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Sample records for water bug genome

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): evidence from mitochondrial genomes

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    Hua, Jimeng; Li, Ming; Dong, Pengzhi; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun

    2009-01-01

    Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea) + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea))). PMID:19523246

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: evidence from mitochondrial genomes

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    Xie Qiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea.

  3. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome

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    Benoit, Joshua B.; Adelman, Zach N.; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C.; Szuter, Elise M.; Hagan, Richard W.; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M.; Nelson, David R.; Rosendale, Andrew J.; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M.; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R.; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; Johnston, J. Spencer; Gondhalekar, Ameya D.; Scharf, Michael E.; Peterson, Brittany F.; Raje, Kapil R.; Hottel, Benjamin A.; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Refki, Peter Nagui; Santos, Maria Emilia; Sghaier, Essia; Viala, Sèverine; Khila, Abderrahman; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Childers, Christopher; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Murali, Shwetha C.; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L.; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Worley, Kim C.; Muzny, Donna M.; Wheeler, David; Panfilio, Kristen A.; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Vargo, Edward L.; Booth, Warren; Friedrich, Markus; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Jones, Jeffery W.; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhao, Chaoyang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Evans, Jay D.; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Werren, John H.; Palli, Subba R.; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host–symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human–bed bug and symbiont–bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite. PMID:26836814

  4. The complete Mitochondrial genome of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Heteroptera: Miridae)

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    The complete mitochondrial genome of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, comprises 17027 bp. The genome contains 13 protein coding regions, 22 tRNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. The gene arrangement corresponds to the common order found among insect mtDNAs which is considered to be the ...

  5. Checklist of water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha) of Slovakia.

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    Klementová, Barbora Reduciendo; Kment, Petr; Svitok, Marek

    2015-12-16

    The water bugs represent a significant component of the freshwater biota, play an important role in trophic webs, and may have considerable economic importance. Nevertheless, systematic research of this group has been underdeveloped in Slovakia (central Europe) for decades. This work presents a list of water bug species of Slovakia based on an exhaustive review of the literature (time span: 1808-2013) and on more than 14,000 individuals collected during extensive field campaigns (2010-2014) or obtained from insect collections. Fifty-six species belonging to 11 families of Heteroptera were recorded from a total of 767 sites. Seven species were recorded for the first time from Slovakia during our research. Among those, the first exact records of Corixa panzeri Fieber, 1848, Sigara (Subsigara) distincta (Fieber, 1848), Notonecta (Notonecta) lutea Müller, 1776, Notonecta (Notonecta) maculata Fabricius, 1794 and Microvelia (Microvelia) buenoi Drake, 1920 are provided here. Confusion concerning the records of two additional species, Arctocorisa carinata carinata (C. R. Sahlberg, 1819) and Hesperocorixa parallela (Fieber, 1860) is clarified. The water bugs species inventory appears to be nearly complete (~97 %) given an asymptotic richness estimate. The occurrence of other species is discussed taking into account their habitat requirements and distribution in neighbouring countries. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  6. Comparative genomics evidence that only protein toxins are tagging bad bugs

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    Kalliopi eGeorgiades

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The term toxin was introduced by Roux and Yersin and describes macromolecular substances that, when produced during infection or when introduced parenterally or orally, cause an impairment of physiological functions that lead to disease or to the death of the infected organism. Long after the discovery of toxins, early genetic studies on bacterial virulence demonstrated that removing a certain number of genes from pathogenic bacteria decreases their capacity to infect hosts. Each of the removed factors was therefore referred to as a virulence factor, and it was speculated that non-pathogenic bacteria lack such supplementary factors. However, many recent comparative studies demonstrate that the specialization of bacteria to eukaryotic hosts is associated with massive gene loss. We recently demonstrated that the only features that seem to characterize 12 epidemic bacteria are toxin-antitoxin (TA modules, which are addiction molecules in host bacteria. In this study, we investigated if protein toxins are indeed the only molecules specific to pathogenic bacteria by comparing 14 epidemic bacterial killers (bad bugs with their 14 closest non-epidemic relatives (controls. We found protein toxins in significantly more elevated numbers in all of the bad bugs. For the first time, statistical principal components analysis, including genome size, GC%, TA modules, restriction enzymes and toxins, revealed that toxins are the only proteins other than TA modules that are correlated with the pathogenic character of bacteria. Moreover, intracellular toxins appear to be more correlated with the pathogenic character of bacteria than secreted toxins. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the only truly identifiable phenomena, witnessing the convergent evolution of the most pathogenic bacteria for humans are the loss of metabolic activities, i.e., the outcome of the loss of regulatory and transcription factors and the presence of protein toxins, alone or coupled as TA

  7. Ecology and Feeding Habits Drive Infection of Water Bugs with Mycobacterium ulcerans.

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    Meyin A Ebong, Solange; García-Peña, Gabriel E; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Marsollier, Laurent; Le Gall, Philippe; Eyangoh, Sara; Guégan, Jean-François

    2017-06-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, is present in a wide spectrum of environments, including terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in tropical regions. The most promising studies on the epidemiological risk of this disease suggest that some ecological settings may favor infection of animals with MU including human. A species' needs and impacts on resources and the environment, i.e., its ecological niche, may influence its susceptibility to be infected by this microbial form. For example, some Naucoridae may dive in fresh waters to prey upon infected animals and thus may get infected with MU. However, these studies have rarely considered that inference on the ecological settings favoring infection and transmission may be confounded because host carrier sister species have similar ecological niches, and potentially the same host-microbe interactions. Hence, a relationship between the ecological niche of Naucoridae and its infection with MU may be due to a symbiotic relationship between the host and the pathogen, rather than its ecological niche. To account for this confounding effect, we investigated the relationships between surrogates of the ecological niche of water bug species and their susceptibility to MU, by performing phylogenetic comparative analyses on a large dataset of 11 families of water bugs collected in 10 different sites across Cameroon, central Africa. Our results indicate that MU circulates and infects a couple of host taxa, i.e., Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, living both in the aquatic vegetation and as predators inside the trophic network and sister species of water bugs have indeed similar host-microbe interactions with MU.

  8. Predation Potential of the Water Bugs Sphaerodema rusticum on the Sewage Snails Physa acuta

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    G Aditya

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The sewage snail Physa acuta is a serious threat to certain economic plants and to the purification plant of sewage works by rendering the biofilters ineffective. Various attempts are being made to control it. The efficacy of the predacious water bugs Sphaerodema rusticum was judged experimentally, in the laboratory in the potential control of P. acuta. It is revealed that, when supplied separately, the first, second and third instar and the adult S. rusticum did not attack P. acuta belonging to 3.1-8 mm, 5.1-8 mm, 7.1-8 mm and <= 3 mm size classes respectively. In the remaining trials predation rate varied from zero to eight (average 2.3 individuals per predator per day. In experiments with P. acuta belonging to all the size classes supplied together, none, except the first instar S. rusticum, attacked the prey individuals belonging to the lowest (<= 3 mm size class. The first and second instar S. rusticum, in both trials did not attack P. acuta larger than 4 mm and 5 mm in shell length respectively. The water bugs belonging to the third, fourth, fifth instar and adult stages though preyed upon P. acuta with 3.1-8 mm shell length. The average rate of predation by a single S. rusticum varied from 0.14-3.08 individuals per day depending upon the size of P. acuta and the stage of S. rusticum. A single S. rusticum, irrespective of instar and adult stages, destroyed on average 4.16 P. acuta daily irrespective of sizes. It is estimated that one S. rusticum could destroy 1,360 P. acuta in its life time. The results clearly indicate that the water bug S. rusticum may be used to control the snails P. acuta.

  9. The role of a water bug, Sigara striata, in freshwater food webs

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    Jan Klecka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater food webs are dominated by aquatic invertebrates whose trophic relationships are often poorly known. Here, I used laboratory experiments to study the role of a water bug, Sigara striata, as a potential predator and prey in food webs of stagnant waters. Multiple-choice predation experiment revealed that Sigara, which had been considered mostly herbivorous, also consumed larvae of Chironomus midges. Because they often occur in high densities and are among the most ubiquitous aquatic insects, Sigara water bugs may be important predators in fresh waters. A second experiment tested the role of Sigara as a potential prey for 13 common invertebrate predators. Mortality of Sigara inflicted by different predators varied widely, especially depending on body mass, foraging mode (ambush/searching and feeding mode (chewing/suctorial of the predators. Sigara was highly vulnerable to ambush predators, while searching predators caused on average 8.1 times lower mortality of Sigara. Additionally, suctorial predators consumed on average 6.6 times more Sigara individuals than chewing predators, which supports previous results hinting on potentially different predation pressures of these two types of predators on prey populations. The importance of these two foraging-related traits demonstrates the need to move from body mass based to multiple trait based descriptions of food web structure. Overall, the results suggests that detailed experimental studies of common but insufficiently known species can significantly enhance our understanding of food web structure.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Coriobacterium glomerans type strain (PW2T) from the midgut of Pyrrhocoris apterus L. (red soldier bug)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stackebrandt, Erko [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Zeytun, Ahmet [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Pukall, Rudiger [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2013-01-01

    Coriobacterium glomerans Haas and Ko nig 1988, is the only species of the genus Coriobacterium, family Coriobacteriaceae, order Coriobacteriales, phylum Actinobacteria. The bacterium thrives as an endosymbiont of pyrrhocorid bugs, i.e. the red fire bug Pyrrhocoris apterus L. The rationale for sequencing the genome of strain PW2T is its endosymbiotic life style which is rare among members of Actinobacteria. Here we describe the features of this symbiont, together with the complete genome sequence and its annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the genus Coriobacterium and the sixth member of the order Coriobacteriales for which complete genome sequences are now available. The 2,115,681 bp long single replicon genome with its 1,804 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  11. Squash Bug

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    Alston, Diane; Barnhill, James

    2009-01-01

    Squash bug (Anasa tristis) is a “true bug” with piercingsucking mouthparts (Order Hemiptera) in the leaffooted bug family (Coreidae). It is common throughout the U.S. and found from Canada to Central America. Adults (Fig. 1) emit a foul odor when disturbed and may be called “stink bugs”; however, true stink bugs are in a different true bug family.

  12. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

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    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Coriobacterium glomerans type strain (PW2(T)) from the midgut of Pyrrhocoris apterus L. (red soldier bug).

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    Stackebrandt, Erko; Zeytun, Ahmet; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Chang, Yun-Juan; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Rohde, Manfred; Pukall, Rüdiger; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-04-15

    Coriobacterium glomerans Haas and König 1988, is the only species of the genus Coriobacterium, family Coriobacteriaceae, order Coriobacteriales, phylum Actinobacteria. The bacterium thrives as an endosymbiont of pyrrhocorid bugs, i.e. the red fire bug Pyrrhocoris apterus L. The rationale for sequencing the genome of strain PW2(T) is its endosymbiotic life style which is rare among members of Actinobacteria. Here we describe the features of this symbiont, together with the complete genome sequence and its annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the genus Coriobacterium and the sixth member of the order Coriobacteriales for which complete genome sequences are now available. The 2,115,681 bp long single replicon genome with its 1,804 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  14. The long road to improving the water quality of the Western Bug River (Ukraine) - A multi-scale analysis

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    Hagemann, N.; Blumensaat, F.; Tavares Wahren, F.; Trümper, J.; Burmeister, C.; Moynihan, R.; Scheifhacken, N.

    2014-11-01

    River basin management (RMB) was introduced to combat high levels of water pollution across Ukraine. The Western Bug River provides an example of how water quality is impacted by industrial and domestic wastewater discharges as well as pollution from agriculture and mining activities. The paper draws from a broader interdisciplinary study which aims to outline the sources of pollution within the upper Western Bug River catchment and identify the driving institutional forces behind this enduring environmental problem. The results of this study show that the administrative and spatial scales concerning river catchment management in the Western Bug River basin are not aligned. Furthermore, the temporal scale is often conflicting with the two above mentioned scales. The current political and financial situation of the State, as well as outdated administrative structures hinders effective water governance and results in low water quality. Despite these findings, there is also some evidence that in the longer term the RBM approach could succeed in the Western Bug River, especially if political and legal reforms are properly implemented and enforced.

  15. The significance of cytogenetics for the study of karyotype evolution and taxonomy of water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae native to Argentina

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    Mónica Chirino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Male meiosis behaviour and heterochromatin characterization of three big water bug species were studied. Belostoma dentatum (Mayr, 1863, B. elongatum Montandon, 1908 and B. gestroi Montandon, 1903 possess 2n = 26 + X1X2Y (male. In these species, male meiosis is similar to that previously observed in Belostoma Latreille, 1807. In general, autosomal bivalents show a single chiasma terminally located and divide reductionally at anaphase I. On the other hand, sex chromosomes are achiasmatic, behave as univalents and segregate their chromatids equationally at anaphase I. The analysis of heterochromatin distribution and composition revealed a C-positive block at the terminal region of all autosomes in B. dentatum, a C-positive block at the terminal region and C-positive interstitial dots on all autosomes in B. elongatum, and a little C-positive band at the terminal region of autosomes in B. gestroi. A C-positive band on one bivalent was DAPI negative/CMA3 positive in the three species. The CMA3-bright band, enriched in GC base pairs, was coincident with a NOR detected by FISH. The results obtained support the hypothesis that all species of Belostoma with multiple sex chromosome systems preserve NORs in autosomal bivalents. The karyotype analyses allow the cytogenetic characterization and identification of these species belonging to a difficult taxonomic group. Besides, the cytogenetic characterization will be useful in discussions about evolutionary trends of the genome organization and karyotype evolution in this genus.

  16. Habitat visualization and genomic analysis of "Candidatus Pantoea carbekii," the primary symbiont of the brown marmorated stink bug.

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    Kenyon, Laura J; Meulia, Tea; Sabree, Zakee L

    2015-01-12

    Phytophagous pentatomid insects can negatively impact agricultural productivity and the brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) is an emerging invasive pest responsible for damage to many fruit crops and ornamental plants in North America. Many phytophagous stink bugs, including H. halys, harbor gammaproteobacterial symbionts that likely contribute to host development, and characterization of symbiont transmission/acquisition and their contribution to host fitness may offer alternative strategies for managing pest species. "Candidatus Pantoea carbekii" is the primary occupant of gastric ceca lumina flanking the distal midgut of H. halys insects and it is acquired each generation when nymphs feed on maternal extrachorion secretions following hatching. Insects prevented from symbiont uptake exhibit developmental delays and aberrant behaviors. To infer contributions of Ca. P. carbekii to H. halys, the complete genome was sequenced and annotated from a North American H. halys population. Overall, the Ca. P. carbekii genome is nearly one-fourth (1.2 Mb) that of free-living congenerics, and retains genes encoding many functions that are potentially host-supportive. Gene content reflects patterns of gene loss/retention typical of intracellular mutualists of plant-feeding insects. Electron and fluorescence in situ microscopic imaging of H. halys egg surfaces revealed that maternal extrachorion secretions were populated with Ca. P. carbekii cells. The reported findings detail a transgenerational mode of symbiont transmission distinct from that observed for intracellular insect mutualists and illustrate the potential additive functions contributed by the bacterial symbiont to this important agricultural pest. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Phylogeny of the true water bugs (Nepomorpha: Hemiptera–Heteroptera) based on 16S and 28S rDNA and morphology

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    Hebsgaard, Martin Bay; Andersen, Nils M.; Damgaard, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    Morphological characters and molecular sequence data were for the first time analysed separately and combined for the true water bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). Data from forty species representing all families were included, together with two outgroup species representing...

  18. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Stalk-Eyed Bug Chauliops fallax Scott, and the Monophyly of Malcidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

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    Li, Teng; Gao, Cuiqing; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    Chauliops fallax Scott, 1874 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Malcidae: Chauliopinae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of soybean and rice fields in Asia. Here we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this pest. This genome is 15,739 bp long, with an A+T content of 73.7%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and a control region. All genes were arranged in the same order as most of other Heteroptera. A remarkable strand bias was found for all nine protein coding genes (PCGs) encoded by the majority strand were positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew, whereas the reverse were found in the remaining four PCGs encoded by the minority strand and two rRNA genes. The models of secondary structures for the two rRNA genes of sequenced true bugs and Lygaeoidea were predicted. 16S rRNA consisted of six domains (domain III is absent as in other known arthropod mitochondrial genomes) and 45 helices, while three domains and 27 helices for 12S rRNA. The control region consists of five subregions: a microsatellite-like region, a tandem repeats region and other three motifs. The unusual intergenic spacer between tRNA-H and ND4 only found in the species of Lygaeoidea, not in other heteropteran species, may be the synapomorphy of this superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on all the 13 PCGs showed that Chauliopinae was the sister group of Malcinae and the monophyly of Lygaeoidea. PMID:23390534

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the stalk-eyed bug Chauliops fallax Scott, and the monophyly of Malcidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera.

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    Teng Li

    Full Text Available Chauliops fallax Scott, 1874 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Malcidae: Chauliopinae is one of the most destructive insect pests of soybean and rice fields in Asia. Here we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this pest. This genome is 15,739 bp long, with an A+T content of 73.7%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and a control region. All genes were arranged in the same order as most of other Heteroptera. A remarkable strand bias was found for all nine protein coding genes (PCGs encoded by the majority strand were positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew, whereas the reverse were found in the remaining four PCGs encoded by the minority strand and two rRNA genes. The models of secondary structures for the two rRNA genes of sequenced true bugs and Lygaeoidea were predicted. 16S rRNA consisted of six domains (domain III is absent as in other known arthropod mitochondrial genomes and 45 helices, while three domains and 27 helices for 12S rRNA. The control region consists of five subregions: a microsatellite-like region, a tandem repeats region and other three motifs. The unusual intergenic spacer between tRNA-H and ND4 only found in the species of Lygaeoidea, not in other heteropteran species, may be the synapomorphy of this superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on all the 13 PCGs showed that Chauliopinae was the sister group of Malcinae and the monophyly of Lygaeoidea.

  20. Variability Bugs:

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    Melo, Jean

    2017-01-01

    be exploited. Variability bugs are not confined to any particular type of bug, error-prone feature, or location. In addition to introducing an exponential number of program variants, variability increases the complexity of bugs due to unintended feature interactions, hidden features, combinations of layers...... and bug finding, but not terribly so. This is positive and consistent with the existence of highly-configurable software systems with hundreds, even thousands, of features, testifying that developers in the trenches are able to deal with variability.......Many modern software systems are highly configurable. They embrace variability to increase adaptability and to lower cost. To implement configurable software, developers often use the C preprocessor (CPP), which is a well-known technique, mainly in industry, to deal with variability in code...

  1. MODERN TENDENCIES OF CLIMATE, WATER RESOURCES AND ECOSYSTEMS CHANGES IN THE MIDDLE-LOWER PART OF SOUTHERN BUG RIVER, UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Boychenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Analyze the features of climate and water regime change in the northwestern part of the Southern Bug River basin in second half of the 20th century and at the beginning of the XXI century in the region of the South-Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP. Assess the impact of the SUNPP on the microclimatic conditions and identify possible threats to the biotic diversity of natural ecosystems which are associated with environmental changes. Methods: The main results of work are obtained on the basis of empirical materials by statistical analysis and analytical review of published materials. Results: The energy production at the SUNPP requires significant amount of water from Southern Bug River for cooling. Due to the climatic changes, namely, with the increase of the average annual air temperature and the decrease the amount of precipitation (in the upper and middle part of the river, the operations of the connected with cooling became complicated. Discussion: The SUNPP activity in the modern limits already have a negative impact on the environment, but the concern of ecologists is exacerbated by the possible increase of the Oleksandrivske reservoir to a mark of +20 m, which will increase the load on natural ecosystems and the society, and will violate the number of international and national legal acts, while not taking into account current trends of climate change.

  2. Survey of Water Bugs in Bankim, a New Buruli Ulcer Endemic Area in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Meyin A. Ebong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae, their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction.

  3. Habitat Visualization and Genomic Analysis of “Candidatus Pantoea carbekii,” the Primary Symbiont of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Laura J.; Meulia, Tea; Sabree, Zakee L.

    2015-01-01

    Phytophagous pentatomid insects can negatively impact agricultural productivity and the brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) is an emerging invasive pest responsible for damage to many fruit crops and ornamental plants in North America. Many phytophagous stink bugs, including H. halys, harbor gammaproteobacterial symbionts that likely contribute to host development, and characterization of symbiont transmission/acquisition and their contribution to host fitness may offer alternative strategies for managing pest species. “Candidatus Pantoea carbekii” is the primary occupant of gastric ceca lumina flanking the distal midgut of H. halys insects and it is acquired each generation when nymphs feed on maternal extrachorion secretions following hatching. Insects prevented from symbiont uptake exhibit developmental delays and aberrant behaviors. To infer contributions of Ca. P. carbekii to H. halys, the complete genome was sequenced and annotated from a North American H. halys population. Overall, the Ca. P. carbekii genome is nearly one-fourth (1.2 Mb) that of free-living congenerics, and retains genes encoding many functions that are potentially host-supportive. Gene content reflects patterns of gene loss/retention typical of intracellular mutualists of plant-feeding insects. Electron and fluorescence in situ microscopic imaging of H. halys egg surfaces revealed that maternal extrachorion secretions were populated with Ca. P. carbekii cells. The reported findings detail a transgenerational mode of symbiont transmission distinct from that observed for intracellular insect mutualists and illustrate the potential additive functions contributed by the bacterial symbiont to this important agricultural pest. PMID:25587021

  4. Description of a cryptic new species of the plant bug genus Eccritotarsus (Heteroptera: Miridae: Bryocorinae) from Peru, a new biocontrol agent of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new plant bug Eccritotarsus eichhorniae is described from specimens taken on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in Maynas Province, Peru. This new species is extremely similar to Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Carvalho), a species described from Santa Catarina, Brazil. These two populations were...

  5. Infestation of Broad Bean (Vicia faba) by the Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula) Decreases Shoot Abscisic Acid Contents under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederli, Luisa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro; Colazza, Stefano; Frati, Francesca; Loreto, Francesco; Marino, Giovanni; Salerno, Gianandrea; Pasqualini, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The response of broad bean (Vicia faba) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug (Nezara viridula) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host-plant preference, and nymph growth and survival. Water stress significantly reduced both photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (gs ), while infestation by the green stink bug had no effects on photosynthesis but significantly altered partitioning of ABA between roots and shoots. Leaf ABA was decreased and root ABA increased as a result of herbivore attack, under both well-watered and water-deprived conditions. Water stress significantly impacted on SA content in leaves, but not on H2O2. However, infestation of N. viridula greatly increased both SA and H2O2 contents in leaves and roots, which suggests that endogenous SA and H2O2 have roles in plant responses to herbivore infestation. No significant differences were seen for green stink bug choice between well-watered and water-stressed plants. However, for green stink bug nymphs, plant water stress promoted significantly lower weight increases and significantly higher mortality, which indicates that highly water-stressed host plants are less suitable for N. viridula infestation. In conclusion two important findings emerged: (i) association of water stress with herbivore infestation largely changes plant response in terms of phytohormone contents; but (ii) water stress does not affect the preference of the infesting insects, although their performance was impaired.

  6. Lightning Bugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 9. Lightning Bugs. B Gajendra Babu M Kannan. General Article Volume 7 Issue 9 September 2002 pp 49-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/09/0049-0055. Keywords.

  7. Observations on the life history of giant water bugs Lethocerus Mayr, 1853 (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Belostomatidae in the Gangetic plains of India and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nesemann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two species of giant water bugs Lethocerus were found in the Gangetic plains of northern India and Nepal. Lethocerus indicus is widespread, whereas a single record of Lethocerus patruelis confirms the eastern distribution range in Bihar. Four instars of aquatic nymphs occur exclusively in temporary shallow stagnant water bodies which harbor rich amphibian populations but lack permanent fish fauna. From mid-August to the first week of November adults fly. Later they live submerged in aquatic habitats of large rivers and permanent stagnant water bodies which harbor diverse fish fauna. Repeated findings of adults with ventrally attached egg-shaped pupae of aquatic mites (Hydracarina suggest that these are host-specific ones of Lethocerus. Thus, the occurrence of protelean parasites on giant water bugs in the Gangetic plains is a previously unknown unique finding since apparently mites have been noticed only from other Nepomorpha families.

  8. Squash Bug (Espanol)

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Diane; Barnhill, James

    2013-01-01

    Squash bug (Anasa tristis) is a “true bug” with piercingsucking mouthparts (Order Hemiptera) in the leaffooted bug family (Coreidae). It is common throughout the U.S. and found from Canada to Central America. Adults (Fig. 1) emit a foul odor when disturbed and may be called “stink bugs”; however, true stink bugs are in a different true bug family.

  9. Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs was developed by the Federal Bed Bug Workgroup to clarify the federal role in bed bug control and highlight ways that government, community, academia and private industry can work together on bed bug issues.

  10. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  11. Zero bugs and program faster

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    A book about programming, improving skill, and avoiding mistakes. The author spent two years researching every bug avoidance technique she could find. This book contains the best of them. If you want to program faster, with fewer bugs, and write more secure code, buy this book! "This is the best book I have ever read." - Anonymous reviewer "Four score and seven years ago this book helped me debug my server code." -Abraham Lincoln "Would my Javascript have memory leaks without this book? Would fishes fly without water?" -Socrates "This book is the greatest victory since the Spanish Armada, and the best about programming." -Queen Elizabeth

  12. Introduction to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Bed Bugs Contact Us Share Introduction to Bed Bugs Photo credit: CDC/ CDC-DPDx; ... and Guidance Regulations About EPA EPA Administrator Current Leadership Organization Chart Staff Directory Planning, Budget and Results ...

  13. Conglobation in the Pill Bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a Water Conservation Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Smigel, Jacob T.; Gibbs, Allen G.

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 ± 1°C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to...

  14. Conglobation in the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a water conservation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigel, Jacob T; Gibbs, Allen G

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 +/- 1 degrees C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation.

  15. Effective Bug Finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Iago Abal

    2017-01-01

    Lightweight bug finders (also known as code scanners) are becoming popular, they scale well and can find simple yet common programming errors. It is now considered a good practice to integrate these tools as part of your development process. The Linux project, for instance, has an automated testing...... service, known as the Kbuild robot, that runs a few of these code scanners. In this project, I have carefully studied tens of historical Linux bugs, and I have found that many of these bugs, despite being conceptually simple, were not caught by any code scanning tool. The reason is that, by design, code...... by matching temporal bug-patterns against the control-flow graph of this program abstraction. I have implemented a proof-of-concept bug finder based on this technique, EBA, and confirmed that it is both scalable and effective at finding bugs. On a benchmark of historical Linux double-lock bugs, EBA was able...

  16. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Bed Bugs Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Biology Resources for Health Professionals Publications Additional Resources Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  17. Bug City: Ants [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  18. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  19. Bed Bugs - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bed Bugs URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bedbugs.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  20. The genomics revolution and its effect on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic-based molecular tools are emerging as powerful laboratory methods for assessing water quality characteristics and improving our ability to assess the human health risks posed by microbial contaminants in drinking water. To a great extent, this revolution in genomics-rese...

  1. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121

  2. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  3. Bed Bug Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  4. Bug Forecast: A Method for Automatic Bug Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenc, Rudolf

    In this paper we present an approach and a toolset for automatic bug prediction during software development and maintenance. The toolset extends the Columbus source code quality framework, which is able to integrate into the regular builds, analyze the source code, calculate different quality attributes like product metrics and bad code smells; and monitor the changes of these attributes. The new bug forecast toolset connects to the bug tracking and version control systems and assigns the reported and fixed bugs to the source code classes from the past. It then applies machine learning methods to learn which values of which quality attributes typically characterized buggy classes. Based on this information it is able to predict bugs in current and future versions of the classes.

  5. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  6. Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  7. 42 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    , serving to evaluate tool implementations of feature-sensitive analyses by testing them on real bugs. We present a qualitative study of 42 variability bugs collected from bug-fixing commits to the Linux kernel repository. We analyze each of the bugs, and record the results in a database. In addition, we...

  8. 40 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal Rivas, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Feature-sensitive verification is a recent field that pursues the effective analysis of the exponential number of variants of a program family. Today researchers lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, and occurring in real large-scale software. Such a collection of bugs...... variability affects and increases the complexity of software bugs....... is a requirement for goal-oriented research, serving to evaluate tool implementations of feature-sensitive analyses by testing them on real bugs. We present a qualitative study of 40 variability bugs collected from bug-fixing commits to the Linux kernel repository. We investigate each of the 40 bugs, recording...

  9. City Bug Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the wider contexts of digital policy, transparency, digitisation and how this changes city administration and the role of the (digital) publics, using City Bug Report as a design case. Employing a mix between design research and action research, the authors exemplify and analyse...... elements of both the design process, the organisational, the political and technological contexts. They point to the role of researchers and designers in exploring and understanding digital elements of public space as not merely registering structures but also actively engaging in public discourse...

  10. Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Area with Zika? Find a Clinic Yellow Fever Vaccination Clinics FAQ Stamaril clinics Disease Directory Resources Resources for Travelers Adventure Travel Animal Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold ...

  11. Print a Bed Bug Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business card-sized lists of tips for prevention of bed bug infestations, one for general use around home, the other for travelers. Print a single card or a page of cards for distribution.

  12. Genomic and phenotypic characteristics of Swedish C. jejuni water isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Major reservoirs are warm-blooded animals, poultry in particular, but Campylobacter can also be transmitted via water. In this paper, we have taken a closer look at the biology and potential virulence of C. jejuni water isolates. Seven C. jejuni isolates from incoming surface water at water plants in Sweden were characterized with whole genome sequencing and phenotypical testing. Multi locus sequence typing analysis revealed that these isolates belonged to groups known to include both common (ST48CC and uncommon (ST1275CC, ST683, ST793 and ST8853 human pathogens. Further genomic characterization revealed that these isolates had potential for arsenic resistance (due to presence of arsB gene in all isolates, an anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide oxidoreductase (in three isolates and lacked the MarR-type transcriptional regulator gene rrpB (in all but one isolate earlier shown to be involved in better survival under oxidative and aerobic stress. As putative virulence factors were concerned, there were differences between the water isolates in the presence of genes coding for cytolethal distending toxin (cdtABC, Type VI secretion system and sialylated LOS, as well as in biofilm formation. However, all isolates were motile and could adhere to and invade the human HT-29 colon cancer cell line in vitro and induce IL-8 secretion suggesting potential to infect humans. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study where C. jejuni water isolates have been characterized using whole genome sequencing and phenotypical assays. We found differences and shared traits among the isolates but also potential to infect humans.

  13. Videos, Webinars, Blogs Related to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    These tools provide practical insight on issues such as integrated pest management (IPM) for schools, bed bug bites, how carpet beetles can help, bed bugs as hitchhikers, and preventing and controlling infestations.

  14. The Great Bug Hunt Is Back!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Rapley, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk" and Martin Rapley, presenter of "The Big Bug Experience," are again running the Great Bug Hunt in 2012. Simply identify a habitat, explore and discover the bugs that live there, photograph or draw them and record findings--it's that simple. The winner will be the…

  15. Gibbs Variable Selection using BUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Ntzoufras

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss and present in detail the implementation of Gibbs variable selection as defined by Dellaportas et al. (2000, 2002 using the BUGS software (Spiegelhalter et al. , 1996a,b,c. The specification of the likelihood, prior and pseudo-prior distributions of the parameters as well as the prior term and model probabilities are described in detail. Guidance is also provided for the calculation of the posterior probabilities within BUGS environment when the number of models is limited. We illustrate the application of this methodology in a variety of problems including linear regression, log-linear and binomial response models.

  16. Four bugs on a rectangle

    KAUST Repository

    Chapman, S. J.

    2010-11-10

    The idealized mathematical problem of four bugs in cyclic pursuit starting from a 2-by-1 rectangle is considered, and asymptotic formulas are derived to describe the motion. In contrast to the famous case of four bugs on a square, here the trajectories quickly freeze to essentially one dimension. After the first rotation about the centre point, the scale of the configuration has shrunk by a factor of 10427907250, and this number is then exponentiated four more times with each successive cycle. Relations to Knuth\\'s double-arrow notation and level-index arithmetic are discussed. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society.

  17. Evaluation of chlorfenapyr for control of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alvaro; Potter, Michael F; Haynes, Kenneth F

    2010-11-01

    The presence of bed bug populations resistant to pyrethroids demands the development of new control tactics, including the use of insecticides with new modes of action. Insecticides that disrupt oxidative phosphorylation in insect mitochondria can be an option. Laboratory assays were used to measure the toxicity of chlorfenapyr to susceptible strains and two strains highly resistant to pyrethroids. The effectiveness of two chlorfenapyr-based formulations was compared, and behavioral responses of bed bugs to dry residues of aerosol sprays were evaluated. Chlorfenapyr was effective against all bed bug strains, killing them at a similar rate, regardless of their susceptibility status to pyrethroids. Dry residues aged for 4 months were as toxic as fresh dry residues. The aerosol formulation had contact activity and caused faster mortality than a water-based formulation. Bed bugs did not avoid resting on surfaces treated with aerosol. Chlorfenapyr is an option for controlling pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs. While it does not cause quick knockdown, its long residual activity and no avoidance behavior of bed bugs to dry residues appear to make this insecticide suitable for bed bug control. A faster insecticidal effect is obtained with the aerosol formulation, suggesting greater bioavailability of the toxicant. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. How to Find Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  19. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were…

  20. Long-Term Efficacy of Various Natural or “Green” Insecticides against Bed Bugs: A Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Goddard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are resurging throughout the world, and, thus, effective pest control strategies are constantly needed. A few studies have evaluated 25(b and other natural, or so-called “green” products, as well as over-the-counter insecticides for bed bugs, but additional studies are needed to determine efficacy of bed bug control products. This double-blinded research project was initiated to examine long-term effectiveness of six commercially available natural or “green” insecticides against bed bugs and to compare them with three known traditional residual products. Water was used as a control. Products were evaluated against both susceptible and resistant strains of bed bugs (1200 bugs each, and two different substrates were used. Temprid® (Bayer Corporation, Monheim, Germany, Transport® (FMC Corp., Philadelphia, PA, USA, Invader® (FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA USA, Cimexa® (Rockwell Laboratories, Kansas City, MO, USA, and BBT-2000® (Swepe-Tite LLC, Tupelo, MS, USA were the only products which showed any substantial (>40% bed bug control upon exposure to treated substrates after the six-month waiting period, although results with the resistant bed bug strain were much reduced. Alpine dust® (BASF Corporation, Florham Park, NJ, USA killed 27% of bed bugs or less, depending on strain and substrate. EcoRaider® (North Bergen, NJ, USA and Mother Earth D® (Whitmire Microgen, Florham Park, NJ, USA (diatomaceous earth produced 11% control or less. Cimi-Shield Protect® (Pest Barrier, Carson, CA, USA showed no activity against bed bugs in this study. Analysis using SAS software showed a three-way interaction between treatment, substrate, and bed bug strain (Numerator DF 9; Denominator DF 80; F = 4.90; p < 0.0001.

  1. Long-Term Efficacy of Various Natural or "Green" Insecticides against Bed Bugs: A Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Jerome

    2014-11-28

    Bed bugs are resurging throughout the world, and, thus, effective pest control strategies are constantly needed. A few studies have evaluated 25(b) and other natural, or so-called "green" products, as well as over-the-counter insecticides for bed bugs, but additional studies are needed to determine efficacy of bed bug control products. This double-blinded research project was initiated to examine long-term effectiveness of six commercially available natural or "green" insecticides against bed bugs and to compare them with three known traditional residual products. Water was used as a control. Products were evaluated against both susceptible and resistant strains of bed bugs (1200 bugs each), and two different substrates were used. Temprid(®) (Bayer Corporation, Monheim, Germany), Transport(®) (FMC Corp., Philadelphia, PA, USA), Invader(®) (FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA USA), Cimexa(®) (Rockwell Laboratories, Kansas City, MO, USA), and BBT-2000(®) (Swepe-Tite LLC, Tupelo, MS, USA) were the only products which showed any substantial (>40%) bed bug control upon exposure to treated substrates after the six-month waiting period, although results with the resistant bed bug strain were much reduced. Alpine dust(®) (BASF Corporation, Florham Park, NJ, USA) killed 27% of bed bugs or less, depending on strain and substrate. EcoRaider(®) (North Bergen, NJ, USA) and Mother Earth D(®) (Whitmire Microgen, Florham Park, NJ, USA) (diatomaceous earth) produced 11% control or less. Cimi-Shield Protect(®) (Pest Barrier, Carson, CA, USA) showed no activity against bed bugs in this study. Analysis using SAS software showed a three-way interaction between treatment, substrate, and bed bug strain (Numerator DF 9; Denominator DF 80; F = 4.90; p < 0.0001).

  2. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites ... take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use ...

  3. Spatial Distribution of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Reay-Jones, Francis P. F.

    2014-01-01

    A two-year study was conducted in South Carolina wheat (Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae)) fields to describe spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which were sampled weekly with sweep nets. In 2010, the main phytophagous stink bugs caught in a grid sampling plan across two fields were the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), the rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), and the red shouldered stink bug,...

  4. Boswellia ovalifoliolata (Burseraceae) essential oil as an eco-friendly larvicide? Toxicity against six mosquito vectors of public health importance, non-target mosquito fishes, backswimmers, and water bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Rajeswary, Mohan; Vijayan, Periasamy; Senthilmurugan, Sengamalai; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2017-03-22

    The use of synthetic pesticides to control vector populations is detrimental to human health and the environment and may lead to the development of resistant strains. Plants can be alternative sources of safer compounds effective on mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Boswellia ovalifoliolata leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. GC-MS revealed that the B. ovalifoliolata EO contained at least 20 compounds. The main constituents were β-pinene, α-terpineol, and caryophyllene. In acute toxicity assays, the EO was toxic to larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 61.84, 66.24, 72.47, 82.26, 89.80, and 97.95 μg/ml, respectively. B. ovalifoliolata EO was scarcely toxic to mosquito fishes, backswimmers, and water bugs predating mosquito larvae with LC50 from 4186 to 14,783 μg/ml. Overall, these results contribute to develop effective and affordable instruments to magnify the reliability of Culicidae control programs.

  5. [Trends of genome evolution in land and secondary-water herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaleĭ, Iu V; Sheremet'ev, S N

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of genome sizes in two groups of herbs, land and secondary-water, has been released. It is shown that their genomes are changed to opposite topics in cenozoic. The genome of land herbs is increased, and it is decreased in secondary water herbs. Genome growth in land herbs is analyzed as the result of unfavourable changes in global climate: cooling, aridization and atmospheric CO2 deficit. Genome minimization in secondary-water herbs is interpreted as the sequence of united effect of two groups of factors: returning to more stable water environment and breakdown of symbiotic relations with fungi partner. The influence of environmental discomfort and development of symbiotic or parasitic relations on genome size is discussed in association with established differences.

  6. Predicting the fix time of bugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giger, E.; Pinzger, M.; Gall, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Two important questions concerning the coordination of development effort are which bugs to fix first and how long it takes to fix them. In this paper we investigate empirically the relationships between bug report attributes and the time to fix. The objective is to compute prediction models that

  7. Using Software Dependency to Bug Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Software maintenance, especially bug prediction, plays an important role in evaluating software quality and balancing development costs. This study attempts to use several quantitative network metrics to explore their relationships with bug prediction in terms of software dependency. Our work consists of four main steps. First, we constructed software dependency networks regarding five dependency scenes at the class-level granularity. Second, we used a set of nine representative and commonly used metrics—namely, centrality, degree, PageRank, and HITS, as well as modularity—to quantify the importance of each class. Third, we identified how these metrics were related to the proneness and severity of fixed bugs in Tomcat and Ant and determined the extent to which they were related. Finally, the significant metrics were considered as predictors for bug proneness and severity. The result suggests that there is a statistically significant relationship between class’s importance and bug prediction. Furthermore, betweenness centrality and out-degree metric yield an impressive accuracy for bug prediction and test prioritization. The best accuracy of our prediction for bug proneness and bug severity is up to 54.7% and 66.7% (top 50, Tomcat and 63.8% and 48.7% (top 100, Ant, respectively, within these two cases.

  8. Diagnosis of Subtraction Bugs Using Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Corter, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of misconceptions or "bugs" in procedural skills is difficult because of their unstable nature. This study addresses this problem by proposing and evaluating a probability-based approach to the diagnosis of bugs in children's multicolumn subtraction performance using Bayesian networks. This approach assumes a causal network relating…

  9. Bed Bugs: Clinical Relevance and Control Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Dominic E.; Peñas, Pablo F.; Russell, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Since the late 1990s, bed bugs of the species Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus have undergone a worldwide resurgence. These bed bugs are blood-sucking insects that readily bite humans. Cutaneous reactions may occur and can start out as small macular lesions that can develop into distinctive wheals of around 5 cm in diameter, which are accompanied by intense itching. Occasionally, bullous eruptions may result. If bed bugs are numerous, the patient can present with widespread urticaria or eythematous rashes. Often, bites occur in lines along the limbs. Over 40 pathogens have been detected in bed bugs, but there is no definitive evidence that they transmit any disease-causing organisms to humans. Anemia may result when bed bugs are numerous, and their allergens can trigger asthmatic reactions. The misuse of chemicals and other technologies for controlling bed bugs has the potential to have a deleterious impact on human health, while the insect itself can be the cause of significant psychological trauma. The control of bed bugs is challenging and should encompass a multidisciplinary approach utilizing nonchemical means of control and the judicious use of insecticides. For accommodation providers, risk management procedures should be implemented to reduce the potential of bed bug infestations. PMID:22232375

  10. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  11. All about Bugs. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Bugs fascinate children, and each kind of bug plays a special role in the circle of life. Some bugs pollinate plants, while others help to decompose plant and animal waste. In this videotape, students learn about the similar characteristics that all bugs share and compare them to their close cousins, the arachnids. This videotape correlates to the…

  12. Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Ntzoufras, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS Bayesian Modeling Using WinBUGS provides an easily accessible introduction to the use of WinBUGS programming techniques in a variety of Bayesian modeling settings. The author provides an accessible treatment of the topic, offering readers a smooth introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling with detailed guidance on the practical implementation of key principles. The book begins with a basic introduction to Bayesian inference and the WinBUGS software and goes on to cover key topics, including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms in Bayesian inference Generalized linear models Bayesian hierarchical models Predictive distribution and model checking Bayesian model and variable evaluation Computational notes and screen captures illustrate the use of both WinBUGS as well as R software to apply the discussed techniques. Exercises at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their understanding of the presented concepts and all ...

  13. Bug Localization in Test-Driven Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ficco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Software development teams that use agile methodologies are increasingly adopting the test-driven development practice (TDD. TDD allows to produce software by iterative and incremental work cycle, and with a strict control over the process, favouring an early detection of bugs. However, when applied to large and complex systems, TDD benefits are not so obvious; manually locating and fixing bugs introduced during the iterative development steps is a nontrivial task. In such systems, the propagation chains following the bugs activation can be unacceptably long and intricate, and the size of the code to be analyzed is often too large. In this paper, a bug localization technique specifically tailored to TDD is presented. The technique is embedded in the TDD cycle, and it aims to improve developers' ability to locate bugs as soon as possible. It is implemented in a tool and experimentally evaluated on newly developed Java programs.

  14. When bugs reveal biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohmann, Kristine; Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Gilbert, Tom

    2013-01-01

    monitoring tools, instant communication and online databases, one might be forgiven for thinking that such knowledge is easy to come by. However, of the approximately 5,400 terrestrial mammals on the IUCN Red List, no fewer than 789 (ca. 14%) are listed as 'Data Deficient' (IUCN 2012) - IUCN's term...... of the power of molecular methods that identify mammals based on trace evidence. Suitable substrates include the obvious, such as faecal and hair samples (e.g. Vigilant et al. 2009), to the less obvious, including environmental DNA extracted from sediments, soil or water samples (e.g. Taberlet et al. 2012...

  15. Transcriptomics of the bed bug (Cimex lectularius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are blood-feeding insects poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Resistance of C. lectularius to insecticides/pesticides is one factor thought to be involved in its sudden resurgence. Despite its high-impact status, scant knowledge exists at the genomic level for C. lectularius. Hence, we subjected the C. lectularius transcriptome to 454 pyrosequencing in order to identify potential genes involved in pesticide resistance. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained a total of 216,419 reads with 79,596,412 bp, which were assembled into 35,646 expressed sequence tags (3902 contigs and 31744 singletons. Nearly 85.9% of the C. lectularius sequences showed similarity to insect sequences, but 44.8% of the deduced proteins of C. lectularius did not show similarity with sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis revealed putative members of several detoxification pathways involved in pesticide resistance. Lamprin domains, Protein Kinase domains, Protein Tyrosine Kinase domains and cytochrome P450 domains were among the top Pfam domains predicted for the C. lectularius sequences. An initial assessment of putative defense genes, including a cytochrome P450 and a glutathione-S-transferase (GST, revealed high transcript levels for the cytochrome P450 (CYP9 in pesticide-exposed versus pesticide-susceptible C. lectularius populations. A significant number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (296 and microsatellite loci (370 were predicted in the C. lectularius sequences. Furthermore, 59 putative sequences of Wolbachia were retrieved from the database. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of C. lectularius. This pyrosequencing effort provides clues to the identification of potential detoxification genes involved in pesticide resistance of C. lectularius and lays the foundation for

  16. Techniques for Specifying Bug Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R W; Misherghi, G

    2007-04-30

    We present our on-going work to develop techniques for specifying source code signatures of bug patterns. Specifically, we discuss two approaches. The first approach directly analyzes a program in the intermediate representation (IR) of the ROSE compiler infrastructure using ROSE's API. The second analyzes the program using the bddbddb system of Lam, Whaley, et al.. In this approach, we store the IR produced by ROSE as a relational database, express patterns as declarative inference rules on relations in the language Datalog, and bddbddb implements the Datalog programs using binary decision diagram (BDD) techniques. Both approaches readily apply to large-scale applications, since ROSE provides full type analysis, control flow, and other available analysis information. In this paper, we primarily consider bug patterns expressed with respect to the structure of the source code or the control flow, or both. More complex techniques to specify patterns that are functions of data flow properties may be addressed by either of the above approaches, but are not directly treated here. Our Datalog-based work includes explicit support for expressing patterns on the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in parallel distributed memory programs. We show examples of this on-going work as well.

  17. When bugs reveal biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmann, Kristine; Schnell, Ida B; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2013-02-01

    One of the fundamental challenges of conservation biology is gathering data on species distribution and abundance. And unless conservationists know where a species is found and in which numbers, it is very difficult to apply effective conservation efforts. In today's age of increasingly powerful monitoring tools, instant communication and online databases, one might be forgiven for thinking that such knowledge is easy to come by. However, of the approximately 5,400 terrestrial mammals on the IUCN Red List, no fewer than 789 (ca. 14%) are listed as 'Data Deficient' (IUCN 2012) – IUCN’s term for 'haven't got a clue'. Until recently, the only way to gather information of numbers and distribution of terrestrial mammals (and many other vertebrates) was through observational-based approaches such as visual records, the presence of tracks or spoor or even identification from bushmeat or hunters' trophies pinned to the walls in local villages. While recent technological developments have considerably improved the efficacy of such approaches, for example, using remote-sensing devices such as audio- or camera-traps or even remote drones (Koh & Wich 2012), there has been a growing realization of the power of molecular methods that identify mammals based on trace evidence. Suitable substrates include the obvious, such as faecal and hair samples (e.g. Vigilant et al. 2009), to the less obvious, including environmental DNA extracted from sediments, soil or water samples (e.g. Taberlet et al. 2012), and as recently demonstrated, the dietary content of blood-sucking invertebrates (Gariepy et al. 2012; Schnell et al. 2012). In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Calvignac-Spencer et al. (2013) present a potentially powerful development in this regard; diet analysis of carrion flies. With their near global distribution, and as most field biologists know, irritatingly high frequency in most terrestrial areas of conservation concern (which directly translates into ease of sampling

  18. Stress Tolerance of Bed Bugs: A Review of Factors That Cause Trauma to Cimex lectularius and C. Hemipterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Benoit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent emergence of bed bugs (Cimex spp. has prompted a significant expansion of research devoted to this pest. The ability to survive and recover from stress has significant implications on the distribution and survival of insects, and bed bugs are no exception. Research on bed bug stress tolerance has shown considerable progress and necessitates a review on this topic. Bed bugs have an extraordinary ability to resist dehydration between bloodmeals, and this represents a critical factor allowing their prolonged survival when no host is available. High relative humidities are detrimental to bed bugs, leading to reduced survival in comparison to those held at lower relative humidities. Continual exposure of bed bugs, eggs and mobile stages, to temperatures below freezing and short term exposure (=1 h to temperatures below −16 to −18 °C results in mortality. The upper thermal limit for short term exposure of eggs, nymphs and adults is between 40–45 °C for the common (Cimex lectularius and tropical (C. hemipterus bed bugs. Long-term exposure to temperatures above 35 °C results in significant reduction in survival of mobile bed bugs. Eggs for C. lectularius and C. hemipterus are no longer viable when held below 10 °C or above 37 °C throughout embryogenesis. Blood feeding, although necessary for survival and reproduction, is discussed as a stress due to thermal and osmotic fluctuations that result from ingesting a warm bloodmeal from a vertebrate host. Cold, heat, water stress and blood feeding prompted the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps. Pesticide application is a common human-induced stress for urban pests, and recent studies have documented pesticide resistance in many bed bug populations. High levels of traumatic insemination (mating of bed bugs has been linked to reduced survival and fecundity along with possibly exposing individuals to microbial infections after cuticular penetration by the paramere (=male reproductive organ

  19. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home: Inspect the luggage rack in your hotel room for bed bugs. Check secondhand furniture, beds, ... Administrator Current Leadership Organization Chart Staff Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional ...

  20. Bed Bug Clearinghouse Publications in Other Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. These outreach materials are available in Spanish, Chinese, and French; and include action plans based on an IPM approach.

  1. Bed Bugs are Public Health Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.

  2. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  3. Injury to preflowering and flowering cotton by brown stink bug and southern green stink bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willrich, M M; Leonard, B R; Temple, J

    2004-06-01

    The impact of brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), and southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), injury was evaluated on preflowering and flowering cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., plants in no-choice tests. Vegetative stage cotton seedlings and reproductive structures, including flower buds (square) and bolls, were infested with adults and/or nymphs of both species. There were no significant differences in height, height to node ratio, square retention, and flower initiation for cotton seedlings or plants with a match-head square between southern green stink bug adult- or brown stink bug adult-infested and noninfested treatments. Abscission for individual large squares (precandle) and multiple squares (medium and small square on the same sympodial branch) was not significantly different among infested and noninfested treatments for the following species and developmental stages: brown stink bug adults, southern green stink bug adults, and third and fourth to fifth instar southern green stink bug nymphs. In boll infestation studies, the relationship between boll maturity, expressed as heat units beyond anthesis, and boll growth, abscission, hard locked carpels, seedcotton yield, and seed germination was measured. Brown stink bug induced abscission in bolls that had accumulated > 0-350 heat units beyond anthesis. Boll growth and seedcotton yield was significantly lower for bolls infested with brown stink bug through 266.5 and 550 heat units beyond anthesis, respectively. The proportion of hard locked carpels per boll was significantly greater for the infested treatment in a cohort of bolls that accumulated from 51 to 400 heat units beyond anthesis. Seed germination in bolls infested with brown stink bug was significantly lower in bolls aged 101-600 heat units beyond anthesis.

  4. Could You Spot Bed Bugs in A Hotel Room?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report saying it had bed bugs. "From a hotel industry perspective, it's worrisome that a single online report of bed bugs would cause the majority of travelers to book different accommodations, ... eradicated." Dermatologist Dr. Carrie Kovarik, an associate ...

  5. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug ... Education Meetings & events Advocacy Public & patients AAD Resources For: Dermatologists in the US and Canada Dermatologists outside ...

  6. Concurrency bugs in open source software: a case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara; Sundmark, Daniel; Eldh, Sigrid; Hansson, Hans

    2017-01-01

    ...., deadlocks and race conditions. In aiming to increase efficiency and effectiveness of debugging and bug-fixing for concurrent software, a deep understanding of concurrency bugs, their frequency and fixing-times would be helpful...

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hair and scalp problems Itchy skin Painful skin / joints Rashes Scaly skin Skin cancer Why see a ... and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika ...

  8. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Triatomine Bug FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Article (Transfusion — March 8, 2012): The United States Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Study: Evidence for Vector-borne Transmission of ... of reduviid bug that can carry the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that causes Chagas disease. Various triatomine bugs in ...

  9. Prevention and Control of Bed Bugs in Residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and do not impact bed bugs, and a lack of public awareness. In addition to homes and hotels, bed bugs are also found in schools, retail facilities, office buildings, libraries, and other public areas. Back ...

  10. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy Action Center News Advocacy priorities AADA Health System Reform Principles Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic ... and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika ...

  11. Draft genome of bagasse-degrading bacteria Bacillus aryabhattai GZ03 from deep sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jian; Ren, Chong; Huang, Nan; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Runying

    2015-02-01

    Bacillus aryabhattai GZ03 was isolated from deep sea water of the South China Sea, which can produce glucose and fructose by degrading bagasse at 25 °C. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus aryabhattai GZ03. The data obtained revealed 37 contigs with genome size of 5,105,129 bp and G+C content of 38.09%. The draft genome of B. aryabhattai GZ03 may provide insights into the mechanism of microbial carbohydrate and lignocellulosic material degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Mitogenomics of Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): Identifying the AGG Codon Reassignments between Serine and Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi

    2014-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes are very important to understand the molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies of the insects. The Miridae are the largest family of Heteroptera encompassing more than 11,000 described species and of great economic importance. For better understanding the diversity and the evolution of plant bugs, we sequence five new mitochondrial genomes and present the first comparative analysis of nine mitochondrial genomes of mirids available to date. Our result showed that gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor were conserved in plant bugs. Intra-genus species shared more conserved genomic characteristics, such as nucleotide and amino acid composition of protein-coding genes, secondary structure and anticodon mutations of tRNAs, and non-coding sequences. Control region possessed several distinct characteristics, including: variable size, abundant tandem repetitions, and intra-genus conservation; and was useful in evolutionary and population genetic studies. The AGG codon reassignments were investigated between serine and lysine in the genera Adelphocoris and other cimicomorphans. Our analysis revealed correlated evolution between reassignments of the AGG codon and specific point mutations at the antidocons of tRNALys and tRNASer(AGN). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that mitochondrial genome sequences were useful in resolving family level relationship of Cimicomorpha. Comparative evolutionary analysis of plant bug mitochondrial genomes allowed the identification of previously neglected coding genes or non-coding regions as potential molecular markers. The finding of the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine indicated the parallel evolution of the genetic code in Hemiptera mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24988409

  13. Comparative mitogenomics of plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae: identifying the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Insect mitochondrial genomes are very important to understand the molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies of the insects. The Miridae are the largest family of Heteroptera encompassing more than 11,000 described species and of great economic importance. For better understanding the diversity and the evolution of plant bugs, we sequence five new mitochondrial genomes and present the first comparative analysis of nine mitochondrial genomes of mirids available to date. Our result showed that gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor were conserved in plant bugs. Intra-genus species shared more conserved genomic characteristics, such as nucleotide and amino acid composition of protein-coding genes, secondary structure and anticodon mutations of tRNAs, and non-coding sequences. Control region possessed several distinct characteristics, including: variable size, abundant tandem repetitions, and intra-genus conservation; and was useful in evolutionary and population genetic studies. The AGG codon reassignments were investigated between serine and lysine in the genera Adelphocoris and other cimicomorphans. Our analysis revealed correlated evolution between reassignments of the AGG codon and specific point mutations at the antidocons of tRNALys and tRNASer(AGN. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that mitochondrial genome sequences were useful in resolving family level relationship of Cimicomorpha. Comparative evolutionary analysis of plant bug mitochondrial genomes allowed the identification of previously neglected coding genes or non-coding regions as potential molecular markers. The finding of the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine indicated the parallel evolution of the genetic code in Hemiptera mitochondrial genomes.

  14. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  15. The genome of the square archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi : life at the limits of water activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Henk; Palm, Peter; Wende, Andy; Falb, Michaela; Rampp, Markus; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Oesterhelt, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Background: The square halophilic archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi dominates NaCl- saturated and MgCl2 enriched aquatic ecosystems, which imposes a serious desiccation stress, caused by the extremely low water activity. The genome sequence was analyzed and physiological and physical experiments were

  16. Color Preference of Harlequin Bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMeglio, Anthony S; Kuhar, Thomas P; Weber, Donald C

    2017-10-01

    Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is an important pest of Brassica crops in the southern United States. Regional populations are highly variable and unpredictable from farm-to-farm, and therefore accurate monitoring of activity would greatly improve IPM decision-making and the timing of control tactics. To our knowledge, there is no monitoring device or proven trapping system for this pest. We contribute new knowledge of harlequin bug visual ecology, which will aid in the development of an effective trap. In both lab and field color choice experiments, harlequin bug adults and large nymphs responded positively to green and black colors, and statistically less frequently to yellow, white, purple, or red with the exception of adult females, which were most attracted to red and green in the lab, but green and black in the field. We conclude that future trapping devices for harlequin bug should be green or black in color. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Laboratory Rearing of the Hairy Chinch Bug

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, P. B.; Ratcliffe, R. H.; Steinhauer, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory procedures were developed for rearing the hairy chinch bug Blissus leucopterus hirtus Montandon, on corn sections in 236.6 ml cardboard cartons. There was significantly higher survival of nymphs and adults when eggs were surface sterilized in 2% sodium hypochlorite solution as compared to those treated with a 1% solution or untreated eggs. Adult survival was significantly higher (P

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Two Sphingopyxis sp. Strains, Dominant Members of the Bacterial Community Associated with a Drinking Water Distribution System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the draft genome of two Sphingopyxis spp. strains isolated from a chloraminated drinking water distribution system simulator. Both strains are ubiquitous residents and early colonizers of water distribution systems. Genomic annotation identified a class 1 integron (in...

  19. Benefits of Genomic Insights and CRISPR-Cas Signatures to Monitor Potential Pathogens across Drinking Water Production and Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs is a major health concern, and our current understanding is mostly related to pathogenic species such as Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium but not to bacterial species closely related to them. In this study, genomic-based approaches were used to characterize pathogen-related species in relation to their abundance, diversity, potential pathogenicity, genetic exchange, and distribution across an urban drinking water system. Nine draft genomes recovered from 10 metagenomes were identified as Legionella (4 draft genomes, Mycobacterium (3 draft genomes, Parachlamydia (1 draft genome, and Leptospira (1 draft genome. The pathogenicity potential of these genomes was examined by the presence/absence of virulence machinery, including genes belonging to Type III, IV, and VII secretion systems and their effectors. Several virulence factors known to pathogenic species were detected with these retrieved draft genomes except the Leptospira-related genome. Identical clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas genetic signatures were observed in two draft genomes recovered at different stages of the studied system, suggesting that the spacers in CRISPR-Cas could potentially be used as a biomarker in the monitoring of Legionella related strains at an evolutionary scale of several years across different drinking water production and distribution systems. Overall, metagenomics approach was an effective and complementary tool of culturing techniques to gain insights into the pathogenic characteristics and the CRISPR-Cas signatures of pathogen-related species in DWDSs.

  20. Benefits of Genomic Insights and CRISPR-Cas Signatures to Monitor Potential Pathogens across Drinking Water Production and Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Kitajima, Masaaki; Whittle, Andrew J; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) is a major health concern, and our current understanding is mostly related to pathogenic species such as Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium but not to bacterial species closely related to them. In this study, genomic-based approaches were used to characterize pathogen-related species in relation to their abundance, diversity, potential pathogenicity, genetic exchange, and distribution across an urban drinking water system. Nine draft genomes recovered from 10 metagenomes were identified as Legionella (4 draft genomes), Mycobacterium (3 draft genomes), Parachlamydia (1 draft genome), and Leptospira (1 draft genome). The pathogenicity potential of these genomes was examined by the presence/absence of virulence machinery, including genes belonging to Type III, IV, and VII secretion systems and their effectors. Several virulence factors known to pathogenic species were detected with these retrieved draft genomes except the Leptospira-related genome. Identical clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) genetic signatures were observed in two draft genomes recovered at different stages of the studied system, suggesting that the spacers in CRISPR-Cas could potentially be used as a biomarker in the monitoring of Legionella related strains at an evolutionary scale of several years across different drinking water production and distribution systems. Overall, metagenomics approach was an effective and complementary tool of culturing techniques to gain insights into the pathogenic characteristics and the CRISPR-Cas signatures of pathogen-related species in DWDSs.

  1. A Laboratory Evaluation of Chemigation to Manage Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xing; Roberts, Phillip M; Porter, Wesley M; Perry, Calvin D; Toews, Michael D

    2017-04-01

    Application of insecticides for stink bug management through overhead irrigation, also called chemigation, could reduce application costs, soil compaction, and applicator exposure, while enabling growers to treat multiple fields simultaneously. The objective of these laboratory experiments was to compare knockdown, survival, and efficacy of insecticides when appropriately diluted for ground sprayer and chemigation applications. Treatments included water, bifenthrin [0.11 kg (AI)/ha] and dicrotophos [0.56 kg (AI)/ha] diluted for a ground sprayer (93.5 liters/ha), bifenthrin and dicrotophos diluted for chemigation (25,396 liters/ha), and bifenthrin and dicrotophos plus adjuvants diluted for ground sprayer or chemigation. Two- to 14-day-old adults of Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Halyomorpha halys (Stål) were briefly submerged in appropriately diluted insecticides and then introduced into a disposable petri dish with or without food. Dishes were placed in a growth chamber provisioned with digital video cameras to monitor knockdown and feeding after insecticide exposure. Knockdown was visually assessed at 24 h after treatment followed by mortality and recovery from knockdown at 48 h after treatment. All stink bugs were knocked down within 1 h and never recovered when exposed at ground sprayer dilutions. However, many bugs survived chemigation dilutions. Less than half of the stink bugs were knocked down when exposed to dicrotophos (with or without adjuvants) and survival ranged from 17 to 77%, compared to 7-90% survival when exposed to bifenthrin at chemigation dilutions. These results strongly suggest that chemigation applications for stink bug management need to be closely examined. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Spatial distribution of stink bugs (hemiptera: pentatomidae) in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F

    2014-01-01

    A two-year study was conducted in South Carolina wheat (Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae)) fields to describe spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which were sampled weekly with sweep nets. In 2010, the main phytophagous stink bugs caught in a grid sampling plan across two fields were the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), the rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), and the red shouldered stink bug, Thyanta custator (F.), for both adults and nymphs. In 2011, the main phytophagous stink bugs were E. servus, O. pugnax, N. viridula, and T. custator across two fields. Adult stink bug counts adjacent to fallow fields were 2.1-fold greater for all species combined compared with counts adjacent to woods. Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE) indicated significant aggregation for 35% of analyses for adults and nymph stink bugs at each sampling date. As a measure of spatial and temporal stability, positive SADIE association indices among sampling dates recorded 11, 36, 43, and 16% of analyses for adult E. servus and 7, 50, 50, and 14% for adult O. pugnax in fields A, B, C, and D, respectively. Adult and nymph stink bugs were spatially associated within wheat fields based on SADIE association indices. Seasonal counts of stink bugs were spatially associated with spike counts at least once for each species across the four fields. Future work may investigate practices to reduce stink bug buildup on wheat in the spring and movement to susceptible crops such as corn, Zea mays L.

  3. Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls

    OpenAIRE

    Toews Michael D; Mustafic Adnan; Xia Jinjun; Haidekker Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accura...

  4. Stink bug species composition and relative abundance of the redbanded stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in soybean in the upper gulf coast Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyavhare, Suhas S; Way, Michael O; Medina, Raul F

    2014-12-01

    Stink bugs are the primary arthropod soybean pests in the southern United States. Historically, important stink bug species damaging soybeans in the southern United States included the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (L.), the green stink bug Chinavia hilaris (Say), and the brown stink bug Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), has recently become an economic pest of soybean in the southern region of the United States, especially in Louisiana and Texas. Little is known about current stink bug species composition and relative abundance in Texan soybean agro-ecosystems. To fill this gap, commercial soybean fields in the Upper Gulf Coast of Texas were sampled weekly during the growing season using a sweep net throughout R2 (full flowering) to R7 (beginning maturity) from 2011 to 2013. Adults and nymphs (third, fourth, and fifth instars) of redbanded stink bug, southern green stink bug, green stink bug, and brown stink bug were counted per 25 sweeps. The relative abundance of redbanded stink bug was significantly higher than any other stink bug species throughout 2011-2013. Over 65% of the total population of major stink bugs collected during this period were redbanded stink bugs and ≍19% were southern green stink bugs. The highest redbanded stink bug densities and the highest ratio of redbanded stink bug nymphs to adults were recorded at R7. Results from this study show that redbanded stink bug has become the predominant stink bug species in soybean in the Upper Gulf Coast of Texas.

  5. Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Michael D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  6. Virulence of entomopathogenic bacteria in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietri, Jose E; Liang, Dangsheng

    2017-10-24

    Due in part to the development of insecticide resistance, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has overcome human intervention efforts to make a global resurgence. The failure of chemical pesticides has created a need for novel strategies to combat bed bugs. While a number of insect pests are susceptible to the use of entomopathogenic microbes or microbial-derived toxins, biological control methods have not been thoroughly explored in bed bugs. Here, we tested the virulence of three entomopathogenic bacterial species in C. lectularius to determine their potential for bed bug control. We examined bed bug survival after inoculation with live or heat-killed Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis at varying temperatures. We also analyzed the viability and growth of the same bacteria in infected bed bugs. All three bacterial species were pathogenic to bed bugs. However, the effects of S. marcescens and P. fluorescens were temperature-dependent while the lethality of B. thuringiensis israelensis was not. In addition, bacterial virulence was partly dependent on the route of infection but was not strongly associated with proliferation. Thus, our results suggest multiple possible mechanisms of microbial pathogenicity in the bed bug and indicate that entomopathogenic bacteria, or products derived from them, may have useful applications for bed bug control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stink bug feeding induces fluorescence in developing cotton bolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jinjun; Mustafic, Adnan; Toews, Michael D; Haidekker, Mark A

    2011-08-04

    Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  8. Towards Easing the Diagnosis of Bugs in OS Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Henrik; Hansen, René Rydhof; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2007-01-01

    The rapid detection and treatment of bugs in operating systems code is essential to maintain the overall security and dependability of a computing system.  A number of techniques have been proposed for detecting bugs, but little has been done to help developers analyze and treat them.  In this pa......The rapid detection and treatment of bugs in operating systems code is essential to maintain the overall security and dependability of a computing system.  A number of techniques have been proposed for detecting bugs, but little has been done to help developers analyze and treat them...

  9. Reconstruction of a Nearly Complete Pseudomonas Draft Genome Sequence from a Coalbed Methane-Produced Water Metagenome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Daniel E. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Gulliver, Djuna [AECOM Technology Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-10-06

    The draft genome sequence ofPseudomonas stutzeristrain K35 was separated from a metagenome derived from a produced water microbial community of a coalbed methane well. The genome encodes a complete nitrogen fixation pathway and the upper and lower naphthalene degradation pathways.

  10. The e-Bug project in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, Pia; Dunais, Brigitte; Urcun, Jeanne-Marie; Michard, Jean-Louis; Loarer, Christian; Azanowsky, Jean-Michel; Vincent, Isabelle; Jestin, Christine; Housseau, Bruno; de Warren, Anne; Dellamonica, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    The high rates of antibiotic prescriptions and antimicrobial resistance in France motivated its participation in the European e-Bug school project concerning microbes, and infection transmission, prevention and treatment. The prospect of raising awareness among children, helping them to adopt suitable attitudes and behaviour towards infection transmission and treatment starting from childhood, generated enthusiastic support from relevant national educational and health institutions throughout the Project. France was actively involved in every stage: background research showed that the subject matter was best suited to the national science curricula of the fourth and fifth forms in junior schools, and the sixth and ninth forms in senior schools; a focus group study with junior and senior teachers elicited teachers' needs concerning teaching resources; and a qualitative and quantitative evaluation, after translation and pack review, enabled further adaptation of the packs. This evaluation showed an overall enthusiastic reception by teachers and their students in France, and reassured teachers on the ease of use of the Project's resources and students' progress. The e-Bug Project was launched through a national institutional implementation plan in September 2009 and orders for e-Bug tools increased rapidly. By the end of October, 57% of all senior science teachers and 16% of all junior school teachers had ordered the pack. France is one of the most frequent users of the e-Bug web site. The collaboration with both educational and health partners was particularly helpful to implementing the Project, and this was confirmed by the favourable reception and participation of teachers and students in the field.

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Mycobacterium immunogenum, Strains Obtained from a Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the draft genome sequences of six Mycobacterium immunogenum isolated from a chloraminated drinking water distribution system simulator subjected to changes in operational parameters. M. immunogenum, a rapidly growing mycobacteria previously reported as the cause of hyp...

  12. Studies towards the sex pheromone of the green capsid bug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, F.P.

    2001-01-01

    The green capsid bug, Lygocoris pabulinus (L.) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a serious pest in fruit orchards, which is difficult to control. Because it is difficult to determine the actual population density, fruit growers apply insecticides against the green capsid bug on

  13. An automated approach for finding variable-constant pairing bugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Lo, David

    2010-01-01

    program-analysis and data-mining based approach to identify the uses of named constants and to identify anomalies in these uses.  We have applied our approach to a recent version of the Linux kernel and have found a number of bugs affecting both correctness and software maintenance.  Many of these bugs...

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it under the mattress for maximum protection. Pay attention to outbreaks. Check the CDC Travel Health Notices website and heed travel warnings and recommendations. Sometimes, despite one’s greatest efforts, bug bites still happen. Fortunately, most bug bites ...

  15. Competition: Butterflies eliminate milkweed bugs from a Caribbean Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, Nigel R; Dingle, Hugh

    1978-01-01

    By eliminating the food plant, Asclepias curassavica, monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, have virtually eliminated milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus spp., from the island of Barbados. The relatively open terrain of Barbados means the plants have no refuge; the butterflies survive on an alternate milkweed food plant, Calotropis procera, whose thick-walled pods make seeds unavailable to the bugs.

  16. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you’re visiting areas with known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and other bugs, use insect repellent that contains ...

  17. Software bug prediction using object-oriented metrics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This model is capable of predicting the existence of bugs in a class if found, during software validation using metrics. The designed model forecasts the occurrences of bugs in a class when any new system is tested on it. For this experiment some open source similar types of defect datasets (projects) have been collected ...

  18. True bug (Heteroptera) impact on cocoa fruit mortality and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yede; Babin, R; Djieto-Lordon, C; Cilas, C; Dibog, L; Mahob, R; Bilong, C F Bilong

    2012-08-01

    The real impact of true bug damage on cocoa pods has never been assessed precisely. We conducted a 2-yr study on 1,080 cocoa trees on 36 farms in Cameroon to assess the contribution of true bugs to fruit mortality and production loss. The cocoa fruiting cycle, fruit mortality, and damage caused by true bugs as well as other pests and diseases were monitored on a weekly basis. True bug damage also was described on 2,500 ripe pods per year. Pod weight, bean number, and bean weight were measured and compared for different degrees and types of damage on the ripe pods. Our results showed that true bugs were the main external cause of young fruit abortion. They reduced the abundance of young fruit by up to 10%. In contrast, although one-third of the ripe pods sampled had true bug lesions, only 4% were moderately to heavily damaged. The mean weight of ripe pods was reduced by 12% when there was medium to heavy damage. While the mean weight of wet beans was reduced significantly (by 3-10%), the number of beans per pod was not changed by damage. Despite the reduction in mean weight, the overall weight of beans for the pods sampled was reduced by bug damage on mature pods is negligible on cocoa farms in Cameroon. However, true bugs have a significant impact on young fruit mortality.

  19. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  20. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ...

  1. Catching the Bug: How Virtual Coaching Improves Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Megan

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author describes virtual coaching and why it is so effective. The following six points of virtual coaching are explained: (1) Also known as bug-in-ear coaching, virtual coaching is not new; (2) Virtual coaching can save money and time; (3) Bug-in-ear coaching increases the frequency of observations for novice teachers; (4) It…

  2. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug ... areas with known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help ...

  3. Bed Bug Epidemic: A Challenge to Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Ritzel, Dale O.; Haramis, Linn D.; Bliss, Kadi R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, reported cases of bed bug infestations in the U.S. and throughout the world have escalated dramatically, posing a global public health problem. Although bed bugs are not known to transmit disease to humans, they pose both direct and indirect public health challenges in terms of health effects, treatment, cost, and resource…

  4. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Page of Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For mass distribution: two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  5. How Does the Degree of Variability Affect Bug-Finding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Software projects embrace variability to increase adaptability and to lower cost; however, others blame variability for increasing complexity and making reasoning about programs more difficult. We carry out a controlled experiment to quantify the impact of variability on debugging of preprocessor......-based programs. We measure speed and precision for bug finding tasks defined at three different degrees of variability on several subject programs derived from real systems. The results show that the speed of bug finding decreases linearly with the number of features, while effectiveness of finding bugs...... is relatively independent of the degree of variability. Still, identifying the set of configurations in which the bug manifests itself is difficult already for a low number of features. Surprisingly, identifying the exact set of affected configurations appears to be harder than finding the bug in the first...

  6. Green plant bug from South Texas gets a common name - the "verde plant" bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some cotton producers from south Texas and the Gulf Coast regions have been unfortunate over the last few years because they have had to deal with a green plant bug, Creontiades signatus, that will feed on cotton fruit. The insect was initially, and erroneously, thought to be Creontiades dilutus, an...

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of japonica Rice Performance under Limited Water and Permanent Flooding Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Volante

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A rice GWAS panel of 281 accessions of japonica rice was phenotypically characterized for 26 traits related to phenology, plant and seed morphology, physiology and yield for 2 years in field conditions under permanent flooding (PF and limited water (LW. A genome-wide analysis uncovered a total of 160 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs, of which 32 were LW-specific, 59 were PF-specific, and 69 were in common between the two water management systems. LW-specific associations were identified for several agronomic traits including days to maturation, days from flowering to maturation, leaf traits, plant height, panicle and seed traits, hundred grain weight, yield and tillering. Significant MTAs were detected across all the 12 rice chromosomes, while clusters of effects influencing different traits under LW or in both watering conditions were, respectively, observed on chromosomes 4, 8, and 12 and on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, and 8. The analysis of genes annotated in the Nipponbare reference sequence and included in the regions associated to traits related to plant morphology, grain yield, and physiological parameters allowed the identification of genes that were demonstrated to affect the respective traits. Among these, three (OsOFP2, Dlf1, OsMADS56 and seven (SUI1, Sd1, OsCOL4, Nal1, OsphyB, GW5, Ehd1 candidate genes were, respectively, identified to co-localize with LW-specific associations and associations in common between the two water treatments. For several LW-specific MTAs, or in common among the two treatments, positional co-localizations with previously identified QTLs for rice adaptation to water shortages were observed, a result that further supports the role of the loci identified in this work in conferring adaptation to LW. The most robust associations identified here could represent suitable targets for genomic selection approaches to improve yield-related traits under LW.

  8. SNIFFER: a System that Understands Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    further inbrmation. If the bug the sniffer knows about is present, it proditces a detailed error report. This jcporr includes a high level sutmmary of...he ILisp Machine was chosen h,’c,tte it has the high speed and Lirgc rtinco l ic keuired hN Snilffer. The programs Sibl1ttd to tihe S.,ilml eiCl 1,0...are only two ways to compare objects. One can ask if’ they are eq. mecaning that they ha~e the same name or address 0% hich is equivalent to asking if

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain E24377A, Obtained from a Tribal Drinking Water Source in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamhankar, Ashok J; Nerkar, Sandeep S; Khadake, Prashant P; Akolkar, Dadasaheb B; Apurwa, Sachin R; Deshpande, Uday; Khedkar, Smita U; Stålsby-Lundborg, Cecilia

    2015-04-02

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Its dissemination can occur through water sources contaminated by it. Here, we report for the first time the draft genome sequence of ETEC strain E24377A, obtained from a tribal drinking water source in India. Copyright © 2015 Tamhankar et al.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain E24377A, Obtained from a Tribal Drinking Water Source in India

    OpenAIRE

    Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Khadake, Prashant P.; Akolkar, Dadasaheb B.; Apurwa, Sachin R.; Deshpande, Uday; Khedkar, Smita U.; St?lsby-Lundborg, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Its dissemination can occur through water sources contaminated by it. Here, we report for the first time the draft genome sequence of ETEC strain E24377A, obtained from a tribal drinking water source in India.

  11. Spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs in southeastern farmscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkay, Grant L; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Toews, Michael D; Greene, Jeremy K; Bridges, William C

    2015-01-01

    A 3-yr study (2009-2011) was conducted to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs in three commercial farmscapes. Study locations were replicated in South Carolina and Georgia, in an agriculturally diverse region known as the southeastern coastal plain. Crops included wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.), corn, Zea mays (L.), soybean, Glycine max (L.), cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and peanut, Arachis hypogaea (L.). Farmscapes were sampled weekly using whole-plant examinations for corn, with all other crops sampled using sweep nets. The predominant pest species of phytophagous stink bugs were the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), the green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say), and the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). Chi-square tests indicated a departure from a normal distribution in 77% of analyses of the variance to mean ratio, with 37% of slopes of Taylor's power law and 30% of coefficient β of Iwao's patchiness regression significantly greater than one, indicating aggregated distributions. Spatial Analyses by Distance IndicEs (SADIE) indicated aggregated patterns of stink bugs in 18% of year-end totals and 42% of weekly counts, with 80% of adults and nymphs positively associated using the SADIE association tool. Maximum stink bug densities in each crop occurred when the plants were producing fruit. Stink bugs exhibited greater densities in crops adjacent to soybean in Barnwell and Lee Counties compared with crops adjacent to corn or fallow areas. The diversity of crops and relatively small size of fields in the Southeast leads to colonization of patches within a farmscape. The ecological and management implications of the spatial and temporal distribution of stink bugs within farmscapes are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. Altruism during predation in an assassin bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Revel, Messika; Azémar, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Zelus annulosus is an assassin bug species mostly noted on Hirtella physophora, a myrmecophyte specifically associated with the ant Allomerus decemarticulatus known to build traps on host tree twigs to ambush insect preys. The Z. annulosus females lay egg clutches protected by a sticky substance. To avoid being trapped, the first three instars of nymphs remain grouped in a clutch beneath the leaves on which they hatched, yet from time to time, they climb onto the upper side to group ambush preys. Long-distance prey detection permits these bugs to capture flying or jumping insects that alight on their leaves. Like some other Zelus species, the sticky substance of the sundew setae on their forelegs aids in prey capture. Group ambushing permits early instars to capture insects that they then share or not depending on prey size and the hunger of the successful nymphs. Fourth and fifth instars, with greater needs, rather ambush solitarily on different host tree leaves, but attract siblings to share large preys. Communal feeding permits faster prey consumption, enabling small nymphs to return sooner to the shelter of their leaves. By improving the regularity of feeding for each nymph, it likely regulates nymphal development, synchronizing molting and subsequently limiting cannibalism.

  13. Machine Learning or Information Retrieval Techniques for Bug Triaging: Which is better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Goyal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bugs are the inevitable part of a software system. Nowadays, large software development projects even release beta versions of their products to gather bug reports from users. The collected bug reports are then worked upon by various developers in order to resolve the defects and make the final software product more reliable. The high frequency of incoming bugs makes the bug handling a difficult and time consuming task. Bug assignment is an integral part of bug triaging that aims at the process of assigning a suitable developer for the reported bug who corrects the source code in order to resolve the bug. There are various semi and fully automated techniques to ease the task of bug assignment. This paper presents the current state of the art of various techniques used for bug report assignment. Through exhaustive research, the authors have observed that machine learning and information retrieval based bug assignment approaches are most popular in literature. A deeper investigation has shown that the trend of techniques is taking a shift from machine learning based approaches towards information retrieval based approaches. Therefore, the focus of this work is to find the reason behind the observed drift and thus a comparative analysis is conducted on the bug reports of the Mozilla, Eclipse, Gnome and Open Office projects in the Bugzilla repository. The results of the study show that the information retrieval based technique yields better efficiency in recommending the developers for bug reports.

  14. Genomics and Ecophysiology of Heterotrophic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Estuarine Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Severin, Ina; Hansen, Lars H; Riemann, Lasse

    2015-07-07

    The ability to reduce atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia, known as N2 fixation, is a widely distributed trait among prokaryotes that accounts for an essential input of new N to a multitude of environments. Nitrogenase reductase gene (nifH) composition suggests that putative N2-fixing heterotrophic organisms are widespread in marine bacterioplankton, but their autecology and ecological significance are unknown. Here, we report genomic and ecophysiology data in relation to N2 fixation by three environmentally relevant heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Baltic Sea surface water: Pseudomonas stutzeri strain BAL361 and Raoultella ornithinolytica strain BAL286, which are gammaproteobacteria, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain BAL398, an alphaproteobacterium. Genome sequencing revealed that all were metabolically versatile and that the gene clusters encoding the N2 fixation complex varied in length and complexity between isolates. All three isolates could sustain growth by N2 fixation in the absence of reactive N, and this fixation was stimulated by low concentrations of oxygen in all three organisms (≈ 4 to 40 µmol O2 liter(-1)). P. stutzeri BAL361 did, however, fix N at up to 165 µmol O2 liter(-1), presumably accommodated through aggregate formation. Glucose stimulated N2 fixation in general, and reactive N repressed N2 fixation, except that ammonium (NH4 (+)) stimulated N2 fixation in R. palustris BAL398, indicating the use of nitrogenase as an electron sink. The lack of correlations between nitrogenase reductase gene expression and ethylene (C2H4) production indicated tight posttranscriptional-level control. The N2 fixation rates obtained suggested that, given the right conditions, these heterotrophic diazotrophs could contribute significantly to in situ rates. The biological process of importing atmospheric N2 is of paramount importance in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In the oceans, a diverse array of prokaryotes seemingly carry the genetic capacity

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Rotation PICMED Grant Professionalism Award Resident-Fellow QI Project Award Resident International Grant Resident Scholarship to Legislative ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  16. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... programs Quality DataDerm Quality measures Clinical guidelines Appropriate use criteria Choosing Wisely Education Online Learning Center MOC ... prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and ...

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme ... and tuck your shirt into your pants. You can also pre-treat outer layers of clothing with ...

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's largest organ About hair: Not just on your ... bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified ...

  19. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... care Younger skin Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's largest organ About hair: Not just on your ... bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified ...

  20. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care ... and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How ...

  1. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... wooded area, dress appropriately to prevent bug bites. Cover exposed skin as much as possible by wearing ... Advanced Search Explore AAD Member resources Practice Tools Education Meetings & events Advocacy Public & patients AAD Resources For: ...

  3. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care ... bites and stings can be safely treated at home. To treat bug bites and stings at home, ...

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    Full Text Available ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How ...

  5. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and other bugs, use insect ... in the great outdoors, use bed nets to protect against mosquitoes. Look for one that has been ...

  6. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... State advocacy grants Advocate of the Year Award Step therapy legislation Scope of practice Melanoma state reporting ... known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug ...

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    Full Text Available ... diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re visiting areas with known ... bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified ...

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    Full Text Available ... Dermatology Dialogues in Dermatology quizzes JAAD quizzes CME transcript program AAD publications JAAD JAAD Case Reports Dermatology ... so that they can examine you for a transmitted disease. Additional related resources Bug bites and stings: ...

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    Full Text Available ... and scalp problems Itchy skin Painful skin / joints Rashes Scaly skin Skin cancer Why see a board- ... symptoms after a bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or ...

  11. Bed bugs - What the GP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Stephen L; Russell, Richard

    2009-11-01

    Since the mid 1990s, there has been a global resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex spp.), which are blood feeding insects that readily bite humans. Patients suffering with bite reactions are increasingly presenting to medical practitioners. This article reviews the various clinical consequences of bed bug bites and outlines management strategies. Common dermatological responses include the early development of small macular spots that may later progress into prominent wheals accompanied by intense itching. Patients exposed to numerous bed bugs can present with a widespread erythematous rash or urticaria. Bullous eruptions are not uncommon and anaphylaxis has been reported, albeit rarely. There is no evidence that bed bugs transmit human pathogens, but they are responsible for significant psychological distress, can produce anaemia when abundant, and have been implicated in the triggering of asthmatic reactions. Symptomatic control involves treatment of the patient with antihistamines and corticosteroids, and ensuring that the infestation responsible for the problem is effectively eliminated.

  12. No Detectable Insecticide Resistance in Swallow Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Following Long-Term Exposure to Naled (Dibrom 8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runjaic, Jelena; Bellovich, Ian J; Page, Catherine E; Brown, Charles R; Booth, Warren

    2017-07-01

    The swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath, is a hematophagous ectoparasite of the cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Vieillot, and is closely related to bed bugs (Cimex spp.). Evolution of insecticide resistance has been documented for bed bugs but not studied in Oeciacus. For periods of 17 and 32 yr, two cliff swallow colonies in western Nebraska were treated during the summer breeding season using the organophosphate insecticide Dibrom. Despite continual treatments, O. vicarius has been observed frequently within these colonies. We evaluated the efficacy of Dibrom 8 on O. vicarius during the 2016 season at two treated colonies and four that had never experienced treatment. Dibrom 8 was found to be effective in 100% of trials, with immobilization within minutes and death within 72 h, for individuals from all colonies. In control treatments (water), individuals collected from treated colonies exhibited greater survival than individuals from untreated colonies, and those from active colonies (bugs fed) had greater survival than those from inactive colonies (bugs unfed). A residual effect was observed in both lab and field trials: 100% mortality occurred in the lab after exposure to filter paper substrates treated both 5 and 10 d earlier, and in the field, nests treated once early in the season had O. vicarius counts 43 d later that were <1% of those from untreated nests within the same colony. We hypothesize that the lack of resistance results from the limited potential for resistance allele fixation due to outbreeding and frequent immigration of insecticide-naïve individuals. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. BDAL1 Reconstructed from a Bakken Shale Hydraulic Fracturing-Produced Water Storage Tank Metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipus, Daniel; Ross, Daniel; Bibby, Kyle; Gulliver, Djuna

    2017-03-16

    We report the 5,425,832 bp draft genome of Pseudomonas sp. strain BDAL1, recovered from a Bakken shale hydraulic fracturing-produced water tank metagenome. Genome annotation revealed several key biofilm formation genes and osmotic stress response mechanisms necessary for survival in hydraulic fracturing-produced water. Copyright © 2017 Lipus et al.

  14. Status Survey for the Dismal Swamp- Green Stink Bug (Chlorochroa dismalia) in Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Dismal Swamp green stink bug (Chlorochroa dismalia), also known as the Dismal Swamp chlorochroan bug, is one of 52 members of the Family Pentatomidae (Order...

  15. Host-Seeking Behavior in the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernard R. Lewis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The reemergence of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, has recently spawned a frenzy of public, media, and academic attention. In response to the growing rate of infestation, considerable work has been focused on identifying the various host cues utilized by the bed bug in search of a meal. Most of these behavioral studies examine movement within a confined environment, such as a Petri dish. This has prevented a more complete understanding of the insect’s host-seeking process. This work describes a novel method for studying host-seeking behavior, using various movement parameters, in a time-lapse photography system. With the use of human breath as an attractant, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed how bed bugs navigate their environment between its harborage and the host. Levels of behavioral activity varied dramatically between bed bugs in the presence and absence of host odor. Bed bugs demonstrated not simply activation, but attraction to the chemical components of breath. Localized, stop-start host-seeking behavior or alternating periods of movement and pause were observed among bed bugs placed in the environment void of human breath, while those exposed to human breath demonstrated long range, stop-start host-seeking behavior. A more comprehensive understanding of bed bug host-seeking can lead to the development of traps and monitors that account for unique subtleties in their behavior. The time-lapse photography system uses a large, artificial environment and could also be employed to study other aspects of the insect’s behavioral patterns.

  16. NRFixer: Sentiment Based Model for Predicting the Fixability of Non-Reproducible Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Goyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Software maintenance is an essential step in software development life cycle. Nowadays, software companies spend approximately 45\\% of total cost in maintenance activities. Large software projects maintain bug repositories to collect, organize and resolve bug reports. Sometimes it is difficult to reproduce the reported bug with the information present in a bug report and thus this bug is marked with resolution non-reproducible (NR. When NR bugs are reconsidered, a few of them might get fixed (NR-to-fix leaving the others with the same resolution (NR. To analyse the behaviour of developers towards NR-to-fix and NR bugs, the sentiment analysis of NR bug report textual contents has been conducted. The sentiment analysis of bug reports shows that NR bugs' sentiments incline towards more negativity than reproducible bugs. Also, there is a noticeable opinion drift found in the sentiments of NR-to-fix bug reports. Observations driven from this analysis were an inspiration to develop a model that can judge the fixability of NR bugs. Thus a framework, {NRFixer,} which predicts the probability of NR bug fixation, is proposed. {NRFixer} was evaluated with two dimensions. The first dimension considers meta-fields of bug reports (model-1 and the other dimension additionally incorporates the sentiments (model-2 of developers for prediction. Both models were compared using various machine learning classifiers (Zero-R, naive Bayes, J48, random tree and random forest. The bug reports of Firefox and Eclipse projects were used to test {NRFixer}. In Firefox and Eclipse projects, J48 and Naive Bayes classifiers achieve the best prediction accuracy, respectively. It was observed that the inclusion of sentiments in the prediction model shows a rise in the prediction accuracy ranging from 2 to 5\\% for various classifiers.

  17. Effects of ultralow oxygen and vacuum treatments on bed bug (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of bed bugs has always been problematic, balancing among efficacy, safety, and cost. In this study, ultralow oxygen (ULO) and vacuum treatments were tested on bed bugs to develop a safer, effective, and environmental friendly solution to bed bug infestations. ULO treatments were establishe...

  18. Role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    Full Text Available The role of olfactory cues such as carbon dioxide, pheromones, and kairomones in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior has been demonstrated. However, the role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug behavior is poorly understood. We investigated bed bug vision by determining their responses to different colors, vertical objects, and their ability to detect colors and vertical objects under low and complete dark conditions. Results show black and red paper harborages are preferred compared to yellow, green, blue, and white harborages. A bed bug trapping device with a black or red exterior surface was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than that with a white exterior surface. Bed bugs exhibited strong orientation behavior toward vertical objects. The height (15 vs. 30 cm tall and color (brown vs. black of the vertical object had no significant effect on orientation behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs could differentiate color and detect vertical objects at very low background light conditions, but not in complete darkness. Bed bug preference to different substrate textures (mechanoreception was also explored. Bed bugs preferred dyed tape compared to painted tape, textured painted plastic, and felt. These results revealed that substrate color, presence of vertical objects, and substrate texture affect host-seeking and harborage-searching behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs may use a combination of vision, mechanoreception, and chemoreception to locate hosts and seek harborages.

  19. Diurnal activities of the brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in and near tasseling corn fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for effective management of the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus, in corn and other crops has been increasing in recent years. To identify when and where the stink bugs are most likely to occur for targeted insecticide application, diurnal activities of stink bugs in and near the field...

  20. Simulating the 2012 High Plains drought using three single column versions (SCM) of BUGS5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, I. D.; Denning, S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of changes in the frequency and severity of drought on fresh water sustainability is a great concern for many regions of the world. One such location is the High Plains, where the local economy is primarily driven by fresh water withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer, which accounts for approximately 30% of total irrigation withdrawals from all U.S. aquifers combined. Modeling studies that focus on the feedback mechanisms that control the climate and eco-hydrology during times of drought are limited, and have used conventional General Circulation Models (GCMs) with grid length scales ranging from one hundred to several hundred kilometers. Additionally, these models utilize crude statistical parameterizations of cloud processes for estimating sub-grid fluxes of heat and moisture and have a poor representation of land surface heterogeneity. For this research, we will focus on the 2012 High Plains drought and will perform numerical simulations using three single column versions (SCM) of BUGS5 (Colorado State University (CSU) GCM coupled to the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB3)) at multiple sites overlying the Ogallala Aquifer for the 2011-2012 periods. In the first version of BUGS5, the model will be used in its standard bulk setting (single atmospheric column coupled to a single instance of SiB3), secondly, the Super-Parameterized Community Atmospheric Model (SP-CAM), a cloud resolving model (CRM consists of 64 atmospheric columns), will replace the single CSU GCM atmospheric parameterization and will be coupled to a single instance of SiB3, and for the third version of BUGS5, an instance of SiB3 will be coupled to each CRM column of the SP-CAM (64 CRM columns coupled to 64 instances of SiB3). To assess the physical realism of the land-atmosphere feedbacks simulated at each site by all versions of BUGS5, differences in simulated energy and moisture fluxes will be computed between the 2011 and 2012 period and will be compared to differences calculated using

  1. Genome wide association study (GWAS) for grain yield in rice cultivated under water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantalião, Gabriel Feresin; Narciso, Marcelo; Guimarães, Cléber; Castro, Adriano; Colombari, José Manoel; Breseghello, Flavio; Rodrigues, Luana; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Borba, Tereza Oliveira; Brondani, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    The identification of rice drought tolerant materials is crucial for the development of best performing cultivars for the upland cultivation system. This study aimed to identify markers and candidate genes associated with drought tolerance by Genome Wide Association Study analysis, in order to develop tools for use in rice breeding programs. This analysis was made with 175 upland rice accessions (Oryza sativa), evaluated in experiments with and without water restriction, and 150,325 SNPs. Thirteen SNP markers associated with yield under drought conditions were identified. Through stepwise regression analysis, eight SNP markers were selected and validated in silico, and when tested by PCR, two out of the eight SNP markers were able to identify a group of rice genotypes with higher productivity under drought. These results are encouraging for deriving markers for the routine analysis of marker assisted selection. From the drought experiment, including the genes inherited in linkage blocks, 50 genes were identified, from which 30 were annotated, and 10 were previously related to drought and/or abiotic stress tolerance, such as the transcription factors WRKY and Apetala2, and protein kinases.

  2. Genome-Wide Association of Stem Water Soluble Carbohydrates in Bread Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    Full Text Available Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC in stems play an important role in buffering grain yield in wheat against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, knowledge of genes controlling WSC is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS using a high-density 90K SNP array to better understand the genetic basis underlying WSC, and to explore marker-based breeding approaches. WSC was evaluated in an association panel comprising 166 Chinese bread wheat cultivars planted in four environments. Fifty two marker-trait associations (MTAs distributed across 23 loci were identified for phenotypic best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs, and 11 MTAs were identified in two or more environments. Liner regression showed a clear dependence of WSC BLUE scores on numbers of favorable (increasing WSC content and unfavorable alleles (decreasing WSC, indicating that genotypes with higher numbers of favorable or lower numbers of unfavorable alleles had higher WSC content. In silico analysis of flanking sequences of trait-associated SNPs revealed eight candidate genes related to WSC content grouped into two categories based on the type of encoding proteins, namely, defense response proteins and proteins triggered by environmental stresses. The identified SNPs and candidate genes related to WSC provide opportunities for breeding higher WSC wheat cultivars.

  3. Genome-Wide Association of Stem Water Soluble Carbohydrates in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Liu, Jindong; Zhang, Yan; Geng, Hongwei; Rasheed, Awais; Xiao, Yonggui; Cao, Shuanghe; Fu, Luping; Yan, Jun; Wen, Weie; Zhang, Yong; Jing, Ruilian; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in stems play an important role in buffering grain yield in wheat against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, knowledge of genes controlling WSC is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a high-density 90K SNP array to better understand the genetic basis underlying WSC, and to explore marker-based breeding approaches. WSC was evaluated in an association panel comprising 166 Chinese bread wheat cultivars planted in four environments. Fifty two marker-trait associations (MTAs) distributed across 23 loci were identified for phenotypic best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs), and 11 MTAs were identified in two or more environments. Liner regression showed a clear dependence of WSC BLUE scores on numbers of favorable (increasing WSC content) and unfavorable alleles (decreasing WSC), indicating that genotypes with higher numbers of favorable or lower numbers of unfavorable alleles had higher WSC content. In silico analysis of flanking sequences of trait-associated SNPs revealed eight candidate genes related to WSC content grouped into two categories based on the type of encoding proteins, namely, defense response proteins and proteins triggered by environmental stresses. The identified SNPs and candidate genes related to WSC provide opportunities for breeding higher WSC wheat cultivars.

  4. Two compounds in bed bug feces are sufficient to elicit off-host aggregation by bed bugs, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Joelle F; Vers, Leonard M Ver; Moon, Roger D; Kells, Stephen A

    2017-01-01

    After feeding, bed bugs aggregate in cracks and crevices near a host. Aggregation and arrestment are mediated by tactile and chemical stimuli associated with the bugs' feces and exuviae. Volatiles derived from fecally stained filter papers were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and evaluated using a multichoice behavioral assay to determine their impact on bed bug aggregation. In addition, crude fecal extracts were collected in methanol, analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and evaluated in open-air multichoice behavioral assays. The SPME method was used to detect (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal in heated bed bug feces. The presence of these two volatile components did not affect aggregation. Analysis of the crude fecal extracts revealed several semi-volatile nitrogenous compounds, a carboxylic acid and a sulfur-based compound. Adult antennae responded to compounds eluted from three regions of the crude extract using GC-EAD. A combination of two compounds, dimethyl trisulfide and methyldiethanolamine, resulted in aggregation responses equivalent to the original crude extract. Bed bug aggregation is mediated by semi-volatile compounds derived from fecal extracts, and two compounds are sufficient to elicit aggregation. The two compounds identified here could be used to enhance the effectiveness of insecticidal applications or improve monitoring techniques. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Empirical Analysis and Automated Classification of Security Bug Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyo, Jacob P.

    2016-01-01

    With the ever expanding amount of sensitive data being placed into computer systems, the need for effective cybersecurity is of utmost importance. However, there is a shortage of detailed empirical studies of security vulnerabilities from which cybersecurity metrics and best practices could be determined. This thesis has two main research goals: (1) to explore the distribution and characteristics of security vulnerabilities based on the information provided in bug tracking systems and (2) to develop data analytics approaches for automatic classification of bug reports as security or non-security related. This work is based on using three NASA datasets as case studies. The empirical analysis showed that the majority of software vulnerabilities belong only to a small number of types. Addressing these types of vulnerabilities will consequently lead to cost efficient improvement of software security. Since this analysis requires labeling of each bug report in the bug tracking system, we explored using machine learning to automate the classification of each bug report as a security or non-security related (two-class classification), as well as each security related bug report as specific security type (multiclass classification). In addition to using supervised machine learning algorithms, a novel unsupervised machine learning approach is proposed. An ac- curacy of 92%, recall of 96%, precision of 92%, probability of false alarm of 4%, F-Score of 81% and G-Score of 90% were the best results achieved during two-class classification. Furthermore, an accuracy of 80%, recall of 80%, precision of 94%, and F-score of 85% were the best results achieved during multiclass classification.

  6. Developing e-Bug web games to teach microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, David; Kostkova, Patty; Lazareck, Lisa; Weerasinghe, Dasun; Weinberg, Julius; Lecky, Donna M; Adriaenssens, Niels; Koprivová Herotová, Tereza; Holt, Jette; Touboul, Pia; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Koncan, Raffaella; Olczak-Pienkowska, Anna; Avô, António Brito; Campos, José; McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2011-06-01

    As a complement to the e-Bug teaching pack, two e-Bug games were developed to provide content that aimed to entertain as well as to educate. A set of agreed learning outcomes (LOs) were provided by the scientific partners of the e-Bug Project and the games were developed using user-centred design techniques (the needs, wants and limitations of the potential game players were assessed at each stage of the design process). The e-Bug games were designed for two age groups: Junior (9-12 year olds); and Senior (13-15 year olds). A study using focus groups was done to gain an understanding as to the types of games enjoyed by the target users. According to the preliminary study, the Junior Game was developed as a platform game and the Senior Game was developed as a story-based detective game. The Junior Game consists of five levels, each associated with a set of LOs. Similarly, the Senior Game consists of four missions, each comprising five stages using problem-based learning techniques and LOs. In this paper, the process of development for each game is described in detail and an illustration is provided of how each game level or mission addresses the target LOs. Development of the games used feedback acquired from children in four schools across the UK (Glasgow, London and two in Gloucester). The children were selected according to their willingness to participate. European Partners of the e-Bug Project also provided further support, translation and requests for modifications. The knowledge gained of LOs and further evaluation of the games is continuing, and preliminary results are in press. The final versions of the games, translated into 11 European languages, are available online via www.e-bug.eu.

  7. Symbiotic factors in Burkholderia essential for establishing an association with the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are common in insects and intimately affect the various aspects of insect host biology. In a number of insect symbiosis models, it has been possible to elucidate the effects of the symbiont on host biology, whereas there is a limited understanding of the impact of the association on the bacterial symbiont, mainly due to the difficulty of cultivating insect symbionts in vitro. Furthermore, the molecular features that determine the establishment and persistence of the symbionts in their host (i.e., symbiotic factors) have remained elusive. However, the recently established model, the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, provides a good opportunity to study bacterial symbiotic factors at a molecular level through their cultivable symbionts. Bean bugs acquire genus Burkholderia cells from the environment and harbor them as gut symbionts in the specialized posterior midgut. The genome of the Burkholderia symbiont was sequenced, and the genomic information was used to generate genetically manipulated Burkholderia symbiont strains. Using mutant symbionts, we identified several novel symbiotic factors necessary for establishing a successful association with the host gut. In this review, these symbiotic factors are classified into three categories based on the colonization dynamics of the mutant symbiont strains: initiation, accommodation, and persistence factors. In addition, the molecular characteristics of the symbiotic factors are described. These newly identified symbiotic factors and on-going studies of the Riptortus-Burkholderia symbiosis are expected to contribute to the understanding of the molecular cross-talk between insects and bacterial symbionts that are of ecological and evolutionary importance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Usage of data warehouse for analysing software's bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živanov, Danijel; Krstićev, Danijela Boberić; Mirković, Duško

    2017-07-01

    We analysed the database schema of Bugzilla system and taking into account user's requirements for reporting, we presented a dimensional model for the data warehouse which will be used for reporting software defects. The idea proposed in this paper is not to throw away Bugzilla system because it certainly has many strengths, but to make integration of Bugzilla and the proposed data warehouse. Bugzilla would continue to be used for recording bugs that occur during the development and maintenance of software while the data warehouse would be used for storing data on bugs in an appropriate form, which is more suitable for analysis.

  9. Using research and education to implement practical bed bug control programs in multifamily housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary W; Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Wang, Changlu; Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Gibb, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Multifamily housing facilities serving low-income populations have been at the forefront of bed bug outbreaks. Research conducted in the past 8 years has consistently proven that integrated pest management (IPM) is the best approach for successful suppression of bed bug infestations. Bed bug IPM in multifamily settings is especially dependent upon a collaborative community or building-wide effort involving residents, building staff and pest control technicians. Other components of a bed bug IPM program include regular monitoring to detect early-stage bed bug infestations and combined use of non-chemical and chemical interventions. Lastly, to reduce reinfestation rates and costs associated with bed bug control, it is critical to continue periodic monitoring and implement preventive control measures even after successful elimination of bed bugs has been achieved. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Genome Instability of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae from Polluted Water Basins in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ilkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Chironomidae, Diptera collected from two polluted water basins in Bulgaria, the Maritsa and Chaya Rivers (adjacent to Plovdiv and Asenovgrad respectively, a small pool (near Plovdiv plus controls reared in the laboratory were studied. High concentrations of the heavy metals Pb, Cu and Cd were recorded in the sediments of the polluted stations. Marked somatic structural chromosome aberrations were found in C. riparius salivary polytene chromosomes from the field stations and their frequency was significantly higher (p<0.01 compared to the control. The observed somatic chromosome changes are discussed as a response of the chironomid genome to aquatic pollution. A new cytogenetic index based on the number of aberrations found in larvae from polluted regions in comparison with the control was applied to the data to more easily evaluate the degree of heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Our study of a polluted site near the River Chaya showed that the somatic index was very high at 3.35 for 2010 and 11.66 for 2013 compared to 0.5 in the control. The cytogenetic index was effective in showing that all studied sites were highly polluted in comparison with the control. To determine the mechanism involved in the concentration of aberration breakpoints within specific regions of the chironomid polytene chromosome the FISH method was applied. The localization of a transposable element TFB1 along the polytene chromosomes of C. riparius was analyzed and the sites of localization were compared with breakpoints of chromosome aberrations. A significant correlation (p<0.05 was found which shows that most of the aberrations do not appear randomly but are concentrated in sites rich in transposable elements.

  11. Genome-wide associations for water-soluble carbohydrate concentration and relative maturity in wheat using SNP and DArT marker arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving water-use efficiency by incorporating drought avoidance traits into new wheat varieties is an important objective for wheat breeding in water-limited environments. This study uses genome wide association studies (GWAS) to identify candidate loci for water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation,...

  12. New species of Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosymbiont on giant water bugs, Belostoma spp. (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae from southern Brazil Nova espécie do gênero Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosimbionte sobre baratas d´água, Belostoma spp. (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae da região sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. R. Amato

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 is described from southern Brazil, ectosymbiont on giant water bugs (aquatic hemipterans, Belostoma spp. from the greater Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul. Some hemipterans examined were positive for this species of Temnocephala and carried bunches of eggs between the first two pairs of legs and between the first pair of legs and the rostrum, as well as adult and young specimens. The adults were darkly pigmented (greenish-brown, mimetizing the color of the hemipteran hosts. The new species is similar to Temnocephala decarloi Moretto, 1978, from Argentina, the only other species of Temnocephala from belostomatid hemipterans known to date, by having an extra long and curved cirrus, but differs by having the distal portion of the introvert not bent as a 'full-bent' smoking pipe-like, as the author depicted originally for T. decarloi.Uma nova espécie de Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 é descrita para o sul do Brasil, ectosimbionte sobre baratas-d'água (hemípteros aquáticos, Belostoma spp. da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Vários hemípteros examinados estavam positivos para esta espécie do gênero Temnocephala, inclusive com posturas sempre localizadas na face ventral entre os dois primeiros pares de apêndices locomotores, e entre o primeiro par de pernas e o rostro. Espécimes adultos e jovens de tamanhos variados também foram sempre encontrados na face ventral do hemíptero. Os vermes adultos eram pigmentados (marrom-esverdeado, mimetizando a cor do exoesqueleto de seus hospedeiros. A nova espécie é semelhante à Temnocephala decarloi Moretto, 1978, descrita da Argentina, única espécie conhecida do gênero já encontrada sobre hemípteros belostomatídeos, por ter um cirro extremamente longo e curvo, mas difere desta por ter a porção distal do 'introvert' sem a forma típica de um cachimbo ('full-bent' como ilustrada pelo autor na descri

  13. Bread wheat progenitors:Aegilops tauschii(DD genome) andTriticum dicoccoides(AABB genome) reveal differential antioxidative response under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Bains, Navtej Singh

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes are known to play a significant role in scavenging reactive oxygen species and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Activity of four antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) was examined in the flag leaves of nine Aegilops tauschii and three Triticum dicoccoides accessions along with two bread wheat cultivars under irrigated and rain-fed conditions. These accessions were shortlisted from a larger set on the basis of field performance for a set of morpho-physiological traits. At anthesis, significant differences were observed in enzyme activities in two environments. A 45% elevation in average GR activity was observed under rain-fed conditions. Genotypic variation was evident within each environment as well as in terms of response to stress environment. Aegilops tauschii accession 3769 (86% increase in SOD, 41% in CAT, 72% in APX, 48% in GR activity) and acc. 14096 (37% increase in SOD, 32% CAT, 25% APX, 42% GR) showed up-regulation in the activity of all the four studied antioxidant enzymes. Aegilops tauschii accessions-9809, 14189 and 14113 also seemed to have strong induction mechanism as elevated activity of at least three enzymes was observed in them under rain-fed conditions. T. dicoccoides , on the other hand, maintained active antioxidative machinery under irrigated condition with relatively lower induction under stress. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.760) was identified between change in the activity of CAT and GR under stress. Changes in plant height, spike length and grain weight were recorded under stress and non-stress conditions on the basis of which a cumulative tolerance index was deduced and accessions were ranked for drought tolerance. Overall, Ae. tauschii accession 3769, 14096, 14113 (DD-genome) and T. dicoccoides accession 7054 (AABB-genome) may be used as donors to combine beneficial stress adaptive traits of all the three sub-genomes

  14. Draft genome sequence of two Shingopyxis sp. strains H107 and H115 isolated from a chloraminated drinking water distriburion system simulator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Draft genome sequence of two Shingopyxis sp. strains H107 and H115 isolated from a chloraminated drinking water distriburion system simulator. This dataset is...

  15. Ultrastructural analysis of salivary glands in a phytophagous stink bug revealed the presence of unexpected muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Nathaly; Martínez, Luis C; Silva, Eder H; Teodoro, Adenir V; Serrão, José Eduardo; Oliveira, Eugênio E

    2017-01-01

    The exceptional abilities of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to colonize a diverse group of plants have been attributed to the feeding behaviors and the functions of the salivary complex of these insects. Here, we describe the ultrastructure of the salivary glands of the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros, which is a major component of the pentatomid pest complex on soybeans, Glycine max, in the neotropics. Our results revealed a salivary gland complex consisting of two lobes (i.e., anterior and posterior), with a constriction between them (i.e., the hilum), in which the salivary and accessory gland ducts are inserted. The principal gland epithelium has a single layer of cells lining an enlarged lumen filled with saliva, and these cells are cuboidal, rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and secretory vesicles, with well-developed nuclei, all of which are typical features of protein-secreting cells. We report, for the first time in insects, the presence of a layer of muscle cells surrounding the columnar hilum epithelium. The accessory salivary gland cells are cuboidal with nuclei containing condensed chromatin and cytoplasm rich in vacuoles and rough endoplasmic reticulum, indicating the potential involvement of these glands in water transport/secretion. The lumen content of each lobe of the principal gland suggests that the lobes produce different compounds. Thus, our results suggest that the E. heros salivary complex might have unconventional mechanisms to mix/release saliva, which might help explain the polyphagous abilities of these insects.

  16. Attitudes toward Invertebrates: Are Educational "Bug Banquets" Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looy, Heather; Wood, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Scientists have used educational presentations and "bug banquets" to alter widespread negative attitudes toward invertebrates. In this article, the authors explore whether such presentations have a measurable affect on attitudes. Junior high, high school, and university students completed an attitude survey focusing on invertebrates in…

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Particularly if you’re visiting areas with known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to ... bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and other ...

  19. Cuticular hydrocarbons from the bed bug Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentane extracts of male and female bed bugs were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in an effort to identify cuticular hydrocarbons. Seventeen hydrocarbons accounting for nearly 99% of the compounds eluting in the cuticular hydrocarbon region were identified. The sample contained ...

  20. Susceptibility Of Grain Amaranth Lines To Hemipteran Bug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In trials conducted during the first rainy season of two conscutive years (1999 and 2000) to evaluate the relative susceptibility of 28 grain Amaranth lines to shield bug (Hemiptera) attack, three species namely Aspervia armigera F., Nezara viridula L. and Cletus ochraceus Herich-Schaffer were identified to be most important.

  1. Color preference of harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is an important pest of Brassica crops in the southern United States. Regional populations are highly variable and unpredictable from farm to farm, and therefore accurate monitoring of activity would greatly improve IPM decision-making and the timing of c...

  2. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  3. sesame harvest loss caused by sesame seed bug, elasmolomus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    ABSTRACT: Sesame is an important cash crop in Ethiopia. In Humera, farmers are largely dependent on this important cash crop for their living. The production rate is, however, lower than the national average. There could be many factors for its reduced productivity, but pests especially sesame seed bug is one of the ...

  4. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re visiting areas with known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to ... at night or hiking in a densely-wooded area, dress appropriately to prevent bug bites. Cover exposed ...

  5. Finding Error Handling Bugs in OpenSSL using Coccinelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Laurie, Ben; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    in Linux kernel code using the program matching and transformation engine Coccinelle.  In this work, we report on our experience in applying this methodology to OpenSSL, focusing on API usage protocols related to error handling.  We have detected over 30 bugs in a recent OpenSSL snapshot, and in many cases...

  6. Evaluating damage to nursery crops by brown marmorated stink bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyomorpha halys, commonly known as the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), has become a major pest and nuisance since it arrived in the US in 1998 for both agricultural growers and homeowners. They can feed on ~200 different plant species, several of which are important ornamental crop species. The...

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a tick When to see a dermatologist Burns Frostbite Splinters Treating sunburn Wound care Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ ...

  8. Insecticide assays against the brown stink bug feeding on pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch (Juglandaceae), and other agronomic crops across the southeastern U.S. Management of this pest is mainly via insecticides. Many commercial products indicate o...

  9. Life table parameters of the dubas bug, Ommatissus lybicus (Hem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dubas bug, Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae) is one of the major pests of date palm in Bam region, Iran. In this study, life table parameters of O. lybicus were studied at 25, 30 and 35°C. The experiments were conducted in a leaf cage at 60 ± 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L: D) h.

  10. A Bug That Can Dig a Hole in the Stomach!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 3. A Bug That Can Dig a Hole in the Stomach! - The Discovery that Revolutionized the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer. M E Sandeepa Dipshikha Chakravartty. General Article Volume 11 Issue 3 March 2006 pp 36-40 ...

  11. Seasonal phenology and natural enemies of the squash bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kimberly B; Yeargan, Kenneth V

    2008-06-01

    The squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major indigenous pest of Cucurbita species across the United States and a vector of cucurbit yellow vine disease. The seasonal phenology of the squash bug in central Kentucky and its natural enemies were studied using summer squash planted sequentially throughout the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. The squash bug was first detected on 5 June 2005 and 3 June 2006. In both years, peak numbers of all squash bug stages occurred in July and August. Our field data, substantiated by published degree-day models for squash bug development, suggest one complete and a partial second generation of squash bugs in 2005 and one complete generation of squash bugs in 2006. The most abundant ground-active predators in squash fields included Araneae, Carabidae, Staphylinidae, and Geocoridae. Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer) and Geocoris punctipes (Say) were the most abundant foliage-inhabiting predators. Direct field observations of predators feeding on squash bugs or their eggs included G. punctipes, Pagasa fusca (Stein), and Nabis sp. The parasitoids Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius) and Gyron pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) were found also. Squash bug egg masses were monitored to determine predation and parasitism rates in the field. In four studies during 2005 and 2006, predation rates were low (7% or less), and parasitism ranged from 0 to 31%. Overall, squash bug egg mortality increased as the season progressed.

  12. Response of Soybean Genotypes Challenged by a Stink Bug Complex (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E S; Silva, J P G F; Baldin, E L L; Pierozzi, C G; Cunha, L S; Canassa, V F; Pannuti, L E R; Lourenção, A L

    2016-04-01

    Pentatomids (stink bugs) are major pests of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merril. These pests reach high levels of infestation, cause severe damage to seeds by feeding, are linked to leaf retention, and are difficult to control. Host plant resistance is considered to be a valuable tool in integrated pest management and can assist in reducing the damage caused by stink bugs. This research evaluated the resistance of soybean genotypes in Brazil to the stink bug complex, the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F.), redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), green belly stink bug, Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), and Edessa meditabunda (F.), by assessing infestation assay, yield reduction, seed damage, and leaf retention. Certain genotypes expressed different categories of resistance: least infested, low yield reduction, low levels of damage in seeds, and low levels of leaf retention. PI lines and IAC 78-2318 showed antixenotic resistance, and ‘IAC 100’ showed tolerance for the stink bug complex. This is the first study to evaluate several parameters of yield and seed quality using different soybean maturity groups under relatively high infestation by the three stink bugs species. The promising genotypes might be used in regions with a high incidence of stink bugs to manage their populations in combination with other integrated pest management practices.

  13. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97% and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6% apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6% reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%. DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124 had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  14. Species composition and seasonal abundance of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Louisiana soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, J H; Davis, J A; Micinski, S; Hardke, J T; Price, P; Leonard, B R

    2013-08-01

    In Louisiana during the last decade, the redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), has become a significant and yield-limiting pest of soybean. The redbanded stink bug was previously reported in the United States in 1892, but was never considered an economically important pest until recently. Soybeans representing four maturity groups (MG) III, IV, V, and VI were sampled weekly from beginning bloom (R1) to physiological maturity (R8) during 2008-2010 at five locations across Louisiana to determine the Pentatomidae composition. In total, 13,146 stink bugs were captured and subsequently identified to species. The predominant species included the redbanded stink bug (54.2%); southern green stink bug (27.1%), Nezara viridula L.; brown stink bug (6.6%), Euschistus servus (Say); and green stink bug (5.5%), Acrosternum hilare (Say). Redbanded stink bug comprised the largest percentage of the complex collected at four of the five survey sites. Numbers exceeding action thresholds of this stink bug complex were only detected during R4 to R7 growth stages. Redbanded stink bug accounted for the largest percentage of the stink bug complex in early maturing soybean varieties (MG III [86%] and IV [60%]) and declined in later maturing soybeans (MG V [54%] and VI [50%]). The redbanded stink bug was initially identified in southern Louisiana during 2000 and had been reported in all soybean producing regions in Louisiana by 2006. This survey is the first to report the redbanded stink bug as a predominant pest of soybeans from locations within the United States.

  15. Assessing stink bug resistance in soybean breeding lines containing genes from germplasm IAC-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Robert M; Buss, Glenn R; Roberts, Phillip M

    2007-08-01

    Sixty-five soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., breeding lines containing the stink bug resistant 'IAC-100' in their pedigrees were evaluated for their resistance to stink bug, primarily southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula L., feeding in replicated field trials from 2001 to 2005. Plots were sampled throughout the season for stink bug abundance, and, at harvest, seed samples were rated for stink bug-induced kernel damage. Individual seeds were categorized as having none, light, moderate, or heavy damage plus 100-seed wt and plot yields were determined. Both ground cloth and sweep net sampling procedures were used to compare stink bug densities between the soybean entries. Stink bug densities varied between years; however, in the years when populations exceeded four per row-meter or six per 25 sweeps, there were more damaged soybean seeds (>25%) in the entries with higher stink bug numbers. During the first 2 yr of evaluations, the mean stink bug-damaged soybean seeds ranged from 10.0 to 38.2%. From these differential responses, 28 entries were selected for continued study in 2003-2004. In 2003, stink bug-damaged soybean seeds were low, with damage ranging from 2.9 to 18.2%. In 2004, stink bug damage ranged from 8.8 to 53.2%. From these 28 lines, 12 entries were selected for an advanced field screening trial in 2005, including the IAC-100 and 'Hutcheson'. Damaged soybean seeds ranged from 18.5 to 54.1% among these 12 entries in 2005, under heavy stink bug pressure. From these evaluations, four breeding lines with either Hutcheson X IAC-100 or IAC-100 x 'V71-370' in their genealogy were identified as possible breeding material for future soybean stink bug resistance cultivar development.

  16. Adaptive camouflage: what can be learned from the wetting behaviour of the tropical flat bugs Dysodius lunatus and Dysodius magnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Hischen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The neotropical flat bug species Dysodius lunatus and Dysodius magnus show a fascinating camouflage principle, as their appearance renders the animal hardly visible on the bark of trees. However, when getting wet due to rain, bark changes its colour and gets darker. In order to keep the camouflage effect, it seems that some Dysodius species benefit from their ability to hold a water film on their cuticle and therefore change their optical properties when also wetted by water. This camouflage behaviour requires the insect to have a hydrophilic surface and passive surface structures which facilitate the liquid spreading. Here we show morphological and chemical characterisations of the surface, especially the cuticular waxes of D. magnus. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the animal is covered with pillar-like microstructures which, in combination with a surprising chemical hydrophilicity of the cuticle waxes, render the bug almost superhydrophilic: water spreads immediately across the surface. We could theoretically model this behaviour assuming the effect of hemi-wicking (a state in which a droplet sits on a rough surface, partwise imbibing the structure around.  Additionally the principle was abstracted and a laser-patterned polymer surface, mimicking the structure and contact angle of Dysodius wax, shows exactly the behaviour of the natural role model – immediate spreading of water and the formation of a thin continuous water film changing optical properties of the surface.

  17. Effective Bug Finding in C Programs with Shape and Effect Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Software projects tend to suffer from conceptually simple resource manipulation bugs, such as accessing a de-allocated memory region, or acquiring a non-reentrant lock twice. Static code scanners are used extensively to remove these bugs from projects like the Linux kernel. Yet, when the manipula......Software projects tend to suffer from conceptually simple resource manipulation bugs, such as accessing a de-allocated memory region, or acquiring a non-reentrant lock twice. Static code scanners are used extensively to remove these bugs from projects like the Linux kernel. Yet, when...... the Linux kernel. Our results show that our tool is more effective at finding bugs than similar code-scanning tools. EBA analyzes the drivers/ directory of Linux (nine thousand files) in less than thirty minutes, and uncovers a handful previously unknown double-lock bugs in various drivers....

  18. HEAVY METALS IN ORGANS AND TISSUES OF STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS L. IN THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Sytnik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.To iInvestigate and analyze the peculiarities of the accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, Co, Ni and Mn in the organs (muscles, gills, liver, kidneys, fins, intestine and tissues of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758 for detecting the patterns of their accumulation and predicting the effect of their toxicological load on the organism of sturgeons as well as for evaluating the polymetallic load on this species in the Dnieper-Bug estuary. Methodology. The material for the research was represented by 3+ – 4+ sterlet caught in the spring of 2016 in the Dnieper-Bug estuary. Organs and tissue samples were homogenized and then burned in a mixture of concentrated nitric (HNO3 and hydrochloric acid (HCl. The determination of heavy metals in organs and tissues of fish were performed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-3 and AAS-3N company "Carl Zeiss" (Jena, Germany. Findings. The distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L. of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the spring of 2016 was characterized by heterogeneity and depended on their physico-chemical properties and functional characteristics of organs and tissues of the investigated fish. The highest quantities copper, zinc and iron are accumulated liver, while manganese and cobalt in gills. Toxic metals (lead and cadmium are more concentrated in gills, skin and liver. The maximum contents in the tissues and organs of sterlet were observed for iron and zinc, while the minimals ones — for cadmium and cobalt. Originality. The paper describes the actual data on the contents and peculiarities of heavy metal accumulation in the body of sterlet inhabiting the Dnieper-Bug estuary. Practical value. The paper contains the newest information on the accumulation and content of heavy metals in organs and tissues of sterlet in the Dnieper-Bug estuary. The results of the work will be used for future

  19. Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary C. DeVries

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a “per-bug” basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 − 0.692 ng·bug−1] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 − 0.724 ng·bug−1] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 − 0.386 ng·bug−1]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 − 0.176 ng·mg−1], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 − 0.134 ng·mg−1], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019–0.102 ng·mg−1]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs.

  20. The odorant receptor co-receptor from the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immo A Hansen

    Full Text Available Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs' antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs and odorant receptors (ORs associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco. Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers.

  1. Decision-Making and Turn Alternation in Pill Bugs (Armadillidium Vulgare)

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Tohru

    1999-01-01

    Twelve pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare, Isopoda, Cmstacean) were examined in 200 successive T-mazes. When obstacles are present, A. vulgare tend to move by means of turn alternation, which is generally considered an innate adaptive behavior. With a decrease in air moisture, the bugs have a tendency to increase their turn alternation rate. However, in such long successive T-mazes as in this study, continued turn alternation should actually accelerate the bugs' desiccation. This fact implies t...

  2. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna L Saenz

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector.

  3. Temporal Dynamics and Electronic Nose Detection of Stink Bug-Induced Volatile Emissions from Cotton Bolls

    OpenAIRE

    Degenhardt, David C.; Greene, Jeremy K.; Ahmad Khalilian

    2012-01-01

    Management decisions for stink bugs (Pentatomidae) in Bt cotton are complicated by time-consuming sampling methods, and there is a need for more efficient detection tools. Volatile compounds are released from cotton bolls in response to feeding by stink bugs, and electronic nose (E-nose) technology may be useful for detecting boll damage. In this study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of volatile emissions in response to feeding by stink bugs and tested the ability of E-nose to discrimi...

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Anoplocnemis curvipes F. (Coreinea, Coreidae, Heteroptera), a pest of fresh cowpea pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete 16,345-bp mitochondrial genome of the agriculturally-destructive pod sucking pest, the giant coreid bug, Anoplocnemis curvipes (Hemiptera: Coreidae), was assembled from paired end next generation sequencing reads. The A. curvipes mitochondrial genome consists of 13 protein coding genes...

  5. A methodology for quantitatively managing the bug fixing process using Mahalanobis Taguchi system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The controlling of bug fixing process during the system testing phase of software development life cycle is very important for fixing all the detected bugs within the scheduled time. The presence of open bugs often delays the release of the software or result in releasing the software with compromised functionalities. These can lead to customer dissatisfaction, cost overrun and eventually the loss of market share. In this paper, the authors propose a methodology to quantitatively manage the bug fixing process during system testing. The proposed methodology identifies the critical milestones in the system testing phase which differentiates the successful projects from the unsuccessful ones using Mahalanobis Taguchi system. Then a model is developed to predict whether a project is successful or not with the bug fix progress at critical milestones as control factors. Finally the model is used to control the bug fixing process. It is found that the performance of the proposed methodology using Mahalanobis Taguchi system is superior to the models developed using other multi-dimensional pattern recognition techniques. The proposed methodology also reduces the number of control points providing the managers with more options and flexibility to utilize the bug fixing resources across system testing phase. Moreover the methodology allows the mangers to carry out mid- course corrections to bring the bug fixing process back on track so that all the detected bugs can be fixed on time. The methodology is validated with eight new projects and the results are very encouraging.

  6. Optimization of the Bugs Classification of the Ticketing System in Software Development: a Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danar Ardhito

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer bug elimination is an important phase in the software development process. A ticketing system is usually used to classify the identified bug type and to assign a suitable developer. This system is handled manually and error prone. This paper proposes a new bug classification method using the fast string search algorithm. The method searches the error string and compares it to the full text. The approach is deployed to the software development process at PT. Selaras Anugerah Lestari and it results in a significant reduction in the average value of the time required to handle the bugs.

  7. Rapid killing of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) on surfaces using heat: application to luggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The resistance of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) to chemical insecticides has motivated the development of non-chemical control methods such as heat treatment. However, because bed bugs tend to hide in cracks or crevices, their behavior incidentally generates a thermally insulated microenvironment for themselves. Bed bugs located on the outer surface of luggage are less insulated and potentially more vulnerable to brief heat treatment. Soft-sided suitcases with adult male bed bugs on the outside were exposed to an air temperature of 70-75 °C. It took 6 min to kill all of the bed bugs, even those that had concealed themselves under zipper flaps or decorative piping. During heating, only one bed bug (out of 250 in total) moved into the luggage (through a closed zipper). Over long periods of time (24 h) at room temperature, adult male bed bugs on the exterior of luggage only infrequently moved inside; only 3% (5/170) had moved inside during 24 h. Brief exterior heat treatment of luggage is a promising way to reduce the spread of bed bugs being transported on the outer surface of luggage. This treatment will not kill bed bugs inside the luggage, but could be a component of integrated management for this pest. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effect of Moxidectin on Bed Bug Feeding, Development, Fecundity, and Survivorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae, is a blood-feeding ectoparasite which experienced world-wide resurgence during recent decades. The control of bed bugs is often challenging, due to their cryptic nature and resistance to commonly used insecticides. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the antiparasitic drug moxidectin on bed bug survival, reproduction, and development. The LC50 (lethal concentration to kill half the members of a tested population of moxidectin against bed bug male adults, female adults, and large nymphs were 52.7 (95% CI (confidence interval: 39.5–70.8, 29.3 (95% CI: 20.7–40.5, and 29.1 ng/mL (95% CI: 23.3–35.3, respectively. Moxidectin (≥ 25 ng/mL reduced egg laying of bed bug females, but showed no significant effect on egg hatching. One time feeding on rabbit blood containing 20 and 40 ng/mL moxidectin showed no negative effects in bed bug feeding and blood meal ingestion, but significantly reduced digestion rates and nymph molting rates. Although moxidectin at concentrations of 20 and 40 ng/mL only caused moderate mortality in bed bugs, it significantly interrupted digestion, development, and oviposition of survived bed bugs for at least one week after feeding. Moxidectin is a promising supplement of the existing bed bug control materials if its use on humans can be approved in the future.

  9. Whole-Genome Sequences of Four Strains Closely Related to Members of the Mycobacterium chelonae Group, Isolated from Biofilms in a Drinking Water Distribution System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Mycobacterium chelonae group strains from biofilms obtained after a ‘chlorine burn’ in a chloraminated drinking water distribution system simulator. These opportunistic pathogens have been detected in drinking and hospital water distr...

  10. Quantitative RT-PCR Gene Evaluation and RNA Interference in the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Raman; Mittapelly, Priyanka; Chen, Yuting; Mamidala, Praveen; Zhao, Chaoyang; Michel, Andy

    2016-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) has emerged as one of the most important invasive insect pests in the United States. Functional genomics in H. halys remains unexplored as molecular resources in this insect have recently been developed. To facilitate functional genomics research, we evaluated ten common insect housekeeping genes (RPS26, EF1A, FAU, UBE4A, ARL2, ARP8, GUS, TBP, TIF6 and RPL9) for their stability across various treatments in H. halys. Our treatments included two biotic factors (tissues and developmental stages) and two stress treatments (RNAi injection and starvation). Reference gene stability was determined using three software algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper) and a web-based tool (RefFinder). The qRT-PCR results indicated ARP8 and UBE4A exhibit the most stable expression across tissues and developmental stages, ARL2 and FAU for dsRNA treatment and TBP and UBE4A for starvation treatment. Following the dsRNA treatment, all genes except GUS showed relatively stable expression. To demonstrate the utility of validated reference genes in accurate gene expression analysis and to explore gene silencing in H. halys, we performed RNAi by administering dsRNA of target gene (catalase) through microinjection. A successful RNAi response with over 90% reduction in expression of target gene was observed.

  11. Quantitative RT-PCR Gene Evaluation and RNA Interference in the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bansal

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys has emerged as one of the most important invasive insect pests in the United States. Functional genomics in H. halys remains unexplored as molecular resources in this insect have recently been developed. To facilitate functional genomics research, we evaluated ten common insect housekeeping genes (RPS26, EF1A, FAU, UBE4A, ARL2, ARP8, GUS, TBP, TIF6 and RPL9 for their stability across various treatments in H. halys. Our treatments included two biotic factors (tissues and developmental stages and two stress treatments (RNAi injection and starvation. Reference gene stability was determined using three software algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and a web-based tool (RefFinder. The qRT-PCR results indicated ARP8 and UBE4A exhibit the most stable expression across tissues and developmental stages, ARL2 and FAU for dsRNA treatment and TBP and UBE4A for starvation treatment. Following the dsRNA treatment, all genes except GUS showed relatively stable expression. To demonstrate the utility of validated reference genes in accurate gene expression analysis and to explore gene silencing in H. halys, we performed RNAi by administering dsRNA of target gene (catalase through microinjection. A successful RNAi response with over 90% reduction in expression of target gene was observed.

  12. eBug--teaching children hygiene principles using educational games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostkova, Patty; Farrell, David; de Quincey, Ed; Weinberg, Julius; Lecky, Donna; McNulty, Cliodna

    2010-01-01

    Technology enhanced education has been recently established as a new approach for all stages of education. However, among these new IT media it is computer games playing the central role in delivering education in particular to children and teenagers, however, real world sound evaluation is often given little attention. The EU funded e-Bug project developed web games aimed at children to teach basic principles of prudent antibiotics use, hand and respiratory hygiene and aims to reinforces an awareness of microbes, hand and respiratory hygiene among junior and senior school children in 10 countries in Europe. An educational pack implemented in schools across Europe is complemented by Internet web games for two age groups teaching a set of learning objectives (LOs) using a fast and interactive platform game design for junior children and investigate detective games based on PBL principles for senior children. In this paper, we present the design of e-Bug junior and senior games and evaluation results.

  13. Bed bugs, leeches and hookworm larvae in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Hengge, Ulrich R

    2009-01-01

    Bed bugs, leeches, and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans are skin infestations that are usually considered of minor importance because they produce discomfort rather than cause or transmit disease. Bed bugs have been increasing tremendously in high-income countries in recent years, causing distress to affected individuals and economic loss. Infestation by land leeches causes mainly unpleasant skin reactions, whereas infestation by aquatic leeches may be more dangerous, leading to anemia and in severe cases, to death. Cutaneous larva migrans produces an intense pruritus that can be exasperating for the patient and cause sleep disturbance. An overview is given of these three infestations with a discussion of the causative agents, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  14. Insecticide resistance in the bed bug comes with a cost

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer R. Gordon; Potter, Michael F.; Haynes, Kenneth F

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to new environmental stress is often associated with an alteration of one or more life history parameters. Insecticide resistant populations of insects often have reduced fitness relative to susceptible populations in insecticide free environments. Our previous work showed that three populations of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., evolved significantly increased levels of resistance to one product containing both ?-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid insecticides with only one generation of...

  15. An elementary introduction to Bayesian computing using WinBUGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryback, D G; Stout, N K; Rosenberg, M A

    2001-01-01

    Bayesian statistics provides effective techniques for analyzing data and translating the results to inform decision making. This paper provides an elementary tutorial overview of the WinBUGS software for performing Bayesian statistical analysis. Background information on the computational methods used by the software is provided. Two examples drawn from the field of medical decision making are presented to illustrate the features and functionality of the software.

  16. A new species of Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosymbiont on creeping water bugs, Cryphocricos granulosus De Carlo (Hemiptera, Naucoridae from southern Brazil Nova espécie de Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosimbionte sobre naucorídeos, Cryphocricos granulosus De Carlo (Hemiptera, Naucoridae da região Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. R. Amato

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala minutocirrus sp. nov., an ectosymbiont on Cryphocricos granulosus De Carlo, 1967, is described from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. One hundred and nine naucorids were examined, of which 36 (33% were positive for this species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849. In one sample of 94 creeping water bugs, 49 (52% were 4th instar nymphs, 6% of which were infested; 45 (48% were adults, either brachypterous (40 with 18 males and 22 females or macropterous (5 with 1 male and 4 females, 67% of which were infested (29% males and 38% females. Temnocephalan eggs were found both ventrally and dorsally: fixed on coxae, trochanters, and along the sternum between fore middle, and hind pairs of legs; basal of the abdominal area; and on the scutellum, clavus, and hemelytra. Juvenile and adult temnocephalans were always devoid of body pigmentation, and were found living on the ventral body surface, preferably over the sternum, between the middle and hind pairs of legs. The most distinctive features of this new species are: 1 unusually short cirrus, slightly curved, with introvert corresponding to 37% of its total length; 2 dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates, elliptic, with excretory pore relatively equatorial, closer to inner limit of each plate; 3 two pairs of large disc gland cells (paranephrocytes? located centrally, just ahead of testes; 4 testes relatively large, but unequal in size, anterior pair smaller, always in the same zone, those of the same side, partially superposed; and (5 vagina with weak muscular wall and without muscular sphincters.Temnocephala minutocirrus sp. nov., ectosimbionte sobre Cryphocricos granulosus De Carlo, 1967, é descrita para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Cento e nove naucorídeos foram examinados, dos quais 36 (33% estavam positivos para esta espécie do gênero Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849. Em uma amostra de 94 hemípteros, 49 (52% eram ninfas de 4º instar, das quais, 6% estavam

  17. True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusanka Jerinic-Prodanovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839, A. confusus Reuter, 1884, A. nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794, A. nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761, Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, O. minutus (Linnaeus, 1758 and O. niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dür, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843, Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862, D. ruber (Linnaeus, 1758, D. lutescens (Schilling, 1836, Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763, Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888, Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758, Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Ps. quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Ps. flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dür, 1843. The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants.

  18. Endophytic fungi alter sucking bug responses to cotton reproductive structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, Gregory A; Tessnow, Ashley; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa

    2017-03-22

    All plants including cotton host a wide range of microorganisms as endophytes. There is a growing appreciation of the prevalence, ecological significance and management potential of facultative fungal endophytes in protecting plants from pests, pathogens and environmental stressors. Hemipteran sucking bugs have emerged as major pests across the U.S. cotton belt, reducing yields directly by feeding on developing reproductive structures and indirectly by vectoring plant pathogens. We used no-choice and simultaneous choice assays to examine the host selection behavior of western tarnished plant bugs (Lygus hesperus) and southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula) in response to developing flower buds and fruits from cotton plants colonized by 1 of 2 candidate beneficial fungal endophytes, Phialemonium inflatum or Beauveria bassiana. Both insect species exhibited strong negative responses to flower buds (L. hesperus) and fruits (N. viridula) from plants that had been colonized by candidate endophytic fungi relative to control plants under both no-choice and choice conditions. Behavioral responses of both species indicated that the insects were deterred prior to contact with plant tissues from endophyte-colonized plants, suggesting a putative role for volatile compounds in mediating the negative response. Our results highlight the role of fungal endophytes as plant mutualists that can have positive effects on plant resistance to pests. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Draft genome sequence of Thermus sp. strain RL, isolated from a hot water spring located atop the Himalayan ranges at Manikaran, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Vatsala; Sangwan, Naseer; Nigam, Aeshna; Garg, Nidhi; Niharika, Neha; Khurana, Paramjit; Khurana, Jitendra P; Lal, Rup

    2012-07-01

    Thermus sp. strain RL was isolated from a hot water spring (90°C to 98°C) at Manikaran, Himachal Pradesh, India. Here we report the draft genome sequence (20,36,600 bp) of this strain. The draft genome sequence consists of 17 contigs and 1,986 protein-coding sequences and has an average G+C content of 68.77%.

  20. Trap Cropping Systems and a Physical Barrier for Suppression of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E; Lou, X; Mizell, R F; Johnson, C J

    2015-10-01

    Euschistus servus (Say), Nezara viridula (L.), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the ability of trap cropping systems, pheromone-baited stink bug traps, and a synthetic physical barrier at the peanut-to-cotton interface to manage stink bugs in cotton. The physical barrier was the most effective management tactic. Stink bug density in cotton was lowest for this treatment. In 2010, boll injury was lower for the physical barrier compared to the other treatments except for soybean with stink bug traps. In 2011, boll injury was lower for this treatment compared to the control. Soybean was an effective trap crop, reducing both stink bug density in cotton and boll injury regardless if used alone or in combination with either stink bug traps or buckwheat. Incorporation of buckwheat in soybean enhanced parasitism of E. servus egg masses by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. The insertion of eyelets in the lid of the insect-collecting device of a stink bug trap allowed adult stink bug parasitoids, but not E. servus, to escape. Stand-alone stink bug traps were not very effective in deterring colonization of cotton by stink bugs or reducing boll injury. The paucity of effective alternative control measures available for stink bug management justifies further full-scale evaluations into these management tactics for control of these pests in crops. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. First record of the thread-legged assassin bug Myiophanes greeni Distant, 1903 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Siddharth; Ghate, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    While surveying bugs and spiders in the caves of Satara District, Maharashtra, one of us (SK) collected a thread-legged bug associated with a spider web. A Sri Lankan Emesinae bug, Myiophanes greeni Distant (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae) is reported for the first time from India. The species is redescribed with several illustrations including male genitalia.

  2. Real-Time Measurement of Volatile Chemicals Released by Bed Bugs during Mating Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund; Liu, Dezhao; Adamsen, Anders Peter

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) problems have increased dramatically in many parts of the world, leading to a renewed interest in their chemical ecology. Most studies of bed bug semiochemicals have been based on the collection of volatiles over a period of time followed by chemical...

  3. Bug-in-Ear eCoaching: Impacts on Novice Early Childhood Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygas Coogle, Christan; Ottley, Jennifer R.; Rahn, Naomi L.; Storie, Sloan

    2018-01-01

    A multiple-probe, single-case design was used to determine the effects of bug-in-ear eCoaching on teachers' use of two targeted naturalistic communication strategies and focus children's responses to these strategies. Results indicated that bug-in-ear eCoaching enhanced teachers' use of communication strategies and the appropriate responses of…

  4. Chemoreception to aggregation pheromones in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Xiong, Caixing; Liu, Nannan

    2017-03-01

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, is an obligate blood-feeding insect that is resurgent worldwide, posing a threat to human beings through its biting nuisance and disease transmission. Bed bug aggregation pheromone is considered a very promising attractant for use in the monitoring and management of bed bugs, but as yet little is known regarding the sensory physiology of bed bugs related to this pheromone. This study examined how the individual components of aggregation pheromone are perceived by the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in different types of olfactory sensilla in bed bugs and the molecular basis for the ORNs' responses to the aggregation pheromone. We found that the ORNs in the D olfactory sensilla played a predominant role in detecting all the components of aggregation pheromone except for histamine, which was only recognized by the C sensilla. Bed bugs' E sensilla, which include four functionally distinct groups, showed only a very weak but variant sensitivity (both excitatory and inhibitory) to the components of aggregation pheromone. Functional tests of 15 odorant receptors (ORs) in response to the components of aggregation pheromone revealed that most of these components were encoded by multiple ORs with various tuning properties. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of how bed bug aggregation pheromone is perceived and recognized in the peripheral olfactory system and will contribute useful information to support the development of synthetic attractants for bed bug monitoring and control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    Although a number of approaches to finding bugs in systems code have been proposed, bugs still remain to be found. Current approaches have emphasized scalability more than usability, and as a result it is difficult to relate the results to particular patterns found in the source code and to contr...

  6. Comparing Fine-Grained Source Code Changes And Code Churn For Bug Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giger, E.; Pinzger, M.; Gall, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of research effort has been dedicated to learning prediction models that allow project managers to efficiently allocate resources to those parts of a software system that most likely are bug-prone and therefore critical. Prominent measures for building bug prediction models are

  7. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding API Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Palix, Nicolas Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Eliminating OS bugs is essential to ensuring the reliability of infrastructures ranging from embedded systems to servers.  Several tools based on static analysis have been proposed for finding bugs in OS code. They have, however, emphasized scalability over usability, making it difficult to focus...

  8. WYSIWYB: A Declarative Approach to Finding API Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Lawall, Julia; Palix, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of approaches to finding bugs in systems code have been proposed, bugs still remain to be found. Current approaches have emphasized scalability more than usability, and as a result it is difficult to relate the results to particular patterns found in the source code and to contr...

  9. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus aggregation pheromone in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  10. A remarkable fossil leptosaldine bug from Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Leptopodomorpha: Leptopodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Yuri A; Heiss, Ernst

    2016-07-11

    A new genus and species of leptosaldine bugs, Leptosaldinea cobbeni gen. et sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Leptopodidae) is described and illustrated from Burmese Middle Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) amber found in Kachin State, northern Myanmar. This is the third record of a leptosaldine bug from Burmese amber. A brief analysis of the characters and systematic relationships of Leptosaldinae is provided.

  11. Association of Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), with cotton boll rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  12. Verde plant bug is associated with cottong boll rot in South Texas cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde plant bug was the dominant boll-feeding sucking bug species (>98% of insects collected using a beat bucket) from peak to late bloom in cotton fields near the coast along the Coastal Bend of South Texas, from Port Lavaca to the Lower Rio qrande Valley in 2010 and 2011. It was common in fields w...

  13. It`s better with bugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, N.

    1996-09-01

    Aerobic bacteria are the secret behind a new biological treatment method for cleaning up waste water contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The article is based on an interview with Jussi Uotila of the Juvegroup Oy Ltd in Rovaniemi. The Juvegroup treatment method takes advantage of the oil-eating capabilities of Actinomycetes bacteria, a genera of aerobic bacteria whose various members have appetites for different types of hydrocarbons. The real breakthrough was in finding the right type of bacteria able to breakdown both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The first major commercial application of the treatment method began in January, 1996. In this project the Juvegroup method is being used to clean up waste water which has an oil content of around 27 g/l. The customer is using the method to treat up to 50 cubic metres per day of waste water contaminated with both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The first major commercial application of the treatment method began in January, 1996. In this project the Juvegroup method is being used to clean up waste water which has an oil content of around 27 g/l. The customer is using the method to treat up to 50 cubic metres per day of waste water contaminated with both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons

  14. The chemical volatiles (semiochemicals) produced by neo tropical stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Maria C.B.; Pareja, Martin; Laumann, Raul A.; Borges, Miguel [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Nucleo Tematico Controle Biologico

    2008-09-15

    In recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. The stink bugs Chinavia impicticornis (Stal), C. ubica (Rolston), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Thyanta perditor (Westwood) and Tibraca limbativentris (Stal) had their blends of defensive compounds evaluated both qualitative and quantitatively. The main compounds identified on the glands of Brazilian stink bugs are: 2-alkenals, mainly the E isomer; saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; and 4 oxo-(E)-2-alkenals. The first sex attractant determined from a stink bug was obtained from Nezara viridula L., and consists on a mix of two isomers cis - and trans bisabolene-epoxides. Later the soybean stink bug E. heros was also studied and its sex attractant was identified as three esters methyl: 2,6,10-trimethyl decanoate, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyl dodecanoate, and methyl E2, Z4-decadienoate. Recently, three new Brazilian sting bugs were studied and had their sex attractant elucidated. Males of T. perditor produce the ester, methyl 2E, 4Z, 6Z-decatrienoate. Whereas, the stink bug, P. guildinii has as sexual pheromone, the sesquiterpene beta-sesqui phellandrene, and the stink bug T. limbativentris produces as sex attractant the zingiberenol. In this review we discuss the advances obtained on the behaviour and identification of sex and defensive compound of stink bugs from Brazilian crops and the application of this knowledge to manage the stink bugs. (author)

  15. Aggregation and Association of NDVI, Boll Injury, and Stink Bugs in North Carolina Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, F P F; Meijer, A D

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of herbivorous stink bugs in southeastern U.S. cotton remains problematic. Remote sensing was explored to improve sampling of these pests and associated boll injury. Two adjacent 14.5-ha cotton fields were grid sampled in 2011 and 2012 by collecting stink bug adults and bolls every week during the third, fourth, and fifth weeks of bloom. Satellite remote sensing data were collected during the third week of bloom during both years, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values were calculated. Stink bugs were spatially aggregated on the third week of bloom in 2011. Boll injury from stink bugs was spatially aggregated during the fourth week of bloom in 2012. The NDVI values were aggregated during both years. There was a positive association and correlation between stink bug numbers and NDVI values, as well as injured bolls and NDVI values, during the third week of bloom in 2011. During the third week of bloom in 2012, NDVI values were negatively correlated with stink bug numbers. During the fourth week of bloom in 2011, stink bug numbers and boll injury were both positively associated and correlated with NDVI values. During the fourth week of bloom in 2012, stink bugs were negatively correlated with NDVI values, and boll injury was negatively associated and correlated with NDVI values. This study suggests the potential of remote sensing as a tool to assist with sampling stink bugs in cotton, although more research is needed using NDVI and other plant measurements to predict stink bug injury. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  16. Early perception of stink bug damage in developing seeds of field-grown soybean induces chemical defences and reduces bug attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Romina; Barneto, Jesica; Barriga, Lucia G; Sardoy, Pedro M; Balestrasse, Karina; Andrade, Andrea M; Pagano, Eduardo A; Alemano, Sergio G; Zavala, Jorge A

    2016-08-01

    Southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula L.) invade field-grown soybean crops, where they feed on developing seeds and inject phytotoxic saliva, which causes yield reduction. Although leaf responses to herbivory are well studied, no information is available about the regulation of defences in seeds. This study demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 are expressed and activated in developing seeds of field-grown soybean and regulate a defensive response after stink bug damage. Although 10-20 min after stink bug feeding on seeds induced the expression of MPK3, MPK6 and MPK4, only MPK6 was phosphorylated after damage. Herbivory induced an early peak of jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation and ethylene (ET) emission after 3 h in developing seeds, whereas salicylic acid (SA) was also induced early, and at increasing levels up to 72 h after damage. Damaged seeds upregulated defensive genes typically modulated by JA/ET or SA, which in turn reduced the activity of digestive enzymes in the gut of stink bugs. Induced seeds were less preferred by stink bugs. This study shows that stink bug damage induces seed defences, which is perceived early by MPKs that may activate defence metabolic pathways in developing seeds of field-grown soybean. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Culturing and Characterization of Gut Symbiont Burkholderia spp. from the Southern Chinch Bug, Blissus insularis (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Buss, Eileen A; Boucias, Drion G

    2016-06-01

    The phloem-feeding Southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis, harbors a high density of the exocellular bacterial symbiont Burkholderia in the lumen of specialized midgut crypts. Here we developed an organ culture method that initially involved incubating the B. insularis crypts in osmotically balanced insect cell culture medium. This approach enabled the crypt-inhabiting Burkholderia spp. to make a transition to an in vitro environment and to be subsequently cultured in standard bacteriological media. Examinations using ribotyping and BOX-PCR fingerprinting techniques demonstrated that most in vitro-produced bacterial cultures were identical to their crypt-inhabiting Burkholderia counterparts. Genomic and physiological analyses of gut-symbiotic Burkholderia spp. that were isolated individually from two separate B. insularis laboratory colonies revealed that the majority of individual insects harbored a single Burkholderia ribotype in their midgut crypts, resulting in a diverse Burkholderia community within each colony. The diversity was also exhibited by the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these Burkholderia cultures. Access to cultures of crypt-inhabiting bacteria provides an opportunity to investigate the interaction between symbiotic Burkholderia spp. and the B. insularis host. Furthermore, the culturing method provides an alternative strategy for establishing in vitro cultures of other fastidious insect-associated bacterial symbionts. An organ culture method was developed to establish in vitro cultures of a fastidious Burkholderia symbiont associated with the midgut crypts of the Southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis The identities of the resulting cultures were confirmed using the genomic and physiological features of Burkholderia cultures isolated from B. insularis crypts, showing that host insects maintained the diversity of Burkholderia spp. over multiple generations. The availability of characterized gut-symbiotic Burkholderia cultures provides

  18. The bugs book a practical introduction to Bayesian analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lunn, David; Best, Nicky; Thomas, Andrew; Spiegelhalter, David

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Probability and ParametersProbabilityProbability distributionsCalculating properties of probability distributionsMonte Carlo integrationMonte Carlo Simulations Using BUGSIntroduction to BUGSDoodleBUGSUsing BUGS to simulate from distributionsTransformations of random variablesComplex calculations using Monte CarloMultivariate Monte Carlo analysisPredictions with unknown parametersIntroduction to Bayesian InferenceBayesian learningPosterior predictive distributionsConjugate Bayesian inferenceInference about a discrete parameterCombinations of conjugate analysesBayesian and classica

  19. Genome-enabled selection doubles the accuracy of predicted breeding values for bacterial cold water disease resistance compared to traditional family-based selection in rainbow trout aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown previously that bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance in rainbow trout can be improved using traditional family-based selection, but progress has been limited to exploiting only between-family genetic variation. Genomic selection (GS) is a new alternative enabling exploitation...

  20. Bed bugs, their blood sources and life history parameters: a comparison of artificial and natural feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aak, A; Rukke, B A

    2014-03-01

    A blood-feeding system that utilizes a small amount of whole heparinized human blood in parafilm bags is described in detail, and similarities and differences between artificially fed and naturally rodent-fed bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) are discussed. Blood with high levels of heparin (10%) was unsuitable for artificial colony rearing, whereas bed bugs fed on 1% heparinized blood and those that naturally ingested rat blood completed their lifecycle with similar stage structures over time, with no significant differences in mortality. No differences in feeding efficiency or fertility were found in a direct comparison of bed bugs maintained under each of these two treatments, but analysis of the full lifecycle revealed that artificially fed bed bugs became significantly smaller and laid fewer eggs than rodent-fed bed bugs. The level of membrane stretching regulated the number of bed bugs that fed. When the membrane was stretched to twice its length and width, 96% of bed bugs successfully fed through the parafilm. Whole heparinized blood that was stored at 6 °C for ≥ 14 days failed to retain its nutritional value and the amount of blood consumed and number of consecutive moults were significantly reduced. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  1. The Influence of Roughness and Pyrethroid Formulations on Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L. Resting Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Hottel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two-choice tests were conducted to examine the effect of surface roughness on the resting preference of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., on copper, basswood, and acrylic materials. The influence of pyrethroid formulation applications on resting preferences was also evaluated. Bed bugs were given the choice of resting between two sanded halves of each material tested. One half was sanded with a P60 grit sandpaper and the other with a less rough P600 grit sandpaper. A significantly higher proportion of bed bugs chose to rest on the rougher P60 grit sanded half of all materials tested. Pyrethroid applications were made to either the P60 grit half or both halves of acrylic arenas and resting preferences were again assessed. Behavioral responses of bed bugs to pyrethroid formulation applications varied depending on the bed bug strain used and the formulation applied. Bed bugs would still rest on the P60 grit half when Suspend SC formulation (0.06% deltamethrin was applied; however, an avoidance response was observed from a bed bug strain susceptible to D-Force aerosol formulations (0.06% deltamethrin. The avoidance behavior is likely attributed to one, more than one, or even an interaction of multiple spray constituents and not the active ingredient.

  2. Ecosystem-Based Incorporation of Nectar-Producing Plants for Stink Bug Parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Glynn

    2017-06-24

    Adult parasitoids of pest insects rely on floral resources for survival and reproduction, but can be food-deprived in intensively managed agricultural systems lacking these resources. Stink bugs are serious pests for crops in southwest Georgia. Provisioning nectar-producing plants for parasitoids of stink bugs potentially can enhance biocontrol of these pests. Knowledge of spatial and temporal availability and distribution of stink bugs in host plants is necessary for appropriate timing and placement of flowering plants in agroecosystems. Stink bugs move between closely associated host plants throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their host plants. In peanut-cotton farmscapes, stink bugs develop in peanut, and subsequently the adults disperse into adjacent cotton. Parasitism of Nezara viridula (L.) adults by Trichopoda pennipes (F.) at the peanut-cotton interface was significantly higher in cotton with a strip of milkweed or buckwheat between the two crops than in cotton alone. Milkweed and buckwheat also provided nectar to a wide range of insect pollinators. Monarch butterflies fed on milkweed. When placed between peanut and cotton, a strip of soybean was an effective trap crop for cotton, reducing economic damage. Incorporation of buckwheat near soybean enhanced parasitism of Euschistus servus (Say) eggs by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. In conclusion, nectar provision enhances biocontrol of stink bugs, acts together with other management tactics for stink bug control, and aids in conservation of natural enemies, insect pollinators, and the monarch butterfly.

  3. Ecosystem-Based Incorporation of Nectar-Producing Plants for Stink Bug Parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynn Tillman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult parasitoids of pest insects rely on floral resources for survival and reproduction, but can be food-deprived in intensively managed agricultural systems lacking these resources. Stink bugs are serious pests for crops in southwest Georgia. Provisioning nectar-producing plants for parasitoids of stink bugs potentially can enhance biocontrol of these pests. Knowledge of spatial and temporal availability and distribution of stink bugs in host plants is necessary for appropriate timing and placement of flowering plants in agroecosystems. Stink bugs move between closely associated host plants throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their host plants. In peanut-cotton farmscapes, stink bugs develop in peanut, and subsequently the adults disperse into adjacent cotton. Parasitism of Nezara viridula (L. adults by Trichopoda pennipes (F. at the peanut-cotton interface was significantly higher in cotton with a strip of milkweed or buckwheat between the two crops than in cotton alone. Milkweed and buckwheat also provided nectar to a wide range of insect pollinators. Monarch butterflies fed on milkweed. When placed between peanut and cotton, a strip of soybean was an effective trap crop for cotton, reducing economic damage. Incorporation of buckwheat near soybean enhanced parasitism of Euschistus servus (Say eggs by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. In conclusion, nectar provision enhances biocontrol of stink bugs, acts together with other management tactics for stink bug control, and aids in conservation of natural enemies, insect pollinators, and the monarch butterfly.

  4. LED-Induced fluorescence and image analysis to detect stink bug damage in cotton bolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafic, Adnan; Roberts, Erin E; Toews, Michael D; Haidekker, Mark A

    2013-02-20

    Stink bugs represent a major agricultural pest complex attacking more than 200 wild and cultivated plants, including cotton in the southeastern US. Stink bug feeding on developing cotton bolls will cause boll abortion or lint staining and thus reduced yield and lint value. Current methods for stink bug detection involve manual harvesting and cracking open of a sizable number of immature cotton bolls for visual inspection. This process is cumbersome, time consuming, and requires a moderate level of experience to obtain accurate estimates. To improve detection of stink bug feeding, we present here a method based on fluorescent imaging and subsequent image analyses to determine the likelihood of stink bug damage in cotton bolls. Damage to different structures of cotton bolls including lint and carpal wall can be observed under blue LED-induced fluorescence. Generally speaking, damaged regions fluoresce green, whereas non-damaged regions with chlorophyll fluoresce red. However, similar fluorescence emission is also observable on cotton bolls that have not been fed upon by stink bugs. Criteria based on fluorescent intensity and the size of the fluorescent spot allow to differentiate between true positives (fluorescent regions associated with stink bug feeding) and false positives (fluorescent regions due to other causes). We found a detection rates with two combined criteria of 87% for true-positive marks and of 8% for false-positive marks. The imaging technique presented herein gives rise to a possible detection apparatus where a cotton boll is imaged in the field and images processed by software. The unique fluorescent signature left by stink bugs can be used to determine with high probability if a cotton boll has been punctured by a stink bug. We believe this technique, when integrated in a suitable device, could be used for more accurate detection in the field and allow for more optimized application of pest control.

  5. Impact of brown stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) feeding on corn grain yield components and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Da, Kedong; Buntin, G David; Cottrell, Ted E; Tillman, P Glynn; Olson, Dawn M; Powell, Robert; Lee, R Dewey; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Scully, Brian T

    2010-12-01

    Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), damage on developing corn, Zea mays L., ears was examined in 2005 and 2006 by using eight parameters related to its yield and kernel quality. Stink bug infestations were initiated when the corn plants were at tasseling (VT), mid-silking (R1), and blister (R2) stages by using zero, three, and six in 2005 or zero, one, two, and four bugs per ear in 2006, and maintained for 9 d. The percentage of discolored kernels was affected by stink bug number in both years, but not always affected by plant growth stage. The growth stage effect on the percentage of discolored kernels was significant in 2006, but not in 2005. The percentage of aborted kernels was affected by both stink bug number and plant growth stage in 2005 but not in 2006. Kernel weight was significantly reduced when three E. sercus adults were confined on a corn ear at stage VT or R1 for 9 d in 2005, whereas one or two adults per ear resulted in no kernel weight loss, but four E. servus adults did cause significant kernel weight loss at stage VT in 2006. Stink bug feeding injury at stage R2 did not affect kernel damage, ear weight or grain weight in either year. The infestation duration (9 or 18 d) was positively correlated to the percentage of discolored kernels but did not affect kernel or ear weight. Based on the regression equations between the kernel weight and stink bug number, the gain threshold or economic injury level should be 0.5 bugs per ear for 9 d at stage VT and less for stage R1. This information will be useful in developing management guidelines for stink bugs in field corn during ear formation and early grain filling stages.

  6. Diversity and Composition of Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Communities Based on Genomic DNA and RNA Transcription in Production Water of High Temperature and Corrosive Oil Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Jin-Feng; Zhou, Lei; Mbadinga, Serge M.; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Deep subsurface petroleum reservoir ecosystems harbor a high diversity of microorganisms, and microbial influenced corrosion is a major problem for the petroleum industry. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to explore the microbial communities based on genomic 16S rDNA and metabolically active 16S rRNA analyses of production water samples with different extents of corrosion from a high-temperature oil reservoir. Results showed that Desulfotignum and Roseovarius were the most abundant genera in both genomic and active bacterial communities of all the samples. Both genomic and active archaeal communities were mainly composed of Archaeoglobus and Methanolobus. Within both bacteria and archaea, the active and genomic communities were compositionally distinct from one another across the different oil wells (bacteria p = 0.002; archaea p = 0.01). In addition, the sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs) were specifically assessed by Sanger sequencing of functional genes aprA and dsrA encoding the enzymes adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase, respectively. Functional gene analysis indicated that potentially active Archaeoglobus, Desulfotignum, Desulfovibrio, and Thermodesulforhabdus were frequently detected, with Archaeoglobus as the most abundant and active sulfate-reducing group. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the SRM communities in petroleum reservoir system were closely related to pH of the production water and sulfate concentration. This study highlights the importance of distinguishing the metabolically active microorganisms from the genomic community and extends our knowledge on the active SRM communities in corrosive petroleum reservoirs. PMID:28638372

  7. Diversity and Composition of Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Communities Based on Genomic DNA and RNA Transcription in Production Water of High Temperature and Corrosive Oil Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep subsurface petroleum reservoir ecosystems harbor a high diversity of microorganisms, and microbial influenced corrosion is a major problem for the petroleum industry. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to explore the microbial communities based on genomic 16S rDNA and metabolically active 16S rRNA analyses of production water samples with different extents of corrosion from a high-temperature oil reservoir. Results showed that Desulfotignum and Roseovarius were the most abundant genera in both genomic and active bacterial communities of all the samples. Both genomic and active archaeal communities were mainly composed of Archaeoglobus and Methanolobus. Within both bacteria and archaea, the active and genomic communities were compositionally distinct from one another across the different oil wells (bacteria p = 0.002; archaea p = 0.01. In addition, the sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs were specifically assessed by Sanger sequencing of functional genes aprA and dsrA encoding the enzymes adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase, respectively. Functional gene analysis indicated that potentially active Archaeoglobus, Desulfotignum, Desulfovibrio, and Thermodesulforhabdus were frequently detected, with Archaeoglobus as the most abundant and active sulfate-reducing group. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the SRM communities in petroleum reservoir system were closely related to pH of the production water and sulfate concentration. This study highlights the importance of distinguishing the metabolically active microorganisms from the genomic community and extends our knowledge on the active SRM communities in corrosive petroleum reservoirs.

  8. Infestation by triatomine bugs in indigenous communities of Valledupar, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, Marleny; Soto, Hugo; Parra, Edgar; Torres, Mariela; Carrillo, Pilar; Lugo, Ligia; Colorado, Johana; Arias, Maria Teresa

    2011-08-01

    To calculate triatomine infestation indices in indigenous communities in Colombia. A descriptive study was carried out in 19 communities in Valledupar Municipality, Cesar Department, Colombia. During June to December, 2007, triatromine bugs were collected from their resting places in households. Taxonomic identification was made according to the keys by Lent & Wygodzinsky. An infection process in animal model and isozyme analysis of triatomine feces were performed. Rhodnius prolixus showed a density index of 154.7%, for Triatoma dimidiata was 102.45%, T. maculata 109.25% and Panstrogylus geniculatus 0.3%. The mean infestation index was 40.54%, and mean Trypanosoma infection index was 9.4%. Of five hemocultures positive for T. cruzi, three were enzimatically identified as T. cruzi group I. Biopsies revealed few pathologic characteristics of infective process with these strains isolated from domiciliary triatomine bugs. The high triatomine infestation indices in households and the T. cruzi infection index are evidence of active transmission of Chagas disease. The situation merits a vector control program and serological survey of the population at risk. The genetic characterization of T. cruzi strains as group I agrees with other findings on strains in this region of Colombia.

  9. Insecticide resistance in the bed bug comes with a cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jennifer R; Potter, Michael F; Haynes, Kenneth F

    2015-06-03

    Adaptation to new environmental stress is often associated with an alteration of one or more life history parameters. Insecticide resistant populations of insects often have reduced fitness relative to susceptible populations in insecticide free environments. Our previous work showed that three populations of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., evolved significantly increased levels of resistance to one product containing both β-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid insecticides with only one generation of selection, which gave us an opportunity to explore potential tradeoffs between life history parameters and resistance using susceptible and resistant strains of the same populations. Life history tables were compiled by collecting weekly data on mortality and fecundity of bugs from each strain and treatment throughout their lives. Selection led to a male-biased sex ratio, shortened oviposition period, and decreased life-time reproductive rate. Generation time was shortened by selection, a change that represents a benefit rather than a cost. Using these life history characteristics we calculated that there would be a 90% return to pre-selection levels of susceptibility within 2- 6.5 generations depending on strain. The significant fitness costs associated with resistance suggest that insecticide rotation or utilization of non-insecticidal control tactics could be part of an effective resistance management strategy.

  10. Bioengineered bugs, drugs and contentious issues in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Ananda M

    2010-01-01

    Bioengineered bugs, as is the scope of this journal, have great potential in various practical applications. A corollary to bringing useful products to the market is that such products need protection from copying by other people or businesses. Such government-sponsored protections are legally enforced through a patent, copyright or trademark/trade secret system commonly known as intellectual property rights. A condition for obtaining a patent is that the invention must not be disclosed to public either through seminars, informal public disclosures or publications in journals, although in the United States, there is a one year grace period that is allowed to obtain a patent after public disclosure. This article describes my personal experience in obtaining a patent in 1980 on a genetically manipulated bacterium designed for oil spill cleanup. This patent application went through a series of court cases that finally ended up in the Supreme Court of the United States. I also mention a similar contentious legal issue that is on the horizon and that the readers of Bioengineered Bugs should be aware of. Finally, I have taken the opportunity to describe my current efforts to bring to the market some unique potential multi-disease-targeting candidate drugs from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gonococci/meningococci that, if found non-toxic and efficacious in humans, will revolutionize the drug industry. To ensure their marketability, we are trying to develop a patent portfolio that will ensure that they will be legally protected and such protections will be broad-based and enforceable.

  11. Biology of a Neotropical Harlequin Stink Bug, Runibia perspicua (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro, A L; Panizzi, A R; Lucini, T

    2017-12-07

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted with nymphs and adults of the Neotropical stink bug Runibia perspicua (F.) to evaluate their biology on plants. Total nymph mortality was ca. 13% on immature fruits of Brunfelsia australis Benth. (IFBA) and 90% on raw shelled peanuts, Arachis hypogaea L. (RSP); no nymphs survived on immature pods of green bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., or on immature fruits of privet, Ligustrum lucidum Ait. Nymph developmental time was ca. 36 on IFBA and 55 days on RSP. Body weight was significantly greater when nymphs were raised isolated compared to those raised in groups. Adult feeding activity was greater than third instars on IFBA. Adult longevity on IFBA + cherry tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. fruit, reached ca. 150 days. On IFBA, fecundity was 2.5 egg masses/female and 48.3 eggs/female; 25.6% of the eggs hatched. Adults did not reproduce on tomato. Body weight gain did not increase significantly for both sexes during the first four weeks of adult life on IFBA. In the field, plants of B. australis were surveyed in Passo Fundo, RS (28°15'S; 52°24'W). The majority of egg masses were deposited on the lower (abaxial) surface of leaves. Nymphs aggregated on immature fruits, and adults were seldom found on the plants. These are the first data on the performance of R. perspicua on B. australis indicating that this plant species is suitable to the bug's biology.

  12. The HACMS program: using formal methods to eliminate exploitable bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launchbury, John; Richards, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    For decades, formal methods have offered the promise of verified software that does not have exploitable bugs. Until recently, however, it has not been possible to verify software of sufficient complexity to be useful. Recently, that situation has changed. SeL4 is an open-source operating system microkernel efficient enough to be used in a wide range of practical applications. Its designers proved it to be fully functionally correct, ensuring the absence of buffer overflows, null pointer exceptions, use-after-free errors, etc., and guaranteeing integrity and confidentiality. The CompCert Verifying C Compiler maps source C programs to provably equivalent assembly language, ensuring the absence of exploitable bugs in the compiler. A number of factors have enabled this revolution, including faster processors, increased automation, more extensive infrastructure, specialized logics and the decision to co-develop code and correctness proofs rather than verify existing artefacts. In this paper, we explore the promise and limitations of current formal-methods techniques. We discuss these issues in the context of DARPA’s HACMS program, which had as its goal the creation of high-assurance software for vehicles, including quadcopters, helicopters and automobiles. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Verified trustworthy software systems’. PMID:28871050

  13. Application of native prick test in diagnosis of bed bug allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Łukasz; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was case report of the patient with systemic reaction after a bed bug (Cimex lectularius) bite. A 23-year-old female, previously healthy, reports systemic reaction, including rash on her corpus and limbs, itching, nausea, conciseness disorder, forcing her to call the ambulance. The interview revealed that the bed bug occurs in the patient's apartment. A prick-by-prick test with bed bug excretion was made. The skin test with native allergen was strongly positive (histamine 5 mm/5 mm, prick-by-prick 12 mm/8 mm). The prick-by-prick test was useful in objective confirmation of the source of symptoms. PMID:24278049

  14. Horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.; hemiptera: cimicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Akhtar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Horizontal transfer of insecticide occurs when insects contact or ingest an insecticide, return to an aggregation or a nest, and transfer the insecticide to other conspecific insects through contact. This phenomenon has been reported in a number of insects including social insects, however it has not been reported in bed bugs. Since horizontal transfer can facilitate the spread of insecticide into hard to reach spaces, it could contribute greatly to the management of these public health pests. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: To demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in C. lectularius, an exposed (donor bed bug, following a 10-minute acquisition period, was placed with unexposed (recipient bed bugs. Mortality data clearly demonstrates that diatomaceous earth (DE 51 was actively transferred from a single exposed bug to unexposed bugs in a concentration dependent manner. LC50 values varied from 24.4 mg at 48 h to 5.1 mg at 216 h when a single exposed bed bug was placed with 5 unexposed bed bugs. LT50 values also exhibited a concentration response. LT50 values varied from 1.8 days to 8.4 days when a 'donor' bug exposed to 20 and 5 mg of dust respectively was placed with 5 'recipient' bugs. Dust was also actively transferred from adult bed bugs to the nymphs. In addition we observed horizontal transfer of botanical insecticides including neem, ryania, and rotenone to varying degrees. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data clearly demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, C. lectularius. Use of a fluorescent dust provided visual confirmation that contaminated bed bugs transfer dust to untreated bed bugs in harborage. This result is important because bedbugs live in hard-to-reach places and interaction between conspecifics can be exploited for delivery and dissemination of management products directed at this public health pest.

  15. Rearing the southern green stink bug using an artificial dry diet and an artificial plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panizzi, Antonio Ricardo [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja]. E-mail: Panizzi@cnpso.embrapa.br; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali; Carvalho, Diogo Rodrigues [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: jrpparra@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; E-mail: drcarval@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; Santos, Claudia Hirt [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil)]. E-mail: clauhirt@yahoo.com.br

    2000-09-15

    Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted with an artificial dry diet to rear nymphs, and with an artificial plant as substrate for egg laying by the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). The artificial diet was composed of: soybean protein (15 g); potato starch (7.5 g); dextrose (7.5 g); sucrose (2.5 g); cellulose (12.5 g); vitamin mixture (niacinamide 1 g, calcium pantothenate 1 g, thiamine 0.25 g, riboflavin 0.5 g, pyridoxine 0.25 g, folic acid 0.25 g, biotin 0.02 mL, vitamin B12 1 g - added to 1,000 mL of distilled water) (5.0 mL); soybean oil (20 mL); wheat germ (17.9 g); and water (30 mL). Nymphs showed normal feeding behavior when fed on the artificial diet. Nymphal development time was longer than or similar to that of nymphs fed on soybean pods. Total nymphal mortality was low (ca. 30%), both for nymphs reared on the artificial diet, and for nymphs fed on soybean pods. At adult emergence, fresh body weights were significantly (P<0.01) less on the artificial diet than on soybean pods. Despite the lower adult survivorship and fecundity on artificial plants than on soybean plants, it was demonstrated for the first time that a model simulating a natural plant, can be used as a substrate for egg mass laying, in conjunction with the artificial diet. (author)

  16. A transcriptome survey spanning life stages and sexes of the Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Science.gov (United States)

    The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolure...

  17. Landscape Factors Influencing Stink Bug Injury in Mid-Atlantic Tomato Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin B; Troyer, Rachael R; Watrous, Kristal M; Tooker, John F; Fleischer, Shelby J

    2017-02-01

    Landscape structure and diversity influence insect species abundance. In agricultural systems, adjacent crop and non-crop habitats can influence pest species population dynamics and intensify economic damage. To investigate the influence of landscape factors on stink bug damage in agricultural systems, we assessed stink bug damage from 30 processing tomato fields in the mid-Atlantic United States and analyzed landscape structure and geographic location. We found that forest shape and size, and geographic location strongly influenced stink bug damage. Landscapes with larger forest edge in southern portions of the mid-Atlantic region experienced the greatest damage, perhaps owing to the introduction of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug. We conclude that landscape structure will likely influence damage rates in nearby agricultural fields.

  18. Potential geographic distribution of brown marmorated stink bug invasion (Halyomorpha halys)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Gengping; Bu, Wenjun; Gao, Yubao; Liu, Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), native to Asia, is becoming an invasive species with a rapidly expanding range in North America and Europe...

  19. Ultrastructural analysis of salivary glands in a phytophagous stink bug revealed the presence of unexpected muscles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nathaly Castellanos; Luis C Martínez; Eder H Silva; Adenir V Teodoro; José Eduardo Serrão; Eugênio E Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    The exceptional abilities of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to colonize a diverse group of plants have been attributed to the feeding behaviors and the functions of the salivary complex of these insects...

  20. Phenology of brown marmorated stink bug described using female reproductive development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielsen, Anne L; Fleischer, Shelby; Hamilton, George C; Hancock, Tori; Krawczyk, Gregorz; Lee, Jana C; Ogburn, Emily; Pote, John M; Raudenbush, Amy; Rucker, Ann; Saunders, Michael; Skillman, Victoria P; Sullivan, Jeanne; Timer, Jody; Walgenbach, James; Wiman, Nik G; Leskey, Tracy C

    2017-01-01

    .... We expand on the use of a temperature‐based process defining timing of reproduction through the incorporation of female reproductive physiology for the invasive pentatomid species Halyomorpha halys, the brown marmorated stink bug. A five...

  1. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brittany E Campbell; Dini M Miller

    2015-01-01

      Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain...

  2. Genome-wide analysis of WRKY transcription factors in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and differential expression under water deficit condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Pan; Liu, Congcong; Kang, Jingquan; Lv, Jinyin

    2017-01-01

    WRKY proteins, which comprise one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families in the plant kingdom, play crucial roles in plant development and stress responses. Despite several studies on WRKYs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), functional annotation information about wheat WRKYs is limited. Here, 171 TaWRKY TFs were identified from the whole wheat genome and compared with proteins from 19 other species representing nine major plant lineages. A phylogenetic analysis, coupled with gene structure analysis and motif determination, divided these TaWRKYs into seven subgroups (Group I, IIa-e, and III). Chromosomal location showed that most TaWRKY genes were enriched on four chromosomes, especially on chromosome 3B. In addition, 85 (49.7%) genes were either tandem (5) or segmental duplication (80), which suggested that though tandem duplication has contributed to the expansion of TaWRKY family, segmental duplication probably played a more pivotal role. Analysis of cis-acting elements revealed putative functions of WRKYs in wheat during development as well as under numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Finally, the expression of TaWRKY genes in flag leaves, glumes, and lemmas under water-deficit condition were analyzed. Results showed that different TaWRKY genes preferentially express in specific tissue during the grain-filling stage. Our results provide a more extensive insight on WRKY gene family in wheat, and also contribute to the screening of more candidate genes for further investigation on function characterization of WRKYs under various stresses.

  3. Selection of Soybean Pods by the Stink Bugs, Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Gonzalo A. R.; Trumper, Eduardo V.

    2012-01-01

    Different biological parameters of the stink bugs, Nezara viridula L. and Piezodorus guildinii Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), are affected by the developmental stage of the soybean (Glycine max Merrill) pods they feed on. These effects of the soybean on the stink bugs could represent a selection pressure leading to the ability of these species to discriminate the phenological stage of soybean pods, and, therefore, to exhibit feeding preferences. We designed three studies: (1) Distant detection of soybean pods through an olfactometer; (2) Free choice tests to evaluate preferences for soybean pods of different developmental stages; (3) No choice tests to study effects of soybean pod development on feeding time and number of probes. Stink bugs showed no differential response to olfactometer arms with or without soybean pods, suggesting an inability to detect soybean volatiles. Free choice tests showed no species effects on pods selection, but significant differences among fifth instar nymphs, adult male, and adult females. Fifth instar nymphs fed more frequently on soybean pods of advanced development stages compared to female adults, despite previous evidence showing poor development of stink bugs fed pods of the same stage. No choice tests showed significant effects of stink bug species, stink bug stage and sex, and soybean pod phenology. N. viridula expressed shorter feeding times and higher numbers of probes than P. guildinii. The highest numbers of probes of both species were observed when they were fed soybean pods in early phenological stages. When placed in direct contact with food, fifth instar nymphs prefered to feed on more developed pods, despite these pods being suboptimal food items. These results suggest that for the ecological time framework of soybean-stink bugs coexistence, around thirty-five years in Argentina, the selection pressure was not enough for stink bugs to evolve food preferences that match their performance on soybean pods of

  4. Morphological and Behavioral Convergence in Extinct and Extant Bugs: The Systematics and Biology of a New Unusual Fossil Lace Bug from the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wappler, Torsten; Guilbert, Eric; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas; Wedmann, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    The bug Gyaclavator kohlsi Wappler, Guilbert, Wedmann et Labandeira, gen. et sp. nov., represents a new extinct genus of lace bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingidae) occurring in latest early Eocene deposits of the Green River Formation, from the southern Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado, in North America. Gyaclavator can be placed within the Tingidae with certainty, perhaps it is sistergroup to Cantacaderinae. If it belongs to Cantacaderinae, it is the first fossil record of this group for North America. Gyaclavator has unique, conspicuous antennae bearing a specialized, highly dilated distiflagellomere, likely important for intra- or intersex reproductive competition and attraction. This character parallels similar antennae in leaf-footed bugs (Coreidae), and probably is associated with a behavioral convergence as well. PMID:26267108

  5. Morphological and behavioral convergence in extinct and extant bugs: the systematics and biology of a new unusual fossil lace bug from the eocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Wappler

    Full Text Available The bug Gyaclavator kohlsi Wappler, Guilbert, Wedmann et Labandeira, gen. et sp. nov., represents a new extinct genus of lace bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingidae occurring in latest early Eocene deposits of the Green River Formation, from the southern Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado, in North America. Gyaclavator can be placed within the Tingidae with certainty, perhaps it is sistergroup to Cantacaderinae. If it belongs to Cantacaderinae, it is the first fossil record of this group for North America. Gyaclavator has unique, conspicuous antennae bearing a specialized, highly dilated distiflagellomere, likely important for intra- or intersex reproductive competition and attraction. This character parallels similar antennae in leaf-footed bugs (Coreidae, and probably is associated with a behavioral convergence as well.

  6. Bug22 influences cilium morphology and the post-translational modification of ciliary microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Mendes Maia

    2014-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are organelles essential for motility and sensing of environmental stimuli. Depending on the cell type, cilia acquire a defined set of functions and, accordingly, are built with an appropriate length and molecular composition. Several ciliary proteins display a high degree of conservation throughout evolution and mutations in ciliary genes are associated with various diseases such as ciliopathies and infertility. Here, we describe the role of the highly conserved ciliary protein, Bug22, in Drosophila. Previous studies in unicellular organisms have shown that Bug22 is required for proper cilia function, but its exact role in ciliogenesis has not been investigated yet. Null Bug22 mutant flies display cilia-associated phenotypes and nervous system defects. Furthermore, sperm differentiation is blocked at the individualization stage, due to impaired migration of the individualization machinery. Tubulin post-translational modifications (PTMs such as polyglycylation, polyglutamylation or acetylation, are determinants of microtubule (MT functions and stability in centrioles, cilia and neurons. We found defects in the timely incorporation of polyglycylation in sperm axonemal MTs of Bug22 mutants. In addition, we found that depletion of human Bug22 in RPE1 cells resulted in the appearance of longer cilia and reduced axonemal polyglutamylation. Our work identifies Bug22 as a protein that plays a conserved role in the regulation of PTMs of the ciliary axoneme.

  7. A survey of patients with bed bugs in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheele, Johnathan M; Gaines, Stephanie; Maurer, Nicholas; Coppolino, Katirina; Li, Jennifer S; Pound, Amy; Luk, Jeffrey H; Mandac, Ed

    2017-05-01

    Bed bugs are one of the most important human ectoparasites in the United States, and a growing problem in the emergency department. We evaluated 40 emergency department (ED) patients found with a bed bug. The data show that ED patients with bed bugs are statistically more likely to be male, older, more likely to be admitted to the hospital, have higher triage emergency severity index (ESI) scores, and arrive by ambulance than the general ED patient population (pbed bugs were found 108min after a patient arrived to the ED, after 35% of subjects had already received a blood draw, and after 23% had already received a radiology study; putting other ED patients and staff at risk for acquiring the infestation. We found that 13% and 18% of subjects had wheezing and a papular rash, respectively on physical exam. Of those patients found with a bed bug in the ED, 42% reported having bed bugs at home and 21% reporting having a possible home infestation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Records of assassin bug species (reduviidae, heteroptera reported biting man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. Hartwig

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa Acanthaspis obscura Stal, Pirates conspurcatus Distant, Rhinocoris segmentarius (Germar and Panto-feistes pnnceps Stal intlict painful bites on humans. Serious consequences can develop. This is unknown to the public in general. Adult A. obscura and P. conspurcatus are responsible for the greatest number of bites because they are positively phototropic. R, segmentarius is not attracted to light but is the most common local species. Bites happen accidentally and could largely be avoided if the bugs could be recognized. The first three species have a wide distribution. Various insects are preyed on. The R. segmentarius female can lay 358 fertile eggs in six batches over a period of 77 days without copulating once in this period. Adults are most active in mid-summer although found throughout the year. These three species are abundant in some years and scarce in others. Preventive measures include screening homes and decoy lights. Control involves spraying with carbaryl.

  9. Crystallization and melting of bacteria colonies and Brownian bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Francisco; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2008-02-01

    Motivated by the existence of remarkably ordered cluster arrays of bacteria colonies growing in Petri dishes and related problems, we study the spontaneous emergence of clustering and patterns in a simple nonequilibrium system: the individual-based interacting Brownian bug model. We map this discrete model into a continuous Langevin equation which is the starting point for our extensive numerical analyses. For the two-dimensional case we report on the spontaneous generation of localized clusters of activity as well as a melting-freezing transition from a disordered or isotropic phase to an ordered one characterized by hexagonal patterns. We study in detail the analogies and differences with the well-established Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young theory of equilibrium melting, as well as with another competing theory. For that, we study translational and orientational correlations and perform a careful defect analysis. We find a nonstandard one-stage, defect-mediated transition whose nature is only partially elucidated.

  10. Annotated catalogue of Iranian burrower bugs (Heteroptera, Pentatomoidea, Cydnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghahari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of burrower bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea: Cydnidae of Iran is provided. A total of 58 species from 5 subfamilies, 6 tribes and 22 genera is listed in this paper. Of these, 14 species are newly recorded from Iran: Byrsinus fossor (Mulsant & Rey, 1866, Byrsinus nigroscutellatus (Montandon, 1900, Byrsinus penicillatus Wagner, 1964, Canthophorus wagneri Asanova, 1964, Crocistethus waltlianus (Fieber, 1837, Geotomus antennatus Signoret, 1883, Sehirus cypriacus Dohrn, 1860, Sehirus dissimilis Horváth, 1919, Sehirus luctuosus Mulsant & Rey, 1866, Sehirus ovatus (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1840, Sehirus parens Mulsant & Rey, 1866, Sehirus planiceps Horváth, 1895, Stibaropus henkei (Jakovlev, 1874 and Tritomegas delagrangei (Puton, 1888. Additional Iranian records are provided for Byrsinus laeviceps (Kerzhner, 1972, Exosehirus marginatus (Signoret, 1881b, Fromundus pygmaeus (Dallas, 1851, Geotomus elongatus (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1840, Geotomus punctulatus (Costa, 1847, Ochetostethus sahlbergi Wagner, 1952 and Tritomegas bicolor (Linnaeus, 1758.

  11. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRUSSIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (BLOCH, 1782 COMMERCIAL STOCK OF THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. Heina

    2017-09-01

    gradual decline Fulton condition factor from 3.47±0.22 in age-3 fish to 3.12±0.06 in age-6 fish. The highest variability of these indexes was typical for age-5 fish (Cv=10.9%; lim=2.46-3.89, that was related to the linear-weight growth and fecundity. With an increase in the age, the variableness of condition factor reduced substantially. Originality. The paper contains modern and significantly updated data on main biological characteristics of the Prussian carp commercial stock in the transformed conditions of the Dnieper-Bug estuary. Practical value. The obtained results are a scientific background for rational fishery optimization of commercial pressure on the representatives of valuable fish fauna of the Dnieper-Bug estuary. In current conditions, the presented information is actual enough from the point of view of the maintenance and support the biodiversity of valuable commercial species in natural water bodies of Ukraine.

  12. Microfluidic photomechanic infrared receptors in a pyrophilous flat bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke; Gebhardt, Michael; Schmitz, Helmut

    2008-05-01

    Infrared (IR) receptors are so far known only in boid and crotalid snakes and in three genera of pyrophilous beetles that seek out forest fires. Pyrophilous insects can also be found in other orders, however, so it can be hypothesised that IR receptors also occur in some of these species. We investigated the pyrophilous Australian flat bug Aradus albicornis and found a small number of dome-shaped sensilla (diameter 13 μm) on the prothorax, which have previously not been described. Ultrastructural investigations revealed that the sensilla are characterised by a fluid-filled inner compartment enclosed in a round cuticular shell. The cuticular apparatus is innervated by the dendrite of a ciliary mechanoreceptor, which is fluidically coupled to the inner compartment. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that the sensilla respond to brief warming by red laser light or to broadband IR radiation. Depending on the radiation intensity (4.4 549 mW/cm2 tested, threshold measured as 11.3 mW/cm2), first spike latencies varied between 3.4 and 7.5 ms. Thus, our findings demonstrate that A. albicornis most probably possesses photomechanic IR sensilla resembling the metathoracic IR sensilla of buprestid beetles of the genus Melanophila. In the Melanophila sensillum, IR radiation causes thermal expansion of a fluid, which rapidly deforms the dendritic membrane of a mechanosensory cell. The existence of photomechanic IR receptors in both beetles and bugs demonstrates a remarkable convergent evolution towards this particular biophysical transduction mechanism and suggests that it provides selective advantages over other possible solutions.

  13. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dilip Venugopal

    Full Text Available The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855, contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  14. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Coffey, Peter L; Dively, Galen P; Lamp, William O

    2014-01-01

    The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855), contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  15. In silico mining of putative microsatellite markers from whole genome sequence of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis and development of first BuffSatDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though India has sequenced water buffalo genome but its draft assembly is based on cattle genome BTau 4.0, thus de novo chromosome wise assembly is a major pending issue for global community. The existing radiation hybrid of buffalo and these reported STR can be used further in final gap plugging and “finishing” expected in de novo genome assembly. QTL and gene mapping needs mining of putative STR from buffalo genome at equal interval on each and every chromosome. Such markers have potential role in improvement of desirable characteristics, such as high milk yields, resistance to diseases, high growth rate. The STR mining from whole genome and development of user friendly database is yet to be done to reap the benefit of whole genome sequence. Description By in silico microsatellite mining of whole genome, we have developed first STR database of water buffalo, BuffSatDb (Buffalo MicroSatellite Database (http://cabindb.iasri.res.in/buffsatdb/ which is a web based relational database of 910529 microsatellite markers, developed using PHP and MySQL database. Microsatellite markers have been generated using MIcroSAtellite tool. It is simple and systematic web based search for customised retrieval of chromosome wise and genome-wide microsatellites. Search has been enabled based on chromosomes, motif type (mono-hexa, repeat motif and repeat kind (simple and composite. The search may be customised by limiting location of STR on chromosome as well as number of markers in that range. This is a novel approach and not been implemented in any of the existing marker database. This database has been further appended with Primer3 for primer designing of the selected markers enabling researcher to select markers of choice at desired interval over the chromosome. The unique add-on of degenerate bases further helps in resolving presence of degenerate bases in current buffalo assembly. Conclusion Being first buffalo STR database in the world

  16. Optional Endoreplication and Selective Elimination of Parental Genomes during Oogenesis in Diploid and Triploid Hybrid European Water Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedukh, Dmitry; Litvinchuk, Spartak; Rosanov, Juriy; Mazepa, Glib; Saifitdinova, Alsu; Shabanov, Dmitry; Krasikova, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Incompatibilities between parental genomes decrease viability of interspecific hybrids; however, deviations from canonical gametogenesis such as genome endoreplication and elimination can rescue hybrid organisms. To evaluate frequency and regularity of genome elimination and endoreplication during gametogenesis in hybrid animals with different ploidy, we examined genome composition in oocytes of di- and triploid hybrid frogs of the Pelophylax esculentus complex. Obtained results allowed us to suggest that during oogenesis the endoreplication involves all genomes occurring before the selective genome elimination. We accepted the hypothesis that only elimination of one copied genome occurs premeiotically in most of triploid hybrid females. At the same time, we rejected the hypothesis stating that the genome of parental species hybrid frogs co-exist with is always eliminated during oogenesis in diploid hybrids. Diploid hybrid frogs demonstrate an enlarged frequency of deviations in oogenesis comparatively to triploid hybrids. Typical for hybrid frogs deviations in gametogenesis increase variability of produced gametes and provide a mechanism for appearance of different forms of hybrids.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of WRKY transcription factors in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and differential expression under water deficit condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background WRKY proteins, which comprise one of the largest transcription factor (TF families in the plant kingdom, play crucial roles in plant development and stress responses. Despite several studies on WRKYs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L., functional annotation information about wheat WRKYs is limited. Results Here, 171 TaWRKY TFs were identified from the whole wheat genome and compared with proteins from 19 other species representing nine major plant lineages. A phylogenetic analysis, coupled with gene structure analysis and motif determination, divided these TaWRKYs into seven subgroups (Group I, IIa–e, and III. Chromosomal location showed that most TaWRKY genes were enriched on four chromosomes, especially on chromosome 3B. In addition, 85 (49.7% genes were either tandem (5 or segmental duplication (80, which suggested that though tandem duplication has contributed to the expansion of TaWRKY family, segmental duplication probably played a more pivotal role. Analysis of cis-acting elements revealed putative functions of WRKYs in wheat during development as well as under numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Finally, the expression of TaWRKY genes in flag leaves, glumes, and lemmas under water-deficit condition were analyzed. Results showed that different TaWRKY genes preferentially express in specific tissue during the grain-filling stage. Conclusion Our results provide a more extensive insight on WRKY gene family in wheat, and also contribute to the screening of more candidate genes for further investigation on function characterization of WRKYs under various stresses.

  18. Rapid, high-throughput detection of azalea lace bug (Hemiptera: Tingidae) predation by Chrysoperla rufilabris (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), using fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Timothy A; Boyd, David W

    2006-12-01

    Azalea lace bugs, Stephanitis pyrioides (Scott) (Hemiptera: Tingidae), are the most common pest of azaleas (Rhododendron spp.) in nursery production and the landscape. Although pesticides are commonly used to control lace bugs, natural enemies can be a significant source of lace bug mortality. Lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) are natural enemies of lace bugs and easily consume them in laboratory studies. Field studies on lacewing biocontrol of azalea lace bugs are underway; however, monitoring lacewing predation in a nursery environment by direct observation is impractical. Here, we describe a fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction method to estimate S. pyrioides consumption based on the gut contents of lacewing predators. Lace bug DNA was detected in fed lacewings up to 32 h after ingestion. More than 80% of the ingested lace bugs were detected using our method with only one false positive result. The assay is both high-throughput and relatively inexpensive, making it a practical approach to documenting lace bug predation in the field.

  19. Physical barriers for suppression of movement of adult stink bugs into cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P Glynn

    2014-01-01

    Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the southeastern USA. Because adult stink bugs exhibit edge-mediated dispersal at crop-to-crop interfaces as they colonize cotton, strategic placement of physical barriers at these interfaces could manage these pests. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a physical barrier, either synthetic or plant-based, at the peanut-to-cotton interface for suppressing stink bugs that would move to cotton. In 2012 and 2013, sorghum sudangrass (2.4 and 2.1 m high, respectively) was significantly taller than cotton (1.4 and 1.3 m high, respectively) which was taller than peanut (0.4 and 0.5 m high, respectively). Buckwheat (0.6 m high), planted only in 2012, was significantly taller than peanut, but shorter than cotton. For both years of the study, sorghum sudangrass and a 1.8-m-high polypropylene barrier wall effectively deterred dispersal of stink bugs into cotton. Because each of these barriers was taller than cotton, their success in protecting cotton likely was due to disruption of the flight of stink bugs from low-growing peanut into cotton. The shortest barrier wall (0.6-m-high) did not suppress stink bug dispersal into cotton probably because it was approximately the same height as peanut. In 2012, flowering buckwheat increased the efficacy of Trichopoda pennipes (F.) attacking N. viridula in cotton although it did not deter dispersal of stink bugs. In conclusion, a barrier at least as tall as cotton can effectively retard the entry of stink bug adults into cotton.

  20. Likelihood of stink bugs colonizing crops: a case study in southeastern farmscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G

    2013-06-01

    Stink bugs, including Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Chinavia hilaris (Say), are economic pests across agricultural farmscapes where they can colonize closely associated crops. This 4-yr on-farm study was conducted to examine the likelihood of these three stink bug species colonizing crops in corn-cotton, corn-peanut-cotton, and peanut-cotton farmscapes by using odds ratios. Corn (Zea mays L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) served as host plants for E. servus and N. viridula. Corn did not serve as a host plant for C. hilaris. Although peanut was a relatively poor host plant, cotton was a relatively good host plant for this stink bug. For N. viridula and E. servus adults, the risk of crop colonization was higher for peanut in peanut-cotton farmscapes with corn than without corn and was highest for cotton in corn-peanut-cotton, followed by peanut-cotton, and lastly corn-cotton farmscapes. The likelihood of oviposition by E. servus, though, was higher in cotton in corn-cotton than peanut-cotton farmscapes. For C. hilaris adults, the risk of crop colonization was highest for cotton in peanut-cotton, followed by corn-peanut-cotton, and lastly corn-cotton farmscapes. Corn was more likely than peanut or cotton to harbor adults and immatures, i.e., egg masses and young nymphs, of N. viridula and E. servus. Adults of all three stink bug species colonized cotton more often than peanut in peanut-cotton farmscapes. However, oviposition by N. viridula and E. servus occurred more often in peanut than in cotton. These assessments of the likelihood of stink bug colonization are essential for modeling predictions of stink bug colonization and designing more comprehensive landscape management approaches for control of stink bugs in these farmscapes.

  1. Parasitism and predation of stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) eggs in Georgia corn fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G

    2010-08-01

    Nezara viridula L. and Euschistus servus (Say) are the predominant species of phytophagous stink bugs on corn, Zea mays L., in Georgia. Oebalus pugnax pugnax (F.) occurs in relatively low numbers, and the predatory stink bug Podisus maculiventris (Say) is commonly found. Limited information is available on natural biological control of these four stink bug species in Georgia corn fields; therefore, a 6-yr study of parasitism and predation of their eggs was initiated in 2003. Naturally occurring stink bug eggs were parasitized by six scelionid species, Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston), T. thyantae Ashmead, T. brochymenae (Ashmead), T. euschisti (Ashmead), Telenomus podisi Ashmead, Telenomus calvus Johnson, and one encyrtid species, Ooencyrtus sp. T. basalis was the most prevalent parasitoid of N. viridula, parasitizing E. servus and P. maculiventris eggs at low levels. T. podisi, the predominant parasitoid species emerging from eggs of E. servus and P. maculiventris, also parasitized O. p. pugnax eggs exclusively and parasitized N. viridula eggs at low levels. T. euschisti and T. thyantae parasitized E. servus egg masses. T. brochymenae parasitized eggs of both E. servus and P. maculiventris. T. calvus parasitized only P. maculiventris eggs. The same species of egg parasitoids that parasitized naturally occurring eggs of N. viridula and E. servus parasitized sentinel eggs of these bugs, except that no T. calvus and Ooencyrtus sp. were obtained from sentinel eggs, and T. thyantae and T. brochymenae emerged from sentinel eggs of N. viridula. Generally, parasitization of an egg mass was either greater than or equal to predation of sentinel eggs of N. viridula and E. servus. However, on some dates in late June and July, predation of sentinel egg masses was numerically approximately twice as high as parasitism. Results indicate stink bug egg parasitoids and predators are significant factors in the natural biological control of stink bugs in corn fields.

  2. Stability of Spatial Distributions of Stink Bugs, Boll Injury, and NDVI in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K; Bauer, Philip J

    2016-10-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the degree of aggregation of stink bugs and boll injury in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and their spatial association with a multispectral vegetation index (normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI]). Using the spatial analysis by distance indices analyses, stink bugs were less frequently aggregated (17% for adults and 4% for nymphs) than boll injury (36%). NDVI values were also significantly aggregated within fields in 19 of 48 analyses (40%), with the majority of significant indices occurring in July and August. Paired NDVI datasets from different sampling dates were frequently associated (86.5% for weekly intervals among datasets). Spatial distributions of both stink bugs and boll injury were less stable than for NDVI, with positive associations varying from 12.5 to 25% for adult stink bugs for weekly intervals, depending on species. Spatial distributions of boll injury from stink bug feeding were more stable than stink bugs, with 46% positive associations among paired datasets with weekly intervals. NDVI values were positively associated with boll injury from stink bug feeding in 11 out of 22 analyses, with no significant negative associations. This indicates that NDVI has potential as a component of site-specific management. Future work should continue to examine the value of remote sensing for insect management in cotton, with an aim to develop tools such as risk assessment maps that will help growers to reduce insecticide inputs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Integrating genome annotation and QTL position to identify candidate genes for productivity, architecture and water-use efficiency in Populus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monclus Romain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybrid poplars species are candidates for biomass production but breeding efforts are needed to combine productivity and water use efficiency in improved cultivars. The understanding of the genetic architecture of growth in poplar by a Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL approach can help us to elucidate the molecular basis of such integrative traits but identifying candidate genes underlying these QTLs remains difficult. Nevertheless, the increase of genomic information together with the accessibility to a reference genome sequence (Populus trichocarpa Nisqually-1 allow to bridge QTL information on genetic maps and physical location of candidate genes on the genome. The objective of the study is to identify QTLs controlling productivity, architecture and leaf traits in a P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa F1 progeny and to identify candidate genes underlying QTLs based on the anchoring of genetic maps on the genome and the gene ontology information linked to genome annotation. The strategy to explore genome annotation was to use Gene Ontology enrichment tools to test if some functional categories are statistically over-represented in QTL regions. Results Four leaf traits and 7 growth traits were measured on 330 F1 P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa progeny. A total of 77 QTLs controlling 11 traits were identified explaining from 1.8 to 17.2% of the variation of traits. For 58 QTLs, confidence intervals could be projected on the genome. An extended functional annotation was built based on data retrieved from the plant genome database Phytozome and from an inference of function using homology between Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. Genes located within QTL confidence intervals were retrieved and enrichments in gene ontology (GO terms were determined using different methods. Significant enrichments were found for all traits. Particularly relevant biological processes GO terms were identified for QTLs controlling number of sylleptic

  4. Automatic detection and identification of brown stink bug, Euschistus servus, and southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula, (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) using intraspecific substrate-borne vibrational signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stink bugs cost the southeastern cotton industry millions of dollars each year in crop losses and control costs. These losses are reduced by strategic pesticide applications; however, current methods of monitoring these pests for making management decisions are time-consuming and costly. Therefore, ...

  5. Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton damage and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), has emerged as a threat to cotton in South Texas, causing boll damage similar to boll-feeding stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Verde plant bugs were released into caged cotton for a one-week period to characterize the effec...

  6. Genomic and phenotypic attributes of novel salinivibrios from stromatolites, sediment and water from a high altitude lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorriti, Marta F; Dias, Graciela M; Chimetto, Luciane A; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E; Silva, Bruno S; Mesquita, Milene M A; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Farias, Maria E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2014-06-13

    Salinivibrios are moderately halophilic bacteria found in salted meats, brines and hypersaline environments. We obtained three novel conspecific Salinivibrio strains closely related to S. costicola, from Socompa Lake, a high altitude hypersaline Andean lake (approx. 3,570 meters above the sea level). The three novel Salinivibrio spp. were extremely resistant to arsenic (up to 200 mM HAsO42-), NaCl (up to 15%), and UV-B radiation (19 KJ/m2, corresponding to 240 minutes of exposure) by means of phenotypic tests. Our subsequent draft genome ionsequencing and RAST-based genome annotation revealed the presence of genes related to arsenic, NaCl, and UV radiation resistance. The three novel Salinivibrio genomes also had the xanthorhodopsin gene cluster phylogenetically related to Marinobacter and Spiribacter. The genomic taxonomy analysis, including multilocus sequence analysis, average amino acid identity, and genome-to-genome distance revealed that the three novel strains belong to a new Salinivibrio species. Arsenic resistance genes, genes involved in DNA repair, resistance to extreme environmental conditions and the possible light-based energy production, may represent important attributes of the novel salinivibrios, allowing these microbes to thrive in the Socompa Lake.

  7. Neonicotinoid insecticide systemicity in soybean plants and its effect on brown stink bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudir José Basso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the application of pesticides on soybean fields, a vertical deposition gradient of the product can occur throughout the canopy, resulting in difficulties for controlling stink bugs that are in the middle and lower thirds of plants. This study aimed at evaluating the systemicity of thiamethoxam insecticide in different soybean phenological stages, using brown stink bugs as bioindicators of the pesticide efficacy. The study combined product application sites (lower, middle and upper third and stink bugs infestation areas at five soybean phenological stages (R2, R3, R4, R5.2 and R6. For the R2 and R5.2 stages, plants presented acropetal translocation of the product, being the effect more evident in the R2 stage. For the R3, R4 and R6 stages, the product translocation was not sufficient for controlling the stink bugs. In all stages, for treatments with direct exposure (same infestation and spraying place, stink bugs were satisfactorily controlled.

  8. Ecological patterns of blood-feeding by kissing-bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Rabinovich

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Host use by vectors is important in understanding the transmission of zoonotic diseases, which can affect humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Here, a synthesis of host exploitation patterns by kissing-bugs, vectors of Chagas disease, is presented. For this synthesis, an extensive literature review restricted to feeding sources analysed by precipitin tests was conducted. Modern tools from community ecology and multivariate statistics were used to determine patterns of segregation in host use. Rather than innate preferences for host species, host use by kissing-bugs is influenced by the habitats they colonise. One of the major limitations of studies on kissing-bug foraging has been the exclusive focus on the dominant vector species. We propose that expanding foraging studies to consider the community of vectors will substantially increase the understanding of Chagas disease transmission ecology. Our results indicate that host accessibility is a major factor that shapes the blood-foraging patterns of kissing-bugs. Therefore, from an applied perspective, measures that are directed at disrupting the contact between humans and kissing-bugs, such as housing improvement, are among the most desirable strategies for Chagas disease control.

  9. Oviposition and Sex Ratio of the Redbanded Stink Bug, Piezodorous guildinii, in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua H. Temple

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood, is a significant soybean pest across the mid-south region of the United States. The objectives of these studies were to characterize: (1 redbanded stink bug oviposition in relationship to soybean maturity group (MG, plant structure, crop phenology, and vertical distribution within the plant canopy; and (2 redbanded stink bug adult sex ratios in relationship to soybean phenology. A total of 5645 redbanded stink bug eggs in 421 egg masses (clusters were field collected from naturally-occurring populations in MG IV and V soybean over a three year period (2009 to 2011. The mean number of eggs within a cluster was 16.6 ± 0.3. Plant structures by MG interactions were highly significant with more egg masses oviposited on leaves in MG IV (79.4% and more on pods in MG V (72.7%. The ratio of females to males was similar in all soybean growth stages except R5, where the sex ratio increased to 1.4:1, coinciding with peak oviposition. Only 29.9% of egg clusters in MG IV and 18.3% of egg clusters in MG V were oviposited in the upper 35 cm of the soybean canopy. Based on these results, sampling strategies and insecticide application placement for stink bugs may require modification.

  10. Oviposition and Sex Ratio of the Redbanded Stink Bug, Piezodorous guildinii, in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Joshua H; Davis, Jeffrey A; Hardke, Jarrod T; Price, Paul P; Leonard, B Rogers

    2016-06-17

    Redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), is a significant soybean pest across the mid-south region of the United States. The objectives of these studies were to characterize: (1) redbanded stink bug oviposition in relationship to soybean maturity group (MG), plant structure, crop phenology, and vertical distribution within the plant canopy; and (2) redbanded stink bug adult sex ratios in relationship to soybean phenology. A total of 5645 redbanded stink bug eggs in 421 egg masses (clusters) were field collected from naturally-occurring populations in MG IV and V soybean over a three year period (2009 to 2011). The mean number of eggs within a cluster was 16.6 ± 0.3. Plant structures by MG interactions were highly significant with more egg masses oviposited on leaves in MG IV (79.4%) and more on pods in MG V (72.7%). The ratio of females to males was similar in all soybean growth stages except R5, where the sex ratio increased to 1.4:1, coinciding with peak oviposition. Only 29.9% of egg clusters in MG IV and 18.3% of egg clusters in MG V were oviposited in the upper 35 cm of the soybean canopy. Based on these results, sampling strategies and insecticide application placement for stink bugs may require modification.

  11. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  12. Impact of environmental variables on Dubas bug infestation rate: A case study from the Sultanate of Oman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa M Al-Kindi

    Full Text Available Date palm cultivation is economically important in the Sultanate of Oman, with significant financial investment coming from both the government and from private individuals. However, a global infestation of Dubas bug (Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin has impacted the Middle East region, and infestations of date palms have been widespread. In this study, spatial analysis and geostatistical techniques were used to model the spatial distribution of Dubas bug infestations to (a identify correlations between Dubas bug densities and different environmental variables, and (b predict the locations of future Dubas bug infestations in Oman. Firstly, we considered individual environmental variables and their correlations with infestation locations. Then, we applied more complex predictive models and regression analysis techniques to investigate the combinations of environmental factors most conducive to the survival and spread of the Dubas bug. Environmental variables including elevation, geology, and distance to drainage pathways were found to significantly affect Dubas bug infestations. In contrast, aspect and hillshade did not significantly impact on Dubas bug infestations. Understanding their distribution and therefore applying targeted controls on their spread is important for effective mapping, control and management (e.g., resource allocation of Dubas bug infestations.

  13. Morphology and proteome characterization of the salivary glands of the western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus (Hemiptera: Blissidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland ...

  14. First report of seasonal trap capture for Halyomorpha halys (Stal) Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and native stink bugs in central Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive insect pest in the United States, has recently expanded its range to the Coastal Plain region of Georgia. This study was conducted to monitor the BMSB, as well as native stink bugs, near woodland f...

  15. Biochemical Assay Detects Feeding Damage to Loblolly Pine Seeds Caused by the Leaffooted Pine Seed Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron G. Lait; Daniel R. Miller; Sarah L. Bates; John H. Borden; Allison R. Kermode

    2003-01-01

    A large number of proteins in salivary gland extracts of the leaffooted pine seed bug, Leptoglossus corculus Say, were strongly recognized by a polyclonal antibody-based assay developed for detecting saliva of the western conifer seed bug, Lepfoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, in lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var...

  16. Stink bug genera and the role of sensory modalities: a still cloudy picture of functions and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone traps were used to monitor seasonal and diurnal population dynamics of the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus, and southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula, in corn, cotton, and pecan fields to provide valuable basic insect biology information for farmers to select the best time for inse...

  17. Trap capture of brown and dusky stink bugs (Hempitera: Pentatomidae) as affected by pheromone dosage in dispensers and dispenser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown, Euschistus servus (Say), and dusky, E. tristigmus (Say), stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) readily respond to traps baited with the Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone methyl (2E, 4Z)-decadienoate. Previous studies examining trap capture of these stink bugs have used either labora...

  18. Toxicity of selected essential oils, silicone oils, and paraffino oil against the common bed bug, cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) resurged in the U.S. and many other countries over the past decade. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous “green pesticides”, mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic ...

  19. Verde plant bug associatioin with boll damage including cotton boll rot and potential in-season indicators of damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  20. Virtual Reality Check: Teachers Use Bug-in-Ear Coaching to Practice Feedback Techniques with Student Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, Marti; Carter, Richard A., Jr.; Aronin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    There is not just one way to give feedback, nor is there just one kind of feedback. Bug-in-ear technology, which allows coaches to give teachers in the classroom immediate feedback, has been used successfully for 35 years. In an updated twist on this method, researchers at the University of Kansas used bug-in-ear coaching in a virtual classroom…

  1. The Social Validity of Bug-in-Ear Coaching: Findings from Two Studies Implemented in Inclusive Early Childhood Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Jennifer Riggie; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Rahn, Naomi L.

    2015-01-01

    Coaching is a promising method for providing professional development, which takes many forms. One such form is real-time coaching through bug-in-ear technology. This study explored the social validity of bug-in-ear coaching when provided as a form of professional development with pre-service and in-service early childhood educators. Data from two…

  2. A High-Performance Vacuum Cleaner for Bed Bug Sampling: A Useful Tool for Medical Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Almeras, Lionel; Leulmi, Hamza; Parola, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Arthropods can be captured by two modes: a passive mode using traps or an active mode mainly based on the use of mouth or powered aspirators. These apparatuses are useful tools for collecting large numbers of crawling, flying, resting, or jumping arthropod specimens, particularly small specimens, such as mosquitoes or sandflies, for laboratory experiments or breeding. Different aspirator models are used to collect various arthropod specimens. However, to our knowledge, no specific system is currently available for the reliable sampling of live bed bugs in the field. Thus, we described a new system based on a classic autonomous house aspirator that requires few modifications for the collecting bed bugs. The low weight and size of this apparatus is advantageous, and it provides for rapid and secure bed bug sampling for medical entomology purposes. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Irritant contact dermatitis to the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bryan E; Miller, Jeffrey J; Adams, David R

    2012-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is native to Asia (China, Taiwan, Japan, and the Korean peninsula). It was first found in Allentown, Pa, in 1996 and has since spread across wide areas of the Eastern United States. As of October 2010, at least 26 states have reported the presence of the brown marmorated stink bug. It is considered an invasive species, and to the best of scientific knowledge, it was accidently introduced into the United States through transportation of goods from Asia. To date, no reports of human disease have been published in the literature. Fruit crop workers have complained of a slight allergic reaction to the chemicals released by the bug.

  4. Compensating for Missing Data from Longitudinal Studies Using WinBUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Carrigan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Missing data is a common problem in survey based research. There are many packages that compensate for missing data but few can easily compensate for missing longitudinal data. WinBUGS compensates for missing data using multiple imputation, and is able to incorporate longitudinal structure using random effects. We demonstrate the superiority of longitudinal imputation over cross-sectional imputation using WinBUGS. We use example data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. We give a SAS macro that uses WinBUGS to analyze longitudinal models with missing covariate date, and demonstrate its use in a longitudinal study of terminal cancer patients and their carers.

  5. New synonymies in the plant bug family Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Fedor V

    2016-12-09

    The plant bug fauna of China is highly diverse and relatively poorly documented, with almost 900 currently known species, about a half of which had been revealed during the last two decades (Qi et al. 2003, 2007, Konstantinov & Namyatova 2008, 2009, Konstantinov et al. 2013). Future studies would almost certainly reveal many new species from the region. However, the present day distributions of Chinese plant bugs apparently reflect significant climate change since the Tertiary Period, and are largely influenced by influx of species from other regions. Particularly, the plant bug fauna of the Northwestern China is most similar to the faunas of Central Asia and Mongolia, having almost identical generic composition and sharing many common species (Kerzhner & Josifov 1999). This paper provides seven new synonymies of Miridae originally known from Central Asia and Mongolia and recently described as new from the Northern China.

  6. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  7. Melt With This Kiss: Paralyzing and Liquefying Venom of The Assassin Bug Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew A; Madio, Bruno; Jin, Jiayi; Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2017-04-01

    Assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) are venomous insects, most of which prey on invertebrates. Assassin bug venom has features in common with venoms from other animals, such as paralyzing and lethal activity when injected, and a molecular composition that includes disulfide-rich peptide neurotoxins. Uniquely, this venom also has strong liquefying activity that has been hypothesized to facilitate feeding through the narrow channel of the proboscis-a structure inherited from sap- and phloem-feeding phytophagous hemipterans and adapted during the evolution of Heteroptera into a fang and feeding structure. However, further understanding of the function of assassin bug venom is impeded by the lack of proteomic studies detailing its molecular composition.By using a combined transcriptomic/proteomic approach, we show that the venom proteome of the harpactorine assassin bug Pristhesancus plagipennis includes a complex suite of >100 proteins comprising disulfide-rich peptides, CUB domain proteins, cystatins, putative cytolytic toxins, triabin-like protein, odorant-binding protein, S1 proteases, catabolic enzymes, putative nutrient-binding proteins, plus eight families of proteins without homology to characterized proteins. S1 proteases, CUB domain proteins, putative cytolytic toxins, and other novel proteins in the 10-16-kDa mass range, were the most abundant venom components. Thus, in addition to putative neurotoxins, assassin bug venom includes a high proportion of enzymatic and cytolytic venom components likely to be well suited to tissue liquefaction. Our results also provide insight into the trophic switch to blood-feeding by the kissing bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae). Although some protein families such as triabins occur in the venoms of both predaceous and blood-feeding reduviids, the composition of venoms produced by these two groups is revealed to differ markedly. These results provide insights into the venom evolution in the insect suborder

  8. Economic Injury Level of the Neotropical Brown Stink Bug Euschistus heros (F.) on Cotton Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M F; Degrande, P E; Panizzi, A R; Toews, M D

    2017-06-01

    In Brazil, the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), commonly disperses from soybeans to cotton fields. The establishment of an economic treatment threshold for this pest on cotton crops is required. Infestation levels of adults of E. heros were evaluated on cotton plants at preflowering, early flowering, boll filling, and full maturity by assessing external and internal symptoms of injury on bolls, seed cotton/lint production, and fiber quality parameters. A completely randomized experiment was designed to infest cotton plants in a greenhouse with 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 bugs/plant, except at the full-maturity stage in which only infestation with 8 bugs/plant and uninfested plants were evaluated. Results indicated that the preflowering, early-flowering, and full-maturity stages were not affected by E. heros. A linear regression model showed a significant increase in the number of internal punctures and warts in the boll-filling stage as the population of bugs increased. The average number of loci with mottled immature fibers was significantly higher at 4, 6, and 8 bugs compared with uninfested plants with data following a quadratic regression model. The seed and lint cotton was reduced by 18 and 25% at the maximum level of infestation (ca. 8 bugs/plant) in the boll-filling stage. The micronaire and yellowing indexes were, respectively, reduced and increased with the increase of the infestation levels. The economic injury level of E. heros on cotton plants at the boll-filling stage was determined as 0.5 adult/plant. Based on that, a treatment threshold of 0.1 adult/plant can be recommended to avoid economic losses.

  9. Identification of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphic Loci Associated with Biomass Yield under Water Deficit in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Genome-Wide Sequencing and Association Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi

    2017-01-01

    Alfalfa is a worldwide grown forage crop and is important due to its high biomass production and nutritional value. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by adverse environmental factors such as drought and other stresses. Developing drought resistance alfalfa is an important breeding target for enhancing alfalfa productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. In the present study, we used genotyping-by-sequencing and genome-wide association to identify marker loci associated with biomass yield under drought in the field in a panel of diverse germplasm of alfalfa. A total of 28 markers at 22 genetic loci were associated with yield under water deficit, whereas only four markers associated with the same trait under well-watered condition. Comparisons of marker-trait associations between water deficit and well-watered conditions showed non-similarity except one. Most of the markers were identical across harvest periods within the treatment, although different levels of significance were found among the three harvests. The loci associated with biomass yield under water deficit located throughout all chromosomes in the alfalfa genome agreed with previous reports. Our results suggest that biomass yield under drought is a complex quantitative trait with polygenic inheritance and may involve a different mechanism compared to that of non-stress. BLAST searches of the flanking sequences of the associated loci against DNA databases revealed several stress-responsive genes linked to the drought resistance loci, including leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, B3 DNA-binding domain protein, translation initiation factor IF2, and phospholipase-like protein. With further investigation, those markers closely linked to drought resistance can be used for MAS to accelerate the development of new alfalfa cultivars with improved resistance to drought and other abiotic stresses.

  10. Identification of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphic Loci Associated with Biomass Yield under Water Deficit in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Using Genome-Wide Sequencing and Association Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Xi Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is a worldwide grown forage crop and is important due to its high biomass production and nutritional value. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by adverse environmental factors such as drought and other stresses. Developing drought resistance alfalfa is an important breeding target for enhancing alfalfa productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. In the present study, we used genotyping-by-sequencing and genome-wide association to identify marker loci associated with biomass yield under drought in the field in a panel of diverse germplasm of alfalfa. A total of 28 markers at 22 genetic loci were associated with yield under water deficit, whereas only four markers associated with the same trait under well-watered condition. Comparisons of marker-trait associations between water deficit and well-watered conditions showed non-similarity except one. Most of the markers were identical across harvest periods within the treatment, although different levels of significance were found among the three harvests. The loci associated with biomass yield under water deficit located throughout all chromosomes in the alfalfa genome agreed with previous reports. Our results suggest that biomass yield under drought is a complex quantitative trait with polygenic inheritance and may involve a different mechanism compared to that of non-stress. BLAST searches of the flanking sequences of the associated loci against DNA databases revealed several stress-responsive genes linked to the drought resistance loci, including leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, B3 DNA-binding domain protein, translation initiation factor IF2, and phospholipase-like protein. With further investigation, those markers closely linked to drought resistance can be used for MAS to accelerate the development of new alfalfa cultivars with improved resistance to drought and other abiotic stresses.

  11. RESEARCHES RELATED TO THE CHEMICAL FIGHT OF THE COLORADO BUG LEPTINOTARSA DECEMLINEATA SAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I OLTEAN

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 1999-2002, Colorado bug fight experiences were annually organized in Cimpenesti. Experimental fields were organized on the land of certain cultivators of the area. The best results in fighting the Colorado bug were obtained with the following products: 290 FS Prestige – 0.8 l/ton; 480 SC Calypso – 80 ml/ha; SC 200 Confidor – 160 ml/ha; EC 10 Rimon – 0.25 l/ha; SC 150 Nomolt – 0.15 l/ha; D 50/500 Nurelle – 0.5 l/ha; SP 20 Mospilan – 0.06 l/ha.

  12. Bayesian Analysis Made Simple An Excel GUI for WinBUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Philip

    2011-01-01

    From simple NLMs to complex GLMMs, this book describes how to use the GUI for WinBUGS - BugsXLA - an Excel add-in written by the author that allows a range of Bayesian models to be easily specified. With case studies throughout, the text shows how to routinely apply even the more complex aspects of model specification, such as GLMMs, outlier robust models, random effects Emax models, auto-regressive errors, and Bayesian variable selection. It provides brief, up-to-date discussions of current issues in the practical application of Bayesian methods. The author also explains how to obtain free so

  13. Sedimentology, stratigraphy, and extinctions during the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition at Bug Creek, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fastovsky, D.E.; Dott, R.H. Jr.

    1986-04-01

    Bug Creek Valley, the source of an unusual and controversial Cretaceous-Paleogene coincidence of mammals, dinosaurs, pollen, and iridium, exemplifies the importance of depositional process in the reconstruction of evolutionary events. Five sedimentary facies are recognized at Bug Creek: a cross-stratified sandstone, a green and purple siltstone, a lateral accretionary sandstone, a coal, and a variegated siltstone. Repeated fluvial channeling restricts the accuracy of lateral correlations, and the relationship of the fossil assemblage to the presumed Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary cannot be established. Sedimentologically, the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition is represented here by Cretaceous meandering channels that gave way initially to Paleogene swamp deposition. 13 references, 4 figures.

  14. Traumatic insemination in the plant bug genus Coridromius Signoret (Heteroptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Hochuli, Dieter F

    2005-01-01

    In traumatic insemination, males pierce females with hypodermic genitalia and ejaculate into the body cavity rather than into the genital tract. This has resulted in the evolution of female counter-adaptations in the form of paragenitalia to reduce the direct physical costs of mating. While rare in the animal kingdom, traumatic insemination is oddly prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha (Heteroptera), where it occurs in six families and is thought to have arisen twice. Here, we report the discovery of traumatic insemination and elaborate paragenital development in the plant bug genus Coridromius (Miridae), representing a third, independent emergence of traumatic insemination in this infraorder. PMID:17148326

  15. Adaptation in toxic environments: comparative genomics of loci carrying antibiotic resistance genes derived from acid mine drainage waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Chiboub, Olfa; Lièvremont, Didier; Farasin, Julien; Freel, Kelle C; Fouteau, Stephanie; Barbe, Valérie

    2017-10-31

    Several studies have suggested the existence of a close relationship between antibiotic-resistant phenotypes and resistance to other toxic compounds such as heavy metals, which involve co-resistance or cross-resistance mechanisms. A metagenomic library was previously constructed in Escherichia coli with DNA extracted from the bacterial community inhabiting an acid mine drainage (AMD) site highly contaminated with heavy metals. Here, we conducted a search for genes involved in antibiotic resistance using this previously constructed library. In particular, resistance to antibiotics was observed among five clones carrying four different loci originating from CARN5 and CARN2, two genomes reconstructed from the metagenomic data. Among the three CARN2 loci, two carry genes homologous to those previously proposed to be involved in antibiotic resistance. The third CARN2 locus carries a gene encoding a membrane transporter with an unknown function and was found to confer bacterial resistance to rifampicin, gentamycin, and kanamycin. The genome of Thiomonas delicata DSM 16361 and Thiomonas sp. X19 were sequenced in this study. Homologs of genes carried on these three CARN2 loci were found in these genomes, two of these loci were found in genomic islands. Together, these findings confirm that AMD environments contaminated with several toxic metals also constitute habitats for bacteria that function as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes.

  16. Whole-genome sequence of the first sequence type 27 Brucella ceti strain isolated from European waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvnjak, Sanja; Spicic, Silvio; Kusar, Darja

    2017-01-01

    Brucella spp. that cause marine brucellosis are becoming more important, as the disease appears to be more widespread than originally thought. Here, we report a whole and annotated genome sequence of Brucella ceti CRO350, a sequence type 27 strain isolated from a bottlenose dolphin carcass found...

  17. Genomic resources for water yam (Dioscorea alata L.): analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo sequencing and GBS libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources such as SSRs, SNPs and InDels in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) i...

  18. Production of wood vinegars from coconut shells and additional materials for control of termite workers, Odontotermes sp. and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisia virgata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunan Wititsiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coconut shells and coir are considered as wastes of coconut based products that have not been utilized efficiently.By using these abundant bioresources, which are widely available in Thailand, as raw materials, we were able to producewood vinegars that may be alternatives to termiticides and pesticides. The wood vinegars were obtained from carbonizationprocess using a 200-liter fuel tank as charcoal brazier under temperatures of 300-400°C. In this study, termiticidal and pesticidalactivities of wood vinegars were evaluated against termite workers, Odontotermes sp., and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisiavirgata, using direct contact application. Percent mortalities in the experiments were recorded after 24 hours and correctedfor control mortality with Abbott’s formula. Wood vinegars of 850, 696, and 898 milliliters were produced from coconut shell(wood vinegar A and the mixture of coconut shell and coir (wood vinegar B and the mixture of coconut shell, coir and holybasil (wood vinegar C, respectively. Wood vinegar A exhibited high termiticidal activity against termite workers at a dilutionof 1:50, wood vinegar: sterile water (v/v. By this way, 85% (81.71% corrected mortality of termite workers were killed afterthe 24 hours of test. At a dilution of 1:10, both wood vinegar A and B had exhibited high pesticidal activities against mealybugs, 96% (95.12% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs were killed by those wood vinegars. In the weakest termiticidaland pesticidal activities, wood vinegar C was able to kill 60% (51.22% corrected mortality of termite workers at a dilution of1:50 within 24 hours. Also it killed 93% (91.89% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs with a dilution of 1:10 (v/v withinthe same amount of time. Post-hoc comparisons (Tukey test revealed that wood vinegar A possessed the most effectivetermiticidal activity against termite workers. However, a similarity in high pesticidal activity was found among three woodvinegars

  19. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-06-18

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  20. Novel Fe-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria floating in the Chesapeake: kinetics and genomic insights into microbial Fe cycling in a stratified marine water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, B.; Field, E.; Kato, S.; Mcallister, S.; Luther, G. W., III; Chan, C. S. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are potentially important drivers in iron redox cycling, with significant effects on other major elemental cycles (e.g. C, N, P, S, As), yet the biogeochemical impacts of these microbes have been difficult to quantify. FeOB have traditionally been studied in relatively few, Fe-rich environments (groundwater seeps and hydrothermal vents), but our recent studies show that they also occur in coastal marine environments. Here we report on two Zetaproteobacteria strains, CP-5 and CP-8, isolated from the Chesapeake Bay chemocline during seasonal stratification. They represent the first known planktonic chemolithotrophic FeOB and are unusual for living in very low (micromolar) Fe(II) conditions, intermediate (brackish) salinities, and pH values (7.3-7.4) at which abiotic Fe oxidation is typically rapid. However, kinetics experiments demonstrate that CP-8 accelerates iron oxidation, relative to killed controls, and allow us to quantify the effects of microbes on iron oxidation. Ongoing work is characterizing the O2 preferences of the CP strains, specifically the lower O2 limits of FeOB activity. We obtained complete, closed genomes of both CP-5 and CP-8 genomes (2.54 and 2.30 Mbp respectively) using the PacBio RSII sequencer. Our genomic analysis of the CP strains is focused on adaptations for growth in the Chesapeake Bay chemocline, including genes for energy metabolism, and C, N, and P cycling. Initial results indicate that both strains have putative iron oxidase Cyc2 as well as Rubisco which suggests that these microbes are using energy from Fe oxidation to fix carbon, despite the availability of organics from phototrophs living higher in the water column. Our work on these Chesapeake FeOB gives us insight into how chemolithotrophic FeOB can participate in Fe redox and nutrient cycling in a stratified marine water column.

  1. Analysis of frequency and duration of the functional periods on the basis of long-term variability of limnetic processes within the Bug River valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidek, J.; Ferencz, B.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplain lakes (FPLs) constitute a very important element of river valleys, both in terms of ecology and hydrology. Dynamic physicochemical, morphometric and biological changes of lake waters are determined by the variability of the functional periods of lakes: limnophases, potamophases and inundations. This paper presents factors that shape long-term dynamics of the frequencies and durations of potamophases and limnophases in 20 selected FPLs. The study area included the left fraction of the Bug River valley located at the European Union's eastern border stretched along countries like Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus. The analysis covered the water years 1952 to 2013. Assigning the value of Limnological Effective Rise (LER) was essential for determining the functional periods for each of the study lakes. The dynamics of the phenomenon was analysed using volatility indicators, while factors determining functional periods were distinguished using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results showed that short (0-8 days) and medium-length limnophases were observed most frequently during the study period. In the case of potamophases they most often lasted from 8 to 30 days, continuously. Double-mass curves showed four periods of increasing significance of one of the functional phases: 1952-1962 (limnophases), 1963-1982 (potamophases), 1983-1997 (limnophases) and 1998-2013 (potamophases). A variability that was observed in each floodplain lake under study resulted from two main factors: water input and lake basin morphometry. The major role in FPLs' input was played by potamic supply (inflow of water from the parent river), which was a derivative of Bug River water stages and discharge. Atmospheric precipitation played a smaller role. However, the role of local precipitation was marginal in relation to precipitation in the upper part of the Bug River catchment. Spatial variability of the frequencies and durations of potamophases and limnophases was also associated with the

  2. Rapid transcriptome sequencing of an invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Lu, Yong; Kumar, Nikhil; Creasy, Todd; Daugherty, Sean; Chibucos, Marcus C; Orvis, Joshua; Shetty, Amol; Ott, Sandra; Flowers, Melissa; Sengamalay, Naomi; Tallon, Luke J; Pick, Leslie; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C

    2014-08-29

    Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Insecta:Hemiptera;Pentatomidae), commonly known as the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), is an invasive pest of the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, causing economically important damage to a wide range of crops. Native to Asia, BMSB was first observed in Allentown, PA, USA, in 1996, and this pest is now well-established throughout the US mid-Atlantic region and beyond. In addition to the serious threat BMSB poses to agriculture, BMSB has become a nuisance to homeowners, invading home gardens and congregating in large numbers in human-made structures, including homes, to overwinter. Despite its significance as an agricultural pest with limited control options, only 100 bp of BMSB sequence data was available in public databases when this project began. Transcriptome sequencing was undertaken to provide a molecular resource to the research community to inform the development of pest control strategies and to provide molecular data for population genetics studies of BMSB. Using normalized, strand-specific libraries, we sequenced pools of all BMSB life stages on the Illumina HiSeq. Trinity was used to assemble 200,000 putative transcripts in >100,000 components. A novel bioinformatic method that analyzed the strand-specificity of the data reduced this to 53,071 putative transcripts from 18,573 components. By integrating multiple other data types, we narrowed this further to 13,211 representative transcripts. Bacterial endosymbiont genes were identified in this dataset, some of which have a copy number consistent with being lateral gene transfers between endosymbiont genomes and Hemiptera, including ankyrin-repeat related proteins, lysozyme, and mannanase. Such genes and endosymbionts may provide novel targets for BMSB-specific biocontrol. This study demonstrates the utility of strand-specific sequencing in generating shotgun transcriptomes and that rapid sequencing shotgun transcriptomes is possible without the need for extensive

  3. Behavioral evidence for internal factors affecting duration of conglobation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare, Isopoda, Crustacea). Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Hiroe; Moriyama, T

    2012-01-01

    Pill bugs individually walked an experimental pathway, then were induced to conglobate with a puff of air. After recovering, they were stimulated again. Sixty of 80 pill bugs conglobated both times, first moving either antennae (A) or legs (L) during recovery. Both AA and LL groups showed a significant positive correlation between first (t1) and second (t2) conglobation times. In the AL group, pathway locomotion time (t0) was significantly positively correlated to both t1 and t2. We conclude that pill bugs determine conglobation time based partly on their previous states.

  4. Long-Term Efficacy of Various Natural or “Green” Insecticides against Bed Bugs: A Double-Blind Study

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Bed bugs are resurging throughout the world, and, thus, effective pest control strategies are constantly needed. A few studies have evaluated 25(b) and other natural, or so-called “green” products, as well as over-the-counter insecticides for bed bugs, but additional studies are needed to determine efficacy of bed bug control products. This double-blinded research project was initiated to examine long-term effectiveness of six commercially available natural or “green” insecticides against bed...

  5. Timing of short-day exposure influences diapause response of western tarnished plant bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus, enters adult diapause in response to short photoperiods. However, the instars or stages responsive to the photoperiodic cue are poorly defined. Lygus were reared under short days (10 h) until they were dissected to determine diapause status as 10-d-o...

  6. Non-destructive detection of diapause in males of the western tarnished plant bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern populations of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, survive the late-fall and early-winter in adult diapause. Because this diapause is short, it is not clear how it integrates with other survival tactics to ensure overwintering survival of the population. Reports of exten...

  7. Cell lines derived from the squash bug, anasa tristis (coreidae: hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The squash bug, Anasa tristis, is a pest of cucurbits that exerts direct damage on crops and is a vector of plant pathogens. We established cell lines from this insect to serve as tools for basic biology, such as virology and immunology, as well as applied studies, such as insecticide development pr...

  8. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTENTS IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF BUG RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of industry, agriculture, and transport contributes to an increased environmental pollution by heavy metals. The aim of the study was preliminary assessment of the contents of selected metals (lead, cobalt, copper, chromium, cadmium and nickel in the sediments of Bug river. The study comprised part of the river flowing through Poland. It was found that the Bug river sediments are not contaminated in respect to the content of tested metals. Based on the analysis of the study results, these metals can be lined up in the following order: Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Co > Cd. Statistical analysis showed that copper and chromium occur in Bug river sediments in forms bindings with organic matter in majority of cases. The granulometric analysis of sediments from Bug river revealed the largest percentage of two fractions: 1.0–0.2 mm with average of 47.7 ± 19.77% and 0.2–0.1 mm with average of 20.6 ± 7.7%. These are the dominant fractions with the accumulation of metals in river sediments, which has been confirmed by statistical analysis.

  9. Unveiling Exception Handling Bug Hazards in Android Based on GitHub and Google Code Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, R.; Almeida, L.; Gousios, G.; Van Deursen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study mining the exception stack traces included in 159,048 issues reported on Android projects hosted in GitHub (482 projects) and Google Code (157 projects). The goal of this study is to investigate whether stack trace information can reveal bug hazards related to exception

  10. The mitogenome of the brown pod-sucking bug Clavigralla tomentosicollis (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown pod-sucking bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stäl (Hemiptera: Coreidae), causes significant damage to cultivated cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walp, a staple crop in sub-Saharan Africa. C. tomentosicollis pierce and suck sap from cowpea pods, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. The compl...

  11. First records of the dicyphine plant bug Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Bryocorinae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widespread plant bug Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) is reported for the first time from Mexico. In this paper we provide a diagnosis and photographs of the adult male and female, discuss its habits as a plant pest and a predator and potential biocontrol agent of soft-bodied arthropods, and review ...

  12. Trap cropping systems and a physical barrier for suppression of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in peanut-cotton farmscapes in the southeastern USA. Because stink bug adults exhibit edge-mediated dispersal at crop-to-crop interfaces as they colonize cotton, strateg...

  13. First record of the Palearctic plant bug Rhabdomiris striatellus (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirinae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Palearctic plant bug Rhabdomiris striatellus (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirinae) is reported for the first time in North America, based on specimens collected on pin oak, Quercus palustris Münchh., and white oak, Q. alba L. (Fagaceae), from Long Island, New York. A diagnosis and photogra...

  14. Transcriptome of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, halyomorpha halys (stål) (heteroptera: pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is an invasive agricultural and nuisance pest rapidly and aggressively expanding its geographic incidence in North America. This voracious pest poses significant threats to both rural and urban agriculture, ...

  15. A Transcriptome Survey Spanning Life Stages and Sexes of the Harlequin Bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Sparks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn, is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolures for this insect. Here, mRNAs were sampled from whole insects at the 2nd and 4th nymphal instars, as well as sexed adults, and sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. A global assembly of these data identified 72,540 putative unique transcripts bearing high levels of similarity to transcripts identified in other taxa, with over 99% of conserved single-copy orthologs among insects being detected. Gene ontology and protein family analyses were conducted to explore the functional potential of the harlequin bug’s gene repertoire, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted on gene families germane to xenobiotic detoxification, including glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s. Genic content in harlequin bug was compared with that of the closely related invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål. Quantitative analyses of harlequin bug gene expression levels, experimentally validated using quantitative real-time PCR, identified genes differentially expressed between life stages and/or sexes.

  16. Bacterial elicitation of transcriptional response of female squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major pest of squash, pumpkin, and other cucurbits throughout North America. A. tristis is a piercing/sucking feeder which causes extensive foliar wilting, fruit scarring, and in addition transmits plant pathogens. Current biological control agents ava...

  17. Evaluation of mirid predatory bugs and release strategy for aphid control in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Bloemhard, C.M.J.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Schelt, van J.; Ingegno, B.L.; Tavella, L.

    2015-01-01

    Zoophytophagous predators of the family Miridae (Heteroptera), which feed both on plant and prey, often maintain a close relationship with certain host plants. In this study, we aimed to select a suitable mirid predatory bug for aphid control in sweet pepper. Four species were compared: Macrolophus

  18. Southeastern USA regional landscape patterns and population dynamics of the stink bug, Euchistus servus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus is an economically important pest of many agronomic crops in the southern USA, motivating the study of factors influencing population build-up in agricultural regions and landscapes to facilitate management. Methods: ArcGIS was used to characteriz...

  19. Impact of insect management on population dynamics and insecticide resistance of tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot De Beauvois) is a highly polyphagous insect that feeds on numerous wild and cultivated host plants. Although transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins have been available for approximately 20 years for some insect crop pests, none have been d...

  20. The Impact of Test Case Summaries on Bug Fixing Performance : An Empirical Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panichella, Sebastiano; Panichella, A.; Beller, M.M.; Zaidman, A.E.; Gall, Harald C.

    2016-01-01

    Automated test generation tools have been widely investigated with the goal of reducing the cost of testing activities. However, generated tests have been shown not to help developers in detecting and finding more bugs even though they reach higher structural coverage compared to manual testing.

  1. The Impact of Test Case Summaries on Bug Fixing Performance : An Empirical Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panichella, S.; Panichella, A.; Beller, M.; Zaidman, A.E.; Gall, H.

    2015-01-01

    Automated test generation tools have been widely investigated with the goal of reducing the cost of testing activities. However, generated tests have been shown not to help developers in detecting and finding more bugs even though they reach higher structural coverage compared to manual testing. The

  2. A Bioassay for Determining Resistance Levels in Tarnished Plant Bug Populations to Neonicotinoid Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory bioassay was developed and used to test field populations of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), for resistance development to the neonicitinoid insecticides imidacloprid (Trimax®) and thiamethoxam (Centric®). The bioassay determined LC50 values by feeding...

  3. Insights into the saliva of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2), but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4).

  4. Insights into the saliva of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Peiffer

    Full Text Available We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2, but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4.

  5. Density and egg parasitism of stink bugs (hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in elderberry and dispersal into crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinavia hilaris (Say), Euschistus servus (Say), E. tristigmus (Say), and Thyanta custator custator (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are serious pests of crops in the southeastern USA, but little is known concerning the dispersal of these stink bugs from non-crop host plants in woodland habitats into ...

  6. A Transcriptome Survey Spanning Life Stages and Sexes of the Harlequin Bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Michael E.; Rhoades, Joshua H.; Nelson, David R.; Kuhar, Daniel; Lancaster, Jason; Lehner, Bryan; Tholl, Dorothea; Weber, Donald C.; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E.

    2017-01-01

    The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolures for this insect. Here, mRNAs were sampled from whole insects at the 2nd and 4th nymphal instars, as well as sexed adults, and sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. A global assembly of these data identified 72,540 putative unique transcripts bearing high levels of similarity to transcripts identified in other taxa, with over 99% of conserved single-copy orthologs among insects being detected. Gene ontology and protein family analyses were conducted to explore the functional potential of the harlequin bug’s gene repertoire, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted on gene families germane to xenobiotic detoxification, including glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s. Genic content in harlequin bug was compared with that of the closely related invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål). Quantitative analyses of harlequin bug gene expression levels, experimentally validated using quantitative real-time PCR, identified genes differentially expressed between life stages and/or sexes. PMID:28587099

  7. Expedient synthesis of bisabolenol stink bug pheromones via stereodefined cyclohex-2-enones

    Science.gov (United States)

    We recently synthesized all stereoisomers of 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol and 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol, including three stink bugs pheromones, via a rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric addition of trimethylaluminum to diastereomeric mixtures of cyclohex-2-enones. However, yields of trans isomers were low and...

  8. Disruption of sexual communication in the mirid bug Lygocoris pabulinus by hexyl butanoate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.T.; Drijfhout, F.P.; Heijboer, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Visser, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    1 The metathoracic scent gland in Lygocoris pabulinus contains mostly hexyl butanoate. As secretions of this gland in Heteroptera may serve as an alarm pheromone, we determined whether hexyl butanoate is released by disturbed bugs, and whether this compound disrupts sexual attraction of L. pabulinus

  9. Insights into the Saliva of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2), but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4). PMID:24586332

  10. Cladistics and biogeography of the assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, M. del C.

    1998-01-01

    The assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) comprises 26 Neotropical species. A cladistic analysis of the genus was carried out using 63 characters from external morphology, body vestiture, and male and female genitalia, with the species considered as

  11. The assassin bug genera Nagustoides and Stenolemus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) newly recorded from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tadashi; Naka, Takeru

    2016-09-07

    Two assassin bug genera, Nagustoides Miller, 1954 of Harpactorinae and Stenolemus Signoret, 1858 of Emesinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), are recorded from Japan for the first time, with the presence of the representative species N. lii Zhao, Cai & Ren, 2006 and S. alikakay Rédei & Tsai, 2010. Distribution ranges of the two species are revised by the present finding.

  12. Estimating potential stylet penetration of southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) - A mathematical modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern green stink bugs, Nezara viridula (L.), and related species are significant pests of cotton in the U.S. Cotton Belt. Using their stylets, adults introduce disease pathogens of cotton into cotton bolls, and preliminary data indicates nymphs can also ingest these pathogens. Data is lacking ...

  13. Experience-based processing of risk information: the case of the millenium bug.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuttschreuter, M.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of experience in the processing of risk information. With a written questionnaire, completed by 286 subjects in The Netherlands, risk perceptions, mitigating behaviour, and information processing were studied concerning the millennium bug risk that was assumed would

  14. The Effects of "Bug-in-Ear" Supervision on Special Education Teachers' Delivery of Learn Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Janet I.; Brady, Michael P.; Duffy, Mary Lou; Scott, Jack; Pollard, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    Supervision and coaching strategies that provide immediate feedback can help improve instruction for novice teachers. In this study, feedback was provided to teachers using "bug-in-ear" technology to coach them to deliver effective instructional interactions: "learn units." Three novice teachers in K-8 classrooms with students…

  15. Computer games to teach hygiene: an evaluation of the e-Bug junior game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, David; Kostkova, Patty; Weinberg, Julius; Lazareck, Lisa; Weerasinghe, Dasun; Lecky, Donna M; McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2011-06-01

    Handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance remain major public health concerns. In order to facilitate an effective outcome when teaching the basic principles of hand and respiratory hygiene, educational interventions should first target school children. As computer games are ubiquitous in most children's lives, e-Bug developed computer games targeted at teaching children handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance. The games were designed for two target audiences: junior school children (9-12 year olds); and senior school children (13-15 year olds). Between May and August 2009, the finalized junior game underwent an evaluation in three UK schools (in Glasgow, Gloucester and London), involving 62 children in the schools and ∼ 1700 players accessing the junior game online. The e-Bug junior game consists of a number of levels of play, each of which promotes a set of learning outcomes (LOs). These LOs, complementary to those in the e-Bug packs, are expressed through the game mechanics (the rules of the game) rather than through story or dialogue. Although the junior game's evaluation demonstrated a statistically significant change in the knowledge for only a small number of given LOs, because many children had the required knowledge already before playing the game, this is e-Bug's first statistical study on the junior game and the first comprehensive evaluation of its kind. Future work includes a re-examination of the quiz-style questionnaires utilized in this study and an exploration of the potential knowledge change acquired strictly through engagement.

  16. Alarm pheromones and chemical communication in nymphs of the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Christoph Liedtke

    Full Text Available The recent resurge of bed bug infestations (Cimex spp.; Cimicidae and their resistance to commonly used pesticides calls for alternative methods of control. Pheromones play an important role in environmentally sustainable methods for the management of many pest insects and may therefore be applicable for the control of bed bugs. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and causes severe discomfort. Compared to the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, little is known about the chemical signalling and pheromone-based behaviour of the tropical species. Here, we show that the antennal morphology and volatile emission of C. hemipterus closely resembles those of C. lectularius and we test their behavioural responses to conspecific odour emissions. Two major volatiles are emitted by male, female and nymph C. hemipterus under stress, (E-2-hexenal and (E-2-octenal. Notably, nymph emissions show contrasting ratios of these compounds to adults and are further characterized by the addition of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal. The discovery of this nymph pheromone in C. hemipterus is potentially the cause of a repellent effect observed in the bio-tests, where nymph odours induce a significantly stronger repellent reaction in conspecifics than adult odours. Our results suggest that pheromone-based pest control methods developed for C. lectularius could be applicable to C. hemipterus, with the unique nymph blend showing promising practical properties.

  17. The Heteroptera of the Netherlands Antilles – V Tingidae (Lace Bugs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drake, Carl J.; Cobben, R.H.

    1960-01-01

    The present paper is based upon the lace bugs, Family Tingidae, collected by the junior author in the West Indies, on the islands of Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, St. Martin, Saba, and St. Eustatius. This collection of several tingids comprises 17 species, including the five new forms described below.

  18. Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counseling Genomic Testing Pathogen Genomics Epidemiology Resources Genomic Testing Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Fact Sheet: ... Page The Need for Reliable Information on Genetic Testing In 2008, the former Secretary’s Advisory Committee on ...

  19. Hot topic: Brown marmorated stink bug odor compounds do not transfer into milk by feeding bug-contaminated corn silage to lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R L; Zhang, A; Fultz, S W; Abubeker, S; Harris, C; Connor, E E; Van Hekken, D L

    2014-01-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB; Halyomorpha halys) is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative effects on the dairy industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of including BMSB-contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow rations. First, 6 dairies, either highly infested (n=3; 30 to 100 bugs per stalk) or not infested (n=3), were sampled to assess the prevalence of bug secretion compounds tridecane (major component) and E-2-decenal (stink odor component) in silage and milk. Second, using wild BMSB, a mini-silo dose-response experiment (adding 100, 50, 25, 10, and 1 freshly crushed bugs/0.5kg of chopped corn) was conducted to assess the effect of ensiling on BMSB stink odor compounds. Finally, synthetic BMSB stink odor compounds (10g of tridecane and 5g of E-2-decenal) were ruminally infused twice daily over 3 d, and samples of milk, urine, and rumen fluid were collected to evaluate disposition. Bug stink odor compounds were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Milk production and feed composition were unaffected when BMSB-contaminated silage was fed. Moreover, no E-2-decenal was detected in silage or milk (detection threshold = 0.00125μg/mL). The dose-response of tridecane in mini-silo samples exhibited a linear relationship (R(2)=0.78) with the amount of BMSB added; however, E-2-decenal was completely decomposed and undetectable in spiked mini-silos after ensiling. Both synthetic secretion compounds infused into rumen were undetectable in all milk and urine samples. E-2-Decenal was not detectable in rumen fluid, whereas tridecane was detected only at 15 min postinfusion but not present thereafter. Feed intake was unaffected by infusion treatment and BMSB secretion compounds (E-2-decenal and tridecane) were not observed in milk. E-2-Decenal and tridecane from the metathoracic gland of BMSB are not able to

  20. Effects of starvation and molting on the metabolic rate of the bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) is a common hematophagous pest in the urban environment and is capable of surviving extended periods of starvation. However, the relationship between starvation and metabolism in bed bugs is not well understood. To better understand this relationship, we measured the metabolism of all life stages for >900 h after feeding (starvation) using closed-system respirometry. Measurements were made around molting for the immature life stages, which occurs only after a blood meal. In addition, both mated and unmated adults were measured. Starvation and molting had significant effects on the metabolism of the bed bug. Mass-specific metabolic rate (V(O2); mL g(-1) h(-1)) declined in a curvilinear fashion with the period of starvation for adults and with the postmolting period for immature bed bugs (used to standardize all immature life stages). A standard curve was developed to depict the generalized pattern of metabolic decline observed in all life stages that molted. Individual metabolic comparisons among life stages that molted revealed some differences in metabolic rate between unmated males and females. In addition, the mass scaling coefficient was found to decline with starvation time (postmolting time) for all life stages that molted. In most life stages, the ratio of V(CO2) to V(O2) (respiratory exchange ratio) declined over time, indicating a change in metabolic substrate with starvation. Finally, daily percent loss in body mass declined in a pattern similar to that of V(O2). The observed patterns in metabolic decline are evaluated in relation to the life history of bed bugs. In addition, the evolutionary development of these patterns is discussed. The metabolic pattern after feeding was also found to share several similarities with that of other ectothermic species.

  1. Laboratory efficacy of mycoparasitic fungi (Aspergillus tubingensis and Trichoderma harzianum against tropical bed bugs (Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulaikha Zahran

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Approaches to the bed bugs treatment should be explored in-depth using a natural biological agent like fungus especially A. tubingensis to reduce this pest population, in order to replace chemical methods.

  2. Effectiveness of a Reduced-Risk Insecticide Based Bed Bug Management Program in Low-Income Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. infestations are becoming increasingly common in low-income communities. Once they are introduced, elimination is very difficult. As part of the efforts to develop effective and safe bed bug management programs, we conducted a laboratory study evaluating the efficacy of a reduced-risk insecticide—Alpine aerosol (0.5% dinotefuran. We then conducted a field evaluation of a reduced-risk insecticide based integrated pest management (IPM program in low-income family apartments with young children. In laboratory evaluations, direct spray and 5 min exposure to dry Alpine aerosol residue caused 100.0 ± 0.0 and 91.7 ± 8.3% mortality to bed bug nymphs, respectively. Direct Alpine aerosol spray killed 91.3 ± 4.3% of the eggs. The IPM program included education, steam, bagging infested linens, placing intercepting devices under furniture legs and corners of rooms, applying Alpine aerosol and Alpine dust (0.25% dinotefuran, 95% diatomaceous earth dust, and regularly scheduled monitoring and re-treatment. Nine apartments ranging from 1–1,428 (median: 29 bed bugs based on visual inspection and Climbup interceptor counts were included. Over a 6-month period, an average 172 g insecticide (Alpine aerosol + Alpine dust was used in each apartment, a 96% reduction in pesticide usage compared to chemical only treatment reported in a similar environment. The IPM program resulted in an average of 96.8 ± 2.2% reduction in the number of bed bugs. However, elimination of bed bugs was only achieved in three lightly infested apartments (<30 bed bugs at the beginning. Elimination success was closely correlated with the level of bed bug populations.

  3. Seeding Dates and Cultivars Effects on Stink Bugs Population and Damage on Common Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Y G; Gómez, J R; Klingen, I

    2017-12-01

    Fields experiments were conducted during two growing seasons (2010-2011 and 2012-2013) at three seeding dates to identify stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) species and to determine their seasonal population density fluctuation and damage caused to three common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars "Ica Pijao," "Cubacueto 25-9," and "Chévere." Stink bug species observed were Nezara viridula (L.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Chinavia rolstoni (Rolston), Chinavia marginatum (Palisot de Beauvois), and Euschistus sp. The most prevalent species was N. viridula in both seasons. The largest number of stink bugs was found in beans seeded at the first (mid September) and third (beginning of January) seeding dates. Population peaked at BBCH 75 with 1.75, 0.43, and 1.25 stink bugs/10 plants in 2010-2011 and with 2.67, 0.45, and 1.3 stink bugs/10 plants in 2012-2013 in the fields seeded the first, second, and third seeding dates, respectively. The lowest numbers of stink bugs were found in beans seeded at the second (mid November) seeding date. A significant negative correlation between relative humidity and number of stink bugs was found in 2010-2011, and a similar tendency was observed in 2012-2013. The highest seed and pod damage levels occurred in cv. "Chévere" and the lowest in cv. "ICA Pijao" during both seasons. Results suggest that cv. "ICA Pijao" and the second (mid November) seeding date is the best choice to reduce stink bug damage.

  4. Insights into the physiology and ecology of the brackish-water-adapted Cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena CCY9414 based on a genome-transcriptome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Voss

    Full Text Available Nodularia spumigena is a filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacterium that dominates the annual late summer cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea. But N. spumigena also is common in brackish water bodies worldwide, suggesting special adaptation allowing it to thrive at moderate salinities. A draft genome analysis of N. spumigena sp. CCY9414 yielded a single scaffold of 5,462,271 nucleotides in length on which genes for 5,294 proteins were annotated. A subsequent strand-specific transcriptome analysis identified more than 6,000 putative transcriptional start sites (TSS. Orphan TSSs located in intergenic regions led us to predict 764 non-coding RNAs, among them 70 copies of a possible retrotransposon and several potential RNA regulators, some of which are also present in other N2-fixing cyanobacteria. Approximately 4% of the total coding capacity is devoted to the production of secondary metabolites, among them the potent hepatotoxin nodularin, the linear spumigin and the cyclic nodulapeptin. The transcriptional complexity associated with genes involved in nitrogen fixation and heterocyst differentiation is considerably smaller compared to other Nostocales. In contrast, sophisticated systems exist for the uptake and assimilation of iron and phosphorus compounds, for the synthesis of compatible solutes, and for the formation of gas vesicles, required for the active control of buoyancy. Hence, the annotation and interpretation of this sequence provides a vast array of clues into the genomic underpinnings of the physiology of this cyanobacterium and indicates in particular a competitive edge of N. spumigena in nutrient-limited brackish water ecosystems.

  5. Genomic selection models double the accuracy of predicted breeding values for bacterial cold water disease resistance compared to a traditional pedigree-based model in rainbow trout aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Roger L; Leeds, Timothy D; Gao, Guangtu; Parsons, James E; Martin, Kyle E; Evenhuis, Jason P; Fragomeni, Breno O; Wiens, Gregory D; Palti, Yniv

    2017-02-01

    Previously, we have shown that bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance in rainbow trout can be improved using traditional family-based selection, but progress has been limited to exploiting only between-family genetic variation. Genomic selection (GS) is a new alternative that enables exploitation of within-family genetic variation. We compared three GS models [single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP), weighted ssGBLUP (wssGBLUP), and BayesB] to predict genomic-enabled breeding values (GEBV) for BCWD resistance in a commercial rainbow trout population, and compared the accuracy of GEBV to traditional estimates of breeding values (EBV) from a pedigree-based BLUP (P-BLUP) model. We also assessed the impact of sampling design on the accuracy of GEBV predictions. For these comparisons, we used BCWD survival phenotypes recorded on 7893 fish from 102 families, of which 1473 fish from 50 families had genotypes [57 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array]. Naïve siblings of the training fish (n = 930 testing fish) were genotyped to predict their GEBV and mated to produce 138 progeny testing families. In the following generation, 9968 progeny were phenotyped to empirically assess the accuracy of GEBV predictions made on their non-phenotyped parents. The accuracy of GEBV from all tested GS models were substantially higher than the P-BLUP model EBV. The highest increase in accuracy relative to the P-BLUP model was achieved with BayesB (97.2 to 108.8%), followed by wssGBLUP at iteration 2 (94.4 to 97.1%) and 3 (88.9 to 91.2%) and ssGBLUP (83.3 to 85.3%). Reducing the training sample size to n = ~1000 had no negative impact on the accuracy (0.67 to 0.72), but with n = ~500 the accuracy dropped to 0.53 to 0.61 if the training and testing fish were full-sibs, and even substantially lower, to 0.22 to 0.25, when they were not full-sibs. Using progeny performance data, we showed that the accuracy of genomic predictions is substantially higher

  6. High quality draft genome sequence and analysis of Pontibacter roseus type strain SRC-1T (DSM 17521T) isolated from muddy waters of a drainage system in Chandigarh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Supratim; Lapidus, Alla; Shapiro, Nicole; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, James; Reddy, TBK; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Spring, Stefan; Göker, Markus; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Tindall, Brian J.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Pati, Amrita

    2015-01-01

    Pontibacter roseus Suresh et al 2006 is a member of genus Pontibacter family Cytophagaceae, class Cytophagia. While the type species of the genus Pontibacter actiniarum was isolated in 2005 from a marine environment, subsequent species of the same genus have been found in different types of habitats ranging from seawater, sediment, desert soil, rhizosphere, contaminated sites, solar saltern and muddy water. Here we describe the features of Pontibacter roseus strain SRC-1T along with its complete genome sequence and annotation from a culture of DSM 17521T. The 4,581,480 bp long draft genome consists of 12 scaffolds with 4,003 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes and is a part of Genomic encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG-I) project.

  7. Influence of planting date on stink bug injury, yield, fiber quality, and economic returns in Georgia cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulakkatu-Thodi, Ishakh; Shurley, Donald; Toews, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    Phytophagous stink bugs are economically important pests of annual and perennial crops in the southeastern United States. Because of insecticide resistance and risk of secondary pest outbreaks, there is interest in identifying cultural practices that could lead to reduced insecticide applications. The objective of this project was to assess the importance of cotton planting date on stink bug damage to cotton. Unsprayed cotton plots with biweekly planting dates were established at three locations in southern Georgia in each of two crop years. During the bloom cycle, stink bug-induced boll injury was estimated weekly in each plot. Plots were subsequently defoliated, mechanically harvested, and ginned to assess differences in fiber yield and quality attributable to stink bug injury. Results show that the rate of boll damage generally increased more rapidly through the bloom cycle for planting dates in June compared with May. Similarly, estimates of boll damage from June-planted cotton more frequently exceeded the stink bug treatment threshold compared with May-planted cotton. In 2011, mean lint yield and economic returns from May planting dates were significantly greater than June planting dates. In 2012, lint yield and economic returns were greater in plots established in early May compared with later planting dates. Estimates of HVI color + b, a measure of fiber yellowness, were lower in early May-planted cotton compared with June planting. These data show that growers need to be aware of increased stink bug damage potential when planting late.

  8. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand...... the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two...... misidentified strains. Genome analyses also revealed occurrence of higher and lower GC content clades, correlating with phylogenetic clusters. Pan-and core-genome analysis revealed the conservation of 25% of the genome throughout the genus, with a large and open pan-genome. The major source of genomic diversity...

  9. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Health effects of water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  10. First record of Megacydnus secundus J. A. Lis, 2002, a representative of Afrotropical endemic burrower bug genus from Uganda, and an annotated checklist of Ugandan Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Jerzy A; Lis, Barbara

    2014-05-14

    The Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea) is a true bug family with almost 700 species distributed worldwide (Lis 1996, 1999, 2006). These bugs usually dig in the ground (e.g., sand, soil, litter) and, therefore, are commonly known as the burrower bugs or burrowing bugs. Digging in the ground is possible because of several morphological adaptations, including well-developed tibial combs (Lis and Schaefer 2005), coxal combs (Lis 2010), and strong hair-like and peg-like setae on the head margins in larval and adult stages (Lis and Pluot-Sigwalt 2002) (see: Fig. 1A).

  11. Water supply arrangements in developing countries: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Malawi. B.U.G. Mughogho, I.B.M. Kosamu. Abstract. The provision of potable water in the cities of developing countries has been of concern for a long time. Most of the urban population, especially in unplanned settlements, relies on ...

  12. Genome-wide association studies identify 25 genetic loci associated with resistance to Bacterial Cold Water Disease in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant mortality and economic losses in salmonids aquaculture. In previous studies we have identified moderate-large effect QTL for BCWD resistance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). However, the recent availability of a high density SNP array and...

  13. Up-regulation of carbon metabolism-related glyoxylate cycle and toxin production in Beauveria bassiana JEF-007 during infection of bean bug, Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ting; Lee, Se Jin; Nai, Yu-Shin; Kim, Sihyeon; Kim, Jae Su

    2016-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana (Bb) is used as an environment-friendly biopesticide. However, the molecular mechanisms of Bb-host interactions are not well understood. Herein, RNA isolated from B. bassiana (Bb JEF-007) and Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae) infected with this strain were firstly subjected to high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze and compare transcriptomes. Due to lack of fungal and host genome information, fungal transcriptome was processed to partially exclude non-infection specific genes and host-flora. Differentially Expressed Gene (DEG) analysis showed that 2381 genes were up-regulated and 2303 genes were down-regulated upon infection. Most DEGs were classified into the categories of single-organism, cellular and metabolism processes by Gene Ontology analysis. Most DEGs were involved in metabolic pathways based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway mapping. Carbon metabolism-related enzymes in the glyoxylate cycle were significantly up-regulated, suggesting a possible role for them in Bb growth in the host. Additionally, transcript levels of several fungal genes were dramatically increased after infection, such as cytotoxic lectin-like protein, bacterial-like toxin, proteins related to cell wall formation, hyphal growth, nutrient uptake, and halogenated compound synthesis. This work provides insight into how entomopathogenic B. bassiana grows in agriculturally harmful bean bug at 6 d post infection. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Real-Time PCR Assay for the Identification of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet K Dhami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, is a gregarious crop pest that has rapidly spread across the world in the last two decades. It is an excellent hitchhiker species, especially as an over-wintering adult. During this period it is often associated with non-biological commodities such as shipping containers and machinery that travel long distances. Inadequate identification keys and similarity to common species has assisted its spread across Europe, while accurate identification from immature stages or eggs is not possible. We developed a real-time TaqMan PCR assay for the accurate and sensitive detection of the brown marmorated stink bug from all life stages. The assay performance against required diagnostic criterion and within a quarantine framework are described.

  15. An Efficient Technique for Bayesian Modelling of Family Data Using the BUGS software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold T Bae

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Linear mixed models have become a popular tool to analyze continuous data from family-based designs by using random effects that model the correlation of subjects from the same family. However, mixed models for family data are challenging to implement with the BUGS (Bayesian inference Using Gibbs Sampling software because of the high-dimensional covariance matrix of the random effects. This paper describes an efficient parameterization that utilizes the singular value decomposition of the covariance matrix of random effects, includes the BUGS code for such implementation, and extends the parameterization to generalized linear mixed models. The implementation is evaluated using simulated data and an example from a large family-based study is presented with a comparison to other existing methods.

  16. Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L. Population Composition as Determined by Baited Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Schaafsma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two established field populations of bed bugs were sampled using host-mimicking traps baited with a combination of CO2, heat and a synthetic kairomone. The proportion of first instar nymphs (between 52% and 78% of all captured insects was significantly higher than reported in previous studies, which had employed different sampling methods. The proportion of adults was correspondingly much lower than previously reported, between 5% and 7% of total capture. As many as 120 bed bugs were captured in a single trap in one night; the variation in catches between sampling locations within the same room and between days at the same location indicates that multiple nights of trapping may be required to obtain an accurate representation of population structure.

  17. Identification and Synthesis of the Male-produced Sex Pheromone of the Stink Bug, Pellaea stictica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávaro, Carla F; Millar, Jocelyn G; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2015-09-01

    Stink bugs are major pests of a wide variety of agricultural crops worldwide. The species Pellaea stictica is a Neotropical stink bug found in several South American countries. Chromatographic analyses of volatiles released by adults of this species showed that males produce a sex-specific compound, and bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that the compound was attractive only to females, confirming that it is a sex pheromone. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared analyses of the natural compound and several derivatives suggested that the structure was an alcohol with a saturated carbon chain and several methyl branches. After synthesis of two proposed structures, the pheromone of P. stictica was identified as a novel compound, 2,4,8,13-tetramethyltetradecan-1-ol. Laboratory bioassays showed that the synthesized mixture of stereoisomers of 2,4,8,13-tetramethyltetradecan-1-ol was as attractive to P. stictica females as the natural pheromone.

  18. DIVERSITY OF THE SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG NEZARA VIRIDULA (L. (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V MEGLIČ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (L. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae is a global pest of considerable ecological, agricultural and economical interest. The ancestral home of this species is supposed to be Africa and/or Mediterranean and presumably it was spread worldwide during the last two centuries with human trade and agriculture. Bugs found today on different continents do not differ morphologically, however there are substantial differences in their mating behaviour. We used horizontal starch gel electrophoresis to determine the suitability of biochemical markers for assessment of genetic variation between geographically isolated populations of N. viridula. The initial survey of populations from Slovenia, France, French West Indies and Brazil resulted in the resolution of polymorphic banding patterns within the following enzyme systems: GPI, IDH, MDH, ME, MPI and PGM. Results indicate there are consistent differences among tested populations.

  19. Real-Time PCR Assay for the Identification of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Manpreet K; Dsouza, Melissa; Waite, David W; Anderson, Diane; Li, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a gregarious crop pest that has rapidly spread across the world in the last two decades. It is an excellent hitchhiker species, especially as an over-wintering adult. During this period it is often associated with non-biological commodities such as shipping containers and machinery that travel long distances. Inadequate identification keys and similarity to common species has assisted its spread across Europe, while accurate identification from immature stages or eggs is not possible. We developed a real-time TaqMan PCR assay for the accurate and sensitive detection of the brown marmorated stink bug from all life stages. The assay performance against required diagnostic criterion and within a quarantine framework are described.

  20. Countercurrent heat exchange and thermoregulation during blood-feeding in kissing bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahondère, Chloé; Insausti, Teresita C; Belev, George; Pereira, Marcos H

    2017-01-01

    Blood-sucking insects experience thermal stress at each feeding event on endothermic vertebrates. We used thermography to examine how kissing-bugs Rhodnius prolixus actively protect themselves from overheating. During feeding, these bugs sequester and dissipate the excess heat in their heads while maintaining an abdominal temperature close to ambient. We employed a functional-morphological approach, combining histology, µCT and X-ray-synchrotron imaging to shed light on the way these insects manage the flow of heat across their bodies. The close alignment of the circulatory and ingestion systems, as well as other morphological characteristics, support the existence of a countercurrent heat exchanger in the head of R. prolixus, which decreases the temperature of the ingested blood before it reaches the abdomen. This kind of system has never been described before in the head of an insect. For the first time, we show that countercurrent heat exchange is associated to thermoregulation during blood-feeding. PMID:29157359

  1. Live imaging of symbiosis: spatiotemporal infection dynamics of a GFP-labelled Burkholderia symbiont in the bean bug Riptortus pedestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Fukatsu, Takema

    2014-01-01

    Many insects possess endosymbiotic bacteria inside their body, wherein intimate interactions occur between the partners. While recent technological advancements have deepened our understanding of metabolic and evolutionary features of the symbiont genomes, molecular mechanisms underpinning the intimate interactions remain difficult to approach because the insect symbionts are generally uncultivable. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris is associated with the betaproteobacterial Burkholderia symbiont in a posterior region of the midgut, which develops numerous crypts harbouring the symbiont extracellularly. Distinct from other insect symbiotic systems, R. pedestris acquires the Burkholderia symbiont not by vertical transmission but from the environment every generation. By making use of the cultivability and the genetic tractability of the symbiont, we constructed a transgenic Burkholderia strain labelled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), which enabled detailed observation of spatiotemporal dynamics and the colonization process of the symbiont in freshly prepared specimens. The symbiont live imaging revealed that, at the second instar, colonization of the symbiotic midgut M4 region started around 6 h after inoculation (hai). By 24 hai, the symbiont cells appeared in the main tract and also in several crypts of the M4. By 48 hai, most of the crypts were colonized by the symbiont cells. By 72 hai, all the crypts were filled up with the symbiont cells and the symbiont localization pattern continued during the subsequent nymphal development. Quantitative PCR of the symbiont confirmed the infection dynamics quantitatively. These results highlight the stinkbug-Burkholderia gut symbiosis as an unprecedented model for comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underpinning insect symbiosis. PMID:24103110

  2. Geological and Mineralogical-technological features chromite ore from nickel-weathering crusts Average Bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkov E.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Conditions of occurrence and distribution features of chromites ore bodies in the ultra-basic nickel bearing weathering crusts of Middle Bug Area are considered. Main types of exogenous chromites ores in weathering crusts and beyond of them are identified as well as mineralogical, chemical and grain features of mineralization are given. Obtained data are substantiated in order to apply them while developing the efficient schemes of mining and processing of exogenous chromites ores.

  3. Autonomous Fault Detection for Performance Bugs in Component Based Robotic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    requiring a manual modeling of the system behavior . 3295 Khalastchi et al. [11], in contrast, introduce an online fault detection approach which is purely...diagnosis of robot navigation software,” in Simulation, Modeling , and Programming for Autonomous Robots, S. Carpin, I. Noda, E. Pagello, M. Reggiani, and... Autonomous Fault Detection for Performance Bugs in Component-Based Robotic Systems Johannes Wienke1 and Sebastian Wrede1 Abstract— We present a novel

  4. Effects of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Feeding Injury on Sweet Corn Yield and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissel, William J; Mason, Charles E; Whalen, Joanne; Hough-Goldstein, Judith; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2015-06-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an Asian species that now dominates the stink bug complex in many cultivated crops throughout the mid-Atlantic United States. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) is a preferred host of H. halys, and the bug can cause kernel injury on developing ears. Currently, there is limited information available on which plant growth stages are most sensitive to H. halys feeding or density of bugs required to cause yield and quality reductions on processing and fresh market sweet corn ears. In 2011 and 2012, sweet corn ears were infested at three different corn growth stages: silking (R1), blister (R2), and milk (R3) at densities of zero, one, three, and five H. halys adults per ear for 7 d. At harvest, four yield measurements were assessed and ears were inspected for quality reductions. The greatest yield loss from H. halys occurred when infestations were initiated during early stages of ear development, and the greatest quality reductions (damaged kernels) occurred during later stages of ear development. A density of one H. halys per ear resulted in levels of kernel damage great enough to cause significant quality reductions. This study highlights the ability of H. halys to cause substantial economic losses in both fresh market and processing sweet corn in a relatively short period of time at low population densities. Therefore, infestations by this insect in sweet corn must be considered when making pest management decisions in regions where it has become established. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Redbanded Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Infestation and Occurrence of Delayed Maturity in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyavhare, Suhas S; Way, Michael O; Pearson, Rebecca A; Medina, Raul F

    2015-08-01

    Studies done in Brazilian soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merril, in the 1970s suggested the redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), is principally responsible for delayed maturity in this crop. This stink bug species has recently emerged as a serious pest of soybean in the southern United States, where little is known about its association with the occurrence of delayed maturity disorder. Also, the mechanism behind stink bug-induced soybean delayed maturity remains unknown. It is believed that stink bug feeding during pod development stages results in reduced pod-seed load, causing alteration of source-sink ratio and eventually delayed maturity. To determine the P. guildinii threshold triggering delayed maturity in soybean, experiments were conducted with varying levels of P. guildinii infestation (0, 2, 4, and 8 adults per 0.3 m) during the R4 to R5 soybean growth stages. In addition, to determine if soybean delayed maturity is exclusively because of reduced pod load, experiments with different levels of mechanical pod removal (0, 25, 50, and 75%) were conducted on field-grown soybeans. P. guildinii densities up to 4 adults per 0.3 m did not trigger occurrence of delayed maturity. However, a density of 8 adults per 0.3 m produced a significant increase in the number of green leaves retained on plants at maturity (i.e., delayed maturity). There was no effect of mechanical pod removal on green leaf retention. The lack of a significant positive correlation between mechanical pod removal and green leaf retention indicates the involvement of mechanism(s) other than reduced pod load in the occurrence of soybean delayed maturity. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Endophytic Fungi As Biopesticides Against Rice Black Bug On Rice Plant.

    OpenAIRE

    7.Nur, Amin; La, Daha; Nurariaty, Agus

    2017-01-01

    The previous study have documented the presence of endophytic fungi provide a protection of the plant hosts against insect herbivore, parasitic nematodes and plant pathogens. The present study aimed to investigate endophytic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Trichoderma sp. against rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis in Greenhouse. The results showed that both the endophytic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Trichoderma sp statiscally differents on mortality of the insect to compare with the con...

  7. Evaluation of Four Bed Bug Traps for Surveillance of the Brown Dog Tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnohan, Lucas P; Kaufman, Phillip E; Allan, Sandra A; Gezan, Salvador A; Weeks, Emma N I

    2015-03-01

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle), can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acaricide treatment is currently the primary method of control, but can be costly and can lead to the development of acaricide resistance in tick populations. Traps of various designs can be used to help monitor and manage populations of indoor pests, such as cockroaches and bed bugs, but there are currently no commercially available traps for use with brown dog tick infestations. This study included a comparison of four commercially available bed bug traps (NightWatch [BioSensory Inc., Putnam, CT], Bed Bug Beacon [PackTite, Fort Collins, CO], ClimbUp [Susan McKnight Inc., Memphis, TN], and Verify [FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA]) with regard to their efficacy in capturing brown dog ticks, and also compared tick attraction to ClimbUp traps baited with several stimuli including CO2. Significantly more ticks were captured and attracted to the NightWatch and CO2-baited ClimbUp traps than the other two trap models. The results suggest that bed bug traps may be useful in brown dog tick monitoring, and CO2 will likely be an important component of a trapping system employed in the future. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Genetic parameters and selection strategies for soybean genotypes resistant to the stink bug-complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoi, Cláudio Roberto Cardoso; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2009-04-01

    Soybean genotypes resistant to stink bugs are derived from complex breeding processes obtained through indirect selection. The aim of the present work was to estimate genetic parameters for guiding selection strategies towards resistant genotypes, based on those traits associated with responses to pod-attacking stink bugs, such as the grain filling period (GFP), leaf retention (LR), percentage index of pod damage (PIPD) and percentage of spotted seeds (PSS). We assessed the parental lines IAC-100 (resistant) and FT-Estrela (susceptible), the progenies F(2) and F (4) , 30 progenies F (2:3) , 30 progenies BC (1) F (2:3) and 30 progenies BC (2) F (2:3) , besides the cultivars BRS Celeste and MGBR-46 (Conquista). Three field experiments, using randomized complete block design with three replications, were installed in Goiânia-GO, in the 2002/03 season. Each experiment consisted of 36 treatments (6 common and 30 regular). Heritability estimates were: 74.6 and 36.1 (GFP); 51.9 and 19.9 (LR); 49.6 and 49.6 (PIPD) and 55.8 and 20.3 (PSS), in both the broad and narrow senses, respectively. Based on these results, we concluded that the best strategy for obtaining stink bug-resistant genotypes consists of selecting the PIPD trait in early generations (F (3) or F (4) ), followed by selection for the GFP, LR and PSS traits in generations with higher endogamy levels.

  9. A key for identifying faecal smears to detect domestic infestations of triatomine bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Schofield

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of residual populations of domestic triatomine bugs that survive insecticide treatment is a key component of successful evaluation and vigilance for Chagas disease control. We have recently demonstrated that sheets of paper, tacked on to the walls of infested houses, can become streaked with the faeces of triatomine bugs and thus reveal thepresence of an infestation. In thispaper, wepresent a simple key to differentiate the faecal streaks of triatomine bugs from those of other domestic arthropods such as cockroaches, ticks and cimicid bedbugs.Determinar as populações de barbeiros residuais nas casas depois de borrifação com inseticidas é um componente importante na vigilância e evolução do controle dos vetores da doença de Chagas. Recentemente, mostramos que folhas de papel, afixadas na parede das casas infestadas, podem ser manchadas com fezes dos triatomineos, assim revelando a infestação. Neste trabalho, apresentamos uma chave simples para diferenciar as fezes dos triatomineos de outros artropodos, como baratas, carrapatos e percevejos de cama.

  10. High Levels of Resistance in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), to Neonicotinoid Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alvaro; Anderson, Troy D

    2016-05-01

    The rapid increase of bed bug populations resistant to pyrethroids demands the development of novel control tactics. Products combining pyrethroids and neonicotinoids have become very popular for bed bug control in the United States, but there are concerns about evolution of resistance to these compounds. Laboratory assays were used to measure the toxicity of topical applications of four neonicotinoids to a susceptible population and three pyrethroid-resistant populations. Activity of esterases, glutathione S-transferases, and cytochrome P450s of all strains was also evaluated. High levels of resistance to four neonicotinoids, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam, relative to the susceptible Fort Dix population, were detected in populations collected from human dwellings in Cincinnati and Michigan. Because activity of detoxifying enzymes was increased in these two populations, our results suggest that these enzymes have some involvement in neonicotinoid resistance, but other resistance mechanisms might be involved as well. Detection of high levels of resistance to neonicotinoids further limits the options for chemical control of bed bugs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Genetic parameters and selection strategies for soybean genotypes resistant to the stink bug-complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Soybean genotypes resistant to stink bugs are derived from complex breeding processes obtained through indirect selection. The aim of the present work was to estimate genetic parameters for guiding selection strategies towards resistant genotypes, based on those traits associated with responses to pod-attacking stink bugs, such as the grain filling period (GFP), leaf retention (LR), percentage index of pod damage (PIPD) and percentage of spotted seeds (PSS). We assessed the parental lines IAC-100 (resistant) and FT-Estrela (susceptible), the progenies F2 and F 4 , 30 progenies F 2:3 , 30 progenies BC 1 F 2:3 and 30 progenies BC 2 F 2:3 , besides the cultivars BRS Celeste and MGBR-46 (Conquista). Three field experiments, using randomized complete block design with three replications, were installed in Goiânia-GO, in the 2002/03 season. Each experiment consisted of 36 treatments (6 common and 30 regular). Heritability estimates were: 74.6 and 36.1 (GFP); 51.9 and 19.9 (LR); 49.6 and 49.6 (PIPD) and 55.8 and 20.3 (PSS), in both the broad and narrow senses, respectively. Based on these results, we concluded that the best strategy for obtaining stink bug-resistant genotypes consists of selecting the PIPD trait in early generations (F 3 or F 4 ), followed by selection for the GFP, LR and PSS traits in generations with higher endogamy levels. PMID:21637688

  12. Genetic parameters and selection strategies for soybean genotypes resistant to the stink bug-complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Roberto Cardoso de Godoi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean genotypes resistant to stink bugs are derived from complex breeding processes obtained through indirect selection. The aim of the present work was to estimate genetic parameters for guiding selection strategies towards resistant genotypes, based on those traits associated with responses to pod-attacking stink bugs, such as the grain filling period (GFP, leaf retention (LR, percentage index of pod damage (PIPD and percentage of spotted seeds (PSS. We assessed the parental lines IAC-100 (resistant and FT-Estrela (susceptible, the progenies F2 and F4, 30 progenies F2:3, 30 progenies BC1F2:3 and 30 progenies BC2F2:3, besides the cultivars BRS Celeste and MGBR-46 (Conquista. Three field experiments, using randomized complete block design with three replications, were installed in Goiânia-GO, in the 2002/03 season. Each experiment consisted of 36 treatments (6 common and 30 regular. Heritability estimates were: 74.6 and 36.1 (GFP; 51.9 and 19.9 (LR; 49.6 and 49.6 (PIPD and 55.8 and 20.3 (PSS, in both the broad and narrow senses, respectively. Based on these results, we concluded that the best strategy for obtaining stink bug-resistant genotypes consists of selecting the PIPD trait in early generations (F3 or F4, followed by selection for the GFP, LR and PSS traits in generations with higher endogamy levels.

  13. Isogroup Selection to Optimize Biocontrol Increases Cannibalism in Omnivorous (Zoophytophagous) Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, François; Réale, Denis; Lucas, Eric

    2017-07-25

    Zoophytophagous insects can substitute animals for plant resources when prey is scarce. Many arthropods feed on conspecifics to survive in these conditions. An individual's tendency for cannibalism may depend on its genotype along with its diet specialization, in interaction with the availability of alternative food resources. We compared two isogroup lines of the zoophytophagous mullein bug, either specialized on animal or on plant diets, that were generated to improve biocontrol. We predicted that: (1) bugs from the prey-specialized line would show higher levels of cannibalism than bugs from the pollen-specialized line, and (2) both lines would decrease cannibalism levels in the presence of their preferred resource. Under laboratory conditions, large nymphal instars had 24 hours to feed on smaller instars, in the absence of additional resources, or with either spider mites or pollen present. Cannibalism was reduced by the availability of both prey and pollen, although prey had a lower effect than pollen. The intensity of cannibalism was always higher in the prey-specialized line than in the pollen-specialized line, regardless of the availability of supplemented resources. The pollen-specialized line had decreased cannibalism levels only when pollen was available. These results indicate that cannibalism is a potentially regulating force in the prey-specialized line, but not in the pollen-specialized line.

  14. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  15. Under-Expression of Chemosensory Genes in Domiciliary Bugs of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelle Marchant

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs Triatominae are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Chemical elimination programs have been launched to control Chagas disease vectors. However, the disease persists because native vectors from sylvatic habitats are able to (recolonize houses-a process called domiciliation. Triatoma brasiliensis is one example. Because the chemosensory system allows insects to interact with their environment and plays a key role in insect adaption, we conducted a descriptive and comparative study of the chemosensory transcriptome of T. brasiliensis samples from different ecotopes.In a reference transcriptome built using de novo assembly, we found transcripts encoding 27 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs, 17 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 3 odorant receptors (ORs, 5 transient receptor potential channel (TRPs, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMPs, 25 takeout proteins, 72 cytochrome P450s, 5 gluthatione S-transferases, and 49 cuticular proteins. Using protein phylogenies, we showed that most of the OBPs and CSPs for T. brasiliensis had well supported orthologs in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We also showed a higher number of these genes within the bloodsucking bugs and more generally within all Hemipterans compared to the other species in the super-order Paraneoptera. Using both DESeq2 and EdgeR software, we performed differential expression analyses between samples of T. brasiliensis, taking into account their environment (sylvatic, peridomiciliary and domiciliary and sex. We also searched clusters of co-expressed contigs using HTSCluster. Among differentially expressed (DE contigs, most were under-expressed in the chemosensory organs of the domiciliary bugs compared to the other samples and in females compared to males. We clearly identified DE genes that play a role in the chemosensory system.Chemosensory genes could be good candidates for genes that contribute to adaptation or

  16. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tap as described). 3. In all situations, drink or cook only with water that comes out of the tap cold. Water that comes out of the tap warm or hot can contain much higher levels of lead. Boiling ...

  17. Comparative Genomics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tory motifs and other non-coding DNA motifs, and genome flux and dynamics. Finally the article describes how the information one can extract from a comparative analysis of genomes depends to a large extent, on the specific aspect of the genomes that is being compared and the phylogenetic distances of the organisms ...

  18. Cancer genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrild, Bodil; Guldberg, Per; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth Methner

    2007-01-01

    Almost all cells in the human body contain a complete copy of the genome with an estimated number of 25,000 genes. The sequences of these genes make up about three percent of the genome and comprise the inherited set of genetic information. The genome also contains information that determines whe...

  19. Survey of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) egg parasitoids in wheat, soybean, and vegetable crops in southeast Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, A L; Herbert, D A; Kuhar, T P; Kamminga, K

    2009-04-01

    Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) cause significant damage to many different crops and horticultural commodities in Virginia. However, little is known about the species diversity or impact of stink bug egg parasitoids in the state. A survey was conducted in 2005 and 2006 (May through September) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and several vegetable crops by collecting natural egg masses of various stink bug species and by monitoring sentinel egg masses. A total of 570 Euschistus servus (Say) eggs in 26 egg masses, 11,197 Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) eggs in 939 egg masses, 15 Podisus maculiventris (Say) eggs in 2 egg masses, and 546 Acrosternum hilare (Say) eggs in 18 egg masses were field collected and returned to the laboratory, where emerging parasitoids were identified to species. In addition, 2,512 laboratory-reared E. servus eggs and 230 P. maculiventris eggs were placed as sentinels into crop fields and collected after 7 d, and parasitoid or stink bug emergence was recorded. Four species of hymenopteran parasitoids in the family Scelionidae were recovered from stink bug eggs: Telenomus podisi Ashmead, Trissolcus basalis Wollaston, Trissolcus edessae Fouts, and Trissolcus euschisti Ashmead. In addition, one parasitoid in the family Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) was recovered. Parasitism rates were highest in E. servus with 89.7 and 49.2% of egg masses and individual eggs parasitized, respectively. The predominant parasitoid species was T. podisi.

  20. A case of extensive congregation of Man-faced Stink Bug Catacanthus incarnatus (Drury (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae together with new host records from western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Waghmare

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the congregation of Stink Bug Catacanthus incarnatus. For the first time this bug was reported at high altitude i.e., 792m. The study reports the congregation of C. incarnatus on four new host plant species viz., Ixora brachiata, Memecylon umbellatum, Glochidion ellipticum and Olea dioica. More infestation was observed on I. brachiata. 

  1. Impact of a community-based bug-hunting campaign on Chagas disease control: a case study in the department of Jalapa, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Kota

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease control requires an innovative approach to strengthen community participation in vector surveillance. This paper presents a case study of a community-based bug-hunting campaign in Guatemala. The campaign was implemented in 2007 in the following three stages: (i) a four week preparation stage to promote bug-hunting, (ii) a one week bug-hunting stage to capture and collect bugs and (iii) a 10 week follow-up stage to analyse the bugs and spray insecticide. A total of 2,845 bugs were reported, of which 7% were Triatominae vectors, such as Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata. The bug-hunting campaign detected a five-six-fold higher amount of vectors in one week than traditional community-based surveillance detects in one year. The bug-hunting campaign effectively detected vectors during a short period, provided information to update the vector infestation map and increased community and political awareness regarding Chagas disease. This approach could be recommended as an effective and feasible strategy to strengthen vector surveillance on a larger scale. PMID:23579801

  2. High quality draft genome sequence and analysis of Pontibacter roseus type strain SRC-1(T) (DSM 17521(T)) isolated from muddy waters of a drainage system in Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Supratim; Lapidus, Alla; Shapiro, Nicole; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, James; Reddy, Tbk; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Spring, Stefan; Göker, Markus; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Tindall, Brian J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Pati, Amrita

    2015-01-01

    Pontibacter roseus is a member of genus Pontibacter family Cytophagaceae, class Cytophagia. While the type species of the genus Pontibacter actiniarum was isolated in 2005 from a marine environment, subsequent species of the same genus have been found in different types of habitats ranging from seawater, sediment, desert soil, rhizosphere, contaminated sites, solar saltern and muddy water. Here we describe the features of Pontibacter roseus strain SRC-1(T) along with its complete genome sequence and annotation from a culture of DSM 17521(T). The 4,581,480 bp long draft genome consists of 12 scaffolds with 4,003 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes and is a part of Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains: KMG-I project.

  3. A non-invasive technique to bleed incubating birds without trapping: A blood-sucking bug in a hollow egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P.H.; Voigt, C.C.; Arnold, J.M.; Nagel, R.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a non-invasive technique to obtain blood samples from incubating birds without trapping and handling. A larval instar of the blood-sucking bug Dipetalogaster maximus (Heteroptera) was put in a hollowed artificial egg which was placed in a common tern Sterna hirundo) nest. A gauze-covered hole in the egg allowed the bug to draw blood from the brood patch of breeding adults. We successfully collected 68 blood samples of sufficient amount (median=187 ??l). The daily success rate was highest during the early breeding season and averaged 34% for all trials. We could not detect any visible response by the incubating bird to the sting of the bug. This technique allows for non-invasive blood collection from bird species of various sizes without disturbance. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2005.

  4. A Survey of the Species of Squash Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) Egg Parasitoids in Virginia and Their Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James M; Kuhar, Thomas P

    2017-11-06

    Squash bug, Anasa tristis DeGeer (Hemiptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of squash and pumpkins in the United States. In order to better understand the importance of natural egg parasitism of this species in Virginia, we conducted a 2-yr statewide survey. In total, 1,127 squash bug egg masses (~20,000 total eggs) were sampled from squash and pumpkins from 43 counties in Virginia from 2014 to 2015. Egg masses were brought back to the lab to record levels of squash bug nymphal emergence or adult parasitoid eclosion and identification. Over 50% of the total squash bug eggs collected statewide were parasitized. Gryon pennsylvanicum Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) was the predominant egg parasitoid accounting for over 98% of all parasitoid adults recovered. The only other species emerging from squash bug eggs was Anastatus reduvii Howard (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), which is a generalist parasitoid. G. pennsylvanicum was found in 75% of the counties surveyed with the highest levels of parasitism occurring in the Northern, Southwestern Mountain, and Western Piedmont regions of the state and the lowest levels of parasitism occurring in the Tidewater region in the southeastern portion of the state. Based on this 2-yr survey, G. pennsylvanicum was determined to be a major natural enemy of squash bug, significantly reducing the number of nymphs that emerge from deposited eggs. Conservation of this natural enemy should therefore be a priority for integrated pest management programs in cucurbits. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Insecticide susceptibility of Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and three other stink bug species composing a soybean pest complex in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Endo, Nobuyuki

    2012-06-01

    The susceptibility of the stink bug species Nezara viridula (L.), Nezara antennata Scott, Piezodorus hybneri (Gmelin), and Riptortus pedestris (F.) to insecticides was tested, establishing their 50% lethal dose (LD50) values as baseline data. Third instars and adults of the four species were treated by topical application with seven insecticides: fenitrothion, fenthion, etofenprox, silafluofen, dinotefuran, clothianidin, and ethiprole. The weight of the stink bug and weight of the insecticide applied to each bug were used as explanatory variables in the probit regression analysis. The effect of the body weight on the dose-response relationship, the proportional model, was not uniform among the tested insecticide-stink bug combinations. However, the basic model fit all combinations and could estimate LD50 values successfully. Therefore, LD50 values at the medium (average) weight estimated by the basic model were selected to describe the susceptibility of the stink bugs. The LD50 value of silafluofen for N. viridula adults, and that of silafluofen and etofenprox for N. antennata adults, was at least 2,338 ng greater than the other species exposed to each insecticide. Almost all of the LD50 values for adults were over 10 times greater than those of the same species' nymphs treated with the same insecticide. Thus monitoring of occurring species and their developmental stages is important for controlling effectively the stink bug pest complex by insecticides, especially by silafluofen or etofenprox. The estimated LD50 values can be used as baseline data to compare the susceptibility of the species collected in another year or location.

  6. Mortality, Temporary Sterilization, and Maternal Effects of Sublethal Heat in Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Aak, Anders; Edgar, Kristin Skarsfjord

    2015-01-01

    Adult bed bugs were exposed to the sublethal temperatures 34.0°C, 35.5°C, 37.0°C, 38.5°C, or 40.0°C for 3, 6, or 9 days. The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect. The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success. Adult fecundity remained low for up to 40 days after heat exposure, and the time until fertility was restored correlated with the temperature-sum experienced during heat exposure. Three or 6 days of parental exposure to 38.5°C significantly lowered their offspring’s feeding and moulting ability, which consequently led to a failure to continue beyond the third instar. Eggs that were deposited at 22.0°C before being exposed to 37.0°C for 3 or 6 days died, whereas eggs that were exposed to lower temperatures were not significantly affected. Eggs that were deposited during heat treatment exhibited high levels of mortality also at 34.0°C and 35.5°C. The observed negative effects of temperatures between 34.0°C and 40.0°C may be utilized in pest management, and sublethal temperature exposure ought to be further investigated as an additional tool to decimate or potentially eradicate bed bug populations. The effect of parental heat exposure on progeny demonstrates the importance of including maternal considerations when studying bed bug environmental stress reactions. PMID:25996999

  7. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Meyin A Ebong

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding" and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs, which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  8. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera) in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Philippe; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Guilbert, Eric; Njiokou, Flobert; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Eyangoh, Sara; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera) represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens) was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens) was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for “DNA barcoding”) and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs), which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41–45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and “DNA barcoding” reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy. PMID:27149077

  9. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera) in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyin A Ebong, Solange; Petit, Elsa; Le Gall, Philippe; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Guilbert, Eric; Njiokou, Flobert; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Eyangoh, Sara; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera) represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens) was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens) was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding") and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs), which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  10. The Archaeology of the Bug Hill Site (34Pu-116): Pushmataha County, Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    numerous intermittent creeks are to the north. The Wheeler Lee site (34Pu-102) is approximately 800 m east of 34Pu-116. The Dink site (34Pu-114), which...There is little evidence of similar sites (dark midden mounds) other than the Dink site in the project area. Recently, a third possible dark midden mound...Lctino4teBg ilsie(4P-1) -bI 7 The Bug Hill site will be inundated upon completion of the lake, and the Dink site is in the flood pool and will be

  11. Contrasting Role of Temperature in Structuring Regional Patterns of Invasive and Native Pestilential Stink Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, P. Dilip; Dively, Galen P.; Herbert, Ames; Malone, Sean; Whalen, Joanne; Lamp, William O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Assessment and identification of spatial structures in the distribution and abundance of invasive species is important for unraveling the underlying ecological processes. The invasive agricultural insect pest Halyomorpha halys that causes severe economic losses in the United States is currently expanding both within United States and across Europe. We examined the drivers of H. halys invasion by characterizing the distribution and abundance patterns of H. halys and native stink bugs (Chinavia hilaris and Euschistus servus) across eight different spatial scales. We then quantified the interactive and individual influences of temperature, and measures of resource availability and distance from source populations, and their relevant spatial scales. We used Moran’s Eigenvector Maps based on Gabriel graph framework to quantify spatial relationships among the soybean fields in mid-Atlantic Unites States surveyed for stink bugs. Findings Results from the multi-spatial scale, multivariate analyses showed that temperature and its interaction with resource availability and distance from source populations structures the patterns in H. halys at very broad spatial scale. H. halys abundance decreased with increasing average June temperature and distance from source population. H. halys were not recorded at fields with average June temperature higher than 23.5°C. In parts with suitable climate, high H. halys abundance was positively associated with percentage developed open area and percentage deciduous forests at 250m scale. Broad scale patterns in native stink bugs were positively associated with increasing forest cover and, in contrast to the invasive H. halys, increasing mean July temperature. Our results identify the contrasting role of temperature in structuring regional patterns in H. halys and native stink bugs, while demonstrating its interaction with resource availability and distance from source populations for structuring H. halys patterns. Conclusion

  12. A peculiar new virus-spermatozoon association in the bug Raphigaster nebulosa (Poda) (Heteroptera-Insecta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercati, David; Dallai, Romano

    2016-01-01

    The sperm of the heteropteran bug Raphigaster nebulosa (Poda) are of two types, differing in length and size of their flagella. The thicker sperm are shorter than the thinner ones and have large mitochondrial derivatives. The presence of virus particles associated with the plasma membrane of thinner sperm is described for the first time; thicker sperm are immune to virus infection. The fact that virus particles are present on thinner sperm only initiates considerations on the transmission of virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available , and of the remaining 2,5 percent, some 70 percent is frozen in the polar caps and around 30 percent is present as soil moisture or in underground aquifers. Less than 1 percent is thus accessible for direct use by humans, animals and plants. Consequently... be serviced with harvested water and/or grey water. Conserve and reuse cooling tower water by using efficient systems and strategies. Avoid ?once-through systems? commonly used for evaporation coolers, ice makers, hydraulic equipment, and air compressors...

  14. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  15. Global genome response of Escherichia coli O157∶H7 Sakai during dynamic changes in growth kinetics induced by an abrupt downshift in water activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawalit Kocharunchitt

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate growth kinetics and time-dependent change in global expression of Escherichia coli O157∶H7 Sakai upon an abrupt downshift in water activity (aw. Based on viable count data, shifting E. coli from aw 0.993 to aw 0.985 or less caused an apparent loss, then recovery, of culturability. Exponential growth then resumed at a rate characteristic for the aw imposed. To understand the responses of this pathogen to abrupt osmotic stress, we employed an integrated genomic and proteomic approach to characterize its cellular response during exposure to a rapid downshift but still within the growth range from aw 0.993 to aw 0.967. Of particular interest, genes and proteins with cell envelope-related functions were induced during the initial loss and subsequent recovery of culturability. This implies that cells undergo remodeling of their envelope composition, enabling them to adapt to osmotic stress. Growth at low aw, however, involved up-regulating additional genes and proteins, which are involved in the biosynthesis of specific amino acids, and carbohydrate catabolism and energy generation. This suggests their important role in facilitating growth under such stress. Finally, we highlighted the ability of E. coli to activate multiple stress responses by transiently inducing the RpoE and RpoH regulons to control protein misfolding, while simultaneously activating the master stress regulator RpoS to mediate long-term adaptation to hyperosmolality. This investigation extends our understanding of the potential mechanisms used by pathogenic E. coli to adapt, survive and grow under osmotic stress, which could potentially be exploited to aid the selection and/or development of novel strategies to inactivate this pathogen.

  16. Studies of Resurgent Bed Bugs: Population Genetic Structure, Impact of Aggregation on Development and Molecular Screening for Bartonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Virna Lisa

    The recent resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) has created an unprecedented demand for research on its biology. The main objectives of this dissertation research were to investigate several aspects of bed bug biology: infestation and dispersal dynamics at a large and small geographical scale using molecular markers, to determine the impact of aggregation on bed bug development and to screen bed bug populations for a re-emergent pathogen. First, we studied the infestation and dispersal dynamics of bed bugs at large geographical scale (e.g., across cities, states). Although bed bug infestations are on the rise, there is a poor understanding of their dispersal patterns and sources of infestation. We conducted a genetic study of 21 bed bug infestations from the eastern United States. We genotyped samples comprised of 8 - 10 individuals per infestation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Despite high genetic diversity across all infestations, with 5 -- 17 alleles per locus (mean = 10.3), we found low genetic diversity (1 -- 4 alleles per locus) within all but one of the infestations. These results suggest that nearly all the studied infestations were started by a small propagule possibly consisting of a singly mated female and/or her progeny. All infestations were strongly genetically differentiated from each other (mean pairwise FST between populations = 0.68) and we did not find strong evidence of a geographic pattern of structuring. The high level of genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States together with the lack of geographically organized structure is consistent with multiple introductions into the United States from foreign sources. This work is described in Chapter 2 and was published in the Journal of Medical Entomology in 2012. Second, we investigated dispersal and infestation dynamics of bed bugs at a fine geographical scale within three multistory apartment buildings: one from Raleigh, NC and two from Jersey City, NJ

  17. Nosema maddoxi sp. nov. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae), a Widespread Pathogen of the Green Stink Bug Chinavia hilaris (Say) and the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Stål).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Ann E; Solter, Leellen F; Maddox, Joseph V; Huang, Wei-Fone; Estep, Alden S; Krawczyk, Grzegorz; Weber, Donald C; Hoelmer, Kim A; Sanscrainte, Neil D; Becnel, James J

    2017-10-06

    We describe a unique microsporidian species that infects the green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris; the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys; the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus; and the dusky stink bug, Euschistus tristigmus. All life stages are unikaryotic, but analysis of the consensus small subunit region of the ribosomal gene places this microsporidium in the genus Nosema, which historically has been characterized by diplokaryotic life stages. It is also characterized by having the reversed arrangement of the ribosomal gene (LSU -ITS- SSU) found in species within the "true Nosema" clade. This microsporidium is apparently Holarctic in distribution. It is present in H. halys both where it is native in Asia and where it is invasive in North America, as well as in samples of North American native C. hilaris collected prior to the introduction of H. halys from Asia. Prevalence in H. halys from mid-Atlantic, North America in 2015-2016 ranged from 0.0% to 28.3%, while prevalence in C. hilaris collected in Illinois in 1970-1972 ranged from 14.3% to 58.8%. Oral infectivity and pathogenicity were confirmed in H. halys and C. hilaris. Morphological, ultrastructural, and ecological features of the microsporidium, together with a molecular phylogeny, establish a new species named Nosema maddoxi sp. nov. © 2017 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2017 International Society of Protistologists.

  18. Genome Imprinting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 9. Genome Imprinting - The Silencing of Genes and Genomes. H A Ranganath M T Tanuja. General Article Volume 5 Issue 9 September 2000 pp 49-57. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Baculovirus Genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Baculovirus genomes are covalently closed circles of double stranded-DNA varying in size between 80 and 180 kilobase-pair. The genomes of more than fourty-one baculoviruses have been sequenced to date. The majority of these (37) are pathogenic to lepidopteran hosts; three infect sawflies

  20. Page 1 Respiration of the Water-Bug, Sphaerodema rusticum Faër ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    functional though by itself it is not blocked up like the following abdo- minal spiracles. The Third to the Seventh Abdominal Spiracles.—The second abdominal segment is very much reduced being pushed back by the projecting meta- sternum ...

  1. Draft genome of Leisingera aquaemixtae CECT 8399T, a member of the Roseobacter clade isolated from a junction of fresh and ocean water in Jeju Island, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Torres, Lidia; Pujalte, María J.; Arahal, David R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence and annotation of Leisingera aquaemixtae CECT 8399T (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession number CYSR00000000) which comprises 4,614,060 bp, 4313 protein coding genes, 54 tRNA coding genes and 7 rRNA coding genes. General findings of the annotated genome, such as pigment indigoidine operon, phenylacetate oxidation genes or predictable number of replicons, are commented in comparison to other Leisingera species. Average Nucleotide Identity between available genomes of type strains of species of Leisingera and Phaeobacter genera has been calculated to evaluate its current classification. PMID:26981415

  2. Genomic footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierstra, Jeff; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A

    2016-03-01

    The advent of DNA footprinting with DNase I more than 35 years ago enabled the systematic analysis of protein-DNA interactions, and the technique has been instrumental in the decoding of cis-regulatory elements and the identification and characterization of transcription factors and other DNA-binding proteins. The ability to analyze millions of individual genomic cleavage events via massively parallel sequencing has enabled in vivo DNase I footprinting on a genomic scale, offering the potential for global analysis of transcription factor occupancy in a single experiment. Genomic footprinting has opened unique vistas on the organization, function and evolution of regulatory DNA; however, the technology is still nascent. Here we discuss both prospects and challenges of genomic footprinting, as well as considerations for its application to complex genomes.

  3. Test and application of a general process-based dynamic coastal mass-balance model for contaminants using data for radionuclides in the Dnieper-Bug estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkanson, Lars; Lindgren, Dan

    2009-01-01

    In this work a general, process-based mass-balance model for water contaminants for coastal areas at the ecosystem scale (CoastMab) is presented and for the first time tested for radionuclides. The model is dynamic, based on ordinary differential equations and gives monthly predictions. Connected to the core model there is also a sub-model for contaminant concentrations in fish. CoastMab calculates sedimentation, resuspension, diffusion, mixing, burial and retention of the given contaminant. The model contains both general algorithms, which apply to all contaminants, and substance-specific parts (such as algorithms for the particulate fraction, diffusion, biouptake and biological half-life). CoastMab and the sub-model for fish are simple to apply in practice since all driving variables may be readily accessed from maps or regular monitoring programs. The separation between the surface-water layer and the deep-water layer is not done as in most traditional models from water temperature data but from sedimentological criteria. Previous versions of the models for phosphorus and suspended particulate matter (in the Baltic Sea) have been validated and shown to predict well. This work presents modifications of the model and tests using two tracers, radiocesium and radiostrontium (from the Chernobyl fallout) in the Dnieper-Bug estuary (the Black Sea). Good correlations are shown between modeled and empirical data, except for the month directly after the fallout. We have, e.g., shown that: 1. The conditions in the sea outside the bay are important for the concentrations of the substances in water, sediments and fish within the bay, 2. We have demonstrated "biological," "chemical" and "water" dilution, 3. That the water chemical conditions in the bay influence biouptake and concentrations in fish of the radionuclides and 4. That the feeding behaviour of the coastal fish is very important for the biouptake of the radionuclides.

  4. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin. The lethal concentration (LC50 for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development.

  5. Maladaptive Plasticity Masks the Effects of Natural Selection in the Red-Shouldered Soapberry Bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenzer, Meredith L

    2017-10-01

    Natural selection can produce local adaptation, but local adaptation can be masked by maladaptive plasticity. Maladaptive plasticity may arise as a result of gene flow producing novel gene combinations that have not been exposed to selection. In the 1980s, populations of the red-shouldered soapberry bug (Jadera haematoloma) were locally adapted to feed on the seeds of a native host plant and an introduced host plant; by 2014, local differentiation in beak length had been lost, likely as a consequence of increased gene flow. In this study, I assess the relative contributions of natural selection and plasticity to beak length on these two hosts. I confirm the earlier hypothesis that the host plant seedpod drives divergent natural selection on beak length. I then demonstrate that the proximate cause of the loss of observable differentiation in beak length is maladaptive plasticity, which masks persistent genetic differences between host-associated populations. Maladaptive plasticity is highest in areas where the two plants co-occur; in combination with historical measures of plasticity in hybrids, this indicates that maladaptive plasticity may be a consequence of ongoing gene flow. Although natural selection produced locally adapted genotypes in soapberry bugs, maladaptive plasticity is masking phenotypic differences between populations in nature.

  6. Morphology and Proteome Characterization of the Salivary Glands of the Western Chinch Bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Crystal; Wayadande, Astri; Baird, Lisa; Nandakumar, Renu; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Amundsen, Keenan; Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Baxendale, Frederick; Sarath, Gautam; Heng-Moss, Tiffany

    2015-08-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchloe dactyloides (Nuttall) due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland morphology and the associated salivary complex of this insect. Whole and sectioned B. occiduus salivary glands were visualized using light and scanning electron microscopy to determine overall structure and cell types of the salivary glands and their individual lobes. Microscopy revealed a pair of trilobed principal glands and a pair of tubular accessory glands of differing cellular types. To link structure with function, the salivary gland proteome was characterized using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The salivary proteome analysis resulted in B. occiduus sequences matching 228 nonhomologous protein sequences of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), with many specific to the proteins present in the salivary proteome of A. pisum. A number of sequences were assigned the molecular function of hydrolase and oxido-reductase activity, with one specific protein sequence revealing a peroxidase-like function. This is the first study to characterize the salivary proteome of B. occiduus and the first of any species in the family Blissidae. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Standard metabolic rate of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius: effects of temperature, mass, and life stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Zachary C; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic rates provide important information about the biology of organisms. For ectothermic species such as insects, factors such as temperature and mass heavily influence metabolism, but these effects differ considerably between species. In this study we examined the standard metabolic rate of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. We used closed system respirometry and measured both O2 consumption and CO2 production across a range of temperatures (10, 20, 25, 30, 35°C) and life stages, while also accounting for activity. Temperature had a stronger effect on the mass specific .VO2 (mlg(-1)h(-1)) of mated males (Q10=3.29), mated females (Q10=3.19), unmated males (Q10=3.09), and nymphs that hatched (first instars, Q10=3.05) than on unmated females (Q10=2.77) and nymphs that molted (second through fifth instars, Q10=2.78). First instars had significantly lower respiratory quotients (RQ) than all other life stages. RQ of all stages was not affected by temperature. .VO2 (mlh(-1)) scaled more with mass than values previously reported for other arthropods or that would be predicted by the 3/4-power law. The results are used to understand the biology and ecology of the bed bug. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Security Vulnerability Profiles of Mission Critical Software: Empirical Analysis of Security Related Bug Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina; Tyo, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    While some prior research work exists on characteristics of software faults (i.e., bugs) and failures, very little work has been published on analysis of software applications vulnerabilities. This paper aims to contribute towards filling that gap by presenting an empirical investigation of application vulnerabilities. The results are based on data extracted from issue tracking systems of two NASA missions. These data were organized in three datasets: Ground mission IVV issues, Flight mission IVV issues, and Flight mission Developers issues. In each dataset, we identified security related software bugs and classified them in specific vulnerability classes. Then, we created the security vulnerability profiles, i.e., determined where and when the security vulnerabilities were introduced and what were the dominating vulnerabilities classes. Our main findings include: (1) In IVV issues datasets the majority of vulnerabilities were code related and were introduced in the Implementation phase. (2) For all datasets, around 90 of the vulnerabilities were located in two to four subsystems. (3) Out of 21 primary classes, five dominated: Exception Management, Memory Access, Other, Risky Values, and Unused Entities. Together, they contributed from 80 to 90 of vulnerabilities in each dataset.

  9. Cold Tolerance and Supercooling Capacity of the Redbanded Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastola, Anup; Davis, Jeffrey A

    2017-12-08

    The redbanded stink bug Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive stink bug species in the United States. First documented as a soybean pest in Louisiana in the year 2000, this species continues to spread in the Mid-South region of the United States. We designed laboratory and field studies to investigate supercooling points, lethal exposure time (LT), critical thermal minimum (CTmin), and winter mortality of this species. The mean supercooling points (SCP) ± SE of adult field collected P. guildinii ranged from -8.3 ± 0.2°C (highest) in March to -11.0 ± 0.2°C (lowest) in January. Significant differences in SCP occurred over the months and between sexes with significant interactions between month and sex. The CTmin was significantly different between adults and nymphs (third, fourth, and fifth instars combined). LT50 and LT90 were evaluated at subzero temperatures of 0°C, -2°C, and -5°C. There were significant differences in LT50 and LT90 among the temperature treatments. Winter survival significantly differed between the two study years and decreased with progression of winter months. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Alarm Odor Compounds of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Exhibit Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagun, Steven; Collins, Elliot; Martin, Caleb; Nolan, E Joseph; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Some insects release scented compounds as a defense against predators that also exhibit antimicrobial activity. Trans-2-octenal and trans-2-decenal are the major alarm aldehydes responsible for the scent of Halyomorpha halys, the brown marmorated stink bug. Previous research has shown these aldehydes are antifungal and produce an antipredatory effect, but have never been tested for antibacterial activity. We hypothesized that these compounds functioned similarly to the analogous multifunctional action of earwig compounds, so we tested whether these aldehydes could inhibit the growth of bacteria. Disk diffusion assays indicated that these aldehydes significantly inhibited the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in vitro. Moreover, mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) coated in stink bug aldehydes showed a substantial reduction in bacterial colonization compared to vehicle-treated insects. These results suggest that brown marmorated stinkbug aldehydes are indeed antibacterial agents and serve a multifunctional role for this insect. Therefore, stinkbug aldehydes may have potential for use as chemical antimicrobials.

  11. Recovering stereo vision by squashing virtual bugs in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Knill, David C; Huang, Samuel J; Yung, Amanda; Ding, Jian; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-06-19

    Stereopsis is the rich impression of three-dimensionality, based on binocular disparity-the differences between the two retinal images of the same world. However, a substantial proportion of the population is stereo-deficient, and relies mostly on monocular cues to judge the relative depth or distance of objects in the environment. Here we trained adults who were stereo blind or stereo-deficient owing to strabismus and/or amblyopia in a natural visuomotor task-a 'bug squashing' game-in a virtual reality environment. The subjects' task was to squash a virtual dichoptic bug on a slanted surface, by hitting it with a physical cylinder they held in their hand. The perceived surface slant was determined by monocular texture and stereoscopic cues, with these cues being either consistent or in conflict, allowing us to track the relative weighting of monocular versus stereoscopic cues as training in the task progressed. Following training most participants showed greater reliance on stereoscopic cues, reduced suppression and improved stereoacuity. Importantly, the training-induced changes in relative stereo weights were significant predictors of the improvements in stereoacuity. We conclude that some adults deprived of normal binocular vision and insensitive to the disparity information can, with appropriate experience, recover access to more reliable stereoscopic information.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Competition between the phytophagous stink bugs Euschistus heros and Piezodorus guildinii in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuelher, Edmar S; Silva, Éder H; Hirose, Edson; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Oliveira, Eugênio E

    2016-10-01

    The abundance and contribution of the neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F.), and the redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (West.), to the composition of insect pests of soybean, Glycine max (L.), fields have changed both spatially and temporally in neotropical soybean production areas. Therefore, we assessed the competitiveness of each species in direct competition experiments following an additive series. We performed mixed (adult) insect infestations in soybean plants and evaluated the fitness of each species and the soybean yield. While the competitive ability of E. heros was significantly compromised by increments in conspecifics and heterospecifics (i.e. P. guildinii), the competitive ability of P. guildinii was compromised by the presence of heterospecifics (i.e. E. heros). The reproductive output of P. guildinii remained unaffected by increments in E. heros or of P. guildinii. Intriguingly, despite the fact that P. guildinii apparently lost the competition with E. heros, almost no pod production was observed in any plant colonised by the former. The higher abundance of E. heros in neotropical soybean fields seems to result from higher competitive ability than its heterospecific competitor P. guildinii, which may prevent the higher losses caused by P. guildinii. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Integrative review of indigenous arthropod natural enemies of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the establishment of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in North America and Europe, there has been a large, multi-group effort to characterize the composition and impact of the indigenous community of arthropod natural enemies attacking this invas...

  14. The impact of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in North America and Europe: history, biology, ecology, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive Pentatomidae introduced to the USA, Canada, and multiple European countries. In 2010, BMSB populations in the mid-Atlantic region USA reached outbreak levels, and subsequent feeding resulted in severe damage to tree fruit a...

  15. Impact of Bug-in-Ear Professional Development on Early Childhood Co-Teachers' Use of Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Jennifer R.; Grygas Coogle, Christan; Rahn, Naomi L.; Spear, Caitlin F.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to build the capacity of early childhood teachers to implement evidence-based strategies. We investigated the efficacy of professional development with bug-in-ear peer coaching in improving teachers' use of communication strategies, the teachers' maintenance of strategies post intervention, and the social validity of the…

  16. Supporting Early Childhood Educators' Use of Embedded Communication Strategies by Providing Feedback via Bug-in-Ear Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggie, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coaching provided with bug-in-ear technology, the frequency of the early childhood educators' use of targeted communication strategies and children's expressive communication. Four multiple-baseline single-case design experiments were completed to evaluate these relationships.…

  17. A new cavernicolous assassin bug of the genus Bagauda Bergroth (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae) from the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Siddharth; Ghate, Hemant V

    2016-06-23

    A new cavernicolous, thread-legged assassin bug, Bagauda ernstmayri sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae), collected from a cave near Satara, in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India, is described. Its interaction with the web of an uloborid spider Zosis geniculata (Olivier, 1789) (Araneae: Uloboridae) is discussed.

  18. Monitoring of brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) population dynamics in corn to predict its abundance using weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious economic pest of corn production in the Southeastern U. S. The BSB population dynamics was monitored for 17 wks from tasseling to pre-harvest of corn plants (i.e., late May to mid-September) using pheromone ...

  19. Influence of brown stink bug feeding, planting date and sampling time on common smut infection of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytopathogen infections are frequently influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors in a crop field. The effect of brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), feeding and planting date and sampling time on common smut (Ustilago maydis) infection percentage of maize plants was exa...

  20. Structural Dynamics of Management Zones for the Site-Specific Control of Tarnished Plant Bugs in Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision-based agricultural application of insecticide relies on a non-random distribution of pests; tarnished plant bugs (Lygus lineolaris) are known to prefer vigorously growing patches of cotton. Management zones for various crops have been readily defined using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vege...

  1. Genetics of a sex-linked recessive red eye color mutant of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inbred colony of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Miridae: Hemiptera), was observed to contain specimens with abnormal traits including red eyes, deformed antennae, and deformed legs. These specimens were isolated and back crossed to create stable phenotypic strain...

  2. Field evaluation of systemic imidacloprid for the management of avocado thrips and avocado lace bug in California avocado groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Frank J; Humeres, Eduardo C; Urena, Anthony A; Hoddle, Mark S; Morse, Joseph G

    2010-10-01

    The efficacy of systemic applications of imidacloprid for the management of avocado thrips and avocado lace bug was determined in field trials. Following insecticide treatment by chemigation, leaves of appropriate age for each insect were sampled over a 6 month period and used for bioassays. Imidacloprid residues were measured by ELISA in leaves used for bioassays to determine concentrations of insecticide that were toxic to both pests. The uptake of imidacloprid into treated trees was extremely slow, peaking in the current year's leaf flush at only 8 ng cm(-2) leaf tissue after 15 weeks. Avocado thrips mortality in bioassays with young flush leaves, the preferred feeding substrate for this insect, was minimal, indicating that imidacloprid concentrations were below threshold levels needed for effective control. Residues present in older leaves, which are preferred by the avocado lace bug, were higher than in young flush leaves, and provided good control of this pest. Probit analysis of bioassay data showed that the avocado lace bug (LC(50) = 6.1 ng imidacloprid cm(-2) leaf tissue) was more susceptible to imidacloprid than the avocado thrips (LC(50) = 73 ng imidacloprid cm(-2) leaf tissue). In spite of the slow uptake of imidacloprid into avocado trees, the levels of imidacloprid would be sufficient to control avocado lace bug infestations. In contrast, the slow uptake would be problematic for avocado thrips control because inadequate levels of insecticide accumulate in new flush foliage and would allow avocado thrips populations to build to levels that would subsequently damage developing avocado fruit.

  3. Parasitism of stink bug eggs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae of soybean fields in the Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelaine Venzon

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the seasonal occurrence of stink bug egg parasitoids was carried out in soybean fields in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Collections of egg masses of stink bugs and monitoring of population levels of mobile stages were done weekly during the 1993/94 and 1994/95 soybean seasons. Piezodorus guildinii and Euschistus heros were the most abundant stink bugs throughout the survey. Rates of parasitism in P. guildinii eggs ranged from 50.2 to 77% in 1993/94 and from 31.3 to 44.1% in the 1994/95 soybean season. Parasitism in E. heros eggs ranged from 50.6 to 64.7 % in 1993/94 but no parasitized eggs were found in 1994/95. Telenomus podisi was the main parasitoid collected and the only species found to parasitize E. heros eggs. Trissolcus brochymenae and Ooencyrtus sp. were found attacking P. guildinii eggs, but at low levels. We discuss the contribution of egg parasitoids to natural control of stink bugs.

  4. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in the Mid-Atlantic States: Assessing Grower Perceptions, Economic Impact, and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Theresa A.; Day, Eric R.; Pfeiffer, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    Attendees at mid-Atlantic grower meetings were surveyed in 2012 and 2014 regarding their knowledge of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) and its impact. Responses to individual questions were paired and analyzed for independence between survey years. Despite a large-scale effort by Extension to inform growers and others about BMSB,…

  5. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Birds, Bugs, Dogs, and Weather and Environmental Studies. Volume 5. 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, John T.; And Others

    This material is one publication of a series of documents available from the Institute for Environmental Education (Cleveland) and consists of a curriculum activities guide to birds, bugs, dogs, and weather and environmental studies. The first edition of this material was prepared by the Documentation Task Force of Project KARE, Philadelphia, and…

  6. A remarkable new plant bug genus and species (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Deraocorinae) from the Australian wet tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Reza; Cassis, Gerasimos

    2017-02-15

    A new genus and new species of deraeocorine plant bug, Kalamemiris gen. nov. and Kalamemiris collessi sp. nov., is described from Australia. Illustrations of male genitalia, scanning electron micrographs of key characters of the male and female habitus, as well as male genitalic characters are provided. The diagnosis of the new genus is made in comparison to other deraeocorines of the Australian biogeographic region.

  7. Diversity of Symbiotic Organs and Bacterial Endosymbionts of Lygaeoid Bugs of the Families Blissidae and Lygaeidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Patricia; Dettner, Konrad; Kehl, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Here we present comparative data on the localization and identity of intracellular symbionts among the superfamily Lygaeoidea (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomomorpha). Five different lygaeoid species from the families Blissidae and Lygaeidae (sensu stricto; including the subfamilies Lygaeinae and Orsillinae) were analyzed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that all the bugs studied possess paired bacteriomes that are differently shaped in the abdomen and harbor specific endosymbionts therein. The endosymbionts were also detected in female gonads and at the anterior poles of developing eggs, indicating vertical transmission of the endosymbionts via ovarial passage, in contrast to the posthatch symbiont transmission commonly found among pentatomoid bugs (Pentatomomorpha: Pentatomoidea). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and groEL genes showed that the endosymbionts of Ischnodemus sabuleti, Arocatus longiceps, Belonochilus numenius, Orsillus depressus, and Ortholomus punctipennis constitute at least four distinct clades in the Gammaproteobacteria. The endosymbiont phylogeny did not agree with the host phylogeny based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, but there was a local cospeciating pattern within the subfamily Orsillinae. Meanwhile, the endosymbiont of Belonochilus numenius (Lygaeidae: Orsillinae), although harbored in paired bacteriomes as in other lygaeoid bugs of the related genera Nysius, Ortholomus, and Orsillus, was phylogenetically close to “Candidatus Rohrkolberia cinguli,” the endosymbiont of Chilacis typhae (Lygaeoidea: Artheneidae), suggesting an endosymbiont replacement in this lineage. The diverse endosymbionts and the differently shaped bacteriomes may reflect independent evolutionary origins of the endosymbiotic systems among lygaeoid bugs. PMID:22307293

  8. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls charcterized by boll age, size and damage ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our studies over 2 years (2009 and 2010) and 2 locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated the relationship of feeding-injury of the verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, to a range of cotton boll age classes further defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis...

  9. Altered gene regulation and potential association with metabolic resistance development to imidacloprid in the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical spray on cotton is almost an exclusive method for control of tarnished plant bug (TPB, Lygus lineolaris). Frequent use of imidacloprid is a concern for neonicotinoid resistance in this key pest. Information of how and why TPB become less susceptible to imidacloprid is essential for effectiv...

  10. Fumigation of bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae): effective application rates for sulfuryl fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas W; Aikins, Michael J; Thoms, Ellen; Demark, Joe; Wang, Changlu

    2014-08-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has resurged recently as a domestic pest in North America with very limited options for decisive control. We report efficacy studies with sulfuryl fluoride (SF) toward use as a structural fumigant to control bed bugs. Laboratory studies were conducted in which eggs, adults, and nymphs from a pesticide susceptible laboratory population were fumigated for 24 h using SF at 99.8% purity in airtight, 3.8-liter glass containers under two temperatures, 25 degrees C and 15 degrees C. Bed bugs were placed in separate ventilated glass vials and wrapped in mattress padding before fumigation. The gas concentration within each jar was determined using quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dose-response trials using eggs of known age (48-96 h) were conducted at five or six target concentrations measured as concentration x time accumulated dosages (g-h/m3) and one untreated control at each temperature. Each target dose was replicated in four different fumigation containers (replicates), with at least 32 eggs per replicate. The number of hatched and unhatched eggs postfumigation, and number of live and dead nymphs that resulted from hatched eggs, were evaluated daily for at least 1 wk after egg hatch. The lethal accumulated dosage (LAD99) for bed bug eggs was 69.1 (95% fiducial limits [FLs] of 62.9-79.5) g-h/m3 at 25 degrees C and 149.3 (95% FLs of 134.4-177.9) g-h/m3 at 15 degrees C. Confirmatory trials with dosages of 1.5x the LAD99 were conducted at 25 degrees C and 1.5x the threshold mortality dose at 15 degrees C with at least 15 adults, 13 late-instar nymphs and 79 eggs of known age per replicate. At 25 degrees C, a target dosage of 103.7 g-h/m3 resulted in 100% mortality of adults and late-instar nymphs. Nymphs emerged and survived from two of 439 eggs treated with SF dosages that were 6-7 g-h/m3 less than the target dosage. No nymphs emerged from eggs fumigated with dosages > 97.9 g-h/m3 in the

  11. Temporal analysis of cotton boll symptoms resulting from southern green stink bug feeding and transmission of a bacterial pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Enrique Gino; Esquivel, Jesus F; Nichols, Robert L; Bell, Alois A

    2009-02-01

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), is a significant pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and is becoming an increasing challenge due to the decrease in use of broad-spectrum insecticides on the crop. The southern green stink bug can vector an opportunistic Pantoea agglomerans strain (designated Sc 1-R) into cotton bolls, resulting in infection. The appearance of stink bug damage varies, and pest managers cannot readily identify its source. This research reports a systematic depiction of green, immature boll responses at various stages of maturity (1, 2, and 3 wk post-anthesis [WPA]) to stink bug injury and to infection by the vectored cotton pathogen by demonstrating the progression of effects 1, 2, and 3 wk after exposure (WAE). When laboratory-reared adult southern green stink bug not harboring Sc 1-R deposited bacteria into greenhouse-grown bolls at 1, 2, or 3 WPA during feeding/probing, bacteria reached concentrations of 10(9), 10(9), and 10(3) colony-forming units (CFUs)/g tissue, respectively, at 3 WAE, yet caused minimal seed and lint damage regardless of the age of the bolls that were penetrated. Bolls at a maturity of 1 or 2 WPA showed similar susceptibility when exposed to stink bugs that vectored Sc 1-R. After a week of infection, seeds were salmon-pink with normal white lint and up to 10(4) CFUs/g tissue when Sc 1-R was detected. Necrosis of the entire inoculated locule(s) with a maximum Sc 1-R concentration detected at 10(8) CFUs/g tissue occurred in samples harvested 2 or 3 WAE. Conversely, seed and lint deterioration due to the transmitted opportunist into bolls exposed 3 WPA was confined to the puncture site. In summary, after a week of development, bolls were tolerant to southern green stink bug feeding/ probing damage and to nonpathogenic bacteria, but they were severely damaged when the opportunistic pathogen Sc 1-R was transmitted. At 3 WPA, the fruit was immune to the spread of the pathogen with infections confined to the

  12. Antarctic Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D. Rogers

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of genomic science and its battery of technologies, polar biology stands on the threshold of a revolution, one that will enable the investigation of important questions of unprecedented scope and with extraordinary depth and precision. The exotic organisms of polar ecosystems are ideal candidates for genomic analysis. Through such analyses, it will be possible to learn not only the novel features that enable polar organisms to survive, and indeed thrive, in their extreme environments, but also fundamental biological principles that are common to most, if not all, organisms. This article aims to review recent developments in Antarctic genomics and to demonstrate the global context of such studies.

  13. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  14. Genomic Imprinting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 9. Genomic Imprinting - Some Interesting Implications for the Evolution of Social Behaviour. Raghavendra Gadagkar. General Article Volume 5 Issue 9 September 2000 pp 58-68 ...

  15. Herbarium genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, Freek T.; Lei, Di; Yu, Jiaying

    2016-01-01

    Herbarium genomics is proving promising as next-generation sequencing approaches are well suited to deal with the usually fragmented nature of archival DNA. We show that routine assembly of partial plastome sequences from herbarium specimens is feasible, from total DNA extracts and with specimens...... up to 146 years old. We use genome skimming and an automated assembly pipeline, Iterative Organelle Genome Assembly, that assembles paired-end reads into a series of candidate assemblies, the best one of which is selected based on likelihood estimation. We used 93 specimens from 12 different...... correlation between plastome coverage and nuclear genome size (C value) in our samples, but the range of C values included is limited. Finally, we conclude that routine plastome sequencing from herbarium specimens is feasible and cost-effective (compared with Sanger sequencing or plastome...

  16. Variation of acephate susceptibility and correlation with Esterase and Glutathione S-transferase activities in field populations of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tarnished plant bug (TPB) has increasingly become an economically important pest of cotton. Heavy dependence on insecticides, particularly organophosphates and pyrethroids, for TPB control facilitated resistance development to multiple classes of insecticides. To better understand resistance and...

  17. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S; Reisig, Dominic D; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Roe, R Michael

    2016-09-16

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  18. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae: A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudh Dhammi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F., poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  19. A survey on the infestation levels of tropical bed bugs in Peninsular Malaysia: Current updates and status on resurgence of Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zahran Zulaikha; Ab Majid Abdul Hafiz; Abd Rahim Abd Hafis; Ahmad Abu Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey current bed bugs infestation status in 11 states and federal territory in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: Targeted sampling in the urban areas was performed and the sites in each state were selected based on foreign workers’ abundance and reports from pest control professionals in Malaysia. The collected bed bugs were classified into different strains obtained at the respective sites. Results: Out of all 185 surveyed sites, approximately 38 of them have be...

  20. Relatively Small Quantities of CO2, Ammonium Bicarbonate, and a Blend of (E)-2-Hexenal Plus (E)-2-Octenal Attract Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John F; Ferrandino, Francis J; Vasil, Michael P; Bedoukian, Robert H; Maher, Marie; Mckenzie, Karen

    2017-03-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., feed on humans, have increased exponentially in the past two decades in many major cities throughout the world, have caused intense infestations, and have become a significant health concern. Improved traps are needed to detect early infestations, to assess control programs, and for control of bed bugs. Carbon dioxide released alone or simultaneously with other attractants into three types of traps at the relatively low rate of 1 ml/min caught significantly more bed bugs than untreated controls in a 183- by 183-cm arena. This finding may enable CO2 to be used more economically in traps. Three percent ammonium bicarbonate released at a rate of ≤0.03 ml/h also caught significantly more bed bugs than untreated controls. A blend of (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal at concentrations of 0.025% or 0.1% each and released at 0.02 ml/h attracted significantly more bed bugs than untreated controls. These findings ought to improve detection of bed bugs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Attractiveness of Host Plants at Different Growth Stage to Kudzu Bug, Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae): Behavioral Responses to Whole Plant and Constitutive Volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Hu, X P; van Santen, E; Zeng, X N

    2017-12-05

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius), is an invasive pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merr., that has recently been detected in the United States. This study investigated whether there was a differential attraction of adult bugs to soybean growth stages, and whether the attraction was related to soybean constitutive volatiles. Greenhouse choice assays examined the behavioral orientation preference of adult bugs exposed to four growth stages of whole soybean plants: vegetative (V2), flowering (R1), pod (R3), and seed (R5). Results show that significantly more adults landed on plants in the early reproductive stage R1 than in other stages. Laboratory olfactometer assays also demonstrate that significantly more adult bugs were attracted to R1 plants, with females responding more strongly than males. Both greenhouse and olfactometer assays indicate that the differential attraction of adult bugs to soybean growth stages was mediated by plant constitutive volatiles. These results offer an insight into kudzu bug chemical and behavioral ecology and thus are of great significance for optimizing the timing of field scouting and treatment as well as the development of soybean pest management programs. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Status of Urban Bed Bug Infestations in Southern China: An Analysis of Pest Control Service Records in Shenzhen in 2012 and Dongguan in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Cai, Xuquan; Xu, Yijuan

    2015-01-01

    The recent resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex spp.) in many developed countries has drawn increasing attention worldwide. The status of urban bed bug infestations were investigated in Shenzhen and Dongguan, two major cities in southern Guangdong Province of southern China, based on pest control service records from two different companies (one during 2012 and another during 2013). The results showed that Shenzhen and Dongguan have a severe problem with bed bug infestations: the control of bed bugs is a constant concern, except during the winter. In Shenzhen, a similar number of premises were treated for bed bugs in central business districts and suburban districts. However, in Dongguan, more premises were treated for bed bugs in suburban districts than in central business districts. The treatment rate for worker sleeping quarters, apartments, hotel, and private houses in Shenzhen was 53.8, 43.0, 1.9, and 1.3%, respectively. The percentage of treated rooms was 56.1% for worker sleeping quarters and 91.1% for apartments. In Dongguan, the treatment rate for worker sleeping quarters, apartments, hotel, and private houses was 90.0, 10.0, 0.0, and 0.0%, respectively. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. First observation of alternative food usage (extrafloral nectar by the assassin bug Atopozelus opsimus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhainer Guillermo-Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Assassin bugs (Reduviidae are voracious insects that prey on other arthropods. Recent evidences have pointed out that these predators also feed on plant derived substances in rare opportunities. The present study describes the feeding behavior of the reduviid Atopozelus opsimus on extrafloral nectaries of Inga vera (Fabaceae in a Neotropical savanna area. It was investigated if the insects feed more frequently of extrafloral nectar or prey, and if individuals of different stages of development vary according to feeding behavior. Notably, the results suggest that the diet of all instars and adults consist mainly of extrafloral nectar (N = 1013, in detriment of captured prey ingestion (N = 18. Also, there was no variation on feeding behavior and life stage.

  4. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of Hemiptera reveals adaptive innovations driving the diversification of true bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Leavengood, John M.; Chapman, Eric G.; Burkhardt, Daniel; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Liu, Jinpeng; Cai, Wanzhi

    2017-01-01

    Hemiptera, the largest non-holometabolous order of insects, represents approximately 7% of metazoan diversity. With extraordinary life histories and highly specialized morphological adaptations, hemipterans have exploited diverse habitats and food sources through approximately 300 Myr of evolution. To elucidate the phylogeny and evolutionary history of Hemiptera, we carried out the most comprehensive mitogenomics analysis on the richest taxon sampling to date covering all the suborders and infraorders, including 34 newly sequenced and 94 published mitogenomes. With optimized branch length and sequence heterogeneity, Bayesian analyses using a site-heterogeneous mixture model resolved the higher-level hemipteran phylogeny as (Sternorrhyncha, (Auchenorrhyncha, (Coleorrhyncha, Heteroptera))). Ancestral character state reconstruction and divergence time estimation suggest that the success of true bugs (Heteroptera) is probably due to angiosperm coevolution, but key adaptive innovations (e.g. prognathous mouthpart, predatory behaviour, and haemelytron) facilitated multiple independent shifts among diverse feeding habits and multiple independent colonizations of aquatic habitats. PMID:28878063

  5. Biology, Ecology, and Management of an Invasive Stink Bug, Bagrada hilaris, in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, John C; Perring, Thomas M; Millar, Jocelyn G; Reed, Darcy A

    2016-01-01

    The painted bug, Bagrada hilaris, native to eastern and southern Africa and Asia, was detected in California in 2008, and it has spread rapidly throughout several southwestern US states. A polyphagous insect, it is particularly damaging to the billion dollar cole crop industry. B. hilaris frequently causes damage when it migrates to newly planted crops from weedy hosts. Feeding produces circular or star-shaped chlorotic lesions that become necrotic, and infested plants may be distorted. Currently, no reliable sampling methods for B. hilaris exist, nor are there effective natural enemies in the United States. Therefore, management has relied on multiple applications of insecticides and cultural practices such as removal of weedy hosts, destruction of crop residues, timing of planting, and use of transplants. Several pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides are most effective for controlling the insect. Reliable sampling methods and further development of integrated pest management strategies to manage this invasive pest are urgently needed as its range continues to expand.

  6. Effective selection criteria for assessing the resistance of stink bugs complex in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiani da Rocha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean plants with resistance to the stink bug complex are currently selected by extremely labor-intensive methods, which limit the evaluation of a large number of genotypes. Thus, this paper proposed the use of an alternative trait underlying the selection of resistant genotypes under field conditions with natural infestation: the weight of healthy seeds (WHS. To this end, 24 genotypes were evaluated under two management systems: with systematic chemical control of insects (management I, and without control (management II. Different indices were calculated using grain weight (YP of management I and WHS of management II (YS . The high correlation between YS and the indices mean productivity, stress tolerance and geometric mean productivity, plus the agreement in determining the groups of genotypes with resistance and high yield indicate that WHS is a useful character in simultaneous selection for these traits.

  7. Canopy compass in nocturnal homing of the subsocial shield bug, Parastrachia japonensis (Heteroptera: Parastrachiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hironaka, Mantaro; Inadomi, Koichi; Nomakuchi, Shintaro; Filippi, Lisa; Hariyama, Takahiko

    2008-04-01

    In contrast to an open environment where a specific celestial cue is predominantly used, visual contrast of canopies against the sky through the gap, known as canopy cues, is known to play a major role for visually guided insect navigators in woodland habitats. In this paper, we investigated whether a subsocial shield bug, Parastrachia japonensis, could gauge direction using canopy cues on a moonless night. The results show that they could perform the round trip foraging behaviour even in an experimental arena with only an artificial round gap opened in the ceiling of the arena and adjust their homing direction for a new azimuth when the gap was rotated. Thus, P. japonensis can use slightly brighter canopy cues as a compass reference but not complex landmarks during nocturnal homing behaviour.

  8. Bugs as drugs, part two: worms, leeches, scorpions, snails, ticks, centipedes, and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E Paul

    2011-03-01

    In this second of a two-part series analyzing the evidence for the use of organisms as medicine, the use of a number of different "bugs" (worms, leeches, snails, ticks, centipedes, and spiders) is detailed. Several live organisms are used as treatments: leeches for plastic surgery and osteoarthritis and the helminths Trichuris suis and Necator americanus for inflammatory bowel disease. Leech saliva is the source of a number of anticoagulants, including the antithrombin agent hirudin and its synthetic analogues, which have been approved for human use. Predatory arthropods, such as certain species of snails, spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and ticks provide a trove of potential analgesic peptides in their venom. A synthetic analogue of a snail venom peptide, ziconotide, has been approved for human use and is used as an alternative to opioids in severe pain cases. Arthropods, such as ticks, have venom that contains anticoagulants and centipede venom has a protein that corrects abnormalities in lipid metabolism.

  9. Sex-role reversed nuptial feeding reduces male kleptoparasitism of females in Zeus bugs (Heteroptera; Veliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnqvist, Göran; Jones, Therésa M; Elgar, Mark A

    2006-12-22

    Males of a variety of taxa occasionally steal food secured by their mates. In some spiders and insects, males rely entirely on this form of intraspecific kleptoparasitism for their subsistence. However, this male strategy may be costly for females and a variety of different female counteradaptations have been proposed. In Zeus bugs (Phoreticovelia spp.), males ride on the back of their mates for extended periods and females produce a gland secretion that males feed on. By experimentally occluding the dorsal glands in females and varying food availability, we show that nuptial feeding by females reduces the extent to which the males kleptoparasitize their mates. We suggest that females have, at least in part, evolved this unique form of nuptial feeding as a counteradaptation to reduce the rate of kleptoparasitism by males.

  10. Imaging genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul M; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J

    2010-08-01

    Imaging genomics is an emerging field that is rapidly identifying genes that influence the brain, cognition, and risk for disease. Worldwide, thousands of individuals are being scanned with high-throughput genotyping (genome-wide scans), and new imaging techniques [high angular resolution diffusion imaging and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] that provide fine-grained measures of the brain's structural and functional connectivity. Along with clinical diagnosis and cognitive testing, brain imaging offers highly reproducible measures that can be subjected to genetic analysis. Recent studies of twin, pedigree, and population-based datasets have discovered several candidate genes that consistently show small to moderate effects on brain measures. Many studies measure single phenotypes from the images, such as hippocampal volume, but voxel-wise genomic methods can plot the profile of genetic association at each 3D point in the brain. This exploits the full arsenal of imaging statistics to discover and replicate gene effects. Imaging genomics efforts worldwide are now working together to discover and replicate many promising leads. By studying brain phenotypes closer to causative gene action, larger gene effects are detectable with realistic sample sizes obtainable from meta-analysis of smaller studies. Imaging genomics has broad applications to dementia, mental illness, and public health.

  11. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls characterized by boll age, size, and damage ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Brewer, Michael J; Parker, Roy D; Adamczyk, J J

    2013-02-01

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Distant), has been present in south Texas for several years but has more recently been documented as an economic threat to cultivated cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum L. Our studies over 2 yr (2009 and 2010) and two locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated feeding-injury of the verde plant bug to a range of cotton boll age classes defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis to the time of infesting) for first-position cotton bolls infested with the plant bugs. The most detrimental damage to younger cotton holls from verde plant bug feeding was boll abscission. Cotton bolls verde plant bug injured bolls compared with the controls up to 162 ACDD or a mean boll diameter 2.0 cm. Cotton seed weights were significantly reduced up to 179 ACDD or a boll diameter of 2.0 cm at Weslaco in 2009, and up to 317 ACDD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco in 2010 when compared with the noninfested controls. Lint weight per cotton boll for infested and noninfested bolls was significantly reduced up to 262 ACDD or boll diameter 2.5 for Corpus Christi in 2010 and up to 288 ACCD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco, TX, in 2010. Damage ratings (dependant variable) regressed against infested and noninfested seed-cotton weights showed that in every instance, the infested cotton bolls had a strong and significant relationship with damage ratings for all age classes of bolls. Damage ratings for the infested cotton bolls that did not abscise by harvest showed visual signs of verde plant bug feeding injury and the subsequent development ofboll rot; however, these two forms of injury causing lint and seed mass loss are hard to differentiate from open or boll-locked cotton bolls. Based on the results of both lint and seed loss over 2 yr and four studies cotton bolls should be protected up to approximately 300 ACDD or a boll diameter of 2.5 cm. This equilibrates to bolls that are 12-14 d of age dependent upon daily maximum

  12. Nymphs of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius produce anti-aphrodisiac defence against conspecific males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harraca Vincent

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal wounding by traumatic insemination and the lack of a long distance attraction pheromone set the scene for unusual sexual signalling systems. Male bed bugs (Cimex lectularius mount any large, newly fed individual in an attempt to mate. Last instar nymphs overlap in size with mature females, which make them a potential target for interested males. However, nymphs lack the female's specific mating adaptations and may be severely injured by the abdominal wounding. We, therefore, hypothesized that nymphs emit chemical deterrents that act as an honest status signal, which prevents nymph sexual harassment and indirectly reduces energy costs for males. Results Behavioural mating assays showed that males mount nymphs significantly shorter time compared to females, although initial mounting preference was the same. In support of our hypothesis, nymphs experienced the same percentage of mating with sperm transfer as females if they were unable to emit (E-2-hexenal, (E-2-octenal 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal, from their dorsal abdominal glands. We report that the aldehydes and 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal are detected by olfactory receptor neurons housed in smooth and grooved peg sensilla, respectively, on the adult antennae, at biologically relevant concentrations. Behavioural experiments showed that application of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal or the two aldehydes at a nymph-emitted ratio, to a male/female pair during mounting initiation, decreased mating frequency to a rate comparable to that of a male/nymph pair. Conclusions By combining behavioural and sensory studies, we show that the nymph-specific alarm pheromone plays an important role in intra-specific communication in the common bed bug. Alarm pheromones are commonly looked upon as a system in predator/prey communication, but here we show that alarm pheromones may be used as multipurpose signals such as decreasing the risk of nymphal mating by males. See commentary: http

  13. Overview of e-Bug: an antibiotic and hygiene educational resource for schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Lecky, Donna M; Farrell, David; Kostkova, Patty; Adriaenssens, Niels; Koprivová Herotová, Tereza; Holt, Jette; Touboul, Pia; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Koncan, Raffaella; Olczak-Pienkowska, Anna; Avô, António Brito; Campos, José

    2011-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing community problem and is related to antibiotic use. If antibiotic use could be reduced, the tide of increasing resistance could be stemmed. e-Bug is a European project involving 18 European countries, partly funded by The Directorate-General for Health and Consumers (DG SANCO) of the European Commission. It aims to develop and disseminate across Europe a junior and senior school teaching pack and web site (hosting the lesson plans and complementary games) that teach young people about prudent antibiotic use, microbes, transmission of infection, hygiene and vaccines. The aim of e-Bug is to increase young people's understanding, through enjoyable activities, of why it is so important to use antibiotics correctly in order to control antibiotic resistance, and to have good hand and respiratory hygiene to help reduce the spread of infection. Within the senior school pack the sexual transmission of infections has also been included, as the peak age of chlamydial infection is in 16-24 year olds. Teachers, young people and the consortium of 18 countries were closely involved with agreeing learning outcomes and developing the resource activities. Young people helped create the characters and microbe artwork. The resources have been translated, adapted for and disseminated to schools across 10 countries in Europe, and endorsed by the relevant government departments of health and education. The web site has been accessed from >200 countries. The resources will be translated into all European Union languages, and have been used to promote European Antibiotic Awareness Day and better hand and respiratory hygiene during the influenza pandemic in 2009.

  14. Triatomine bugs, their microbiota and Trypanosoma cruzi: asymmetric responses of bacteria to an infected blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Sebastián; Villavicencio, Bianca; Correia, Nathália; Costa, Jane; Haag, Karen L

    2016-12-09

    Triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) are vectors of the flagellate Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. The study of triatomine gut microbiota has gained relevance in the last years due to its possible role in vector competence and prospective use in control strategies. The objective of this study is to examine changes in the gut microbiota composition of triatomines in response to a T. cruzi-infected blood meal and identifying key factors determining those changes. We sampled colony-reared individuals from six triatomine vectors (Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma brasiliensis, T. infestans, T. juazeirensis and T. sherlocki) comparing experimentally T. cruzi strain 0354-challenged and non-challenged insects. The microbiota of gut and gonad tissues was characterized using high throughput sequencing of region V3-V4 of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The triatomine microbiota had a low intra-individual diversity, and a high inter-individual variation within the same host species. Arsenophonous appeared as the dominant triatomine bacterial symbiont in our study (59% of the total 16S coverage), but there were significant differences in the distribution of bacterial genera among vectors. In Rhodnius prolixus the dominant symbiont was Pectobacterium. Trypanosoma cruzi-challenge significantly affects microbiota composition, with challenged vectors harbouring a significantly more diverse bacterial community, both in the gut and the gonads. Our results show that blood-feeding with T. cruzi epimastigotes strongly affects microbiota composition in a species-specific manner. We suggest that triatomine-adapted enterobacteria such as Arsenophonus could be used as stable vectors for genetic transformation of triatomine bugs and control of Chagas disease.

  15. Tremulatory and abdomen vibration signals enable communication through air in the stink bug Euschistus heros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavčič, Andreja; Cokl, Andrej; Laumann, Raúl A; Blassioli-Moraes, Maria Carolina; Borges, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Communication by substrate-borne mechanical signals is widespread among animals but remains one of their least understood communication channels. Past studies of vibrational communication in insects have been oriented predominantly to communication during mating, showing that species- and sex-specific vibrational signals enable recognition and localization of potential mates on continuous solid substrates. No special attention has been paid to vibrational signals with less obvious specificity as well as to the possibility of vibrational communication across substrates that are not in physical contact. We aimed to reinvestigate emission of the aforementioned vibrational signals transmitted through a plant in the stink bug Euschistus heros (Pentatomidae: Pentatominae) and to check whether individuals are able to communicate across adjecent, physically separated substrates. We used laser vibrometry for registration of substrate-borne vibrational signals on a bean plant. Using two bean plants separated for 3 to 7 cm between two most adjacent leaves, we investigated the possibility of transmission of these signals through air. Our study showed that males and females of E. heros communicate using tremulatory, percussion and buzzing signals in addition to the previously described signals produced by vibrations of the abdomen. Contrary to the latter, the first three signal types did not differ between sexes or between pentatomid species. Experiments with two physically separated plants showed significant searching behaviour and localization of vibrational signals of an E. heros male or a female, in response to abdominal vibration produced signals of a pair duetting on the neighbouring plant, in comparison to control where no animals were on the neighbouring plant. We also confirmed that transmission through air causes amplitude and frequency decay of vibrational signals, which suggests high-amplitude, low-frequency tremulatory signals of these stink bugs their most

  16. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Seasonality and Distribution Pattern of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Virginia Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, S; Kuhar, T P; Laub, C A; Pfeiffer, D G

    2015-08-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a highly polyphagous invasive insect pest from eastern Asia that feeds on numerous fruit, vegetable, and field crops. Four commercial vineyards in Virginia were sampled in 2012 and 2013 to study the basic biology, seasonality, and distribution pattern of H. halys in vineyards. At each vineyard, two blocks were selected. Weekly 3-min timed count visual samplings were performed in border and interior sections from late May until mid-September. Overwintering adult bugs were first detected in vineyards in May; however, the timing of first detection differed among vineyards. Egg masses were found primarily in June and July, and were usually found on the lower surface of grape leaves, although they were occasionally on the upper leaf surface, on the berry, or on the rachis. All developmental stages of H. halys were found in vineyards, suggesting that grape can serve as a reproductive host for H. halys. Substantial variation in H. halys densities was found among vineyards and throughout the growing season. The first instars were found on egg masses and after molting, dispersed throughout the grape vines. The date on which the first egg mass was collected was considered as a biofix. Based on a degree-day model, there were sufficient degree-days for completion of a generation in Virginia vineyards. Significantly higher numbers of H. halys were collected in border sections compared with interior sections. These results are discussed in relation to the potential pest status of H. halys in vineyards and implications for possible control strategies. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Insecticidal Management and Movement of the Brown Stink Bug, Euschistus servus, in Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D.

    2011-01-01

    In eastern North Carolina, some brown stink bugs, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are suspected to pass the F1 generation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Poales: Poaceae) before moving into corn (Zea mays L.) (Poales: Poaceae). These pests can injure corn ears as they develop. To test their effectiveness as a management tactic, pyrethroids were aerially applied to field corn in two experiments, one with 0.77 ha plots and another with 85 ha plots. Euschistus servus population abundance was monitored over time in both experiments and yield was assessed in the larger of the two experiments. In the smaller experiment, the populations were spatially monitored in a 6.3 ha area of corn adjacent to a recently harvested wheat field (352 sampling points of 6.1 row-meters in all but the first sampling event). Overall E. servus abundance decreased throughout the monitoring period in the sampling area of the smaller experiment, but remained unchanged over time in the large-scale experiment. During all sampling periods in both experiments, abundance was the same between treatments. Yield was unaffected by treatment where it was measured in the larger experiment. In the smaller experiment, E. servus were initially aggregated at the field edge of the corn (two, six and 13 days following the wheat harvest). Sixteen days following the wheat harvest they were randomly distributed in the corn. Although it was not directly measured, stink bugs are suspected to move the cornfield edge as a result of the adjacent wheat harvest. More study of the biology of E. servus is needed, specifically in the area of host preference, phenology and movement to explain these phenomena and to produce better management strategies for these pests. PMID:22950984

  19. The ecotopes and evolution of triatomine bugs (triatominae and their associated trypanosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaunt Michael

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatomine bug species such as Microtriatoma trinidadensis, Eratyrus mucronatus, Belminus herreri, Panstrongylus lignarius, and Triatoma tibiamaculata are exquisitely adapted to specialist niches. This suggests a long evolutionary history, as well as the recent dramatic spread a few eclectic, domiciliated triatomine species. Virtually all species of the genus Rhodnius are primarily associated with palms. The genus Panstrongylus is predominantly associated with burrows and tree cavities and the genus Triatoma with terrestrial rocky habitats or rodent burrows. Two major sub-divisions have been defined within the species Trypanosoma cruzi, as T. cruzi 1 (Z1 and T. cruzi 2 (Z2. The affinities of a third group (Z3 are uncertain. Host and habitat associations lead us to propose that T. cruzi 1 (Z1 has evolved in an arboreal, palm tree habitat with the triatomine tribe Rhodniini, in association with the opossum Didelphis. Similarly we propose that T. cruzi (Z2 and Z3 evolved in a terrestrial habitat in burrows and in rocky locations with the triatomine tribe Triatomini, in association with edentates, and/or possibly ground dwelling marsupials. Both sub-divisions of T. cruzi may have been contemporary in South America up to 65 million years ago. Alternatively, T. cruzi 2 (Z2 may have evolved more recently from T. cruzi 1 (Z1 by host transfers into rodents, edentates, and primates. We have constructed a molecular phylogeny of haematophagous vectors, including triatomine bugs, which suggests that faecal transmission of trypanosomes may be the ancestral route. A molecular clock phylogeny suggests that Rhodnius and Triatoma diverged before the arrival, about 40 million years ago, of bats and rodents into South America.

  20. Coexistence of zoophytophagous and phytozoophagous strategies linked to genotypic diet specialization in plant bug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Dumont

    Full Text Available Zoophytophagous predators can substitute zoophagy for phytophagy to complete their development and reproduction. In such predators, variation in feeding behaviour is observed both across and within populations. This may be caused by genetic variation in diet specialization, some genotypes specializing on plant resources, whereas others rely mostly on prey to meet their energy and nutriment requirements. We tested the hypothesis that genotypes specialize either on prey or plant resources in the zoophytophagous mullein bug Campylomma verbasci. In the laboratory, we reared 11 isogroup lines of the mullein bug and recorded feeding behaviour on two diets. The first diet was composed of two-spotted spider mites and leaves, and in the second we added pollen, a high-quality vegetal resource. Overall differences in zoophagy among isogroup lines remained consistent regardless of the presence or absence of pollen. While some lines were insensitive to changes in trophic resource composition others switched from prey to pollen feeding when the pollen was available, revealing a negative genetic correlation between the probabilities of feeding on both resources. A significant line by diet interaction in the proportion of time spent feeding on prey in presence or absence of pollen indicated a genetic basis for diet preference. In absence of the preferred resource, nymphs act as generalists, but exhibited individual diet specialisation when facing the choice between high-quality animal and vegetal resources. Results suggest that zoophytophagous predators can exhibit genetic variation in diet preference, which can generate important ecological and economic differences in natural or agricultural systems.

  1. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics.......Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  2. Listeria Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanes, Didier; Sousa, Sandra; Cossart, Pascale

    The opportunistic intracellular foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has become a paradigm for the study of host-pathogen interactions and bacterial adaptation to mammalian hosts. Analysis of L. monocytogenes infection has provided considerable insight into how bacteria invade cells, move intracellularly, and disseminate in tissues, as well as tools to address fundamental processes in cell biology. Moreover, the vast amount of knowledge that has been gathered through in-depth comparative genomic analyses and in vivo studies makes L. monocytogenes one of the most well-studied bacterial pathogens. This chapter provides an overview of progress in the exploration of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data in Listeria spp. to understand genome evolution and diversity, as well as physiological aspects of metabolism used by bacteria when growing in diverse environments, in particular in infected hosts.

  3. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence...... by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans......, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  4. Cephalopod genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertin, Caroline B.; Bonnaud, Laure; Brown, C. Titus

    2012-01-01

    The Cephalopod Sequencing Consortium (CephSeq Consortium) was established at a NESCent Catalysis Group Meeting, ``Paths to Cephalopod Genomics-Strategies, Choices, Organization,'' held in Durham, North Carolina, USA on May 24-27, 2012. Twenty-eight participants representing nine countries (Austria......, Australia, China, Denmark, France, Italy, Japan, Spain and the USA) met to address the pressing need for genome sequencing of cephalopod mollusks. This group, drawn from cephalopod biologists, neuroscientists, developmental and evolutionary biologists, materials scientists, bioinformaticians and researchers...... active in sequencing, assembling and annotating genomes, agreed on a set of cephalopod species of particular importance for initial sequencing and developed strategies and an organization (CephSeq Consortium) to promote this sequencing. The conclusions and recommendations of this meeting are described...

  5. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) and Environmental Isolates Associated with a Simulated Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System Subjected to Episodes of Nitrification - poster #2168

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial populations were examined in a simulated chloraminated drinking water distribution system. After six months of continuous operation, coupons were incubated in CDC reactors receiving water from the simulated system to study biofilm development. The distribution system wa...

  6. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) and Environmental isolates associated with a Simulated Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System Subjected to Episodes of Nitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial populations were examined in a simulated chloraminated drinking water distribution system. After six months of continuous operation, coupons were incubated in CDC reactors receiving water from the simulated system to study biofilm development. The distribution system ...

  7. Lightning Bugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for prey is found in the New Zealand glowworm fly, Arachno- campa luminosa. The female fly deposits eggs on the ceiling of dark caves. Upon hatching, the larvae hang down by a sticky thread and produce light. During night, the entire cave may glow with this light, attracting other insect species. These at- tracted insects get ...

  8. Political bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

  9. Speed Bugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fixed media audio visual composition, performed as part of a concert of audio visual work at MANTIS festival.......Fixed media audio visual composition, performed as part of a concert of audio visual work at MANTIS festival....

  10. Distribution and some biological data of sycamore lace bug – Corythucha ciliata say (Heteroptera, Tingidae in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Supatashvili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes invasion of the dangerous pest, sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata from Krasnodar District and its spread all over Georgia. The main biological aspects of the pest are studied: flight of imago, laying of eggs, life of nymphs, forms of damage and their estimation according to 5-grade scale. We also measured all phases of the pest (50 specimens each by means of the microscope“МБС-1” 8x with diopter scale. We established the difference of male and female imago of the Georgian population of the pest according to the form of abdomen. The abdomen of female is rounded, and the end of the male's abdomen is rather tapered. Financial support from the government is necessary, similarly to other countries, for the control of the pest, comprehensive study of sycamore lace bug C. ciliata Say – serious pest of city plantings of plane tree for safe biological control of the pest in Georgia.

  11. Genome Imprinting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    because of their maternal 'or paternal origin. Human homologies for the type of situation described above are naturally occurring placental malformation, the hydatidiform ..... drome, familial glomus tumors, psoriasis, neural tube defects, congenital heart disease and narcolepsy. Since genome imprint- ing is implicated in the ...

  12. Review and three new species of the flat bug genus Neochelonoderus Hoberlandt, 1967 from East Africa (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Ernst; Grebennikov, Vasily

    2015-04-17

    The apterous East African Mezirinae flat bug genus Neochelonoderus Hoberlandt 1967 is revised. In addition to known species from Burundi (N. basilewskyi) and Democratic Republic of the Congo (N. straeleni), two new species from Tanzania (N. talaus n. sp. and N. areius n. sp.) and one from Zambia (N. hoberlandti n. sp.) are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Neochelonoderus is presented.

  13. Adults and nymphs do not smell the same: the different defensive compounds of the giant mesquite bug (Thasus neocalifornicus: Coreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, Kathleen L; Noge, Koji; Becerra, Judith X

    2008-06-01

    Heteropteran insects often protect themselves from predators with noxious or toxic compounds, especially when these insects occur in aggregations. The predators of heteropteran insects change from small insect predators to large avian predators over time. Thus, a chemical that is deterrent to one type of predator at one point in time may not be deterrent to another type of predator at another point in time. Additionally, these predator deterrent compounds may be used for other functions such as alarm signaling to other conspecifics. Defensive secretion compounds from the adult and the nymph giant mesquite bug (Thasus neocalifornicus: Coreidae) were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR. The predominant compounds isolated from the nymph mesquite bugs during a simulated predator encounter were (E)-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal. In adults, the major compounds released during a simulated predator encounter were hexyl acetate, hexanal, and hexanol. Results from predator bioassays suggest the nymph compounds are more effective at deterring an insect predator than the adult compounds. By using behavioral bioassays, we determined the role of each individual compound in signaling to other mesquite bugs. The presence of the nymph secretion near a usually compact nymph aggregation caused nymph mesquite bugs to disperse but did not affect adults. Conversely, the presence of the adult secretion caused the usually loose adult aggregation to disperse, but it did not affect nymph aggregation. The compounds that elicited nymph behavioral responses were (E)-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, while those that elicited adult behavioral responses were hexyl acetate and hexanal. The differences between the chemical composition of nymph and adult defensive secretions and alarm behavior are possibly due to differences in predator guilds.

  14. Detection of Reduced Susceptibility to Chlorfenapyr- and Bifenthrin-Containing Products in Field Populations of the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Aaron R; Scharf, Michael E; Bennett, Gary W; Gondhalekar, Ameya D

    2017-06-01

    Insecticide resistance is a major impediment for effective control of Cimex lectularius L. Previous resistance detection studies with bed bugs have focused on certain pyrethroid, neonicotinoid, organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbamate insecticides. Within the pyrethroid class, resistance studies have mostly been limited to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and alpha- and beta-cyfluthrin. The goal of this study was to develop diagnostic concentration bioassays for assessing bed bug susceptibility levels to chlorfenapyr- and bifenthrin-containing products. First, glass vial and filter paper bioassay methods were compared for their utility in susceptibility monitoring. Statistical comparison of toxicity data between bioassays indicated that the vial assay was less confounded by assay susbtrate effects, required less insecticide, and was faster, especially for chlorfenapyr. Next, using vial diagnostic concentrations (LC99) for each insecticide, 10 laboratory-adapted field strains and the Harlan lab-susceptible strain were screened for susceptibility to chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin. The results of this study reveal recent bed bug susceptibility levels to certain chlorfenapyr- and bifenthrin-containing products. Reduced susceptibility was detected in three and five field strains to chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin, respectively. Detection of reduced susceptibility suggests that certain strains may be segregating toward greater chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin resistance. These results merit continuous resistance monitoring efforts to detect chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin susceptibility shifts. Additionally, to reduce insecticide selection pressures and delay resistance development, adoption of integrated bed bug control strategies that combine chemical and nonchemical methods is recommended. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Evidence of environmental and vertical transmission of Burkholderia symbionts in the oriental chinch bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Heteroptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hideomi; Aita, Manabu; Nagayama, Atsushi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Kamagata, Yoichi; Navarro, Ronald; Hori, Tomoyuki; Ohgiya, Satoru; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2014-10-01

    The vertical transmission of symbiotic microorganisms is omnipresent in insects, while the evolutionary process remains totally unclear. The oriental chinch bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Heteroptera: Blissidae), is a serious sugarcane pest, in which symbiotic bacteria densely populate the lumen of the numerous tubule-like midgut crypts that the chinch bug develops. Cloning and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that the crypts were dominated by a specific group of bacteria belonging to the genus Burkholderia of the Betaproteobacteria. The Burkholderia sequences were distributed into three distinct clades: the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), the plant-associated beneficial and environmental (PBE) group, and the stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental group (SBE). Diagnostic PCR revealed that only one of the three groups of Burkholderia was present in ∼89% of the chinch bug field populations tested, while infections with multiple Burkholderia groups within one insect were observed in only ∼10%. Deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed that the Burkholderia bacteria specifically colonized the crypts and were dominated by one of three Burkholderia groups. The lack of phylogenetic congruence between the symbiont and the host population strongly suggested host-symbiont promiscuity, which is probably caused by environmental acquisition of the symbionts by some hosts. Meanwhile, inspections of eggs and hatchlings by diagnostic PCR and egg surface sterilization demonstrated that almost 30% of the hatchlings vertically acquire symbiotic Burkholderia via symbiont-contaminated egg surfaces. The mixed strategy of symbiont transmission found in the oriental chinch bug might be an intermediate stage in evolution from environmental acquisition to strict vertical transmission in insects. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. The Effects of Bug-in-Ear Coaching on Pre-Service Behavior Analysts’ Use of Functional Communication Training

    OpenAIRE

    Artman-Meeker, Kathleen; Rosenberg, Nancy; Badgett, Natalie; Yang, Xueyan; Penney, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Behavior analysts play an important role in supporting the behavior and learning of young children with disabilities in natural settings. However, there is very little research related specifically to developing the skills and competencies needed by pre-service behavior analysts. This study examined the effects of “bug-in-ear” (BIE) coaching on pre-service behavior analysts’ implementation of functional communication training with pre-school children with autism in their classrooms. BIE coach...

  17. Evidence of Environmental and Vertical Transmission of Burkholderia Symbionts in the Oriental Chinch Bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Heteroptera: Blissidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hideomi; Aita, Manabu; Nagayama, Atsushi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Kamagata, Yoichi; Navarro, Ronald; Hori, Tomoyuki; Ohgiya, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    The vertical transmission of symbiotic microorganisms is omnipresent in insects, while the evolutionary process remains totally unclear. The oriental chinch bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Heteroptera: Blissidae), is a serious sugarcane pest, in which symbiotic bacteria densely populate the lumen of the numerous tubule-like midgut crypts that the chinch bug develops. Cloning and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that the crypts were dominated by a specific group of bacteria belonging to the genus Burkholderia of the Betaproteobacteria. The Burkholderia sequences were distributed into three distinct clades: the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), the plant-associated beneficial and environmental (PBE) group, and the stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental group (SBE). Diagnostic PCR revealed that only one of the three groups of Burkholderia was present in ∼89% of the chinch bug field populations tested, while infections with multiple Burkholderia groups within one insect were observed in only ∼10%. Deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed that the Burkholderia bacteria specifically colonized the crypts and were dominated by one of three Burkholderia groups. The lack of phylogenetic congruence between the symbiont and the host population strongly suggested host-symbiont promiscuity, which is probably caused by environmental acquisition of the symbionts by some hosts. Meanwhile, inspections of eggs and hatchlings by diagnostic PCR and egg surface sterilization demonstrated that almost 30% of the hatchlings vertically acquire symbiotic Burkholderia via symbiont-contaminated egg surfaces. The mixed strategy of symbiont transmission found in the oriental chinch bug might be an intermediate stage in evolution from environmental acquisition to strict vertical transmission in insects. PMID:25038101

  18. INVESTIGATION OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI Beauveria bassiana and Trichoderma sp. AGAINST RICE BLACK BUG Paraeucosmetus pallicornis ON RICE PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    7.Nur, Amin; La daha; Nurariaaty, Agus

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are quite common in nature and some of them had been shown to have adverse effects against insects. The previous study have documented the presence of endophytic fungi provide a protection of the plant hosts against insect herbivore, parasitic nematodes and plant pathogens. The present study aimed to investigate endophytic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Trichoderma sp. against rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis in Greenhouse. The results showed that both the endophyti...

  19. Biochemical characterisation of the tissue degrading enzyme, collagenase, in the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghamari Mahboob

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Podisus maculiventris (Say is a generalist predator attacking many insect species from different orders. The bug injects saliva into its prey's body. The ingested hemolymph and liquefied internal tissues pass through the bug's alimentary tract. Collagenase working on peptide bonds of collagen and basement membrane proteins, leads to the disintegration of the prey's internal organs. As yet, there is an almost complete lack of knowledge on the collagenase activity in P. maculiventris. The collagenase activity of the salivary glands and midgut was optimum at pH 8.0 which was congruent with the optimal pH of the total proteolytic activity of the salivary glands. More collagenolytic activity was determined in the posterior lobe of the salivary glands and anterior midgut. Significant inhibition of collagenolytic activity by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA revealed the enzyme is a metalloproteinase. The collagenase activity notably decreased when the bug went hungry. The salivary gland collagenase is a vital enzyme in extra-oral digestion and facilitates the action of other digestive enzymes. The midgut collagenase may be involved in the digestion of the ingested muscle fibers. The collagenase probably acts as an intoxicating agent in the saliva (venom of P. maculiventris. Paralysing toxins are present in the salivary gland secretion.

  20. The influence of time and distance traveled by bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, on permethrin uptake from treated mattress liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kells, Stephen A; Hymel, Sabrina N

    2017-01-01

    Residual insecticides interrupt the dispersal of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius, L.), but one of the issues encountered with residual applications is understanding the uptake of active residues by the insect. This study determined permethrin uptake by bed bugs walking on the ActiveGuard® Mattress Liner product, via a combination of video recording in arenas and gas chromatography analyses. The best model for estimating permethrin uptake utilized a covariance model (r2  = 0.469) with two factors: time of exposure (F1,55 = 2.44, P permethrin uptake was 15.1 (95% CI: 10.3-22.1) ng insect-1 within 1 min exposure, 21.0 (15.0, 31.0) ng insect-1 within 10 min and ≈ 42 (29.8, 60.6) ng insect-1 within ≥50 min exposure. Correcting for percentage recovery, these values would be increased by a factor of 1.21. This permethrin-treated fabric provides a surface from which bed bugs begin rapidly to absorb permethrin on contact and within the first 1 cm of travel. Variability in uptake was likely a result of grooming and thigmotaxis, and future work should use quantitative methods to study behaviors and formulations that increase exposure to the toxicant. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.