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Sample records for water chemical composition

  1. Chemical composition of water extracts from shungite and shungite water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charykova, M.V.; Bornyakova, I.I.; Polekhovskij, Yu.S.; Charykov, N.A.; Kustova, E.V.; Arapov, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    Chemical analysis of water extracts from shungite-3 of Zagozhino deposit (Karelia) and natural water contacting with shungite rocks are done. Chemical composition and bactericide properties of shungite water are studied [ru

  2. Chemical Composition of Rain Water in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLIM, K.; SAAD, Z.; GHADDAR, A.; NASREDDINE, M.; KATTAN, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of rainfall water were collected from fifteen stations in Lebanon during the period between October 1999 and April 2000 (the rainy season in Lebanon). Nine of these stations are distributed along the urban coastal cities, from the north to the south. The remaining 6 stations which have different altitudes ranging fom 400 m to 1200 m high are distributed in the mountainous rural areas. The concentrations of major cations (H + ,Na + , Ca 2 +, Mg 2 + and NH + 4 ) and major anions (Cl - , NO - 3 , HCO - 3 and SO 2 - 4 are determined for the first time in Lebanon. It has been found that the rain water is not acidic, due to the presence of carbonate dust particles in the atmosphere, which arise from the natural carbonate rocks, especially predominance in the mountains and internal regions of Lebanon. The high predominance of Na + and Cl - in the coastal investigated stations, is attributed to marine aerosol spray. The concentrations of SO - 4 and NO - 3 are close to the concentrations expected in typical urban areas. The correlation between the concentration of chemical species confirms the influence of natural and anthropogenic sources. (author)

  3. Public Health Risk Conditioned by Chemical Composition of Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovich, E.; Osipova, N.; Yankovich, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2016-03-01

    The article studies the public health potential risk originated from water consumption and estimated on the basis of the groundwater chemical composition. We have processed the results of chemical groundwater analysis in different aquifers of Tomsk district (Tomsk Oblast, Russia). More than 8400 samples of chemical groundwater analyses were taken during long-term observation period. Human health risk assessment of exposure to contaminants in drinking water was performed in accordance with the risk assessment guidance for public health concerning chemical pollution of the environment (Russian reference number: 2.1.10.1920-04-M, 2004). Identified potential risks were estimated for consuming water of each aquifer. The comparative analysis of water quality of different aquifers was performed on the basis of the risk coefficient of the total non-carcinogenic effects. The non-carcinogenic risk for the health of the Tomsk district population due to groundwater consumption without prior sanitary treatment was admitted acceptable. A rather similar picture is observed for all aquifers, although deeper aquifers show lower hazard coefficients.

  4. Characteristics and chemical composition of ground water in Bara basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibla, O.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study analysis was carried for forty five ground water samples from different areas within Bara basin, fifteen solid samples, three locally produced salt samples and one mixed rocks sample. The rocks were brought from the underground during hand digging of wells. The study include areas Um-Galgie, Bara, Saatah Shambool, Um-Sadoun El-Shareef, EI-Dair, EI-Murra, Taybah, Um-sadoun EI-Nazir, EI-Hodied Shareef, Um-Nabeg, Um-Gazira, Magror, Ma'afa, El-Kheiran, Dameerat Abdu, Sharshar East, Sharshar West, El-Gaa'a Um-Safari, and El-Gaa'a Um EL-Gora. Physical characteristics of ground water samples were determined including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and total dissolved solids, using pH-meter, conductivity-meter, and ultra- meter. Many other analytical techniques were used. Spectrophotometric analysis was used for determination of nitrate(NO 3 ''-''-), nitrite (No 2 ''-), ammonia-nitrogen (NH 3 -N), fluoride(F), sulphide(S''-''-) and sulphate(SO 4 ''-''-) ions. Chloride (Cl''-) and total alkalinity(OH''-,CO 3 ''-''-,HCO 3 ''-) were determined titrametrically. X-ray diffraction technique was used for determination of chemical composition of solid samples (soils,salts and rocks). X-ray fluorescence technique was used to measure the concentration of some metals in the solid samples. Radioactivity was measured using gamma-spectrometry. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the measurement of cations concentration in ground water samples as well as soil samples, this include macro-cations: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and micro cations (trace): Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), lead (Pb) and barium (Ba). The results obtained were statistically treated, using SPSS program, discussed and further future research was suggested. The analysis show general suitability of fresh ground water at section A and C samples from physical and chemical

  5. Characteristics and chemical composition of ground water in Bara basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibla, O A.M. [Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Graduate Studies, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2007-01-15

    In this study analysis was carried for forty five ground water samples from different areas within Bara basin, fifteen solid samples, three locally produced salt samples and one mixed rocks sample. The rocks were brought from the underground during hand digging of wells. The study include areas Um-Galgie, Bara, Saatah Shambool, Um-Sadoun El-Shareef, EI-Dair, EI-Murra, Taybah, Um-sadoun EI-Nazir, EI-Hodied Shareef, Um-Nabeg, Um-Gazira, Magror, Ma'afa, El-Kheiran, Dameerat Abdu, Sharshar East, Sharshar West, El-Gaa'a Um-Safari, and El-Gaa'a Um EL-Gora. Physical characteristics of ground water samples were determined including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and total dissolved solids, using pH-meter, conductivity-meter, and ultra- meter. Many other analytical techniques were used. Spectrophotometric analysis was used for determination of nitrate(NO{sub 3}''-''-), nitrite (No{sub 2}''-), ammonia-nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N), fluoride(F), sulphide(S''-''-) and sulphate(SO{sub 4}''-''-) ions. Chloride (Cl''-) and total alkalinity(OH''-,CO{sub 3}''-''-,HCO{sub 3}''-) were determined titrametrically. X-ray diffraction technique was used for determination of chemical composition of solid samples (soils,salts and rocks). X-ray fluorescence technique was used to measure the concentration of some metals in the solid samples. Radioactivity was measured using gamma-spectrometry. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the measurement of cations concentration in ground water samples as well as soil samples, this include macro-cations: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and micro cations (trace): Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), lead (Pb) and barium (Ba). The results obtained were statistically treated, using SPSS program, discussed and further future research was suggested. The analysis show general suitability of fresh ground water at section A and C samples from

  6. Chemical composition of water from roofs in Gdansk, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakovski, Stefan; Tobiszewski, Marek; Simeonov, Vasil; Polkowska, Zaneta; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the assessment of roof runoff waters from the region of Gdansk collected during the winter season (2007/2008). The chemical analysis includes 16 chemical variables: major ions, PAHs and PCBs measured at 3 sampling sites for 6-14 rain events. Although the data set is of limited volume the statistical data treatment using self-organizing maps (SOM) reveals the main factors controlling roof runoff water quality even for a data set with small dimension. This effort for explanation of the identified factors by the possible emission sources of the urban environment and air-particulate formation seems to be very reliable. Additionally to the roof runoff water quality factors the rain events patterns are found: 'background' group of events and groups formally named 'PAHs', 'PCBs' and 'air-borne particles' - dominated events. The SOM classification results give an opportunity to uncover the role of roof 'impact' on the runoff waters. Rain runoff water quality is described by four latent factors and the 'roof' impact is uncovered. - Identification of the urban roof runoff water quality factors and 'roof' impact by self-organizing map classification.

  7. The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jean W H; Ge, Liya; Ng, Yan Fei; Tan, Swee Ngin

    2009-12-09

    Coconut water (coconut liquid endosperm), with its many applications, is one of the world's most versatile natural product. This refreshing beverage is consumed worldwide as it is nutritious and beneficial for health. There is increasing scientific evidence that supports the role of coconut water in health and medicinal applications. Coconut water is traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture/micropropagation. The wide applications of coconut water can be justified by its unique chemical composition of sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and phytohormones. This review attempts to summarise and evaluate the chemical composition and biological properties of coconut water.

  8. Chemical modelling of pore water composition from PFBC residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of trace elements varies depending on the source of the coal and also due to the combustion process used. Mercury is one important element among the trace elements in the coal residues, generally recognised as potentially harmful to the biological system. To predict the pore water concentrations of mercury and other important constituents leached from coal combustion residues disposal sites, mechanistic data on chemical reactions are required. The present study is an application of a basially thermodynamical approach using the geochemical code EQ3NR. The presence of discrete solid phases that control the aqueous concentrations of major elements such as aluminium, calcium and silicon are identified. Solid phases are modelled in equilibrium with a hypothetical pore water at a pH range of 7-11. In this study the thermodynamic database of EQ3NR has been complemented with data for cadmium, mercury and lead taken from the OECD/NEA Thermodynamic Database and from a compilation made by Lindsay. Possible solubility limiting phases for the important trace elements arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel and lead have been identified. Concentrations of these trace elements as a function of pH in the hypothetical pore water were calculated using mechanistic thermodynamial data. The thermodynamical approach in this study seems justified because most solid residues that are either present or expected to form during weathering have relatively fast precipitation/dissolution kinetics. (21 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.)

  9. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO 2 contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  10. Chemical composition of the mineral waters of the Congo River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tshiashala, M.D.; Lumu, B.M.; Lobo, K.K.; Tshisumpa, M.; Wembo, L.S.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrophotometry has been applied to river Congo waters for a global monitoring of trace element contents. 15 elements Ag, Au, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples collected at 2 sites along the river Congo. Results are compared with those observed in other river waters collected in Kinshasa and elsewhere and for compliance with the international quality standards elaborated by the Who, USA and SSRU. The waters of river Congo have been found less mineralized than those of river Niger. They are of the same order of magnitude than those observed in some local rivers such as Ndjili, Lubudi, Funa, Tshangu and Tshenke.

  11. Study of the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae) from Senegal. The plants were collected in two different localities, Dakar and. Kaolack. The extracts were obtained by steam distillation from both fresh and dried plants and analyses carried.

  12. Study of the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae) from Senegal. The plants were collected in two different localities, Dakar and Kaolack. The extracts were obtained by steam distillation from both fresh and dried plants and analyses carried ...

  13. Chemical composition of groundwater/drinking water and oncological disease mortality in Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapant, S; Cvečková, V; Fajčíková, K; Dietzová, Z; Stehlíková, B

    2017-02-01

    This study deals with the analysis of relationship between chemical composition of the groundwater/drinking water and the data on mortality from oncological diseases (MOD) in the Slovak Republic. Primary data consist of the Slovak national database of groundwater analyses (20,339 chemical analyses, 34 chemical elements/compounds) and data on MOD (17 health indicators) collected for the 10-year period (1994-2003). The chemical and health data were unified in the same form and expressed as the mean values for each of 2883 municipalities within the Slovak Republic. Pearson and Spearman correlation as well as artificial neural network (ANN) methods were used for analysis of the relationship between chemical composition of groundwater/drinking water and MOD. The most significant chemical elements having influence on MOD were identified together with their limit values (limit and optimal contents). Based on the results of calculations, made through the neural networks, the following eight chemical elements/parameters in the groundwater were defined as the most significant for MOD: Ca + Mg (mmol l -1 ), Ca, Mg, TDS, Cl, HCO 3 , SO 4 and NO 3 . The results document the highest relationship between MOD and groundwater contents of Ca + Mg (mmol l -1 ), Ca and Mg. We observe increased MOD with low (deficit) contents of these three parameters of groundwater/drinking water. The following limit values were set for the most significant groundwater chemicals/parameters: Ca + Mg 1.73-5.85 mmol l -1 , Ca 60.5-196.8 mg l -1 and Mg 25.6-35.8 mg l -1 . At these concentration ranges, the mortality for oncological diseases in the Slovak Republic is at the lowest levels. These limit values are about twice higher in comparison with the current Slovak valid guideline values for the drinking water.

  14. Assessment of Water and Sediment Physical-Chemical Composition in the West Coast of Maracaibo Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Moronta-Riera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to determine the physical and chemical composition of the water streams and sediments of the Maracaibo Lake in three sampling areas located in Tía Juana, Lagunillas and Ceuta in order to know the level of contamination and assess water quality based on permissible values established by the 883 Decree. The results indicate that the overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the water and sediments are above permissible levels. It is concluded that petroleum prospection is the root cause of the lake contamination.

  15. Chemical composition of water hyacinth (Eichhronia Crassipes) a comparison indication of heavy metal pollution in egyptian water bodies. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-sabour, M.F.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Zohny, E.

    1996-01-01

    Water hyacinth is tested as an indicator for pollution in egyptian fresh surface waters. Chemical composition of water hyacinth as affected area of collection (water bodies) was studied and the suitability of this plant as a biological indicator for water pollution is discussed. Water hyacinth samples were collected three times per year for two years (1991-1993). Sample sites include one location in the river nile (at Helwan area), one site in Ismaillia canal, (at Mostrod industrial area), and one site in Abo-Zabal drain (at Abo-Zabal city). The concentration of 19 major major and trace elements in plant samples were determined by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis. Results indicated that plant parts as well as location have a significant effect on elements content. Water hyacinth roots showed high affinity for accumulation of trace elements. 5 tabs

  16. Chemical composition of water hyacinth (Eichhronia Crassipes) a comparison indication of heavy metal pollution in egyptian water bodies. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-sabour, M F [Soil pollution unit, Soil and water Department. Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Haleem, A S [Hot Lab. Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Zohny, E [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Beni-Sweif Branch, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Water hyacinth is tested as an indicator for pollution in egyptian fresh surface waters. Chemical composition of water hyacinth as affected area of collection (water bodies) was studied and the suitability of this plant as a biological indicator for water pollution is discussed. Water hyacinth samples were collected three times per year for two years (1991-1993). Sample sites include one location in the river nile (at Helwan area), one site in Ismaillia canal, (at Mostrod industrial area), and one site in Abo-Zabal drain (at Abo-Zabal city). The concentration of 19 major major and trace elements in plant samples were determined by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis. Results indicated that plant parts as well as location have a significant effect on elements content. Water hyacinth roots showed high affinity for accumulation of trace elements. 5 tabs.

  17. Chemical composition shape form and size of suspended solids in the atmosphere carried by rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la

    2001-01-01

    The interest of this work is to know about shape form, size and chemical composition of the suspended solids in the atmosphere of Toluca city and which are carried by the rains. The harvest of the samples was carried out during january to november 1999. The separation of the particulate matter from the rain water was realized through centrifugation. The solids were analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy to know the shape form and size and the chemical composition was determined by X-ray dispersive energy in general form and of some particles individually analysed. The p H was measured to the solutions and the quantification of some dissolved ions by the Icp technique was realized. The results of the solids showed C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, P, K, Ca, Ti and Fe. Moreover they present sizes which varying from a ten of nanometers until some tens of microns. (Author)

  18. SCREENING OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF CRUDE WATER EXTRACT OF DIFFERENT CASSAVA VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of three sources of crude cassava water extract (CCWE was evaluated in different varieties of cassava (MS6 Manihot Selection (local variety, TMS 30555 Tropical Manihot Selection (Improved variety and Bulk (crude cassava water from cassava processing site. Crude cassava water extract from the pulp of cassava fresh roots was prepared and the chemical composition was determined in the analytical laboratory. The result of the analysis showed that, hydrocyanic acid (HCN and with elements such as Magnesium (Mg, Manganese (Mn, Iron (Fe, Sulphur (S, Copper (Cu and Zinc (Zn. Nitrogen (N, Phosphorous (P and Potassium (K were found in the extract. The study showed that due to the presence of hydrocyanic acid in the extract, this waste found around the cassava processing sites possesses phytotoxic effects on weeds/vegetation in form of leaf decoloration (yellowing, wilting and eventually death. Crude cassava water extract showed a probable natural herbicide which can be used by the peasant farmers because it is environmental friendly and easily biodegradable into harmless compounds in the environment

  19. Impact of raized bogs on export of carbon and river water chemical composition in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voistinova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Bogs play an important role in functioning of the biosphere. Specific geochemical environment of the bogs results in formation of the special biogeochemical cycle of the elements. Processes of decay and transformation of organic material define the reductive conditions of bog water, form and migratory mobility of the chemical elements. Particular interest in recent years is aroused by the question of content and dynamics of the carbon in bog and river water according to indicated natural and climatic changes on the territory. The most important parts of the carbon balance in bog ecosystems together with processes of exhalation from deposit surface in the form of CO2 is its export with river water. The results of research carried out in scientific station "Vasyugansky" in south taiga subzone of Western Siberia showed that chemical composition of raised bog water includes high amounts of total iron (2,13 mg/l), ammonium ions (5,33 mg/l), humic and fulvic acids (5,21 mg/l and 45,8 mg/l), dissolved organic carbon (69,1 mg/l), COD (236,93 mgO/l), there are low mineralization and indicators of pH. Carbon comes in bog water in organic compounds: carboxylic acids, phenols, aromatic and paraffin hydrocarbons, organic phosphates, phthalates and other compounds. Formation of river waters composition in the Western Siberia takes place in the following context: high level of bogged river catchments (sometimes up to 70%), excess humidification and low heat provision. Basing on the results of study of hydrochemical runoff in small and medium rivers with different levels of bogged in river catchments (Chaya, Bakchar, Klyuch, Gavrilovka) it was noted that raised bog influence on river waters chemical composition shows in ion runoff decrease, organic substances runoff increase, increase of amounts of total iron, ammonium irons and water pH indicators decrease. Study of humic matters migration is very important in the context of formation of flexible complexes of humic and fulvic

  20. The chemical composition of sea water and pore water in the manganese nodule area of the Central Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchig, V.; Gundlach, H.; Schnier, C.

    1981-11-01

    Analyses for the following elements were made on 118 samples of pore water and 23 samples of sea water from the radiolarian ooze area of the Central Pacific: Na, Ca, Br, Sr (major elements) and Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Eu, Ta, Hg, U. The average concentration of most of the elements analyzed is higher in the pore water than in the sea water. The enrichment of elements in both the pore water and the bottom near sea water relative to the average composition of the sea water depends on the residence times of the elements in the sea water - the shorter the residence time the greater the enrichment. The enrichment of an element in these sea and pore waters is also dependant on the chemical species in which it occurs in the sea water. The enrichment seems to be greater for hydroxides, less for complex chloride ions and there is no enrichment for simple ions. The enrichment of the elements occuring as hydroxides (Fe, Cu, Cr, Sc, Eu) or complex chlorides (Mn, Ni, Co, Zn, Ag, Hg, Se) results in precipitation from the sea water, which contributes to the growth of the manganese nodules as well as to the genesis of metalliferous sediments in this area. The greater enrichment in the pore water relative to the sea water accounts for the remobilization of these elements from the sediment as the main source of the material for the growth of the manganese nodules. (orig.) [de

  1. The formation of the chemical composition of groundwater in South Prohibiny using the example of "Predgorny" water intake

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    Mazukhina S. I.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers from Russia and foreign countries, studying medical and environmental contamination of drinking water, point to the relationship of public health with chemical composition of groundwater and anthropogenic inclusions. The aim of the work is to detect the change in chemical composition of natural waters formed within the Khibiny massif and its closest framing depending on the composition of rocks in the catchment area and on anthropogenic impact by means of physical and chemical modeling and modern precision methods of analysis. To achieve the goal the sampling has been taken at the "Predgorny" water intake (Koashva, the Kirovsk district. The complete hydrochemical analysis has shown the presence in waters of such elements as uranium, molybdenum, silver, barium, which supplemented the database of groundwater chemical composition. For the physical-chemical modeling, there have been made some samples of chemical analyzes of the most common rocks composing the southeastern part of the Khibiny massif as the main catchment area. The analysis of the obtained results has made it possible to separate the rock influence from anthropogenic, natural chemical composition of waters from filtered mined (anthropogenic. It has been shown that already in natural (pure waters the ratios of Ca/P and Ca/Sr can lead to bone diseases. It has been determined that the chemical composition of groundwater from the "Predgorny" water intake is affected by the chemical composition of rocks and surface waters containing oxygen, nitrogen nitrates, chlorine, which affect pH (reducing it, the migration patterns of aluminum, manganese, iron and other elements. In the bones of humans and animals, approximately 70 % falls on hydroxyl apatite Ca5(PO43OH. OH group can be replaced by F, Cl, O. Calcium can be isomorphically replaced by a number of elements: Sr, U, Ba, etc. that lead to diseases of bones and teeth. The research results can be useful in the fields of

  2. Characterizing the variability in chemical composition of flowback and produced waters - results from lab and field studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Wilke, Franziska D. H.; Schmid, Franziska E.; Zhu, Yaling; Lipińska, Olga; Konieczyńska, Monika

    2017-04-01

    The huge volumes and unknown composition of flowback and produced waters cause major public concerns about the environmental and social compatibility of hydraulic fracturing and the exploitation of gas from unconventional reservoirs. Flowback and produced waters contain not only residues of fracking additives but also chemical species that are dissolved from the target shales themselves. Shales are a heterogeneous mixture of minerals, organic matter, and formation water and little is actually understood about the fluid-rock interactions occurring during hydraulic fracturing of the shales and their effects on the chemical composition of flowback and produced water. To overcome this knowledge gap, interactions of different shales with different artificial stimulation fluids were studied in lab experiments under ambient and elevated temperature and pressure conditions. These lab experiments showed clearly that fluid-rock interactions change the chemical composition of the initial stimulation fluid and that geochemistry of the fractured shale is relevant for understanding flowback water composition. In addition, flowback water samples were taken after hydraulic fracturing of one horizontal well in Pomeranian region, Poland and investigated for their chemical composition. With this presentation, results from lab and field studies will be presented and compared to decipher possible controls on chemical compositions of flowback and produced water.

  3. The chemical composition of precipitation and runoff water on an arid limestone hillside, northern Negev, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Aaron; Karnieli, Arnon; Issar, Arie

    1991-12-01

    The study deals with the chemistry of precipitation and runoff water on an arid limestone hillside (467 m 2) the upper part of which is rocky and the lower part soil covered. Rainfall was measured with a rain recorder and sampled with a sequential collector which samples consecutive fractions of 2 mm. Runoff rate was measured with a stage recorder and runoff water was collected immediately after each flow from a collecting tank. Rain and runoff samples were analysed for their major constituents: Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cl -, SO 2-4 and HCO -3. Rainfall during the study year (1981/1982) amounted to 75 mm. The salt input by rainfall was 8 g m -2. The salt output by runoff was 1.2 g m -2 for the rocky area and 0.5 g m -2 for the soil-covered area, indicating a substantial net gain for the different areas. Both rainwater and runoff water have a calcium bicarbonate composition. These two ions represent some 55% of the dissolved ions. Runoff water is enriched by a factor of 2 in comparison with rainwater. Finally, the chemistry of runoff water from very small hillslope areas is quite similar to that of flood waters in the major channels of the Negev, pointing to a very limited chemical enrichment with increasing drainage area.

  4. RECOGNITION OF MAIN PROCESSES FORMING CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SUPRAŚL RIVER WATER

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    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify and define the processes that affect the variability of the chemical composition of Supraśl river water at selected measuring points. One of the recognized multivariate statistical methods was used for identification. The research area covered the Suprasl river. Four measuring points were selected on the river – Michałowo, Gródek, Nowodworce, Dzikie. The measuring points were selected in such a way to take into account the impact of the most intense interaction located along the river. Changes in concentration were determined on the basis of monthly analyzes of water samples collected from the Supraśl river in 2003–2012 by the Regional Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (RIEP in Białystok. The analyses were performed in the RIEP laboratory in Bialystok, which has implemented and maintained a management system that meets the requirements of the norm PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025 + Ap.1:2007 approved by the certificate AB 165. The water samples were subject to determinations of dissolved oxygen concentration, BOD5, CODMn, CODCr, NH3, N-NH4+, NKieldahl, NO3-, N-NO3-, NO2-, N-NO2-, Ntot., PO43-, Ptot and electrical conductivity value. The monthly sum of precipitation was read based on data from the Weather Service “IMGW-PIB Monitor”. The research and analysis results allowed to identify the self-cleaning, nitrification, and de-nitrification processes, as well as enrichment affecting the variability of the chemical composition of the Supraśl river water. The results from the factor analysis showed some prevailing of enrichment processes over internal changes in the aquatic environment of the Supraśl river.

  5. Estimation of aerosol water and chemical composition from AERONET at Cabauw, the Netherlands, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, ,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, A.J. van; Roelofs, G.J.H.; Hasekamp, O.P.; Henzing, J.S.; Röckmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    This study is of our particular interest as the quality of our chemical transport model Lotos-Euros can be improved by our understanding of the aerosol-light interaction. In this study we derive aerosol water and chemical composition by a modeling approach that combines in situ measured and remotely

  6. Chemical composition of the thermomineral waters of Josanicka Banja spa as an origin indicator, balneological valorization and geothermal potential

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    Milenić Dejan R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the groundwater is directly dependent on the geological structure, hydrogeological and hydrochemical characteristics and as such it represents an output result of all the factors and processes which take place in the environment within which they were formed. The chemical composition of thermomineral waters often represents a crucial factor in determining the origin, balneological valorization and geothermal potential of the resources. This work presents the analysis of origin, belneological valorization and geothermal potential of Josanicka Banja spa, on the basis of the results gained through making the analyisis of chemical contents of the thermomineral waters which occur in the area. The ratio of concentrations of specific chemical components in the thermomineral waters of Josanicka Banja has served as the basic tool for ascertaining the origin of these waters. On the basis of the analysis of the main anion-cation and gas compositions as well as the contents of specific micro-components, a balneological valorization of these resources has been carried out. Apart from that this work also presents the calculation of the expected temperatures in the primary geothermal reservoir, which was carried out on the basis of the results of chemical analysis of thermomineral waters that occur in the area. Geothermal potential of about 4 MWt and significant contents of balneologically active components of the chemical composition of these waters, open up a possibility for their multi-purpose use, which is also presented in the work. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33053

  7. Formation of the chemical composition of water in channel head in postglacial areas (West Pomerania, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Małgorzata; Kruszyk, Robert; Szpikowska, Grażyna

    2016-04-01

    The channel head is a zone of hydrological changes determining the hydrochemical features of water in the final stage of groundwater flow and the start of the surface cycle. The chemistry of water flowing out of a channel head reflects not only the characteristics of groundwater feeding the zone, but also changes it undergoes in this area during the organisation of channel flow. Groundwater interacts with surface water in the hyporheic zone where water from different environments is mixed and exchanged due to high hydraulic and chemical gradients. The goal of this study was to assess spatial differences in the concentrations of nutrients and compounds produced by chemical weathering in a channel head and to establish the role of the hyporheic zone in the transformation of the chemical composition of groundwater supplying a 1st-order stream. The research area was the channel head Żarnowo, located on the southern slope of the upper Parsęta valley. Three hydrochemical mappings were conducted in the headwater alcove consisting of three parts developed in a glaciofluvial plain and an erosional-accumulative alluvial terrace. Water was sampled in places of groundwater outflow in the footslope zone (9 sites), the hyporheic zone (14 sites), and outflows in the individual alcove parts and the rivulet they formed (5 sites). Water temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were measured in the field. Concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, HCO3, Cl, NO3, PO4, SO4 and SiO2 were determined in the laboratory. The chemical composition of ground- and surface water shows the concentration of geogenic components like K, Ca, Mg, Na, HCO3, and SiO2 to be an effect of chemical weathering and the leaching of its products taking place in a zero-discharge catchment. Those ions display little spatial variability and a stability of concentration in individual measurement periods, while the greatest disproportions in their concentrations among the alcove parts were recorded for Cl, NO3

  8. Chemical composition and water quality of Tashlyk Water-cooling reservoir of South-Ukraine NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosheleva, S.I.; Gajdar, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Information about water quality in Tashlyk water reservoir (cooler of South-Ukrainian NPP) during 9 years (1980-1992) is presented. Comparative data about Water Quality of South Bug (its source of water nutrition) and this reservoir point on the periodical pollution by surface waters and industrial wastes with a great contain of sulphates and chlorides. The class of water has been changed from hydrocarbonat calcium to sulfur-chlorine-magnesium or chlorine-natrium. The contain of biogenic and organic components in reservoir's water has been corresponded to the main class of waters satisfactory cleanliness

  9. Salinity variations and chemical compositions of waters in the Frio Formation, Texas Gulf Coast. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R.A.; Garrett, C.M. Jr.; Posey, J.S.; Han, J.H.; Jirik, L.A.

    1981-11-01

    Waters produced from sandstone reservoirs of the deep Frio Formation exhibit spatial variations in chemical composition that roughly coincide with the major tectonic elements (Houston and Rio Grande Embayments, San Marcos Arch) and corresponding depositional systems (Houston and Norias deltas, Greta-Carancahua barrier/strandplain system) that were respectively active along the upper, lower, and middle Texas Coast during Frio deposition. Within an area, salinities are usually depth dependent, and primary trends closely correspond to pore pressure gradients and thermal gradients. Where data are available (mainly in Brazoria County) the increases in TDS and calcium with depth coincide with the zone of albitization, smectite-illite transition, and calcite decrease in shales. Waters have fairly uniform salinities when produced from the same sandstone reservoir within a fault block or adjacent fault blocks with minor displacement. In contrast, stratigraphically equivalent sandstones separated by faults with large displacement usually yield waters with substantially different salinities owing to the markedly different thermal and pressure gradients across the faults that act as barriers to fluid movement.

  10. Chemical Composition and Water Permeability of Fruit and Leaf Cuticles of Olea europaea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hua; Burghardt, Markus; Schuster, Ann-Christin; Leide, Jana; Lara, Isabel; Riederer, Markus

    2017-10-11

    The plant cuticle, protecting against uncontrolled water loss, covers olive (Olea europaea) fruits and leaves. The present study describes the organ-specific chemical composition of the cuticular waxes and the cutin and compares three developmental stages of fruits (green, turning, and black) with the leaf surface. Numerous organ-specific differences, such as the total coverage of cutin monomeric components (1034.4 μg cm -2 and 630.5 μg cm -2 ) and the cuticular waxes (201.6 μg cm -2 and 320.4 μg cm -2 ) among all three fruit stages and leaves, respectively, were detected. Water permeability as the main cuticular function was 5-fold lower in adaxial leaf cuticles (2.1 × 10 -5 m s -1 ) in comparison to all three fruit stages (9.5 × 10 -5 m s -1 ). The three fruit developmental stages have the same cuticular water permeability. It is hypothesized that a higher weighted average chain length of the acyclic cuticular components leads to a considerably lower permeability of the leaf as compared to the fruit cuticle.

  11. Chemical composition of ground water and the locations of permeable zones in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, L.V.; Robison, J.H.; Blankennagel, R.K.; Ogard, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    Ten wells in the Yucca Mountain area of southern Nevada have been sampled for chemical analysis. Samples were obtained during pumping of water from the entire well bore (composite sample) and in one instance by pumping water from a single isolated interval in well UE-25b number 1. Sodium is the most abundant cation and bicarbonate the most abundant anion in all water samples. Although the general chemical compositions of individual samples are similar, there are significant differences in uncorrected carbon-14 age and in inorganic and stable-isotope composition. Flow surveys of seven wells performed using iodine-131 as a tracer indicate that ground-water production is usually from one or more discrete zones of permeability. 7 references, 12 figures, 1 table

  12. Impact of chemical treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of coconut fibre (Cocos nucifera reinforced polypropylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka O. OLADELE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, chemically treated coconut fibres were used to reinforce Homopolymer Polypropylene in order to ascertain the effect of the treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of the composites produced. Coconut fibre was first extracted from its husk by soaking it in water and was dried before it was cut into 10 mm lengths. It was then chemically treated in alkali solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH and potassium hydroxide (KOH in a shaker water bath. The treated coconut fibres were used as reinforcements in polypropylene matrix to produce composites of varied fibre weight contents; 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt.%. Tensile and flexural properties were investigated using universal testing machine while water absorption test was carried out on the samples for 7 days. It was observed from the results that, NaOH treated samples gave the best tensile properties while KOH treated samples gave the best flexural and water repellent properties.

  13. Chemical Composition of Apricot Pit Shells and Effect of Hot-Water Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek B. Corbett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residues, such as corn stover, wheat straw, and nut shells show promise as feedstocks for lignocellulosic biorefinery due to their relatively high polysaccharide content and low or no nutritional value for human consumption. Apricot pit shells (APS were studied in this work to assess their potential for use in a biorefinery. Hot water extraction (HWE; 160 °C, 2 h, proposed to remove easily accessible hemicelluloses, was performed to evaluate the susceptibility of APS to this mild pretreatment process. The chemical composition of APS before and after HWE (EAPS was analyzed by standard methods and 1H-NMR. A low yield of the remaining HW-extracted APS (~59% indicated that APS are highly susceptible to this pretreatment method. 1H-NMR analysis of EAPS revealed that ~77% of xylan present in raw APS was removed along with ~24% of lignin. The energy of combustion of APS was measured before and after HWE showing a slight increase due to HWE (1.61% increase. Near infrared radiation spectroscopy (NIRS, proposed as a quick non-invasive method of biomass analysis, was performed. NIRS corroborated results of traditional analysis and 1H-NMR. Determination of antioxidizing activity (AOA of APS extracts was also undertaken. AOA of organic APS extracts were shown to be more than 20 times higher than that of a synthetic antioxidizing agent.

  14. Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.

  15. Chemical composition of hot spring waters in the Oita river basins, Oita prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Tamio

    1988-01-30

    The source of the water from Oita River comes from the Kuju and Yubu-Tsurumi Volcanos, pouring into Beppu Bay. Its drainage area is 646 km/sup 2/ with a total length of 55 km. Hot springs are exist throughout most of the basin of the main and branches of Oita River. The chemical components of the hot springs in the Ota River basin -Yufuin, Yunotaira, Nagayu, Shonai/Hazama, and Oita City - have been analyzed. The equivalent of magnesium exceeds that of calcium in the carbonate springs of the above. Ca+Mg has positive correlations with HCO/sub 3/ in these carbonate springs. The water from these springs flows into the rivers and pours into Beppu Bay. The flow rate and chemical component concentration were measured at Fudai bridge. The concentration of chemical components having an average flow rate (30 ton/sec) were calculated. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 10 refs)

  16. Forming chemical composition of surface waters in the Arctic as "water - rock" interaction. Case study of lake Inari and river Paz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Sandimirov, Sergey; Pozhilenko, Vladimir; Ivanov, Stanislav; Maksimova, Viktoriia

    2017-04-01

    Due to the depletion of fresh water supplies and the deterioration of their quality as a result of anthropogenic impact on the Arctic ecosystems, the research questions of forming surface and ground waters, their interactions with the rocks, development of the foundations for their rational use and protection are of great fundamental and practical importance. The aim of the work is to evaluate the influence of the chemical composition of rocks of the northern part of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) shield on forming surface waters chemical composition (Lake Inari, river Paz) using physical-chemical modeling (Chudnenko, 2010, Selector software package). River Paz (Paatsjoki) is the largest river in North Fennoscandia and flows through the territory of three countries - Finland, Russia and Norway. It originates from Lake Inari, which a large number of streams and rivers flow into, coming from the mountain range of the northern Finland (Maanselkä hill). Within the catchment of inflows feeding the lake Inari and river Paz in its upper flow there are mainly diverse early Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive rocks of the Lapland granulite belt and its framing, and to a lesser extent - various gneisses and migmatites with relicts of amphibolites, granitic gneisses, plagioclase and plagio- and plagiomicrocline granites, and quartz diorites of Inari terrane (Meriläinen, 1976, fig 1; Hörmann et al, 1980, fig 1; Geologicalmap, 2001). Basing on the techniques developed earlier (Mazukhina, 2012), and the data of monitoring of the chemical composition of surface waters and investigation of the chemical composition of the rocks, physical-chemical modeling (FCM) (Selector software package) was carried out. FCM includes 34 independent components (Al-B-Br-Ar-He-Ne-C-Ca-Cl-F-Fe-K-Mg-Mn-N-Na-P-S-Si-Sr-Cu-Zn-Ni-Pb-V-Ba-Co-Cr-Hg-As-Cd-H-O-e), 996 dependent components, of them 369 in aqueous solution, 76 in the gas phase, 111 liquid hydrocarbons, and 440 solid phases, organic and mineral

  17. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S.--occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Patricia L; Norman, Julia E; Scott, Jonathon C

    2012-08-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effects of different water storage procedures on the dissolved Fe concentration and isotopic composition of chemically contrasted waters from the Amazon River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Daniel S; Poitrasson, Franck; Boaventura, Geraldo R

    2015-11-15

    Although recent studies have investigated the Fe isotopic composition of dissolved, colloidal and particulate phases from continental and oceanic natural waters, few efforts have been made to evaluate whether water sample storage and the separation of different pore-size fractions through filtration can cause any change to the Fe isotopic compositions. The present study investigates the possible biases introduced by different water storage conditions on the dissolved Fe concentration and isotopic composition of chemically different waters. Water samples were collected from an organic-rich river and from mineral particulate-rich rivers. Filtered and unfiltered water samples were stored either at room temperature or frozen at -18°C in order to assess possible biases due to (i) different water storage temperature, and (ii) storage of bulk (unfiltered) vs filtered water. Iron isotope measurements were performed by Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with a Thermo Electron Neptune instrument, after Fe purification using anion-exchange resins. Our data reveal that bulk water storage at room temperature without filtration produces minor changes in the dissolved Fe isotopic composition of mineral particulate-rich waters, but significant isotopic composition changes in organic-rich waters. In both cases, however, the impact of the different procedures on the Fe concentrations was strong. On the other hand, the bulk water stored frozen without filtration produced more limited changes in the dissolved Fe concentrations, and also on isotopic compositions, relative to the samples filtered in the field. The largest effect was again observed for the organic-rich waters. These findings suggest that a time lag between water collection and filtration may cause isotopic exchanges between the dissolved and particulate Fe fractions. When it is not possible to filter the samples in the field immediately after collection, the less detrimental approach is to

  19. Chemical vapor composites (CVC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagan, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Chemical Vapor Composite, CVC trademark , process fabricates composite material by simply mixing particles (powders and or fibers) with CVD reactants which are transported and co-deposited on a hot substrate. A key feature of the CVC process is the control provided by varing the density, geometry (aspect ratio) and composition of the entrained particles in the matrix material, during deposition. The process can fabricate composite components to net shape (± 0.013 mm) on a machined substrate in a single step. The microstructure of the deposit is described and several examples of different types of particles in the matrix are illustrated. Mechanical properties of SiC composite material fabricated with SiC powder and fiber will be presented. Several examples of low cost ceramic composite products will be shown. (orig.)

  20. Chemical recycling of carbon fibers reinforced epoxy resin composites in oxygen in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yongping; Wang, Zhi; Feng, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    The carbon fibers in carbon fibers reinforced epoxy resin composites were recovered in oxygen in supercritical water at 30 ± 1 MPa and 440 ± 10 o C. The microstructure of the recovered carbon fibers was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM). The results revealed that the clean carbon fibers were recovered and had higher tensile strength relative to the virgin carbon fibers when the decomposition rate was above 85 wt.%, although the recovered carbon fibers have clean surface, the epoxy resin on the surface of the recovered carbon fibers was readily observed. As the decomposition rate increased to above 96 wt.%, no epoxy resin was observed on the surface of the carbon fibers and the oxidation of the recovered carbon fibers was readily measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The carbon fibers were ideally recovered and have original strength when the decomposition rates were between 94 and 97 wt.%. This study clearly showed the oxygen in supercritical water is a promising way for recycling the carbon fibers in carbon fibers reinforced resin composites.

  1. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S. - Occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toccalino, Patricia L., E-mail: ptocca@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 6000 J Street, Placer Hall, Sacramento, California 95819 (United States); Norman, Julia E., E-mail: jnorman@usgs.gov [USGS, 2130 SW 5th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States); Scott, Jonathon C., E-mail: jon@usgs.gov [USGS, 202 NW 66th Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73116 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed mixtures in untreated groundwater samples from public

  2. Study of the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae) from Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Diop, Serigne Mbacké; Guèye, Momar Talla; Ndiaye, Ibrahima; Diop, Michel Bakar; Ndiaye, El Hadji Barka; Thiam, Abdoulaye; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Lognay, Georges

    2017-01-01

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae) from Senegal. The plants were collected in two different localities, Dakar and Kaolack. The extracts were obtained by steam distillation from both fresh and dried plants and analyses carried out by GC/FID and GC/MS. Oils from Dakar were dominated by geranial which represented 46.0-43.9%, neral 31.8-31.0%, myrcene 10.8-11.7% and geraniol 2.7-4.2% in the fresh and d...

  3. Intracellular water exchange for measuring the dry mass, water mass and changes in chemical composition of living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Feijó Delgado

    Full Text Available We present a method for direct non-optical quantification of dry mass, dry density and water mass of single living cells in suspension. Dry mass and dry density are obtained simultaneously by measuring a cell's buoyant mass sequentially in an H2O-based fluid and a D2O-based fluid. Rapid exchange of intracellular H2O for D2O renders the cell's water content neutrally buoyant in both measurements, and thus the paired measurements yield the mass and density of the cell's dry material alone. Utilizing this same property of rapid water exchange, we also demonstrate the quantification of intracellular water mass. In a population of E. coli, we paired these measurements to estimate the percent dry weight by mass and volume. We then focused on cellular dry density - the average density of all cellular biomolecules, weighted by their relative abundances. Given that densities vary across biomolecule types (RNA, DNA, protein, we investigated whether we could detect changes in biomolecular composition in bacteria, fungi, and mammalian cells. In E. coli, and S. cerevisiae, dry density increases from stationary to exponential phase, consistent with previously known increases in the RNA/protein ratio from up-regulated ribosome production. For mammalian cells, changes in growth conditions cause substantial shifts in dry density, suggesting concurrent changes in the protein, nucleic acid and lipid content of the cell.

  4. Intracellular Water Exchange for Measuring the Dry Mass, Water Mass and Changes in Chemical Composition of Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Vivian C.; Son, Sungmin; Li, Yingzhong; Knudsen, Scott M.; Olcum, Selim; Higgins, John M.; Chen, Jianzhu; Grover, William H.; Manalis, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for direct non-optical quantification of dry mass, dry density and water mass of single living cells in suspension. Dry mass and dry density are obtained simultaneously by measuring a cell’s buoyant mass sequentially in an H2O-based fluid and a D2O-based fluid. Rapid exchange of intracellular H2O for D2O renders the cell’s water content neutrally buoyant in both measurements, and thus the paired measurements yield the mass and density of the cell’s dry material alone. Utilizing this same property of rapid water exchange, we also demonstrate the quantification of intracellular water mass. In a population of E. coli, we paired these measurements to estimate the percent dry weight by mass and volume. We then focused on cellular dry density – the average density of all cellular biomolecules, weighted by their relative abundances. Given that densities vary across biomolecule types (RNA, DNA, protein), we investigated whether we could detect changes in biomolecular composition in bacteria, fungi, and mammalian cells. In E. coli, and S. cerevisiae, dry density increases from stationary to exponential phase, consistent with previously known increases in the RNA/protein ratio from up-regulated ribosome production. For mammalian cells, changes in growth conditions cause substantial shifts in dry density, suggesting concurrent changes in the protein, nucleic acid and lipid content of the cell. PMID:23844039

  5. Chemical and isotopic compositions of water and dissolved sulfate from shallow wells on Vulcano Island, Aeolian Archipelago, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortecci, G.; Dinelli, E.; Boschetti, T. [University of Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Earth and Geological Environmental Sciences; Bolognesi, L. [International Institute for Geothermal Research, Pisa (Italy); Ferrara, G. [University of Pisa (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2001-02-01

    Twenty-two cold and thermal waters from shallow wells sampled in June 1995 in the Vulcano Porto area, Vulcano Island, were analyzed for major and minor chemical constituents, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes and tritium contents, and sulfur isotopes in the dissolved sulfate. The sulfur isotopic composition of the dissolved sulfate ranges between + 0.6 and + 6.5 per mille (mean + 3.7{+-}1.7 per mille), and is interpreted as deriving mainly from fumarolic SO{sub 2} undergoing oxidation in deep and shallow aquifers, with possible minor contributions from oxidation of H{sub 2}S. Dissolution of secondary anhydrite may have been a minor source of the isotopically heavy aqueous sulfate in the cold groundwaters. The chemical and isotopic features of the waters support previous interpretative hydrologic models of Vulcano Porto, which comprise a number of aquifers fed basically by two major end-members, i.e. meteoric water and crater-type fumarolic inputs, the latter in the form of absorbed emissions or condensate. These data, along with the sulfur isotopes of aqueous sulfate, exclude involvement of seawater in the recharge of the groundwater system of the island. (author)

  6. Chemical composition, water vapor permeability, and mechanical properties of yuba film influenced by soymilk depth and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siran; Lee, Jaesang; Kim, Yookyung

    2018-03-01

    Yuba is a soy protein-lipid film formed during heating of soymilk. This study described yuba as an edible film by analyzing its chemical composition, water vapor permeability (WVP), and mechanical properties. Three yuba films were prepared by using different concentrations and depths of soymilk: HS (86 g kg -1 and 2.3 cm), LS (70 g kg -1 and 2.3 cm), and LD (70 g kg -1 and 3.0 cm). As yuba was successively skimmed, the protein, lipid, and SH content decreased, but carbohydrate and SS content increased. Though both the initial concentration and the depth of soymilk affect the properties of the films, the depth of soymilk influences WVP and tensile strength (TS) more. The WVP of the HS and LS changed the least (13-17 g mm kPa -1 m -2 day 1 ), while that of the LD changed the most (13-35 g mm kPa -1 m -2 day -1 ). There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the TS between the HS and LS. LD had the greatest decrease of TS and the lowest TS among the groups. The earlier the yuba films were collected, the greater the elongation of the films was: 129% (HS), 113% (LS), and 155% (LD). The initial concentration and the depth of soymilk changed the chemical composition and structure of the yuba films. The LS yuba produced more uniform edible films with good mechanical properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Chemical composition of patikaraparpam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, A; Rani, M G; Susan, T; Purushothaman, K K

    1997-04-01

    Patikaraparpam, a Siddha formulation in prepared by trituration of potash alum with egg albumin followed by calcinatin. The three authentic laboratories made parpams as well as six commercial samples have been examined for their chemical composition. The analytical data that emerged from the analysis of the above samples showed that seven parpams contained only aluminium sulphate and they did respond to tests for potassium. An inspection of the crude drugs patikaram' available in the market established that potash alum and ammonia alum are indiscriminateldy taken for use, according to literature, only potash alum should be used in Indian system of medicine. Patikarapparapam is indicated in urinary inflammations and obstructions and is a reputed diuretic. Potassium salts are established diuretic. These studies show that the raw drugs sellers, the pharamaceutists or manufacturers of medicine and the physician as well should make sure that only potash alum is used in Indian medicine.

  8. The effects of water stress on the chemical composition of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of soybean [Glycine max (L) Merrill] cv. Akiyoshi to three moisture levels at three growth stages was investigated in a glasshouse experiment. Percent leaf nitrogen was reduced by water deficit at late flowering and early podding but increased after rewatering. This parameter was not affected by water deficit at ...

  9. Chemical and isotopic composition of natural waters in the Jizuki-yama landslide area, Nagano Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Mashima, Kiyotaka; Koizumi, Naoji

    1988-10-01

    A large-scale landslide took place at a southeastern slope of Mt. Jizuki, Nagano Prefecture, on July 26, 1985. It has been said that landslide is closely related to the hydrological and hydrogeochemical nature of groundwater involved. To investigate the weathering mechanism and the origin of groundwater, we collected and analyzed water samples from the large-scale landslide area. The following facts can be pointed out: (1) weather-rock interaction is remarkably active in the landslide area, (2) most of the waters from the landslide area are in equilibrium with Na-montmorillonite (3) immediately after the landslide occurred bicarbonate and sodium ions are dominant, but sulfate and sodium ions become dominant with time, and (4) groundwater passing through horizontally drilled holes dose not effectively drain off to stabilize a slope in the landslide area. And our hypothesis on the mechanism for the formation of sodium sulfate type water is also presented.

  10. Comparing molecular composition of dissolved organic matter in soil and stream water: Influence of land use and chemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Anne-Gret; Roth, Vanessa-Nina; Dittmar, Thorsten; Gleixner, Gerd; Breuer, Lutz; Houska, Tobias; Marxsen, Jürgen

    2016-11-15

    Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS) was used to examine the molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under different land use regimes and how the DOM composition in the catchment is reflected in adjacent streams. The study was carried out in a small area of the Schwingbach catchment, an anthropogenic-influenced landscape in central Germany. We investigated 30 different soil water samples from 4 sites and different depths (managed meadow (0-5cm, 40-50cm), deciduous forest (0-5cm), mixed-coniferous forest (0-5cm) and agricultural land (0-5cm, 40-50cm)) and 8 stream samples. 6194 molecular formulae and their magnitude-weighted parameters ((O/C)w, (H/C)w, (N/C)w, (AI-mod)w, (DBE/C)w, (DBE/O)w, (DBE-O)w, (C#)w, (MW)w) were used to describe the molecular composition of the samples. The samples can be roughly divided in three groups. Group 1 contains samples from managed meadow 40-50cm and stream water, which are characterized by high saturation compared to samples from group 2 including agricultural samples and samples from the surface meadow (0-5cm), which held more nitrogen containing and aromatic compounds. Samples from both forested sites (group 3) are characterized by higher molecular weight and O/C ratio. Environmental parameters vary between sites and among these parameters pH and nitrate significantly affect chemical composition of DOM. Results indicate that most DOM in streams is of terrestrial origin. However, 120 molecular formulae were detected only in streams and not in any of the soil samples. These compounds share molecular formulae with peptides, unsaturated aliphatics and saturated FA-CHO/FA-CHOX. Compounds only found in soil samples are much more aromatic, have more double bonds and a much lower H/C ratio but higher oxygen content, which indicates the availability of fresh plant material and less microbial processed material compared to stream samples. Copyright

  11. Explosive composition containing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattermole, G.R.; Lyerly, W.M.; Cummings, A.M.

    1971-11-26

    This addition to Fr. 1,583,223, issued 31 May 1968, describes an explosive composition containing a water in oil emulsion. The composition contains an oxidizing mineral salt, a nitrate base salt as sensitizer, water, an organic fuel, a lipophilic emulsifier, and incorporates gas bubbles. The composition has a performance which is improved over and above the original patent.

  12. Chemical analysis of water in hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakova, R.; Zenisova, Z.; Seman, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the monograph is to give complete information on the chemical analysis of water hydrogeology not only for the students program of Geology study (Bachelor degree study), Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology (Master's degree study) and Engineering Geology (doctoral level study), but also for students from other colleges and universities schools in Slovakia, as well as in the Czech Republic, dealing with the chemical composition of water and its quality, from different perspectives. The benefit would be for professionals with hydrogeological, water and environmental practices, who can find there all the necessary information about proper water sampling, the units used in the chemical analysis of water, expressing the proper chemical composition of water in its various parameters through classification of chemical composition of the water up to the basic features of physical chemistry at thermodynamic calculations and hydrogeochemical modelling.

  13. Methods used to characterize the chemical composition and biological activity of environmental waters throughout the United States, 2012-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Barber, Larry B.; Boone, J. Scott; Buxton, Herbert T.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Hladik, Michelle; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Journey, Celeste A.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Loftin, Keith A.; Mills, Marc A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2017-03-22

    A vast array of chemical compounds are in wide commercial use in the United States, and the potential ecological and human-health effect of exposure to chemical mixtures has been identified as a high priority in environment health science. Awareness of the potential effects of low-level chemical exposures is rising. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a study in which samples were collected from 38 streams in 25 States to provide an overview of contaminants found in stream water across the Nation. Additionally, biological screening assays were used to help determine any potential ecological and human-health effects of these chemical mixtures and to prioritize target chemicals for future toxicological studies. This report describes the site locations and the sampling and analytical methods and quality-assurance procedures used in the study.

  14. Produced water - composition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvernheim, Arne Lund

    1998-01-01

    Produced water can be defined as ''High volume waste-water separated from oil and gas that is produced from subsurface formations''. The water contains aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, particulate matter and soluble salts as well as elements originating from formations and from sea water injections. Residues of chemicals may also be present. The accepted North Sea discharge limit is 40 ppm. In this presentation the focus will be on the chemical composition of produced water and on the challenges involved in developing and implementing analytical methods. The focus will also be on the development of a new oil-in-water analytical method as a replacement for the Freon method. 7 refs., 1 tab

  15. Chemical composition of meat (kernel) and nut water of major coconut (cocos nucifera l.) cultivars at coastal area of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, A.; Ahmad, S.S.; Butt, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Three varieties of the coconut (Tall, Dwarf and Hybrid) were subjected to analyse for physicochemical properties of meat and nut water, Sodium (Na), Moisture %, Ash %, Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co), Potassium (K), pH, Volatile matters, Caloric value (CV) and Total dissolved solids (TDS). The chemical analysis of Meat (mature and immature stage) showed high percentage of Mg and Na in study varieties. However, it was apparent that major portion of stored Ca, Mg, and Na were lodged in the nut water. The nutrients Na, K and Ca were high or less evenly distributed in the Kernel and Water, whereas there was nutrient a comparatively greater concentration of P and Mg in the Water. The K (56% to 81%) was higher in nut water as compared to other ones. The results showed Mg 45% to 70% and Na 1% to 53% in mature and immature meat, respectively. (author)

  16. The physical properties, lignin distribution, chemical composition of fibers and gas exchange rate of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) varieties under prolonged water deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Khalatbari, A.M; Jaafar, Z.E; Khalatbari, A. A; Hazandy, A.H; Mohd Ridzwan, A. H

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental characteristics and physical properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fibers cultivated and subjected to three different water frequencies in Universiti Putra Malaysia, were analyzed. For deep analysis, which includes micro-scale viewing for identification of kenaf cell wall structure, fibers were viewed in order to study the physical characteristics, anatomy, and lignin distribution. The chemical composition was determined considering Technical Association of Pulp and Pap...

  17. The Chemical Composition of Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Nittler, Larry R.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Grove, Timothy L.; Peplowski, Patrick N.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of a planetary body reflects its starting conditions modified by numerous processes during its formation and geological evolution. Measurements by X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron spectrometers on the MESSENGER spacecraft revealed Mercury's surface to have surprisingly high abundances of the moderately volatile elements sodium, sulfur, potassium, chlorine, and thorium, and a low abundance of iron. This composition rules out some formation models for which high temperatur...

  18. Changes in the isotopic and chemical composition of ground water resulting from a recharge pulse from a sinking stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Catches, John S.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Michel, Robert L.

    1998-11-01

    The Little River, an ephemeral stream that drains a watershed of approximately 88 km 2 in northern Florida, disappears into a series of sinkholes along the Cody Scarp and flows directly into the carbonate Upper Floridan aquifer, the source of water supply in northern Florida. The changes in the geochemistry of ground water caused by a major recharge pulse from the sinking stream were investigated using chemical and isotopic tracers and mass-balance modeling techniques. Nine monitoring wells were installed open to the uppermost part of the aquifer in areas near the sinks where numerous subterranean karst solution features were identified using ground penetrating radar. During high-flow conditions in the Little River, the chemistry of water in some of the monitoring wells changed, reflecting the mixing of river water with ground water. Rapid recharge of river water into some parts of the aquifer during high-flow conditions was indicated by enriched values of delta 18O and delta deuterium (-1.67 to -3.17 per mil and -9.2 to -15.6 per mil, respectively), elevated concentrations of tannic acid, higher (more radiogenic) 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios, and lower concentrations of 222Rn, silica, and alkalinity compared to low-flow conditions. The proportion of river water that mixed with ground water ranged from 0.10 to 0.67 based on binary mixing models using the tracers 18O, deuterium, tannic acid, silica, 222Rn, and 87Sr/ 86Sr. On the basis of mass-balance modeling during steady-state flow conditions, the dominant processes controlling carbon cycling in ground water are the dissolution of calcite and dolomite in aquifer material, and aerobic degradation of organic matter.

  19. Chemical compositions, methods of making the chemical compositions, and structures made from the chemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Cheng, Zhe; Liu, Ze; Liu, Meilin

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include chemical compositions, structures, anodes, cathodes, electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells, fuel cells, fuel cell membranes, separation membranes, catalytic membranes, sensors, coatings for electrolytes, electrodes, membranes, and catalysts, and the like, are disclosed.

  20. Effect of water treatment additives on lime softening residual trace chemical composition--implications for disposal and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weizhi; Roessler, Justin; Blaisi, Nawaf I; Townsend, Timothy G

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water treatment residues (WTR) offer potential benefits when recycled through land application. The current guidance in Florida, US allows for unrestricted land application of lime softening WTR; alum and ferric WTR require additional evaluation of total and leachable concentrations of select trace metals prior to land application. In some cases a mixed WTR is produced when lime softening is accompanied by the addition of a coagulant or other treatment chemical; applicability of the current guidance is unclear. The objective of this research was to characterize the total and leachable chemical content of WTR from Florida facilities that utilize multiple treatment chemicals. Lime and mixed lime WTR samples were collected from 18 water treatment facilities in Florida. Total and leachable concentrations of the WTR were measured. To assess the potential for disposal of mixed WTR as clean fill below the water table, leaching tests were conducted at multiple liquid to solid ratios and under reducing conditions. The results were compared to risk-based soil and groundwater contamination thresholds. Total metal concentrations of WTR were found to be below Florida soil contaminant thresholds with Fe found in the highest abundance at a concentration of 3600 mg/kg-dry. Aluminum was the only element that exceeded the Florida groundwater contaminant thresholds using SPLP (95% UCL = 0.23 mg/L; risk threshold = 0.2 mg/L). Tests under reducing conditions showed elevated concentrations of Fe and Mn, ranging from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than SPLP leachates. Mixed lime WTR concentrations (total and leachable) were lower than the ferric and alum WTR concentrations, supporting that mixed WTR are appropriately represented as lime WTR. Testing of WTR under reducing conditions demonstrated the potential for release of certain trace metals (Fe, Al, Mn) above applicable regulatory thresholds; additional evaluation is needed to assess management options where

  1. Chemical and isotopic evolution of a layered eastern U.S. snowpack and its relation to stream-water composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J.B.; Kendall, C.; Albert, M.R.; Hardy, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical, isotopic, and morphologic evolution of a layered snowpack was investigated during the winter of 1993-94 at Sleepers River Research Watershed in Danville, Vermont. The snowpack was monitored at two small basins: a forested basin at 525 m elevation, and an agricultural basin at 292 m elevation. At each site, the snowpack morphology was characterized and individual layers were sampled seven times during the season. Nitrate and 8d18O profiles in the snowpack remained relatively stable until peak accumulation in mid-March, except near the snow surface, where rain-on-snow events caused water and nitrate movement down to impeding ice layers. Subsequently, water and nitrate moved more readily through the ripening snowpack. As the snowpack evolved, combined processes of preferential ion elution, isotopic fractionation, and infiltration of isotopically heavy rainfall caused the pack to become depleted in solutes and isotopically enriched. The release of nitrate and isotopically depleted water was reflected in patterns of nitrate concentrations and ??18O of meltwater and stream water. Results supported data from the previous year which suggested that streamflow in the forested basin during snowmelt was dominated by groundwater discharge.

  2. Chemical composition of lunar material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J A; Abbey, S; Champ, W H

    1970-01-30

    Chemical and emission spectrographic analyses of three Apollo 11 samples, 10017-29, 10020-30, and 10084-132, are given. Major and minor constituents were determined both by conventional rock analysis methods and by a new composite scheme utilizing a lithium fluoborate method for dissolution of the samples and atomic absorption spectroscopy and colorimetry. Trace constituents were determined by optical emission spectroscopy involving a d-c arc, air-jet controlled.

  3. Chemical composition of cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a concentrated aerosol of liquid particles suspended in an atmosphere consisting mainly of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. While the precise chemical composition of the particulate and gaseous phases is dependent on the characteristics of the cigarette and the manner in which it is smoked, both phases contain tens of hundreds of individual constitutents. Notable among potentially hazardous constituents of smoke are tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, benzo(a)pyrene, and N-nitrosamines.

  4. Chemical composition of selected Kansas brines as an aid to interpreting change in water chemistry with depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, R.J.; Angino, E.E.

    1969-01-01

    Chemical analyses of approximately 1,881 samples of water from selected Kansas brines define the variations of water chemistry with depth and aquifer age. The most concentrated brines are found in the Permian rocks which occupy the intermediate section of the geologic column of this area. Salinity decreases below the Permian until the Ordovician (Arbuckle) horizon is reached and then increases until the Precambrian basement rocks are reached. Chemically, the petroleum brines studied in this small area fit the generally accepted pattern of an increase in calcium, sodium and chloride content with increasing salinity. They do not fit the often-predicted trend of increases in the calcium to chloride ratio, calcium content and salinity with depth and geologic age. The calcium to chloride ratio tends to be asymptotic to about 0.2 with increasing chloride content. Sulfate tends to decrease with increasing calcium content. Bicarbonate content is relatively constant with depth. If many of the hypotheses concerning the chemistry of petroleum brines are valid, then the brines studied are anomolous. An alternative lies in accepting the thesis that exceptions to these hypotheses are rapidly becoming the rule and that indeed we still do not have a valid and general hypothesis to explain the origin and chemistry of petroleum brines. ?? 1969.

  5. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S. — Occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Scott, Jonathon C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. - Highlights: ► We assessed mixtures in untreated groundwater samples from public-supply wells. ► A screening

  6. Effect of soaking in water and rumen digeta solutions on metabolizable energy content and chemical composition of barley seeds for use in poultry diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabee, S N; Sadeghi, G H; Tabeidian, S A

    2007-03-15

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of soaking in water and different rumen digesta solutions on nutritional value of dry barley seeds. Treatments were included distilled water as control and rumen digesta that diluted with distilled water to obtain 20, 40 and 60% digesta solutions. Solutions have added to 10 kg of barley seed samples to achieve final 30% moisture content. After 21 days the chemical composition and energy content of barley seed were determined. Gross energy of barley seeds did not affected by different experimental treatments. Use of 20% rumen digesta solution resulted to a significant (pcontent of barley seeds. Barley seed that treated with 40% of rumen digesta solution had highest TME and TMEn content and its different from seeds that treated with 60 and 100% rumen digesta solutions was significant (prumen digesta solutions increased crud protein, ether extract, crude fiber and ash content of barley seeds numerically.

  7. Chemical composition of Chinese palm fruit and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chemical properties and could be used as edible oils and for industrial applications. ... on it, which can provide useful information for Chinese oil palm industry. Key words: Chemical composition, palm fruit, palm oil, palm kernel oil, chemical ...

  8. Study of the chemical composition of waters in Morro do Ferro (MG), Brazil: transport of thorium and several tracer alements in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivetta, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical composition of surface and well waters in the Morro do Ferro (Pocos de Caldas-MG.) Brazil, because the transport in solution may represent one important way of environmental contamination is studied. Samples of one stream in the base of the hill, of perfuration wells and of one galery were analysed in the period from 1980 (October) to 1982 (May). The contents of Mn, Fe, SiO 2 , SO 2- 4 , PO 3- 4 , NO - 3 and CO 2 is analysed in situ. (M.J.C.) [pt

  9. Physical, chemical, and mineralogical data from surficial deposits, groundwater levels, and water composition in the area of Franklin Lake playa and Ash Meadows, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Breit, George N.; Yount, James C.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Reheis, Marith C.; Skipp, Gary L.; Fisher, Eric M.; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents data and describes the methods used to determine the physical attributes, as well as the chemical and mineralogical composition of surficial deposits; groundwater levels; and water composition in the area of Franklin Lake playa and Ash Meadows, California and Nevada. The results support studies that examine (1) the interaction between groundwater and the ground surface, and the transport of solutes through the unsaturated zone; (2) the potential for the accumulation of metals and metalloids in surface crusts; (3) emission of dust from metal-rich salt crust; and (4) the effects of metal-rich dusts on human and ecosystem health. The evaporation of shallow (travel as atmospheric dust and affect human and ecosystem health at local to regional scales.

  10. Mobility of plume-derived volcanogenic elements in meteoric water at Nyiragongo volcano (Congo) inferred from the chemical composition of single rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Marcello; Shamavu, Patient; Scaglione, Sarah; D'Alessandro, Walter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Bruno Giuffrida, Giovanni; Tedesco, Dario; Calabrese, Sergio

    2017-11-01

    The chemical composition of single rainfall events was investigated at Nyiragongo volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) with the aim of determining the relative contributions of plume-derived elements. The different locations of the sampling sites allowed both plume-affected samples (hereafter referred to as ;fumigated samples;) and samples representative of the local background to be collected. The chemical composition of the local background reflects the peculiar geographic features of the area, being influenced by biomass burning, geogenic dust, and biological activity. Conversely, fumigated samples contain large amounts of volcanogenic elements that can be clearly distinguished from the local background. These elements are released into the atmosphere from the persistently boiling lava lake of the Nyiragongo crater and from the neonate lava lake of Nyamulagira. These emissions result in a volcanic plume that includes solid particles, acidic droplets, and gaseous species. The chemical signature of the volcanic emissions appears in falling raindrops as they interact with the plume. HCl and HBr readily dissolve in water, and so their ratio in rain samples reflects that of the volcanic plume. The transport of HF is mediated by the large amount of silicate particles generated at the magma-air interface. SO2 is partially converted into SO42- that dissolves in water. The refractory elements dissolved in rain samples derive from the dissolution of silicate particles, and most of them (Al, Mg, Ca, and Sr) are present at exactly the same molar ratios as in the rocks. In contrast, elements such as Na, K, Rb, Cu, and Pb are enriched relative to the whole-rock composition, suggesting that they are volatilized during magma degassing. After correcting for the dissolution of silicate particles, we can define that the volatility of the elements decreases in the following order: Pb ≫ Rb > K > Na. This finding, which is the first for a volcanic plume, is consistent with

  11. Assessment of morphology, topography and chemical composition of water-repellent films based on polystyrene/titanium dioxide nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolvardi, Beleta; Seyfi, Javad; Hejazi, Iman; Otadi, Maryam; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Drechsler, Astrid; Holzschuh, Matthias

    2017-02-01

    In this study, polystyrene (PS)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were fabricated through simple solution casting technique via a modified phase separation process. The presented approach resulted in a remarkable reduction in the required amount of nanoparticles for achieving superhydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 3D confocal microscopy were utilized to characterize surface morphology and topography of samples, respectively. An attempt was made to give an in-depth analysis on the surface rough structure using 3D roughness profiles. It was found that high inclusions of non-solvent and nanoparticles resulted in a stable self-cleaning behavior due to the strong presence of hydrophobic TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface. Quite unexpectedly, low inclusions of nanoparticles and non-solvent also resulted in superhydrophobic property mainly due to the proper level of induced surface roughness. XPS analysis was also utilized to determine the chemical composition of the films' surfaces. The results of falling drop experiments showed that the sample containing a higher level of nanoparticles had a much lower mechanical resistance against the induced harsh conditions. All in all, the presented method has shown promising potential in fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with self-cleaning behavior using the lowest content of nanoparticles.

  12. Chemical composition, antioxidant potential and phenolic profile of oil mill waste water from Tunisian olive varieties (Chetoui and Chemlali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maissa Khemakhem Sellami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil mill waste water (OMWW is of great interest due to the presence of valuable resources such as biophenols that can be recovered as food additives and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation of physicochemical composition of OMWW from Chetoui and Chemlali varieties, to evaluate phenolic composition, antioxidant potential and phenolic profile of OMWW extracts under native and acidified conditions. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed for the extraction of polyphenols. Antioxidant activity was investigated by DPPH•, ABTS•+ and FRAP tests. Phenolic compounds content was determined by HPLC-DAD method. OMWW from Chetoui variety has been shown to contain an important amount of K, Ca and Na whereas Chemlali cultivar was rich in Mg. Phenolic extract from Chetoui fruit (COCt has been  shown to contain the highest amount of polyphenols (2.48 ± 0.21 g L-1 as well as an appreciable content of flavonoids (9.39 ± 0.32 g L-1. However, phenolic extract from Chemlali fruit (COCm has been shown to have the highest content of proanthocyanidins (0.39 ± 0.00 g L-1. Acidification treatment improved polyphenol recovery of extracts from both varieties. COCt was more active using DPPH (EC50 of 7.5 mg L-1 and FRAP tests. However, COCt and COCm exhibited the same activity using ABTS test. In general, acidification treatment decreased antioxidant activity of extracts. COCt has been shown to contain higher amount of hydroxytyrosol when compared to COCm (157.16 ± 0.820 and 23.440 ± 0.440 mg g-1 D.W. of extract, respectively as revealed by HPLC-DAD analysis. 

  13. Assessment of morphology, topography and chemical composition of water-repellent films based on polystyrene/titanium dioxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolvardi, Beleta [Chemical Engineering Department, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyfi, Javad, E-mail: Jseyfi@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 36155-163, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hejazi, Iman, E-mail: Imanhe64@gmail.com [Applied Science Nano Research Group, ASNARKA, P.C. 1619948753, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Otadi, Maryam [Chemical Engineering Department, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khonakdar, Hossein Ali [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Drechsler, Astrid; Holzschuh, Matthias [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Self-cleaning behavior was attained for PS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films. • A modified phase separation process resulted in a hierarchical morphology. • A proper level of uniformity in surface roughness is mandatory for superhydrophobicity. • The required amount of nanoparticles was highly reduced via the presented method. - Abstract: In this study, polystyrene (PS)/titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) films were fabricated through simple solution casting technique via a modified phase separation process. The presented approach resulted in a remarkable reduction in the required amount of nanoparticles for achieving superhydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 3D confocal microscopy were utilized to characterize surface morphology and topography of samples, respectively. An attempt was made to give an in-depth analysis on the surface rough structure using 3D roughness profiles. It was found that high inclusions of non-solvent and nanoparticles resulted in a stable self-cleaning behavior due to the strong presence of hydrophobic TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the surface. Quite unexpectedly, low inclusions of nanoparticles and non-solvent also resulted in superhydrophobic property mainly due to the proper level of induced surface roughness. XPS analysis was also utilized to determine the chemical composition of the films’ surfaces. The results of falling drop experiments showed that the sample containing a higher level of nanoparticles had a much lower mechanical resistance against the induced harsh conditions. All in all, the presented method has shown promising potential in fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with self-cleaning behavior using the lowest content of nanoparticles.

  14. Water Absorption Behavior of Hemp Hurds Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevulova, Nadezda; Cigasova, Julia; Purcz, Pavol; Schwarzova, Ivana; Kacik, Frantisek; Geffert, Anton

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, water sorption behavior of 28 days hardened composites based on hemp hurds and inorganic binder was studied. Two kinds of absorption tests on dried cube specimens in deionized water bath at laboratory temperature were performed. Short-term (after one hour water immersion) and long-term (up to 180 days) water absorption tests were carried out to study their durability. Short-term water sorption behavior of original hemp hurds composites depends on mean particle length of hemp and on binder nature. The comparative study of long-term water sorption behavior of composites reinforced with original and chemically modified hemp hurds in three reagents confirmed that surface treatment of filler influences sorption process. Based on evaluation of sorption curves using a model for composites based on natural fibers, diffusion of water molecules in composite reinforced with original and chemically modified hemp hurds is anomalous in terms of the Fickian behavior. The most significant decrease in hydrophility of hemp hurds was found in case of hemp hurds modified by NaOH and it relates to change in the chemical composition of hemp hurds, especially to a decrease in average degree of cellulose polymerization as well as hemicellulose content.

  15. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  16. Effect of the type of brewing water on the chemical composition, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of Chinese teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Zou, Chun; Gao, Ying; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Chen, Gen-Sheng; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2017-12-01

    The physicochemical characteristics, sensory quality, and antioxidant activity of tea infusions prepared with purified water (PW), mineral water (MW), mountain spring water (MSW), and tap water (TW) from Hangzhou were investigated. The results showed that the taste quality, catechin concentration, and antioxidant capacity of green, oolong, and black tea infusions prepared using MW and TW were significantly lower than those prepared using PW. Extraction of catechins and caffeine was reduced with high-conductivity water, while high pH influenced the stability of catechins. PW and MSW were more suitable for brewing green and oolong teas, while MSW, with low pH and moderate ion concentration, was the most suitable water for brewing black tea. Lowering the pH of mineral water partially improved the taste quality and increased the concentration of catechins in the infusions. These results aid selection of the most appropriate water for brewing Chinese teas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in growth, physiological parameters and the hormonal status of Myrtus communis L. plants irrigated with water with different chemical compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Álvarez, Sara; López-Climent, María Fernanda; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2016-02-01

    Myrtus communis, an important Mediterranean ornamental shrub, was used to study the effect of irrigation water with different chemical compositions in the plant response. A treatment with NaCl was used to establish the plant resistance to high salinity at long term. Plants were subjected to four irrigation treatments with drainage for three months: Control (0.8 dS m(-1)); two treatments using reclaimed water (RWs): RW1 (2.0 dS m(-1)) and RW2 (5.0 dS m(-1)); and NaCl (10.0 dS m(-1)). High levels of electric conductivity of RWs not affected plant growth, while NaCl decreased leaf dry weight. Coinciding with the accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the roots, soil water potential decreased, which hinders the mobilization of water to the leaves, decreasing leaf water potential. The osmotic adjustment in the NaCl treatment was due to Na(+) and Cl(-) ions, although the proline could contribute as an Osmo compatible solute, increasing the turgor plants. Also changes in cell walls rigidity minimize the negative effects on the water balance; however, a higher lipid peroxidation was observed in these plants. Stomatal closure was associated with a decrease in K(+) and an increase in abscisic acid. NaCl produced an increase in salicylic acid and did not affect jasmonic acid contents at the end of the experiment. Similar behavior in soil and leaf water potentials, although less pronounced than in NaCl, was shown in RW2 plants. The abscisic acid increased in the RW2 with respect to the control and a decrease in stomatal conductance was observed at the end of the experiment. Plants irrigated with RW1 behaved similarly to the control. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Composite liners protect ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatzky, R; August, H

    1987-12-01

    For about 10 years flexible membrane liners (FMLs) have been used as bottom liners to protect ground water in the vicinity of waste sites. But a permeation (absorption, diffusion, desorption) of chemical liquids, e.g. hydrocarbons (HC) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) will generally occur. The rates of permeation depend, first of all, on the chemical affinity, the thickness of the FML and the boundary conditions. In order to improve the barrier quality of polymeric membranes, it is necessary to study the transport processes of HC and CHC through the polymeric materials. Long-term tests with composite liners are additionally carried out. These are liners which consist of two components, flexible membrane and natural soil liner (recompacted clay, bentonite-soil mixtures). Laboratory studies show that with composite liners a perfect sealing of waste sites may be possible. Test methods for measuring permeation rates of HC and CHC through polymeric membranes and methods of testing for the development of composite liner systems are presented. (orig.)

  19. On the impact of the development of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona river catchment area (the Vologda Region on the chemical composition of the waters in its tributaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivicheva Ksenya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the influence of anthropogenic burden on the catchment areas of the rivers in Vologda Region and to establish the dependence of the chemical composition of water on pollution sources in the rivers of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona basin. In the catchment areas hydro chemical samples were taken, population density was calculated as well as the automated and visual interpretation of the main elements of the landscape was carried out. At that, forests, populated areas, farmlands and other territories changed by economic activities were identified. An increase in the pollutants concentration in the catchment areas on drawing near the regional center was detected. The development of the catchment areas varies depending on the landscape pattern and on the proximity to the city of Vologda. The population density and the relative area of settlements and farmlands increase while approaching to the city, at the same time the ratio of forests decreases. The positive correlation dependence between the phosphate content and the relative size of farmlands was shown. The main source of pollutants in the catchment areas of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona basin is the presence of settlements and high population density. Under such conditions, high concentration of sodium, chlorine, nitrogen-containing compounds as well as permanganate oxidizability are observed in water.

  20. Water-bearing explosive compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, G M

    1970-12-21

    An explosive water-bearing composition, with high detonation velocity, comprises a mixture of (1) an inorganic oxidizer salt; (2) nitroglycerine; (3) nitrocellulose; (4) water; and (5) a water thickening agent. (11 claims)

  1. Monitoring of inland waters for culturing shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: application of a method based on survival and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Castañeda, G; Millán-Almaraz, M I; Fierro-Sañudo, J F; Fregoso-López, M G; Páez-Osuna, F

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of 21 inland waters (16 well waters and 5 surface waters) from Northwest Mexico via short- (48 h) and medium-term (28 days) tests using postlarvae (PL18) of Litopenaeus vannamei. In the short test, survival was assessed at 48 h after shrimp were placed in groups of 10 postlarvae into 2-L containers of inland water, to which they had been previously acclimated. The second, medium-term test consisted of four replicates with 10 postlarvae, and each group was placed in 15-L containers with the treatment water. Weights (initial and final) and survival were evaluated weekly for 28 days. In those waters for which the short test was positive and the medium-term test was negative and which also had a deficiency of potassium and/or magnesium, a third test was conducted. These last waters were supplemented with salts, and the shrimp survival and weights (initial and final) were recorded for 28 days. The water samples from San Jose, Mochicahui, Sinaloa River, Caimanero inner Lagoon, La Pipima, Campo Santa Fe, Escopama, and Fitmar had >60% survival in the short test. The Caimanero inner Lagoon water had the highest survival (87.5 ± 9.6%) and final mean weight (201.3 ± 86.2 mg). In the third test, it was found that shrimp in the water from La Pipima, Campo Santa Fe, and Fitmar exhibited 100% survival for 2 weeks. Finally, in this work, a decision tree to evaluate the suitability of low-salinity water for shrimp farming was proposed, which can be applied in other regions.

  2. Low enthalpy Na-chloride waters from the Lunigiana and Garfagnana grabens, Northern Apennines, Italy: Tracing fluid connections and basement interactions via chemical and isotopic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, Tiziano; Toscani, Lorenzo; Barbieri, Maurizio; Mucchino, Claudio; Marino, Tiziana

    2017-12-01

    The Na-Cl waters from NW Tuscany (central Italy) record similar water isotopic and major chemical compositions, which demonstrate their meteoric origin and interactions with Upper Triassic evaporites and the metamorphic units of the Paleozoic basement. Slight differences are found in the deep temperature-pressure conditions of the Lunigiana graben (39-42 °C/143-145 bar) and the Garfagnana graben (73-78 °C/250-256 bar). In particular, the thermal fluids outpouring from Garfagnana are probably related to a common deep reservoir or interconnected fluids. Their differences are mainly evidenced by strontium isotopic ratio data (87Sr/86Sr), which combined with previously published sulfur isotope ratios (34S/32S) demonstrate the involvement of vein barites in water-rock interactions. Most likely, these minerals formed during Upper Oligocene-Miocene tectogenesis due to the mixing of fluids from the Verrucano Group and Upper Triassic units. The results of this hydrogeochemical study of the deep Na-Cl fluids could better clarify the distribution of the Verrucano Group within this area and the related discrepancies in the stratigraphic interpretations of the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic transition. Furthermore, the possible presence of an interconnected reservoir could be used to help interpret data produced by the local geochemical monitoring of seismic activity.

  3. Minero-chemical composition as environmental quality assessment tool of an artificial water reservoir: the case of the "Pietra del Pertusillo" lake (Basilicata, Italia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    fortunato, elisabetta; mongelli, giovanni; paternoster, michele; sinisi, rosa

    2016-04-01

    C for subsequent chemical and mineralogical analysis. Further, in order to assess the provenance effects on the composition of lake sediments, the bedrock (Meso-Cenozoic rocks and Quaternary fluvial-lacustrine deposits) and the stream sediments of the main "Pietra del Pertusillo" tributaries, close to the detrital supply entry points of Pietra del Pertusillo lake were also sampled. The mineralogical composition was obtained from randomly oriented powders by XRPD. Chemistry (major, minor, and trace elements) was performed on powdered samples by ICP-MS technique after a four acids digestion and lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion to facilitate the destruction of possible resistate minerals. Preliminary data related to the stream sediments show that both major and minor elements (including heavy metals, barium and arsenic) have a minor variability and are close to the median values of the bedrock. The mineralogical composition of the analysed samples can explain the elemental relationships,thus excluding any anthropogenic input. The mineralogical composition of the lacustrine samples is made of quartz, carbonates, feldspars, muscovite/illite, chlorite, and interstratified clay minerals, and it is constant throughout the cores. Finally, as further step ot he research plan, we are processing 20 of all lake samples with the highest peaks of interstratified clay minerals, which likely represent the most reactive phases in our sediment-water system.

  4. Chemical composition, secondary metabolites, in vitro gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition, secondary metabolites, in vitro gas production characteristics and acceptability study of some forage for ruminant feeding in South-Western Nigeria. ... Chemical composition and qualitative analysis of saponins, phenol and steroids of the plants were determined. In vitro gas production (IVGP) was ...

  5. Influences of smelter fumes upon the chemical composition of lake waters near Sudbury, Ontario, and upon the surrounding vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, E; Gordon, A G

    1960-01-01

    Analyses for sulphate, calcium, and pH have been made on surface waters from 102 lakes and ponds in the Sudbury metal-smelting district, and data are presented for 35 of these. Sulphur pollution is frequently high within about 5 miles of the three smelters, many ponds exhibiting more than three times the sulphate concentration normal for this area, and three waters more than 10 times this level. Outside about 15 miles distance the influence of smelter pollution upon sulphate concentrations in surface waters is negligible. As expected, many of the most polluted waters are strongly acid, with pH values going as low as 3.3. Sulphuric acid from air pollution has also led to increased weathering of calcium from soils and rocks, so that this ion tends to rise in concentration not only in waters above pH 6 (as expected) but also in those below pH 5. Damage to terrestrial vegetation is frequently marked within about 5 miles of the smelters, while it is seldom obvious to the untrained eye beyond this distance. Severe damage occurs chiefly within about 2 miles of the smelters.

  6. CLEAN CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newer green chemistry approach to accomplish chemical synthesis in water is summarized. Recent global developments pertaining to C-C bond forming reactions using metallic reagents and direct use of the renewable materials such as carbohydrates without derivatization are described...

  7. Effects of mineral water differing in chemical composition on the post-radiation restorative processes of tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubkova, S.M.; Bulyakova, N.V.; Azarova, V.S.; Popova, M.F.; Korolev, Yu.N.; Nikulina, L.A.; Panova, L.N. [Russian Research Center for Rehabilitation and Physiotherapy, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Severtsov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Animal Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-11-01

    Experiments have show that natural and manufactured water containing arsenic and iodine may alter radiosensitivity in rats. This effect is associated with the ability of certain concentrations of iodine and arsenic ions to decrease respiration and stimulate phosphorylation in rat liver mintochondria, with resulting tissue hypoxia. Combination of iodine and calcium produced a protective effect after 21 days of daily administration to rats that absorbed radiation. In particular the survival rate of the rates increased to 67% in comparison with a 36% survival rate in rats that received only calcium and a 100% death rate in rats which were left untreated. In addition to increased energization of rat liver mitochondria, the treatment produced an inhibition of renal parenchyma clacification caused by radiation. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. MINEQL, Chemical Equilibrium Composition of Aqueous Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westall, John C.; Zachary, Joseph L.; Morel, Francois M.M.; Parsons, Ralph M.; Schweingruber, M.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MINEQL is a subroutine package to calculate equilibrium composition of an aqueous system, accounting for mass transfer. MINEQL-EIR contains an additional base on enthalpy and heat capacity data and has the option to do calculations at temperatures different from 25 degrees C. 2 - Method of solution: In MINEQL, the Gibbs free-energy function is minimized and mass balance chemical reaction equations are solved simultaneously. In MINEQL-EIR, the iteration scheme to solve the system of equations has been improved to make the probability of divergence very small. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: MINEQL does not take into account mass transfer of water molecules

  9. Chemical composition of stars in Ruprecht 106 .

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P.

    High resolution spectra of 9 stars belonging to the globular cluster Rup 106 have been used to determine their chemical composition. The results reveal that Ruprecht 106 exhibits abundance anomalies when compared to galactic globular cluster of similar metallicity. The chemical composition of these stars is similar to what is found in Dwarf spheroidal galaxies favoring the hypothesis that Rup 106 has not been formed in our Galaxy.

  10. The Effect of Vermicompost on Reducing the Adverse Effects of Water Stress on Growth and Chemical Composition of Corn in a Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leila zare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vermicompost is one of the important bio-fertilizer which is the product of the process of composting different organic wastes such as manures and crop residues using different earthworms. Vermicomposts, especially those are derived from animal wastes,contain the large amounts of nutrients compaired with the composts prepared from crop residues. Vermicomposts contain plant available form of nutrients such as nitrate nitrogen, exchangeable phosphorus and potassium, calcium and magnesium. Nowadays, the use of vermicompost in sustainable agriculture to improve the growth and quality of fruits and crops is very common. Drought occurs when the amount of moisture in soil and water resources and rainfall is less than what plants need for normal growth and function. Two thirds of farm lands in Iran have been located in arid and semi-arid regions with annual rainfall less than150 mm that has been distributed irregularly and unpredictable during growth season imposing water stress in most crops. It indicates the importance of water management and proposing different strategies for mitigating detrimental effect of water stress in croplands. Due to the fact that crops nutrient management under drought and water stress using organic fertilizers is an effective method in reaching to high yields in sustainable agriculture, the objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of vermicompost application on reducing the adverse effects of water stress on the growth and chemical composition of corn in a calcareous soil. Materials and Methods: In order to study the influence of water stress and application of vermicompost on corn dry matter yield and nutrients concentration of corn shoot, a greenhouse factorial experiment (4×3 in completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in college of agriculture, Shiraz university, Shiraz, Iran. The factors consisted of four vermicompost levels (0, 10, 20 and30g kg-1soil

  11. Determination of the chemical composition, the physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the seed of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin), the physicochemical properties of the seed oil and the amino acids profiles of the seed protein have been determined. In proximate composition, the crude fat content of 58.41% indicates that the plant seed is an oil seed. Its protein content of ...

  12. Physico-chemical analyses and corrosion effect of produced water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical characteristics of the composite produced water sample used for the study has a higher concentration compared with DPR standard for discharge of produced formation water into surface environment. It was assumed that the corrosion of the coupons was due to presence of high chemical matters in the ...

  13. Ceramic composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Composites consisting of silicon carbide matrices reinforced with continuous ceramic fibers are being developed for high-temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques are very effective in fabricating composites with high strengths and exceptional fracture toughness. Mechanical properties of infiltrated composites are controlled by the strength of the interfacial bond between the fibers and matrix. This paper describes two CVD techniques and reviews the models being developed to better understand and control the infiltration process

  14. Chemical composition of Achatina fulica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboua, F.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximate composition and mineral content were determined in snail without and with shell and shell atone from Achatina fulica. This snail has high protein (above 40 %, low fat (less than 3 % and is a relatively good source of macrominerals, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium and sodium. Achatina fulica is an excellent source of iron but is poor in copper, zinc and manganese. The snail is very rich in calcium but very poor in phosphorus, potassium and magnesium.

  15. Prebiotic Potential and Chemical Composition of Seven Culinary Spice Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Qing‐Yi; Summanen, Paula H.; Lee, Ru‐Po; Huang, Jianjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Heber, David; Finegold, Sydney M.; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate prebiotic potential, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of spice extracts. Seven culinary spices including black pepper, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger, Mediterranean oregano, rosemary, and turmeric were extracted with boiling water. Major chemical constituents were characterized by RP‐HPLC‐DAD method and antioxidant capacity was determined by measuring colorimetrically the extent to scavenge ABTS radical cations. Effects o...

  16. Chemical composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit | Salim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of pulp, skin and seeds of fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in the pulp (84.14%) and skin (90.33%). Glucose and fructose (29 and 24%, respectively) in the pulp were greater than in the skin (14 and 2.29%, respectively), whereas saccharose was very ...

  17. Chemical composition of Martian fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Baird, A. K.; Weldon, R. J.; Tsusaki, D. M.; Schnabel, L.; Candelaria, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 21 samples acquired for the Viking X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, 17 were analyzed to high precision. Compared to typical terrestrial continental soils and lunar mare fines, the Martian fines are lower in Al, higher in Fe, and much higher in S and Cl concentrations. Protected fines at the two lander sites are almost indistinguishable, but concentration of the element S is somewhat higher at Utopia. Duricrust fragments, successfully acquired only at the Chryse site, invariably contained about 50% higher S than fines. No elements correlate positively with S, except Cl and possibly Mg. A sympathetic variation is found among the triad Si, Al, Ca; positive correlation occurs between Ti and Fe. Sample variabilities are as great within a few meters as between lander locations (4500 km apart), implying the existence of a universal Martian regolith component of constant average composition. The nature of the source materials for the regolith fines must be mafic to ultramafic.

  18. An Overview on Indications and Chemical Composition of Aromatic Waters (Hydrosols) as Functional Beverages in Persian Nutrition Culture and Folk Medicine for Hyperlipidemia and Cardiovascular Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Moheimani, Seyed Mahmoud; Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Etemadfard, Hamed; Moein, Mahmoodreza

    2017-01-01

    Hydrosol beverages in Persian nutrition culture and ethnomedicine are the side products of essential oil industry that are used as delicious drinks or safe remedies. To investigate indications and chemical composition of hydrosol beverages for hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular conditions, Fars province was selected as the field of study. Ethnomedical data were gathered by questionnaires. The constituents of hydrosols were extracted with liquid/liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis were used to cluster their constituents and find the relevance of their composition. A literature survey was also performed on plants used to prepare them. Thymol was the major or second major component of these beverages, except for wormwood and olive leaf hydrosols. Based on clustering methods, although some similarities could be found, composition of barberry, will fumitory, dill, and aloe hydrosols have more differences than others. These studies may help in developing some functional beverages or new therapeutics. PMID:29228785

  19. Origin and chemical composition of evaporite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, George William

    1960-01-01

    A comparative study of marine evaporite deposits forming at the present time along the pacific coast of central Mexico and evaporite formations of Permian age in West Texas Basin was made in order to determine if the modern sediments provide a basis for understanding environmental conditions that existed during deposition of the older deposits. The field work was supplemented by investigations of artificial evaporite minerals precipitated in the laboratory and by study of the chemical composition of halite rock of different geologic ages. The environment of deposition of contemporaneous marine salt deposits in Mexico is acidic, is strongly reducing a few centimeters below the surface, and teems with microscopic life. Deposition of salt, unlike that of many other sediments, is not wholly a constructional phenomenon. Permanent deposits result only if a favorable balance exists between deposition in the dry season and dissolution in the wet season. Evaporite formations chosen for special study in the West Texas Basin are, in ascending order, the Castile, Salado, and Rustler formations, which have a combined thickness of 1200 meters. The Castile formation is largely composed of gypsum rock, the Salado, halite rock, and the Rustler, quartz and carbonate sandstone. The lower part of the Castile formation is bituminous and contains limestone laminae. The Castile and Rustler formations thicken to the south at the expense of salt of the intervening Salado formation. The clastic rocks of the Rustler formation are interpreted as the deposits of a series of barrier islands north of which halite rock of the Salado was deposited. The salt is believed to have formed in shallow water of uniform density that was mixed by the wind. Where water depth exceeded the depth of the wind mixing, density stratification developed, and gypsum was deposited. Dense water of high salinity below the density discontinuity was overlain by less dense, more normally saline water which was derived from

  20. Chemical composition and strength of dolomite geopolymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizat, E. A.; Al Bakri, A. M. M.; Liew, Y. M.; Heah, C. Y.

    2017-09-01

    The chemical composition of dolomite and the compressive strength of dolomite geopolymer composites were studied. The both composites prepared with mechanical mixer manufactured by with rotor speed of 350 rpm and curing in the oven for 24 hours at 80˚C. XRF analysis showThe dolomite raw materials contain fewer amounts of Si and Al but high Ca in its composition. Dolomite geopolymer composites with 20M of NaOH shows greater and optimum compressive strength compared to dolomite geopolymer with other NaOH molarity. This indicated better interaction of dolomite raw material and alkaline activator need high molarity of NaOH in order to increase the reactivity of dolomite.

  1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF APIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF APIS. MELLIFERA BEE POLLEN FROM NORTHWEST ALGERIA. A. Rebiai* and T.Lanez. University of El Oued, VTRS Laboratory, P.O. Box 789, 39000, El Oued, Algeria. Received: 08 November 2012 / Accepted: 23 December 2012 / Published online: 31 ...

  2. Chemical composition, physicochemical and functional properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of chemical composition, physicochemical and functional properties for both lupin samples indicated that lupins can be used as a raw material for various food products manufacturing and provide consistency in food processing, analogous to other food legumes. Therefore, the research findings can be used by ...

  3. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical characteristics (thousand seed and hectolitre mass), chemical composition (dry matter, ash, crude protein (CP), ether extract, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and mineral content), energy values (nitrogen corrected true metabolisable energy content (TMEn for roosters)) as well as the lysine and ...

  4. Chemical composition, antioxidant effects and antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thymus vulgaris, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Ocimum gratissimum are spices widely used as aroma enhancers and food preservatives. This work assessed the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of their essential oils on some food pathogenic bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter ...

  5. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aneldavh

    116. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and amino acid availability of grain legumes for poultry. T.S. Brand. 1, 2,3#. , D.A. Brandt. 1, 2,4 and C.W. ... alternatives (Wiseman, 1987; Brand et al., 1995). ..... The Ca, P and trace element concentrations for lupins, faba beans and peas recorded in the present.

  6. Chemical composition of wildland fire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn P. Urbanski; Wei Min Hao; Stephen Baker

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fires are major sources of trace gases and aerosol, and these emissions are believed to significantly influence the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the earth's climate system. The wide variety of pollutants released by wildland fire include greenhouse gases, photochemically reactive compounds, and fine and coarse particulate matter. Through...

  7. Potential Impacts of Spilled Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Chemicals on Water Resources: Types, volumes, and physical-chemical properties of chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid chemicals spilled on-site may impact drinking water resources. While chemicals generally make up <2% of the total injected fluid composition by mass, spills may have undiluted concentrations. HF fluids typically consist of a mixture of base flui...

  8. Isotopic and chemical composition of water and steam discharges from volcanic-magmatic-hydrothermal systems of the Guanacaste Geothermal Province, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giggenbach, W.F. (Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Petone (New Zealand). Chemistry Div.); Soto, R.C. (Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, San Jose (Costa Rica))

    1992-07-01

    The Guanacaste Geothermal Province encompasses three major geothermal systems, each centered on its respective volcanic structure: Rincon de la Vieja to the NW, Miravalles in the center and Tenorio to the SE. Each shows corresponding sets of surface manifestations: vapor discharges from fumaroles and steam-heated pools at altitudes >500 m; lower temperature SO{sub 4}-Cl springs on the lower slopes of the respective volcano; and cooler neutral Cl springs to the S of the volcanic chain, at altitudes <500 m. The production of HCO{sub 3}-rich waters is limited to a narrow belt stretching to the S of Miravalles volcano. Chemical and isotopic evidence suggests that the neutral Cl waters, also discharged from deep wells, are derived from a more primitive Cl-SO{sub 4} water formed by transfer of readily mobilised, originally magmatic constituents to deeply circulating groundwater. (author).

  9. Chemical Composition of Defatted Cottonseed and Soy Meal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqi; Zhang, Hailin; Olk, Dan C.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition is critical information for product quality and exploration of new use. Hence defatted cottonseed meals from both glanded (with gossypol) and glandless (without gossypol) cotton seeds were separated into water soluble and insoluble fractions, or water soluble, alkali soluble as well as total protein isolates. The contents of gossypol, total protein and amino acids, fiber and carbohydrates, and selected macro and trace elements in these products were determined and compared with each other and with those of soy meal products. Data reported in this work improved our understanding on the chemical composition of different cottonseed meal products that is helpful for more economical utilization of these products. These data would also provide a basic reference for product standards and quality control when the production of the cottonseed meal products comes to pilot and industrial scales. PMID:26079931

  10. A long-term variation of chemical composition in precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Okimura, Takashi; Okumura, Takenobu

    1991-01-01

    Precipitation samples are collected at the six localities in the southwestern Japan weekly or monthly over a long period of time (1978-1989) in order to estimate chemical weathering rates and amount of weathered materials through chemical composition in natural waters. Major chemical composition is determined for the precipitation samples. Together with the data available in the literature, the following characteristics are recognized : 1) Most pH values fall in the narrow range of 4.4 to 5.4, 2) Systematic variations in pH values are observed among the precipitation samples of different geologic environments, 3) pH values become almost constant from 1984 to 1989, 4) NO 3 - concentrations gradually decrease to an almost constant value with time, and 5) ΔSO 4 2- concentrations gradually have a tendency to decrease from 1978 to 1985. The mechanism of phenomena described above is also presented. (author)

  11. Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and inhibitory action of unripe plantain ( M. Paradisiacae ) flour. ... of dry matter (48.00 ± 3.96%) and starch (31.10 ± 0.44%) but was low in phenol (1.42 ± 0.03%), protein (3.15 ± 0.042%), ash (5.50 ± 0.42%) and total soluble sugar (0.64 ± 0.001%) (p < 0.05).

  12. Chemical microsensors based on polymer fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessick, Royal F.; Levit, Natalia; Tepper, Gary C.

    2005-05-01

    There is an urgent need for new chemical sensors for defense and security applications. In particular, sensors are required that can provide higher sensitivity and faster response in the field than existing baseline technologies. We have been developing a new solid-state chemical sensor technology based on microscale polymer composite fiber arrays. The fibers consist of an insulating polymer doped with conducting particles and are electrospun directly onto the surface of an interdigitated microelectrode. The concentration of the conducting particles within the fiber is controlled and is near the percolation threshold. Thus, the electrical resistance of the polymer fiber composite is very sensitive to volumetric changes produced in the polymer by vapor absorption. Preliminary results are presented on the fabrication and testing of the new microsensor. The objective is to take advantage of the very high surface to volume ratio, low thermal mass and linear geometry of the composite fibers to produce sensors exhibiting an extremely high vapor sensitivity and rapid response. The simplicity and low cost of a resistance-based chemical microsensor makes this sensing approach an attractive alternative to devices requiring RF electronics or time-of-flight analysis. Potential applications of this technology include battlespace awareness, homeland security, environmental surveillance, medical diagnostics and food process monitoring.

  13. UV-radiation induced changes in antibiotic markers, chemical composition of water soluble polysaccharides and nodulation ability of Rhizobium trifolic 11B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghai, Jyotsna; Ghai, S.K.; Kalra, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Rhizobium trifolii 11B, which formed effective nodules on its host. Trifolium alexanderinum L. was UV-irradiated to isolate mutants. Out of the 9 variants isolated only 1 strain, viz. 21M11B produced more water soluble polysaccharide [752 mg (100 ml -1 )] than the parent 15 different antibiotics was similar only in two (22M11B and 26M11B) of the 9 UV-mutants. Compositional studies revealed that the water soluble polysaccharides from all strains contained glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 7:1. Glucuronic acid which was present (2.33 per cent) in the water soluble polysaccharide from strain 11B was absent in all but 2UV-mutants (4.22per cent in 6M11B and 4.04per cent in26M11B). Five of the UB-mutants (1M11B, 17M11B, 20N11B, 22M11B and 26M11B) were Nod - . The organisms which produced more water soluble polysaccharide upon infection of the plants induced the formation of more number of nodules. (author)

  14. Chemical and sulphur isotope compositions of pyrite in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sulphide mineralization and their chemical evo- lution in relative .... properties and chemical compositions. Electron ..... from the sulphide lode provide clues to the chang- ing fluid ..... Raymond O L 1996 Pyrite composition and ore geneis in.

  15. Graphene composites containing chemically bonded metal oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the oxide layers are chemically bonded to graphene (Zhang ... sists of three glass chambers, one to contain the metal halide. (TiCl4, SiCl4 ... In this step, the metal halide reacts with the oxygen function- ... 1·0 g of FeCl3 were vigorously stirred in 30 ml of ethylene ... Reaction with water vapour results in hydrolysis of the un-.

  16. availability analysis of chemicals for water treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    In most countries, chemicals are generally recognized as being vital in the production of potable water and will ... industries and water utility ventures are being started in Nigeria ... are being dumped into rivers thereby polluting them the more.

  17. Pressure vessel steels: influence of chemical composition on irradiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoniem, M.M.; Hammad, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron irradiation of the steels used in the construction of the nuclear reactor pressure vessels can lead to the embrittlement of these materials, increasing the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and decreasing the fracture energy, which can limit the plant life. The knowledge of irradiation embrittlement and the means for minimizing such degradation is therefore important in the field of assuring the safety of the nuclear power plants. Irradiation embrittlement is quite a complex process. It involves many variables. The most important of these are irradiation temperature, neutron fluence (neutron dose), neutron flux (neutron dose rate), and chemical composition of the irradiated material. This paper is concerned with the effect of chemical composition, the role of residual and alloying elements in the irradiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels in light water reactors. It presents a critical review for the published work in this field through the last 25 years

  18. Separation of tritiated water from water using composite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.; Nelson, D.

    1996-01-01

    Polymeric composite membranes are being developed to remove tritium from contaminated water at DOE sites. Industrial membrane systems are being developed that have proven to be energy efficient, and membrane technologies such as reverse-osmosis have been well developed for desalination and other industrial/municipal applications. Aromatic polyphosphazene membranes are being investigated because they have excellent radiological, thermal, and chemical stability. The FY 1996 effort is directed toward delineating a potential mechanism, providing a statistical approach to data acquisition, refining a mass balance, and designing a staged array module

  19. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, KeShun

    2011-03-09

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major coproduct. Like fuel ethanol, DDGS has quickly become a global commodity. However, high compositional variation has been the main problem hindering its use as a feed ingredient. This review provides updated information on the chemical composition of distillers grains in terms of nutrient levels, changes during dry-grind processing, and causes for large variation. The occurrence in grain feedstock and the fate of mycotoxins during processing are also covered. During processing, starch is converted to glucose and then to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Most other components are relatively unchanged but concentrated in DDGS about 3-fold over the original feedstock. Mycotoxins, if present in the original feedstock, are also concentrated. Higher fold of increases in S, Na, and Ca are mostly due to exogenous addition during processing, whereas unusual changes in inorganic phosphorus (P) and phytate P indicate phytate hydrolysis by yeast phytase. Fermentation causes major changes, but other processing steps are also responsible. The causes for varying DDGS composition are multiple, including differences in feedstock species and composition, process methods and parameters, the amount of condensed solubles added to distiller wet grains, the effect of fermentation yeast, and analytical methodology. Most of them can be attributed to the complexity of the dry-grind process itself. It is hoped that information provided in this review will improve the understanding of the dry-grind process and aid in the development of strategies to control the compositional variation in DDGS.

  20. Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Glenn C.; Clark, Benton C.; Knocke, Philip C.; OHara, Bonnie J.; Adams, Larry; Niemann, Hasso B.; Alexander, Merle; Veverka, Joseph; Goldstein, Raymond; Huebner, Walter; hide

    1994-01-01

    Cometary exploration remains of great importance to virtually all of space science. Because comets are presumed to be remnants of the early solar nebula, they are expected to provide fundamental knowledge as to the origin and development of the solar system as well as to be key to understanding of the source of volatiles and even life itself in the inner solar system. Clearly the time for a detailed study of the composition of these apparent messages from the past has come. A comet rendezvous mission, the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, is now being studied as a candidate for the new Discovery program. This mission is a highly-focussed and usefully-limited subset of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) Mission. The C4 mission will concentrate on measurements that will produce an understanding of the composition and physical makeup of a cometary nucleus. The core science goals of the C4 mission are 1) to determine the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of a cometary nucleus and 2) to characterize the chemical and isotopic nature of its atmosphere. A related goal is to obtain temporal information about the development of the cometary coma as a function of time and orbital position. The four short-period comets -- Tempel 1, Tempel 2, Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and Wirtanen -which all appear to have acceptable dust production rates, were identified as candidate targets. Mission opportunities have been identified beginning as early as 1998. Tempel I with a launch in 1999, however, remains the baseline comet for studies of and planning the C4 mission. The C4 mission incorporates two science instruments and two engineering instruments in the payload to obtain the desired measurements. The science instruments include an advanced version of the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX), a mini-CIDEX with a sample collection system, an X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer and a Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph, and a simplified version of the Neutral

  1. Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, John David

    1985-01-01

    The chemical composition of natural water is derived from many different sources of solutes, including gases and aerosols from the atmosphere, weathering and erosion of rocks and soil, solution or precipitation reactions occurring below the land surface, and cultural effects resulting from human activities. Broad interrelationships among these processes and their effects can be discerned by application of principles of chemical thermodynamics. Some of the processes of solution or precipitation of minerals can be closely evaluated by means of principles of chemical equilibrium, including the law of mass action and the Nernst equation. Other processes are irreversible and require consideration of reaction mechanisms and rates. The chemical composition of the crustal rocks of the Earth and the composition of the ocean and the atmosphere are significant in evaluating sources of solutes in natural freshwater.

  2. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  3. Chemical composition of Lake Orta sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica BELTRAMI

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Lake Orta (18.2 km2, 1.3 km3, 143 m max. depth has been severely polluted since industrialisation of its watershed began in 1926, at which time the lake began to receive industrial effluents containing high concentrations of copper and ammonia. Chromium-, nickel-, and zinc-rich effluents from plating factories have also contributed to pollution levels, and pH -levels dropped below 4.0 as a result of the oxidation of ammonia to nitrates. More than 60 papers have documented the evolution of the chemical characteristics of both water and sediment, and the sudden decline of plankton, as well as benthos and fish. As a remedial action the lake was limed from May 1989 to June 1990 with 10,900 tons of CaCO3. The treatment was immediately effective in raising the pH and decreasing the metal concentrations in the water column, and plankton and fish communities quickly rebounded. However, the chemical characteristics of sediments were influenced by the liming to a much lesser extent. Since 900 tons of copper and the same amount of chromium were contained in the top 10 cm of sediment, it appears likely that the sediment could potentially act as a current and future source of these metals to the water column. This observation has resulted in the implementation of a vigorous monitoring regime to track the post-liming recovery of Lake Orta.

  4. Hygroscopic Properties and Chemical Composition of Aerosol Particles at the High Alpine Site Jungfraujoch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingarter, E.; Gysel, M.; Sjoegren, S.; Baltesperger, U.; Alfarra, R.; Bower, K.; Coe, H.

    2004-03-01

    The hygroscopic properties of aerosols play a significant role in atmospheric phenomena such as acid deposition, visibility degradation and climate change. Due to the hygroscopic growth of the particles, water is often the dominant component of the ambient aerosol at high relative humidity (RH) conditions. The ability to absorb water depends on the particle chemical composition, dry size, and shape. The aim of this study is to link the chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol to its hygroscopic properties. (author)

  5. The influence of the calibration standard and the chemical composition of the water samples residue in the counting efficiency of proportional detectors for gross alpha and beta counting. Application on the radiologic control of the IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Cecilia Martins

    2003-01-01

    In this work the efficiency calibration curves of thin-window and low background gas-flow proportional counters were determined for calibration standards with different energies and different absorber thicknesses. For the gross alpha counting we have used 241 Am and natural uranium standards and for the gross beta counting we have used 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 137 Cs standards in residue thicknesses ranging from 0 to approximately 18 mg/cm 2 . These sample thicknesses were increased with a previously determined salted solution prepared simulating the chemical composition of the underground water of IPEN The counting efficiency for alpha emitters ranged from 0,273 +- 0,038 for a weightless residue to only 0,015 +- 0,002 in a planchet containing 15 mg/cm 2 of residue for 241 Am standard. For natural uranium standard the efficiency ranged from 0,322 +- 0,030 for a weightless residue to 0,023 +- 0,003 in a planchet containing 14,5 mg/cm 2 of residue. The counting efficiency for beta emitters ranged from 0,430 +- 0,036 for a weightless residue to 0,247 +- 0,020 in a planchet containing 17 mg/cm 2 of residue for 137 Cs standard. For 90 Sr/ 90 Y standard the efficiency ranged from 0,489 +- 0,041 for a weightless residue to 0,323 +- 0,026 in a planchet containing 18 mg/cm 2 of residue. Results make evident the counting efficiency variation with the alpha or beta emitters energies and the thickness of the water samples residue. So, the calibration standard, the thickness and the chemical composition of the residue must always be considered in the gross alpha and beta radioactivity determination in water samples. (author)

  6. Natural mineral waters: chemical characteristics and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, Sara; Pampaloni, Barbara; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Summary Water contributes significantly to health and a daily intake of 1.5 to 2 liters of water should be guaranteed, because a good hydration is essential to maintain the body water equilibrium, although needs may vary among people. However, worldwide population is far from the Recommended Allowance for water intake. Among the waters for human uses, there are ‘waters (treated or not), intended for drinking, used for the food and beverages preparation or for other domestic purposes’ and natural mineral waters, that are ‘originated from an aquifer or underground reservoir, spring from one or more natural or bore sources and have specific hygienic features and, eventually, healthy properties’. According to the European Legislation (2009/54/EC Directive), physical and chemical characterization is used to make a classification of the different mineral waters, basing on the analysis of main parameters. Mineral composition enables to classify natural mineral waters as bicarbonate mineral waters, sulphate mineral waters, chloride mineral waters, calcic mineral waters, magnesiac mineral waters, fluorurate mineral waters, ferrous mineral waters and sodium-rich mineral waters. Although the concerns about bottled mineral waters (due to plasticizers and endocrine disruptors), many are the health effects of natural mineral waters and several studies explored their properties and their role in different physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:28228777

  7. Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays. Obtained from Ashaka and ... versatile material for geotechnical engineering and as well as their demand for ..... A PhD thesis submitted to the Chemical ...

  8. Chemical Industry Waste water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, F.A.; Doma, H.S.; El-Shafai, S.A.; Abdel-HaJim, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of chemical industrial wastewater from building and construction chemicals factory and plastic shoes manufacturing factory was investigated. The two factories discharge their wastewater into the public sewerage network. The results showed the wastewater discharged from the building and construction chemicals factory was highly contaminated with organic compounds. The average values of COD and BOD were 2912 and 150 mg O 2 /l. Phenol concentration up to 0.3 mg/l was detected. Chemical treatment using lime aided with ferric chloride proved to be effective and produced an effluent characteristics in compliance with Egyptian permissible limits. With respect to the other factory, industrial wastewater was mixed with domestic wastewater in order to lower the organic load. The COD, BOD values after mixing reached 5239 and 2615 mg O 2 /l. The average concentration of phenol was 0.5 mg/l. Biological treatment using activated sludge or rotating biological contactor (RBe) proved to be an effective treatment system in terms of producing an effluent characteristic within the permissible limits set by the law

  9. Preliminary information on the chemical and isotopic compositions of waters from the Caspian sea and its tributaries in the Makachkala region (Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauer, N.; Blanc, G.; Toulkeridis, T.; Zuppi, G.M.; Gasse, F.; Zuppi, G.M.; Blanc, G.

    1998-01-01

    The δ 18 O and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values of thermal waters from the western coast of the Caspian sea, which contribute to its total budget, result from interactions with host rocks; they even suggest a supply by 'deep' waters. In fact, the Sr contents and the 87 Sr/ 86 /Sr values of the river and thermal waters are not sufficient for the calculation of an equilibrated budget, implying that other sources contribute to the budget of the Caspian waters. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio of the waters from the Sulak river also suggests local anthropogenic pollution. (authors)

  10. Impact of the changes in the chemical composition of pore water on chemical and physical stability of natural clays. A review of natural cases and related laboratory experiments and the ideas on natural analogues for bentonite erosion/non-erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puura, Erik (Eridicon OUe, Tartu (Estonia)); Kirsimaee, Kalle (Univ. of Tartu, Inst. of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Tartu (Estonia))

    2010-01-15

    A scientific literature survey was compiled with the specific objective to find information for smectite mobilization and/or retention in natural clay formations caused by contact with water with low ionic concentrations such as can be expected during and after an ice age. Evidence was sought if smectite particles are lost from the clay to the water and if accessory minerals that remain could form a growing filter slowing down or stopping further loss of smectite. Bentonites are present in geological layers for hundreds of millions of years. There is limited exchange with surrounding layers, eg K transported into the bentonite layer from surrounding shale layers leading to the increased illite % in smectite-illite of the bentonite. Another process is silicification of surrounding layers leading to lowered permeability of surrounding rocks. Geological literature data on historical bentonites do not consider colloid formation in low ionic strength water as relevant mechanism for smectite mobilization. However there are no studied cases where this could be a relevant mechanism (as proposed by colloid release scenario). Soil researchers have studied the mechanism of colloid release in laboratory experiments and have found that there has to be an abrupt change in infiltrating water quality leading to 'osmotic explosion'. Clogging the pores in the lower part of the soil column has followed, leading to dramatic decrease of hydraulic conductivity in vertical profile and increased surface runoff. So, although limited, there are literature evidences of clay colloids release from bentonites/smectites caused by low-ionic circumneutral water. The geological settings to look for natural analogue studies include (1) Bentonite/smectite similar to what is used in repository. (2) Water similar to the composition of glacial meltwater. (3) Scenario similar to what is proposed in the bentonite erosion project. The problem related to the study of historical bentonite profiles

  11. Impact of the changes in the chemical composition of pore water on chemical and physical stability of natural clays. A review of natural cases and related laboratory experiments and the ideas on natural analogues for bentonite erosion/non-erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puura, Erik; Kirsimaee, Kalle

    2010-01-01

    A scientific literature survey was compiled with the specific objective to find information for smectite mobilization and/or retention in natural clay formations caused by contact with water with low ionic concentrations such as can be expected during and after an ice age. Evidence was sought if smectite particles are lost from the clay to the water and if accessory minerals that remain could form a growing filter slowing down or stopping further loss of smectite. Bentonites are present in geological layers for hundreds of millions of years. There is limited exchange with surrounding layers, eg K transported into the bentonite layer from surrounding shale layers leading to the increased illite % in smectite-illite of the bentonite. Another process is silicification of surrounding layers leading to lowered permeability of surrounding rocks. Geological literature data on historical bentonites do not consider colloid formation in low ionic strength water as relevant mechanism for smectite mobilization. However there are no studied cases where this could be a relevant mechanism (as proposed by colloid release scenario). Soil researchers have studied the mechanism of colloid release in laboratory experiments and have found that there has to be an abrupt change in infiltrating water quality leading to 'osmotic explosion'. Clogging the pores in the lower part of the soil column has followed, leading to dramatic decrease of hydraulic conductivity in vertical profile and increased surface runoff. So, although limited, there are literature evidences of clay colloids release from bentonites/smectites caused by low-ionic circumneutral water. The geological settings to look for natural analogue studies include (1) Bentonite/smectite similar to what is used in repository. (2) Water similar to the composition of glacial meltwater. (3) Scenario similar to what is proposed in the bentonite erosion project. The problem related to the study of historical bentonite profiles is the

  12. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CAATINGA POTENTIAL FORAGES SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dynara Layza de Souza da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of some potential forages species, natives from Caatinga region, were evaluated. Samples of Macroptilium heterophyllum, Stylosanthes humilis, Rhynchosia mínima, Desmodium tortuosum Sw. Dc, Merremia aegyptia, Mimosa tenuiflora Wild, Bauhinia cheilantha and as well Macroptilium lathyroides, Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Mimosa tenuiflora hays were collected in Rio Grande do Norte Stated, during 2011 rainy season. The analyses: dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP mineral matter (MM ether extract  (EE neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin (LIG, insoluble neutral detergent nitrogen, (INDN insoluble acid detergent nitrogen, (ADIN, total phenol (TF and total tannin (TT were done at Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos in Ceará State. Plants analyzed, as expected, for tropical species, exhibited high level of cell wall constituents, high lignifications rate and revealed substantial presence of anti nutritional compounds. However, regardless of this data, the main problem, for grazing animals, is due to its xerophytes characteristics. Most of the shrubs and trees are deciduous, losing its leaves during the dry season. In addition, herbaceous presents a very rapid lifetime cycle, germinating and senescing during the brief wet season.

  13. Chemical composition analysis and authentication of whisky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-08-30

    Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit-based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least 3 years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually causes a potential risk of adulteration. Thus authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authentication of whisky is based on comparing the composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. The present review summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky. The article also presents the various techniques used for analyzing whisky, such as gas and liquid chromatography with different types of detectors (FID, AED, UV-Vis), electronic nose, atomic absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In some cases the application of chemometric methods is also described, namely PCA, DFA, LDA, ANOVA, SIMCA, PNN, k-NN and CA, as well as preparation techniques such SPME or SPE. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation models were ...

  15. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, we studied the chemical composition of the essential oil of Cistus ladanifer and Cistus libanotis growing in Eastern Morocco. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical composition was analysed using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Camphene, borneol ...

  16. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of Algerian citrus. They were extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves of citrus species (orange, Bigaradier, mandarin and lemon), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their chemical composition and antifungal ...

  17. Fatty acid and cholesterol content, chemical composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the fatty acid and chemical composition and cholesterol concentration of horsemeat, and to evaluate its taste acceptability by the Brazilian population. Horsemeat samples (M. longissimus dorsi) were obtained from a Paraná State slaughterhouse. The chemical composition revealed a low lipid ...

  18. Relevance of leaf surface contamination for assessing chemical composition of bromeliads in a restinga forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, C; Fernandes, E A.N.; Franca, E J; Bacchi, M A; Tagliaferro, F S [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    Resuspended soil and other airborne particles adhered to the leaf surface affect the chemical composition of the plant. A well-defined cleaning procedure is necessary to avoid this problem, providing a correct assessment of the inherent chemical composition of bromeliads. To evaluate the influence of a washing procedure, INAA was applied for determining chemical elements in the leaves of bromeliads from Vriesea carinata species, both non-washed and washed with Alconox, EDTA and bi-distilled water. Br, Ce, Hg, La, Sc, Se, Sm and Th showed higher mass fractions in nonwashed leaves. The washing procedure removed the exogenous material without leaching chemical elements from inside the tissues. (author)

  19. Relevance of leaf surface contamination for assessing chemical composition of bromeliads in a restinga forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, C.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Franca, E.J.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    Resuspended soil and other airborne particles adhered to the leaf surface affect the chemical composition of the plant. A well-defined cleaning procedure is necessary to avoid this problem, providing a correct assessment of the inherent chemical composition of bromeliads. To evaluate the influence of a washing procedure, INAA was applied for determining chemical elements in the leaves of bromeliads from Vriesea carinata species, both non-washed and washed with Alconox, EDTA and bi-distilled water. Br, Ce, Hg, La, Sc, Se, Sm and Th showed higher mass fractions in nonwashed leaves. The washing procedure removed the exogenous material without leaching chemical elements from inside the tissues. (author)

  20. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during

  1. Dynamics of the chemical composition of rainwater throughout Hurricane Irene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Mullaugh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sequential sampling of rainwater from Hurricane Irene was carried out in Wilmington, NC, USA on 26 and 27 August 2011. Eleven samples were analyzed for pH, major ions (Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Hurricane Irene contributed 16% of the total rainwater and 18% of the total chloride wet deposition received in Wilmington NC during all of 2011. This work highlights the main physical factors influencing the chemical composition of tropical storm rainwater: wind speed, wind direction, back trajectory and vertical mixing, time of day and total rain volume. Samples collected early in the storm, when winds blew out of the east, contained dissolved components indicative of marine sources (salts from sea spray and low DOC. The sea-salt components in the samples had two maxima in concentration during the storm the first of which occurred before the volume of rain had sufficiently washed out sea salt from the atmosphere and the second when back trajectories showed large volumes of marine surface air were lifted. As the storm progressed and winds shifted to a westerly direction, the chemical composition of the rainwater became characteristic of terrestrial storms (high DOC and NH4+ and low sea salt. This work demonstrates that tropical storms are not only responsible for significant wet deposition of marine components to land, but terrestrial components can also become entrained in rainwater, which can then be delivered to coastal waters via wet deposition. This study also underscores why analysis of one composite sample can lead to an incomplete interpretation of the factors that influence the chemically divergent analytes in rainwater during extreme weather events.

  2. Chemical Composition of Sea Buckthorn Leaves, Branches and Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradt Ina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea buckthorn leaves and branches presently create waste-/by-products of harvesting after pruning the plants. It is already known that sea buckthorn berries are important for their chemical composition and based on this occupy a wide field in nutrition. We raised the idea that sea buckthorn leaves, branches, and especially the bark, have also an extraordinary chemical composition like the berries. The aim of this study was to describe these by-products. For this purpose, detailed full analyses of corresponding samples from Russia (seven varieties and Germany (four varieties were performed. Especially the dry mass, fat content, proteins, carbohydrates, starch content, and crude fiber were investigated to obtain an overview. Minor components like total phenol content, metals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins were also studied. All analytical parameters were based on an official collection of analysis methods (German ASU - amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren. The results of the full analysis of leaves and branches show some interesting aspects about the differences between male and female plants. Furthermore, we observed differences between Russian and German sea buckthorn varieties. Investigation of minor components showed that vitamins were present in very low amount (< 0.1 %.

  3. Chemical application strategies to protect water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Barber, Brian L; Koskinen, William C

    2018-07-30

    Management of turfgrass on golf courses and athletic fields often involves application of plant protection products to maintain or enhance turfgrass health and performance. However, the transport of fertilizer and pesticides with runoff to adjacent surface waters can enhance algal blooms, promote eutrophication and may have negative impacts on sensitive aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of chemical application setbacks to reduce the off-site transport of chemicals with storm runoff. Experiments with water soluble tracer compounds confirmed an increase in application setback distance resulted in a significant increase in the volume of runoff measured before first off-site chemical detection, as well as a significant reduction in the total percentage of applied chemical transported with the storm runoff. For example, implementation of a 6.1 m application setback reduced the total percentage of an applied water soluble tracer by 43%, from 18.5% of applied to 10.5% of applied. Evaluation of chemographs revealed the efficacy of application setbacks could be observed with storms resulting in lesser (e.g. 100 L) and greater (e.g. > 300 L) quantities of runoff. Application setbacks offer turfgrass managers a mitigation approach that requires no additional resources or time inputs and may serve as an alternative practice when buffers are less appropriate for land management objectives or site conditions. Characterizing potential contamination of surface waters and developing strategies to safeguard water quality will help protect the environment and improve water resource security. This information is useful to grounds superintendents for designing chemical application strategies to maximize environmental stewardship. The data will also be useful to scientists and regulators working with chemical transport and risk models. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Physical properties and chemical composition of Segamat Kaolin, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar Hamzah; Learn, K.K.; Sahibin Rahim

    2010-01-01

    Kaolin is a source of secondary mineral as a product of a weathering process of primary minerals. Its main component is fine grain kaolinite (< 2 μm) and it also contains other elements such as aluminium and iron phyllosilicate as the pigment. Aluminium rich kaolin is light in colour with high plasticity and is normally used in the ceramic, plastic, paint, paper, pesticide, pharmacology and cosmetic industries. The physical and chemical characteristics of kaolins are important for its potential application. In this study, about 25 kaolin samples were hand-augered from depths of 1-2 m at Buloh Kasap Segamat, Johor, Malaysia. Chemical analysis carried out included determination of oxides and types of minerals by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. Shrinkage rate, rupture modulus and water absorption rate tests were carried out in the physical properties analysis. Plastic and liquid limits of the kaolin were also measured for plastic index. The Segamat kaolin was light in colour due to its high silicate composition. The highest mineral content in the kaolin was kaolinite and quartz occurred as impurities. The low shrinkage rate showed that the kaolin was dense with little voids, hence very suitable for use in the ceramic industry. This kaolin has low water absorption, plasticity and durable according to the rupture modulus test. (author)

  5. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation models were determined by .... Water transport process of resin and polymer composite specimens at ..... simulation. ... Kwon Y W and Bang H 1997 Finite element method using matlab.

  6. Advancing Consumer Product Composition and Chemical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes EPA efforts to collect, model, and measure publically available consumer product data for use in exposure assessment. The development of the ORD Chemicals and Products database will be described, as will machine-learning based models for predicting chemical function. Finally, the talk describes new mass spectrometry-based methods for measuring chemicals in formulation and articles. This presentation is an invited talk to the ICCA-LRI workshop "Fit-For-Purpose Exposure Assessments For Risk-Based Decision Making". The talk will share EPA efforts to characterize the components of consumer products for use in exposure assessment with the international exposure science community.

  7. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of nonwoven based flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. The effect of zein modification on flax fibres is also reported. Flax nonwovens were treated...

  8. Activation and chemical analysis of drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.K.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Ground water samples from Patiala city have been analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis and for seven chemical parameters using standard techniques. It was found that alkali and alkaline earth metals have high concentrations in all samples whereas the concentrations of toxic metals are low in the majority of samples. However, chromium and cadmium concentrations are higher in ground water taken from the industrial belt of the city. This indicates that the overall level of pollution is low, but that some measures are still needed to inhibit various industries from polluting the ground water. (author)

  9. Recharge mechanism in karstic systems investigation through the correlation of chemical and isotopic composition of rain and spring-water (case study: Figeh and Barada springs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A.

    2012-03-01

    Karst aquifers represents an important groundwater resources not only in Syria, but in the world-wide. The hydrological approaches for studying the karst system were developed in the last tow decade. One of the main approaches is the use of natural isotopes and hydrochemical traces for description the recharge and discharge and estimate the recharge rate of karst aquifer system. The main filed site tests are the Figeh and Barada karst aquifer, located in the carbonate rocks of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains. Environmental isotopes and chemical major ions (δ 18 Ο, δ 2 H and 3 H), in precipitation and groundwater were integrated for studying the isotope and hydrochemical characterization and the description of temporal variations of groundwater discharge from the karst springs of Figeh and Barada which are considered as the main large springs due to there huge discharge in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains. The δ 18 O values are -8.9 and -7.7. for Figeh and Barada respectively. The regression line for both precipitation and groundwater discharge from Figeh and Barada is described by the equation: δD = 7.9δ 18 O + 19.7 wish shows no evaporation during precipitation and suggest that the groundwater are mainly from direct infiltration of precipitation. The altitude gradients in the precipitation were estimated to be -0.23./100 m for δ 18 O. The main recharge areas were estimated to be 2000±50 and 1350±50 m.a.s.l for Figeh and Barada springs.The chloride mass balance (CMB) method was used to quantify recharge rates of groundwater in the Mountain karst aquifer of Figeh spring. The recharge rate varies from 192 to 825 mm year-1, which corresponds to 43 and 67% of the total annual rainfall. Recharge rates estimated by CMB were compared with values obtained from other methods and were found to be in good agreement. The tritium concentrations in groundwater are low and very close to the rainfall value 4.5 Tu for meteoric stations. Adopting a model with exponential time

  10. Environmental isotopes, chemical composition and groundwater recharge in ataqa-north galala region, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohaib, R.EL-SH.; Nada, A.; Safie El-Din, A.

    1991-01-01

    Groundwater samples collected from a number of localities in ataqa-north galala region were subjected to various chemical and isotopic analyses. The seasonal fluctuations in hydrochemical composition reveal that the marin Mg Cl 2 type is dominant in the aquifer through-out the year. The Ca Cl 2 water type of marine origin appears in January in wells W 3 and W 7 which lie close to sukhna fault. Recharge to the aquifer is reflected by fluctuation in the water level and fluctuations of the hydrochemical composition of the water. The results of the isotopic content of the water samples indicate that the connate marine water has been subjected to dilution and mixing by the meteoric water invasion since the pliestocene pluvial period (paleowater) and recent meteoric water precipitation. The bulk of the stored water ( about 80%) is paleowater and the recent water (20%) are percolate ones derived from the rain-fall at high latitudes.4 fig. 1 tab

  11. Variation in the chemical composition, physical characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the chemical composition, physical characteristics and energy values of cereal grains produced in the Western Cape area of South Africa. TS Brand, CW Cruywagen, DA Brandt, M Viljoen, WW Burger ...

  12. Antimicrobial activity and chemical compositions of Turkish propolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative bacteria and its chemical composition were evaluated by the method of agar-well diffusion and GC-MS, respectively. Some typical compounds samples were identified in the propolis samples. Principal component analysis revealed that the ...

  13. WOOD STOVE EMISSIONS: PARTICLE SIZE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes wood stove particle size and chemical composition data gathered to date. [NOTE: In 1995, EPA estimated that residential wood combustion (RWC), including fireplaces, accounted for a significant fraction of national particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter...

  14. Relationship between bacterial density and chemical composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    Key words: Bacterial density, chemical composition, oxidation pond, sewage, tropics. INTRODUCTION ... pond for about two weeks during which algae, bacteria and other organisms act ..... Chloride can serve as nutrient for micro- organisms ...

  15. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of twig essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... The chemical composition of twig essential oils of Xylopia malayana, Xylopia elliptica and Xylopia fusca were analyzed ... brown or dark green in colors and fragrant. .... extraction used and geographic origin of plant studied.

  16. An investigation into the chemical composition of alternative invertebrate prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Dierenfeld, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of eight invertebrate species and evaluate their suitability as alternative prey. The species selected were rusty red cockroaches (Blatta lateralis), six-spotted cockroaches (Eublaberus distanti), Madagascar hissing cockroaches

  17. Chemical composition and microbial load of cheese produced using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aframomum sceptrum) on the chemical composition and microbial load of cheese was evaluated in a Completely Randomized Design. Cheese produced with 1% bear berry (Aframomum sceptrum) had the highest (P < 0.05) crude protein content ...

  18. Water system integration of a chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Pingyou; Feng Xiao; Qian Feng; Cao Dianliang

    2006-01-01

    Water system integration can minimize both the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge of a plant. In industrial applications, it is the key to determine reasonably the contaminants and the limiting concentrations, which will decide the freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge of the system. In this paper, some rules to determine the contaminants and the limiting concentrations are proposed. As a case study, the water system in a chemical plant that produces sodium hydroxide and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is integrated. The plant consumes a large amount of freshwater and discharges a large amount of wastewater, so minimization of both the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge is very important to it. According to the requirements of each water using process on the water used in it, the contaminants and the limiting concentrations are determined. Then, the optimal water reuse scheme is firstly studied based on the water network with internal water mains. To reduce the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge further, decentralized regeneration recycling is considered. The water using network is simplified by mixing some of the used water. After the water system integration, the freshwater consumption is reduced 25.5%, and the wastewater discharge is reduced 48%

  19. Evaluation of chemical composition of defect wine distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaljević Žulj, Marin; Posavec, Barbara; Škvorc, Melanija; Tupajić, Pavica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the distillate obtained from wine with off-flavour. The chemical composition of wine distillates obtained by distillation of Chardonnay wine with oxidation off-flavour was investigated. Distillation of wine was carried out using a simple distillation pot still by double distillation and separation the different portion of the first fraction. Volatile compounds of wine and wine distillates (acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol ...

  20. Prebiotic Potential and Chemical Composition of Seven Culinary Spice Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Summanen, Paula H; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Henning, Susanne M; Heber, David; Finegold, Sydney M; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate prebiotic potential, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of spice extracts. Seven culinary spices including black pepper, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger, Mediterranean oregano, rosemary, and turmeric were extracted with boiling water. Major chemical constituents were characterized by RP-HPLC-DAD method and antioxidant capacity was determined by measuring colorimetrically the extent to scavenge ABTS radical cations. Effects of spice extracts on the viability of 88 anaerobic and facultative isolates from intestinal microbiota were determined by using Brucella agar plates containing serial dilutions of extracts. A total of 14 phenolic compounds, a piperine, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde were identified and quantitated. Spice extracts exhibited high antioxidant capacity that correlated with the total amount of major chemicals. All spice extracts, with the exception of turmeric, enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. All spices exhibited inhibitory activity against selected Ruminococcus species. Cinnamon, oregano, and rosemary were active against selected Fusobacterium strains and cinnamon, rosemary, and turmeric were active against selected Clostridium spp. Some spices displayed prebiotic-like activity by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and suppressing the growth of pathogenic bacteria, suggesting their potential role in the regulation of intestinal microbiota and the enhancement of gastrointestinal health. The identification and quantification of spice-specific phytochemicals provided insight into the potential influence of these chemicals on the gut microbial communities and activities. Future research on the connections between spice-induced changes in gut microbiota and host metabolism and disease preventive effect in animal models and humans is needed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of

  1. Leaching properties and chemical compositions of calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, B.A.; Paige, B.E.; Rhodes, D.W.; Wilding, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    No significant chemical differences were determined between retrieved and fresh calcine based on chemical and spectrochemical analyses. Little can be derived from the amounts of the radioisotopes present in the retrieved calcine samples other than the ratios of strontium-90 to cesium-137 are typical of aged fission product. The variations in concentrations of radionuclides within the composite samples of each bin also reflect the differences in compositions of waste solutions calcined. In general the leaching characteristics of both calcines by distilled water are similar. In both materials the radionuclides of cesium and strontium were selectively leached at significant rates, although cesium leached much more completely from the alumina calcine than from the zirconia calcine. Cesium and strontium are probably contained in both calcines as nitrate salts and also as fluoride salts in zirconia calcine, all of which are at least slightly soluble in water. Radionuclides of cerium, ruthenium, and plutonium in both calcines were highly resistant to leaching and leached at rates similar to or less than those of the matrix elements. These elements exist as polyvalent metal ions in the waste solutions before calcination and they probably form insoluble oxides and fluorides in the calcine. The relatively slow leaching of nitrate ion from zirconia calcine and radiocesium from both calcines suggests that the calcine matrix in some manner prevents complete or immediate contact of the soluble ions with water. Whether radiostrontium forms slightly fluoride salts or forms nitrate salts which are protected in the same manner as radiocesium is unknown. Nevertheless, selective leaching of cesium and strontim is retarded in some manner by the calcine matrix

  2. Chemical-to-Electricity Carbon: Water Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sisi; Zhang, Yueyu; Qiu, Longbin; Zhang, Longsheng; Xie, Yun; Pan, Jian; Chen, Peining; Wang, Bingjie; Xu, Xiaojie; Hu, Yajie; Dinh, Cao Thang; De Luna, Phil; Banis, Mohammad Norouzi; Wang, Zhiqiang; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Gong, Xingao; Zhang, Bo; Peng, Huisheng; Sargent, Edward H

    2018-03-26

    The ability to release, as electrical energy, potential energy stored at the water:carbon interface is attractive, since water is abundant and available. However, many previous reports of such energy converters rely on either flowing water or specially designed ionic aqueous solutions. These requirements restrict practical application, particularly in environments with quiescent water. Here, a carbon-based chemical-to-electricity device that transfers the chemical energy to electrical form when coming into contact with quiescent deionized water is reported. The device is built using carbon nanotube yarns, oxygen content of which is modulated using oxygen plasma-treatment. When immersed in water, the device discharges electricity with a power density that exceeds 700 mW m -2 , one order of magnitude higher than the best previously published result. X-ray absorption and density functional theory studies support a mechanism of operation that relies on the polarization of sp 2 hybridized carbon atoms. The devices are incorporated into a flexible fabric for powering personal electronic devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  4. Chemical composition and nutritional value of boiled Christmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and the nutritive value of boiled Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia) for starter broiler chickens. Dried Christmas bush fruits (Capsules + seed) were boiled for 30 minutes, sundried and ground into meal. The meal was analyzed for proximate composition and ...

  5. Chemical composition of the early universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harwit, M; Spaans, M

    2003-01-01

    A prediction of standard inflationary cosmology is that the elemental composition of the medium out of which the earliest stars and galaxies condensed consisted primarily of hydrogen and helium (4)He, with small admixtures of deuterium, lithium (7)Li, and (3)He. The most redshifted quasars,

  6. Ethylene vinylacetate copolymer and nanographite composite as chemical vapour sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepina, Santa; Sakale, Gita; Knite, Maris

    2013-01-01

    Polymer-nanostructured carbon composite as chemical vapour sensor is described, made by the dissolution method of a non-conductive polymer, ethylene vinylacetate copolymer, mixed with conductive nanographite particles (carbon black). Sensor exhibits relative electrical resistance change in chemical vapours, like ethanol and toluene. Since the sensor is relatively cheap, easy to fabricate, it can be used in air quality monitoring and at industries to control hazardous substance concentration in the air, for example, to protect workers from exposure to chemical spills

  7. Chemical composition of sediments from White Sea, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamza, Olga; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Novigatsky, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    The White Sea, the only Russian inland sea, is located on the north of outlying districts of the European part of Russia, belongs to Arctic Ocean. Area of water of sea occupies about 90 tousend square kilometers. The sea can be divided into some general parts: neck, funnel, basin and 4 Bays: Dvina Bay, Kandalaksha Bay, Mezen Bay and Onega Bay. The purpose of this work was geochemical mapping of the surface sediments of this area. The main tasks were: compilation data base of element composition of the surface sediments, geochemical mapping of each element, research of the anormal concentration of elements on the surface. To detect the content of chemical elements several methods were used: atomic absorption spectrometry (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology); neutron activation analysis (Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry), total and organic carbon analysis, photometric method to detection Si, Al, P (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology). Bulk composition is one of the fundamental characteristics of sediments and bottom deposites of modern basins. Coarse-grained sediments with portion of pelitic component 80%). Character of elements distribution correlates with facial distribution of sediments from White Sea. According to litologic description, bottom surface of Dvina Bay is practically everywhere covered by layer of fine-grained sand. In the border area between Dvina Bay and White Sea basin on terraced subwater slope aleurite politic silts are abundant. They tend to exhange down the slope to clay silts. In Onega Bay fractions of non-deposition are observed. They are characterized by wide spread of thin blanket poorgraded sediments, which are likely to be relic. Relief of Kandalakscha Bay bottom is presented as alternation of abyssal fosses (near 300 m) with silles and elevations (roof owning to diagenetic contraction. Authors thank academic Lisitsyn for encourage, Andrey Apletalin for valuable help, and everybody, who helped in field

  8. Composite risers for deep-water offshore technology: Problems and prospects. 1. Metal-composite riser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyle, A. I.; Gustafson, C. G.; Kulakov, V. L.; Tarnopol'skii, Yu. M.

    1997-09-01

    Prospects for the application of advanced composites in the offshore technology of oil production are considered. The use of composites in vertical pipelines-risers seems to be the most efficient. The operating loads are studied and the attendant problems are formulated. A comparative analysis of the characteristics of metal, composite, and metal-composite deep-water risers is presented. A technique is developed for designing multilayered risers, taking into account the action of internal and external pressures, gravity, and the axial tensile force created by tensioners, as well as the residual technological stresses due to the difference in coefficients of thermal expansion, physical-chemical shrinkage, and force winding. Numerical estimations are given for a two-layered riser with an inner metal layer of steel, titanium, or aluminum alloys and a composite layer of glass- or carbon-fiber plastics formed by circumferential winding. It is shown that the technological stresses substantially affect the characteristics of the riser.

  9. chemical composition and sensory acceptability of partially

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    180 ml of water and 65 ml of vegetable oil were added to each blend and ... pressed manually through home pasta making machine. ... thermal treatment by steaming precooking, toasting ... amount of certain essential amino acids notably.

  10. A new material for chemical industry - wood polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Patil, N.D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper outlines the advantages of the radiation cured wood-polymer composites (WPC) for application in certain critical areas of chemical industry. The wood-polymer composite made filterpress frames and plates were tested in a chemical plant. The entire exercise is elaborated. The radiation cured wood exhibited a considerably extended useful life in alkaline and acidic solutions. Composites based on teak wood showed a remarkable improvement with a nominal polymer loading of 10%. The reports of accelerated aging test of WPC are also presented. (auth.)

  11. Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... matter (48.00 ± 3.96%) and starch (31.10 ± 0.44%) but was low in phenol (1.42 ± 0.03%), protein (3.15 ±. 0.042%), ash .... protein diet need. The unripe plantain flour was found to contain low quantities of ash which reflected its mineral contents. Table 2. Phytochemical composition of unripe plantain flour.

  12. Productivity, chemical composition and ruminal degradability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ShoeskY

    2016-11-19

    Nov 19, 2016 ... (Soil Classification Working Group, 1991), and low organic carbon, and has a slightly acidic pH. ... Agricultural Research Council – Institute for Soil, Climate and Water ... were determined with inductively coupled plasma optical emission ... were fitted with rumen cannulae of 8 cm internal diameter and were.

  13. Chemical composition of Hirsutella beakdumountainsis, a potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reading 6

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... Furthermore, modern experimental methods in bio- chemistry have .... in the presence of 5.5 mol/L HCl at 120°C for 24 h under a nitrogen atmosphere. ... A blank test was prepared by substituting distilled water for the extract ...

  14. Chemical composition and mutagenic assessment of petrochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... could serve as indicator of the deleterious effects of these wastewaters on other organisms at the point of discharge – either on land or water bodies. The need for sound sewerage system that would protect flora and fauna in the ecosystem is advocated. Key words: Chromosome, ecosystem, heavy metal, mitosis, mutation.

  15. Chemical food composition: implications for atherosclerosis prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Carlos; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto

    2011-01-01

    To compare the fatty acid and cholesterol content in food acquired in Brazil with the composition found in the most frequently used reference tables in the country. The fatty acid and cholesterol content in 41 food items frequently used in our country and the various directions to prepare them were reviewed by using specific methodology and the information was compared to the tables adopted by Unicamp and UNIFESP. According to Unicamp table, the cholesterol content found in parmesan cheese was 100.7 mg/100 g, while it was 68 mg/100 g in UNIFESP table, that is, a 48% (p UNIFESP table is American in origin.

  16. Chemical changes associated with lotus and water lily natto production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, S. D.; Fatimah, N.; Nopianti, R.

    2017-04-01

    Natto is a traditional Japanese food made by fermenting whole soybean seeds with pure culture of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto. The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and water lily (Nymphaea stellata) seeds as the raw materials for natto production. Chemical (proximate, amino acids and minerals) changes were observed on raw, steamed and fermented seeds. Proximate compositions of all samples were calculated in both wet basis and dry basis. In wet basis calculation, steaming and fermentation tended to lower the carbohydrates, ashes, fats and protein content which were attributed to the increase of moisture. The total amino acid, iron and magnesium contents of raw lotus seeds were 24.29%, 5.08 mg 100g-1 and 174.23 mg 100g-1 dry matter, respectively. After a 24h-fermentation at 40°C, the total amino acids decreased while iron and magnesium contents increased significantly reaching, in respective order, 9.9 mg 100g-1 and 411.36 mg 100g-1 dry matter. Changes in chemical composition after fermentation were more pronounced in lotus seeds than water lily seeds indicating that their nutrient composition were more suitable to support Bacillus subtilis growth.

  17. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PRAESEPE (M44)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Roper, Brian W.; Lum, Michael G., E-mail: boes@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: brianwroper@gmail.com, E-mail: mikelum@ifa.hawaii.edu [Visiting astronomer, W. M. Keck Observatory jointly operated by the California Institute of Technology and the University of California. (United States)

    2013-09-20

    Star clusters have long been used to illuminate both stellar evolution and Galactic evolution. They also hold clues to the chemical and nucleosynthetic processes throughout the history of the Galaxy. We have taken high signal-to-noise (S/N), high-resolution spectra of 11 solar-type stars in the Praesepe open cluster to determine the chemical abundances of 16 elements: Li, C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y, and Ba. We have determined Fe from Fe I and Fe II lines and find [Fe/H] = +0.12 ±0.04. We find that Li decreases with temperature due to increasing Li depletion in cooler stars; it matches the Li-temperature pattern found in the Hyades. The [C/Fe] and [O/Fe] abundances are below solar and lower than the field star samples due to the younger age of Praesepe (0.7 Gyr) than the field stars. The alpha-elements, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, have solar ratios with respect to Fe, and are also lower than the field star samples. The Fe-peak elements, Cr and Ni, track Fe and have solar values. The neutron capture element [Y/Fe] is found to be solar, but [Ba/Fe] is enhanced relative to solar and to the field stars. Three Praesepe giants were studied by Carrera and Pancino; they are apparently enhanced in Na, Mg, and Ba relative to the Praesepe dwarfs. The Na enhancement may indicate proton-capture nucleosynthesis in the Ne → Na cycling with dredge-up into the atmospheres of the red giants.

  18. Chemical, mechanical and biological properties of contemporary composite surface sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Maria; Mountouris, George; Silikas, Nick; Kletsas, Dimitris; Eliades, George

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the chemical, mechanical, and biological properties of modern composite surface sealers (CSS) having different compositions. The CSS products tested were Biscover LV (BC), Durafinish (DF), G-Coat Plus (GC), and Permaseal (PS). The tests performed were: (A): degree of conversion (DC%) by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy; (B): thickness of O2-inhibition layer by transmission optical microscopy; (C): surface hardness, 10 min after irradiation and following 1 week water storage, employing a Vickers indenter (VHN); (D): color (ΔE*) and gloss changes (ΔGU) after toothbrush abrasion, using L*a*b* colorimetry and glossimetry; (E): accelerated wear (GC,PS only) by an OHSU wear simulator plus 3D profilometric analysis, and (F): cytotoxicity testing of aqueous CSS eluents on human gingival fibroblast cultures employing the methyl-(3)H thymidine DNA labeling method. Statistical analyses included 1-way (A, B, ΔE*, ΔGU) and 2-way (C, F) ANOVAs, plus Tukey post hoc tests. Student's t-test was used to evaluate the results of the accelerated wear test (α=0.05 for all). The rankings of the statistical significant differences were: (A) PS (64.9)>DF,BC,GC (56.1-53.9) DC%; (B) DF,PS (12.3,9.8)>GC,BC (5.2,4.8) μm; (C): GC (37.6)>BC,DF (32.6,31.1)>PS (26.6) VHN (10 min/dry) and BC,DF (29.3,28.7)>GC(26.5)>PS(21.6) VHN (1w/water), with no significant material/storage condition interaction; (D): no differences were found among GC,DF,BC,PS (0.67-1.11) ΔE*, with all values within the visually acceptable range and PS,BC (32.8,29.4)>GC,DF (19.4,12.9) ΔGU; (E): no differences were found between GC and PS in volume loss (0.10,0.11 mm(3)), maximum (113.9,130.5 μm) and mean wear depths (30.3,27.5 μm); (F): at 1% v/v concentration, DF showed toxicity (23% vital cells vs 95-102% for others). However, at 5% v/v concentration DF (0%) and BC (9%) were the most toxic, whereas GC (58%) and PS (56%) showed moderate toxicity. Important chemical, mechanical, and biological properties exist among

  19. Chemical interaction of fresh and saline waters with compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Lehikoinen, J.; Melamed, A.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of compacted sodium bentonite with fresh and saline ground-water simulant was studied. The parameters varied in the experiments were the compositions of the solutions and oxygen and carbon dioxide content in the surroundings. The main interests of the study were the chemical changes in the experimental solution, bentonite porewater and bentonite together with the microstructural properties of bentonite. The major processes with fresh water were the diffusion of sodium, potassium, sulphate, bicarbonate and chloride from bentonite to the solution, and the diffusion of calcium and magnesium from the solution into bentonite. The major processes in the experiments with saline water were the diffusion of the sodium, magnesium, sulphate and bicarbonate from bentonite into the solution, and the diffusion of calcium from the solution into bentonite

  20. Chemical safety of food and drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M; Heijden, C.A. van der [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1992-07-01

    Food and drinking water are major sources of human exposure to a large number of chemicals added intentionally for technological reasons or present unintentionally due to contamination. On the other hand, there is a public demand for an essentially risk-free supply of food and drinking water. The concern over the presence of chemicals in the human diet received further emphasis through the development of toxicological and analytical methodology with increased sensitivity over the years. In order to minimize the potential health hazards to the consumers, standards have been established which indicate levels of consumption that are - according to scientific evidence - considered safe and which, consequently, permit control measures to be taken. In this context, public perception of a particular risk, may not always be in line with what might be considered a 'real' risk. Thus, while in the public opinion risk associated with smoking or over-nutrition might be accepted or underestimated, certain food chemical related risks may not be accepted and are sometimes perceived as alarmingly high.

  1. Chemical safety of food and drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.; Heijden, C.A. van der

    1992-01-01

    Food and drinking water are major sources of human exposure to a large number of chemicals added intentionally for technological reasons or present unintentionally due to contamination. On the other hand, there is a public demand for an essentially risk-free supply of food and drinking water. The concern over the presence of chemicals in the human diet received further emphasis through the development of toxicological and analytical methodology with increased sensitivity over the years. In order to minimize the potential health hazards to the consumers, standards have been established which indicate levels of consumption that are - according to scientific evidence - considered safe and which, consequently, permit control measures to be taken. In this context, public perception of a particular risk, may not always be in line with what might be considered a 'real' risk. Thus, while in the public opinion risk associated with smoking or over-nutrition might be accepted or underestimated, certain food chemical related risks may not be accepted and are sometimes perceived as alarmingly high

  2. Chemical composition and microstructure of Bauhinia grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonsou, Eric O; Siwela, Muthulisi; Dlamini, Nomusa

    2014-09-01

    Bauhinia is a leguminous plant species found in almost every part of the world, including southern Africa. In this study, grain composition and protein body microstructure of two indigenous southern African Bauhinia species, B. galpinii and B. petersiana were determined. Protein (38 g/100 g) and fat (23 g/100 g) were the major constituents of Bauhinia. Bauhinia grains also contained substantial amounts of zinc (6 mg/100 g) and iron (3 mg/100 g) when compared to FAO/WHO standards. The parenchyma cells of Bauhinia showed spherical protein bodies with globoids inclusions and these were surrounded by lipids. However, the protein bodies of B. petersiana were smaller in size (7 ± 3 μm) than those of B. galpinii (13 ± 4 μm). The microstructure of protein bodies in Bauhinia is very similar to that of soya, suggesting that the processing technology developed for soya protein may be adopted for Bauhinia.

  3. Inorganic chemical composition and chemical reactivity of settled dust generated by the World Trade Center building collapse: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Ziegler, Thomas L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Brownfield, Isabelle; Adams, Monique G.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Taggart, Joseph E.; Clark, Roger N.; Wilson, S.; Sutley, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of dust deposited around lower Manhattan by the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) collapse have inorganic chemical compositions that result in part from the variable chemical contributions of concrete, gypsum wallboard, glass fibers, window glass, and other materials contained in the buildings. The dust deposits were also modified chemically by variable interactions with rain water or water used in street washing and fire fighting. Chemical leach tests using deionized water as the extraction fluid show the dust samples can be quite alkaline, due primarily to reactions with calcium hydroxide in concrete particles. Calcium and sulfate are the most soluble components in the dust, but many other elements are also readily leached, including metals such as Al, Sb, Mo Cr, Cu, and Zn. Indoor dust samples produce leachates with higher pH, alkalinity, and dissolved solids than outdoor dust samples, suggesting most outdoor dust had reacted with water and atmospheric carbon dioxide prior to sample collection. Leach tests using simulated lung fluids as the extracting fluid suggest that the dust might also be quite reactive in fluids lining the respiratory tract, resulting in dissolution of some particles and possible precipitation of new phases such as phosphates, carbonates, and silicates. Results of these chemical characterization studies can be used by health scientists as they continue to track and interpret health effects resulting from the short-term exposure to the initial dust cloud and the longer-term exposure to dusts resuspended during cleanup.

  4. Numerical Validation of Chemical Compositional Model for Wettability Alteration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekbauov, Bakhbergen; Berdyshev, Abdumauvlen; Baishemirov, Zharasbek; Bau, Domenico

    2017-12-01

    Chemical compositional simulation of enhanced oil recovery and surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation processes is a complex task that involves solving dozens of equations for all grid blocks representing a reservoir. In the present work, we perform a numerical validation of the newly developed mathematical formulation which satisfies the conservation laws of mass and energy and allows applying a sequential solution approach to solve the governing equations separately and implicitly. Through its application to the numerical experiment using a wettability alteration model and comparisons with existing chemical compositional model's numerical results, the new model has proven to be practical, reliable and stable.

  5. Energy density enhancement of chemical heat storage material for magnesium oxide/water chemical heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myagmarjav, Odtsetseg; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Ryu, Junichi; Kato, Yukitaka

    2015-01-01

    A novel candidate chemical heat storage material having higher reaction performance and higher thermal conductivity used for magnesium oxide/water chemical heat pump was developed in this study. The material, called EML, was obtained by mixing pure Mg(OH)_2 with expanded graphite (EG) and lithium bromide (LiBr), which offer higher thermal conductivity and reactivity, respectively. With the aim to achieve a high energy density, the EML composite was compressed into figure of the EML tablet (ϕ7.1 mm × thickness 3.5 mm). The compression force did not degrade the reaction conversion, and furthermore it enabled us to achieve best heat storage and output performances. The EML tablet could store heat of 815.4 MJ m_t_a_b"−"3 at 300 °C within 120 min, which corresponded to almost 4.4 times higher the heat output of the EML composite, and therefore, the EML tablet is the solution which releases more heat in a shorter time. A relatively larger volumetric gross heat output was also recorded for the EML tablet, which was greater than one attained for the EML composite at certain temperatures. As a consequence, it is expected that the EML tablet could respond more quickly to sudden demand of heat from users. It was concluded that the EML tablet demonstrated superior performances. - Highlights: • A new chemical heat storage material, donated as EML, was developed. • EML composite made from pure Mg(OH)_2, expanded graphite and lithium bromide. • EML tablet was demonstrated by compressing the EML composite. • Compression force did not degrade the conversion in dehydration and hydration. • EML tablet demonstrated superior heat storage and output performances.

  6. Environmental isotopes, chemical composition and groundwater sources in Al-Maghara area, Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.A.; Awad, M.A.; Froehlich, K.; El Behery, M.

    1991-01-01

    Groundwater samples collected from a number of localities, in Al-Maghara area, north central part of Sinai, were subject to various chemical and isotopic analysis. The purpose of the study is to determine whether the groundwaters are recently recharged or not in order to adopt an efficient water management policy. The hydrochemical results indicate that they are mainly of primary marine origin, dilution of this water by meteoric water changes its chemical composition to be mixed water type, which has the major chemical components: KCl, NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 , MgSO 4 , Mg(HCO 3 ) 2 and Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 . The tritium content confirm the meteoric water recharge recently especially for wells with high tritium content. The stable environmental isotopic composition of the groundwater reflects the isotopic composition of precipitation and flooding with some evaporation enrichment prior to infiltration. There is also mixing with palaeowater (water recharge in the past cooler climate periods), by leaking through faulting in the area. (orig.) [de

  7. Chemical and isotopic composition of precipitations in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Zakhem, B.; Hafez, R.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine isotopic characteristics of precipitation, the climatic and geographical conditions affecting isotopic composition in order to obtain the input function of groundwater to evaluate the water resources.13 meteoric stations were selected in Syria for cumulative monthly rainfall sampling during two hydrological cycles; 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. The chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were studied. The winter and spring rainfall isotopic characteristics were determined, in addition to the Syrian meteoric line (SMWL) was estimated with a slope of 6.62 and that of both Syria and Jordan of 6.73. The effect of climatic factors as temperature and relative air humidity on oxygen-18, deuterium and d-excess were studied and it was found that the relationship between temperature and oxygen-18 and deuterium is a positive linear correlation; however, it is a negative correlation with d-excess. The mean seasonal variation amplitude of 18 O was about 6%, and the amount effect on isotopic content of precipitation was studied. The geographic factors and its affect on isotopic contents of precipitation such as altitude were considered, furthermore, the isotopic gradient with altitude was determined for both oxygen-18 and deuterium (-0.14 % and -0.84% /100m respectively). The spatial distribution of oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium and d-excess indicted the effect of mountain chains and gaps between mountains on the isotopic content, the continental effect on tritium build-up by about 33% per 100 Km from the coast. The increase of d-excess values towards the south west proves the eastern Mediterranean climate type over this region.(author)

  8. Chemical composition of biomass generated in the guava tree pruning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarena-Tello, Julio César; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria Elizabeth; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; González-Laredo, Rubén Francisco; Pedraza-Bucio, Fabiola Eugenia; López-Albarrán, Pablo; Herrera-Bucio, Rafael; Rutiaga-Quiñones, José Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) is a native plant of Central America and is now widely cultivated in many tropical regions of the world for the fruit production. In Mexico, in the guava orchards common practices to control fruit production are: water stress, defoliation and pruning. In this study, we report the chemical composition of the biomass (branches and leaves) generated in the pruning practices. The results ranged as follows: pH (4.98-5.88), soda solubility (39.01-70.49 %), ash (1.87-8.20 %); potassium and calcium were the major inorganic elements in ash. No heavy metals were detected in the studied samples; total solubility (15.21-46.60 %), Runkel lignin (17.77-35.26 %), holocellulose (26.56 -69.49 %), α-cellulose (15.53-35.36 %), hemicelluloses (11.02-34.12 %), tannins in aqueous extracts (3.81-9.06 %), and tannins in ethanolic extracts (3.42-15.24 %). PMID:26417359

  9. Laboratory studies of the properties of in-situ burn residues: chemical composition of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, B.K.; Buist, I.A.; Schatzke, D.; Aurand, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical composition of the residue from small-scale burns of thick oil slicks was studied. The objective was to describe the changes in chemical composition in oils burning on water and to determine how these changes were influenced by the condition of the burn. Small-scale test burns involved burning 40-cm diameter pools of oil on water. A range of eight oil types including seven crude oils and an automotive diesel were burned. For each oil, slicks of fresh oil of three different thicknesses were tested. Two of the oils were tested before and after weathering. Results showed that the composition of the residue differed greatly from the parent oil. Asphaltenes, high-boiling-point aromatics and resins remained concentrated in the burn residue. The burning of slicks appeared to remove most of the lower-molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons which included the more toxic and more bioavailable components of the crude oils. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  10. Chemical composition and trophic state of shallow saline steppe lakes in central Asia (North Kazakhstan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Emil; Jurecska, Laura; Tatár, Enikő; Vörös, Lajos; Kolpakova, Marina

    2017-10-09

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevailing chemical composition and trophic state of the shallow saline steppe lakes of North Kazakhstan along a wide size range (SO 4 and Na-Cl (n = 16; 64%); the Ca, Mg, HCO 3 , and SO 4 ions precipitate with increasing salinity (2-322 g L -1 ); and ion composition shifts from Na>Mg-Cl>SO 4 to Na-Cl. The most of the chemical variables positively, but chlorophyll a negatively, correlated with total dissolved solids, and the total phosphorus had no significant correlation with any variables. The trophic state of these lakes in most cases exceeded the hypertrophic level. The increase in salinity causes change in chemical composition and effects on the phytoplankton development independently from the size of water surface, and the human disturbances had negligible effect on the trophic state of shallow saline lakes in this region of Kazakhstan.

  11. Chemical speciation of Pu in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.M.; Larsen, R.P.; Penrose, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    The behavior of plutonium in natural waters is determined to a major degree by the chemical forms which are present. We have characterized the ambient Pu in a number of surface waters with regard to its oxidation state and association with natural colloidal organic carbon compounds using a combination of field measurements and laboratory experiments. Both of these factors are shown to have a profound effect on the adsorption of Pu to natural sediments, since both complexation with organic matter and oxidation compete with adsorption. The concentration of organic carbon in the water is the key variable influencing both oxidation state and organic binding. The adsorption process conforms to the laws applicable to a reversible equilibrium with values of the distribution coefficient, K/sub D/, measured in laboratory experiments being similar to those observed for ambient Pu. Experiments using natural waters and sediments in which the Pu concentration was varied show the forms present at typical ambient concentrations (10 -17 - 10 -14 M) are the same as those found at concentrations up to 10 -7 M. Moreover, the affinity for sediments did not change with concentration indicating the binding sites for Pu had not become saturated. Thus, the behavior observed for Pu at ultratrace concentrations should remain unchanged throughout this concentration range. The studies in this report all deal with Pu in exchangeable (and hence source independent) forms and should therefore reflect the behavior toward which the plutonium from any source will tend with time. 13 references, 7 figures, 10 tables

  12. Theory study of global density influence and soils chemical composition at neutron probes response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crispino, M.L.

    1980-06-01

    Three energy group diffusion theory is applied to calculate the thermal neutron flux through a soil-water mixture at the neutron source. The soils studies are taken from two horizons of different composition, of a representative soil of the Litoral-Mata Zone of Pernambuco State. The thermal flux is obtained taking into consideration increasing values of the water volume percent, H, and the bulk density of the soil. The cross-sections of the mixture are calculated from the chemical composition of the soils. (author)

  13. Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of nutritional potentials of almond fruit waste as an alternative feedstuff for livestock. ... AFW using day-old cockerels and considering performance parameters showed that treated AFW improved feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio even better ...

  14. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare Linnaeus (Lamiaceae) on the growth of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The minimum inhibitory ...

  15. Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. J F Mupangwa, N Berardo, N T Ngongoni, J H Topps, H Hamudikuwanda, M Ordoardi. Abstract. (Journal of Applied Science in Southern Africa: 2000 6(2): 107-114). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jassa.v6i2.16844.

  16. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the nutrient content of Panicum maximum-Moringa ... Journal Home > Vol 42, No 2 (2015) > ... Tannin concentrations in these diets were below the 6.00g/100g toxic level for small ruminants.

  17. Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in vitro gas production and preference of Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum. ... It is concluded that in order to optimize DM intake farmers should consider the type of grasses and their age at harvest particularly for Muturu. Pelleting improves ...

  18. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Zanthoxylum gilletii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation, and its chemical compositions determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The oil was dominated by sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes which accounted for 38.30 and 34.00%, respectively. The oil showed good activity against A. gambiae and recorded LC50 ...

  19. Chemical composition of essential oil of exudates of Dryobalanops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the chemical composition of essential oil from the exudates of Dryobalanops aromatica from Malaysia. Methods: Exudate was collected from D. aromatica and subjected to fractional distillation to obtain essential oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to characterize the ...

  20. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation...

  1. The chemical composition of the effluent from Awassa Textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the effluent from the Awassa textile factory was quantified and its effects on chlorophyll-a concentration and fish fry were examined. The effluent contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, and concentrations of about 70% of all the elements measured were higher (by 10 to 100 times) ...

  2. The influence of macronutrient deficiencies on chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of macronutrient deficiencies on chemical composition of dwarf green coconut (Cocu nucifera linn) seedling. ... Elimination of magnesium also leads to reduction in the concentration of chlorophyll. starch and sugar concentrations improved with nitrogen and potassium but decreased with were more ...

  3. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Ostericum grosseserratum against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamaisD. Methods: Steam distillation of the aerial parts of O. grosseserratum during the flowering stage was carried out using a Clavenger ...

  4. Chemical composition and toxicities of essential oil of Illicium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and toxicities of essential oil derived from Illicium fargesii Finet et Gagnep fruits against the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch). Essential oil of I. fargesii fruits was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by GC (Gas Chromatography) ...

  5. The chemical composition and industrial quality of Barite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that the mineralization is of high industrial quality and compares favourably with the Azara barite deposits of the Benue Trough. The quality of the barite meets American Petroleum institute (API) requirements for use as drilling mud. KEYWORDS: Barite, mineralization, quality, chemical composition, southeastern Nigeria.

  6. Chemical composition and nutritive value of irrigated tall fescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and nutritive value of irrigated tall fescue pasture for dairy cows. TJ Dugmore, KP Walsh, Sally J. Morning, CI MacDonald. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  7. Carcass properties, chemical content and fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine carcass properties and variability in chemical content and fatty acid composition in the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) of different genotypes of pigs. Of 36 male castrated animals used in the trial, 24 were from two strains of Mangalitsa pigs (12 Swallow - bellied ...

  8. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of twig essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... The chemical composition of twig essential oils of Xylopia malayana, Xylopia elliptica and Xylopia fusca ... Volatile constituents and bioactivity studies are available in the literature on Xylopia aethiopica (Issakou et al., 2014;. Sylvain et al, 2014; Vyry et al, 2014), Xylopia longifolia. (Fourier et al, 1993), ...

  9. Chemical Compositions of Soils in Parts of Edo State, Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Chemical Compositions of Soils in Parts of Edo State, Southwest Nigeria and their ... the soil in agriculture and engineering (Imasuen et al. 1989b). Clay mineral ..... Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, The. University of Western ...

  10. Chemical composition of essential oils of Eugenia caryophylla and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The essential oils obtained yielded of 5.9 for Eugenia caryophylla and 0.2% Mentha sp cf piperita respectively. The chemical composition was assigned by GC and GC/SM and showed that E. caryophylla was mainly composed of eugenol (80.0 %), E-caryophyllene (8.3%), and eugenol acetate (6.7%) while Mentha ...

  11. Antimicrobial properties and chemical compositions of the petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial and chemical compositions of the petroleum ether extract of theaerial parts of Rauvolfia vomitoria. The aerial parts of the plant were air dried under shade, pounded using wooden mortar and pestle into coarse powder. The coarse powder was extracted in aSoxhlet ...

  12. Computer program determines chemical composition of physical system at equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, S. S.

    1966-01-01

    FORTRAN 4 digital computer program calculates equilibrium composition of complex, multiphase chemical systems. This is a free energy minimization method with solution of the problem reduced to mathematical operations, without concern for the chemistry involved. Also certain thermodynamic properties are determined as byproducts of the main calculations.

  13. In vivo ultrasound and biometric measurements predict the empty body chemical composition in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, A M; Francisco, C L; Branco, R H; Bonilha, S F M; Mercadante, M E Z; Meirelles, P R L; Pariz, C M; Jorge, A M

    2018-05-04

    Evaluation of the body chemical composition of beef cattle can only be measured postmortem and those data cannot be used in real production scenarios to adjust nutritional plans. The objective of this study was to develop multiple linear regression equations from in vivo measurements, such as ultrasound parameters [backfat thickness (uBFT, mm), rump fat thickness (uRF, mm), and ribeye area (uLMA, cm2)], shrunk body weight (SBW, kg), age (AG, d), hip height (HH, m), as well as from postmortem measurements (composition of the 9th to 11th rib section) to predict the empty body and carcass chemical composition for Nellore cattle. Thirty-three young bulls were used (339 ± 36.15 kg and 448 ± 17.78 d for initial weight and age, respectively). Empty body chemical composition (protein, fat, water, and ash in kg) was obtained by combining noncarcass and carcass components. Data were analyzed using the PROC REG procedure of SAS software. Mallows' Cp values were close to the ideal value of number of independent variables in the prediction equations plus one. Equations to predict chemical components of both empty body and carcass using in vivo measurements presented higher R2 values than those determined by postmortem measurements. Chemical composition of the empty body using in vivo measurements was predicted with R2 > 0.73. Equations to predict chemical composition of the carcass from in vivo measurements showed R2 lower (R2Chemical compounds from components of the empty body of Nellore cattle can be calculated by the following equations: protein (kg) = 47.92 + 0.18 × SBW - 1.46 × uRF - 30.72 × HH (R2 = 0.94, RMSPE = 1.79); fat (kg) = 11.33 + 0.16 × SBW + 2.09 × uRF - 0.06 × AG (R2 = 0.74, RMSPE = 4.18); water (kg) = - 34.00 + 0.55 × SBW + 0.10 × AG - 2.34 × uRF (R2 = 0.96, RMSPE = 5.47). In conclusion, the coefficients of determination (for determining the chemical composition of the empty body) of the equations derived from in vivo measures were higher than those

  14. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Composite-Material Tanks with Chemically Resistant Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight composite-material tanks with chemically resistant liners have been developed for storage of chemically reactive and/or unstable fluids . especially hydrogen peroxide. These tanks are similar, in some respects, to the ones described in gLightweight Composite-Material Tanks for Cryogenic Liquids h (MFS-31379), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January, 2001), page 58; however, the present tanks are fabricated by a different procedure and they do not incorporate insulation that would be needed to prevent boil-off of cryogenic fluids. The manufacture of a tank of this type begins with the fabrication of a reusable multisegmented aluminum mandrel in the shape and size of the desired interior volume. One or more segments of the mandrel can be aluminum bosses that will be incorporated into the tank as end fittings. The mandrel is coated with a mold-release material. The mandrel is then heated to a temperature of about 400 F (approximately equal to 200 C) and coated with a thermoplastic liner material to the desired thickness [typically approxiamtely equal to 15 mils (approximately equal to 0.38 mm)] by thermal spraying. In the thermal-spraying process, the liner material in powder form is sprayed and heated to the melting temperature by a propane torch and the molten particles land on the mandrel. The sprayed liner and mandrel are allowed to cool, then the outer surface of the liner is chemically and/or mechanically etched to enhance bonding of a composite overwrap. The etched liner is wrapped with multiple layers of an epoxy resin reinforced with graphite fibers; the wrapping can be done either by manual application of epoxy-impregnated graphite cloth or by winding of epoxy-impregnated filaments. The entire assembly is heated in an autoclave to cure the epoxy. After the curing process, the multisegmented mandrel is disassembled and removed from inside, leaving the finished tank. If the tank is to be used for storing hydrogen peroxide, then the liner material

  16. The Chemical Composition of Fogs and Clouds in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, James William

    Fog and clouds are frequent occurrences in Southern California. Their chemical composition is of interest due to their potential role in the transformation of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to sulfuric and nitric acid and in the subsequent deposition of those acids. In addition, cloud and fog droplets may be involved in the chemistry of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds. The major inorganic species in cloud and fogwater samples were NH_4^+, H ^+, NO_3^-, and SO_4^{2-}. Concentrations in fogwater samples were 1-10 times 10^ {-3} M; pH values ranged from ~eq2 to 6. Nitrate usually exceeded sulfate. Acidity depended on the availability of of NH_3 from agricultural operations. Stratus cloudwater had somewhat lower concentrations; pH values were in the range 3-4. The major factors accounting for variation in fog- or cloudwater composition were the preexisting aerosol and gas concentrations and variations in liquid water content. Deposition and entrainment or advection of different air masses were also important during extended cloud or fog episodes. The droplet size dependence of cloudwater composition was investigated on one occasion in an intercepted coastal stratus clouds. The observations were consistent with the hypothesis that small droplets form on small secondary aerosol composed of H_2SO _4, HNO_3, and their NH_4^+ salts, while large droplets form on large sea-salt and soil-dust aerosol. Species that can exist in the gas phase, such as HCl and HNO _3, may be found in either droplet-size fraction. Concentrations of S(IV) and CH_2 O in the range 100-1000 μm were observed in fogwater from urban sites in Southern California. Lower concentrations were observed in stratus clouds. The high levels of S(IV) and CH_2 O were attributed to the formation of hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMSA), the S(IV) adduct of CH_2O. Direct measurement of HMSA in fogwater samples from Bakersfield, CA were made by ion-pairing chromatography. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal

  17. Changes in Chemical and Isotopic Composition of Groundwater During a Long Term Pumping Test in Brestovica Karst Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezga, K.; Urbanc, J. [Geological Survey of Slovenia, Department of Hydrogeology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-15

    A pumping test of the Klarici water supply near Brestovica was performed in August 2008, in order to determine the karst groundwater resource capacity. Groundwater was pumped for a month with a total capacity of 470 L/s. During the experiment, sampling for chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater and surface water was carried out. Intensive pumping in dry meteorological conditions caused a lowering of the water table and changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of pumped water. Local meteoric waters are infiltrated into the aquifer at a lower mean altitude; therefore the {delta}{sup 18}O is enriched with the heavy oxygen isotope. The duration of pumping resulted in changes in the isotopic composition of oxygen due to a greater impact of the intergranular Soca River aquifer on the karst aquifer. On the basis of isotope composition it was possible to quantify the impact of the Soca River on the karst aquifer. (author)

  18. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ioana Bărnuţiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the literature data regarding the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of RoyalJelly. Royal Jelly is a secretion from the hypofaringeal glands of worker bees which serves as a food for queen beeand to the growing up larvae. Having biological properties already proven, Royal Jelly has considerable commercialappeal and is today used in many sectors (pharmaceutical, food industries and cosmetic products. Thephysicochemical composition of pure royal jelly are analyzed by determining moisture, ash, lipids, proteins,vitamins,aminoacids, carbohydrates, 10-HDA; RJ is the key substance in the antimicrobial function of the system Apismellifera. The intact Royal Jelly exhibited the highest antibacterial activity.

  19. Can sonography define the chemical composition of gall stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frentzel-Beyme, B.; Faehndrich, R.; Arnan-Thiele, B.

    1983-01-01

    Eight sonographic patterns caused by gall stones are described. In an attempt to explain these different appearances, 62 stones were analysed chemically and physically. The chemical composition of the stones did not correlate with their sonographic pattern. Cholesterol stones cannot be recognised as such by sonography. The formation of an acoustic shadow depends largely on the position of the stone within the acoustic beam. It therefore follows that the examination must be done by keeping the focal plane of the transducer in proper relationship to the stone. (orig.) [de

  20. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.; Delilah, M.; Syafrul, L.; Suryadi.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cocoa swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed. (author tr.)

  1. Leg tissue composition and physico-chemical parameters of sheep meat fed annatto coproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate leg tissue composition and physico-chemical quality parameters of sheep meat fed with increasing levels of annatto coproduct. 32 male uncastrated animals without a defined breed were randomized in four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1 of annatto coproduct in the DM diet. After 78 days of confinement, the animals were slaughtered and body components were recorded. Reconstituted leg weight, total muscle weight, biceps weight and semitendinosus weight showed a negative linear behavior (P 0.05 were found for leg tissue composition (%, muscle:bone ratio, relative fat or leg muscle. Meat physico-chemical parameters (color, shear force, water retention capacity and cooking losses were not affected by the inclusion of the annatto coproduct in the diet. The annatto coproduct can be included in up to 300 g kg-1 of dietary dry matter without negative effects to the leg tissue composition (% and physical parameters of confined sheep meat.

  2. Treatment of chemical waste piassava for application in polymeric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, C.S.; Fiuza, R.P.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Carvalho, G.G.P.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Piassava fibers were investigated with the aim of adding new business value. The surface of the fibers were treated with NaOH and H 2 SO 4 for 1 h at room temperature. The samples were characterized by FTIR, TGA, DSC, chemical composition, XRD, SEM and tensile tests. The micrographs of the fibers showed that treatment with NaOH cleaned the fiber surface of a large amount of impurities and cause fibrillation. Chemical analysis, using the Van Soest method, showed that the palm fiber is a fiber rich in lignin, as evidenced by their brown color and with alkali treatment there was partial removal of hemicellulose and lignin, increasing the crystallinity index of the fiber, observed by XRD. The acid treatment caused no significant changes in the properties of the fiber. Therefore, the mercerisation was efficient in the fiber of palm fiber, improving their properties, enabling thus their use as reinforcement in polymer composites. (author)

  3. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda NAGY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the consumption of mushrooms has significantly increased due to the scientific evidence of their ability to help the organism in the combat and prevention of several diseases (Kalac, 2009. Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are consumed as a delicacy for their texture and flavour, but also for their nutritional properties that makes them even more attractable (Heleno S. 2015. In this paper data were collected from several scientific studies with the aim to characterize the chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds of various mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lactarius piperatus. The chemical composition of 5 wild edible studied mushrooms, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total sugars, crude fat, crude protein and energy were determined according to AOAC procedures.

  4. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  5. Chemical composition and mineral elements of edible insects (at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Chemical Composition and Mineral Elements of two edible insects' larvae and termite soldiers were assayed. Their ash content were between 1.01% and 7.50%. The legless larva (LS) had 28.52% fat, while the solider ant had 7.14% and the Legged larva (LG) had 1.50%. The white ant (SA) had 15.61% protein while ...

  6. Particle size distribution and physico-chemical composition of clay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    <300µm, <106µm, <63µm and <44µm respectively. There was no remarkable difference in silica (SiO2) as particle fractions reduced from <. 300µm - < 106µm - < 63µm but an observed. Table 1.0 Chemical composition of crude clay. Component wt (%). SiO2. 38.48. Al2O3. 12.46. Fe2O3. 6.18. TiO2. 1.85. MgO. 14.67. CaO.

  7. Chemical composition of silica-based biocidal modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishina Anna Nikolaevna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increase of the amount of fungi spores and micotixines causes the increase in the number of different diseases. Because of this, ensuring the biological safety in buildings is becoming more and more important today. The preferred way to guarantee the biological safety of a building is to employ modern building materials that prevent the settlement of the fungi colonies on the inner surfaces of walls. Such building materials can be produced using novel biocidal modifiers that allow controlling the number of microorganisms on the surface and in the bulk of a composite construction. The precipitation product of zinc hydrosilicates and sodium sulfate is one of the mentioned modifiers. Till now, the exact chemical composition of such precipitation product is controversial; it is obvious, though, that the efficacy of the biocidal modifier is mostly determined by the type of the copper compounds. In the present work an integrated approach is used for the investigation of the chemical composition of the biocidal modifier. Such an approach consists in the examination of the modifier’s composition by means of different, yet complementary, research methods: X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and DTA. It is shown that the chemical composition of the modifier mainly depends on the amount of precipitant. X-ray diffraction reveals that the major part of the modifier is represented by amorphous phase. Along with the increase of the precipitant’s amount the crystalline phase Zn4SO4(OH6•xH2O formation takes place. Such a crystalline phase is not appropriate as a component of the biocidal modifier. Another two methods - DTA and IR spectroscopy - reveal that the amorphous phase consists essentially of zinc hydrosilicates.

  8. Effect of urea-molasses treatment on chemical composition and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate changes in the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of urea-molasses treated maize cobs. Maize cob (Zea mays) was treated with fertilizer grade urea and molasses dissolved in water equivalent to 0.5 % (T2), 1.0% (T3), 1.5% (T4) and 2% (T5) (w/v) to which was added ...

  9. Preliminary study of chemical compositional data from Amazon ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Rosimeiri G.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Luz, Fabio A.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Eighty seven ceramic samples from Acutuba, Lago Grande and Osvaldo archaeological sites located in the confluence of the rivers Negro and Solimoes were submitted to chemical analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Rb, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb, Zn, and U. The database were studied using the Mahalanobis distance, and discriminant analysis. The results showed that the ceramics of each site differ from each other in chemical composition and that they form three different groups. Chemical classification of the ceramics suggests that vessels were made locally, as only ceramics from the same area show homogeneity of data. (author)

  10. Chemical characteristics of rain-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Mikio; Ogiwara, Hiroshi; Park, Jeong-Ho; Takahashi, Kanji

    1994-01-01

    Rain drops were collected every 0.1mm precipitation. Rain water was passed through a Nuclepore filter with 0.2μm pore-size. Chemical species in the filtrate and the residue are defined as a soluble and an insoluble component, respectively. Dry PIXE samples from filtrate were prepared bydropping and evaporating successively ten 20μ l drops with a micropipet onto a non-hole thin film. The drops were dried in a spot-like of 4mmφ such that all of the samples were bombarded by 6mmφ ion beam. Elemental concentrations were determined with 2.0 MeV H + beam from a Tandem accelerator. X-rays with 0.5-14.8keV energy were detected by a Si(Li) detector after passing through a 39.3μm thick Maylar absorber. The concentrations of all analyzed 15 elements in both insoluble and soluble components decreased rapidly from the beginning of rain to the amount of 0.3mm rain fall as well asban electrical conductivity. Most of Si and Fe were insoluble, on the other hand, most of S and Cl were soluble. (author)

  11. Chemical Composition Measurements of LAWA44 Glass Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-11-15

    DOE is building the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Both low-activity and high-level wastes will then be vitrified into borosilicate glass using Joule-heated ceramic melters. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in the glass. One area of work is enhancing waste glass composition/property models and broadening the compositional regions over which those models are applicable. In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analysis results for several samples of a simulated low-activity waste glass, LAWA44, provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of an ongoing development task. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. A detailed review showed no indications of errors in the preparation or measurement of the study glasses. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 97.9 to 102.6 wt %, indicating acceptable recovery of the glass components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. It was noted that the measured B2O3 concentrations are somewhat above the targeted values for the study glasses. No obvious trends were observed with regard to the multiple melting steps used to prepare the study glasses, indicating that any potential effects of volatility were below measurable thresholds.

  12. Bioactive carbon-PEEK composites prepared by chemical surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Matsunami, Chisato; Shirosaki, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has attracted much attention as an artificial intervertebral spacer for spinal reconstruction. Furthermore, PEEK plastic reinforced with carbon fiber has twice the bending strength of pure PEEK. However, the PEEK-based materials do not show ability for direct bone bonding, i.e., bioactivity. Although several trials have been conducted for enabling PEEK with bioactivity, few studies have reported on bioactive surface modification of carbon-PEEK composites. In the present study, we attempted the preparation of bioactive carbon-PEEK composites by chemical treatments with H 2 SO 4 and CaCl 2 . Bioactivity was evaluated by in vitro apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF). The apatite formation on the carbon-PEEK composite was compared with that of pure PEEK. Both pure PEEK and carbon-PEEK composite formed the apatite in SBF when they were treated with H 2 SO 4 and CaCl 2 ; the latter showed higher apatite-forming ability than the former. It is conjectured that many functional groups able to induce the apatite nucleation, such as sulfo and carboxyl groups, are incorporated into the dispersed carbon phase in the carbon-PEEK composites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Potential Use of 3-D Scanning to Evaluate the Chemical Composition of Pork Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, Lech; Chmiel, Marta; Florowski, Tomasz; Pietrzak, Dorota; Witkowski, Marcin; Barczak, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of 3-D scanning method in chemical composition evaluation of pork meat. The sampling material comprised neck muscles (1000 g each) obtained from 20 pork carcasses. The volumetric estimation process of the elements was conducted on the basis of point cloud collected using 3-D scanner. Knowing the weight of neck muscles, their density was calculated which was subsequently correlated with the content of basic chemical components of the pork meat (water, protein and fat content, determined by standard methods). The significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) between meat density and water (r = 0.5213), protein (r = 0.5887), and fat (r = -0.6601) content were obtained. Based on the obtained results it seems likely to employ the 3-D scanning method to compute the meat chemical composition. The use of the 3-D scanning method in industrial practice will allow to evaluate the chemical composition of meat in online mode on a dressing and fabrication line and in a rapid, noninvasive manner. The control of the raw material using the 3-D scanning will allow to make visual assessment more objective and will enable optimal standardization of meat batches prior to processing stage. It will ensure not only the repeatability of product quality characteristics, but also optimal use of raw material-lean and fat meat. The knowledge of chemical composition of meat is essential due to legal requirements associated with mandatory nutrition facts labels on food products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Formation and changes of groundwater chemical composition of the western Carpathian carbonate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakova, R.

    1998-01-01

    Karst-fissure water, genetically related to the Mesozoic carbonate complexes, participates in the formation of drinking water supplies in Slovakia. There were evaluated 13 drinking water resources which are built up from originating in the valley of the Starohorsky potok brook and the Harmanecka dolina valley in the Velka Fatra mountain range. These sources represent an important part of the Jergaly branch and the Harmanec branch of the public water supply 'Pohronsky skupinovy vodovod'. As starting data 538 chemical analyses of the checking process for period from 1981 to 1994 and also the results of own groundwater sampling from the April 1992 and October 1995 were used. Basic hydrogeochemical evaluation has shown that observed sources represented typical carbonatogenic water. Evaluation of carbonate equilibria confirmed the assumption supposing that in conditions of karst-fissure and karst circulation the water is non-saturated with carbonate minerals. Based on obtained data the quality regime of groundwater was described. Chemical composition of groundwater shows typical changes in certain time of a year, short-term. seasonal and long-term changes can be observed. The trend analysis of HCO 3 - , SO 4 2+ , NO 3 - , Cl - , ChSK Mn and dissolved O 2 were used to evaluation of stability of chemical composition. Increasing amounts of nitrate concentrations in all sources, sulphate pollution in the sources of Jergaly branch and chloride pollution in groundwater of Harmanec branch confirmed anthropogenic influences. The main problem of water remains often the microbial pollution. Obtained results showed high vulnerability of karst-fissure water and the continuously threatening danger of its pollution. (author)

  15. A bootstrap estimation scheme for chemical compositional data with nondetects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palarea-Albaladejo, J; Martín-Fernández, J.A; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2014-01-01

    The bootstrap method is commonly used to estimate the distribution of estimators and their associated uncertainty when explicit analytic expressions are not available or are difficult to obtain. It has been widely applied in environmental and geochemical studies, where the data generated often represent parts of whole, typically chemical concentrations. This kind of constrained data is generically called compositional data, and they require specialised statistical methods to properly account for their particular covariance structure. On the other hand, it is not unusual in practice that those data contain labels denoting nondetects, that is, concentrations falling below detection limits. Nondetects impede the implementation of the bootstrap and represent an additional source of uncertainty that must be taken into account. In this work, a bootstrap scheme is devised that handles nondetects by adding an imputation step within the resampling process and conveniently propagates their associated uncertainly. In doing so, it considers the constrained relationships between chemical concentrations originated from their compositional nature. Bootstrap estimates using a range of imputation methods, including new stochastic proposals, are compared across scenarios of increasing difficulty. They are formulated to meet compositional principles following the log-ratio approach, and an adjustment is introduced in the multivariate case to deal with nonclosed samples. Results suggest that nondetect bootstrap based on model-based imputation is generally preferable. A robust approach based on isometric log-ratio transformations appears to be particularly suited in this context. Computer routines in the R statistical programming language are provided. 

  16. Preparation and characterization of water-absorbing composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work introduces a novel method for the formation of water absorbing composite membrane. The prepared composite is based on chitosan, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and Montmorillonite. Prepared composite membrane exhibits high water absorbing and holding capacity with increasing clay content.

  17. Preparation and characterization of water-absorbing composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABCO

    2012-08-16

    Aug 16, 2012 ... The present work introduces a novel method for the formation of water absorbing composite membrane. The prepared composite is based on chitosan, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and. Montmorillonite. Prepared composite membrane exhibits high water absorbing and holding capacity with increasing ...

  18. Chemical oxygen demand (cod) attenuation of methyl red in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical oxygen demand (cod) attenuation of methyl red in water using biocarbons obtained from Nipa palm leaves. ... eco-friendly and locally accessible biocarbon for mitigation of organic contaminants in water. Keywords: Chemical oxygen demand, biocarbon, methyl red, biodegradation, bioremediation, Nipa palm ...

  19. Estimation of chemical carcass composition from 8th rib characteristics with Belgian blue double-muscled bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campeneere, S; Fiems, L O; Van de Voorde, G; Vanacker, J M; Boucque, C V; Demeyer, D I

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics from the 8th rib cut: chemical composition, tissue composition after dissection, specific gravity (SG) and m. longissimus thoracis (LT) composition, collected on 17 Belgian Blue double-muscled fattening bulls were used to generate equations for predicting chemical carcass composition. Carcass composition was best predicted from chemical analysis of the 8th rib cut and the empty body weight (EBW) of the bull. Carcass chemical fat content (CCF, kg) was predicted from the 8th rib cut fat content (ether extract, 8RF, kg) by the following regression: CCF=1.94+27.37 8RF (R(2)=0.957, RSD =9.89%). A higher coefficient was found for carcass water (CCW, kg) predicted from 8RF and EBW: CCW=-2.26+0.28 EBW-34.28 8RF (R(2)=0.997, RSD=1.48%). No parameter was found to improve the prediction of CCP from EBW solely: CCP=-0.86+0.08 EBW (R(2) =0.992, RSD=2.61%). Prediction equations based solely on LT composition had low R(2) values of between 0.38 and 0.67, whereas no significant equations were found using SG. However, equations based on EBW had R(2) values between 0.78 and 0.99. Chemical components of the 8th rib cut in combination with EBW are most useful in predicting the chemical composition of the carcass of Belgian-Blue double-muscled bulls.

  20. Mineral and inorganic chemical composition of the Pernik coal, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yossifova, Mariana G. [Geological Institute, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl.24, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-11-22

    The mineral and inorganic chemical composition of five types of samples from the Pernik subbituminous coals and their products generated from the Pernik preparation plant were studied. They include feed coal, low-grade coal, high-grade coal, coal slime, and host rock. The mineral matter of the coals contains 44 species that belong mainly to silicates, carbonates, sulphates, sulphides, and oxides/hydroxides, and to a lesser extent, chlorides, biogenic minerals, and organic minerals. The detrital minerals are quartz, kaolinite, micas, feldspars, magnetite, cristobalite, spessartine, and amphibole. The authigenic minerals include various sulphides, silicates, oxihydroxides, sulphates, and carbonates. Several stages and substages of formation were identified during the syngenetic and epigenetic mineral precipitations of these coals. The authigenic minerals show the greatest diversity of mineral species as the epigenetic mineralization (mostly sulphides, carbonates, and sulphates) dominates qualitatively and quantitatively. The epigenetic mineralization was a result of complex processes occurring mostly during the late development of the Pernik basin. These processes indicate intensive tectonic, hydrothermal and volcanic activities accompanied by a change from fresh to marine sedimentation environment. Thermally altered organic matter due to some of the above processes was also identified in the basin. Most of the trace elements in the Pernik coals (Mo, Be, S, Zr, Y, Cl, Ba, Sc, Ga, Ag, V, P, Br, Ni, Co, Pb, Ca, and Ti) show an affinity to OM and phases intimately associated with OM. Some of the trace elements (Sr, Ti, Mn, Ba, Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Ni, As, Ag, Yb, Sn, Ga, Ge, etc.) are impurities in authigenic and accessory minerals, while other trace elements (La, Ba, Cu, Ce, Sb, Bi, Zn, Pb, Cd, Nd, etc.) occur as discrete phases. Elements such as Sc, Be, Y, Ba, V, Zr, S, Mo, Ti, and Ga exceed Clarke concentrations in all of the coal types studied. It was also found that

  1. SEPARATION OF WATER VAPORS FROM AIR BY SORPTION ON SOME COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA HAUTĂ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental investigation of the kinetics of water vapor sorption on two composites synthesized by impregnating activated carbon and activated alumina respectively with lithium bromide (named as MCA2 and MCC2 respectively. The obtained results showed an increase in water amount adsorbed on both composite materials. Due to different chemical natures of the host matrices, the water sorption kinetics on MCC2 is faster compared to that of MCA2. The presence of calcium chloride instead of lithium bromide in alumina pores will determine a shorter breakthrough time and a higher adsorption rate of water vapors.

  2. Wood Chemical Composition in Species of Cactaceae: The Relationship between Lignification and Stem Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level. PMID:25880223

  3. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Reyes-Rivera

    Full Text Available In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35% of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  4. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Terrazas, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  5. Physico-mechanical properties of coir fiber/LDPE composites: Effect of chemical treatment and compatibilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Nirupama; Agarwal, Vijay Kumar; Sihha, Shishir [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttrakhand (India)

    2015-12-15

    Coir fiber/low density polyethylene (LDPE) composites were fabricated with different fiber loading (10- 30 wt%) using compression molding technique. A fiber loading of 20 wt% was found optimum, with maximum mechanical properties. Further, the effect of fiber treatment (alkali and acrylic acid) and compatibilizer (MA-g-LDPE) incorporation on the mechanical and water absorption properties of the LDPE composites were studied and compared. The results showed that MA-g-LDPE incorporation into untreated and treated fiber composites led to improved mechanical properties and water resistance compared with the same composite formulation without MA-g-LDPE. However, treated fiber composites with MA-g-LDPE showed lower mechanical properties than untreated fiber without MA-g- LDPE, due to the removal of hydroxyl groups from the hemicellulose and lignin region of the fiber and degradation of fibers by chemical attack. From SEM studies on the tensile fractured composite samples, a good relationship has been observed between the morphological and mechanical properties.

  6. Single particle measurements of the chemical composition of cirrus ice residue during CRYSTAL-FACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cziczo, D. J.; Murphy, D. M.; Hudson, P. K.; Thomson, D. S.

    2004-02-01

    The first real-time, in situ, investigation of the chemical composition of the residue of cirrus ice crystals was performed during July 2002. This study was undertaken on a NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft as part of CRYSTAL-FACE, a field campaign which sought to further our understanding of the relation of clouds, water vapor, and climate by characterizing, among other parameters, anvil cirrus formed about the Florida peninsula. A counter flow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to separate cirrus ice from the unactivated interstitial aerosol particles and evaporate condensed-phase water. Residual material, on a crystal-by-crystal basis, was subsequently analyzed using the NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory's Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument. Sampling was performed from 5 to 15 km altitude and from 12° to 28° north latitude within cirrus originating over land and ocean. Chemical composition measurements provided several important results. Sea salt was often incorporated into cirrus, consistent with homogeneous ice formation by aerosol particles from the marine boundary layer. Size measurements showed that large particles preferentially froze over smaller ones. Meteoritic material was found within ice crystals, indicative of a relation between stratospheric aerosol particles and tropospheric clouds. Mineral dust was the dominant residue observed in clouds formed during a dust transport event from the Sahara, consistent with a heterogeneous freezing mechanism. These results show that chemical composition and size are important determinants of which aerosol particles form cirrus ice crystals.

  7. Simultaneous tuning of chemical composition and topography of copolymer surfaces: micelles as building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xu, Jian

    2007-05-14

    A simple method is described for controlling the surface chemical composition and topography of the diblock copolymer poly(styrene)-b-poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PS-b-PDMS) by casting the copolymer solutions from solvents with different selectivities. The surface morphology and chemical composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively, and the wetting behavior was studied by water contact angle (CA) and sliding angle (SA) and by CA hysteresis. Chemical composition and morphology of the surface depend on solvent properties, humidity of the air, solution concentration, and block lengths. If the copolymer is cast from a common solvent, the resultant surface is hydrophobic, with a flat morphology, and dominated by PDMS on the air side. From a PDMS-selective solvent, the surface topography depends on the morphology of the micelles. Starlike micelles give rise to a featureless surface nearly completely covered by PDMS, while crew-cut-like micelles lead to a rough surface with a hierarchical structure that consists partly of PDMS. From a PS-selective solvent, however, surface segregation of PDMS was restricted, and the surface morphology can be controlled by vapor-induced phase separation. On the basis of the tunable surface roughness and PDMS concentration on the air side, water repellency of the copolymer surface could be tailored from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic. In addition, reversible switching behavior between hydrophobic and superhydrophobic can be achieved by exposing the surface to solvents with different selectivities.

  8. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, K.E.; McQuattie, C.J.; Rebbeck, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of modifications to epicuticular wax structure as a consequence of exposure to air pollutants. Most authors have used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe changes in wax crystallite morphology or distribution. ''Erosion'' or ''weathering'' of crystalline structure into an amorphous state is the most common observation, particularly in the case of conifer needles having the characteristic tube crystallites comprised of nonacosan-10-ol. Wax structure is largely determined by its chemical composition. Therefore, many of the reported changes in wax structure due to air pollutants probably arise from direct interactions between pollutants such as ozone and wax biosynthesis. The literature describing changes in wax composition due to pollutants is briefly reviewed. New evidence is introduced in support of the hypothesis for a direct interaction between air pollutants and epicuticular wax Biosynthesis. (orig.)

  9. The chemical composition of the Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    This review summarises current knowledge of the chemical composition of PopI WR stars, concentrating on work carried out in this area since the last IAU, No. 49, symposium devoted to this stellar class (Bappu and Sahade 1973). Section 2 deals with an assessment of the atmospheric H/He ratio in both WN and WC stars: a parameter of fundamental importance in addressing their evolutionary status, as well as providing a base species with which to compare other derived chemical abundances. Section 3 briefly deals with the models generally employed and gives recent results for He, C and N abundances derived from both visible and UV line analyses. Section 4 summarises recent results from stellar evolutionary theory and in Section 5 these are compared with those derived from observation, assessing the significance of these new results and their implications for the evolutionary status of the WR stars. Some areas for further advancement are identified. (Auth.)

  10. Chemical composition of HAL, an isotopically-unusual Allende inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. M.; Tanaka, T.; Grossman, L.; Lee, T.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    Samples of hibonite, black rim, and portions of friable rim from an unusual Allende inclusion, named HAL, were analyzed by INAA and RNAA for 37 major, minor, and trace elements. An unusually low amount of Ce was found in HAL, although it otherwise was highly enriched in REE compared to C1 chondrites. HAL is also depleted in Sr, Ba, U, V, Ru, Os, and Ir relative to other refractory elements. It is concluded that the distribution of REE between hibonite and rims was established when hibonite and other refractory minerals were removed at slightly different temperatures from a hot, oxidizing gas in which they previously coexisted as separate grains. Possible locations for the chemical and mass dependent isotopic fractionation are considered to be in ejecta from the low temperature helium-burning zone of a supernova and in the locally oxidizing environment generated by evaporation of interstellar grains of near-chondritic chemical composition.

  11. Theoretical Adiabatic Temperature and Chemical Composition of Sodium Combustion Flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Sodium fire safety analysis requires fundamental combustion properties, e.g., heat of combustion, flame temperature, and composition. We developed the GENESYS code for a theoretical investigation of sodium combustion flame.Our principle conclusions on sodium combustion under atmospheric air conditions are (a) the maximum theoretical flame temperature is 1950 K, and it is not affected by the presence of moisture; the uppermost limiting factor is the chemical instability of the condensed sodium-oxide products under high temperature; (b) the main combustion product is liquid Na 2 O in dry air condition and liquid Na 2 O with gaseous NaOH in moist air; and (c) the chemical equilibrium prediction of the residual gaseous reactants in the flame is indispensable for sodium combustion modeling

  12. Chemical composition of overland flow produced on soils covered with vegetative ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Bodí

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to ascertain the differences between the soluble elements of ash obtained under laboratory conditions and the dissolved in overland flow from soils covered with a layer of ash. The overland flow was obtained during series of rainfall simulations over soils covered with two different types of ash. This study indicates that the soluble elements released from ash can modify water quality increasing its pH, electrical conductivity and especially cation content. The nutrients solubilised are not necessarily the same as the elemental composition of ash itself. Runoff composition depends on the volume of water produced, on the solubility of the ash components and on the chemical interactions with water from rainfall and soil. After the first intense rain event, most of the elements are solubilised and lixiviated or washed out, however, some of them may increase in the runoff or soil water some weeks later due to chemical interactions with water from rainfall and soil nutrients.

  13. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni - chemical composition and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek, Katarzyna; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Sweetleaf (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni), currently investigated by many researchers, has been known and used for more than a thousand years indigenous tribes of South America, who called it "kaa-hee" ("sweet herb"). Thanks to its chemical composition and processability sweetleaf may be an alternative for synthetic sweeteners. Nutritional and health-promoting aspects of Stevia rebaudiana are presently being studied in many research centres. The aim of this study is to present nutritional and health-promoting value of the still-little known sweetleaf.

  14. Influence of chemical structure on carbon isotope composition of lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Lee, Insung; Ko, Yoon-Joo; Mungunchimeg, Batsaikhan

    2017-04-01

    During the last two decades, a number of studies on carbon isotopes in terrestrial organic matter (OM) have been carried out and used to determine changes in paleoatmospheric δ13C value as well as assisting in paleoclimate analysis. Coal is abundant terrestrial OM. However, application of its δ13C value is very limited, because the understanding of changes in isotopic composition during coalification is relatively insufficient. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the chemical structure on the carbon isotope composition of lignite. Generally, lignite has more complex chemical structures than other higher rank coal because of the existence of various types of oxygen-containing functional groups that are eliminated at higher rank level. A total of sixteen Lower Cretaceous lignite samples from Baganuur mine (Mongolia) were studied by ultimate, stable carbon isotope and solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR analyses. The carbon contents of the samples increase with increase in depth, whereas oxygen content decreases continuously. This is undoubtedly due to normal coalification process and also consistent with solid state NMR results. The δ13C values of the samples range from -23.54‰ to -21.34‰ and are enriched in 13C towards the lowermost samples. Based on the deconvolution of the NMR spectra, the ratios between carbons bonded to oxygen (60-90 ppm and 135-220 ppm) over carbons bonded to carbon and hydrogen (0-50 ppm and 90-135 ppm) were calculated for the samples. These correlate well with δ13C values (R2 0.88). The results indicate that the δ13C values of lignite are controlled by two mechanisms: (i) depletion in 13C as a result of loss of isotopically heavy oxygen-bounded carbons and (ii) enrichment in 13C caused by a loss of isotopically light methane from aliphatic and aromatic carbons. At the rank of lignite, coal is enriched in 13C because the amount of isotopically heavy CO2 and CO, released from coal as a result of changes in the chemical

  15. Chemical composition of raw and deresinated peat waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bel' kevich, P I; Ivanova, L A; Piskunova, T A; Tserlyukevich, Ya V; Yurkevich, E A

    1980-01-01

    Research was conducted using absorption chromatography and spectroscopy to study the changes in the chemical composition of raw peat wax taking place in the deresination process. Characteristics of the raw, deresinated waxes and resins removed are given. The fractions obtained showed that both raw and deresinated wax contain the same basic compound classes: hydrocarbons, alcohols, complex ether and acids; but their proportions in the waxes are different. After deresination most of the dark-colored polyfunctional compounds, a portion of the soluble unsaturated hydrocarbons and alcohols, and all the sterenes transfer into the resin. This causes the light color and specific physical properties of deresinated wax. (13 refs.) (In Russian)

  16. Chemical composition of precipitation in adjacent forest and open plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madgwick, H A.I.; Ovington, J D

    1959-01-01

    The chemical composition of the precipitation in three open plots and under thirteen different forest canopies is compared for a 2-year period at an experimental forest in south-east England. The average contents of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in the precipitation in the open are 19, 3, 11, and less than 4 kg./ha./annum respectively, compared with 33, 24, 24, and 10 under the forest canopies. Only very small quantities of phosphorus were present in the precipitation. The data are discussed with particular reference to the nutrient cycles of forest stands, the removal of nutrients by logging, and the maintenance of soil fertility.

  17. Chemical vapor deposited fiber coatings and chemical vapor infiltrated ceramic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetz, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Conventional Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) were employed to deposit a series of interfacial coatings on SiC and carbon yarn. Molybdenum, tungsten and chromium hexacarbonyls were utilized as precursors in a low temperature (350[degrees]C) MOCVD process to coat SiC yarn with Mo, W and Cr oxycarbides. Annealing studies performed on the MoOC and WOC coated SiC yarns in N[sub 2] to 1,000[degrees]C establish that further decomposition of the oxycarbides occurred, culminating in the formation of the metals. These metals were then found to react with Si to form Mo and W disilicide coatings. In the Cr system, heating in N[sub 2] above 800[degrees]C resulted in the formation of a mixture of carbides and oxides. Convention CVD was also employed to coat SiC and carbon yarn with C, Bn and a new interface designated BC (a carbon-boron alloy). The coated tows were then infiltrated with SiC, TiO[sub 2], SiO[sub 2] and B[sub 4]C by a chemical vapor infiltration process. The B-C coatings were found to provide advantageous interfacial properties over carbon and BN coatings in several different composite systems. The effectiveness of these different coatings to act as a chemically inert barrier layer and their relationship to the degree of interfacial debonding on the mechanical properties of the composites were examined. The effects of thermal stability and strength of the coated fibers and composites were also determined for several difference atmospheres. In addition, a new method for determining the tensile strength of the as-received and coated yarns was also developed. The coated fibers and composites were further characterized by AES, SEM, XPS, IR and X-ray diffraction analysis.

  18. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acids of Glodok Fish by High Thermal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Purwaningsih

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glodok is an economically underrated fish with a high nutrient content. The research aims to study the changes on chemical composition, fatty acids, omega-6 and omega-3 ratio in glodok muscle after processing with different methods of boiling, steaming, and boiling with addition of salt (3%. The results showed that the treatment (boiling, steaming, and boiling with addition of salt gives a significant effect (α=0.05 in water content, ash, lipid content, nervonat acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA. The best processing method was steaming. The ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 in fresh glodok fish was 2,1:1, which is higher than WHO recommendation of 0,6:1,7.Keywords: chemical composition, fatty acid, glodok fish, processing

  19. Kinetic model for predicting the composition of chlorinated water discharged from power plant cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lietzke, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    A kinetic model for predicting the composition of chlorinated water discharged from power plant cooling systems has been developed. The model incorporates the most important chemical reactions that are known to occur when chlorine is added to natural fresh waters. The simultaneous differential equations, which describe the rates of these chemical reactions, are solved numerically to give the composition of the water as a function of time. A listing of the computer program is included, along with a description of the input variables. A worked-out example illustrates the application of the program to an actual cooling system. An appendix contains a compilation of the known equilibrium and kinetic data for many of the chemical reactions that might be encountered in chlorinating natural fresh waters

  20. Chemicalization in water treatment in peat production areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madekivi, O.; Marja-Aho, J.; Selin, P.; Jokinen, S.

    1995-01-01

    Chemicalization of runoff waters of peat production has been studied since 1989, first in laboratory and since 1990 in practice. The methods have been developed as cooperation between Vapo Oy and Kemira Chemicals Oy. In chemicalization the dissolved substances are coagulated and they settle after that into sedimentation basins. Good purification results require rapid and effective mixing, so the formed particles are combined to larger particles, and they form settleable flock. The coagulation efficiency depends on the properties of the water to be purified, such as alkalinity and pH, the quality and the quantity of humic substances, and the quality and the quantity of the flocking chemicals. Chemicalization is at present the most effective, but also the most expensive method for purification of drying waters of peat production areas. The chemicalized water is on the basis of most quality factors cleaner than water running off a virgin bog. The most visible change is the clarification of the water which is due to the coagulation of the colouring humic substances and iron. The colorimetric value is decreased by over 70 %, the best results being over 90 %. The colorimetric value of the purified water (30-100 mg Pt/l) is below the values of the runoff water of a virgin bog (100-200 mg Pt/l). The chemicalization process and the results of the researches are presented in the article. (3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.)

  1. PHOSPHATE CHEMICALS FOR BUILDING POTABLE WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buildings can contribute significant quantities of trace metal contamination to drinking water, particularly lead, copper and zinc. Discolored water may also result in corroded galvanized and steel plumbing and after prolonged stagnation times. To protect human health as well as ...

  2. Mechanical Properties and Chemical Resistance of New Composites for Oil Pump Impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyus I. Chukov

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of high-performance composites and a method of their production based on the carbonization of an elastomeric matrix are proposed. The use of elastomeric matrix makes it possible to manufacture products with complex shapes, while the subsequent carbonization can significantly improve their properties by changing the chemical nature of the elastomeric matrix. Such an approach can reduce the products’ machining cost, especially for composites reinforced with super hard fillers such as silicon carbide at high filling degrees. Low-temperature carbonization makes it possible to obtain composites with mechanical behavior similar to that of ceramics. In contrast to classical elastomeric materials, the nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR-based compounds were highly filled (300 parts per hundred rubber-PHR with different carbon fillers and silicon carbide; then cured and carbonized at low-temperature 360 °C with the carbonization cycle of 12 h. The feasibility of the production method was validated through the manufacturing of products with complex shapes—impellers for electric centrifugal pumps. It was found that the carbonized composites have good chemical resistance and low water absorption. The composites have high Shore D hardnesses (93–96, ultimate tensile strengths (62–85 MPa, Young’s moduli (17–24 GPa, and compressive strengths (155–181 MPa.

  3. Chemical composition of HAL, an isotopically-unusual Allende inclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.M.; Tanaka, T.; Grossman, L.; Lee, T.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-seven major, minor and trace elements were determined by INAA and RNAA in samples of hibonite, black rim and portions of friable rim from an unusual Allende inclusion, HAL. The peculiar isotopic, mineralogical and textural properties of HAL are accompanied by very unusual trace element abundances. The most striking feature of the chemistry is the virtual absence of Ce from an inclusion otherwise highly enriched in REE compared to C1 chondrites. HAL is also depleted in Sr, Ba, U, V, Ru, Os and Ir, relative to other refractory elements. Of the lithophile elements determined which are normally considered to be refractory in a gas of solar composition, Sr, Ba, Ce, U and V are the most volatile in oxidizing gases. The distribution of REE between hibonite and rims seems to have been established when hibonite and other refractory minerals were removed at slightly different temperatures from a hot, oxidizing gas in which they previously coexisted as separate grains. On the basis of HAL's chemical and isotopic composition, possible locations for the chemical and mass dependent isotopic fractionation are discussed. (author)

  4. Methods of chemical and phase composition analysis of gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, E. I.; Pantushev, V. V.; Voloshin, A. E.

    2017-11-01

    This review presents the instrumental methods used for chemical and phase composition investigation of gallstones. A great body of data has been collected in the literature on the presence of elements and their concentrations, obtained by fluorescence microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis, proton (particle) induced X-ray emission, atomic absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry, electron paramagnetic resonance. Structural methods—powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy—provide information about organic and inorganic phases in gallstones. Stone morphology was studied at the macrolevel with optical microscopy. Results obtained by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry are discussed. The chemical composition and structure of gallstones determine the strategy of removing stone from the body and treatment of patients: surgery or dissolution in the body. Therefore one chapter of the review describes the potential of dissolution methods. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the disease depend on the development of clinical methods for in vivo investigation, which gave grounds to present the main characteristics and potential of ultrasonography (ultrasound scanning), magnetic resonance imaging, and X-ray computed tomography.

  5. Medium Resolution Spectroscopy and Chemical Composition of Galactic Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamidullina D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We used integrated-light medium-resolution spectra of six Galactic globular clusters and model stellar atmospheres to carry out population synthesis and to derive chemical composition and age of the clusters. We used medium-resolution spectra of globular clusters published by Schiavon et al. (2005, as well as our long-slit observations with the 1.93 m telescope of the Haute Provence Observatory. The observed spectra were fitted to the theoretical ones interactively. As an initial approach, we used masses, radii and log g of stars in the clusters corresponding to the best fitting isochrones in the observed color-magnitude diagrams. The computed synthetic blanketed spectra of stars were summed according to the Chabrier mass function. To improve the determination of age and helium content, the shape and depth of the Balmer absorption lines was analysed. The abundances of Mg, Ca, C and several other elements were derived. A reasonable agreement with the literature data both in chemical composition and in age of the clusters is found. Our method might be useful for the development of stellar population models and for a better understanding of extragalactic star clusters.

  6. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Rollinia leptopetala (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, Edinilza M.A.; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Oliveira, M. Conceicao F. de; Vasnconcelos, Jackson Nunes e; Lima, Jefferson Q.; Malcher, Grazielle T. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: angelamcarriaga@yahoo.com.br; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Nascimento, Ronaldo F. do [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2009-07-01

    The aim of present study was to describe the chemical composition of the essential oils from the leaf and stem of Rollinia leptopetala R. E. Fries (Annonaceae) and to evaluate the larvicidal activities of these essential oils, of the methanol extract from roots of this plant and of the oxoaporphine alkaloid, liriodenine (1) against the third-instar of Aedes aegypti larvae. The methanol extract from the roots showed larvicidal activity with LC{sub 50} 64.6 {+-} 1.5 ppm. Higher activity was observed for the isolated alkaloid liriodenine (1), LC{sub 50} 3.6 {+-} 0.4 ppm. The essential oils from the leaves and stems, also exhibited larvicidal activity with LC{sub 50} 104.7 {+-} 0.2 and 34.7 {+-} 0.3 ppm, respectively. These results suggest R. leptopetala as a source of natural larvicidal compounds. This is the first report about the chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the leaf and stem essential oils of R. leptopetala. (author)

  7. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Rollinia leptopetala (Annonaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, Edinilza M.A.; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Oliveira, M. Conceicao F. de; Vasnconcelos, Jackson Nunes e; Lima, Jefferson Q.; Malcher, Grazielle T.; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P.; Nascimento, Ronaldo F. do; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study was to describe the chemical composition of the essential oils from the leaf and stem of Rollinia leptopetala R. E. Fries (Annonaceae) and to evaluate the larvicidal activities of these essential oils, of the methanol extract from roots of this plant and of the oxoaporphine alkaloid, liriodenine (1) against the third-instar of Aedes aegypti larvae. The methanol extract from the roots showed larvicidal activity with LC 50 64.6 ± 1.5 ppm. Higher activity was observed for the isolated alkaloid liriodenine (1), LC 50 3.6 ± 0.4 ppm. The essential oils from the leaves and stems, also exhibited larvicidal activity with LC 50 104.7 ± 0.2 and 34.7 ± 0.3 ppm, respectively. These results suggest R. leptopetala as a source of natural larvicidal compounds. This is the first report about the chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the leaf and stem essential oils of R. leptopetala. (author)

  8. Medium resolution spectroscopy and chemical composition of Galactic globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamidullina, D. A.; Sharina, M. E.; Shimansky, V. V.; Davoust, E.

    We used integrated-light medium-resolution spectra of six Galactic globular clusters and model stellar atmospheres to carry out population synthesis and to derive chemical composition and age of the clusters. We used medium-resolution spectra of globular clusters published by Schiavon et al. (2005), as well as our long-slit observations with the 1.93 m telescope of the Haute Provence Observatory. The observed spectra were fitted to the theoretical ones interactively. As an initial approach, we used masses, radii and log g of stars in the clusters corresponding to the best fitting isochrones in the observed color-magnitude diagrams. The computed synthetic blanketed spectra of stars were summed according to the Chabrier mass function. To improve the determination of age and helium content, the shape and depth of the Balmer absorption lines was analysed. The abundances of Mg, Ca, C and several other elements were derived. A reasonable agreement with the literature data both in chemical composition and in age of the clusters is found. Our method might be useful for the development of stellar population models and for a better understanding of extragalactic star clusters.

  9. Bacteriological and Physcio – Chemical Evaluation of Water Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological and physico-chemical evaluation of water coagulated with Moringa oleifera seed powder preparations on Challawa river water intake station was conducted for a period of ... The implications of the results are discussed in relation to water sanitation and human health and some recommendations presented.

  10. Physico-chemical characteristics of water sample from Aiba Stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of solar distillation in purification of water. The water sample collected from Aiba stream was subjected to double slope solar water distillation unit. The physico- chemical characteristics of the raw sample and the distillate were determined using standard methods. The.

  11. Bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of drinking water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Accesses to safe water is a universal need however, many of the world's population lack access to adequate and safe water. Consumption of water contaminated causes health risk to the public and the situation is serous in rural areas. Objectives: To assess the bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of ...

  12. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit.

  13. Chemical compositions of lavas from Myoko volcano group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenaka, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Hayatsu, Kenji.

    1995-01-01

    In the volcanic rocks produced in island arc and continental margin arc, the phenomena of magma mixing is observed considerably generally. The research on these phenomena has been carried out also in Japan, and the periodically refilled magma chamber model has been proposed. In this report, the results of the photon activation analysis for the volcanic rock samples of Myoko volcano, for which the magma chamber model that the supply of basalt magma is periodically received was proposed, and of which the age of eruption and the stratigraphy are clearly known, are shown, and the above model is examined together with the published data of fluorescent X-ray analysis and others. The history of activities and the rate of magma extrusion of Myoko volcano group are described. The modal compositions of the volcanic rock samples of Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, for which photon activation analysis was carried out, are shown and discussed. The results of the analysis of the chemical composition of 39 volcanic rock samples from Myoko, Kurohime and Iizuna volcanos are shown. The primary magma in Myoko volcano group, the crystallization differentiation depth and moisture content of magma in Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, the presumption of Felsic and Mafic end-members in R type andesite in Myoko volcano group, and the change of magma composition with lapse of time are described. (K.I.)

  14. Chemical compositions of lavas from Myoko volcano group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenaka, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Takeyoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science; Hayatsu, Kenji

    1995-08-01

    In the volcanic rocks produced in island arc and continental margin arc, the phenomena of magma mixing is observed considerably generally. The research on these phenomena has been carried out also in Japan, and the periodically refilled magma chamber model has been proposed. In this report, the results of the photon activation analysis for the volcanic rock samples of Myoko volcano, for which the magma chamber model that the supply of basalt magma is periodically received was proposed, and of which the age of eruption and the stratigraphy are clearly known, are shown, and the above model is examined together with the published data of fluorescent X-ray analysis and others. The history of activities and the rate of magma extrusion of Myoko volcano group are described. The modal compositions of the volcanic rock samples of Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, for which photon activation analysis was carried out, are shown and discussed. The results of the analysis of the chemical composition of 39 volcanic rock samples from Myoko, Kurohime and Iizuna volcanos are shown. The primary magma in Myoko volcano group, the crystallization differentiation depth and moisture content of magma in Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, the presumption of Felsic and Mafic end-members in R type andesite in Myoko volcano group, and the change of magma composition with lapse of time are described. (K.I.)

  15. Environmentally relevant chemical mixtures of concern in waters of United States tributaries to the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; Brigham, Mark E.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.

    2018-01-01

    The North American Great Lakes are a vital natural resource that provide fish and wildlife habitat, as well as drinking water and waste assimilation services for millions of people. Tributaries to the Great Lakes receive chemical inputs from various point and nonpoint sources, and thus are expected to have complex mixtures of chemicals. However, our understanding of the co‐occurrence of specific chemicals in complex mixtures is limited. To better understand the occurrence of specific chemical mixtures in the US Great Lakes Basin, surface water from 24 US tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes was collected and analyzed for diverse suites of organic chemicals, primarily focused on chemicals of concern (e.g., pharmaceuticals, personal care products, fragrances). A total of 181 samples and 21 chemical classes were assessed for mixture compositions. Basin wide, 1664 mixtures occurred in at least 25% of sites. The most complex mixtures identified comprised 9 chemical classes and occurred in 58% of sampled tributaries. Pharmaceuticals typically occurred in complex mixtures, reflecting pharmaceutical‐use patterns and wastewater facility outfall influences. Fewer mixtures were identified at lake or lake‐influenced sites than at riverine sites. As mixture complexity increased, the probability of a specific mixture occurring more often than by chance greatly increased, highlighting the importance of understanding source contributions to the environment. This empirically based analysis of mixture composition and occurrence may be used to focus future sampling efforts or mixture toxicity assessments. 

  16. Radio environmental study and chemical characterization of golden water in Barker caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundt, Miriam S.; Cifarelli, Fernanda; Furnari, Juan C.; Cabanilla, Edgardo D.; Eppis, Maria R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: It is possible to find in the northern mountains of Tandilia, caves of a natural or anthropic origin. These caves are often visited by tourists, explorers and scientists. An exclusive feature up to now, at least in the international literature, is the deposits of 'golden water'. In our country, these waters were described for the first time in 1897, as waters with fluorescence that might be caused by algae. Due to the fact that some inhabitants suspected that the water could contain uranium, a study was carried out at the lab of physical and chemical control of the CNEA by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence and it determined a complete absence of uranium, although it informed on the presence of potassium, calcium, iron, titanium, manganese, zinc and strontium as majority elements, being the presence of titanium rather unusual in the water. The objective of the present paper is to study the composition of the chemical elements that constitute this kind of water and the determination of the levels of natural radionuclides present in some caves in Tandilia, especially radon gas. To that end, new samples of water have been taken and a new study of X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction is being carried out that will lead to the confirmation of titanium and its quantification, as well as the chemical composition of the water. On the other hand, the levels of radon gas and other radionuclides are assessed by means of a liquid scintillation counting. The results of these studies will allow to determine if the tour guides of the caves should be protected from radiation and get to know the chemical composition of the golden water in order to understand its origin and its possible biotechnological implications. (author)

  17. Chemical water shutoff profile research status and development trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L. T.

    2017-08-01

    Excess water production is now a common problem encountered in almost every water flooding mature oilfield. The exploitation of oil field is faced with great challenge because of the decrease of oil field production. For the development of high water cut rare the status quo chemical water shutoff profile control technology is an important solution to solve this problem. Oilfield chemical water shutoff has important application prospects. This paper analyzes the water shutoff profile control and water shutoff profile control agent currently oilfield applications, moreover the use and development of blocking agent profile technology is to improve reservoir recovery and propose solutions. With the constant increase in water cut, profile technology should be simple, efficient, practical and profile control agent of development should be economic, environmental, and long period

  18. Beebread from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata. Comparative Chemical Composition and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia BOBIS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Beebread is a valuable bee product, both for bee nutrition and for humans. The high nutritional and bioactive properties of beebread were evaluated by chemical composition analysis of beebread from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata. Bee bread harvested from Romania and India, coming from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata bees, were evaluated for their chemical composition. Analyses were made in APHIS Laboratory from USAMV Cluj, using validated methods for bee products. Lipids were determined by the Soxhlet extraction method, total protein content was determined by Kjehldahl method, sugar spectrum was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-IR. Water content of beebread samples were situated between 11.45 and 16.46%, total protein content between 16.84 and 19.19% and total lipids between 6.36 and 13.47%.  Beebread has high bioactive properties which can be expressed as antioxidant and/or antibacterial activity. Chemical composition and bioactive properties of beebread is influenced by floral origin of the pollen which the bees collect and place in combs for fermentation. Also the climatic conditions have an important role in developing different fermentation compounds, that may act as antioxidants or antibacterial agents.

  19. Impacts of thermal and chemical discharges to surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, Q.J.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of thermal and chemical discharges to surface water are outlined. The major impacts of nuclear power plants on aquatic resources are disruption during construction, intake of cooling water, discharge problems, and interactions with other water users. The following topics are included under the heading, assessment of aquatic ecology: identification of flora and fauna; abundance of aquatic organisms; species-environment relationships; and identification of pre-existing environmental stress. The following topics are included under the heading, environmental effects of plant operation: entrapment of fish by cooling water; passage of plankton through cooling system; discharge area and thermal plume; chemical effluents; and plant construction. (U.S.)

  20. Body composition of two human cadavers by neutron activation and chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.S.; Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) is currently used to measure body composition in metabolic and nutritional studies in many clinical situations, but has not previously been validated by comparison with chemical analysis of human cadavers. Total body nitrogen (TBN) and chlorine (TBCl) were measured in two human cadavers by NAA before homogenization and chemical analysis (CHEM) after (cadaver 1: TBN, 1.47 NAA, 1.51 CHEM; TBCl, 0.144 NAA, 0.147 CHEM; cadaver 2: TBN, 0.576 NAA, 0.572 CHEM; TBCl, 0.0227 NAA, 0.0250 CHEM). The homogenates were also analyzed by NAA, and no significant differences were found, indicating that the effects of elemental inhomogeneity on the measurement of TBN and TBCl are insignificant. Total body water, fat, protein, minerals, and carbohydrates were measured chemically for each cadaver and compared with estimates for these compartments obtained from a body composition model, which when used in vivo involves NAA and tritium dilution. The agreement found justifies the use of the model for the measurement of changes in total body protein, water, and fat in sequential studies in groups of patients

  1. Evaluation of physico-chemical and microbial parameters on water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsoft Windows

    Due to heavy discharge of harmful and deleterious substances in river, the biological, chemical and ... This evaluation will be immensely helpful to estimate the effect of ... The discharge of waste water from municipal sewers containing human.

  2. Effect of magnetic treatment of water on chemical properties of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed effect of magnetic treatment of water on chemical properties of water, sodium adsorption ratio, electrical conductivity (EC) of the water and the lifespan of the magnetic effect on water. Magnetic flux densities used for treating the water were 124, 319, 443 and 719 gauss. All the cations (Calcium, Sodium, ...

  3. Stable-isotope composition of the water of apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricout, Jacques; Merlivat, Liliane

    1973-01-01

    By deuterium and oxygen 18 analysis, it was shown that apples' water is enriched in heavier isotopes as compared to rain water. The isotopic composition of the water of reconstituted apple juice is closed to the isotopic content of the rain water used for dilution. Thus, deuterium and oxyden 18 analysis allows a good analytical distinction between natural apple juice and reconstituted juices [fr

  4. Physical and Chemical Status of Drinking Water from Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq, for human consumptions, water samples were collected from three water treatment plants (WTP) on that river. The following water quality parameters were determined which were chosen as the major indicators namely PH, Total Dissolved Solid(TDS), Electrical conductivity(EC), Total Hardness(TH), Cl- ...

  5. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This program is designed to develop a Hall-Heroult aluminum smelting cathode with substantially improved properties. The carbon cathodes in current use require significant anode-to-cathode spacing in order to prevent shorting, causing significant electrical inefficiencies. This is due to the non-wettability of carbon by aluminum which causes instability in the cathodic aluminum pad. It is suggested that a fiber reinforced-TiB{sub 2} matrix composite would have the requisite wettability, strength, strain-to-failure, cost, and lifetime to solve this problem. The approach selected to fabricate such a cathode material is chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). This program is designed to evaluate potential fiber reinforcements, fabricate test specimens, and test the materials in a static bath and lab-scale Hall cell.

  6. Chemical methods for the determination of composition of cryolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivarudrappa, V.; Patil, B.N.; Marathe, S.G.; Jain, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    Preparation of uranium and plutonium alloys containing aluminium involves the use of cryolite and many times, cryolite which may be contaminated with alpha activity has to be analysed for its purity. In view of this, chemical methods for the determination of composition of commercial cryolite samples have been developed. Methods are standardised for the determination of individual constituents of cryolite viz., aluminium, sodium, fluoride and major impurities, calcium and magnesium. Studies on the dissolution of the sample, effect of one or more components on the determination of the other and their elimination are carried out. Aluminium and sodium are determined gravimetrically as oxinate and triple acetate respectively. Fluoride is determined by a volumetric procedure after cation exchange separtion of soluble fluoride. Calcium and magnesium are determined by a sequential pH-metri titration. This report describes the details of the procedures and the results of these studies for two commercial cryolite samples. (author). 7 tabs

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis and its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoubi M.J.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Iranian propolis on some microorganisms using disc diffusion method. The chemical composition of the propolis was also investigated using thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric methods. Ethanol extract of propolis showed activity only against Gram-positives and fungi, whereas no activity was observed against Gram-negatives. Thin layer chromatography screening revealed the presence of pinocembrine, caffeic acid, kaempferol, phenethyl caffeate, chrysin, and galangin in Iranian propolis. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents were 7.3% and 36%, respectively, which suggests that the strong antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis may be due to high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

  8. A preliminary assessment of the chemical and microbial water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary assessment of the chemical and microbial water quality of the Chunies River - Limpopo: short communication. ... For this purpose sampling was undertaken on 25 and 26 May 2002, and a range of chemical (macro-elements, micro-elements and heavy metals) and microbial variables (HPC, total coliforms and ...

  9. Aerosol Size and Chemical Composition in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R. Y. W.; Hayes, P. L.; Leaitch, W. R.; Croft, B.; O'Neill, N. T.; Fogal, P.; Drummond, J. R.; Sloan, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic aerosol have a strong annual cycle, with winter months dominated by long range transport from lower latitudes resulting in high mass loadings. Conversely, local emissions are more prominent in the summer months because of the decreased influence of transported aerosol, allowing us to regularly observe both transported and local aerosol. This study will present observations of aerosol chemical composition and particle number size distribution collected at the Polar Environment Artic Research Laboratory and the Alert Global Atmospheric Watch Observatory at Eureka (80N, 86W) and Alert (82N, 62W), Nunavut, respectively. Summer time observations of the number size distribution reveal a persistent mode of particles centered between 30-50 nm, with occasional bursts of smaller particles. The non-refractory aerosol chemical composition, measured by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer, is primarily organic, with contributions from both aged and fresher organic aerosol. Factor analysis will be conducted to better understand these sources. The site at Eureka is more susceptible to long range transport since it is at the top of a mountain ridge (610 m above sea level) and will be compared to the site at Alert on an elevated plain (200 m above sea level). This will allow us to determine the relative contributions from processes and sources at the sites at different elevations. Comparisons with aerosol optical depth and GEOS-Chem model output will also be presented to put these surface measurements into context with the overlying and regional atmosphere. Results from this study contribute to our knowledge of aerosol in the high Arctic.

  10. Hot water extracted wood fiber for production of wood plastic composites (WPCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Eini Lowell; Thomas E. Amidon; Timothy L. Chaffee

    2013-01-01

    Undebarked ponderosa pine chips were treated by hot water extraction to modify the chemical composition. In the treated pine (TP) , the mass was reduced by approximately 20%, and the extract was composed mainly of degradation products of hemicelluloses. Wood flour produced from TP and unextracted chips (untreated pine, UP) was blended with high-density polyethylene (...

  11. Mineral and chemical composition of rock core and surface gas composition in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, Naoto; Ishii, Eiichi

    2008-02-01

    The following three kinds of analyses were conducted for the 1st phase of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. Mineral composition analysis of core sample. Whole rock chemical composition analysis of core sample. Surface gas composition analysis. This document summarizes the results of these analyses. (author)

  12. The pollution of water by nitrates of chemical fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halwani, Jalal

    1998-01-01

    The following article is a literature review that summarizes results from field studies devoted to chemical analysis of water in Lebanon. Agricultural practices and the use of fertilizers may affect surface waters, ground water and drinking water. Much attention has been given to their environmental consequences, especially those related to water pollution by Nitrates and human health. The Nitrate content should not exceed in drinking water more than 50 mg/l for adults and 25 mg/l for children and pregnant women. Studies suggest incorporation of quick remedial measures to combat pollution in marine environments

  13. Exploratory multivariate modeling and prediction of the physico-chemical properties of surface water and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoko, Godwin A.; Singh, Kirpal; Balerea, Steven; Kokot, Serge

    2007-03-01

    SummaryPhysico-chemical properties of surface water and groundwater samples from some developing countries have been subjected to multivariate analyses by the non-parametric multi-criteria decision-making methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA. Complete ranking information necessary to select one source of water in preference to all others was obtained, and this enabled relationships between the physico-chemical properties and water quality to be assessed. Thus, the ranking of the quality of the water bodies was found to be strongly dependent on the total dissolved solid, phosphate, sulfate, ammonia-nitrogen, calcium, iron, chloride, magnesium, zinc, nitrate and fluoride contents of the waters. However, potassium, manganese and zinc composition showed the least influence in differentiating the water bodies. To model and predict the water quality influencing parameters, partial least squares analyses were carried out on a matrix made up of the results of water quality assessment studies carried out in Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Egypt, Thailand and India/Pakistan. The results showed that the total dissolved solid, calcium, sulfate, sodium and chloride contents can be used to predict a wide range of physico-chemical characteristics of water. The potential implications of these observations on the financial and opportunity costs associated with elaborate water quality monitoring are discussed.

  14. Flaxseed hull: Chemical composition and antioxidant activity during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchi, Wahid; Al Hujaili, Abdullah D; Sakouhi, Faouzi; Sebei, Khaled; Trabelsi, Hajer; Kallel, Habib; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull during maturation were investigated. P129 hull variety was studied at four maturation stages (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Significant variation in proximate composition and flaxseed hull oil characteristics were observed. A significant increase in the carbohydrates content of the hull was observed during development. The main methyl esters were linolenic acid (48.95 - 51.52 %), oleic acid (20.27-23.41%) and linoleic acid (15.62-17.70%). The highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be 67.14 % at the first stage of maturity (St1). Flaxseed hull oil was of good quality, containing an abundance of omega-3 essential fatty acids. The iodine value increased, while the saponification value of oil decreased during seed development. The decrease in ascorbic acid content was steady. The maximum level of total phenolic acid content (128.3 mg/100 g oil) was reached at 7 DAF. The antioxidant activity of oilseed was assessed by means of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Radical scavenging activity for green hull was 52.74% and mature hull was 69.32%.

  15. Chemical Composition of Iran's Pistacia atlantica Cold-Pressed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saber-Tehrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid fraction of Pistacia atlantica seeds was extracted for the first time by means of cold-press technique and analyzed for its chemical composition. The fatty acids, sterols, triacylglycerols (TAG, tocopherols, polyphenols, and pigments were identified and their concentrations were determined by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and gas chromatography (GC. Because of its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, it might prove to be of value in diets and it may be used as edible cooking or salad oils or for margarine manufacture. Pistacia atlantica seed oil has the unique sterols and tocopherols content providing source of natural antioxidants. The main triacylglycerols were SLL + PLO, SOL + POO, OOLn + PLL, OOO, and SOO. This paper examined the phenolic fraction of Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Moreover, caffeic acid followed by cinnamic acid, pinoresinol, vanillin, p-Coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and o-Coumaric acid was also determined. This paper presents the first investigation of chlorophyll's and carotene's composition in Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Furthermore, pheophytin a was the major component, followed by luteoxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, lutein isomers, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a′, and pheophytin a′ were also determined.

  16. Chemical composition of some wild peanut species (Arachis L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, N R; Nepote, V; Guzmán, C A

    2000-03-01

    Oil, protein, ash, and carbohydrate contents, iodine value, and fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis trinitensis, A. chiquitana, A. kempff-mercadoi, A. diogoi, A. benensis, A. appressipila, A. valida, A. kretschmeri, A. helodes, A. kuhlmannii, A. williamsii, A. sylvestris, A. matiensis, A. pintoi, A. hoehnei, A. villosa, and A. stenosperma. Oil content was greatest in A.stenosperma (mean value = 51.8%). The protein level was higher in A. sylvestris (30.1%) and A. villosa (29.5%). Mean value of oleic acid varied between 30.6% (A. matiensis) and 46.8% (Arachis villosa), and linoleic acid oscillated between 34.1% (A. villosa) and 47.4% (A. appressipila). The better oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio was exhibited by A. villosa (1.38). Some species showed higher concentration of behenic acid. The greatest level of this fatty acid was found in A. matiensis (6.2%). Iodine value was lower in A. valida (99.2). The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of beta-sitosterol (mean values oscillated between 55.7 and 60.2%) followed by campesterol (12.4-16. 5%), stigmasterol (9.7-13.3%), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (9.7-13.4%). The chemical quality and stability of oils (iodine value and O/L ratio) from wild peanut studied in this work are not better than those of cultivated peanut.

  17. Linking remotely sensed aerosol types to their chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K. W.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Johnson, M. S.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Meskhidze, N.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol types measured during the Ship-Aircraft Bio-Optical Research (SABOR) experiment are related to GEOS-Chem model chemical composition. The application for this procedure to link model chemical components to aerosol type is desirable for understanding aerosol evolution over time. The Mahalanobis distance (DM) statistic is used to cluster model groupings of five chemical components (organic carbon, black carbon, sea salt, dust and sulfate) in a way analogous to the methods used by Burton et al. [2012] and Russell et al. [2014]. First, model-to-measurement evaluation is performed by collocating vertically resolved aerosol extinction from SABOR High Spectral Resolution LiDAR (HSRL) to the GEOS-Chem nested high-resolution data. Comparisons of modeled-to-measured aerosol extinction are shown to be within 35% ± 14%. Second, the model chemical components are calculation into five variables to calculate the DM and cluster means and covariances for each HSRL-retrieved aerosol type. The layer variables from the model are aerosol optical depth (AOD) ratios of (i) sea salt and (ii) dust to total AOD, mass ratios of (iii) total carbon (i.e. sum of organic and black carbon) to the sum of total carbon and sulfate (iv) organic carbon to black carbon, and (v) the natural log of the aerosol-to-molecular extinction ratio. Third, the layer variables and at most five out of twenty SABOR flights are used to form the pre-specified clusters for calculating DM and to assign an aerosol type. After determining the pre-specified clusters, model aerosol types are produced for the entire vertically resolved GEOS-Chem nested domain over the United States and the model chemical component distributions relating to each type are recorded. Resulting aerosol types are Dust/Dusty Mix, Maritime, Smoke, Urban and Fresh Smoke (separated into `dark' and `light' by a threshold of the organic to black carbon ratio). Model-calculated DM not belonging to a specific type (i.e. not meeting a threshold

  18. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal, E-mail: ana_allves2008@hotmail.co [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10{sup 11}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000mug.g{sup -1}. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  19. Chemical Composition and Hypotensive Effect of Campomanesia xanthocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Santariano Sant’Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Campomanesia xanthocarpa is known in Brazil as Guabiroba and is popularly used for various diseases, such as inflammatory, renal, and digestive diseases and dyslipidemia. The aim of the study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the effects of aqueous extract of C. xanthocarpa on the blood pressure of normotensive rats, analyzing the possible action mechanism using experimental and in silico procedures. The extract was evaluated for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content. The chemical components were determined by HPLC analyses. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured with extract and drugs administration. The leaves of C. xanthocarpa presented the relevant content of phenolics and flavonoids, and we suggested the presence of chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, and theobromine. The acute administration of aqueous extract of C. xanthocarpa has a dose-dependent hypotensive effect in normotensive rats, suggesting that the action mechanism may be mediated through the renin-angiotensin system by AT1 receptor blockade and sympathetic autonomic response. Docking studies showed models that indicated an interaction between chlorogenic acid and quercetin with the AT1 receptor (AT1R active site. The findings of these docking studies suggest the potential of C. xanthocarpa constituents for use as preventive agents for blood pressure.

  20. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10 11 ncm -2 s -1 . The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000μg.g -1 . Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  1. The chemical composition of fogs and clouds in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munger, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The major inorganic species in cloud and fog water samples were NH{sub 4}{sup +}, H{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Concentrations in fog water samples were 1 - 10 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M; pH values ranged from {approx equal} 2 to 6. Nitrate usually exceeded sulfate. Acidity depended on the availability of NH{sub 3} from agricultural operations. Stratus cloudwater had somewhat lower concentrations; pH values were in the range 3-4. The major factors accounting for variation in fog- or cloudwater composition were the preexisting aerosol and gas concentrations and variations in liquid water content. Deposition and entrainment or advection of different air masses were also important during extended cloud or fog episodes. The droplet size dependence of cloudwater composition was investigated on one occasion in an intercepted coastal stratus clouds. Concentrations of S(IV) and CH{sub 2}O in the range 100-1000 {mu}M were observed in fogwater from urban sites in Southern California. Lower concentrations were observed in stratus clouds. The high levels of S(IV) and CH{sub 2}O were attributed to the formation of hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMSA), the S(IV) adduct of CH{sub 2}O. Direct measurements of HMSA in fogwater samples from Bakersfield, CA were made by ion-pairing chromatography. Glyoxal and methyglyoxal were observed at concentrations comparable to CH{sub 2}O in fogwater samples from Riverside, CA and in stratus cloudwater samples from sites along the Santa Barbara Channel.

  2. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Blepharocalyx salicifolius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabiana Barcelos; Borges, Bruna Cristina; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; de Almeida Junior, Luiz Domingues; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; da Silva, Claudio Vieira

    2018-01-01

    Natural products represent a source of biologically active molecules that have an important role in drug discovery. The aromatic plant Blepharocalyx salicifolius has a diverse chemical constitution but the biological activities of its essential oils have not been thoroughly investigated. The aims of this paper were to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of an essential oil from leaves of B. salicifolius and to identify its main chemical constituents. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and biological activities were performed by a microdilution broth method. The yield of essential oil was 0.86% (w/w), and the main constituents identified were bicyclogermacrene (17.50%), globulol (14.13%), viridiflorol (8.83%), γ-eudesmol (7.89%) and α-eudesmol (6.88%). The essential oil was cytotoxic against the MDA-MB-231 (46.60 μg·mL−1) breast cancer cell line, being more selective for this cell type compared to the normal breast cell line MCF-10A (314.44 μg·mL−1). Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity results showed that this oil does not act by inducing cell death, but rather by impairment of cellular metabolism specifically of the cancer cells. Furthermore, it presented antifungal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (156.25 μg·mL−1) but was inactive against other fungi and bacteria. Essential oil from B. salicifolius showed promising biological activities and is therefore a source of molecules to be exploited in medicine or by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:29300307

  3. Chemical composition and bioactivity of different oregano (Origanum vulgare) extracts and essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bárbara; Marques, António; Ramos, Cristina; Serrano, Carmo; Matos, Olívia; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Saraiva, Jorge Alexandre; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2013-08-30

    There is a growing interest in industry to replace synthetic chemicals by natural products with bioactive properties. Aromatic plants are excellent sources of bioactive compounds that can be extracted using several processes. As far as oregano is concerned, studies are lacking addressing the effect of extraction processes in bioactivity of extracts. This study aimed to characterise the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil and extracts (in hot and cold water, and ethanol), and the chemical composition of its essential oil. The major components of oregano essential oil were carvacrol, β-fenchyl alcohol, thymol, and γ-terpinene. Hot water extract had the strongest antioxidant properties and the highest phenolic content. All extracts were ineffective in inhibiting the growth of the seven tested bacteria. In contrast, the essential oil inhibited the growth of all bacteria, causing greater reductions on both Listeria strains (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua). O. vulgare extracts and essential oil from Portuguese origin are strong candidates to replace synthetic chemicals used by the industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Physico-Chemical Quality Of Drinking Water At Mushait, Aseer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical quality study of different drinking water sources used in Khamis Mushait, southwestern, Saudi Arabia (SA) has been studied to evaluate their suitability for potable purposes. A total of 62 drinking water samples were collected randomly from bottled, desalinated and groundwater located around the ...

  5. Chemical composition of olive oils of the cultivar Colombaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunin, P.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of monovarietal olive oils from the cultivar Colombaia was studied. Free acidity, peroxide value and UV absorbance attested to the good quality of the analyzed oils. Their fatty acid composition appeared to be quite different from the typical fatty acid profile of olive oils from Liguria but met the limits reported in the EC Regulations for olive oils. On the contrary, the amounts of Δ7-stigmastenol were often higher than the 0.5 % limit set by EC Regulations and total ß-sitosterol was below the minimum 93 % limit. The composition of polar compounds and of the volatile fraction was representative of the peculiar organoleptic character of these oils. Thus, the anomalous sterol composition of the monovarietal oils from the cultivar Colombaia calls for blending with other oils. Moreover, the use of these oils for the production of PDO oils “Riviera Ligure” must also be carefully controlled because it changes their nutritional and sensorial featuresEn este trabajo se ha estudiado la composición química de aceites de oliva mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia. La acidez libre, el índice de peróxidos y la absorción UV confirmaron la buena calidad de los aceites analizados. Su composición en ácidos grasos resultó bastante diferente del perfil típico de ácidos grasos de los aceites de oliva virgen de la región de Liguria, pero se mantuvo dentro de los límites establecidos por los Reglamentos EC para aceites de oliva. Por otro lado, las cantidades de Δ7-estigmastenol resultaron normalmente superiores al 0.5 % del límite fijado por los Reglamentos EC y el ß-sitosterol total fue inferior al 93 % del límite mínimo. La composición en compuestos polares y de la fracción volátil confirmó las características organolépticas peculiares de estos aceites. Por tanto, la composición esterólica anómala de los aceites mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia hace necesaria una mezcla con otros

  6. Chemical synthesis of composite HML / PDMcT / PAni and its application as the trhiodan adsorbent in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girotto, L.G.; Pacheco, I.; Freitas, L.L. de; Oliveira, R.S.; Amaral, F.A. do; Canobre, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    The mixed hydroxide lamellar [Co -Al- Cl] was synthesize by the co- precipitation method constant pH 8. The synthesis composite HML/PDMcT/PAni was carried out via chemical. The DRX composite HML/PDMcT/PAni showed that one amorphicity in the conductor polymer doesn't hid the diffraction peaks characteristic of HML. The MEV micrographs of composite HDL / PDMcT / PAni showed a large number of crystallites compacts with several shapes characteristic to PDMcT and nanofibers of polyaniline indicating an association between the different constituents forming the composite. The results of the adsorption was 98% of the pesticide in the composite HML / PDMcT / PAni , the composite can contribute so significantly to one Thiodon withdrawal in contaminated pesticide waters. (author)

  7. Mechanical properties of uniaxial natural fabric Grewia tilifolia reinforced epoxy based composites: Effects of chemical treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chemical treatment on the mechanical, morphological, and chemical resistance properties of uniaxial natural fabrics, Grewia tilifolia/epoxy composites, were studied. In order to enhance the interfacial bonding between the epoxy matrix...

  8. Activation and chemical analysis of drinking water from shallow aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.K.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    In most of the Indian cities drinking water is drawn from shallow aqiufers with the help of hand pumps. These shallow aquifers get easilyl polluted. In the present work we have measured 20 trace elements using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and 8 chemical parameters using standard chemical methods of drinking water drawn from Rajpura city. It was found that almost all water samples are highly polluted. We attribute this to unplaned disposal of industrial and domestic waste over a period of many decades. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  9. Physico-chemical and biological studies on water from Aries River (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butiuc-Keul, A; Momeu, L; Craciunas, C; Dobrota, C; Cuna, S; Balas, G

    2012-03-01

    Our work was focused on physico-chemical and biological characteristics of Aries River, one of the largest rivers from Romania. Water samples were collected from 11 sites along Aries River course. We have measured de (18)O and D isotopic composition of Aries River water in these locations and correlated these data with the isotopic composition of aquatic plants and with the pollution degree. Some ions from Aries River water were also analyzed: NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-) Cu(2+), Fe(3+). Analysis of diatom communities has been performed in order to quantify the level of water pollution of Aries River. All physico-chemical analyses revealed that the most polluted site is Abrud; the source of pollution is most probably the mining enterprise from Rosia Montana. Water isotope content increases from upstream to downstream of the locations analyzed. The structure of diatom communities is strongly influenced by the different pollution sources from this area: mine waters, industrial waters, waste products, land cleaning, tourism etc. The water eutrophication increases from upstream of Campeni to downstream of Campia Turzii. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Water-chemical regime of a fast reactor ower complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikhin, R.N.; Piskunov, E.M.; Samarkin, A.A.; Yurchenko, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Some peculiarities of water-chemical regime of a power compleX in Shevchenko are considered. The complex comprises a desalination unit, a gas-masout heating-and-power plant and the BN-350 reactor. The compleX is used for the production of electric and thermal energy and fresh water. The power complex peculiarity is the utilization of disalinated seawater in a technological cycle along with highly mineralized seawater with a total salt content of 13.5 g/l (for cooling) in heat exchanges. A regime of ammoniacal correction of feed water was used as a basic water-chemical regime in the initial period of the BN-350 steam generator operation. Deposits composed mainly of iron oxide slime were observed on steam generator surfaces during the operation under these conditions. A conclusion is made that the regime with chelating agent providing steam generator safe operation without chemical cleaning is the most expedient one

  11. Modelling chemical behavior of water reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, R G.J.; Hanshaw, J; Mason, P K; Mignanelli, M A [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    For many applications, large computer codes have been developed which use correlation`s, simplifications and approximations in order to describe the complex situations which may occur during the operation of nuclear power plant or during fault scenarios. However, it is important to have a firm physical basis for simplifications and approximations in such codes and, therefore, there has been an emphasis on modelling the behaviour of materials and processes on a more detailed or fundamental basis. The application of fundamental modelling techniques to simulated various chemical phenomena in thermal reactor fuel systems are described in this paper. These methods include thermochemical modelling, kinetic and mass transfer modelling and atomistic simulation and examples of each approach are presented. In each of these applications a summary of the methods are discussed together with the assessment process adopted to provide the fundamental parameters which form the basis of the calculation. (author). 25 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs.

  12. Physico-chemical properties of perturbed water: facts and enigmas

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Elia

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of extremely diluted and agitated substances and solutions is strictly linked with the analysis of properties of water perturbed using different systems. This study is about the determination of the physical-chemical parameters of water, after the perturbations described. Methods The perturbed water was obtained using the three different protocols: · EDS (Extremely Diluted Solutions). Obtained through an iterative process of ...

  13. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwaters from the Otobaru landslide in the area of hydrothermal alteration, Beppu City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Kitaoka, Koichi; Kamiyama, Kokichi [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Disaster Prevention Research Inst.

    1989-10-01

    The landslide at the Otobaru area, Beppu City, occurred twice in 1943 and 1969. A part of this area, even now, is affected considerably by thermal activities. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of waters from the Otobaru area and its vicinity were investigated from 1977 to 1983 and 1986 to 1987. The results are as follows: (1) electric conductivity data suggest that the two kinds of low-concentration water and high-concentration water exist in the landslide area, (2) the existence-of two groundwater aquifer in the landslide area and its vicinity is inferred from tritium data, (3) variations chemical composition of waters from the horizontal borehole are accompanied by the rise and decline of water table, (4) the waters from the landslide area and its vicinity are in equilibrium with montmorillonite, (5) the most waters under 10{sup -1} atm. of P{sub co2} are saturated or supersaturated with calcite, and (6) there is no detectable contribution of geothermal water to the waters from the landslide and its vicinity. And our hypothesis on the mechanism for the formation of calcium sulfate type water is also presented. (author).

  14. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwaters from the Otobaru landslide in the area of hydrothermal alteration, Beppu City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Kitaoka, Koichi; Kamiyama, Kokichi

    1989-01-01

    The landslide at the Otobaru area, Beppu City, occurred twice in 1943 and 1969. A part of this area, even now, is affected considerably by thermal activities. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of waters from the Otobaru area and its vicinity were investigated from 1977 to 1983 and 1986 to 1987. The results are as follows: (1) electric conductivity data suggest that the two kinds of low-concentration water and high-concentration water exist in the landslide area, (2) the existence-of two groundwater aquifer in the landslide area and its vicinity is inferred from tritium data, (3) variations chemical composition of waters from the horizontal borehole are accompanied by the rise and decline of water table, (4) the waters from the landslide area and its vicinity are in equilibrium with montmorillonite, (5) the most waters under 10 -1 atm. of P co2 are saturated or supersaturated with calcite, and (6) there is no detectable contribution of geothermal water to the waters from the landslide and its vicinity. And our hypothesis on the mechanism for the formation of calcium sulfate type water is also presented. (author)

  15. Spray Drying of Spinach Juice: Characterization, Chemical Composition, and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan Koç, Gülşah; Nur Dirim, Safiye

    2017-12-01

    The 1st aim of this study is to determine the influence of inlet and outlet air temperatures on the physical and chemical properties of obtained powders from spinach juice (SJ) with 3.2 ± 0.2 °Brix (°Bx). Second, the effect of 3 different drying agents (maltodextrin, whey powder, and gum Arabic) on the same properties was investigated for the selected inlet/outlet temperatures (160/100 °C) which gives the minimum moisture content and water activity values. For this purpose, the total soluble solid content of SJ was adjusted to 5.0 ± 0.2 °Bx with different drying agents. Finally, the effects of different storage conditions (4, 20, and 30 °C) on the physical and chemical properties of spinach powders (SPs) produced at selected conditions were examined. A pilot scale spray dryer was used at 3 different inlet/outlet air temperatures (160 to 200 °C/80 to 100 °C) where the outlet air temperature was controlled by regulating the feed flow rate. Results showed that the moisture content, water activity, browning index, total chlorophyll, and total phenolic contents of the SP significantly decreased and pH and total color change of the SP significantly increased by the addition of different drying agents (P < 0.05). In addition, the changes in the above-mentioned properties were determined during the storage period, at 3 different temperatures. It was also observed that the vitamin C, β-carotene, chlorophyll, and phenolic compounds retention showed first-order degradation kinetic with activation energy of 32.6840, 10.2736, 27.7031, and 28.2634 kJ/K.mol, respectively. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Broussonetia papyrifera fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    Full Text Available Fruits of Broussonetia papyrifera from South China were analyzed for their total chemical composition, and antioxidant activities in ethanol and aqueous extracts. In the fruit of this plant, the crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates was 7.08%, 3.72% and 64.73% of dry weight, respectively. The crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates were 15.71%, 20.51% and 36.09% of dry weight, respectively. Fatty acid and amino acid composition of the fruit were analyzed. Unsaturated fatty acid concentration was 70.6% of the total fatty acids. The percentage of the essential amino acids (EAAs was 40.60% of the total amino acids. Furthermore, B. papyrifera fruit are rich in many mineral elements and vitamins. Total phenolic content was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, whereas antioxidant activities were assessed by measuring the ability of the two extracts to scavenge DPPH radicals, inhibit peroxidation, and chelate ferric ions. Their reducing power was also assessed. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of B. papyrifera was a more potent reducing agent and radical-scavenger than the ethanol extract. GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract showed the presence of some acid-containing compounds. The changes in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in B. papyrifera from four different regions grown under normal conditions were assessed. The antioxidant activity of different extracts was positively associated with their total phenolic content. These results suggest that the fruit of B. papyrifera could be used in dietary supplement preparations, or as a food additive, for nutritional gain, or to prevent oxidation in food products.

  17. Chemical composition of felt-tip pen inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinario, Giulia; Garrappa, Silvia; D'Ambrosio, Valeria; van der Werf, Inez Dorothé; Sabbatini, Luigia

    2018-01-01

    Felt-tip pens are frequently used for the realization of sketches, drawings, architectural projects, and other technical designs. The formulations of these inks are usually rather complex and may be associated to those of modern paint materials where, next to the binding medium and pigments/dyes, solvents, fillers, emulsifiers, antioxidants, plasticizers, light stabilizers, biocides, and so on are commonly added. Felt-tip pen inks are extremely sensitive to degradation and especially exposure to light may cause chromatic changes and fading. In this study, we report on the complete chemical characterization of modern felt-tip pen inks that are commercially available and commonly used for the realization of artworks. Three brands of felt-tip pens (Faber-Castell, Edding, and Stabilo) were investigated with complementary analytical techniques such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC), VIS-reflectance spectroscopy, μ-Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), GC-MS, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The use of TLC proved to be very powerful in the study of complex mixtures of synthetic dyes. First derivatives of the reflectance spectra acquired on the TLC spots were useful in the preliminary identification of the dye, followed by Raman spectroscopy and SERS, which allowed for the unambiguous determination of the chemical composition of the pigments (phthalocyanines, dioxazines, and azo pigments) and dyes (azo dyes, triarylmethanes, xanthenes). FTIR spectroscopy was used especially for the detection of additives, as well as for confirming the nature of solvents and dyes/pigments. Finally, (Py-)GC-MS data provided information on the binders (styrene-acrylic resins, plant gums), solvents, and additives, as well as on pigments and dyes.

  18. Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moemen, A.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work achieved to study the effects of, mixture of salt 2:2:1 (Na Cl-CaCl 2 and Mg SO 4 ), concentration of (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). on growth characters, some chemical components and some active ingredients in shoots of Ambrosia maritima plants, at different stages of growth, during two seasons. Pots 30 cm in diameter were filled of sand-loamy soils in appropriate concentration, all pots were irrigated with tap water. The exposed damsisa seeds to gamma rays, doses (0, 20, 40, and 80 Gy) before sowing together with control non irradiated seeds were sown in saline soils (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). Soil salinity treatments caused a decrease in plant height, number of leaves, content of damsin, and an increase in fresh weigh, dry weight, total sugars, total chlorophyll, amino acids and ambrosine content. Also, Gamma rays caused an increase in most of growth parameters and most of chemical composition. It was observed that 40 or 80 Gy was more effective. We investigated the combined effect of levels of salinity and doses of radiation used, this interference improve growth parameters and chemical composition in ambrosia maritima plants and caused ascertain the role of gamma irradiation in plants tolerance to soil salinity and alleviation their harmful effect on plants.

  19. The effect of natural weathering on the chemical and isotopic composition of biotites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauer, N.; Bonnot-Courtois, C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of progressive natural weathering on the isotopic (Rb-Sr, K-Ar, deltaD, delta 18 O) and chemical (REE, H 2 O + ) compositions of biotite has been studied on a suite of migmatitic biotites from the Chad Republic. During the early stages of weathering the Rb-Sr system is strongly affected, the hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions change markedly, the minerals are depleted in light REE, the water content increases by a factor of two, and the K-Ar system is relatively little disturbed. During intensive weathering the K-Ar system is more strongly disturbed than the Rb-Sr system. Most of the isotopic and chemical modifications take place under nonequilibrium conditions and occur before newly formed kaolinite and/or smectite can be detected. These observations suggest that (a) 'protominerals' may form within the biotite structure during the initial period of weathering, and (b) only when chemical equilibrium is approached in the weathering profile are new minerals able to form. (author)

  20. Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuskhanova, Eleonora; Assenova, Bahytkul; Rebezov, Maksim; Amirkhanov, Kumarbek; Yessimbekov, Zhanibek; Smolnikova, Farida; Nurgazezova, Almagul; Nurymkhan, Gulnur; Stuart, Marilyne

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral) meat quality based on chemical composition, pH, water-binding capacity (WBC), and amino acid content. Materials and Methods: Maral meat surface morphology measurements were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Active acidity (pH) was determined by potentiometry. Samples were analyzed for WBC by exudation of moisture to a filter paper by the application of pressure. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash fractions) was obtained by drying at 150°C and by extraction, using ethylic ether, and ashing at 500-600°C. The amino acid composition was obtained by liquid chromatography. Results: Maral meat, with a pH of 5.85 and an average moisture content of 76.82%, was found to be low in fat (2.26%). Its protein content was 18.71% while its ash content was 2.21%. The amino acid composition showed that lysine (9.85 g/100 g), threonine (5.38 g/100 g), and valine (5.84 g/100 g) predominated in maral meat, while phenylalanine (4.08 g/100 g), methionine (3.29 g/100 g), and tryptophan (0.94 g/100 g) were relatively low in maral meat compared to other meats. The average WBC was found to be 65.82% and WBC was found to inversely correlate with moisture content. Conclusion: Low-fat content, high mineral content, and balanced amino-acid composition qualify maral meat as a worthy dietary and functional food. PMID:28717313

  1. Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Okuskhanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral meat quality based on chemical composition, pH, water-binding capacity (WBC, and amino acid content. Materials and Methods: Maral meat surface morphology measurements were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Active acidity (pH was determined by potentiometry. Samples were analyzed for WBC by exudation of moisture to a filter paper by the application of pressure. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash fractions was obtained by drying at 150°C and by extraction, using ethylic ether, and ashing at 500-600°C. The amino acid composition was obtained by liquid chromatography. Results: Maral meat, with a pH of 5.85 and an average moisture content of 76.82%, was found to be low in fat (2.26%. Its protein content was 18.71% while its ash content was 2.21%. The amino acid composition showed that lysine (9.85 g/100 g, threonine (5.38 g/100 g, and valine (5.84 g/100 g predominated in maral meat, while phenylalanine (4.08 g/100 g, methionine (3.29 g/100 g, and tryptophan (0.94 g/100 g were relatively low in maral meat compared to other meats. The average WBC was found to be 65.82% and WBC was found to inversely correlate with moisture content. Conclusion: Low-fat content, high mineral content, and balanced amino-acid composition qualify maral meat as a worthy dietary and functional food.

  2. Physico-chemical properties of modified inter-polymer complexes and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khafizov, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Inter-polymer complexes (IC) are rather perspective and can occupy the important place in technology of materials, as find out a number of the most valuable properties. In essence, they are new polymeric materials with a complex of new qualities and operational characteristics. In the present work the influence of a nature and structure of cooperating components both on structure, and on properties of received final products is investigated. It is shown new opportunities of use of the IC for reception composite materials formed IC on the physical properties, rather close to amorphous compounds. The opportunity of reception polymeric composite materials with the given properties and structure is shown; the purposeful regulation of process of hardening inter-polymeric composite materials with disperse fillers of a various nature and contents is established. The properties of such composite materials are determined by amount of entered components, both their distribution and chemical nature of a filler, that allows to increase stability properties in 2.5-3 times. By using phenomenological analysis of the contact phenomena the differential equations are made which are used for the analysis of VAC sandwich-structures metal-IC-metal. In a range of voltage V=0 -1 -10 2 V the experimental VAC are described by dependences close to Ohmic J∼V n , n=1. It is shown that the presence of breaks σ=f(T) at temperature ∼ 300 K specifies on ionic character of conductivity of samples. The chemical resistance of inter-polymeric composites in relation to water, to a solution of NaCl and 'to aggressive environment' is comprehensively characterized. The optimum degree of filling of the fillers Cv=2-3 is determined at a specific surface of fillers 0.2-0.3 m 2 /g

  3. Monitoring of chemical and isotopic composition of the Euphrates river in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    2008-11-01

    The ratios of stable isotopes ( 18 O and 2 H), tritium content, together with the chemical composition of major ions of the Euphrates and Balikh (Euphrates tributary) Rivers, and the groundwaters of four wells drilled close to the Euphrates River course, were measured on a monthly basis. The Euphrates River water was monitored at twelve stations along its course in Syria during the period from January 2004 to December 2006, whereas those of the Balikh and groundwaters were only investigated during 2005. Although, the spatial variations of heavy stable isotope concentrations are moderated with respect to other large rivers in the world, the concentrations of these isotopes increase generally downstream the Euphrates River, with a sharp enrichment at Al-Assad Lake. This sharp increase could be explained by the effect of direct evaporation from the river and its tributaries; and the effect of drainage return flows of irrigation waters, isotopically more enriched. Enrichment of stable isotopes in the Euphrates River water was used as a direct indicator of evaporation. Based on an experimental evaporation result of a Euphrates water sample and the integral enrichment of heavy stable isotopes in the Euphrates River system, the amount of water losses by evaporation from Al-Assad Lake was estimated to be about 1.26 to 1.62 billion m''3, according to 18 O and deuterium ( 2 H), respectively. This amount represents about 12-16% of the renewable surface water resources in the country. (author)

  4. Enhanced Performance of Thin Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membrane by Chemical Post-Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Chen, Jiangrong; Cao, Zhen; Wang, Jian; Guo, Chungang

    2018-01-01

    Forward osmosis is an attractive technique in water purification and desalination fields. Enhancement of the forward osmosis membrane performance is essential to the application of this technique. In this study, an optimized chemical post-treatment approach which was used to improve RO membrane performance was employed for enhancing water flux of thin film composite forward osmosis membrane. Home-made polysulfide-based forward osmosis membrane was prepared and nitric acid, sulfuric acid, ethanol, 2-propanol were employed as post-treatment solutions. After a short-term treatment, all the membrane samples manifested water flux enhancement compared with their untreated counterparts. Over 50% increase of water flux had been obtained by ethanol solution treatment. The swelling, changes of hydrophobicity and solvency in both active layer and substrate were verified as the major causes for the enhancement of the water flux. It is noted that the treatment time and solution concentration should be controlled to get both appropriate water flux and reverse salt flux. The results obtained in this study will be useful for further FO membrane development and application.

  5. Soursop (Annona muricata) vinegar production and its chemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chin Wai; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul; Zaki, Umi Kalsum Hj Hussain; Lim, Seng Joe

    2016-11-01

    Vinegar is a liquid product that undergoes double fermentations, which are alcoholic and acetous fermentation. Sugar source was converted to ethanol in alcoholic fermentation, meanwhile ethanol was oxidised to acetic acid during acetous fermentation. Soursop (Annona muricata) was the starting material in this study, as it is easily available in Malaysia. Its highly aromatic, juicy and distinctive flavours enables the production of high quality vinegar. The objective of this research is to produce good quality soursop vinegar as an innovative method to preserve and utilise the soursop fruit in Malaysia and to determine its chemical compositions. It was found that the sugar content reduces over time, and it is inversely proportional to the ethanol concentration, due to the production of ethanol from sugar. Acetic acid was also found to increase with increasing fermentation time. pH showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the reduction of sugar and the production of ethanol. However, significantly higher (p 0.05) in Vitamin C contents in all soursop vinegar samples produced using different treatments.

  6. Chemical and isotopic composition of precipitations in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Zakhem, B.; Hafez, R.

    2008-01-01

    13 meteoric stations were selected in syria for cumulative monthly rainfall sampling during two hydrological cycles; 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. The chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were studied. The winter and spring rainfall isotopic characteristics were determined, in addition to the syrian or local meteoric line (SMWL) was estimated with a slope of 6.63 and that of both syria and Jordan of 6.73. The effect of climatic factors as temperature and relative air humidity on oxygen-18, deuterium and d-excess were studied and it was found that the relationship between temperature and oxygen-18 and deuterium is a positive linear correlation; however, it is a negative correlation with d-excess. The mean seasonal variation amplitude was determined by 6%, and the amount effect on isotopic content of precipitation was studied. The geographic factors and its affect on isotopic contents of precipitation such as altitude were considered, furthermore, the isotopic gradient with altitude was determined for both oxygen-18 and deuterium (-0.14% and - 0.84%/100 m elevation respectively). The spatial variability of oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium and d-excess indicted the effect of mountain chains and gaps between mountains on the isotopic content of precipitation, the continental effect on tritium build-up by about 33% per 100 Km from the coast. The increase of d-excess values towards the south west proves the eastern mediterranean climate type over this region. (author)

  7. Brazilian kefir: structure, microbial communities and chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Campos, Cássia Roberta; Dragone, Giuliano; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Microbial ecology and chemical composition of Brazilian kefir beverage was performed. The microorganisms associated with Brazilian kefir were investigated using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods. A total of 359 microbial isolates were identified. Lactic acid bacteria (60.5%) were the major isolated group identified, followed by yeasts (30.6%) and acetic acid bacteria (8.9%). Lactobacillus paracasei (89 isolates), Lactobacillus parabuchneri (41 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (32 isolates), Lactobacillus kefiri (31 isolates), Lactococcus lactis (24 isolates), Acetobacter lovaniensis (32 isolates), Kluyveromyces lactis (31 isolates), Kazachstania aerobia (23 isolates), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (41 isolates) and Lachancea meyersii (15 isolates) were the microbial species isolated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the microbiota was dominated by bacilli (short and curved long) cells growing in close association with lemon-shaped yeasts cells. During the 24 h of fermentation, the protein content increased, while lactose and fat content decreased. The concentration of lactic acid ranged from 1.4 to 17.4 mg/ml, and that of acetic acid increased from 2.1 to 2.73 mg/ml. The production of ethanol was limited, reaching a final mean value of 0.5 mg/ml. PMID:24031681

  8. Chemical composition dependence of exposure buildup factors for some polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Tejbir [Department of Physics, S.D.D.I.E.T., Barwala, District Panchkula, Haryana 134 118 (India)], E-mail: tejbir.s@rediffmail.com; Kumar, Naresh [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144 402 (India)], E-mail: naresh20dhiman@yahoo.com; Singh, Parjit S. [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002 (India)], E-mail: dr_parjit@hotmail.com

    2009-01-15

    Exposure buildup factors for some polymers such as poly-acrylo-nitrile (PAN), poly-methyl-acrylate (PMA), poly-vinyl-chloride (PVC), synthetic rubber (SR), tetra-fluro-ethylene (Teflon) have been computed using the G.P. fitting method in the energy range of 0.015-15.0 MeV, up to the penetration of 40 mean free paths (mfp). The variation of exposure buildup factors for all the selected polymers with incident photon energy at the fixed penetration depths has been studied, mainly emphasizing on chemical composition (equivalent atomic number) of the selected polymers. It has been observed that for the lower penetration depths (below 10 mfp), the exposure buildup factor decreases with the increase in equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers at all the incident photon energies. However, at the penetration depth of 10 mfp and incident photon energy above 3 MeV, the exposure buildup factor becomes almost independent of the equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers. Further, above the fixed penetration depth of 15 mfp of the selected polymers and above the incident photon energy of 3 MeV, reversal in the trend has been observed, i.e., the exposure buildup factor increases with the increase in equivalent atomic number.

  9. Chemical composition dependence of exposure buildup factors for some polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Tejbir; Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Parjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure buildup factors for some polymers such as poly-acrylo-nitrile (PAN), poly-methyl-acrylate (PMA), poly-vinyl-chloride (PVC), synthetic rubber (SR), tetra-fluro-ethylene (Teflon) have been computed using the G.P. fitting method in the energy range of 0.015-15.0 MeV, up to the penetration of 40 mean free paths (mfp). The variation of exposure buildup factors for all the selected polymers with incident photon energy at the fixed penetration depths has been studied, mainly emphasizing on chemical composition (equivalent atomic number) of the selected polymers. It has been observed that for the lower penetration depths (below 10 mfp), the exposure buildup factor decreases with the increase in equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers at all the incident photon energies. However, at the penetration depth of 10 mfp and incident photon energy above 3 MeV, the exposure buildup factor becomes almost independent of the equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers. Further, above the fixed penetration depth of 15 mfp of the selected polymers and above the incident photon energy of 3 MeV, reversal in the trend has been observed, i.e., the exposure buildup factor increases with the increase in equivalent atomic number

  10. Chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of Heracleum persicum essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Gharachorloo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study essential oil of the aerial parts of Heracleum persicum a spice widely used in Iran was isolated by conventional hydrodistillation (HD and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD techniques. The extraction yield was determined and the chemical compositions of essential oils were identified by the application of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The antioxidant activity was determined by two different methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and oven test methods. Although the main compounds of essential oils by the both extraction methods were similar, the essential oil extracted by HD with lower extraction efficiency showed more diverse compounds. The evaluation of antioxidant activity of the essential oil measured by delay in sunflower oil oxidation indicated that the antioxidant activity was dependent on the concentration which increased when higher concentrations of the essential oils were applied. The results of DPPH radical assay also indicated that the percentage of inhibition increased with increasing of essential oil concentration and IC50 value for essential oil extracted by MAHD method was obtained 1.25 mg/mL. Therefore the Heracleum persicum essential oil might be recommended for use as a flavoring agent and a source of natural antioxidants in functional foods, formulation of the supplements and in medicinal due to numerous pharmacological activities.

  11. Brazilian kefir: structure, microbial communities and chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Teixeira Magalhães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial ecology and chemical composition of Brazilian kefir beverage was performed. The microorganisms associated with Brazilian kefir were investigated using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods. A total of 359 microbial isolates were identified. Lactic acid bacteria (60.5% were the major isolated group identified, followed by yeasts (30.6% and acetic acid bacteria (8.9%. Lactobacillus paracasei (89 isolates, Lactobacillus parabuchneri (41 isolates, Lactobacillus casei (32 isolates, Lactobacillus kefiri (31 isolates, Lactococcus lactis (24 isolates, Acetobacter lovaniensis (32 isolates, Kluyveromyces lactis (31 isolates, Kazachstania aerobia (23 isolates, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (41 isolates and Lachancea meyersii (15 isolates were the microbial species isolated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the microbiota was dominated by bacilli (short and curved long cells growing in close association with lemon-shaped yeasts cells. During the 24 h of fermentation, the protein content increased, while lactose and fat content decreased. The concentration of lactic acid ranged from 1.4 to 17.4 mg/ml, and that of acetic acid increased from 2.1 to 2.73 mg/ml. The production of ethanol was limited, reaching a final mean value of 0.5 mg/ml.

  12. Chemical composition and functional characterisation of commercial pumpkin seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procida, Giuseppe; Stancher, Bruno; Cateni, Francesca; Zacchigna, Marina

    2013-03-30

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil is a common product in Slovenia, Hungary and Austria and is considered a preventive agent for various pathologies, particularly prostate diseases. These properties are related to its high content of carotenoids and liposoluble vitamins. In this study the carotenoid (lutein and zeaxanthin), vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol) and fatty acid contents of 12 samples of commercial pumpkin seed oil were investigated together with the composition of the volatile fraction resulting from the roasting process. The aromatic profile obtained from the commercial samples was directly related to the intensity of the roasting process of the crushed pumpkin seeds. The roasting temperature played a crucial role in the concentrations of volatile substances originating from Strecker degradation, lipid peroxidation and Maillard reaction. The findings suggest that high-temperature roasting leads to the production of an oil with intense aromatic characteristics, while mild conditions, generally employed to obtain an oil with professed therapeutic characteristics, lead to a product with minor characteristic pumpkin seed oil aroma. The nutraceutical properties of the product are confirmed by the high content of α- and γ-tocopherol and carotenoids. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Chemical composition and biological properties of Satureja avromanica Maroofi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdali, Elham; Javadi, Shima; Akhgari, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyran; Dastan, Dara

    2017-03-01

    Satureja avromanica is an indigenous plant which is frequently used as a spice in Avraman-Kurdistan region of Iran. The present study aimed to investigate the chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the S. avromanica . In addition, rosmarinic acid and total phenolic content of S. avromanica was assessed by spectrophotometric method and HPTLC. The essential oil and methanolic extract were isolated by hydrodistillation and maceration methods, respectively. A total of 32 compounds representing 98.6% of the essential oil were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. The main constituents were n -pentacosane (23.8%), spathulenol (11.5%), β-bourbonen (11.3%) and n -docosane (11.0%). The antibacterial activity of samples were carried out by disc diffusion method and evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) essential oil and methanolic extract were found to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus . The highest scavenging activity was found for methanolic extract of S. avromanica (21.58 µg/mL) and the total phenolics of methanolic extract of S. avromanica was 95.3 mg GAE/g. The rosmarinic acid content of S. avromanica methanolic extract was 0.83 mg/g plant. Antioxidant activity and rosmarininc acid content of S. avromanica suggests that the essential oil and methanolic extract of S. avromanica has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agent to preserve food.

  14. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilas Sonja M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The macro- and micro-chemical composition, as well as antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars, Marmolada and Clery, were studied. Results showed a noticeable difference in the sugar, protein and pectin contents. Clery had 6.92% and Marmolada 4.93% of total sugar. Also, protein and pectin contents were higher in the Clery cultivar. No significant difference was observed in acidity, as well as in ash and cellulose content. Marmolada had a higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids (228.04 mg GAE /100 g FW and 136.01 mg RE/100 g FW, respectively . The anthocyanins content in Marmolada (32.0 mg CGE/100 g FW was slightly lower than in Clery (36.0 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as EC50 value, of Marmolada (0.77 mg/ml was higher than of Clery (0.83 mg/ml. There was a significant positive correlation (R2>0.90 between the concentration of phenolics/flavonoids/anthocyanins and DPPH radical scavenging activity of both strawberry cultivars. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW Marmolada and Clery is equivalent to 237.91 mg and 219.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively.

  15. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  16. Essential oil of Algerian Eucalyptus citriodora: Chemical composition, antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, H; Moghrani, H; Benelmouffok, A; Kellou, D; Maachi, R

    2015-12-01

    Essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora is a natural product which has been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, E. citriodora essential oil was used to evaluate its antifungal effect against medically important dermatophytes. Essential oil from the Algerian E. citriodora leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antifungal effect of E. citriodora essential oil was evaluated against four dermatophytes: Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum using disc diffusion method, disc volatilization method, and agar dilution method. The chemical composition of the oil revealed the presence of 22 compounds accounting for 95.27% of the oil. The dominant compounds were citronellal (69.77%), citronellol (10.63%) and isopulegol (4.66%). The disc diffusion method, MIC and MFC determination, indicated that E. citriodora essential oil had a higher antifungal potential against the tested strains with inhibition zone diameter which varied from (12 to 90mm) and MIC and MFC values ranged from (0.6 to 5μL/mL and 1.25 to 5μL/mL) respectively. The M. gypseum was the most resistant to the oil. The results of the present study indicated that E. citriodora essential oil may be used as a new antifungal agent recommended by the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Pinus Roxburghii essential oil anticancer activity and chemical composition evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Arfaa; Manzoor, Qaisar; Iqbal, Munawar; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Sajid, Anam

    2018-01-01

    The present study was conducted to appraise the anticancer activity of Pinus roxburghii essential oil along with chemical composition evaluation. MTT assay revealed cytotoxicity induction in colon, leukemia, multiple myeloma, pancreatic, head and neck and lung cancer cells exposed to essential oil. Cancer cell death was also observed through live/dead cell viability assay and FACS analysis. Apoptosis induced by essential oil was confirmed by cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 that suppressed the colony-forming ability of tumor cells and 50 % inhibition occurred at a dose of 25 μg/mL. Moreover, essential oil inhibited the activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and inhibited expression of NF-κB regulated gene products linked to cell survival (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, c-Myc, c-IAP2), proliferation (Cyclin D1) and metastasis (MMP-9). P. roxburghii essential oil has considerable anticancer activity and could be used as anticancer agent, which needs further investigation to identify and purify the bioactive compounds followed by in vivo studies.

  18. Comparing Chemical Compositions of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies and Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jason; Sparkman, Lea; Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2015-01-01

    Because of their abundance in cluster environments and fragility due to their low mass, dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) are excellent specimens for studying the physical processes that occur inside galaxy clusters. These studies can be used to expand our understanding of the process of galaxy (specifically dE) formation and the role of dark matter in the Universe. To move closer to better understanding these topics, we present a study of the relationship between dEs and globular clusters (GCs) by using the largest sample of dEs and GC satellites to date. We focus on comparing the ages and chemical compositions of dE nuclei with those of satellite GCs by analyzing absorption lines in their spectra. To better view the spectral features of these relatively dim objects, we employ a spectral co-addition process, where we add the fluxes of several objects to produce a single spectrum with high signal-to-noise ratio. Our finding that dE nuclei are younger and more metal rich than globular clusters establishes important benchmarks that future dE formation theories will consider. We also establish a means to identify GCs whose parent galaxies are uncertain, which allows us to make comparisons between this GC group and the satellite GCs.

  19. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  20. Chemical compositions and glycemic responses to banana varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2011-06-01

    Chemical compositions and glycemic indices of four varieties of banana (Musa spp.) (kolikuttu-Silk AAB, embul-Mysore AAB, anamalu-Gros Michel AAA, seeni kesel-Pisang Awak ABB) were determined. Silk, Gros Michel, Pisang Awak and Mysore contained the highest percentages of starch (14%), sucrose (38%), free glucose (29%) and fructose (58%) as a percentage of the total available carbohydrate content respectively. Total dietary fiber contents of four varieties ranged from 2.7 to 5.3%. Glycemic indices of Silk, Mysore, Gros Michel and Pisang Awak were 61 ± 5, 61 ± 6, 67 ± 7, 69 ± 9 and can be categorized as low against white bread as the standard. A single banana of the four varieties elicited a low glycemic load. Thus, consumption of a banana from any of these varieties can be recommended as a snack for healthy or diabetic patients who are under dietary management or pharmacological drugs to regulate blood glucose responses in between meals.

  1. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-09-03

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  2. Chemical composition and antigenotoxic properties of Lippia alba essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molkary Andrea López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the chemical composition and the DNA protective effect of the essential oils (EOs from Lippia alba against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. EO constituents were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS analysis. The major compounds encountered being citral (33% geranial and 25% neral, geraniol (7% and trans-β-caryophyllene (7% for L. alba specimen COL512077, and carvone (38%, limonene (33% and bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8% for the other, COL512078. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of EO and the compounds citral, carvone and limonene, were assayed using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. The EOs were not genotoxic in the SOS chromotest, but one of the major compound (limonene showed genotoxicity at doses between 97 and 1549 mM. Both EOs protected bacterial cells against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. Antigenotoxicity in the two L. alba chemotypes was related to the major compounds, citral and carvone, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to the chemopreventive potential of L. alba EOs and its major compounds.

  3. Influence of chemical composition of civil construction waste in the cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, G.A.; Andrade, A.C.D.; Souza, J.M.M.; Evangelista, A.C.J.; Almeida, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    The construction and demolition waste when disposed inappropriately might cause serious public health problems. Its reutilization focusing on the development of new products using simple production techniques, assuring a new product life cycle and not damaging the environment is inserted in sustainable concept. The aim of this work was identifying the characteristics of types of waste generated in a residential reform (glassy ceramic and fill dirt leftovers) verifying separately its influence on cement pastes mechanical behavior. Cement pastes + wastes were prepared in 25% and 50% proportions with an approximately 0,35 water/cement relation and, glue time determination, water absorption, resistance to compression and X-ray fluorescence assays were taken. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the waste causes changes in the behavior of cement pastes, reflecting on their resistance to compression. (author)

  4. Stable isotope and chemical compositions of European and Australasian ciders as a guide to authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James F; Yates, Hans S A; Tinggi, Ujang

    2015-01-28

    This paper presents a data set derived from the analysis of bottled and canned ciders that may be used for comparison with suspected counterfeit or substitute products. Isotopic analysis of the solid residues from ciders (predominantly sugar) provided a means to determine the addition of C4 plant sugars. The added sugars were found to comprise cane sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, glucose, or combinations. The majority of ciders from Australia and New Zealand were found to contain significant amounts of added sugar, which provided a limited means to distinguish these ciders from European ciders. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the whole ciders (predominantly water) were shown to be controlled by two factors, the water available to the parent plant and evaporation. Analysis of data derived from both isotopic and chemical analysis of ciders provided a means to discriminate between regions and countries of manufacture.

  5. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  6. Influence of silane content and filler distribution on chemical-mechanical properties of resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathy Aparecida XAVIER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of silane concentration and filler size distribution on the chemical-mechanical properties of experimental composites. Experimental composites with silane contents of 0%, 1% and 3% (in relation to filler mass and composites with mixtures of barium glass particles (median size = 0.4, 1 and 2 μm and nanometric silica were prepared for silane and filler analyses, respectively. The degree of conversion (DC was analyzed by FTIR. Biaxial flexural strength (BFS was tested after 24-h or 90-d storage in water, and fracture toughness, after 24 h. The data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p = 0.05. The DC was not significantly affected by the silane content or filler distribution. The 0% silane group had the lowest immediate BFS, and the 90-d storage time reduced the strength of the 0% and 3% groups. BFS was not affected by filler distribution, and aging decreased the BFS of all the groups. Silanization increased the fracture toughness of both the 1% and 3% groups, similarly. Significantly higher fracture toughness was observed for mixtures with 2 μm glass particles. Based on the results, 3% silane content boosted the initial strength, but was more prone to degradation after water storage. Variations in the filler distribution did not affect BFS, but fracture toughness was significantly improved by increasing the filler size.

  7. Chemical durability of simulated nuclear glasses containing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Tomozawa, M.

    1995-04-01

    The chemical durability of simulated nuclear waste glasses having different water contents was studied. Results from the product consistency test (PCT) showed that glass dissolution increased with water content in the glass. This trend was not observed during MCC-1 testing. This difference was attributed to the differences in reactions between glass and water. In the PCT, the glass network dissolution controlled the elemental releases, and water in the glass accelerated the reaction rate. On the other hand, alkali ion exchange with hydronium played an important role in the MCC-1. For the latter, the amount of water introduced into a leached layer from ion-exchange was found to be much greater than that of initially incorporated water in the glass. Hence, the initial water content has no effect on glass dissolution as measured by the MCC-1 test

  8. [Formation mechanism and chemical safety of nonintentional chemical substances present in chlorinated drinking water and wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Sukeo

    2010-09-01

    This paper reviews the formation mechanism and chemical safety of nonintentional chemical substances (NICS) present in chlorine-treated water containing organic contaminants. Undesirable compounds, i.e., NICS, may be formed under certain conditions when chlorine reacts with organic matter. The rate and extent of chlorine consumption with organics are strongly dependent on their chemical structures, particularly whether double bonds or sulfur and nitrogen atoms occur in the molecules. Organothiophosphorus pesticides (P=S type) are easily oxidized to their phosphorus compounds (P=O type) in chlorinated water containing HOCl as little as 0.5 mg/l, resulting in an increase in cholinesterase-inhibitory activity. Chlorination of phenols in water also produces a series of highly chlorinated compounds, including chlorophenols, chloroquinones, chlorinated carboxylic acids, and polychlorinated phenoxyphenols (PCPPs). In some of these chloroquinones, 2,6-dichloroalkylsemiquinones exhibit a strong mutagenic response as do positive controls used in the Ames test. 2-phenoxyphenols in these PCPPs are particularly interesting, as they are present in the chlorine-treated phenol solution and they are also precursors (predioxins) of the highly toxic chlorinated dioxins. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found to undergo chemical changes due to hypochlorite reactions to give chloro-substituted PAHs, oxygenated (quinones) and hydroxylated (phenols) compounds, but they exhibit a lower mutagenic response. In addition, field work was performed in river water and drinking water to obtain information on chemical distribution and their safety, and the results are compared with those obtained in the model chlorination experiments.

  9. Characters of chlorine isotopic composition in ocean water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Xiao, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, W.G.; Hong, A.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Y.; Wei, H.; Shirodkar, P.V.

    The chlorine isotopic composition of ocean water was determined using thermal ionization mass spectrometry based on the measurement of Cs sub(2) Cl sup(+) ion. The results show that the sup(37) Cl/ sup(35) Cl ratios are basically homogeneous...

  10. Compositions and methods for removing arsenic in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Ashok Jagannth [El Cerrito, CA

    2011-02-22

    Compositions and methods and for contaminants from water are provided. The compositions comprise ferric hydroxide and ferric oxyhydride coated substrates for use in removing the contaminant from the water. Contacting water bearing the contaminant with the substrates can substantially reduce contaminant levels therein. Methods of oxidizing the contaminants in water to facilitate their removal by the ferric hydroxide and ferric oxyhydride coated substrates are also provided. The contaminants include, but are not limited to, arsenic, selenium, uranium, lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, zinc, chromium and vanadium, their oxides and soluble salts thereof.

  11. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of chemicals in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, R J

    1985-12-01

    Isolated cases of careless handling of industrial and domestic waste has lead to a wide variety of dangerous chemicals being inadvertently introduced into drinking water. However, chemicals with established carcinogenic and mutagenic properties that occur with a high frequency and in multiple locations are limited in number. To date, the chief offenders have been chemicals of relatively low carcinogenic potency. Some of the more common chemicals are formed as by-products of disinfection. The latter process is generally regarded as essential to the production of a ''microbiologically safe'' drinking water. Consequently, any reductions in what may be a relatively small carcinogenic risk must be balanced against a potential for a higher frequency of waterborne infectious disease. The results of recent toxicological investigations will be reviewed to place the potential carcinogenic and mutagenic hazards frequently associated with drinking water into perspective. First, evidence for the carcinogenicity of certain volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride is considered. Second, the carcinogenic activity that can be ascribed to various by-products of chlorination is reviewed in some detail. Finally, recent evidence that other chemicals derived from the treatment and distribution of drinking water is highlighted as an area requiring move systematic attention. 72 references.

  12. Radiation-chemical degradation of chloroform in water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, S.A; Gurbanov, M.A; Iskenderova, Z.I; Abdullaev, E.T; Ibadov, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Chloroform is the major chlorine-containing compound forming at chlorination of drinking water. As our basic water resources of Kur and Araz rivers are mostly polluted along the territory of the neighbor republics their chlorination for the purpose of biological purification can result in forming of chloroform. Unfortunately, there are only poor data about containing of chloroform in drinking water in the Republic, however the particular problem is to develop new methods of drinking water purification from chloroform, taking into account the high toxicity of this compounds. Appropriate works indicate that radiation-chemical processing can mostly reduce the concentration of chloroform in drinking water. The purification degree can achieve 95-98%. This work studies the tendency of chloroform decomposition at its radiolysis processes in percentage. Taking into account the dissolvability of chloroform in water solutions it can be said that examined water solutions are homogeneous. Following advancements are studied: b Determination of radiation-chemical yield of chloroform decomposition at its various initial concentrations;Impact of adsorbed dose on pH of solutions;Formation of by-products.It is set that radiation-chemical output of chloroform decomposition is equal to 3.10-3-125 mol 100ev.

  13. Chemical Composition of the Semi-Volatile Grains of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, P.; Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H. R.; Berthelier, J. J.; De Keyser, J.; Fiethe, B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gasc, S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Korth, A.; Mall, U.; Reme, H.; Rubin, M.; Tzou, C. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Rosetta was in orbit of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from August 2014 to September 2016. On board is the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) experiment that has been continuously collecting data on the chemical composition and activity of the coma from 3.5 AU to pericentre at 1.24 AU and out again to 3.5 AU. ROSINA consists of two mass spectrometers, the Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer (DFMS) and the Reflectron-type Time-Of-Flight (RTOF), as well as the COmet Pressure Sensor (COPS). ROSINA recorded the neutral gas and thermal plasma in the comet's coma. The two mass spectrometers have high dynamic ranges and complement each other with high mass resolution, and high time resolution and large mass range. COPS measures total gas densities, bulk velocities, and gas temperatures. Occasionally, a dust grain of cometary origin enters the ion source of a ROSINA instrument where the volatile part evaporates since these ion sources are hot. The release of volatiles from cometary dust grains was observed with all three ROSINA instruments on several occasions. Because the volatile content of such a dust grain is completely evaporated after a few seconds, the RTOF instrument is best suited for the investigation of its chemical composition since complete mass spectra are recorded during this time. During the mission 9 dust grains were observed with RTOF during the October 2014 to July 2016 time period. It is estimated that these grains contain about 10-15 g of volatiles. The mass spectra were interpreted with a set of 75 molecules, with the major groups of chemical species being hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons, nitrogen-bearing molecules, sulphur-bearing molecules, halogenated molecules and others. About 70% of these grains are depleted in water compared to the comet coma, thus, can be considered as semi-volatile dust grains, and the other about 30% are water grains. The chemical composition varies considerably from grain to grain

  14. Study on Physical Properties and Chemical Composition of Some Myanmar Gems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyaw Myint Htoo; Tun Khin; Sein Htoon

    2004-05-01

    Physical properties of some Myanmar gems were studied by using refractometer, dichroscope, polariscope, SG test, UV test and microscope. Then, chemical composition were investigated by XRF-technique. After that, gem identification, evaluation, colour improvement were studied according to these physical properties and chemical composition

  15. Chemical composition analysis of simulated waste glass T10-G-16A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    In this report, SRNL provides chemical composition analyses of a simulated LAW glass designated T10-G-16A.The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component. No issues were identified in reviewing the analytical data.

  16. Distribution of Complex Chemicals in Oil-Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad

    condensates, MEG and water has been measured in the temperature range of 275-326 K at atmospheric pressure. The detailed composition of condensates is measured by GC analysis and 85 components are identified up to n-nonane and hundreds of ill-defined components in decane plus fraction. In order to develop...... and tested for such measurements. The mutual solubility of two North Sea condensates, MEG and water has been measured in the temperature range of 275-326 K at atmospheric pressure. The detailed composition of condensates is measured by GC analysis and 85 components are identified up to n-nonane and hundreds...... the mutual solubility of condensate/oil, MEG and water is predicted satisfactorily using the same average kij for MEG-HC pairs and water-HC kij from a generalized correlation as a function of carbon number. The experimental trends in mutual solubility as a function of temperature and MEG content in polar...

  17. Sediment distribution and composition on the shallow water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediments of the shallow water carbonate basin in Zanzibar channel were investigated for composition and grain size distribution. The surface sediment composition was dominated by carbonate sands (with CaCO3 > 30%), except in the area adjacent to mainland coastline and a thin lobe which projects from Ruvu River to ...

  18. Physico-chemical properties of water in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikai, Yuji; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    As a part of safety analysis on ground layer disposal, in order to estimate nuclides migration behavior from engineering shielding materials, it is required to modelize migration process of nuclides in bentonite and chemical species relating to corrosion, to estimate solubility and to specify application condition of geochemical calculation code. In this study, as a part of elucidation of nuclide migration process, physico-chemical properties of water in bentonite and montmorillonite using steam pressure method were determined. As a result, following items were found: (1) Even if 1/3 of water in bentonite is near free water, it is far from a region dealable with dilute solution in the electrolyte solution theory. And, (2) the water in bentonite has generally small activity in comparison with dilute solution, then has smaller solubility than estimation value of calculation code. (G.K.)

  19. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MUSCLE AFTER POLLEN APPLICATION IN NUTRITION OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE Principle purpose of this study was to monitor the chemical composition of breast and thigh muscular part of chickens of hybrid combination Ross 308 and to verify the differences due to use of pollen extract in feed mixture at a dose of 400 and 800 mg.kg-1 during the feeding of 42 days. We did not find significant differences (P≥0.05 in followed chemical compounds of thigh muscle with the skin and subcutaneous fat between the groups with and without application of pollen extract: in contents of water (68.49-70.12 g.100g-1, protein (18.82-18.98 g.100g-1, fat (9.96-11.53 g.100g-1 and in energy value (692.20-752.36 kJ.100g-1. Significant differences (P≤0.05 were found only in protein content of breast muscle between the control group (23.96 g.100g-1 and experimental group I (23.28 g.100g-1. Values of water content (73.97-74.32 g.100g-1, fat content (1.07-1.40 g.100g-1 and energy (441.65-446.64 kJ.100g-1 in breast muscle between the evaluated groups were balanced (P≥0.05. The results show that pollen extract at the concentration used in feed mixture did not effect basic chemical composition of the most valuable parts of the chicken Ross 308 carcass and we can apply it in their nutrition. Application at a dose of 800 mg.kg-1 seems to be more positive.doi:10.5219/190

  20. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  1. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Iranian Propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrouzan, Houshang; Tahghighi, Azar; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Es-haghi, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background: With considering the importance of natural products for their remedial and therapeutic value, this research was aimed to analyze the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of four propolis samples from different areas of Iran (Chenaran, Taleghan, Morad Beyg, and Kalaleh) with various climates and flora. Methods: Ethanolic (70% EtOH) and dichlromethane (DCM) extracts of Iranian propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods, and antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion antimicrobial method. Results: The results of GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fatty acids, flavonoids, terpenes, aromatic-aliphatic acids, and their related esters. The total flavonoids in DCM extract of Chenaran, Taleghan, Morad Beyg, and Kalaleh propolis were pinocembrin and pinostrobin chalcone. The common phenolic and terpene compounds detected in all four tested EtOH extracts were P-cumaric acid and dimethyl -1,3,5,6-tetramethyl-[1,3-(13C2)] bicycloce [5.5.0] dodeca-1,3,5,6,8,10-hexaene-9,10-dicarboxylate, respectively. The highest inhibitory diameter zone of the Iranian propolis against C. albicans, E. coli, and S. aureus was for DCM extract of Kalaleh propolis (13.33 mm), Morad Beyg propolis (12 mm), and Kalaleh (11.67 mm), respectively. Conclusion: Iranian propolis showed antimicrobial activities against C. albicans, E. coli, and S. aurous, perhaps due to the presence of flavonoids, phenolic acids, and terpenes as active components that can be used alone or in combination with the selected antibiotics to synergize antibiotic effect, as well as to prevent microbial resistance to available antimicrobial drugs. PMID:28558440

  2. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of berry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajčić Slađana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main chemical composition, contents of total phenolic (TPh, total flavonoid (TF, and total monomeric anthocyianin (TMA, as well as the antioxidant activity of two raspberry cultivars (Meeker and Willamette, two blackberry cultivars (Čačanska bestrna and Thornfree and wild bilberry were studied. The raspberry cultivars had the highest total solids among fruits investigated. Bilberry fruits had the highest sugar-to-acid ratio. Blackberry fruits were richer in crude fibers (cellulose in comparison to raspberry and bilberry fruits. The content of pectic substances was highest in the bilberry. Also, bilberry had a highest content of TPh (808.12 mg GAE/100 g FW, TF (716.31 mg RE/100 g FW and TMA (447.83 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as the EC50 value (in mg of fresh weight of berry fruit per ml of the reaction mixture, of bilberry (0.3157 ± 0.0145 mg/ml was the highest. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW bilberry, raspberry - Willamette, raspberry - Meeker, blackberry - Čačanska bestrna and blackberry - Thornfree is equivalent to 576.50 mg, 282.74 mg, 191.58 mg, 222.28 mg and 272.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities and content of total phenolics (RTPh 2=0.9627, flavonoids (RTF 2=0.9598 and anthocyanins (RTMA 2=0.9496 in berry fruits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  3. Chemical composition and antimicrobial evaluation of Achillea aucheri essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The majority of the Achillea spp. are used as medicinal plants with therapeutic applications worldwide. Achillea aucheri was selected in our study to assess its essential oil chemical composition along with antimicrobial evaluation. Methods: The essential oil of A. aucheri achieved through hydrodistillation, was analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Afterwards, the microbial growth inhibitory property of the A. aucheri essential oil was determined using the agar disk-diffusion method against five Gram-positive strains (Staphylococus aureus, Staphylococus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, three Gram-negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Psedumonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and a fungus (Candida albicans. Besides, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the sensitive strains were determined by broth dilution method to evaluate the inhibitory properties.Results: The GC-MS analysis, allowed us to identify 28 compounds, representing 98.1% of the total essential oil. The main components of the oil were identified as α-thujone (45.6%, artemisia alcohol (26.5% and yomogi alcohol (8.8%. The findings of the antimicrobial assay indicated that S. aureus was the most sensitive strain with the strongest inhibition zone of 31.5 ± 0.5 and MIC of 2.5 % v/v, followed by S. epidermidis and M. luteus, respectively.Conclusion: Overall, A. aucheri essential oil possessed potential antibacterial and antioxidant activities that could be attributed to the high content of oxygenated monoterpenes present in the oil which requisite for further exploration of the compounds in charge, considering the growing statistics of bacterial resistance worldwide.

  4. Antidiabetic Activity and Chemical Composition of Sanbai Melon Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haili; Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Ya; Qiu, Pengcheng; Li, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Many fruits and herbs had been used in Traditional Chinese Medicines for treating diabetes mellitus (DM); however, scientific and accurate evidences regarding their efficacy and possible mechanisms were largely unknown. Sanbai melon seed oil (SMSO) was used in folk medicine in treating DM, but there is no literature about these effects. The present study was aimed at confirming the treatment effects of SMSO in type 1 DM. Methods Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 65 mg/kg body weight. After diabetes induction, mice were treated with SMSO at dose of 1 g/kg, 2 g/kg, and 4 g/kg. Drugs were given by gavage administration once a day continuously for 28 days. At the end of treatment, several biochemical parameters and molecular mechanisms were determined by biochemical assays, ELISA, and Western blotting. The chemical compositions of SMSO were also tested. Results SMSO treatment significantly improved the symptoms of weight loss, polydipsia, reduced FBG level, increased plasma insulin levels, reduced plasma lipids levels, and protected islet injury. The results also showed that SMSO mitigated oxidative stress and alleviated the liver and renal injury in diabetes mice. SMSO also protected islet cells from apoptotic damage by suppressing ER mediated and mitochondrial dependent apoptotic pathways. Further constituent analysis results showed that SMSO had rich natural resources which had beneficial effects on DM. Conclusions This study showed that SMSO had excellent antidiabetes effect and provided scientific basis for the use of SMSO as the functional ingredients production and dietary supplements production in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:29853958

  5. Classification Characteristics of Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Chemical Vapor Detectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hinshaw, Huynh A

    2006-01-01

    .... This is accomplished by the detection and identification of chemical agents. The Air Force has several instruments to detect chemical vapors, but is always looking for lighter, faster, and more accurate technology for a better capability...

  6. [The characteristics of chemical composition of content of unicameral bone cysts depending on their growth stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogov, M V; Luneva, S N; Mitrofanov, A I; Tkachuk, E A

    2012-11-01

    The article deals with the results of study of chemical composition of solitary cysts and blood serum of 27 patients. The results demonstrated that qualitative composition of f content of unicameral bone cysts is identical to chemical composition of blood serum. The results of analysis of total proteolysis activity and acid phosphatase activity in content of cysts can be used as criteria to determine the stage of cyst growth and to evaluate the effectiveness of applied treatment.

  7. ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE HR 4796A DEBRIS DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Weinberger, Alycia; Stark, Christopher C.; Debes, John H.; Chen, Christine; Hinz, Philip M.; Close, Laird; Smith, Paul S.; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Follette, Katherine B.; Morzinski, Katie; Wu, Ya-Lin; Schneider, Glenn; Puglisi, Alfio; Briguglio, Runa; Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Riccardi, Armando; Xompero, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present resolved images of the HR 4796A debris disk using the Magellan adaptive optics system paired with Clio-2 and VisAO. We detect the disk at 0.77 μm, 0.91 μm, 0.99 μm, 2.15 μm, 3.1 μm, 3.3 μm, and 3.8 μm. We find that the deprojected center of the ring is offset from the star by 4.76 ± 1.6 AU and that the deprojected eccentricity is 0.06 ± 0.02, in general agreement with previous studies. We find that the average width of the ring is 14 −2 +3 % (11.1 −1.6 +2.4  AU), also comparable to previous measurements. Combining our new scattered light data with archival Hubble Space Telescope images at ∼0.5-2 μm, along with previously unpublished Spitzer/MIPS thermal emission data and all other literature thermal data, we set out to constrain the chemical composition of the dust grains. After testing 19 individual root compositions and more than 8400 unique mixtures of these compositions, we find that good fits to the scattered light alone and thermal emission alone are discrepant, suggesting that caution should be exercised if fitting to only one or the other. When we fit to both data sets simultaneously, we find that silicates and organics are generally the most favored, while large abundances of water ice are usually not favored. These results suggest the HR 4796A dust grains are similar to interstellar dust and solar system comets, though improved modeling is necessary to place better constraints on the exact chemical composition of the dust

  8. ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE HR 4796A DEBRIS DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Weinberger, Alycia [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Stark, Christopher C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Debes, John H.; Chen, Christine [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hinz, Philip M.; Close, Laird; Smith, Paul S.; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Follette, Katherine B.; Morzinski, Katie; Wu, Ya-Lin; Schneider, Glenn [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Puglisi, Alfio; Briguglio, Runa; Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Riccardi, Armando; Xompero, Marco, E-mail: trodigas@carnegiescience.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy)

    2015-01-10

    We present resolved images of the HR 4796A debris disk using the Magellan adaptive optics system paired with Clio-2 and VisAO. We detect the disk at 0.77 μm, 0.91 μm, 0.99 μm, 2.15 μm, 3.1 μm, 3.3 μm, and 3.8 μm. We find that the deprojected center of the ring is offset from the star by 4.76 ± 1.6 AU and that the deprojected eccentricity is 0.06 ± 0.02, in general agreement with previous studies. We find that the average width of the ring is 14{sub −2}{sup +3}% (11.1{sub −1.6}{sup +2.4} AU), also comparable to previous measurements. Combining our new scattered light data with archival Hubble Space Telescope images at ∼0.5-2 μm, along with previously unpublished Spitzer/MIPS thermal emission data and all other literature thermal data, we set out to constrain the chemical composition of the dust grains. After testing 19 individual root compositions and more than 8400 unique mixtures of these compositions, we find that good fits to the scattered light alone and thermal emission alone are discrepant, suggesting that caution should be exercised if fitting to only one or the other. When we fit to both data sets simultaneously, we find that silicates and organics are generally the most favored, while large abundances of water ice are usually not favored. These results suggest the HR 4796A dust grains are similar to interstellar dust and solar system comets, though improved modeling is necessary to place better constraints on the exact chemical composition of the dust.

  9. Chemical composition of aerosol in the atmospheric surface layer of the East Antarctica coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Golobokova

    2016-01-01

    contributions of the continental and maritime factors to formation of the aerosol chemical composition revealed higher enrichment ratios for K+, Ca2+, SO4 2− (K = 3.6÷13.0. This reflects not only influence of the natural sources, but the intensity of human activities on the Antarctic continent as well. The elemental composition of solid aerosols was also analyzed. The largest concentrations were determined for Zn, Al and Fe. The ratio of concentration of the elements in both the soluble and insoluble phases of the aerosol showed that 84.1% of the total amount of the elements was contained in a water-insoluble state. Fractional relation between the element concentrations changed in different phases from 16 to 98%. High enrichment of the aerosol particles by Zn, Cu, Cr, Ba, Pb, Ni,Se, As, Cd (the enrichment factors = 27÷26 445 had been revealed. The content of dominant chemical components (Na+, Cl−, Zn, Fe, factors and coefficients of the element enrichment in the aerosols as well as in fresh snow of the coastal zone of East Antarctica are indicative of the identity of sources where their composition is formed.

  10. Microbiological and chemical assessment of spring water from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of spring water from Ikare-Akoko, a rural setting in southwest, Nigeria for microbial and chemical contaminants was carried out. Total heterotrophic bacteria count of 4.0 x 106 CFU/mL was highest during the peak of the rainy season in Omi-idu spring (Igbede community) while the lowest population of 0.14 x106 ...

  11. Tracks FAQs: What Chemicals Are In My Drinking Water?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC Tracking experts discuss how you can use the Tracking Network to determine what chemicals are in your drinking water. Do you have a question for our Tracking experts? Please e-mail questions to trackingsupport@cdc.gov.

  12. 3.4. Chemical additives and granulometric composition influence on soils armed by cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, D.Kh.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of this work was to evaluate an influence of various chemical additives on soils armed by portland cement. Experimental research of kinetics of soil cements structure formation after adding the chemicals was carried out. According to the investigations it was determined that structure formation process of soil cements depended on granulometric composition of armed soil, cement quantity, type and quantity of chemical additives.

  13. Radiation-chemical degradation of chloroform in water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, S.A.; Gurbanov, M.A.; Iskenderova, Z.I.; Abdullayev, E.T.; Ibadov, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Chloroform is the major chlorine-containing compound forming at chlorination of drinking water. As our basic water resources of Kur and Araz rivers are mostly polluted along the territory of the neighbour republics their chlorination for the purpose of biological purification can result in forming of chloroform. Unfortunately, there are only poor data about containing of chloroform in drinking water in the Republic, however the particular problem is to develop new methods of drinking water purification from chloroform, taking into account the high toxicity of this compounds. Appropriate works indicate that radiation-chemical processing can mostly reduce the concentration of chloroform in drinking water. The purification degree can achieve 95-98 percent. This work studies the tendency of chloroform decomposition at its radiolysis processes in water solutions. The concentration of chloroform changed in the range of 0,03-1 weight percentage. Taking into account the dissolvability of chloroform in water solutions it can be said that examined water solutions are homogeneous. Following advancements are studied: 1) Determination of radiation-chemical yield of chloroform decomposition at its various initial concentrations; 2) Impact of adsorbed dose on pH of solutions; 3) Formation of by-products. It is set that radiation-chemical output of chloroform decomposition is equal to 3 * 10 - 3 - 125 mol/100 ev. The high yield of chloroform decomposition can be connected with the chain process of oxidation with presence of dissolved oxygen. However, taking into account the fact that at its water radiolysis the yield of active particles of OH, e - aq, H-atoms does not exceed 6-7 particles/100 ev, the observed high yield can be explained only with the chain process with presence of dissolved oxygen

  14. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content

    OpenAIRE

    López-López, I.; Cofrades, Susana; Cañeque, V.; Díaz, M. Teresa; López, O.; Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P

  15. Permafrost conditions in peatlands regulate magnitude, timing, and chemical composition of catchment dissolved organic carbon export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefeldt, David; Roulet, Nigel T

    2014-10-01

    Permafrost thaw in peatlands has the potential to alter catchment export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and thus influence downstream aquatic C cycling. Subarctic peatlands are often mosaics of different peatland types, where permafrost conditions regulate the hydrological setting of each type. We show that hydrological setting is key to observed differences in magnitude, timing, and chemical composition of DOC export between permafrost and nonpermafrost peatland types, and that these differences influence the export of DOC of larger catchments even when peatlands are minor catchment components. In many aspects, DOC export from a studied peatland permafrost plateau was similar to that of a forested upland catchment. Similarities included low annual export (2-3 g C m(-2) ) dominated by the snow melt period (~70%), and how substantial DOC export following storms required wet antecedent conditions. Conversely, nonpermafrost fens had higher DOC export (7 g C m(-2) ), resulting from sustained hydrological connectivity during summer. Chemical composition of catchment DOC export arose from the mixing of highly aromatic DOC from organic soils from permafrost plateau soil water and upland forest surface horizons with nonaromatic DOC from mineral soil groundwater, but was further modulated by fens. Increasing aromaticity from fen inflow to outlet was substantial and depended on both water residence time and water temperature. The role of fens as catchment biogeochemical hotspots was further emphasized by their capacity for sulfate retention. As a result of fen characteristics, a 4% fen cover in a mixed catchment was responsible for 34% higher DOC export, 50% higher DOC concentrations and ~10% higher DOC aromaticity at the catchment outlet during summer compared to a nonpeatland upland catchment. Expansion of fens due to thaw thus has potential to influence landscape C cycling by increasing fen capacity to act as biogeochemical hotspots, amplifying aquatic C cycling, and

  16. Microstructure, chemical composition and mucilage exudation of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) nutlets from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Marianela I; Ixtaina, Vanesa Y; Nolasco, Susana M; Tomás, Mabel C

    2013-12-01

    The micromorphology and anatomy of nutlets, myxocarpy (mucilage exudation) and mucilage structure of Argentinean chia were described using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proximal composition of nutlets and mucilage was also studied. Chia nutlets are made up of a true seed and a pericarp enclosing the seed; they are small, glabrous, elliptic and apically rounded. The pericarp has cuticle, exocarp, mesocarp and bone cells vertically arranged and endocarp. The myxocarpy was carefully recorded by SEM. After 5 min in contact with water, the cuticle of nutlets is broken and the exocarp cell content gradually surrounds the rest of the nutlet. The proximal composition of chia nutlets was studied; fat is the major component (327 ± 8.0 g kg(-1)) followed by protein (293 ± 4.0 g kg(-1)) and fiber (276 ± 1.0 g kg(-1)). Extractions of chia nutlets with water at room temperature yielded 38 ± 1.0 g kg(-1) (dry basis) of mucilage. The fresh mucilage structure was similar to a network of open pores. The freeze-dried crude mucilage contained more ash, residual fat and protein than commercial guar and locust bean gum. The solubility of 10.0 g L(-1) w/v solution of chia freeze-dried crude mucilage in water increased with temperature, being maximal at 60 °C (870 g kg(-1)). The results obtained show a fast exudation of chia mucilage when nutlets are in contact with water. The freeze-dried crude mucilage hydrates easily in water, even at low temperatures. Chia nutlets have mucilaginous substances, with interesting functional properties from a technological and physiological point of view. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The General Laws of Chemical Elements Composition Dynamics in the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzh, Vyacheslav D.

    2013-04-01

    The key point of investigation of the specificity of the biosphere elemental composition formation is determination of patterns of redistribution of elemental average concentrations among various phases, like solid - liquid ( the lithosphere - the hydrosphere), which occurs as a result of a global continuous processing of inert matter by living substances. Our task here is to investigate this process in the system "lithosphere - hydrosphere" in view of the integrated involvement of living material in it. This process is most active in biogeochemical barriers, i.e. in places of "the life condensation" and runs under a nonlinear regularity that has been unknown before. It is established that this process results in a general relative increase in concentrations of chemical elements in the solid phase in proportion as their prevalence in the environment is reduced. This process running in various natural systems has practically the same parameter of nonlinearity (v) approximately equal to 0.7. For proto-lithosphere -"living material" - soil v = 0.75. For river - "living material" - ocean v = 0.67. For the contemporary factual awareness level these estimations of nonlinearity indices are practically negligible. Hence, it is for the first time that the existence of a universal constant of nonlinearity of elemental composition evolution in the biosphere has been proved and its quantitative evaluation has been made. REFERENCES 1. Korzh V.D. 1974. Some general laws governing the turnover of substance within the ocean-atmosphere-continent-ocean cycle. // Journal de Recherches Atmospheriques. Vol. 8. P. 653-660. 2. Korzh V.D. 2008. The general laws in the formation of the elemental composition of the Hydrosphere and Biosphere.// J. Ecologica, Vol. XV, P. 13-21. 3. Korzh V.D. 2012. Determination of general laws of elemental composition in Hydrosphere // Water: chemistry & ecology, Journal of water science and its practical application. # 1, P.56-62.

  18. Stable isotopic composition of East African lake waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odada, E.O.

    2001-01-01

    The investigation of stable isotopic composition of East African lake waters was conducted by scientists from the Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, as part of the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) project and in close collaboration with the scientists from Large Lakes Observatory of the University of Minnesota and the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of the IAEA in Vienna. The Research Contract was part of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations, and was sponsored by the Agency. Water and grab sediment samples were obtained from East African Lakes during the month of January and February 1994 and July/August 1995. Water samples were analysed for oxygen and deuterium isotopic composition at the IAEA Laboratories in Vienna, Austria. In this final paper we report the results of the study of oxygen and deuterium isotopic composition from the East African lake waters. (author)

  19. A physico-chemical characterisation technique for determining the pore-water chemistry in argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.H.

    1991-09-01

    A prerequisite for carrying out credible sorption studies is the definition of an aqueous phase composition which is in equilibrium with the solid phase. Experimental methods and data analysis procedures are described which enable an equilibrium water composition to be produced for argillaceous rocks which is not dependent on liquid to solid (L:S) ratios. Since a Valanginian marl formation is under consideration by Nagra as a potential rock for the disposal of low and short-lived medium level radioactive waste in Switzerland, samples of this material were chosen for this investigation. Aqueous phase and nickel ethylenediamine extraction experiments were carried out at different L:S ratios under controlled atmosphere conditions (P CO 2 =10 -2 bar, O 2 ≤ 5 ppm ). The results from these tests and petrographical examinations were combined to define the system in terms of the physico-chemical characteristics of the clay mineral component (CEC and cation occupancies) and the identities of highly soluble and solubility limited phases in the marl. The geochemical code PHREEQE was used in conjunction with the Gapon equations to calculate the pore water composition. This work clearly showed that pore water chemistries obtained from aqueous extracts alone may lead to an arbitrary water chemistry in argillaceous rock systems, particularly with respect to ionic composition and ionic strength, which may have important consequences for radionuclide speciation and sorption studies. (author) 11 figs., 12 tabs., 25 refs

  20. Composites Based on Polytetrafluoroethylene and Detonation Nanodiamonds: Filler-Matrix Chemical Interaction and Its Effect on a Composite's Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshcheev, A. P.; Perov, A. A.; Gorokhov, P. V.; Zaripov, N. V.; Tereshenkov, A. V.; Khatipov, S. A.

    2018-06-01

    Specific properties of PTFE composites filled with ultradisperse detonation diamonds (UDDs) with different surface chemistries are studied. It is found for the first time that filler in the form of UDDs affects not only the rate of PTFE thermal decomposition in vacuum pyrolysis, but also the chemical composition of the products of degradation. The wear resistance of UDD/PTFE composites is shown to depend strongly on the UDD surface chemistry. The presence of UDDs in a PTFE composite is found to result in perfluorocarbon telomeres, released as a readily condensable fraction upon composite pyrolysis. The chemical interaction between PTFE and UDDs, characterized by an increase in the rate of gas evolution and a change in the desorbed gas's composition, is found to occur at temperature as low as 380°C. It is shown that the intensity of this interaction depends on the concentration of oxygen-containing surface groups, the efficiency of UDDs in terms of the composite's wear resistance being reduced due to the presence of these groups. Based on the experimental data, a conclusion is reached about the chemical interaction between UDDs and a PTFE matrix, its dependence on the nanodiamond surface chemistry, and its effect on a composite's tribology.

  1. Long-Term Chemical Resistance of Ecological Epoxy Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardeta Debska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Resin concretes belong to a small group of building materials which, besides high strength parameters, also have a very good chemical resistance. This is confirmed by the studies carried out by various research institutions around the world. However, there is little data on the behaviour of composite resin exposed to corrosive solutions for an extended period of time. This article presents the results of the research on weight changes in samples of epoxy mortar modified with poly(ethylene terephthalate glycolysates, immersed for 5 years in four different aggressive media i.e. 10% aqueous solutions of sulphuric and nitric acids, sodium hydroxide, and sodium chloride. The actual average weight changes obtained were compared with the data calculated on the basis of the regression functions fitted to the data recorded after 3.5 years of exposure. This allowed verification of the model selection correctness and evaluation of the effectiveness of the fitted regression curve. In the case of aqueous sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride solutions, it can be assumed that the logarithmic model describes weight changes well. It was observed that the weight of the samples exposed to NaCl solutions and NaOH stabilizes over prolonged monitoring time and reaches a plateau. However, the weight changes in mortar samples immersed for 5 years in aqueous solution of sulphuric and nitric acids quite significantly differ from the data calculated on the basis of the trend line fitted to the results of the tests carried out after 3.5 years of exposure. It seems that the better solution in this case is the selection of an exponential model. In addition, placing the logarithmic trendlines for all corrosive media together on a chart allows to note which of the solutions is the most aggressive. It was found that after 5 years of immersion in aqueous solutions of acids, mortar samples became brittle, and the observation of their fractures confirmed the weakness of the

  2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ENERGY VALUE IN THE MEAT OF THE MACEDONIAN AND OHRID TROUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar SAVESKI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to conduct a comparative analysis and to verify the quality properties of meat of the Macedonian trout (Salmo macedonicus and the Ohrid trout (Salmo letnica, from aquaculture production, bred on a fish farm under controlled conditions. In order to determine the quality of meat of the Macedonian and Ohrid trout, analyses of the chemical composition have been conducted: the amount of proteins, fat, water, minerals, as well as a determination of the energy value of the meat. The analyses have been made on samples from Macedonian and Ohrid trout, with size of consumption between 200g and 300g. By these analyses, it has been confirmed that in the meat of the Macedonian trout, the amount of water is 77.122%, 17.800% proteins, 3.333% fat and 1.667% minerals, whereas in the meat of the Ohrid trout 75.923% water, 16.783% proteins, 5.403% fat and 1.080% minerals. Though the established difference in the amount of water and fat is not significant, the differences determined in the contents of proteins and minerals are significant on a level p>0,05. The energy value of Macedonian trout meat is 435.29 KJ/100gm, i.e. and 498.49 KJ/100gm in the Ohrid trout meat.

  3. Thermo-mineral waters of Hammam Meskoutine (north-east Algeria: Composition and origin of mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benamara Abdelwaheb

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The extreme north-eastern Algeria, in particular the Guelma city conceals thermal springs, whose waters circulating at great depths allow the rain-waters to warm up (according to the average geothermal gradient of 1°C per 33 m and to acquire a mineralization which depends on the traversed rock. The goal of this research work was to determine mineralization origin of the thermo-mineral waters of Hammam Meskoutine (Algerian N-E. A hydro-chemical study involved analyses of a number of physical and chemical parameters of waters such as: temperature, hydrogen potential, electrolytical conductivity, Cl-, SO4 2-, HCO3 -, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+. The data processing on the diagram revealed two dominating chemical facies: sulphate-magnesium and bicarbonate magnesium. With a high conductivity in excess of 2300 μS·cm-1, the temperature reaches 97°C. Calculation of the saturation index shows that the waters are supersaturated in carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite and aragonite and less saturated with evaporite minerals (halite, anhydrite, sylvite and gypsum. The reconstitution in dissolved salts reveals a dominant salt rich in calcium bicarbonates, in calcium sulphates and secondarily in magnesium salts. Geological sections used in the study zone affirm that the chemical composition of the spring waters comes from the neritic limestone dissolution and the gypso-saline complex of Hammam Meskoutine.

  4. Stress corrosion crack initiation of alloy 182 weld metal in primary coolant - Influence of chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calonne, O.; Foucault, M.; Steltzlen, F. [AREVA (France); Amzallag, C. [EDF SEPTEN (France)

    2011-07-01

    Nickel-base alloys 182 and 82 have been used extensively for dissimilar metal welds. Typical applications are the J-groove welds of alloy 600 vessel head penetrations, pressurizer penetrations, heater sleeves and bottom mounted instrumented nozzles as well as some safe end butt welds. While the overall performance of these weld metals has been good, during the last decade, an increasing number of cases of stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 182 weld metal have been reported in PWRs. In this context, the role of weld defects has to be examined. Their contribution in the crack initiation mechanism requires laboratory investigations with small scale characterizations. In this study, the influence of both alloy composition and weld defects on PWSCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking in Primary Water) initiation was investigated using U-bend specimens in simulated primary water at 320 C. The main results are the following: -) the chemical compositions of the weld deposits leading to a large propensity to hot cracking are not the most susceptible to PWSCC initiation, -) macroscopically, superficial defects did not evolve during successive exposures. They can be included in large corrosion cracks but their role as 'precursors' is not yet established. (authors)

  5. Physico-chemical studies of gamma-irradiated polyester. Impregnated cement mortar composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.R.; Afifi, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of impregnation time on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of polyester-cement mortar composite has been investigated. The samples were soaked in unsaturated polyester resin containing 40% styrene monomer at impregnation times ranging from 1-15 hours and then exposed to 50 kGy of γ-irradiation. The effects on polymer loading, compressive strength, apparent porosity, and water absorption in addition to IR spectra and TGA of the samples were studied. It was found that, the polymer loading and compressive strength increase with the increased of soaking time up to 4 hours and there is no significant improvement of the polymer loading and strength. Whereas, the apparent porosity and water absorption behave in an opposite direction. These are attributed to the presence of polymer in the pores of the samples. IR spectra showed that, new bands appeared as result of the reaction between polyester and set cement. TGA showed that, the polyester cement composite has higher thermal stability as a compared to irradiated polyester. (author)

  6. Interactive effects of chemical and biological controls on food-web composition in saline prairie lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ryan N; Wissel, Björn

    2012-11-27

    Salinity is restricting habitatability for many biota in prairie lakes due to limited physiological abilities to cope with increasing osmotic stress. Yet, it remains unclear how salinity effects vary among major taxonomic groups and what role other environmental parameters play in shaping food-web composition. To answer these questions, we sampled fish, zooplankton and littoral macroinvertebrates in 20 prairie lakes (Saskatchewan, Canada) characterized by large gradients in water chemistry and lake morphometry. We showed that salinity thresholds differed among major taxonomic groups, as most fishes were absent above salinities of 2 g L-1, while littoral macroinvertebrates were ubiquitous. Zooplankton occurred over the whole salinity range, but changed taxonomic composition as salinity increased. Subsequently, the complexity of fish community (diversity) was associated with large changes in invertebrate communities. The directional changes in invertebrate communities to smaller taxa indicated that complex fish assemblages resulted in higher predation pressure. Most likely, as the complexity of fish community decreased, controls of invertebrate assemblages shifted from predation to competition and ultimately to productivity in hypersaline lakes. Surprisingly, invertebrate predators did not thrive in the absence of fishes in these systems. Furthermore, the here identified salinity threshold for fishes was too low to be a result of osmotic stress. Hence, winterkill was likely an important factor eliminating fishes in low salinity lakes that had high productivity and shallow water depth. Ultimately, while salinity was crucial, intricate combinations of chemical and biological mechanisms also played a major role in controlling the assemblages of major taxonomic groups in prairie lakes.

  7. Evolution of chemical composition of fogwater in winter in Chengdu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongling; Ye, Zhixiang; Yang, Yingchun; Yuan, Wei; Qiu, Changyan; Yuan, Huawei; Wang, Min; Li, Shiping; Zou, Changwu

    2013-09-01

    Two sampling sites representing the urban and suburban area of Chengdu, China were sampled and analyzed for selected chemicals to characterize the evolution of the chemical composition of fogwater. A trend of total organic carbon (TOC) > total nitrogen (TN) > total inorganic carbon (TIC) was observed for both sites. Variation of inorganic ions indicated that inorganic pollutants were not accumulated in the fog. Concentrations of n-alkanes (C11-C37) at the urban site ranged from 7.58 to 27.75 ng/mL while at the suburban site concentrations were 2.57-21.55 ng/mL. The highest concentration of n-alkanes was observed in the mature period of fog (393.12 ng/mL) which was more than ten times that in the fog formation period (27.83 ng/mL) and the fog dissipation period (14.87 ng/mL). Concentrations of Sigma15PAHs were in the range of 7.27-38.52 ng/mL at the urban site and 2.59-22.69 ng/mL at the suburban site. Contents of PAHs in the mature period of fog (27.15 ng/mL) > fog dissipation period (11.59 ng/mL) > fog formation period (6.42 ng/mL). Concentrations of dicarboxylic acids (C5-C9) ranged from 10.92 to 40.78 ng/mL, with glutaric acid (C5) as the dominant dicarboxylic acid. These data provide strong indications of the accumulation of certain organic chemicals of environmental concern in fog and fog water, and provide additional insights about processes in urban and suburban air acting on organic chemicals with similar physical chemical properties.

  8. Modeling relations between the composition and properties of French light water reactor waste containment glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaleb, D.; Dussossoy, J.L.; Fillet, C.; Pacaud, F.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-01-01

    Models have been developed to calculate the density, molten-state viscosity and initial corrosion rate according to the chemical composition of glass formulations used to vitrify high-level fission product solutions from reprocessed light water reactor fuel. Developed from other published work, these models have been adapted to allow for the effects of platinoid (Ru, Pd, Rh) inclusions on the molten glass rheology. (authors). 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  9. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8.21 %), bornene (8.02 %), and β-thujone (7.31 %) [10]. This suggests that the oil composition of these plants differs according to location and growth stage [10,11]. Thus, the composition of this essential oil must be standardized prior to its.

  10. Designing of the chemical composition of steels basing on the hardenability of constructional steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Sitek, W.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the original method of modelling of the relationships between chemical composition of alloy constructional steel and its hardenability, employing neural networks. Basing on the experimental results of the hardenability investigations, which employed Jominy method, the model of the neural networks was developed and fully verified experimentally. The model makes it possible to obtain Jominy hardenability curves basing on the steel chemical composition. The model of neural networks, making it possible to design the steel chemical composition, basing on the known Jominy hardenability curve shape, was developed also and fully verified numerically. (author)

  11. Prediction of chemical composition of South African Medicago sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict chemical and digestibility parameters was investigated. Samples (n = 168) representing the spectral characteristics of the South African. Medicago sativa L. hay population were chemically analysed for the development of calibration equations. Values for r² and ...

  12. Chemical composition of lipopolysaccharides isolated from various endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Herbaspirillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato, R V; Sassaki, G L; Cruz, L M; Carlson, R W; Muszyński, A; Monteiro, R A; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M; Iacomini, M

    2010-04-01

    Bacteria from the genus Herbaspirillum are endophytes responsible for nitrogen fixation in gramineous plants of economic importance such as maize, sugarcane, sorghum, rice, and wheat. Some species are known to produce plant growth substances. In contrast, Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans strains are known to be mild plant pathogens. The molecular communication between the plant and the microbes might involve lipopolysaccharides present in the outer membrane of these gram-negative bacteria. Phenol-water extraction was used to obtain lipopolysaccharides from 7 strains of Herbaspirillum seropedicae (SmR1, Z67, Z78, ZA95, and M2) and H. rubrisubalbicans (M1 and M4). The electrophoretic profiles and chemical composition of the lipopolysaccharides obtained in the phenol and aqueous extracts were shown herein.

  13. The effect of water on thermal stresses in polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Roy M.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of the thermodynamic theory of mixtures and continuum thermochemistry are reviewed for a mixture of condensed water and polymer. A specific mixture which is mechanically elastic with temperature and water concentration gradients present is considered. An expression for the partial pressure of water in the mixture is obtained based on certain assumptions regarding the thermodynamic state of the water in the mixture. Along with a simple diffusion equation, this partial pressure expression may be used to simulate the thermostructural behavior of polymer composite materials due to water in the free volumes of the polymer. These equations are applied to a specific polymer composite material during isothermal heating conditions. The thermal stresses obtained by the application of the theory are compared to measured results to verify the accuracy of the approach.

  14. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  15. Biological responses to the chemical recovery of acidified fresh waters in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteith, D.T. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: d.monteith@geog.ucl.ac.uk; Hildrew, A.G. [School of Biological Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Flower, R.J. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom); Raven, P.J. [Environment Agency, Rio House, Waterside Drive, Aztec West, Almondsbury, Bristol, BS32 4UD (United Kingdom); Beaumont, W.R.B. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Dorset, Winfrith Technology Centre, Winfrith, Newburgh, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8ZD (United Kingdom); Collen, P. [Fisheries Research Services, Freshwater Laboratory, Faskally, Pitlochry, Perthshire, PH16 5LB (United Kingdom); Kreiser, A.M. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom); Shilland, E.M. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom); Winterbottom, J.H. [School of Biological Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-15

    We report biological changes at several UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network lakes and streams that are spatially consistent with the recovery of water chemistry induced by reductions in acid deposition. These include trends toward more acid-sensitive epilithic diatom and macroinvertebrate assemblages, an increasing proportional abundance of macroinvertebrate predators, an increasing occurrence of acid-sensitive aquatic macrophyte species, and the recent appearance of juvenile (<1 year old) brown trout in some of the more acidic flowing waters. Changes are often shown to be directly linked to annual variations in acidity. Although indicative of biological improvement in response to improving water chemistry, 'recovery' in most cases is modest and very gradual. While specific ecological recovery endpoints are uncertain, it is likely that physical and biotic interactions are influencing the rate of recovery of certain groups of organisms at particular sites. - Recently observed changes in the species composition of UK lakes and streams are consistent with chemical recovery from acidification.

  16. Biological responses to the chemical recovery of acidified fresh waters in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteith, D.T.; Hildrew, A.G.; Flower, R.J.; Raven, P.J.; Beaumont, W.R.B.; Collen, P.; Kreiser, A.M.; Shilland, E.M.; Winterbottom, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    We report biological changes at several UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network lakes and streams that are spatially consistent with the recovery of water chemistry induced by reductions in acid deposition. These include trends toward more acid-sensitive epilithic diatom and macroinvertebrate assemblages, an increasing proportional abundance of macroinvertebrate predators, an increasing occurrence of acid-sensitive aquatic macrophyte species, and the recent appearance of juvenile (<1 year old) brown trout in some of the more acidic flowing waters. Changes are often shown to be directly linked to annual variations in acidity. Although indicative of biological improvement in response to improving water chemistry, 'recovery' in most cases is modest and very gradual. While specific ecological recovery endpoints are uncertain, it is likely that physical and biotic interactions are influencing the rate of recovery of certain groups of organisms at particular sites. - Recently observed changes in the species composition of UK lakes and streams are consistent with chemical recovery from acidification

  17. Recycling of carbon fibre reinforced composites using water in subcritical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yuyan, E-mail: liuyy@hit.edu.cn [Harbin Institute of Technology, No.92 Xidazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Shan Guohua; Meng Linghui [Harbin Institute of Technology, No.92 Xidazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, a method of chemical recycling of thermosetting epoxy composite was discussed. Water was used to be reaction medium and the decomposition of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites was studied. Experiments were devised in order to identify the significant process parameters that affect fibre reinforced composite recovery potential including temperature, time, catalyst, feedstock, and pressure. Experiments were performed in a batch-type reactor without stirring. Under the condition that the temperature was 260 deg. C and the ratio of resin and water was 1:5 g/mL, the decomposition rate could reach 100 wt.% and the carbon fibres were obtained. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements showed that the fibres were clean and no cracks or defects were found. The average tensile strength of the reclaimed fibres was about 98.2% than that of the virgin fibres.

  18. Fabrication of Cf/SiC composite by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju

    2003-07-01

    This technical report reviewed the fabrication process of fiber reinforced ceramic composites, characteristics of the chemical vapor infiltration process, and applications for C f /SiC composite to develop a carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composite. Infiltration process was performed by the chemical vapor infiltration process using methyltrichlorosilane and hydrogen gas as a source and a diluent, respectively. Infiltration behavior, phase analysis, microstructure observation were carried out. Parameter study results of C f /SiC composite fabricated with some variables such as reaction pressure, reaction temperature, input gas ratio and preform thickness were described

  19. New composite fibres for natural and waste waters decontamination from cesium radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Bondar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available New composite adsorbent based on modified polyacrylonitrile fibers is synthesized by in situ deposition of potassium-nickel ferrocyanide layer on the fibers’ surface. It is shown that the ferrocyanide phase forms a compact homogeneous layer on the fibers’ surface consisted of rounded nanoaggregates (∼ 40 - 50 nm. Composite fibers are chemically stable in both acidic and alkaline solutions. Sorption experiments have demonstrated that synthesized fibers are high-selective adsorbents and can be used for the purification of natural waters and high-salt solutions from cesium radionuclides.

  20. Phytotoxic activity and chemical composition of aqueous volatile fractions from Eucalyptus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Zhang

    Full Text Available The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.. The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species.

  1. Phytotoxic Activity and Chemical Composition of Aqueous Volatile Fractions from Eucalyptus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinbiao; An, Min; Wu, Hanwen; Liu, De Li; Stanton, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii) have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.). The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs) were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions) during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species. PMID:24681490

  2. The impact of lignin downregulation on alfalfa yield, chemical composition, and in vitro gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Girma; Laca, Emilio A; Putnam, Daniel H; Witte, Dave; McCaslin, Mark; Ortega, Kara P; DePeters, Edward J

    2018-02-06

    Lignin is a complex, phenolic polymer found in plant cell walls that is essential for mechanical support, water and mineral transport, and defense in vascular plants. Over ten different enzymes play a role in the synthesis of lignin in plants. Suppression of any one enzyme or combinations of these enzymes may change the concentration and composition of lignin in the genetically transformed plants. Two lines of alfalfa that were downregulated for caffeoyl coenzyme A O-methyltransferase were used to assess the impact of lignin downregulation on chemical composition and fermentation rate and extent using an in vitro gas production technique. A total of 64 samples consisting of two reduced lignin (RL) and two controls (CL), four field replicates, two cutting intervals (CIs; 28 and 35 days), and two cuts (Cut-1 and Cut-3) were used. No differences were detected in yield, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (aNDF), and acid detergent fiber between the lines when harvested at the 28-day CI. The acid detergent lignin (ADL) concentration in RL alfalfa lines was significantly (P gas production and metabolizable energy content were greater in RL than in CL alfalfa. RL lines had 3.8% indigestible aNDF per unit ADL, whereas CL had 3.4% (P < 0.01). The positive effect of lignin downregulation was more pronounced when intervals between harvests were longer (35-day CI compared with the 28-day CI). Lignin downregulation in alfalfa offers an opportunity to extend harvesting time (CI) for higher yield without compromising the nutritional quality of the alfalfa forage for dairy and livestock feeding. However, the in vitro results reported here warrant further study using in vivo methods. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY INDICATORS IN BASIN FOREST PARCZEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Grzywna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the characteristics of the chemistry of surface and ground water in the bottom of the river valley reclaimed Ochoza. Drained grassland accounts for 20% of the total catchment area and are located on organic soils in the valley Tyśmienica classified to the Natura 2000 sites. Analysis of physico-chemical properties of water are to assess the effects of anthropogenic transformation and identify factors that influence water quality in the study area. Water samples were collected in the years 2011–2012 in several points. The walls were characterized by surface water stagnant in the trenches, in July, blueberry plantation. Characterized by the highest quality of surface water runoff river with the test object. Occurring here throughout the growing season water flow reed growing on the bed and temporary impoundment of water contribute to the self-cleaning effect of water. Conducted at different times of the growing season (winter, spring, summer, autumn of water chemistry analysis allows to assess the impact of vegetation on the process of self-purification of water. Based on the survey it was found that the river is reduced by 26% BOD 5, COD by 37%, 12% phosphate and potassium by 13%. Concurrently, an increase in the content of nitrogen compounds – ammonia at 27% and 15% nitrate. The increase in the content of nitrogen compounds is particularly evident in the bottom of the object, which is probably associated with the deep trench causing excessive drying of the soil. The highest values of pollutants were recorded mostly in the spring probably due to the outflow of water from the drans.

  4. Change of physical and chemical composition of soil washing out during vegetation season from differently used fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryła, A.; Pierzgalski, E.; Karczmarczyk, A.

    2009-04-01

    oil losses due to water erosion not only decrease of soil fertility but also influence on pollution of water bodies. One of the method for limitation of water erosion process is protected soil management and choose suitable plants which requires knowledge about effect and mechanism of erosion under different environmental conditions. The results of measurements of quantity and quality of soil losses from three experimental plots are given in the article. Plots were located in Experimental Agricultural Station Puczniew in central part of Poland. Surface soil layer on the plots had mechanical composition of medium loam soil. On two plots grass and barley were planted. Third plot was used as fallow and tilled land. Measurements were carried out four times in the period May-October 2007. Physical and chemical composition of washed soil material was analyzed.

  5. The Effect Different Irrigation Regimes and Animal Manure on Nutrient, Essential Oil and Chemical Composition on Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of water stress and animal manure on nutrients concentration, essential oil percentage and its chemical components in Cuminum cyminum, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Zahak, Zabol, during 2003–2004 in a randomized complete block design arranged in factorial with four replicates. Treatments were there irrigation (I1: two times irrigation, I2: three times irrigation and I3: four times irrigation and two animal manure levels (F1: no manure and F2: 20 ton/ha manure. The chemical composition of the essential oil was examined by gas- chromatography (GC and GC-MS. The effect of water stress on Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, P and K percentages was significant but its effect on Mn, Zn and Cu was not significant. I1F1 had maximum of Na, Ca, Mg and minimum of micro nutrients. Using of animal manure was not effected on nutrients. The effect of water stress and animal manure were significant on essential oil and its chemical compositions. I2F2 had the highest of cuminaldehyde and ρ-cymene and the lowest of β-pinene, γ-terpinene and α-pinene. Result showed that there is a correlation among the main components of cumin essential oil under water and mineral stress.

  6. Stable water isotopic composition of the Antarctic subglacial Lake Vostok: implications for understanding the lake's hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaykin, Alexey A; Lipenkov, Vladimir Y; Kozachek, Anna V; Vladimirova, Diana O

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the stable isotopic composition of water from the subglacial Lake Vostok using two different sets of samples: (1) water frozen on the drill bit immediately after the first lake unsealing and (2) water frozen in the borehole after the unsealing and re-drilled one year later. The most reliable values of the water isotopic composition are: -59.0 ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18, -455 ± 1 ‰ for deuterium and 17 ± 1 ‰ for d-excess. This result is also confirmed by the modelling of isotopic transformations in the water which froze in the borehole, and by a laboratory experiment simulating this process. A comparison of the newly obtained water isotopic composition with that of the lake ice (-56.2 ‰ for oxygen-18, -442.4 ‰ for deuterium and 7.2 ‰ for d-excess) leads to the conclusion that the lake ice is very likely formed in isotopic equilibrium with water. In turn, this means that ice is formed by a slow freezing without formation of frazil ice crystals and/or water pockets. This conclusion agrees well with the observed physical and chemical properties of the lake's accreted ice. However, our estimate of the water's isotopic composition is only valid for the upper water layer and may not be representative for the deeper layers of the lake, so further investigations are required.

  7. Atmospheric-pressure electric discharge as an instrument of chemical activation of water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkin, V. V.; Shutov, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    Results of experimental studies and numerical simulations of physicochemical characteristics of plasmas generated in different types of atmospheric-pressure discharges (pulsed streamer corona, gliding electric arc, dielectric barrier discharge, glow-discharge electrolysis, diaphragmatic discharge, and dc glow discharge) used to initiate various chemical processes in water solutions are analyzed. Typical reactor designs are considered. Data on the power supply characteristics, plasma electron parameters, gas temperatures, and densities of active particles in different types of discharges excited in different gases and their dependences on the external parameters of discharges are presented. The chemical composition of active particles formed in water is described. Possible mechanisms of production and loss of plasma particles are discussed.

  8. Composition for limiting water influx into a well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazizov, A.Sh.; Budarina, L.A.; Kuznetsov, Ye.V.; Zhdanov, N.F.

    1982-01-01

    A composition is proposed for restricting water influx into a well. It contains acrylamide, ammonium persulfate, sodium hyposulfite, water and additive. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve water resistance of the copolymer formed in the bed and to preserve permeability of the bed for oil, it contains as an additive polymethacylic acid with the following ratio of components (% by weight): acrylamide 2.0-5.6; polymethacrylic acid 3.08.0; ammonium persulfate 0.020-0.072; sodium hyposulfite 0.018-0.068; water--the rest.

  9. Lithological and hydrological influences on ground-water composition in a heterogeneous carbonate-clay aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, S.J.; Herman, J.S.; Jones, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of clay units on ground-water composition was investigated in a heterogeneous carbonate aquifer system of Miocene age in southwest Florida, known as the Intermediate aquifer system. Regionally, the ground water is recharged inland, flows laterally and to greater depths in the aquifer systems, and is discharged vertically upward at the saltwater interface along the coast. A depth profile of water composition was obtained by sampling ground water from discrete intervals within the permeable carbonate units during coring and by squeezing pore water from a core of the less-permeable clay layers. A normative salt analysis of solute compositions in the water indicated a marine origin for both types of water and an evolutionary pathway for the clay water that involves clay diagenesis. The chemical composition of the ground water in the carbonate bedrock is significantly different from that of the pore water in the clay layers. Dissolution of clays and opaline silica results in high silica concentrations relative to water in other parts of the Intermediate aquifer system. Water enriched in chloride relative to the overlying and underlying ground water recharges the aquifer inland where the confining clay layer is absent, and it dissolves carbonate and silicate minerals and reacts with clays along its flow path, eventually reaching this coastal site and resulting in the high chloride and silica concentrations observed in the middle part of the Intermediate aquifer system. Reaction-path modeling suggests that the recharging surficial water mixes with sulfate-rich water upwelling from the Upper Floridan aquifer, and carbonate mineral dissolution and precipitation, weathering and exchange reactions, clay mineral diagenesis, clay and silica dissolution, organic carbon oxidation, and iron and sulfate reduction result in the observed water compositions.A study was conducted to clarify the influence of clay units on ground-water composition in a heterogeneous

  10. Temperature dependence on sodium-water chemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kenta; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Koichi; Takata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kikuchi, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid because of its excellent heat transport capability. On the other hand, it has strong chemical reactivity with water vapor. One of the design basis accidents of the SFR is the water leakage into the liquid sodium flow by a breach of heat transfer tubes. This process ends up damages on the heat transport equipment in the SFR. Therefore, the study on sodium-water chemical reactions is of paramount importance for security reasons. This study aims to clarify the sodium-water reaction mechanisms using laser diagnostics. A quasi one-dimensional flame model is also applied to a sodium-water counter-flow reaction field. Temperature, H 2 , H 2 O, OH, Na and Particulate matter were measured using laser induced fluorescence and CARS in the counter-flow reaction field. The temperature of the reaction field was also modified to reduce the condensation of Na in the reaction zone. (author)

  11. Chemical composition of Annona senegalensis from Nupe land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Key words: Seed, nutrition, composition, screening. INTRODUCTION ... of food stuffs which play a basic role in nutrition and healthy body .... hemoglobin. Lysine insures .... WHF (2005). World Hunger Facts, education service.

  12. Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activities of Petroleum Ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The composition of petroleum ether extract was analyzed by gas ... acids, sterides, pregnanones, terpenes, alkaloids, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and other compounds. .... and mass spectra with those obtained from the.

  13. Studies on the chemical compositions and anti nutrients of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... fruit parts with low level of anti nutrient, high elemental composition, protein, lipid, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid could ... stored in airtight plastic containers inside the refrigerator. B. glabra .... vitamin and mineral availability.

  14. Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Essential Oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the composition of essential oils of two types of mint as well as compare the antimicrobial ... was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). ..... autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion.

  15. Factors Influencing Bacterial Diversity and Community Composition in Municipal Drinking Waters in the Ohio River Basin, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Stanish, Lee F.; Hull, Natalie M.; Robertson, Charles E.; Harris, J. Kirk; Stevens, Mark J.; Spear, John R.; Pace, Norman R.

    2016-01-01

    The composition and metabolic activities of microbes in drinking water distribution systems can affect water quality and distribution system integrity. In order to understand regional variations in drinking water microbiology in the upper Ohio River watershed, the chemical and microbiological constituents of 17 municipal distribution systems were assessed. While sporadic variations were observed, the microbial diversity was generally dominated by fewer than 10 taxa, and was driven by the amou...

  16. The collection and field chemical analysis of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.E.; Ealey, D.T.; Hollenbach, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    A successful water sampling program requires a clear understanding of appropriate measurement and sampling procedures in order to obtain reliable field data and representative samples. It is imperative that the personnel involved have a thorough knowledge of the limitations of the techniques being used. Though this seems self-evident, many sampling and field-chemical-analysis programs are still not properly conducted. Recognizing these problems, the Department of Energy contracted with Bendix Field Engineering Corporation through the Technical Measurements Center to develop and select procedures for water sampling and field chemical analysis at waste sites. The fundamental causese of poor field programs are addressed in this paper, largely through discussion of specific field-measurement techniques and their limitations. Recommendations for improvement, including quality-assurance measures, are also presented

  17. Chemical composition and antinociceptive effects of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antinociceptive effect of EOGT in rats was carried out using chemical (formalin and acetic acid) and .... rat using a microsyringe with a 27 gauge needle. Immediately after formalin ... SEM, and were analyzed using GraphPad Prism. Statistically ...

  18. Volume 10 No. 2 February 2010 2124 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-02

    Feb 2, 2010 ... Dept of Food Science and Post Harvest Technology, University of Hawassa, Ethiopia. 2. Department of Chemical ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of the ..... Management, 2nd edition. Gaitherburg ...

  19. Tracks FAQs: What Chemicals Are In My Drinking Water?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-10

    In this podcast, CDC Tracking experts discuss how you can use the Tracking Network to determine what chemicals are in your drinking water. Do you have a question for our Tracking experts? Please e-mail questions to trackingsupport@cdc.gov.  Created: 8/10/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Environmental Health Tracking Branch.   Date Released: 8/10/2011.

  20. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils against human pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 aromatic plants Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium have been determined.

  1. Chemical composition, nutritional value and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes in relation to harvest stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Spyridon; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of fruit size on nutritional value, chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes. For this purpose, pods from four okra cultivars and local landraces commonly cultivated in Greece, as well as pods from four commercial cultivars from North America were collected at two sizes (3-5 and>7cm). Significant differences were observed between the studied genotypes for both nutritional value and chemical composition parameters. Small fruit had a higher nutritional value, whereas chemical composition differed in a genotype dependent manner with most of the studied cultivars showing better results when harvested in small size. In conclusion, fruit size has a genotype dependent impact on chemical composition and nutritional value of okra pods and the common practice of harvesting okra fruit while they still have a small size helps to increase nutritional value for most of the studied genotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Variation in size, morphology and chemical composition of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Parthiban, G.

    Chemical composition of 613 polymetallic nodules from 150 stations in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) are determined and variations in Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn and moisture content are studied with respect to their size and surface texture...

  3. Data Descriptor : Collocated observations of cloud condensation nuclei, particle size distributions, and chemical composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Kristensson, Adam; Iwamoto, Yoko; Pringle, Kirsty; Reddington, Carly; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Baltensperger, Urs; Bialek, Jakub; Birmili, Wolfram; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Fiebig, Markus; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Furuya, Masaki; Hammer, Emanuel; Heikkinen, Liine; Herrmann, Erik; Holzinger, Rupert; Hyono, Hiroyuki; Kanakidou, Maria; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Kinouchi, Kento; Kos, Gerard P A; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Motos, Ghislain; Nenes, Athanasios; O'Dowd, Colin; Paramonov, Mikhail; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Slowik, Jay; Sonntag, Andre; Swietlicki, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Tsurumaru, Hiroshi; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Wittbom, Cerina; Ogren, John A.; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Carslaw, Ken; Stratmann, Frank; Gysel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations alongside with submicrometer particle number size distributions and particle chemical composition have been measured at atmospheric observatories of the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure (ACTRIS) as well as other

  4. [Bioinorganic chemical composition of the lens and methods of its investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, S E; Novikov, I A; Pakhomova, N A; Motalov, V G

    2018-01-01

    Bioinorganic chemical composition of the lens of human and experimental animals (cows, dogs, rats, rabbits) have been analyzed in various studies. In most cases, the studies employed different methods to determine the gross (total) composition of chemical elements and their concentrations in the examined samples. Less frequently, they included an assessment of the distribution of chemical elements in the lens and correlation of their concentration with its morphological changes. Chemical elements from all groups (series) of the periodic classification system were discovered in the lens substance. Despite similar investigation methods, different authors obtained contradicting results on the chemical composition of the lens. This article presents data suggesting possible correlation between inorganic chemical elements in the lens substance with the development and formation of lenticular opacities. All currently employed methods are known to only analyze limited number of select chemical elements in the tissues and do not consider the whole range of elements that can be analyzed with existing technology; furthermore, the majority of studies are conducted on the animal model lens. Therefore, it is feasible to continue the development of the chemical microanalysis method by increasing the sensitivity of Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) with the purpose of assessing the gross chemical composition and distribution of the elements in the lens substance, as well as revealing possible correlation between element concentration and morphological changes in the lens.

  5. Extraction, chemical composition, rheological behavior, antioxidant activity and functional properties of Cordia myxa mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokht, Shaghayegh Keshani; Djomeh, Zahra Emam; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid; Fathi, Morteza

    2018-06-14

    This paper aims to investigate chemical composition, rheological behavior, antioxidant activity and functional properties of Cordia myxa mucilage (CMM). Response surface methodology (RSM) demonstrated that optimum conditions for CMM extraction were as follow: ultrasound power of 99.37 W, extraction temperature of 88.05 °C and solid to water ratio of 16.25 w/w. CMM had, on average, 77.51% carbohydrate, 5.86% total ash, 8.90% protein, 6.90% moisture, and 1.00% fat. Due to a high level of nutrients, CMM can be suggested as a value added by-product in food and pharmaceutical systems. CMM is a low molecular weight polysaccharide containing three fractions with various molecular weights. FT-IR spectrum illustrated that this polymer had all typical bands and peaks characteristics of polysaccharides. Based on steady shear measurements, CMM can be introduced as a new source of hydrocolloid with high-temperature stability. CMM had the desirable antiradical capacity, water solubility and water/oil holding capacity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Chemical characterization and extractives composition of heartwood and sapwood from Quercus faginea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miranda

    Full Text Available Heartwood and sapwood of Quercus faginea were evaluated in relation to summative chemical composition and non-polar and polar extracts composition, including an assessment of antioxidant properties (DPPH and FRAP. Twenty trees from two sites in Portugal were analysed. Heartwood had approximately two times more solvent extractible compounds than sapwood (on average 19.0% and 9.5%. The lipophilic extractible compounds were below 1%, and most of them were polar e.g. ethanol-soluble compounds corresponded to 65% of total extractives in heartwood and 43% in sapwood. Lignin content was similar in sapwood and heartwood (28.1% and 28.6% of extractive-free wood respectively as well as the sugar composition. Site did not influence the chemical composition. The lipophilic extractible compounds from both sapwood and heartwood included mainly saturated fatty acids (23.0% and 36.9% respectively and aromatic compounds were also abundant in sapwood (22.9%. The ethanol-water extractibles had a high content of phenolic substances (558.0 and 319.4 mg GAE/g extract, respectively of heartwood and sapwood. The polyphenolic composition was similar in heartwood and sapwood with higher content of ellagitannins (168.9 and 153.5 mg tannic acid/g of extract in sapwood and heartwood respectively and very low content of condensed tannins. The antioxidant activity was very high with IC50 of 2.6 μg/ml and 3.3 μg/ml for sapwood and heartwood respectively, as compared to standard antioxidants (IC50 of 3.8 μg/ml for Trolox. The ferric reducing ability was 2.8 and 2.0 mMol Trolox equivalents/g extract of heartwood and sapwood respectively. The variability between trees was low and no differences between the two sites were found. Q. faginea showed a very good potential for cooperage and other applications for which a source of compounds with antioxidant properties is desirable.

  7. Chemical modelling as a management tool for water pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limpitlaw, D. [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1996-12-31

    In a colliery currently being re-mined by opencast methods, the coal seam was originally extracted using bord and pillar mining. Depressions in the seam floor have facilitated the formation of large underground water bodies. This water has become acidic and contaminated by heavy metals. Mine water is treated by a liming plant and then released into evaporation pans. Seepage from the pans enters a natural wetlands. The de-watering of old workings ahead of mining periodically subjects the liming plant to large quantities of low quality water, and a nett export of salts such as sulphate occurs. As the mine is situated in a sensitive river catchment, this pollution is unacceptable. A chemical speciation program developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency was used to analyse effluent from the liming plant and wetland. Liming plant effluent water was found to vary greatly due to the conditions prevalent in the different water bodies. The liming plant and wetland were periodically subjected to pollution loads beyond the wetland`s assimilative capacity, resulting failure of the system. Despite this, the software provided evidence of the wetland`s pollution-ameliorating potential. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmin Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°. Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material.

  9. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngmin; Choo, Hyunwook; Yun, Tae Sup; Lee, Changho; Lee, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO) ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°). Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material. PMID:28774098

  10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

    OpenAIRE

    Nouara Ait Mimoune; Djouher Ait Mimoune; Aziza Yataghene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay. Results: Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9%) and β-seli...

  11. The method of modelling of relationships between hardenability and chemical composition of the constructional alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Sitek, W.

    1998-01-01

    Basing on the experimental results of the hardenability investigations, which employed Jominy method, the model of the neural networks was developed and fully verified experimentally. The model makes it possible to obtain Jominy hardenability curves basing on the steel chemical composition. The model of neural networks, making it possible to design the steel chemical composition, basing on the known Jominy hardenability curve shape, was developed also and fully verified numerically. The practical usability of the models developed is presented. (author)

  12. Neutronic studies of a liquid hydrogen-water composite moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, T.; Ooi, M.; Iwasa, H.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Iverson, E.B.; Crabtree, J.A.; Lucas, A.T.

    2001-01-01

    A liquid hydrogen-liquid water composite moderator may provide performance like liquid methane at high-power spallation sources where liquid methane is impractical. We have measured the neutronic properties of such a composite moderator, where a hydrogen layer 1.25 cm thick was closely backed by water layers of 1.75 cm and 3.75 cm thickness. We also studied a moderator in which a 1.75 cm water layer was closely backed by a 1.25 cm hydrogen layer. We further performed simulations for each of these systems for comparison to the experimental results. We observed enhancement of the spectral intensity in the 'thermal' energy range as compared to the spectrum from a conventional liquid hydrogen moderator. This enhancement grew more significant as the water thickness increased, although the pulse shapes became wider as well. (author)

  13. Nuclear power/water pumping-up composite power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Kiyoshi.

    1995-01-01

    In a nuclear power/water pumping-up composite power plant, a reversible pump for pumping-up power generation connected to a steam turbine is connected to an upper water reservoir and a lower water reservoir. A pumping-up steam turbine for driving the turbine power generator, a hydraulic pump for driving water power generator by water flowing from the upper water reservoir and a steam turbine for driving the pumping-up pump by steams from a nuclear reactor are disposed. When power demand is small during night, the steam turbine is rotated by steams of the reactor, to pump up the water in the lower water reservoir to the upper water reservoir by the reversible pump. Upon peak of power demand during day time, power is generated by the steams of the reactor, as well as the reversible pump is rotated by the flowing water from the upper water reservoir to conduct hydraulic power generation. Alternatively, hydraulic power generation is conducted by flowing water from the upper reservoir. Since the number of energy conversion steps in the combination of nuclear power generation and pumping-up power generation is reduced, energy loss is reduced and utilization efficiency can be improved. (N.H.)

  14. Preliminary physico-chemical results obtained on water using new data acquisition systems for deep wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinson, J.M.; Peyrus, J.C.

    1984-02-01

    Data acquisition systems recently developed in the context of research on deep storage facilities have provided with an initial set of interesting observations for the physico-chemical study of boreholes. It is possible to make correlations between the chemical compositions of water, pH and the nature of the substrate. The sampling done at Auriat with a Gerhardt-Owen probe shows the variability in the composition of water as a function of depth. The variation in calcium content, following that of pH, is particularly notable. Examination of pH measurements is of particular interest. A general gradient correlates exactly with the nature of the substrate. Whereas steel piping has a very alkaline pH, distinct pH values correspond to the two types of granite substrate. In this general gradient, series of disturbances can be seen which correspond perfectly to fracturation zones or large fractures. These most promising preliminary results lead to believe that in situ physico-chemical measurements should be continued and developed with a view to improved evaluation of the safety of deep storage facilities

  15. The Brittleness and Chemical Stability of Optimized Geopolymer Composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steinerová, Michaela; Matulová, Lenka; Vermach, P.; Kotas, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 396. ISSN 1996-1944 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP104/12/P477 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : metakaolin * interfacial transition zone * compressive * flexural strength * elastic modulus * impact strength * acid leaching * porosity Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/10/4/396

  16. The main chemical properties of hot and cold mineral waters in Bayankhongor, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Oyuntsetseg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, hot and cold mineral springs and sub mineral waters in the Bayankhongor province were examined for their chemical characteristics and identified cold mineral waters classification according to mineral water classification of Mongolia. The hot spring waters belong to Na+-HCO3- and Na+-SO42- types. The cold mineral spring of Lkham belongs to Ca2+-HCO3- type. All sub mineral waters are generally located in the two areas (northern part or mountain forest area and the southern part or Gobi desert area. TDS concentrations of cold springs of the southern part in the study area were higher than northern part’s cold springs. The total dissolved silica content of cold spring was ranged from 4.5mg/L to 26 mg/L which did not correspond to requirements of mineral water standard of Mongolia. Thus, these cold springs are belonging to sub mineral water classification. The sub mineral waters were characterized into four types such as a Ca2+-SO42-, Na+-SO42-, Na+-HCO3 and Ca2+ - HCO3 by their chemical composition in the study area. The values for the quartz, chalcedony geothermometer and the Na/K geothermometer were quite different. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 124 and 197°C and most of the hot waters have been  probably mixed with cold water. The result shows that an averaged value of calculated temperature ranges from 77°C to 119°C which indicates that studied area has low temperature geothermal resources. DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.324 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p56-62

  17. Study of the influence of chemical composition on the pozzolanicity of soda-lime glass microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, R.B.C.; Mohallem, N.D.S.; Aguilar, M.T.P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of residues presents interesting possibilities for obtaining eco-efficient concretes. Research has investigated the use of glass residue in Portland cement composite, whether as an aggregate or a supplementary material. However, there is still no consensus on the influence of the chemical composition of glass on the behaviour of the composites in which it is used. This paper aims to analyse the influence of this composition on the performance of cement composites produced with microparticles of colourless and amber glass. Pozzolanicity was assessed by means of direct tests (modified Chapelle and electrical conductivity) and indirect tests (chemical characterization, X-ray diffraction, thermo analysis and pozzolanic activity index). Most of the results show that microparticles of both types of glass display pozzolanic activity, with no significant differences between them. This indicates the potential for the use of glass microparticles as a supplementary material in cement composites. (author)

  18. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  19. Isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture from pan water evaporation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Pooja; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Rao, M Someshwer; Kumar, Bhishm

    2015-01-01

    A continuous and reliable time series data of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture is an important requirement for the wider applicability of isotope mass balance methods in atmospheric and water balance studies. This requires routine sampling of atmospheric moisture by an appropriate technique and analysis of moisture for its isotopic composition. We have, therefore, used a much simpler method based on an isotope mass balance approach to derive the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture using a class-A drying evaporation pan. We have carried out the study by collecting water samples from a class-A drying evaporation pan and also by collecting atmospheric moisture using the cryogenic trap method at the National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, India, during a pre-monsoon period. We compared the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture obtained by using the class-A drying evaporation pan method with the cryogenic trap method. The results obtained from the evaporation pan water compare well with the cryogenic based method. Thus, the study establishes a cost-effective means of maintaining time series data of the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture at meteorological observatories. The conclusions drawn in the present study are based on experiments conducted at Roorkee, India, and may be examined at other regions for its general applicability.

  20. Coplanar capacitance sensors for detecting water intrusion in composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassr, Amr A; El-Dakhakhni, Wael W; Ahmed, Wael H

    2008-01-01

    Composite materials are becoming more affordable and widely used for retrofitting, rehabilitating and repairing reinforced concrete structures designed and constructed under older specifications. However, the mechanical properties and long-term durability of composite materials may degrade severely in the presence of water intrusion. This study presents a new non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for detecting the water intrusion in composite structures by evaluating the dielectric properties of different composite system constituent materials. The variation in the dielectric signatures was employed to design a coplanar capacitance sensor with high sensitivity to detect such defects. An analytical model was used to study the effect of the sensor geometry on the output signal and to optimize sensor design. A finite element model was developed to validate analytical results and to evaluate other sensor design-related parameters. Experimental testing of a concrete specimen wrapped with composite laminate and containing a series of pre-induced water intrusion defects was conducted in order to validate the concept of the new technique. Experimental data showed excellent agreement with the finite element model predictions and confirmed sensor performance

  1. Mechanical properties of water hyacinth fibers – polyester composites before and after immersion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abral, H.; Kadriadi, D.; Rodianus, A.; Mastariyanto, P.; Ilhamdi; Arief, S.; Sapuan, S.M.; Ishak, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Moisture absorption of water hyacinth (WH) fibers was measured. • WH fibers polyester composites immersed in water decreased mechanical properties. • Improvement fibers fraction in polyester increases mechanical properties. - Abstract: This study reported moisture absorption of untreated and treated individual water hyacinth (WH) fibers as well as comparison the mechanical properties of WH fibers – unsaturated polyester (UPR) matrix composites after and before immersion in water. The result shows that the individual WH fibers treated with various alkali concentration did not exhibit significantly decreases of their moisture absorption. SEM photograph in cross section of the treated WH fibers shows swollen cell wall containing more nano and micro hollows. Tensile and flexure strength of the wet composite samples are lower than that of dried ones. However, increases volume fraction of the WH fibers in UPR matrix affected slightly on enhancement mechanical properties of the composite samples

  2. Biological resistance of polyethylene composites made with chemically modified fiber or flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons

    2002-01-01

    The role of moisture in the biological decay of wood-plastic composites was investigated. Southern pine wood fiber and ponderosa pine wood flour were chemically modified using either acetic anhydride (AA), butylene oxide (BO), or propylene oxide (PO). A 50:50 mixture of high density polyethylene and either chemically modified fiber or flour, or untreated fiber or flour...

  3. Rapid computation of chemical equilibrium composition - An application to hydrocarbon combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, W. D.; Prabhu, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    A scheme for rapidly computing the chemical equilibrium composition of hydrocarbon combustion products is derived. A set of ten governing equations is reduced to a single equation that is solved by the Newton iteration method. Computation speeds are approximately 80 times faster than the often used free-energy minimization method. The general approach also has application to many other chemical systems.

  4. Surface composition and surface properties of water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface composition and surface properties of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia ... (2/1, v/v) followed by ethanol, using Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ... polar organic solvents and non-polar n-alkane hydrocarbons is discussed.

  5. Chemical composition and utilization of Hungarian spent sulfite liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, B

    1968-01-01

    A review on the composition of Hungarian spent sulfite liquor and on its possible utilization, e.g., for the manufacturing of vanillin, yeast protein, or ethanol, as well as its direct utilization as a plasticizer for cement, additive for insecticides, or in adhesives.

  6. Composition and chemical variability of Corsican Pinus halepensis cone oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Bighelli, Ange

    2014-09-01

    The composition of the essential oil isolated from cones of Pinus halepensis grown in Corsica has been investigated by a combination of chromatographic (CC, GC) and spectroscopic (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 48 compounds that accounted for 95.5% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene (47.5%) was the major component followed by myrcene (11.0%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (8.3%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.9%). Various diterpenes have been identified by 13C NMR in the fractions of CC. Fifteen oil samples isolated from cones harvested in three forests have been analyzed and two groups of similar importance have been differentiated within the 15 compositions. Oil samples of the first group contained α-pinene (mean 45.0 g/100 g, SD = 5.5) as the major component. The composition of samples of the second group was dominated by myrcene (mean 30.3 g/100g, SD = 9.0) and α-pinene (mean 24.6 g/100 g, SD = 3.1).

  7. Chemical composition and volatile compounds in the artisanal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Araceli

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... composition of the raw materials, ratio of C/N and the environmental ... levels. On the other hand, in the cider production, Vidrich and Hribar .... Afr. J. Biotechnol. the total .... mezcal producer (Figure 1) and as the main objective.

  8. Chemical composition of groundnut, Arachis hypogaea (L) landraces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... purpose. Key words: Arachis hypogaea, groundnut, protein, oil, minerals. INTRODUCTION ... absence of flowers on main stem, flower arrangement on leaf axils: (1) hypogaea ..... growing location and their interaction on the fatty acid composition of peanuts. J. Food Sci. ... Analysis of groundnuts content by ...

  9. Polypropylene-modified kaolinite composites: Effect of chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PP/kaolinite compounds were prepared by the melt intercalation method. The effects of modified clay on properties of the prepared composites were studied. The XRD results showed that the treatment with the ammonium salt caused the return to the initial state of the clay. The thermogravimetric analysis thermograms (TGA) ...

  10. Chemical evolution of formation waters in the Palm Valley gas field, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, A.S.; Giblin, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical composition and evolution of formation waters associated with gas production in the Palm Valley field, Northern Territory, has important implications for reservoir management, saline water disposal, and gas reserve calculations. Historically, the occurrence of saline formation water in gas fields has been the subject of considerable debate. A better understanding of the origin, chemical evolution and movement of the formation water at Palm Valley has important implications for future reservoir management, disposal of highly saline water and accurate gas reserves estimation. Major and trace element abundance data suggest that a significant component of the highly saline water from Palm Valley has characteristics that may have been derived from a modified evaporated seawater source such as an evaporite horizon. The most dilute waters probably represent condensate and the variation in the chemistry of the intermediate waters suggests they were derived from a mixture of the condensate with the highly saline brine. The chemical and isotopic results raise several interrelated questions; the ultimate source of the high salinity and the distribution of apparently mixed compositions. In this context several key observation are highlighted. Strontium concentrations are extremely high in the brines; although broadly similar in their chemistry, the saline fluids are neither homogeneous nor well mixed; the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios in the brines are higher than the signatures preserved in the evaporitic Bitter Springs Formation, and all other conceivably marine-related evaporites (Strauss, 1993); the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios in the brines are lower than those measured from groundmass carbonates in the host rocks, and that the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of the brines are similar, but still somewhat higher than those measured in vein carbonates from the reservoir. It is concluded that the high salinity brine entered the reservoir during the Devonian uplift and was subsequently

  11. Chemical composition of chicken meat produced in extensive indoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooled carcasses were dissected into primal cuts. Breast and leg muscle (thigh and drumstick) samples were used for chemical analyses. The obtained results suggested that free range rearing system was more favourable than extensive indoor system, as it resulted in a significantly higher protein content and a lower fat ...

  12. The Chemical Composition of Different Sources of Liming Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of some liming materials on soil chemical properties. The treatments comprised Cocoa Husk Pod Ash (CPHA), Oyster Shell Ash (OSA), Palm Bunch Ash (PBA), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), Kitchen Residues Ash (KRA) and Saw Dust Ash (SDA) at five levels ...

  13. Effect of drying methods on the chemical composition of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three methods of drying (oven, sun and smoke) were used to dry Bonga spp., Sardinella spp. and Heterotis niloticus. The physico-chemical and minerals contents of the sample were determined using standard methods. Oven dried H. niloticus recorded the highest (16.42%) moisture content while the least moisture content ...

  14. Physico-chemical composition of unripe (green) plantain and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post harvest characteristics are important selection criteria in the genetic improvement of starchy staple food crops. This study aimed at determining the proximate chemical constituents of thirteen clones of new plantain and banana hybrids at harvest. Flour was produced and analysed for starch and sugar contents. The pulp ...

  15. The chemical composition of tertiary Indian coal ash and its

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Part 1 of the present investigation, 37 representative Eocene coal samples of Meghalaya, India were analyzed and their physico-chemical characteristics and the major oxides and minerals present in ash samples were studied for assessing the genesis of these coals. Various statistical tools were also applied to study ...

  16. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patrick

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... A. sp and F. sp were screwed using food poisoning technique. (Grover and ... of the fungi colonies of the sets of treatment and diameter of positive ..... Chemical variability of peel and leaf essential oils of sour orange. Flav.

  17. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Rosmarinus Officinalis L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Türkmen, Necla; Öz, Ayşenur; Sönmez, Aslı; Erol, Tuğçe; Gülümser, Deniz; Yurdakul, Burcu; Kayır, Ömer; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    – The chemical constituents of the essential oil from leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. was produced by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was 1,8-cineole with 81.47% which is important for medicinal and pharmaceutical

  18. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of the seeds of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Hassan E; Rayan, Ahmed M

    2016-06-01

    Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation as well as physicochemical and functional properties of seed flour of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 5.30% moisture, 3.99% ash, 9.19% fat, 14.31% fiber, 27.21% protein and 45.30% carbohydrates. Potassium was the predominant element followed by calcium and then phosphorous. Phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitor as antinutrients were detected. The amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cystine/methionine, isoleucine, tyrosine/phenylalanine, lysine and threonine. Also, the first limiting amino acid was lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that linoleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, stearic, oleic and arachidic acids. The seed oil showed absorbance in the ultraviolet ranges, thus it can be used as a broad spectrum UV protectant. For physicochemical and functional properties, acacia seeds flour had excellent water holding index, swelling index, foaming capacity and foam stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the chemical composition of dissolved organic matter in three lakes in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Aiken, George R.; Butler, Kenna D.; Mao, Jingdong; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    New information on the chemical composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in three lakes in Minnesota has been gained from spectral editing and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, indicating the effects of lake hydrological settings on DOM composition. Williams Lake (WL), Shingobee Lake (SL), and Manganika Lake (ML) had different source inputs, and the lake water residence time (WRT) of WL was markedly longer than that of SL and ML. The hydrophobic organic acid (HPOA) and transphilic organic acid (TPIA) fractions combined comprised >50% of total DOM in these lakes, and contained carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM), aromatics, carbohydrates, and N-containing compounds. The previously understudied TPIA fractions contained fewer aromatics, more oxygen-rich CRAM, and more N-containing compounds compared to the corresponding HPOA. CRAM represented the predominant component in DOM from all lakes studied, and more so in WL than in SL and ML. Aromatics including lignin residues and phenols decreased in relative abundances from ML to SL and WL. Carbohydrates and N-containing compounds were minor components in both HPOA and TPIA and did not show large variations among the three lakes. The increased relative abundances of CRAM in DOM from ML, SL to WL suggested the selective preservation of CRAM with increased residence time.

  20. [Comparison of chemical composition between fresh and processed Bufonis Venenum by UPLC-TQ-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-yue; Wang, Hong-lan; Zhou, Jing; Ma, Hong-yue; Gong, Yan; Yan, Wen-li; Qian, Da-wei

    2015-10-01

    Toad venom is the Bufo bufo gargarizans or B. melanostictus after the ears of the gland secretion, used in the treatment of various cancers in recent years. Research shows that the main anti-tumor components in bufadienolide. Bufadienolide have free type structure and conjunct type structure. To identify and clarify the difference between bufogenin and bufotoxin contained in Bufonis Venenum, which was from B. bufo gargarizans, an UPLC-TQ-MS method has been established. UPLC-TQ-MS method was used to identify and quantify the major bufadienolides in Bufonis Venenum. UPLC-TQ-MS assay with positive ion mode was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C, (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 µm) with the mobile phase consisting of 0. 1% aqueous formic and acidacetonitrile in gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL · min⁻¹ and the column temperature was set at 35 °C. By comparing their retention time and high resolution mass data of Bufonis Venenum extracts, 37 effective components were primarily identified by MS/MS analysis in positive ion mode. Twenty-six of them were free-type bufadienolides (bufogenin), 11 of them were conjugated bufadienolides. There were significant differences in the main composition between fresh and processed Bufonis Venenum. The study found that the chemical composition of toad venom through great changes after processing, conjunct type content is much less, free type content as well change.

  1. Chemical composition measurements of the atmosphere of Jupiter with the Galileo Probe mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Carignan, G. R.; Donahue, T. M.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Hartle, R. E.; Hunten, D. M.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Mahaffy, P. R.; hide

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo Probe entered the atmosphere of Jupiter on December 7, 1995. Measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere were obtained by the mass spectrometer during the descent over the 0.5 to 21 bar pressure region over a time period of approximately 1 hour. The sampling was either of atmospheric gases directly introduced into the ion source of the mass spectrometer through capillary leaks or of gas, which had been chemically processed to enhance the sensitivity of the measurement to trace species or noble gases. The analysis of this data set continues to be refined based on supporting laboratory studies on an engineering unit. The mixing ratios of the major constituents of the atmosphere hydrogen and helium have been determined as well as mixing ratios or upper limits for several less abundant species including: methane, water, ammonia, ethane, ethylene, propane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. Analysis also suggests the presence of trace levels of other 3 and 4 carbon hydrocarbons, or carbon and nitrogen containing species, phosphine, hydrogen chloride, and of benzene. The data set also allows upper limits to be set for many species of interest which were not detected. Isotope ratios were measured for 3He/4He, D/H, 13C/12C, 20Ne/22Ne, 38Ar/36Ar and for isotopes of both Kr and Xe.

  2. Optimal drinking water composition for caries control in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruvo, M.; Ekstrand, K.; Arvin, Erik

    2008-01-01

    of drinking water on caries may not be limited to fluoride only. Among 22 standard chemical variables, including 15 ions and trace elements as well as gases, organic compounds, and physical measures, iterative search and testing identified that calcium and fluoride together explained 45% of the variations...

  3. Residential tap water contamination following the Freedom Industries chemical spill: perceptions, water quality, and health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Andrew J; McMillan, LaKia; Connell, Matt; Kelley, Keven M; Gill, Jeff P; White, Kevin D; Gupta, Rahul; Dey, Rajarshi; Novy, Caroline

    2015-01-20

    During January 2014, an industrial solvent contaminated West Virginia’s Elk River and 15% of the state population’s tap water. A rapid in-home survey and water testing was conducted 2 weeks following the spill to understand resident perceptions, tap water chemical levels, and premise plumbing flushing effectiveness. Water odors were detected in all 10 homes sampled before and after premise plumbing flushing. Survey and medical data indicated flushing caused adverse health impacts. Bench-scale experiments and physiochemical property predictions showed flushing promoted chemical volatilization, and contaminants did not appreciably sorb into cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe. Flushing reduced tap water 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (4-MCHM) concentrations within some but not all homes. 4-MCHM was detected at unflushed (waters contained less 4-MCHM than the 1000 μg/L Centers for Disease Control drinking water limit, but one home exceeded the 120 μg/L drinking water limit established by independent toxicologists. Nearly all households refused to resume water use activities after flushing because of water safety concerns. Science based flushing protocols should be developed to expedite recovery, minimize health impacts, and reduce concentrations in homes when future events occur.

  4. Experimental evaporation of hyperacid brines: Effects on chemical composition and chlorine isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Eggenkamp, H. G. M.

    2018-02-01

    Hyperacid brines from active volcanic lakes are some of the chemically most complex aqueous solutions on Earth. Their compositions provide valuable insights into processes of elemental transfer from a magma body to the surface and interactions with solid rocks and the atmosphere. This paper describes changes in chemical and δ37Cl signatures observed in a 1750 h isothermal evaporation experiment on hyperacid (pH 0.1) sulphate-chloride brine water from the active lake of Kawah Ijen volcano (Indonesia). Although gypsum was the only evaporite mineral identified in the evolving brine, decreasing Si concentrations may ultimately result in amorphous silica precipitation. Geochemical simulations predict the additional formation of elemental sulphur at lower water activities (aH2O ≤ 0.65) that were not reached in the experiment. Absence of other sulphates and halides despite the high load of dissolved elements (initial TDS ca. 100 g/kg) can be attributed to increased solubility of metals, promoted by extensive formation of complexes between the variety of cations and the major anions (HSO4-, Cl-, F-) present. Chlorine deviations from a conservative behaviour point to losses of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl(g)) and consequently an increase in Br/Cl ratios. Chlorine isotope fractionation that accompanied the escape of HCl(g) showed a marked change in sign and magnitude in the course of progressive evaporation of the brine. The calculated factor of fractionation between HCl(g) and dissolved Cl for the initial interval (before 500 h) is positive (1000lnαHCl(g)-Cldiss. = + 1.55 ± 0.49‰to + 3.37 ± 1.11‰), indicating that, at first, the escaping HCl(g) was isotopically heavier than the dissolved Cl remaining in the brine. Conversely, fractionation shifted to the opposite direction in the subsequent interval (1000lnαHCl(g)-Cldiss. = 5.67 ± 0.17‰to - 5.64 ± 0.08‰), in agreement with values reported in literature. It is proposed that Cl isotopic fractionation in

  5. Variation in global chemical composition of PM2.5: emerging results from SPARTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal L.; Murdymootoo, Kalaivani K.; Ring, Amanda; Ritchie, Yvonne; Stone, Emily; Walsh, Ainsley; Akoshile, Clement; Anh, Nguyen Xuan; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Brook, Jeff; Qonitan, Fatimah D.; Dong, Jinlu; Griffith, Derek; He, Kebin; Holben, Brent N.; Kahn, Ralph; Lagrosas, Nofel; Lestari, Puji; Ma, Zongwei; Misra, Amit; Norford, Leslie K.; Quel, Eduardo J.; Salam, Abdus; Schichtel, Bret; Segev, Lior; Tripathi, Sachchida; Wang, Chien; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Yuxuan; Brauer, Michael; Cohen, Aaron; Gibson, Mark D.; Liu, Yang; Vanderlei Martins, J.; Rudich, Yinon; Martin, Randall V.

    2016-08-01

    The Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN) is a long-term project that includes characterization of chemical and physical attributes of aerosols from filter samples collected worldwide. This paper discusses the ongoing efforts of SPARTAN to define and quantify major ions and trace metals found in fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our methods infer the spatial and temporal variability of PM2.5 in a cost-effective manner. Gravimetrically weighed filters represent multi-day averages of PM2.5, with a collocated nephelometer sampling air continuously. SPARTAN instruments are paired with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sun photometers to better understand the relationship between ground-level PM2.5 and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD).We have examined the chemical composition of PM2.5 at 12 globally dispersed, densely populated urban locations and a site at Mammoth Cave (US) National Park used as a background comparison. So far, each SPARTAN location has been active between the years 2013 and 2016 over periods of 2-26 months, with an average period of 12 months per site. These sites have collectively gathered over 10 years of quality aerosol data. The major PM2.5 constituents across all sites (relative contribution ± SD) are ammoniated sulfate (20 % ± 11 %), crustal material (13.4 % ± 9.9 %), equivalent black carbon (11.9 % ± 8.4 %), ammonium nitrate (4.7 % ± 3.0 %), sea salt (2.3 % ± 1.6 %), trace element oxides (1.0 % ± 1.1 %), water (7.2 % ± 3.3 %) at 35 % RH, and residual matter (40 % ± 24 %).Analysis of filter samples reveals that several PM2.5 chemical components varied by more than an order of magnitude between sites. Ammoniated sulfate ranges from 1.1 µg m-3 (Buenos Aires, Argentina) to 17 µg m-3 (Kanpur, India in the dry season). Ammonium nitrate ranged from 0.2 µg m-3 (Mammoth Cave, in summer) to 6.8 µg m-3 (Kanpur, dry season). Equivalent black carbon ranged from 0.7 µg m-3 (Mammoth Cave) to over 8 µg m-3 (Dhaka, Bangladesh and Kanpur

  6. Assessing chemical exposure and ecological impacts of environmental surface waters using cell culture-based metabolomic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), as well as industrial and agricultural operations release complex mixtures of anthropogenic chemicals that negatively affect surface water quality. Previous studies have shown that exposure to such complex chemical mixtures can produce adver...

  7. A rapid method for the computation of equilibrium chemical composition of air to 15000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ramadas K.; Erickson, Wayne D.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid computational method has been developed to determine the chemical composition of equilibrium air to 15000 K. Eleven chemically reacting species, i.e., O2, N2, O, NO, N, NO+, e-, N+, O+, Ar, and Ar+ are included. The method involves combining algebraically seven nonlinear equilibrium equations and four linear elemental mass balance and charge neutrality equations. Computational speeds for determining the equilibrium chemical composition are significantly faster than the often used free energy minimization procedure. Data are also included from which the thermodynamic properties of air can be computed. A listing of the computer program together with a set of sample results are included.

  8. Carbon-14, tritium, stable isotope and chemical measurements on thermal waters from the Tauranga region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.; McGill, R.C.; Taylor, C.B.; Whitehead, N.E.; Downes, C.J.

    1984-03-01

    The chemical compositions of groundwater from the Tauranga region are affected to varying degrees by reducing conditions due to buried organic matter. The levels of some dissolved constituents are also affected by mixing with sea water contained within the rocks and by rock-water interaction. Dissolved gas compositions range from oxygen-bearing to methane-bearing reflecting the varying redox conditions. Excess air may be present but further experiments are necessary to confirm this. Apparent ages deduced from carbon-14 measurements (corrected using 12C dilution and 13C fractionation methods) range from 2-25,000 years, suggesting that some of the waters were recharged during late Pleistocene or early Holocene time. ΔD and Δ18 O values of the oldest waters are slightly more negative than those of younger samples; this may indicate recharge during a cooler climate, in agreement with the 14C ages. Very low but significantly non-zero tritium contents (TR=(0.007-0.059)+-0.007) were measured using the high tritium-enrichment facilities at INS and the very low-background counters at the University of Bern. The tritium is thought to derive from contamination or nuclear reactions in the aquifer rocks rather than from recharge water

  9. Chemical composition of barks from Quercus faginea trees and characterization of their lipophilic and polar extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joana P A; Miranda, Isabel; Sousa, Vicelina B; Pereira, Helena

    2018-01-01

    The bark from Quercus faginea mature trees from two sites was chemically characterized for the first time. The barks showed the following composition: ash 14.6%, total extractives 13.2%, suberin 2.9% and lignin 28.2%. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of glucose and xylose (50.3% and 35.1% of all monosaccharides respectively) with 4.8% of uronic acids. The suberin composition was: ω-hydroxyacids 46.3% of total compounds, ɑ,ω-alkanoic diacids 22.3%, alkanoic acids 5.9%, alkanols 6.7% and aromatics 6.9% (ferulic acid 4.0%). Polar extracts (ethanol-water) had a high phenolic content of 630.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract, condensed tannins 220.7 mg of catechin equivalents (CE)/g extract, and flavonoids 207.7 mg CE/g of extract. The antioxidant activity was very high corresponding to 1567 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract, and an IC50 of 2.63 μg extract/ml. The lipophilic extracts were constituted mainly by glycerol and its derivatives (12.3% of all compounds), alkanoic acids (27.8%), sterols (11.5%) and triterpenes (17.8%). In view of an integrated valorization, Quercus faginea barks are interesting sources of polar compounds including phenols and polyphenols with possible interesting bioactivities, while the sterols and triterpenes contained in the lipophilic extracts are also valuable bioactive compounds or chemical intermediates for specific high-value market niches, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biomedicine.

  10. High-resolution chemical composition of geothermal scalings from Hungary: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boch, Ronny; Dietzel, Martin; Deák, József; Leis, Albrecht; Mindszenty, Andrea; Demeny, Attila

    2015-04-01

    Geothermal fluids originating from several hundreds to thousands meters depth mostly hold a high potential for secondary mineral precipitation (scaling) due to high total dissolved solid contents at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The precipitation of e.g. carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and silica has shown to cause severe problems in geothermal heat and electric power production, when clogging of drill-holes, downhole pumps, pipes and heat exchangers occurs (e.g. deep geothermal doublet systems). Ongoing scaling reduces the efficiency in energy extraction and might even question the abandonment of installations in worst cases. In an attempt to study scaling processes both temporally and spatially we collected mineral precipitates from selected sites in Hungary (Bükfürdo, Szechenyi, Szentes, Igal, Hajduszoboszlo). The samples of up to 8 cm thickness were recovered from different positions of the geothermal systems and precipitated from waters of various temperatures (40-120 °C) and variable overall chemical composition. Most of these scalings show fine lamination patterns representing mineral deposition from weeks up to 45 years at our study sites. Solid-fluid interaction over time captured in the samples are investigated applying high-resolution analytical techniques such as laser-ablation mass-spectrometry and electron microprobe, micromill-sampling for stable isotope analysis, and micro-XRD combined with hydrogeochemical modeling. A detailed investigation of the processes determining the formation and growth of precipitates can help to elucidate the short-term versus long-term geothermal performance with regard to anthropogenic and natural reservoir and production dynamics. Changes in fluid chemistry, temperature, pressure, pH, degassing rate (CO2) and flow rate are reflected by the mineralogical, chemical and isotopic composition of the precipitates. Consequently, this high-resolution approach is intended as a contribution to decipher the

  11. MULTILAYER POROUS COMPOSITE FROM WASTE GLASS FOR WATER FILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Aji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer porous composite have been produced through the heating process at temperature T=700oC for 2.5 h. Single layered porous composite was made with a varied mass percentage of from PEG polymer  1% to 10%. Double-layered porous composite were made by the arrangement of porosity (4:3%, (4:2% and (3:2%, while the three-layers porous composite have an arrangement (4:3:2%. Performance of multilayer porous composite for water filtration with pollutants of methylene blue 100 ppm was estimated from the absorbance spectrum. Rejection of methylene blue pollutants from single layered porous composite increases when the fraction of PEG polymer tend to be smaller in the matrix. Meanwhile, the double layered porous composite has a degradation of methylene blue pollutants are better than one layer. Triple layered porous composite have good performance for the water filtration where all the pollutants of methylene blue be able to be filtered.   Komposit pori berlapis telah dihasilkan dengan proses pemanasan pada temperatur T=700oC selama 2.5 jam. Komposit pori satu lapis dibuat dengan variasi persen massa polimer PEG 1% hingga 10%. Komposit pori dua lapis dibuat dengan susunan porositas (4:3%, (4:2% dan (3:2%, sedangkan komposit pori tiga lapis memiliki susunan porositas (4:3:2%. Kinerja komposit pori berlapis untuk filter air dengan polutan methylene blue 100 ppm diestimasi dari spektrum absorbansi. Rejeksi polutan methylene blue dari komposit pori satu lapis meningkat saat fraksi polimer PEG cenderung lebih kecil dalam matrik komposit. Sedangkan, komposit pori dua lapis memiliki kemampuan untuk degradasi polutan methylene blue yang lebih baik dari satu lapis. Komposit pori tiga lapis memiliki kinerja yang baik untuk filter air dimana seluruh polutan methylene blue mampu disaring. 

  12. Physical chemical properties of sludges of a chemical treatment of boilers feed water and ways of their utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krasnenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is a necessary process for TPP power plant operation. To the power station, in the production of electricity and heat as a result of the preparation of large amounts of water to compensate for losses associated with the release of process steam for production, produce large quantities of waste water treatment - water treatment chemical sludge (WTCS.

  13. Mechanical behavior of chemically treated Jute/Polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiber which serves as a reinforcement in reinforced plastics may be synthetic or natural past studies show that only artificial fibers such as glass, carbon etc., have been used in fiber reinforced plastics. Although glass and other synthetic fiber reinforced plastics possess high specific strength, their fields of application are very limited because of their inherent higher cost of production. In this connection, an investigation has been carried out to make use of jute , a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight but also relatively very cheap. In the present work, jute composites are developed and their mechanical properties are evaluated. Mechanical properties of jute/polymer and compared with glass fiber/epoxy. These results indicate that jute can be used as a potential reinforcing material for making low load bearing thermoplastic composites.

  14. Chemical composition and effective temperatures of metallic line white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    Model atmosphere techniques have been employed to determine the composition, effective temperatures, radii, masses and surface gravities of white dwarfs Ross 640 and van Maanen 2. The non-gray, LTE, convective, constant flux models employed collisional damping constants for the Ca II H and K lines that were measured in a laboratory device that simulated white dwarf atmospheric conditions. Ross 640 was found to have an extremely helium-rich composition and T/sub eff/ = 8500K, while the observed properties of van Maanen 2 were fitted best by a model with 91 percent helium, 9 percent hydrogen and T/sub eff/ = 6100K. The laboratory measurements of pressure shifts for the Ca II lines casts some doubt on the interpretation of recent radial velocity determinations for van Maanen 2. (U.S.)

  15. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  16. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT BASIL OILS

    OpenAIRE

    H.C. Srivastava, Pankaj Shukla, Ajay Singh Maurya and Sonia Tripathi*

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS) and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; tanethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol...

  17. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikaran, S; Sritharan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2012-09-01

    People rely on the quality of the bottled drinking water, expecting it to be free of microbial contamination and health hazards. To evaluate the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula by analysing the physical, chemical and microbial contents and comparing with the recommended Sri Lankan Standard (SLS) values. All bottled water samples sold in Jaffna peninsula were collected. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, calcium, nitrate, total aerobic and anaerobic count, coliform bacterial count and faecal contamination were checked. These are 22 brands of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula. The sample had very low electrical conductivity when compared with SLS (750 μS/ cm) and varied from 19 to 253 μS/cm with the mean of 80.53 (±60.92) μS/cm. The pH values of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 4.11 to 7.58 with a mean of 6.2 (±0.75). The total dissolved solid content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 9 to 123.67 mg/l with a mean of 39.5 (±30.23) mg/l. The calcium content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 6.48 to 83.77 mg/l with a mean of 49.9 (±25.09) mg/l. The nitrate content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 0.21 to 4.19 mg/l with the mean of 1.26 (±1.08) mg/l. Aerobic bacterial count varied from 0 to 800 colony forming unit per ml (cfu/ml) with a mean of 262.6 (±327.50) cfu/ml. Among the 22 drinking bottled water brands 14 and 9% of bottled drinking water brands showed fungal and coliform bacterial contaminants respectively. The water brands which contained faecal contamination had either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. The bottled drinking water available for sale do not meet the standards stipulated by SLS.

  18. Indirect Determination of Chemical Composition and Fuel Characteristics of Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    Determination of chemical composition of solid waste can be performed directly or indirectly by analysis of combustion products. The indirect methodology instrumented by a full scale incinerator is the only method that can conclude on elements in trace concentrations. These elements are of great...... interest in evaluating waste management options by for example LCA modeling. A methodology description of indirect determination of chemical composition and fuel properties of waste is provided and validated by examples. Indirect analysis of different waste types shows that the chemical composition...... is significantly dependent on waste type. And the analysis concludes that the transfer of substances in the incinerator is a function of waste chemical content, incinerator technology and waste physical properties. The importance of correct representation of rare items in the waste with high concentrations...

  19. Simaroubaceae family: botany, chemical composition and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasmine A.B.S. Alves

    Full Text Available The Simaroubaceae family includes 32 genera and more than 170 species of trees and brushes of pantropical distribution. The main distribution hot spots are located at tropical areas of America, extending to Africa, Madagascar and regions of Australia bathed by the Pacific. This family is characterized by the presence of quassinoids, secondary metabolites responsible of a wide spectrum of biological activities such as antitumor, antimalarial, antiviral, insecticide, feeding deterrent, amebicide, antiparasitic and herbicidal. Although the chemical and pharmacological potential of Simaroubaceae family as well as its participation in official compendia; such as British, German, French and Brazilian pharmacopoeias, and patent registration, many of its species have not been studied yet. In order to direct further investigation to approach detailed botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of the Simaroubaceae, the present work reviews the information regarding the main genera of the family up to 2013.

  20. The delta18O composition of Antarctic coastal current waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frew, R.; Heywood, K.; Dennis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The varying proportions of 18 O to 16 O in sea water provide an oceanographic trace like salinity, but with an extra degree of freedom: salt is a tracer for the oceanic fluid, whereas the isotopic composition is a tracer specifically for the water component of that fluid. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes are the variables most intimately related to the water component in the sea, therefore thay furnish a direct link to the water in the atmosphere and on continents and to the precipitation cycle which caused the salinity changes. The ratio of 18 O to 16 O (delta 18 O) ot waters is a powerful tracer in polar regions where sea and glacial ice processes decouple delta 18 O from salinity. Here we present observations from a significant but relatively unexplored component of the Southern Ocean current system, the Antarctic Coastal Current, and its associated Antarctic Slope Front. (author)

  1. A global survey of the stable isotope and chemical compositions of bottled and canned beers as a guide to authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J F; Yates, H S A; Tinggi, U

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a dataset, derived from the analysis of 162 bottled and canned beers from around the globe, which may be used for comparison with suspected counterfeit or substitute products. The data comprise δ2H and δ18O compositions of the whole beer and δ13C compositions of the dry residue (mostly sugar) together with the concentrations of five anions (F, Cl, NO3, SO4, PO4) and seven cations (Ca, K, Mg, SiO2, V, Mn, Sr). A strong correlation, consistent with natural waters but offset from the Global Meteoric Water Line, was observed between the δ2H/δ18O composition of the beers. The extent of the offset could be explained by the brewing process and the alcohol and sugars present in the beers. Correlations between inorganic analytes were consistent with the addition of salts in the brewing process. Beers were classified as follows: ale, lager, stout or wheat-beer and the chemical composition was found to be characteristic of the assigned type, with lagers being the most readily classified. A combination of chemical and isotopic data was found to be characteristic of the geographical origin (on a continental scale) and could most easily identify beers from Australasia or Europe. A global map of δ18O data revealed a geo-spatial distribution that mirrored existing maps of the isotopic composition of annual precipitation. This confirmed a commonsense view that local precipitation will be the primary source for the water used in brewing. Using this isoscape (or alcoscape) it may be possible to assess the geographical origins of samples for which genuine comparative samples cannot be obtained. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of hydrolytic degradation of polylactic acid/rice hulls composites in water at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolytic degradations of polylactic acid/rice hulls (PLA/RH composites with various rice hulls contents due to water absorptions at 23, 51 and 69°C were investigated by studying the thermal properties, chemical composition, molecular weight, and morphology of the degraded products. The results have attested that the stability of PLA/RH composites in water depends slightly on rice hulls contents but it is significantly influenced by water temperature. Water absorption in 30 days at 23°C was between 0.87 and 9.25% depending on rice hull contents. However, at thermophilic temperatures, the water absorption and degradation of these products were increased significantly. Saturations were achieved in less than 25 and 9 days at 51°C and 69°C, respectively, while hydrolytic degradation was demonstrated by an increase in fragility and development of crystallinity. At 69°C, there were significant reductions of the decomposition and glass transition temperatures of the polymer by 13°C. These changes were associated with the reduction of the molecular weight of PLA from 153.1 kDa to ~10.7 kDa due to hydrolysis of its ester group.

  3. Development and Optimum Composition of Locally Developed Potable Water Treatment Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Oladele BABATOLA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current high level of energy cost and operational cost of membrane technologies and couple with difficulties in obtaining chemicals for potable water treatment give rooms for development of local substance and low cost adsorbents for water treatment. This paper presents a follow-up study on an earlier work in which some water treatment Tablets were produced and tested. The current work was directed at establishing the optimum composition of the tablets. Alum, calcium hypochlorite and lime were combined in proportion and made into pastes and tablets. Residual chlorine contents of the tablets were determined. The quality of stream water samples treated with the tablets was measured by chlorine content, pH and turbidity removal. It is concluded that the best composition is one part alum, two parts hypochlorite and three parts lime and this produced treated water pH of 7.8, chlorine residual of 5.0 mg/l and settled water turbidity 3.0 NTU. The product is aimed for use in rural communities to reduce rampaging death from water borne diseases.

  4. Zintl Clusters as Wet-Chemical Precursors for Germanium Nanomorphologies with Tunable Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentlohner, Manuel M; Waibel, Markus; Zeller, Patrick; Sarkar, Kuhu; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, Dina; Fässler, Thomas F

    2016-02-12

    [Ge9](4-) Zintl clusters are used as soluble germanium source for a bottom-up fabrication of Ge nanomorphologies such as inverse opal structures with tunable composition. The method is based on the assembly and oxidation of [Ge9 ](4-) clusters in a template mold using SiCl4 , GeCl4 , and PCl3 leading to Si and P-containing Ge phases as shown by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. [Ge9](4-) clusters are retained using ethylenediamine (en) as a transfer medium to a mold after removal of the solvent if water is thoroughly excluded, but are oxidized to amorphous Ge in presence of water traces. (1)H NMR spectroscopy reveals the oxidative deprotonation of en by [Ge9](4-). Subsequent annealing leads to crystalline Ge. As an example for wet-chemical synthesis of complex Ge nanomorphologies, we describe the fabrication of undoped and P-doped inverse opal-structured Ge films with a rather low oxygen contents. The morphology of the films with regular volume porosity is characterized by SEM, TEM, and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Chemical composition of precipitation in a forest area of Chongqing, southwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, H.; Ogura, N.; Ushikubo, A.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in Chongqing - a city seriously damaged by acid precipitation in southwest China - to explore chemical compositions of open bulk precipitation, throughfall and stemflow in a Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest. The results showed that annual mean pH values of and annual ion depositions in the three types of rain water were 4.47 and 50.6 g m -2 , 3.82 and 69.7 g m -2 m and 2.92 and 0.215 g m -2 respectively. pH values demonstrated an obvious seasonal variation; they were lower in winter than in the rest of the year. Ca 2+ and NH 4 + together made up more than 80% of the total cation, while SO 4 2- alone contributed over 90% to the total anion. This high level of SO 4 2- in rain water in Congqing, which outran those found in other cities in China, was closely related to the combustion of locally produced coal that contains 3 to 5% sulphur. Thus, acid precipitation in Chongqing is of a typical sulphuric-acid type. 6 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Water-soluble polyaniline/graphene composites as materials for energy storage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Solonaru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three water-dispersable composites have been synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline N-propanesulfonic acid (AnS in reduced graphene oxide (r-GO dispersion, in an ice bath at 0 °C and in the absence of any surfactant. The mass ratio between r-GO and aniline monomer have been established as (mr-GO:mAnS = 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5 while in the composites, the mass ratio between r-GO and polyaniline was found: 1:0.3, 1:0.5 and 1:1, respectively. The molecular structure, morphology, and optical properties of the composites were analyzed through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, Raman and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Electrochemical performances for energy storage were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements with 1M H2SO4 as electrolyte in a three-electrode cell. The composite with the mass ratio (mr-GO:mPAnS = 1:1 has showed good capacitive behavior with a specific capacitance of 1019 F/g at scan rate of 1 mV/s calculated from integrated area of cyclic voltammogram curve and a retention life of 80% after 100 cycles. These results indicate that the composites prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization are promising materials for electrode supercapacitors.

  7. Service water chemical cleaning at River Bend gets results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, T.O.; Glover, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    The largest known Service Water System (SWS) chemical cleaning ever performed at a nuclear plant was successfully completed at, River Bend Station. Corrosion product buildup was observed during system inspections in the first operating cycle and the first refueling outage in 1987. Under deposit corrosion was followed with microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) occurring as a later stage under deposits. The heavy corrosion caused blockage of heat exchanger tubes, fouling of valve seats, and general flow blockage throughout the system. Various options were evaluated for restoring the SWS back to an acceptable long term operating condition. The large scale chemical cleaning performed arrested the corrosion by removing the deposits down to the bare metal surfaces and leaving behind a protective passivation layer. After the cleaning, the open recirculating SWS was converted to a closed system. The implementation of a molybdate/nitrate water treatment program with a copper corrosion inhibitor maintained at a high pH (8.5--10.5) has significantly reduced corrosion rates in the closed system. This should extend the life of the SWS piping for the remaining life of the plant. Several field tests were conducted to qualify the process and demonstrate its ability to achieve acceptable cleaning results prior to being used on a larger scale. In the summer of 1992, temporary and permanent modifications were installed to divide the SWS into two separate cleaning loops for the system wide cleaning. The SWS chemical was successfully performed and completed on schedule during the fourth refueling outage. Post cleaning inspections at various locations throughout the Service Water System showed the process to be very effective at complete deposit removal

  8. Chemical stability of seven years aged cement-PET composite waste form containing radioactive borate waste simulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki (Egypt); Tawfik, M.E. [Department of Polymers and Pigments, National Research Center, Dokki (Egypt); Bayoumi, T.A. [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki (Egypt)

    2011-04-15

    Different samples of radioactive borate waste simulate [originating from pressurized water reactors (PWR)] have been prepared and solidified after mixing with cement-water extended polyester composite (CPC). The polymer-cement composite samples were prepared from recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste and cement paste (water/cement ratio of 40%). The prepared samples were left to set at room temperature (25 deg. C {+-} 5) under humid conditions. After 28 days curing time the obtained specimens were kept in their molds to age for 7 years under ambient conditions. Cement-polymer composite waste form specimens (CPCW) have been subjected to leach tests for both {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co radionuclides according to the method proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Leaching tests were justified under various factors that may exist within the disposal site (e.g. type of leachant, surrounding temperature, leachant behavior, the leachant volume to CPCW surface area...). The obtained data after 260 days of leaching revealed that after 7 years of aging the candidate cement-polymer composite (CPC) containing radioactive borate waste samples are characterized by adequate chemical stability required for the long-term disposal process.

  9. MOFwich: Sandwiched Metal-Organic Framework-Containing Mixed Matrix Composites for Chemical Warfare Agent Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gregory W; Lu, Annie X; Hall, Morgan G; Browe, Matthew A; Tovar, Trenton; Epps, Thomas H

    2018-02-28

    This work describes a new strategy for fabricating mixed matrix composites containing layered metal-organic framework (MOF)/polymer films as functional barriers for chemical warfare agent protection. Through the use of mechanically robust polymers as the top and bottom encasing layers, a high-MOF-loading, high-performance-core layer can be sandwiched within. We term this multifunctional composite "MOFwich". We found that the use of elastomeric encasing layers enabled core layer reformation after breakage, an important feature for composites and membranes alike. The incorporation of MOFs into the core layer led to enhanced removal of chemical warfare agents while simultaneously promoting moisture vapor transport through the composite, showcasing the promise of these composites for protection applications.

  10. Intentional and inadvertent chemical contamination of food, water, and medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCKay, Charles; Scharman, Elizabeth J

    2015-02-01

    Numerous examples of chemical contamination of food, water, or medication have led to steps by regulatory agencies to maintain the safety of this critical social infrastructure and supply chain. Identification of contaminant site is important. Environmental testing and biomonitoring can define the nature and extent of the event and are useful for providing objective information, but may be unavailable in time for clinical care. Clinical diagnosis should be based on toxidrome recognition and assessment of public health implications. There are several resources available to assist and these can be accessed through regional poison control centers or local/state public health departments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical composition and cycling of dissolved organic matter in the Mid-Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluwihare, Lihini I.; Repeta, Daniel J.; Chen, Robert F.

    This study focuses on the chemical characterization of high molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (HMW DOM) isolated from the Middle Atlantic Bight in April 1994 and March 1996. Using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1HNMR) and monosaccharide analysis we compared both spatial and temporal variations in the chemical structure of HMW DOM across this region. Our analyses support the presence of at least two compositionally distinct components to HMW DOM. The major component is acyl polysaccharide (APS), a biopolymer rich in carbohydrates, acetate and lipid, accounting for between 50% and 80% of the total high molecular-weight dissolved organic carbon (HMW DOC) in surface samples. APS is most abundant in fully marine, surface-water samples, and is a product of autochthonous production. Organic matter with spectral properties characteristic of humic substances is the second major component of HMW DOM. Humic substances are most abundant (up to 49% of the total carbon) in samples collected from estuaries, near the coast, and in deep water, suggesting both marine and perhaps terrestrial sources. Radiocarbon analyses of neutral monosaccharides released by the hydrolysis of APS have similar and modern (average 71‰) Δ 14C values. Radiocarbon data support our suggestion that these sugars occur as part of a common macromolecule, with an origin via recent biosynthesis. Preliminary radiocarbon data for total neutral monosaccharides isolated from APS at 300 and 750 m show this fraction to be substantially enriched relative to total HMW DOC and DOC. The relatively enriched radiocarbon values of APS at depth suggest APS is rapidly transported into the deep ocean.

  12. Characterization of chemical composition of bee pollen in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Wu, Dan; Ye, Xingqian; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Jianchu; Sun, Peilong

    2013-01-23

    Bee pollen has been praised for its good nutrition and therapeutic values. China is the largest producer in the world. Twelve common varieties of monofloral bee pollen collected from China's main producing regions were selected for nutritional composition analysis, including proximate contents, dietary fibers, amino acid distribution, fatty acid composition, and mineral elements. The proximate compositions mostly met the specifications regulating pollen load quality of China. Proline and glutamic acids were found to be the predominant amino acids in the form of both total amino and free amino acids. Lysine was the relative limiting amino acid. The percentage of total essential amino acids (TEAA) to total amino acids (TAA) reached the nutrition recommendation of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). The major fatty acids, presented as mean values, were C18:3 (25.1%), C16:0 (19.6%), C18:1 (17.3%), C18:2 (8.78%), C22:0 (4.07%), and C18:0 (2.96%) acids. The proportions of C18:3 were generally higher than those of C18:2, and the ratio of total unsaturated fatty acids (TUS) to total saturated fatty acids (TS) was >1.0, except for Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. pollen for the characteristic absence of C18:3 acids. High levels of beneficial elements such as K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn. and Cu were observed in pollen samples. The contents of detrimental trace elements of Cd, Pb, and Hg were primarily lower or not detected. However, more attention should be paid to a large amount of Al, with a concentration of >100 mg/kg DW in most samples. There were some significant differences between samples. On the whole, the Chinese bee pollen was evaluated as a good complement to diet.

  13. Effects of chemical composition on the corrosion of dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galo, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Rocha, Luís Augusto; de Mattos, Maria da Glória Chiarello

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the oral environment on the corrosion of dental alloys with different compositions, using electrochemical methods. The corrosion rates were obtained from the current-potential curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of artificial saliva on the corrosion of dental alloys was dependent on alloy composition. Dissolution of the ions occurred in all tested dental alloys and the results were strongly dependent on the general alloy composition. Regarding the alloys containing nickel, the Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Ti alloys released 0.62 mg/L of Ni on average, while the Co-Cr dental alloy released ions between 0.01 and 0.03 mg/L of Co and Cr, respectively.The open-circuit potential stabilized at a higher level with lower deviation (standard deviation: Ni-Cr-6Ti = 32 mV/SCE and Co-Cr = 54 mV/SCE). The potenciodynamic curves of the dental alloys showed that the Ni-based dental alloy with >70 wt% of Ni had a similar curve and the Co-Cr dental alloy showed a low current density and hence a high resistance to corrosion compared with the Ni-based dental alloys. Some changes in microstructure were observed and this fact influenced the corrosion behavior for the alloys. The lower corrosion resistance also led to greater release of nickel ions to the medium. The quantity of Co ions released from the Co-Cr-Mo alloy was relatively small in the solutions. In addition, the quantity of Cr ions released into the artificial saliva from the Co-Cr alloy was lower than Cr release from the Ni-based dental alloys.

  14. effects of preharvest treatments on yield and chemical composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    altitude of 1197 m above sea level and lies at 9o6'N ... widest point form the upper, middle and lower part of the plant was ... heated in boiling water bath for sufficient time until the ..... al., 1970 reported yield increase in tomato due to nitrogen ...

  15. Relationships of chemical composition, quantity of milt to fertility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... determining the right quantity of milt that can be used to fertilize certain quantity of eggs. ... quantity of milt used for artificial reproduction in fish significantly affect water quality used ... is the major organic substance that supplies the spermatozoa with energy.

  16. Isotopic composition of chemical elements in natural cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, K.

    1977-12-01

    Mathematical models developed for planning and evaluating tracer experiments have been applied in investigations of the isotopic composition of carbon in its natural cycle through various periods of the last billion years. The influence on the natural isotope ratio due to industrial combustion of fossil fuels is shown. In order to describe regional differences from the global behaviour of carbon a parameter has been introduced, which represents the time needed for one total exchange of the atmosphere in a certain region with the global atmosphere

  17. Chemical composition of fogwater collected along the California coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, D.J.; Waldman, J.M.; Munger, J.W.; Hoffman, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Fogwater collected at both urban and nonurban coastal sites in California ws found to be consistently acidic. Millimolar concentrations of NO/sub 3//sup -/, and fogwater pH values below 3, were observed at sites downwind of the Los Angeles basin. Fogwater composition at remote sites showed evidence of substantial continental and anthropogenic contributions. Acid-neutralizing capacities in coastal air were found to be very low and insufficient to neutralize even small acid inputs. Chloride loss relative to its sea salt contribution was observed at sites furthest from anthropogenic sources.

  18. Quantitative mapping of chemical compositions with MRI using compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Harbou, Erik; Fabich, Hilary T; Benning, Martin; Tayler, Alexander B; Sederman, Andrew J; Gladden, Lynn F; Holland, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging method for accelerating the acquisition time of two dimensional concentration maps of different chemical species in mixtures by the use of compressed sensing (CS) is presented. Whilst 2D-concentration maps with a high spatial resolution are prohibitively time-consuming to acquire using full k-space sampling techniques, CS enables the reconstruction of quantitative concentration maps from sub-sampled k-space data. First, the method was tested by reconstructing simulated data. Then, the CS algorithm was used to reconstruct concentration maps of binary mixtures of 1,4-dioxane and cyclooctane in different samples with a field-of-view of 22mm and a spatial resolution of 344μm×344μm. Spiral based trajectories were used as sampling schemes. For the data acquisition, eight scans with slightly different trajectories were applied resulting in a total acquisition time of about 8min. In contrast, a conventional chemical shift imaging experiment at the same resolution would require about 17h. To get quantitative results, a careful weighting of the regularisation parameter (via the L-curve approach) or contrast-enhancing Bregman iterations are applied for the reconstruction of the concentration maps. Both approaches yield relative errors of the concentration map of less than 2mol-% without any calibration prior to the measurement. The accuracy of the reconstructed concentration maps deteriorates when the reconstruction model is biased by systematic errors such as large inhomogeneities in the static magnetic field. The presented method is a powerful tool for the fast acquisition of concentration maps that can provide valuable information for the investigation of many phenomena in chemical engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose nanocrystal composite films with high structural stability by spraying Fenton reagent as initiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meili; Yu, Houyong; Gu, Jiping; Ye, Shounuan; Zhou, Yuwei

    2018-07-01

    Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films with high structural stability were prepared by free radical copolymerization between cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and maleic anhydride (MAH) modified PVA through spraying Fenton free radical as initiator. The influence of chemical cross-linked and physical network structure on mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of the composite films were investigated. Compared to PVA and PVA/CNC composite film, significant improvements in the mechanical, thermal and water uptake properties of the cross-linked composite film were found. The tensile strength of the cross-linked composite film was enhanced from 23.1MPa (neat PVA film) and 32.6MPa (PVA/CNC-10%) to 42.5MPa, and the maximum thermal degradation temperature was increased from 266.8°C and 281.2°C to 366.7°C (cross-linked composite film). Besides, the water absorption was reduced from 385.9% and 220.6% to 175.7% for cross-linked composite film. It indicates that compared with physical network structure in PVA/CNC composite film, the multiple cross-linked networks showed excellent thermal stability, resistance of water swelling and structural stability at the same CNC loading level. Thus, the PVA/CNC composite film with the multiple cross-linked network shows greater property reinforcements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Decontamination by water jet, chemical and electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauchon, J.P.; Mordenti, P.; Bezia, C.; Fuentes, P.; Kervegant, Y.; Munoz, C.; Pierlas, C.

    1986-01-01

    The decontamination tests have been carried out on samples coming from representative specimens from primary circuit of the PWR and on samples coming from the emergency feed water piping of the German BWR (Isar). The oxide found in PWR primary loops can only be removed by a two steps process. The initial embrittling step is particularly effective in hot alkaline permanganate medium. Oxidation by ozone treatment is less effective. The second step involves chemical erosion of the metal in nitrofluoric acid in conjonction with ultrasonic agitation. Among the reagents used, only oxalic acid is suitable for electrolytic decontamination. Among the reagents possible for decontamination of the Isar specimens (ferritic steel lined with hematite) halogenous acid in mixture without or with oxygenated water, sulfuric acid, the formic acid/formaldehyde mixture are chosen. Metal erosion with high pressure jet as well as the decontamination efficiency on parts lined with hematite have made possible to determine the best conditions. 33 figs, 29 refs