray and El Nino Southern Oscillation trends in International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 low-cloud properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    [1] The recently reported correlation between clouds and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) implies the existence of a previously unknown process linking solar variability and climate. An analysis of the interannual variability of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 (ISCCP-D2) low....... Instead, it is argued that a mechanism involving solar variability via GCR ionization of the atmosphere is consistent with these results. However, the results are marginal when including the recently extended ISCCP-D2 data covering the period until September 2001. This, we believe, is related to problems...

  3. Remember the water--a comment on EPS colligative properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, K; Wybrandt, L; Nielsen, P H

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between water and activated sludge components was examined. Reevaluation of published data on freezing point depression, drying rates and dewatering has been performed. The basis of this has been the assumption that the water/sludge relationship is considered to be a colligative effect. Since the results indicate this to be the case, we suggest that the published concepts of "pools of water" are false. Data on swelling properties of EPS as a function of pH suggests that the colligative properties are largely determined by the counterions of charged polymers and surfaces.

  4. Spectrally-invariant behavior of zenith radiance around cloud edges simulated by radiative transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Chiu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper, we discovered a surprising spectrally-invariant relationship in shortwave spectrometer observations taken by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program. The relationship suggests that the shortwave spectrum near cloud edges can be determined by a linear combination of zenith radiance spectra of the cloudy and clear regions. Here, using radiative transfer simulations, we study the sensitivity of this relationship to the properties of aerosols and clouds, to the underlying surface type, and to the finite field-of-view (FOV of the spectrometer. Overall, the relationship is mostly sensitive to cloud properties and has little sensitivity to other factors. At visible wavelengths, the relationship primarily depends on cloud optical depth regardless of cloud phase function, thermodynamic phase and drop size. At water-absorbing wavelengths, the slope of the relationship depends primarily on cloud optical depth; the intercept, by contrast, depends primarily on cloud absorbing and scattering properties, suggesting a new retrieval method for cloud drop effective radius. These results suggest that the spectrally-invariant relationship can be used to infer cloud properties near cloud edges even with insufficient or no knowledge about spectral surface albedo and aerosol properties.

  5. Investigation of the seasonal variations of aerosol physicochemical properties and their impact on cloud condensation nuclei number concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Timothy S.

    Aerosols are among the most complex yet widely studied components of the atmosphere not only due to the seasonal variability of their physical and chemical properties but also their effects on climate change. The three main aerosol types that are known to affect the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere are: mineral dust, anthropogenic pollution, and biomass burning aerosols. In order to understand how these aerosols affect the atmosphere, this dissertation addresses the following three scientific questions through a combination of surface and satellite observations: SQ1: What are the seasonal and regional variations of aerosol physico-chemical properties at four selected Asian sites? SQ2: How do these aerosol properties change during transpacific and intra-continental long range transport? SQ3: What are the impacts of aerosol properties on marine boundary layer cloud condensation nuclei number concentration? This dissertation uses an innovative approach to classify aerosol properties by region and season to address SQ1. This is useful because this method provides an additional dimension when investigating the physico-chemical properties of aerosols by linking a regional and seasonal dependence to both the aerosol direct and indirect effects. This method involves isolating the aerosol physico-chemical properties into four separate regions using AERONET retrieved Angstrom exponent (AEAOD) and single scattering co-albedo (o oabs) to denote aerosol size and absorptive properties. The aerosols events are then clustered by season. The method is first applied to four AERONET sites representing single mode aerosol dominant regions: weakly absorbing pollution (NASA Goddard), strongly absorbing pollution (Mexico City), mineral dust (Solar Village), and biomass burning smoke (Alta Floresta). The method is then applied to four Asian sites that represent complicated aerosol components. There are strong regional and seasonal influences of the four aerosol types over the

  6. Determining stages of cirrus evolution: a cloud classification scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Benedikt; Groß, Silke; Schäfler, Andreas; Wirth, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Cirrus clouds impose high uncertainties on climate prediction, as knowledge on important processes is still incomplete. For instance it remains unclear how cloud microphysical and radiative properties change as the cirrus evolves. Recent studies classify cirrus clouds into categories including in situ, orographic, convective and liquid origin clouds and investigate their specific impact. Following this line, we present a novel scheme for the classification of cirrus clouds that addresses the need to determine specific stages of cirrus evolution. Our classification scheme is based on airborne Differential Absorption and High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor, aerosol depolarization, and backscatter, together with model temperature fields and simplified parameterizations of freezing onset conditions. It identifies regions of supersaturation with respect to ice (ice-supersaturated regions, ISSRs), heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation, depositional growth, and ice sublimation and sedimentation with high spatial resolution. Thus, all relevant stages of cirrus evolution can be classified and characterized. In a case study of a gravity lee-wave-influenced cirrus cloud, encountered during the ML-CIRRUS flight campaign, the applicability of our classification is demonstrated. Revealing the structure of cirrus clouds, this valuable tool might help to examine the influence of evolution stages on the cloud's net radiative effect and to investigate the specific variability of optical and microphysical cloud properties in upcoming research.

  7. Sensitivities of Amazonian clouds to aerosols and updraft speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Micael A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Martin, Scot T.; Albrecht, Rachel I.; Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Borrmann, Stephan; Fütterer, Daniel; Jurkat, Tina; Mahnke, Christoph; Minikin, Andreas; Molleker, Sergej; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Voigt, Christiane; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-08-01

    The effects of aerosol particles and updraft speed on warm-phase cloud microphysical properties are studied in the Amazon region as part of the ACRIDICON-CHUVA experiment. Here we expand the sensitivity analysis usually found in the literature by concomitantly considering cloud evolution, putting the sensitivity quantifications into perspective in relation to in-cloud processing, and by considering the effects on droplet size distribution (DSD) shape. Our in situ aircraft measurements over the Amazon Basin cover a wide range of particle concentration and thermodynamic conditions, from the pristine regions over coastal and forested areas to the southern Amazon, which is highly polluted from biomass burning. The quantitative results show that particle concentration is the primary driver for the vertical profiles of effective diameter and droplet concentration in the warm phase of Amazonian convective clouds, while updraft speeds have a modulating role in the latter and in total condensed water. The cloud microphysical properties were found to be highly variable with altitude above cloud base, which we used as a proxy for cloud evolution since it is a measure of the time droplets that were subject to cloud processing. We show that DSD shape is crucial in understanding cloud sensitivities. The aerosol effect on DSD shape was found to vary with altitude, which can help models to better constrain the indirect aerosol effect on climate.

  8. Aerosol properties and their impacts on surface CCN at the ARM Southern Great Plains site during the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Timothy; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike

    2018-02-01

    Aerosol particles are of particular importance because of their impacts on cloud development and precipitation processes over land and ocean. Aerosol properties as well as meteorological observations from the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) platform situated in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) are utilized in this study to illustrate the dependence of continental cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration ( N CCN) on aerosol type and transport pathways. ARM-SGP observations from the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment field campaign are presented in this study and compared with our previous work during the 2009-10 Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer field campaign over the current ARM Eastern North Atlantic site. Northerly winds over the SGP reflect clean, continental conditions with aerosol scattering coefficient ( σ sp) values less than 20 Mm-1 and N CCN values less than 100 cm-3. However, southerly winds over the SGP are responsible for the observed moderate to high correlation ( R) among aerosol loading ( σ sp ARM-SGP data, suggesting that this facility can represent surface aerosol conditions in the SGP, especially during strong aerosol loading events that transport via the Gulf of Mexico. Future long-term investigations will help to understand the seasonal influences of air masses on aerosol, CCN, and cloud properties over land in comparison to over ocean.

  9. Final Report - Satellite Calibration and Verification of Remotely Sensed Cloud and Radiation Properties Using ARM UAV Data (February 28, 1995 - February 28, 1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnis, Patrick

    1998-02-28

    The work proposed under this agreement was designed to validate and improve remote sensing of cloud and radiation properties in the atmosphere for climate studies with special emphasis on the use of satellites for monitoring these parameters to further the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program.

  10. Effect of magnetic treatment of water on chemical properties of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of magnetic treatment of water on chemical properties of water and sodium adsorption ratio. ... All the cations (Calcium, Sodium, Magnesium, Potassium, Cadmium and Lead) were determined using the Standard Methods for Examination of Water and ... The mean values of nitrate from MTW were 43.07, 43.04.

  11. Water deuteration and ortho-to-para nuclear spin ratio of H2 in molecular clouds formed via the accumulation of H I gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K.; Aikawa, Y.; Hincelin, U.; Hassel, G. E.; Bergin, E. A.; Vasyunin, A. I.; Herbst, E.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the water deuteration ratio and ortho-to-para nuclear spin ratio of H2 (OPR(H2)) during the formation and early evolution of a molecular cloud, following the scenario that accretion flows sweep and accumulate H i gas to form molecular clouds. We follow the physical evolution of post-shock materials using a one-dimensional shock model, combined with post-processing gas-ice chemistry simulations. This approach allows us to study the evolution of the OPR(H2) and water deuteration ratio without an arbitrary assumption of the initial molecular abundances, including the initial OPR(H2). When the conversion of hydrogen into H2 is almost complete the OPR(H2) is already much smaller than the statistical value of three because of the spin conversion in the gas phase. As the gas accumulates, the OPR(H2) decreases in a non-equilibrium manner. We find that water ice can be deuterium-poor at the end of its main formation stage in the cloud, compared to water vapor observed in the vicinity of low-mass protostars where water ice is sublimated. If this is the case, the enrichment of deuterium in water should mostly occur at somewhat later evolutionary stages of star formation, i.e., cold prestellar/protostellar cores. The main mechanism to suppress water ice deuteration in the cloud is the cycle of photodissociation and reformation of water ice, which efficiently removes deuterium from water ice chemistry. The removal efficiency depends on the main formation pathway of water ice. The OPR(H2) plays a minor role in water ice deuteration at the main formation stage of water ice. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Dielectric Properties of Water in Butter and Water-AOT-Heptane Systems Measured using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dielectric properties of water confined in nanometer-sized inverse micelles in mixtures of water, AOT, and heptane. We show that the dielectric properties of the confined water are dependent on the water pool size and different from those of bulk water. We also discuss the diel...... the dielectric properties of different vegetable oils, lard, and butter, and use these properties to deduce the dielectric properties of water in butter, which are shown to deviate significantly from the dielectric properties of bulk water....

  13. Using polarimetry to retrieve the cloud coverage of Earth-like exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L.; Stam, D. M.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Clouds have already been detected in exoplanetary atmospheres. They play crucial roles in a planet's atmosphere and climate and can also create ambiguities in the determination of atmospheric parameters such as trace gas mixing ratios. Knowledge of cloud properties is required when assessing the habitability of a planet. Aims: We aim to show that various types of cloud cover such as polar cusps, subsolar clouds, and patchy clouds on Earth-like exoplanets can be distinguished from each other using the polarization and flux of light that is reflected by the planet. Methods: We have computed the flux and polarization of reflected starlight for different types of (liquid water) cloud covers on Earth-like model planets using the adding-doubling method, that fully includes multiple scattering and polarization. Variations in cloud-top altitudes and planet-wide cloud cover percentages were taken into account. Results: We find that the different types of cloud cover (polar cusps, subsolar clouds, and patchy clouds) can be distinguished from each other and that the percentage of cloud cover can be estimated within 10%. Conclusions: Using our proposed observational strategy, one should be able to determine basic orbital parameters of a planet such as orbital inclination and estimate cloud coverage with reduced ambiguities from the planet's polarization signals along its orbit.

  14. Analysis of aerosol effects on warm clouds over the Yangtze River Delta from multi-sensor satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqin; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhou, Putian; Nie, Wei; Qi, Ximeng; Hong, Juan; Wang, Yonghong; Ding, Aijun; Guo, Huadong; Krüger, Olaf; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka

    2017-05-01

    Aerosol effects on low warm clouds over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD, eastern China) are examined using co-located MODIS, CALIOP and CloudSat observations. By taking the vertical locations of aerosol and cloud layers into account, we use simultaneously observed aerosol and cloud data to investigate relationships between cloud properties and the amount of aerosol particles (using aerosol optical depth, AOD, as a proxy). Also, we investigate the impact of aerosol types on the variation of cloud properties with AOD. Finally, we explore how meteorological conditions affect these relationships using ERA-Interim reanalysis data. This study shows that the relation between cloud properties and AOD depends on the aerosol abundance, with a different behaviour for low and high AOD (i.e. AOD 0.35). This applies to cloud droplet effective radius (CDR) and cloud fraction (CF), but not to cloud optical thickness (COT) and cloud top pressure (CTP). COT is found to decrease when AOD increases, which may be due to radiative effects and retrieval artefacts caused by absorbing aerosol. Conversely, CTP tends to increase with elevated AOD, indicating that the aerosol is not always prone to expand the vertical extension. It also shows that the COT-CDR and CWP (cloud liquid water path)-CDR relationships are not unique, but affected by atmospheric aerosol loading. Furthermore, separation of cases with either polluted dust or smoke aerosol shows that aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI) is stronger for clouds mixed with smoke aerosol than for clouds mixed with dust, which is ascribed to the higher absorption efficiency of smoke than dust. The variation of cloud properties with AOD is analysed for various relative humidity and boundary layer thermodynamic and dynamic conditions, showing that high relative humidity favours larger cloud droplet particles and increases cloud formation, irrespective of vertical or horizontal level. Stable atmospheric conditions enhance cloud cover horizontally

  15. On the relationship of polar mesospheric cloud ice water content, particle radius and mesospheric temperature and its use in multi-dimensional models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Jensen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of ice layers in the polar summer mesosphere (called polar mesospheric clouds or PMCs is sensitive to background atmospheric conditions and therefore affected by global-scale dynamics. To investigate this coupling it is necessary to simulate the global distribution of PMCs within a 3-dimensional (3-D model that couples large-scale dynamics with cloud microphysics. However, modeling PMC microphysics within 3-D global chemistry climate models (GCCM is a challenge due to the high computational cost associated with particle following (Lagrangian or sectional microphysical calculations. By characterizing the relationship between the PMC effective radius, ice water content (iwc, and local temperature (T from an ensemble of simulations from the sectional microphysical model, the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA, we determined that these variables can be described by a robust empirical formula. The characterized relationship allows an estimate of an altitude distribution of PMC effective radius in terms of local temperature and iwc. For our purposes we use this formula to predict an effective radius as part of a bulk parameterization of PMC microphysics in a 3-D GCCM to simulate growth, sublimation and sedimentation of ice particles without keeping track of the time history of each ice particle size or particle size bin. This allows cost effective decadal scale PMC simulations in a 3-D GCCM to be performed. This approach produces realistic PMC simulations including estimates of the optical properties of PMCs. We validate the relationship with PMC data from the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE.

  16. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, RT [University of Washington; Protat, A [Australian Bureau of Meterology; Alexander, SP [Australian Antarctic Division

    2015-12-01

    Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model simulations. Errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband radiative fluxes in this region are among the largest globally, with large implications for modeling both regional and global scale climate responses (e.g., Trenberth and Fasullo 2010, Ceppi et al. 2012). Recent analyses of model simulations suggest that model radiative errors in the Southern Ocean are due to a lack of low-level postfrontal clouds (including clouds well behind the front) and perhaps a lack of supercooled liquid water that contribute most to the model biases (Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2013, Huang et al. 2014). These assessments of model performance, as well as our knowledge of cloud and aerosol properties over the Southern Ocean, rely heavily on satellite data sets. Satellite data sets are incomplete in that the observations are not continuous (i.e., they are acquired only when the satellite passes nearby), generally do not sample the diurnal cycle, and view primarily the tops of cloud systems (especially for the passive instruments). This is especially problematic for retrievals of aerosol, low-cloud properties, and layers of supercooled water embedded within (rather than at the top of) clouds, as well as estimates of surface shortwave and longwave fluxes based on these properties.

  17. On the regional climatic impact of contrails: microphysical and radiative properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Strauss

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of contrail-induced cirrus clouds on regional climate is estimated for mean atmospheric conditions of southern Germany in the months of July and October. This is done by use of a regionalized one-dimensional radiative convective model (RCM. The influence of an increased ice cloud cover is studied by comparing RCM results representing climatological values with a modified case. In order to study the sensitivity of this effect on the radiative characteristics of the ice cloud, two types of additional ice clouds were modelled: cirrus and contrails, the latter cloud type containing a higher number of smaller and less of the larger cloud particles. Ice cloud parameters are calculated on the basis of a particle size distribution which covers the range from 2 to 2000 µm, taking into consideration recent measurements which show a remarkable amount of particles smaller than 20 µm. It turns out that a 10% increase in ice cloud cover leads to a surface temperature increase in the order of 1K, ranging from 1.1 to 1.2K in July and from 0.8 to 0.9K in October depending on the radiative characteristics of the air-traffic-induced ice clouds. Modelling the current contrail cloud cover which is near 0.5% over Europe yields a surface temperature increase in the order of 0.05K.

  18. On the regional climatic impact of contrails: microphysical and radiative properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Strauss

    Full Text Available The impact of contrail-induced cirrus clouds on regional climate is estimated for mean atmospheric conditions of southern Germany in the months of July and October. This is done by use of a regionalized one-dimensional radiative convective model (RCM. The influence of an increased ice cloud cover is studied by comparing RCM results representing climatological values with a modified case. In order to study the sensitivity of this effect on the radiative characteristics of the ice cloud, two types of additional ice clouds were modelled: cirrus and contrails, the latter cloud type containing a higher number of smaller and less of the larger cloud particles. Ice cloud parameters are calculated on the basis of a particle size distribution which covers the range from 2 to 2000 µm, taking into consideration recent measurements which show a remarkable amount of particles smaller than 20 µm. It turns out that a 10% increase in ice cloud cover leads to a surface temperature increase in the order of 1K, ranging from 1.1 to 1.2K in July and from 0.8 to 0.9K in October depending on the radiative characteristics of the air-traffic-induced ice clouds. Modelling the current contrail cloud cover which is near 0.5% over Europe yields a surface temperature increase in the order of 0.05K.

  19. Water sorption and water permeability properties of edible film made from potato peel waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar OTHMAN

    Full Text Available Abstract The water sorption and permeability properties of edible film produced from potato peel waste was investigated under different levels of relative humidity (23, 33, 43, 57, 75% RH and temperatures (5, 30, 50 °C. The water sorption behaviour and isotherms of the film were investigated by fitting water sorption data to the Peleg model and the Guggenheim, Anderson de Boer model (GAB model. The amount of moisture content, time required for the moisture content of the film to reach equilibrium, water sorption rate, and water sorption capacity increased when the relative humidity increased. The effect of temperature on moisture content, water sorption rate, water sorption capacity, and monolayer moisture content is complex and related to the water activity as well as the moisture content. Based on R2 and RMSE values, the Peleg and GAB models were respectively determined as excellent models to predict the water sorption properties of the films, thus supporting the reliability of water sorption behaviour prediction. The water vapour transmission rate and water vapour permeability increased with an increase in relative humidity and temperature. The sorption and permeability properties of the film are worth investigation since the final application of the film as food packaging is ultimately dependent on these behaviours.

  20. Spatial Variations of Turbulent Properties of Neutral Hydrogen Gas in the Small Magellanic Cloud Using Structure-function Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestingen-Palm, David; Stanimirović, Snežana; González-Casanova, Diego F.; Babler, Brian [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Jameson, Katherine; Bolatto, Alberto, E-mail: sstanimi@astro.wisc.edu [Astronomy Department and Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    We investigate spatial variations of turbulent properties in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by using neutral hydrogen (H i) observations. With the goal of testing the importance of stellar feedback on H i turbulence, we define central and outer SMC regions based on the star formation rate (SFR) surface density, as well as the H i integrated intensity. We use the structure function and the velocity channel analysis to calculate the power-law index ( γ ) for both underlying density and velocity fields in these regions. In all cases, our results show essentially no difference in γ between the central and outer regions. This suggests that H i turbulent properties are surprisingly homogeneous across the SMC when probed at a resolution of 30 pc. Contrary to recent suggestions from numerical simulations, we do not find a significant change in γ due to stellar feedback as traced by the SFR surface density. This could be due to the stellar feedback being widespread over the whole of the SMC, but more likely due to a large-scale gravitational driving of turbulence. We show that the lack of difference between central and outer SMC regions cannot be explained by the high optical depth H I.

  1. Membranes with Surface-Enhanced Antifouling Properties for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Shahkaramipour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane technology has emerged as an attractive approach for water purification, while mitigation of fouling is key to lower membrane operating costs. This article reviews various materials with antifouling properties that can be coated or grafted onto the membrane surface to improve the antifouling properties of the membranes and thus, retain high water permeance. These materials can be separated into three categories, hydrophilic materials, such as poly(ethylene glycol, polydopamine and zwitterions, hydrophobic materials, such as fluoropolymers, and amphiphilic materials. The states of water in these materials and the mechanisms for the antifouling properties are discussed. The corresponding approaches to coat or graft these materials on the membrane surface are reviewed, and the materials with promising performance are highlighted.

  2. Membranes with Surface-Enhanced Antifouling Properties for Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkaramipour, Nima; Tran, Thien N.; Ramanan, Sankara; Lin, Haiqing

    2017-01-01

    Membrane technology has emerged as an attractive approach for water purification, while mitigation of fouling is key to lower membrane operating costs. This article reviews various materials with antifouling properties that can be coated or grafted onto the membrane surface to improve the antifouling properties of the membranes and thus, retain high water permeance. These materials can be separated into three categories, hydrophilic materials, such as poly(ethylene glycol), polydopamine and zwitterions, hydrophobic materials, such as fluoropolymers, and amphiphilic materials. The states of water in these materials and the mechanisms for the antifouling properties are discussed. The corresponding approaches to coat or graft these materials on the membrane surface are reviewed, and the materials with promising performance are highlighted. PMID:28273869

  3. Do Reductions in Dry Season Transpiration Allow Shallow Soil Water Uptake to Persist in a Tropical Lower Montane Cloud Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Villers, L. E.; Holwerda, F.; Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.; Goldsmith, G. R.; Geissert Kientz, D. R.; González Martínez, T. M.; Dawson, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) are ecosystems particularly sensitive to climate change; however, the effects of warmer and drier conditions on TMCF water cycling remain poorly understood. To investigate the plant functional response to reduced water availability, we conducted a study during the mid to late dry season (2014) in the lower limit (1,325 m asl) of the TMCF belt (1200-2500 m asl) in central Veracruz, Mexico. The temporal variation of transpiration rates of dominant upper canopy and mid-story tree species, depth of water uptake, as well as tree water sources were examined using micrometeorological, sapflow and soil moisture measurements, in combination with data on stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) composition of rain, tree xylem, soil (bulk and low suction-lysimeter) and stream water. The sapflow data suggest that crown conductances decreased as temperature and vapor pressure deficit increased, and soil moisture decreased from the mid to late dry season. Across all samplings (January 21, April 12 and 26), upper canopy species (Quercus spp.) showed more depleted (negative) isotope values compared to mid-story trees (Carpinus tropicalis). Overall, we found that the evaporated soil water pool was the main source for the trees. Furthermore, our MixSIAR Bayesian mixing model results showed that the depth of tree water uptake changed over the course of the dry season. Unexpectedly, a shift in water uptake from deeper (60-120 cm depth) to shallower soil water (0-30 cm) sources was observed, coinciding with the decreases in transpiration rates towards the end of the dry season. A larger reduction in deep soil water contributions was observed for upper canopy trees (from 70±14 to 22±15%) than for mid-story species (from 10±13 to 7±10%). The use of shallow soil water by trees during the dry season seems consistent with the greater root biomass and higher macronutrient concentrations found in the first 10 cm of the soil profiles. These findings are an

  4. Relationship between the chemical properties of bitumens and their colloidal properties in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salou, M.; Siffert, B.; Jada, A. [Institut de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, Mulhouse (France)

    1998-03-01

    The chemical properties of different bitumens were characterized by determining their asphaltene and resin contents and acid-base properties by carrying out titrations in organic media. The colloidal properties of the bitumens in water, i.e. their electrical interfacial properties, were evaluated by measuring the zeta potentials of bitumen dispersions in water. Comparison between the chemical and colloidal properties of the bitumens shows that it could be possible to predict the dispersion stability from the chemical properties of the bitumens. The resins/asphaltenes ratio can affect the dispersion stability by controlling the arrangement of the bitumens components inside the droplet and also at the interface during dispersion manufacture. Short communication. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Retrieval of ice cloud properties with visible/near-/shortwave-infrared (VNIR/SWIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) obaservations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Platnick, S. E.; Meyer, K.; Zhang, Z.; Yang, P.; Ding, J.

    2016-12-01

    An optical-estimation (OE) based ice cloud retrieval algorithm is developed with visible/near-/shortwave-infrared (VNIR/SWIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) observations. It is known that VNIR/SWIR observations are more sensitive to optically thick clouds, while TIR observations are more sensitive to optically thin clouds. The combination of both VNIR/SWIR and TIR observations is expected to improve the overall ice cloud retrieval performance. In this study, we develop an optimal method to select different bands for retrieving different types of ice clouds (e.g., thin cirrus or deep convective cloud). With the optimally selected bands, retrieval uncertainties are minimized and information content are maximized. The retrieval algorithm is based on a clear-sky transmittance module and a radiative transfer model that cover the VNIR/SWIR and TIR regions. The forward model is computational efficiency and therefore can be used to a wide variaty of remote sensing applications.

  6. Cloud forming properties of ambient aerosol in the Netherlands and resultant shortwave radiative forcing of climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khlystov, A.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis discusses properties of ambient aerosols in the Netherlands which are controlling the magnitude of the local aerosol radiative forcing. Anthropogenic aerosols influence climate by changing the radiative transfer through the atmosphere via two effects, one is direct and a second

  7. Determination of trace inorganic mercury species in water samples by cloud point extraction and UV-vis spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Halil Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A new micelle-mediated extraction method was developed for preconcentration of ultratrace Hg(II) ions prior to spectrophotometric determination. 2-(2'-Thiazolylazo)-p-cresol (TAC) and Ponpe 7.5 were used as the chelating agent and nonionic surfactant, respectively. Hg(II) ions form a hydrophobic complex with TAC in a micelle medium. The main factors affecting cloud point extraction efficiency, such as pH of the medium, concentrations of TAC and Ponpe 7.5, and equilibration temperature and time, were investigated in detail. An overall preconcentration factor of 33.3 was obtained upon preconcentration of a 50 mL sample. The LOD obtained under the optimal conditions was 0.86 microg/L, and the RSD for five replicate measurements of 100 microg/L Hg(II) was 3.12%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Hg in environmental water samples.