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Sample records for water buffalo genome

  1. Brucellosis in water buffaloes

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    Melina G.S. Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The domestication of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis originated in India and China and spread throughout the world and represents an important source of food of high biological value. Given the importance and relevance of brucellosis for buffalo production, this article reviews the history, etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical signs, anatomopathological findings, diagnosis and control of the disease, focusing on data from studies on water buffaloes performed in different countries and the Brazilian Amazon biome.

  2. In silico mining of putative microsatellite markers from whole genome sequence of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis and development of first BuffSatDB

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    Sarika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though India has sequenced water buffalo genome but its draft assembly is based on cattle genome BTau 4.0, thus de novo chromosome wise assembly is a major pending issue for global community. The existing radiation hybrid of buffalo and these reported STR can be used further in final gap plugging and “finishing” expected in de novo genome assembly. QTL and gene mapping needs mining of putative STR from buffalo genome at equal interval on each and every chromosome. Such markers have potential role in improvement of desirable characteristics, such as high milk yields, resistance to diseases, high growth rate. The STR mining from whole genome and development of user friendly database is yet to be done to reap the benefit of whole genome sequence. Description By in silico microsatellite mining of whole genome, we have developed first STR database of water buffalo, BuffSatDb (Buffalo MicroSatellite Database (http://cabindb.iasri.res.in/buffsatdb/ which is a web based relational database of 910529 microsatellite markers, developed using PHP and MySQL database. Microsatellite markers have been generated using MIcroSAtellite tool. It is simple and systematic web based search for customised retrieval of chromosome wise and genome-wide microsatellites. Search has been enabled based on chromosomes, motif type (mono-hexa, repeat motif and repeat kind (simple and composite. The search may be customised by limiting location of STR on chromosome as well as number of markers in that range. This is a novel approach and not been implemented in any of the existing marker database. This database has been further appended with Primer3 for primer designing of the selected markers enabling researcher to select markers of choice at desired interval over the chromosome. The unique add-on of degenerate bases further helps in resolving presence of degenerate bases in current buffalo assembly. Conclusion Being first buffalo STR database in the world

  3. water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in tropical Asia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research group (Fujita, Imai & Ogimoto, 1979;Imai, 1981). Table 2 shows the number of ciliate species in the pro- tozoal families found in the rumen of the water buffalo in tropical Asia, in the African water buffalo (Syncerus caf- fer) in Africa, of the zebu (Bos indicus) in India and Sri. Lanka, and of cattle (Bos taurus) in Japan.

  4. Microsatellite markers of water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis - development, characterisation and linkage disequilibrium studies

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    Vaidhegi R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers are highly polymorphic and widely used in genome mapping and population genetic studies in livestock species. River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is an economically important livestock species, though only a limited number of microsatellite markers have been reported thus far in this species. Results In the present study, using two different approaches 571 microsatellite markers have been characterized for water buffalo. Of the 571 microsatellite markers, 498 were polymorphic with average heterozygosity of 0.51 on a panel of 24 unrelated buffalo. Fisher exact test was used to detect LD between the marker pairs. Among the 137550 pairs of marker combination, 14.58% pairs showed significant LD (P Conclusion The high conservation of cattle microsatellite loci in water buffalo promises the usefulness of the cattle microsatellites markers on buffalo. The polymorphic markers characterised in this study will contribute to genetic linkage and radiation hybrid mapping of water buffalo and population genetic studies.

  5. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage.

  6. Husbandry and Sustainability of Water Buffaloes in Turkey

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    Orhan Ermetin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Water buffaloes in Turkey originate from Mediterranean Water Buffaloes, a subgroup of river water buffaloes and are known as Anatolian Water Buffalo. During the 1970’s the number of water buffaloes in Turkey was one million, but in 2010 this figure dropped to about 85.000. Thanks to the incentives introduced for water buffalo husbandry in recent years, the water buffalo population has risen to 143.073 heads. Water buffalo husbandry in Turkey is performed in some provinces of the Black Sea, Marmara and Central Anatolian Regions. The provinces with the highest amount of water buffalo existence are listed as Samsun, Diyarbakır, Istanbul, Tokat, Bitlis, Muş, Afyon, Kayseri, Sivas and Amasya. Breeding style in Turkey is in the form small family business, with an average of 1-5 animals per enterprise. Family enterprises are keeping water buffaloes for their own consumption. Mostly breeding in modern enterprises formed for indoor barn breeding, the size of the herds is around 50 to 100 heads. Being done only at swamps or waterfronts in the past, water buffalo husbandry increasingly takes place in modern facilities nowadays. The colour of Anatolian Water Buffaloes is generally black and their horns curved backwards, are called arch horns in Turkey. The lactation milk yield and lactation length in Anatolian Water Buffaloes are between 800 and 1100 kg and about 180-280 days respectively. It is demonstrated that they varied according to effects of environmental factors, care and feeding. Adult water buffalo’s live weight is about 411-518 kg. The first insemination age of water buffalo is 32 to 43 months and during a lifespan the number of lactation periods is 5 to 10. For adult water buffalo at withers the height of females is being expressed as around 135 cm. Calves are generally breastfed for 3-4 months. Generally, water buffaloes are milked twice a day in the village farms by hand.

  7. The Mastitis Case in Water Buffalo

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    Aziz Şahin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an important disease which causes economic losses in the water buffalo breeding. According to severity, duration and primary, mastitis is generally classified as clinical and subclinical. Because of contamination from other animals in the herd, subclinical mastitis is a important dairy herd problem. However, clinical mastitis is a clinical case created by deformation of udder gland and decreasing milk yield. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactia and Streptococcus dysgalactia are in clinical mastitis, but Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus agalactia and Streptococcus dysgalactia are the most common isolated microorganisms in subclinical mastitis. Due to mastitis caused by these microorganisms in Water Buffalo, abnormality in the structure of milk are observed, and it causes economic losses to farmers from reduced production. Therefore, the detection of effective factors on mastitis and taking of the necessary precautions are very important. In this review, mastitis case in water Buffalo and its effects were discussed.

  8. Bilateral follicular cysts in a water buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F A; Nabi, S U; Pande, Megha; Das, G K; Sarkar, M

    2011-03-01

    The present short communication puts on record a case of bilateral, multiple follicular cysts in a water buffalo along with a detailed description of its ovarian biometry and follicular fluid composition. The ovarian weight and biometrical parameters were much higher than in normal cycling buffaloes. A total of three follicular cysts were observed, two on the right ovary and one on the left ovary, measuring 4.9, 3.0 and 2.6 cm yielding 21, 9 and 5 ml of follicular fluid, respectively. The cystic fluid was deep yellow in colour with a viscous consistency. The follicular fluid concentrations of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, acid phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and progesterone in all the cysts were within the range reported previously in normal buffalo follicular fluid; however, the alkaline phosphatase concentration in cyst 1 and total bilirubin concentration in cysts 1 and 2 were higher than the values in normal follicular fluid. In contrast, the levels of urea nitrogen in cysts 1 and 3, and oestradiol in cyst 3 were lower than the normal values. All the three follicles had an oestradiol to progesterone ratio less than 1. The results of our study suggest that follicular cysts in buffalo are oestrogenically inactive and have an altered concentration of certain biochemical and hormonal constituents.

  9. The Mastitis Case in Water Buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Şahin; Arda Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is an important disease which causes economic losses in the water buffalo breeding. According to severity, duration and primary, mastitis is generally classified as clinical and subclinical. Because of contamination from other animals in the herd, subclinical mastitis is a important dairy herd problem. However, clinical mastitis is a clinical case created by deformation of udder gland and decreasing milk yield. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactia and Stre...

  10. Microsatellite loci isolation from river buffalo using enriched partial genomic libraries

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    A.L. Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of buffalo in agriculture, especially in developing countries, begs for genetic resources to evaluate and improve traits important to local and regional economies. Brazil presents the largest water buffalo populations in the New World, with 1.1 million heads including swamp and river types. To design rational breeding strategies for optimum utilization and conservation of available genetic variability in the Brazilian buffalo’s population, it is essential to understand their genetic architecture and relationship among various breeds. This depends, in part, on the knowledge of their genetic structure based on molecular markers like microsatellites. In the present study, we developed six enriched partial genomic libraries for river buffalo using selective hybridization methods. Genomic DNA was hybridized with six different arrays of repeat motif, 5’ biotinylated - (CA15, (CT15, (AGG8, (GAAA8, (GATA8, (AAAAC8 – and bound to streptavidin coated beads. The cloning process generated a total of 1920 recombinant clones. Up to date, 487 were directly sequenced for the presence of repeats, from which 13 have been positive for presence of repeats as follows: 9 for di-nucleotide repeats, 3 for tri-nucleotide repeats and 1 for tetra-nucleotide repeat. PCR primer pairs for the isolated microsatellites are under construction to determine optimum annealing temperature. These microsatellites will be useful for studies involving phylogenetic relationships, genome mapping and genetic diversity analysis within buffalo populations worldwide.

  11. Frequency of Toxoplasmosis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in Trinidad

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    Anil Persad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis has been reported to occur in several animals and humans causing different clinical manifestations. The study was conducted to determine the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis across farms in Trinidad using a latex agglutination test. Of a total of 333 water buffalo tested, 26 (7.8% were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was statistically significantly (P0.05; χ2. This is the first documentation of toxoplasmosis in water buffalo in Trinidad.

  12. A Historical Overview of Research on Babesia orientalis, a Protozoan Parasite Infecting Water Buffalo

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    Lan He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis is a globally important zoonotic disease caused by tick-borne intraerythrocytic protozoan of the genus Babesia (phylum apicomplexa. In China, there are five species that infect cattle buffalo and cause great economic loss, which include Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, B. major, B. ovata, and B. orientalis. Among them, B. orientalis is the most recently identified new Babesia species epidemic in China. This review summarized the work done in the past 33 years to give an overview of what learned about this parasite. This parasitic protozoan was found in 1984 in Central and South China and then named as B. orientalis in 1997 based on its differences in transmitting host, morphology, pathogenicity and characteristics of in vitro cultivation when compared with B. bigemina and B. bovis. It was found that Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides is the transmitting vector and water buffalo is the only reported host. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rRNA gene also confirmed that B. orientalis is a new species. After species verification, four diagnostic methods including semi-nest PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay, reverse line blot hybridization assay, and real-time PCR were established for lab and field use purposes. Genomic sequencing was conducted and the complete genomes of mitochondria and apicoplast were annotated. Future work will be focused on developing effective vaccines, identifying drug targets and screening useful drugs for controlling B. orientalis in water buffalo.

  13. Cloning and sequencing of Indian Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) interleukin-3 cDNA

    KAUST Repository

    Sugumar, Thennarasu

    2011-12-12

    Full-length cDNA (435 bp) of the interleukin-3(IL-3) gene of the Indian water buffalo was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. This sequence had 96% nucleotide identity and 92% amino acid identity with bovine IL-3. There are 10 amino acid substitutions in buffalo compared with that of bovine. The amino acid sequence of buffalo IL-3 also showed very high identity with that of other ruminants, indicating functional cross-reactivity. Structural homology modelling of buffalo IL-3 protein with human IL-3 showed the presence of five helical structures.

  14. Tuberculosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in the Baixo Araguari Region, Amapá, Brazil

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    Silvia Minharro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo are of great economic importance in Brazilian Amazonia, which has the largest herd in Brazil. Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease that results in severe losses to water buffalo production. Although the disease has already been described in the country, data on the occurrence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in Brazil is very scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region of Amapá, Brazil. Thirty herds, randomly selected from the 41 herds of water buffalo in the region, were sampled. From those herds, 212 randomly selected water buffalo were subjected to the comparative tuberculin skin test. The proportion of Baixo Araguari River region herds that were positive for bovine tuberculosis was 50.0% (95% CI 31.3% to 68.7% and the proportion of animals that were positive was estimated to be 14.8% (95% CI 7.8% to 21.9%. Our results show that bovine tuberculosis is spread widely among water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region, which suggests that measures to control the disease should be undertaken in the region.

  15. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF WATER BUFFALO COLOSTRUM: FIRST RESULTS

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    P. Catellani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal colostrum contains many substances with antibacterial activity such as lysozyme and lactoferrin which should inhibit the microbial growth. The aim of this research is to understand if colostrum can be considered a safe product, considering that Regulation (EC N° 1662/2006, which has modified the Regulation (EC N° 853/2004, introducing colostrum as human food. Microbiological tests, made on water buffalo colostrum, aiming to obtain the total microbial count (maximum concentration: 3,6•104 ufc/ml, the quantitative evaluation of total (maximum the highest concentration found: 2,3•103 ufc/ml and fecal coliforms (maximum concentration: 4,9•102 ufc/ml and the qualitative search of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that there is not a microbial growth in colostrum, that it can be considered a safe food, from the microbial point of view

  16. Effect of Buffalo Dung to the Water Ratio on Production of Methane through Anaerobic Digestion

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    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Generation of methane from animal dung through AD (Anaerobic Digestion is the most feasible way to get energy from it. Pakistan has about 70 million heads of cattle and buffalos, and about 90 million heads of sheep and goats. The dung from these animals can overcome the energy crisis and can fulfill the future energy demands of Pakistan. In present study, buffalo dung is used as the substrate for anaerobic digestion process, whereas the production of methane was analyzed as the function of buffalo dung to water ratio. Six batch reactors with different buffalo dung to water ratios were incubated in the AMPTS (Automatic Methane Potential Test Setup for 51 days. The highest methane production was observed from the buffalo dung to water ratio of 2.0 i.e. 226.4 NmL/gVS loss , followed by 198.6 NmL/ gVS loss from the buffalo dung to the water ratio of 1.0. The suitable hydraulic retention time of the anaerobic digester treating buffalo dung was observed as 20 days

  17. Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.

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    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-02-24

    Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tuberculosis prevalence and risk factors for water buffalo in Pará, Brazil.

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    Barbosa, José D; da Silva, Jenevaldo B; Rangel, Charles P; da Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Silva, Natália S; Bomjardim, Henrique A; Freitas, Nayra F Q R

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of and possible risk factors for tuberculosis were studied in water buffalo from Pará, Brazil. In this study, 3,917 pregnant and nonpregnant female Murrah and Mediterranean buffaloes were studied; 2,089 originated from Marajó Island, and 1,108 were from the mainland. The comparative cervical tuberculin test was used as a diagnostic test for tuberculosis in these animals. The prevalence of positive buffaloes was 3.5 % (100/2,809) on Marajó Island and 7.2 % (80/1,108) on the mainland. The municipalities with the highest tuberculosis prevalence rates in animals were Ipixuna do Pará (10.1 %), Marapanim (9.8 %), Chaves (9.4 %), Paragominas (8.6 %), and Cachoeira do Arari (6.7 %). The tuberculosis prevalence was not significantly different between the Murrah (4.3 %) and Mediterranean (4.8 %) breeds or between pregnant (5 %) and nonpregnant (4.3 %) buffaloes. Tuberculosis was detected in water buffaloes from Pará, Brazil; the mainland buffalo exhibited the highest tuberculosis prevalence. These results indicate that this disease is dangerous to public health and buffalo farming in Pará.

  19. Development of an Indirect ELISA Using Different Fragments of Recombinant Ncgra7 for Detection of Neospora caninum Infection in Cattle and Water Buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAMIDINEJAT, Hossein; SEIFI ABAD SHAPOURI, Massoud Reza; NAMAVARI, Mohammad Mehdi; SHAYAN, Parviz; KEFAYAT, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dense granules are immunodominant proteins for the standardization of immunodiagnostic procedures to detect neosporosis. In the presented study different fragment of a dense-granule protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of Neospora caninum in cattle and water buffalo. Methods: NcGRA7, from N. caninum tachyzoites was amplified. PCR product and pMAL-c2X plasmid were digested with EcoR1 restriction enzyme and expressed in Escherichia coli to evaluate its competence for detection of anti- N. caninum antibodies with ELISA in comparison with commercial IDEXX ELISA. Furthermore, 230 sera of presumably healthy cattle and water buffaloes (108 cattle and 122 water buffaloes) were analyzed by both tests to determine the agreement of these two procedures. Results: Sensitivities and specificities of NcGRA7-based ELISA were 94.64% and 90.38% respectively using sera of cattle, but were 98.57% and 86.54% in the case of buffaloes respectively. A good correlation between the results of IDEXX ELISA and ELISA based on recombinant NcGRA7 for detecting N. caninum antibodies was appeared. Analyzing by Mc Nemar′s showed that NcGRA7-based ELISA has acceptable capability to differentiate the positive results in comparison with IDEXX ELISA. Conclusion: NcGRA7-based ELISA considering utilized new fragment of genomic DNA is a good tool for serodiagnosis of anti- N. caninum antibodies for screening and epidemiological purposes on cattle herd and water buffaloes as well. PMID:25904948

  20. Study of Biogas Production Rate from Water Hyacinth by Hydrothermal Pretreatment with Buffalo Dung as a Starter

    OpenAIRE

    Teguh Kurniawan; Yuhelsa Putra; Dewi Murni

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on biogas enhancement production rates from water hyacinth mixed with buffalo dung. The focus of the experiment was on the time of hydrothermal pretreatment and the ratio of water hyacinth with buffalo dung. The hydrothermal pretreated substrates were characterized by TDS, BOD and pH. The hydrothermal pretreatment of 60 minutes with the ratio of water hyacinth to buffalo dung 1:2 showed the highest biogas production rate at 7889...

  1. The microbiota of water buffalo milk during mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catozzi, Carlotta; Sanchez Bonastre, Armand; Francino, Olga; Lecchi, Cristina; De Carlo, Esterina; Vecchio, Domenico; Martucciello, Alessandra; Fraulo, Pasquale; Bronzo, Valerio; Cuscó, Anna; D'Andreano, Sara; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the microbiota of water buffalo milk during sub-clinical and clinical mastitis, as compared to healthy status, by using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 137 quarter samples were included in the experimental design: 27 samples derived from healthy, culture negative quarters, with a Somatic Cell Count (SCC) of less than 200,000 cells/ml; 27 samples from quarters with clinical mastitis; 83 samples were collected from quarters with subclinical mastitis, with a SCC number greater of 200,000 cells/ml and/or culture positive for udder pathogens, without clinical signs of mastitis. Bacterial DNA was purified and the 16S rRNA genes were individually amplified and sequenced. Significant differences were found in milk samples from healthy quarters and those with sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. The microbiota diversity of milk from healthy quarters was richer as compared to samples with sub-clinical mastitis, whose microbiota diversity was in turn richer as compared to those from clinical mastitis. The core microbiota of water buffalo milk, defined as the asset of microorganisms shared by all healthy milk samples, includes 15 genera, namely Micrococcus, Propionibacterium, 5-7N15, Solibacillus, Staphylococcus, Aerococcus, Facklamia, Trichococcus, Turicibacter, 02d06, SMB53, Clostridium, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter and Pseudomonas. Only two genera (Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas) were present in all the samples from sub-clinical mastitis, and no genus was shared across all in clinical mastitis milk samples. The presence of mastitis was found to be related to the change in the relative abundance of genera, such as Psychrobacter, whose relative abundance decreased from 16.26% in the milk samples from healthy quarters to 3.2% in clinical mastitis. Other genera, such as SMB53 and Solibacillus, were decreased as well. Discriminant analysis presents the evidence that the microbial community of healthy and clinical

  2. Serological investigation of Leptospira infection and its circulation in one intensive-type water buffalo farm in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N; Gloriani, Nina G; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Isoda, Norikazu; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Nobuo

    2016-02-01

    Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n = 21), and water buffaloes (n = 170) from different groups and locations in one intensive-type buffalo farm in the Philippines. Serum was analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Anti-Leptospira antibodies reacting with serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were found in sera of 30% tested rats, and 48% of water buffalo sera tested positive for at least one Leptospira strain, in which serogroups Mini, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Pyrogenes were predominantly agglutinated. The number of seropositive young water buffaloes (Leptospira strains with variable MAT titers. In addition, antibodies against serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were detected in both animals. Finally, Leptospira infection was found associated with age and animal grouping, highlighting the impact of management in the persistence of leptospirosis at intensive-type buffalo farm settings in the Philippines. Further investigation and appropriate control strategies are required to prevent leptospirosis from causing risks to public health and economic losses to the water buffalo farming industry.

  3. Mekong schistosomiasis. III: a parasitological survey of domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) on Khong Island, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C R; Kitikoon, V; Sornmani, S; Thirachantra, S

    1975-06-01

    Of 103 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) examined on Khong Island by means of the M.I.F.C. and hatching techniques, none were passing eggs resimbling those of the Mekong schistosome. One buffalo calf was infected with Orientobilharzia harinasutai and another with Schistosoma spindale; this is the first time these parasites have been reported from Laos. Since the buffalo that were examined had constant and year-round access to a part of the Mekong River that has been shown to be a site of heavy transmission of schistosomiasis to humans and dogs, it was considered that the buffalo would have acquired the infection with the human Mekong schistosome if this were possible. In the absence of buffalo necropsies, and since no eggs of the Mekong schistosome were detected in the stools of these animals, we assumed that they had either not become infected with this parasite or, if they had, that the infections did not produce eggs in the faeces which were detectable by the methods employed. On the basis of our examinations, it would not seem that domestic water buffalo are involved as reservoirs in the epidemiology of human schistosomiasis on Khong Island.

  4. Natural Babesia bovis infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle under field conditions in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a little or no data available on the natural Babesia bovis (B. bovis) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) comparing to the available one for cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes in comparison to crossbred....... Conclusion: This paper documents the first description of natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes which were found to be more likely to be tolerant than cattle to the natural clinical infection with B. bovis and its subsequent haematological changes. Our finding may lead to a better understanding...... of the disease pattern of B. bovis infection under field conditions in buffaloes....

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Veracruz State, Mexico and its association with climatic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Romero-Salas, Dora; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Cruz-Romero, Anabel; Peniche-Cardeña, Alvaro; Ibarra-Priego, Nelly; Aguilar-Domínguez, Mariel; Pérez-de-León, Adalberto A; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-09-30

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is of epidemiological importance because of the risk for transmission to humans. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 339 water buffaloes in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Seroprevalence association with general characteristics of buffaloes and their environment was also investigated. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 165 (48.7%) of the 339 buffaloes with MAT titers of 1:25 in 104, 1:50 in 52, and 1:100 in 9. Bivariate analysis showed that seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was similar in buffaloes regardless of their general characteristics i.e., age, sex, and breed. In contrast, the seroprevalence in buffaloes varied significantly with environmental characteristics including altitude, mean annual temperature, and mean annual rainfall of the municipalities studied. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity in buffaloes was associated with a mean annual rainfall between 1266-1650 mm (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.15-2.94; P = 0.01). Results indicate that environmental characteristics may influence the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in buffaloes. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in buffaloes in Mexico. Further research is needed to assess the risk for infection in humans associated with the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat from buffaloes infected with T. gondii.

  6. Shedding of Brucella abortus rough mutant strain RB51 in milk of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Mariangela; Mallardo, Karina; Montagnaro, Serena; De Martino, Luisa; Gallo, Sergio; Fusco, Giovanna; Galiero, Giorgio; Guarino, Achille; Pagnini, Ugo; Iovane, Giuseppe

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if Brucella abortus rough mutant strain RB51 (SRB51) is eliminated in buffalo milk. Thirty Brucella-free female buffaloes were used in this study: ten 4-5 years old were inoculated with the triple of the recommended calfhood dose of SRB51 by subcutaneous route, ten 2-3 years old at the first lactation were previously vaccinated twice as calves with triple the recommended calf dose of RB51, while five 4-5 years old and five 2-3 years old not vaccinated Brucella-free female buffaloes served as controls. Milk samples were taken aseptically on a daily basis for the first 30 days and weekly for the second and third months. The samples were inoculated on selective media for isolation of SRB51 and incubated for 11 days. Moreover, PCR analysis was also performed directly on milk samples. SRB51 was isolated from milk samples only during the first week post-vaccination while RB51 DNA was detected during the first week till the fourth week post-vaccination only in water buffaloes vaccinated as adults. The identification of Brucella RB51 in milk samples, strongly suggests that this Brucella vaccine could be excreted in milk of buffalo cows vaccinated as adults, while our data demonstrate that the vaccine is safe for use in buffaloes vaccinated as calves in which it was not excreted in milk.

  7. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidana, Silvina S; Lomonaco, Patricia M; Combessies, Gustavo; Craig, María I; Diodati, Julian; Rodriguez, Daniela; Parreño, Viviana; Zabal, Osvaldo; Konrad, José L; Crudelli, Gustavo; Mauroy, Axel; Thiry, Etienne; Romera, Sonia A

    2012-06-20

    Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b) while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a) and C (BPIV3c). This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo.According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle.

  8. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in Argentina

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    Maidana Silvina S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3 was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3. Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a and C (BPIV3c. Conclusions This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo. According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle.

  9. Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis: Clinical Findings and the Associated Inflammatory Response

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    Maged El-Ashker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to describe the clinical picture of traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis and to evaluate the inflammatory and immunologic responses for this clinical condition. Twenty-two buffalo with acute local TRP were monitored in our study. Additionally, 10 clinically healthy buffalo were randomly selected and served as controls. Acute local TRP was initially diagnosed by clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasonographic (USG examination and/or necropsy findings. Blood samples were collected from all examined buffalo to measure the respective levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and interferon gamma (INF-γ, serum amyloid A (SAA, C-reactive protein (CRP, haptoglobin (Hp, fibrinogen (Fb, and serum sialic acid (SSA. It was found that TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, SAA, CRP, Hp, Fb, and SSA were significantly higher in buffalo with TRP than the controls. Our findings suggest that the examined immunologic variables were helpful in documenting the inflammatory response in buffalo with TRP. However, their diagnostic usefulness only becomes apparent when considered in tandem with the clinical findings for any given animal, its anamnesis, and a subsequent USG assessment. Due to the frequent complications of TRP, more accurate indicators of its occurrence and severity would be useful.

  10. Exploring DNA Polymorphisms of Leptin Gene within Indian Water Buffaloes

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    D.S. Kale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a 16-kDa protein secreted predominantly from white adipose tissue and performs important roles in controlling the body weight, feed intake, immune function, production and reproduction. In present study, buffalo leptin gene was analyzed using DNA markers for polymorphism and its association with production traits. The PCR-RFLP analysis of leptin gene using BsaAI, Sau3AI and Kpn2I restriction enzymes revealed monomorphism. The PCR-SSCP followed by DNA sequencing of Murrah buffalo leptin gene spanning exon III revealed two SNPs viz., c.25 T>C and c.316A>G, which were used to genotype the Murrah, Surti and Bhadawari populations. The c.25 T>C allele frequencies was found 0.81 and 0.19 for C and T in Murrah; 0.65 and 0.35 for C and T in Surti and 0.65 and 0.35 for C and T in Bhadawari buffaloes respectively. The c.25T>C genotypes were not in Hardy-Weinberg proportions, however c.316A>G genotypes maintained equilibrium at this locus in the populations studied. The c.316A>G SNP allele frequencies were observed in Murrah 0.31 and 0.69 for A and G; Surti 0.3 and 0.7 for A and G and Bhadawari 0.3 and 0.7 for A and G respectively. The Murrah buffalo leptin allelic variant sequences revealed 99 % similarity with cattle sequence. The statistical analysis using general linear model procedure indicated that Murrah buffalo leptin c.25 T>C and c.316A>G SNP genotypes were not related significantly (P>0.01 with Murrah buffalo milk production traits viz; milk yield, fat percentage and SNF percentage.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptional Profiles of Adult Schistosoma japonicum from Different Laboratory Animals and the Natural Host, Water Buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuang; Hou, Nan; Chen, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most widely distributed parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosoma japonicum, a zoonotic parasite with a wide range of mammalian hosts, is one of the major pathogens of this disease. Although numerous studies on schistosomiasis japonica have been performed using laboratory animal models, systematic comparative analysis of whole-genome expression profiles in parasites from different laboratory animals and nature mammalian hosts is lacking to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult schistosomes were obtained from laboratory animals BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and the natural host, water buffaloes. The gene expression profiles of schistosomes from these animals were obtained and compared by genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The results revealed that the gene expression profiles of schistosomes from different laboratory animals and buffaloes were highly consistent (r>0.98) genome-wide. Meanwhile, a total of 450 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in schistosomes which can be clustered into six groups. Pathway analysis revealed that these genes were mainly involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, amino acid, energy, nucleotide and lipid metabolism. We also identified a group of 1,540 abundantly and stably expressed gene products in adult worms, including a panel of 179 Schistosoma- or Platyhelminthes-specific genes that may be essential for parasitism and may be regarded as novel potential anti-parasite intervention targets for future research. Conclusions/Significance This study provides a comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from different laboratory animals and water buffaloes. An expanded number of genes potentially affecting the development of schistosomes in different animals were identified. These findings lay the foundation for schistosomiasis research in different laboratory animals and natural hosts at the

  12. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptional Profiles of Adult Schistosoma japonicum from Different Laboratory Animals and the Natural Host, Water Buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Xiaosu; Piao, Xianyu; Wu, Chuang; Hou, Nan; Chen, Qijun

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widely distributed parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosoma japonicum, a zoonotic parasite with a wide range of mammalian hosts, is one of the major pathogens of this disease. Although numerous studies on schistosomiasis japonica have been performed using laboratory animal models, systematic comparative analysis of whole-genome expression profiles in parasites from different laboratory animals and nature mammalian hosts is lacking to date. Adult schistosomes were obtained from laboratory animals BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and the natural host, water buffaloes. The gene expression profiles of schistosomes from these animals were obtained and compared by genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The results revealed that the gene expression profiles of schistosomes from different laboratory animals and buffaloes were highly consistent (r>0.98) genome-wide. Meanwhile, a total of 450 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in schistosomes which can be clustered into six groups. Pathway analysis revealed that these genes were mainly involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, amino acid, energy, nucleotide and lipid metabolism. We also identified a group of 1,540 abundantly and stably expressed gene products in adult worms, including a panel of 179 Schistosoma- or Platyhelminthes-specific genes that may be essential for parasitism and may be regarded as novel potential anti-parasite intervention targets for future research. This study provides a comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from different laboratory animals and water buffaloes. An expanded number of genes potentially affecting the development of schistosomes in different animals were identified. These findings lay the foundation for schistosomiasis research in different laboratory animals and natural hosts at the transcriptional level and provide a valuable resource for screening anti

  13. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptional Profiles of Adult Schistosoma japonicum from Different Laboratory Animals and the Natural Host, Water Buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the most widely distributed parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosoma japonicum, a zoonotic parasite with a wide range of mammalian hosts, is one of the major pathogens of this disease. Although numerous studies on schistosomiasis japonica have been performed using laboratory animal models, systematic comparative analysis of whole-genome expression profiles in parasites from different laboratory animals and nature mammalian hosts is lacking to date.Adult schistosomes were obtained from laboratory animals BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and the natural host, water buffaloes. The gene expression profiles of schistosomes from these animals were obtained and compared by genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The results revealed that the gene expression profiles of schistosomes from different laboratory animals and buffaloes were highly consistent (r>0.98 genome-wide. Meanwhile, a total of 450 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in schistosomes which can be clustered into six groups. Pathway analysis revealed that these genes were mainly involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, amino acid, energy, nucleotide and lipid metabolism. We also identified a group of 1,540 abundantly and stably expressed gene products in adult worms, including a panel of 179 Schistosoma- or Platyhelminthes-specific genes that may be essential for parasitism and may be regarded as novel potential anti-parasite intervention targets for future research.This study provides a comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from different laboratory animals and water buffaloes. An expanded number of genes potentially affecting the development of schistosomes in different animals were identified. These findings lay the foundation for schistosomiasis research in different laboratory animals and natural hosts at the transcriptional level and provide a valuable resource

  14. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p cow (p cow (p cow (3.68 × 10(5) vs. 2.18 × 10(5) mL(-1) of rumen content) (p cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow.

  15. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with abomasal ulcer

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    Javad Tajik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA in water buffaloes with abomasal ulcers, the abomasums of 100 randomly selected water buffaloes were examined after slaughter. Type I abomasal ulcers were found in 56 out of 100 buffaloes. Serum concentrations of Hp and SAA were measured. There was no significant difference between affected and non-affected buffaloes in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA. The serum concentrations of Hp and SAA had no significant correlation with age and the serum SAA revealed no significant correlation with the number of abomasal ulcers. A significant correlation was found between the serum Hp and the number of abomasal ulcers (r =0.29, p = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA between buffaloes with different ulcer locations in the abomasums. Although more work on a larger number of animals is required in this area, it seems that the measurement of the serum Hp can be used to predict the abundance of type I abomasal ulcers.

  16. Detection of fraudulent addition of bovine whey in water buffalo ricotta cheese by isoelectric focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselli, Fabio; Deluca, Anna; Montepeloso, Emanuela A; Ibba, Giulia; Tidona, Flavio; Longo, Lucia; Marianella, Rosa M

    2015-10-01

    Prevention of food fraud in the dairy field is a difficult issue for researchers, industries and policy makers, both for commercial and health reasons. Currently, no analytical method allows detection of the addition of bovine whey to water buffalo ricotta, so this fraudulent practice cannot be prevented. The authors' aim was to develop such a method. The conditions for extraction and purification of denatured ricotta whey proteins, which are unfolded and coagulated by heating during the production process, were optimized. The optimal composition of the polyacrylamide gel (pH range, type and concentration of chemical separator) was first evaluated and then the best conditions to perform the separation by isoelectric focusing were established. The performance of the method (precision, selectivity, robustness, sensibility) was determined. The method was shown to be reliable and robust for detection of the presence of bovine whey added to water buffalo Ricotta at percentages above 5% (v/v). The results suggest that the differences observed between bovine and water buffalo electrophoretic profiles are due to bovine β-lactoglobulin isoform A, which is never detected in water buffalo samples. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Genetic analysis of congenital hemimelia in buffaloes from Southern Italy

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    Simona Tafuri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemimelia is a common congenital limb abnormality found in water buffaloes from Southern Italy. In humans, such defect has been associated with mutations in WNT7A and ESCO2 genes. These two candidate genes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction in the genomic DNA extracted from the blood of buffaloes, and cows for control. No differences in WNT7A and ESCO2 sequences between affected and healthy buffaloes were identified. However, comparing sequences of control cows and buffaloes, WNT7A showed simple species polymorphisms, and ESCO2 showed seven base-pair substitutions. These results demonstrate that limb malformations in buffaloes are not related to congenital defects in WNT7A gene. Interestingly, our findings highlight for the first time differences in the sequences of WNT7A and ESCO2 genes between buffaloes and cows.

  18. Yeasts from Water Buffalo Mozzarella, a traditional cheese of the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P; Ricciardi, A; Salzano, G; Suzzi, G

    2001-09-19

    Countries of the Mediterranean area are characterized by production of artisanal cheeses, obtained from goat, sheep, cow and buffalo raw milk. The numbers and species of yeasts in the different cheeses are variable, but some species are more frequently detected than others. Kluyveromyces marxianus, K. lactis with their anamorph, Candida kefir, Debaryomyces hansenii and C. famata, C. colliculosa and C. catenulata are dominant species in several cheeses. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is often detected in pasta filata cheeses, such as Water Buffalo Mozzarella (WBM) or Cacio Cavallo Podolico. Recently, a comprehensive study of yeasts isolated from Mozzarella cheese produced in Basilicata (Southern Italy) has been carried out. The study has focused on lactose and/or galactose fermenting species (Kluyveromyces and Saccharomyces) to evaluate their role on the functional and sensory properties of the product. End products in milk were evaluated and the biodiversity in terms of production of sulphur dioxide, higher alcohols, ethyl acetate, and acetaldehyde was studied. In particular, S. cerevisiae strains from Water Buffalo Mozzarella cheese, compared to strains isolated from different habitats, such as wine, exhibited considerable difference in the production of some volatile compounds. The diversity observed could be related to the particular microhabitat of S. cerevisiae occurring in whey cheese of water buffalo milk.

  19. Toll-like receptor responses to Peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.

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    Sakthivel Dhanasekaran

    Full Text Available Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV. Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR. We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN α in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFNα resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFNα in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFNα levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors

  20. Toll-like receptor responses to Peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R; Ramya, R; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S; Parida, Satya; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) α in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFNα resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFNα in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFNα levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide

  1. Skin injuries identified in cattle and water buffaloes at livestock markets in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M R; Gregory, N G; Jabbar, M A; Uddin, M S; Kibria, A S M G; Silva-Fletcher, A

    2010-09-11

    Skin injuries were assessed in 560 imported and local cattle and water buffaloes at two livestock markets in Bangladesh. The body of each animal was divided into 11 anatomical regions, and abrasions, lacerations, penetrations, ulcerations, bleeding, swelling, hyperkeratosis and scars were recorded for each region. Among the 560 animals studied, 501 were found to have at least one injury. The prevalence of skin injuries was 89 per cent, with 84 per cent of the cattle and 99 per cent of the water buffaloes having obvious skin injuries. The most common types of injury were abrasions that were found in 73 per cent of the animals, followed by scars (50 per cent), and lacerations (41 per cent). Buffaloes had more abrasions (95 per cent), lacerations (57 per cent), swelling (15 per cent) and hyperkeratosis (32 per cent) compared with cattle, whereas scars (60 per cent) were more common in cattle (Ptypes of injuries were present but in different proportions. The buttock region had a higher proportion of abrasions (36 per cent) followed by the hip, hindlimb and back regions. Penetration, ulceration, bleeding and swelling were present at lower frequencies in all regions. Causes for these injuries included rubbing against the inside wall of vehicles used for transportation and stock-handler abuse (59 per cent and 13 per cent, respectively). Buffaloes sustained more transport injuries than cattle, and the number of injuries was higher in imported than local animals.

  2. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV in serologically negative animals

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    María I Craig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.. Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5′ UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b, and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2.

  3. A proteomic characterization of water buffalo milk fractions describing PTM of major species and the identification of minor components involved in nutrient delivery and defense against pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Arena, Simona; Salzano, Anna Maria; Renzone, Giovanni; Ledda, Luigi; Scaloni, Andrea

    2008-09-01

    Water buffalo has been studied in relation to the exclusive use of its milk for the manufacture of high-quality dairy products. Buffalo milk presents physicochemical features different from that of other ruminant species, such as a higher content of fatty acids and proteins. We report here a detailed proteomic analysis of buffalo skim milk, whey and milk fat globule membrane fractions. Notwithstanding the poor information available on buffalo genome, identification of protein isoforms corresponding to 72 genes was achieved by a combined approach based on 2-DE/MALDI-TOF PMF and 1-DE/muLC-ESI-IT-MS-MS. Major protein components, i.e. alpha(Sl)-, alpha(S2)-, beta-, kappa-caseins, alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin, were characterized for PTM, providing a scientific basis to coagulation/cheese making processes used in dairy productions. Minor proteins detected emphasized the multiple functions of milk, which besides affording nutrition to the newborn through its major components, also promotes development and digestive tract protection in the neonate, and ensures optimal mammary gland function in the mother. Defense against pathogens is guaranteed by an arsenal of antimicrobial/immunomodulatory proteins, which are directly released in milk or occur on the surface of secreted milk-lipid droplets. Proteins associated with cell signaling or membrane/protein trafficking functions were also identified, providing putative insights into major secretory pathways in mammary epithelial cells.

  4. Genetic Traceability of the geographical origin of different water buffalo populations (Bubalus bubalis by molecular markers

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    M. Blasi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to distinguish Mediterranea Italiana breed from other populations of water buffaloes we develop a tool for genetic traceability of the geographical origin based on microsatellite markers. Fourteen microsatellite loci, amplified with a protocol of one multiplex-PCR, were used to define genetic variation and relationships among Mediterranea Italiana breed and other buffalo groups coming from three different geographical districts: one group from North Africa, two groups from East Europe and one group from China. A total of 153 buffaloes were analysed. GENETIX computer package were used to calculate the following parameters for each population: allelic frequencies, number of alleles for each locus, average observed (Hobs and expected (Hexp heterozygosities, genetic distances and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Population differentiation was analysed by estimation of Fst and Fis index for various group combinations. Population assignment were computed by GENECLASS 2 based on different approach. The individual assignment by different approach has given a result of robustness demarcation distinguishing three definite clusters, therefore this method is useful for distinction of typical products belonging to Mediterranea Italiana breed from the others derived from the other populations of buffalo.

  5. Study of Biogas Production Rate from Water Hyacinth by Hydrothermal Pretreatment with Buffalo Dung as a Starter

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    Teguh Kurniawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on biogas enhancement production rates from water hyacinth mixed with buffalo dung. The focus of the experiment was on the time of hydrothermal pretreatment and the ratio of water hyacinth with buffalo dung. The hydrothermal pretreated substrates were characterized by TDS, BOD and pH. The hydrothermal pretreatment of 60 minutes with the ratio of water hyacinth to buffalo dung 1:2 showed the highest biogas production rate at 7889 ml/day. However, the highest methane composition was 52.82% which resulted on the hydrothermal treatment of 30 minutes with equal ratio of water hyacinth and buffalo dung. Thus, the optimum of methane yield obtained at hydrothermal pretreatment for 30 minutes with equal ratio of water hyacinth to buffalo dung is 2856 ml/day. The hydrothermal pretreatment increases the rate production of biogas 102% and the methane yield 51% relative to untreated water hyacinth. The ratio of water hyacinth and buffalo dung has a great impact on biogas production rate and compositions for hydrothermal pretreated substrates.

  6. Genetic variations in merozoite surface antigen genes of Babesia bovis detected in Vietnamese cattle and water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tuvshintulga, Bumduuren; Hayashida, Kyoko; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Long, Phung Thang; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich

    2015-03-01

    The genes that encode merozoite surface antigens (MSAs) in Babesia bovis are genetically diverse. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of B. bovis MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c genes in Vietnamese cattle and water buffaloes. Blood DNA samples from 258 cattle and 49 water buffaloes reared in the Thua Thien Hue province of Vietnam were screened with a B. bovis-specific diagnostic PCR assay. The B. bovis-positive DNA samples (23 cattle and 16 water buffaloes) were then subjected to PCR assays to amplify the MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c genes. Sequencing analyses showed that the Vietnamese MSA-1 and MSA-2b sequences are genetically diverse, whereas MSA-2c is relatively conserved. The nucleotide identity values for these MSA gene sequences were similar in the cattle and water buffaloes. Consistent with the sequencing data, the Vietnamese MSA-1 and MSA-2b sequences were dispersed across several clades in the corresponding phylogenetic trees, whereas the MSA-2c sequences occurred in a single clade. Cattle- and water-buffalo-derived sequences also often clustered together on the phylogenetic trees. The Vietnamese MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c sequences were then screened for recombination with automated methods. Of the seven recombination events detected, five and two were associated with the MSA-2b and MSA-2c recombinant sequences, respectively, whereas no MSA-1 recombinants were detected among the sequences analyzed. Recombination between the sequences derived from cattle and water buffaloes was very common, and the resultant recombinant sequences were found in both host animals. These data indicate that the genetic diversity of the MSA sequences does not differ between cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam. They also suggest that recombination between the B. bovis MSA sequences in both cattle and water buffaloes might contribute to the genetic variation in these genes in Vietnam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunodetection of coproantigens for the diagnosis of amphistomosis in naturally infected Indian Water Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis.

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    Saifullah, Mohammad K; Ahmad, Gul; Abidi, Syed M A

    2013-01-16

    The infection of gastrointestinal helminths in livestock is routinely diagnosed by microscopical examination of faecal samples for the presence of ova/eggs but this approach becomes ineffective for the seasonally egg producing trematodes. Therefore, an alternative approach to detect the coproantigens of liver and rumen amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum and Gastrothylax crumenifer respectively, infecting Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, was undertaken using ELISA, immunodot and countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CCIEP). The hyperimmune polyclonal antisera were separately raised in rabbits against excretory/secretory (ES) antigens of both the flukes under study. An overall 70% buffalo faecal samples were tested positive for G. crumenifer and 75% for G. explanatum in Aligarh region. The ELISA results reflected higher infection intensity among individual buffaloes that was also observed at necropsy. Using the respective homologous hyperimmune antiserum, 55% buffaloes tested positive for G. crumenifer and 65% positive for G. explanatum in immunodot assay. Further, the faecal samples with high absorbance values in ELISA and strong immunodot reaction tested positive in CCIEP. The analysis of CCIEP result revealed two and one precipitin bands in G. crumenifer and G. explanatum respectively, indicating prominent antigenic differences in the coproantigens of these two parasites. Taken together, it is suggested that polyclonal antibodies could be conveniently used for the detection of coproantigens by ELISA and immunodot methods, particularly during the non-egg producing phase of the seasonally regulated reproductive cycle of the rumen amphistome G. crumenifer. It is concluded that the coproantigen detection is a good alternative over conventional method for the diagnosis of amphistomosis in livestock; however, further studies are required on a larger sample size of field buffaloes to augment the reproducibility of the present results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  8. Molecular characterization of MHC-DRB cDNA in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    Soumen Naskar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, water buffalo MHC (Bubu-DRB cDNA was cloned and characterized. The 1022 base long-amplified cDNA product encompassed a single open reading frame of 801 bases that coded for 266 amino acids. The Bubu-DRB sequence showed maximum homology with the BoLA-DRB3*0101 allele of cattle. A total of seven amino acid residues were found to be unique for the Bubu-DRB sequence. The majority of amino acid substitutions was observed in the β1 domain. Residues associated with important functions were mostly conserved. Water buffalo DRB was phylogenetically closer to goat DRB*A.

  9. First molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) in Victoria, Australia.

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    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) on two extensive farms (450 km apart) in Victoria, Australia. Faecal samples (n=476) were collected from different age groups of water buffalo at two time points (six months apart) and tested using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing markers within the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (designated pSSU) and triose phosphate isomerase (ptpi) genes. Based on pSSU data, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium genotypes 1, 2 (each 99% similar genetically to Cryptosporidium ryanae) and 3 (99% similar to Cryptosporidium suis) were detected in two (0.4%), one (0.2%), 38 (8.0%), 16 (3.4%) and one (0.2%) of the 476 samples tested, respectively. Using ptpi, Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in totals of 56 (11.8%) and six (1.3%) of these samples, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected on both farms, whereas Giardia was detected only on farm B, and both genera were detected in 1.5% of all samples tested. The study showed that water buffaloes on these farms excreted C. parvum and/or G. duodenalis assemblage A, which are consistent with those found in humans, inferring that these particular pathogens are of zoonotic significance. Future work should focus on investigating, in a temporal and spatial manner, the prevalence and intensity of such infections in water buffaloes in various geographical regions in Australia and in other countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Helmintic infections in water buffaloes on Italian farms: a spatial analysis

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    Laura Rinaldi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the results of a cross-sectional survey aimed at obtaining up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of different groups and/or species of helminths in water buffaloes from central Italy. Geographical information systems (GIS and spatial analysis were used to plan the sampling procedures, to display the results as maps and to detect spatial clusters of helminths in the study area. The survey was conducted on 127 water buffalo farms, which were selected in the study area using a grid sampling approach, followed by proportional allocation. Faecal samples (n. = 1,883 collected from the 127 farms were examined using the Flotac dual technique. Gastrointestinal strongyles were the most frequent helminths (33.1% on the tested farms, followed by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (7.1%, the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi (7.1%, the nematode Strongyloides spp. (3.1%, the lancet liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum (2.4% and the tapeworm Moniezia spp. (2.4%. In order to display the spatial distribution of the various helminths detected on the water buffalo farms (used as epidemiological unit in our study, point maps were drawn within the GIS. In addition, for each helminth, clustering of test-positive farms were investigated based on location determined by exact coordinates. Using spatial scan statistic, spatial clusters were found for the flukes F. hepatica and C. daubneyi and the cestode Moniezia spp.; these findings are consistent with the life cycle of these parasites, which have strong environmental determinants. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, with the appropriate survey-based data at hand, GIS is a useful tool to study epidemiological patterns of infections in veterinary health, in particular in water buffaloes.

  11. Prevalence and distribution of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverauskas, Claudia E; Nasir, Amar; Reichel, Michael P

    2015-10-01

    The seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and domestic cattle in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia has never been determined. A total of 480 serum samples from water buffalo and 192 serum samples from cattle, collected by the NT Government from 1993 through to 2001, at 18 different survey sites throughout the Northern Territory were tested by commercial ELISA for anti-N. caninum antibodies. The water buffalo samples demonstrated a seroprevalence of 88.3% (95% CI ± 2.9%), while 31.8% (±6.1%) of the cattle sera tested positive for N. caninum antibodies. Individual buffalo from the same herd, sampled over years, showed considerable fluctuations in S/P ratios. Overall, seropositivity was consistent across buffalo herds, and showed a slight decline over the years. The study presents evidence for the first time that N. caninum infection in water buffalo in the Northern Territory is a highly endemic and that infection rates are higher than those for cattle. This is important for an understanding of any potential sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum in Northern Australia. This survey also tests cattle from that territory for the first time for evidence of N. caninum infection and makes an important contribution to the understanding of disease management issues for the beef industry in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

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    Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A. (Tongii Medical Univ., Wuhan, Hubei Province (China))

    1990-07-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease.

  13. Risks factors associated with subclinical mastitis in water buffaloes in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Riaz; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Ahrar; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2013-11-01

    The present study was carried to ascertain the association of various risk factors of mastitis in water buffaloes. The milk samples from buffaloes were collected and screened through California Mastitis Test for the presence of mastitis. In the present study, 15.2 % prevalence of subclinical mastitis was recorded both at the government (13.4 %) and private farms (15.5 %). The chi-square analysis showed significantly higher involvement of the right rear and front quarters. The analysis of variance technique showed significant difference in live body weight, milk yield, teat end to floor distance (P mastitis with milk leakage, live body weight, milk yield, parity, calf suckling, pendulous udder, number of attendants at the farm, dirty hind legs, and udder depth.

  14. Behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese

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    Roberto Rosmini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC is a fresh pasta filata cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving the use of unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The aim of this study were to assess the behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during the production of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese and during its shelf life under different temperature conditions. Raw milk was inoculated with S. Typhimurium and the evolution of S. Typhimurium count during production and shelf life was monitored. In artisan WBMC production technology S. Typhimurium multiplied in the curd during ripening, but its growth rate expressed in log CFU/g/h was lower than the growth rate reported by theoretical predictions. Stretching proved to be a process with good repeatability and able to reduce S. Typhimurium contamination by 5.5 Log CFU/g. The intrinsic characteristics of traditional WBMC proved to be unable to obstacolate the growth of S. Typhimurium during storage in the case of thermal abuse. Control of raw milk contamination and a proper refrigeration temperature are key factors in reducing the risk for consumers.

  15. Comparison of worm development and host immune responses in natural hosts of schistosoma japonicum, yellow cattle and water buffalo

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    Yang Jianmei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yellow cattle and water buffalo are two of the most important natural hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in China. Previous observation has revealed that yellow cattle are more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo. Understanding more about the molecular mechanisms involved in worm development, as well as the pathological and immunological differences between yellow cattle and water buffalo post infection with S japonicum will provide useful information for the vaccine design and its delivery procedure. Results The worm length (p p p + T cells was higher in yellow cattle, while the percentage of CD8+ T cells was higher in water buffalo from pre-infection to 7 w post infection. The CD4/CD8 ratios were decreased in both species after challenge with schistosomes. Comparing with water buffalo, the IFN-γ level was higher and decreased significantly, while the IL-4 level was lower and increased gradually in yellow cattle from pre-infection to 7 w post infection. Conclusions In this study, we confirmed that yellow cattle were more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo, and more serious pathological damage was observed in infected yellow cattle. Immunological analysis suggested that CD4+ T cells might be an integral component of the immune response and might associate with worm development in yellow cattle. A shift from Th1 to Th2 type polarized immunity was only shown clearly in schistosome-infected yellow cattle, but no shift in water buffalo. The results provide valuable information for increased understanding of host-schistosome interactions, and for control of schistosomiasis.

  16. Wild Water Buffalo Bubalus arnee in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal: status, population and conservation importance

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    T.B. Khatri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Asiatic Wild Water Buffalo Bubalus arnee is an endangered species restricted to South and Southeast Asia. Nepal’s only population survives in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve which is located on the floodplain of the Koshi River, a tributary of Ganga. This species is under threat due to high anthropogenic pressure ranging from habitat deterioration to hybridization with domestic buffalo. Yet, the population has grown from 63 in 1976 to 219 in 2009, despite the decline in the calf/cow ratio. The present study conducted in 2009 used the block count method. The count showed the presence of a backcrossed population of 74 in addition to the total of 219 individuals. At present, a number of conservation and livelihood interventions have been undertaken to safeguard the biodiversity, particularly the wild buffalo population in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve. The community-based sustainable management approach benefiting both conservation and livelihood of local people is necessary to ensure the long term conservation of the species

  17. Isolation of chitinolytic Clostridium sp. NCR from Mehsani buffalo rumen, its genomic analysis and potential role in rumen.

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    Nathani, Neelam M; Duggirala, Srinivas M; M, Chandra Shekar; Kothari, Ramesh K; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-09-01

    Genomic analysis of Clostridium sp. NCR, an anaerobic Gram positive bacterium which was isolated from rumen fluid of Mehsani breed of buffalo revealed presence of various environmental gene tags (EGTs) involved in pathways for utilizing a wide range of substrates. Here we report the sequence of this rumen isolate, its whole genome sequence has been deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number JQHY00000000. The genome comprises of a 3.62-Mb draft genome with a G + C content of 28.10%, which encodes a total of 3126 proteins. Functional analysis provides information about the microbe's role in maintaining host homeostasis and its fiber degradation potential.

  18. Importance of body-water circulation for body-heat dissipation in hot-humid climates: a distinctive body-water circulation in swamp buffaloes

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    S. Chanpongsang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-regulation in swamp buffaloes has been investigated as an adaptive system to hot-humid climates, and several distinctive physiological responses were noted. When rectal temperature increased in hot conditions, blood volume, blood flow to the skin surface and skin temperature markedly increased in buffaloes relatively to cattle. On the other hand, the correlation between blood volume and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP was compared between buffaloes and cattle under dehydration. Although plasma AVP in cattle increased immediately for reducing urine volume against a decrease in blood volume as well as the response observed in most animal species, the increase in plasma AVP was delayed in buffaloes, even after a large decrease in blood volume. In buffaloes, a marked increase in blood volume facilitated the dissipation of excess heat from the skin surface during wallowing. In addition, the change in plasma AVP observed in buffaloes was consistent with that of other animals living in habitats with the high availability of water. These results suggest that the thermo-regulatory system in buffaloes accelerates body-water circulation internally and externally. This system may be adaptive for heat dissipation in hot-humid climates, where an abundance of water is common.

  19. Seroepidemiology of infection with Neospora caninum, Leptospira, and bovine herpesvirus type 1 in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Veracruz State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of infection with N. caninum, Leptospira, and bovine herpesvirus type 1 and risk factors associated with these infections in water buffaloes in Veracruz State, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study, 144 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) raised in 5 ranches ...

  20. Detection of brucellosis in water buffaloes for exportation in northern and northeastern of Brazil

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    José Diomedes Barbosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Barbosa J.D., Bomjardim H.dosA., Lima D.H.daS., Reis A.dosS.B., Barboza F.B., Albernaz T.T., Oliveira C.M.C., Fonseca A.H., Nicolino R.R. & da Silva J.B. Detection of brucellosis in water buffaloes for exportation in northern and northeastern of Brazil. [Detecção de brucelose em búfalos d’agua para exportação no norte e nordeste do Brasil}. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3: 129-135, 2016. Laboratório de Doenças Parasitárias, Departamento de Epidemiologia e Saúde Pública, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7 Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: adivaldofonseca@yahoo.com The prevalence of brucellosis in buffaloes was evaluated by the Buffered Acidified Plate Antigen (BAPA in 5.163 water buffaloes from Maranhão state, Pará state and Marajó Island, Brazil. The detection of buffaloes positive for brucellosis by BAPA was 7.37% in Marajó Island, 8.45% in Pará state and 29.86% in Maranhão state. The locations with the highest prevalences were Santa Cruz do Arari, in Marajó Island (12.50%; Ipixuna, in Pará state (30.25%; and Santa Inês, in Maranhão state (34.76%. After the confirmatory test (Complement Fixation Test, only 7 animals remained positive in Marajó Island, and 22 remained positive in the state of Pará. None of the 66 animals that reacted positively in the BAPA test in Maranhão reacted positively in the CF. The high prevalence of B. abortus that was observed in animals, especially in the state of Maranhão, is worrisome for the health system for the control and eradication of bovine brucellosis.

  1. Semen quality parameters as fertility predictors of water buffalo bull spermatozoa during low-breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hussain; Andrabi, S Murtaza Hassan; Jahan, Sarwat

    2016-10-01

    The present study was carried out to assess various postthaw semen quality parameters for the prediction of fertility in buffalo bull during low-breeding season. Semen (30 ejaculates) was collected from five adult buffalo bulls with artificial vagina (42 °C). Sperm motility parameters, velocity distribution, motion kinematics, and subpopulations were analyzed by computer-aided sperm motion analyzer (CASA). Moreover, sperm visual motility, supravital plasma membrane integrity, viability/acrosome integrity, viability/mitochondrial transmembrane potential, DNA fragmentation/integrity, and morphology were analyzed by phase-contrast microscope, supravital hypoosmotic swelling test, Trypan blue/Giemsa staining, propidium iodide/"5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl carbocyanine iodide" (JC-1) fluorochromes, neutral comet assay/acridine orange assay and wet mount technique, respectively. Outcome of 528 inseminations was analyzed for in vivo fertility. Pearson's correlation coefficients revealed that sperm progressive motility (%), rapid velocity (%), average path velocity (μm/s), straight line velocity (μm/s), subpopulation one (most rapid, and progressive) of motile spermatozoa (%), supravital plasma membrane integrity (%), and viable spermatozoa with intact acrosome (%) were significantly correlated with in vivo fertility (r = 0.64, P comet length (μm) of neutral comet assay were negatively associated with in vivo fertility (r = -0.79, r = -0.75, P sperm structural and functional parameters, that is, integrity of plasma membrane and acrosome, and transmembrane potential of mitochondria were able to predict the in vivo fertility of water buffalo bull during low-breeding season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2). Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 compared to the reference vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 in water buffalo

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    Vincenzo Caporale

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 250 000 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis live in the Campania region of southern Italy where the breeding of this species is very popular. Of these animals, almost 150 000 are concentrated in the Caserta province where the prevalence of Brucella abortus in this species represents approximately 20% at herd level. The Italian brucellosis eradication programme provides a slaughter and vaccination strategy for this province. B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51 has become the official vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in cattle in several countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RB51 in water buffalo compared to the B. abortus S19 vaccine (S19. The study was performed in accordance with a protocol described in mice. Female buffalo aged five months were inoculated. Five received a RB51 dosage on two occasions that was three times greater than that approved for use in cattle and a booster after one month, five received B. abortus S19 vaccine at the standard dosage and three controls received a phosphate buffer solution. Buffalo were then challenged with a virulent B. abortus strain 544 thirty days post vaccination. Antibodies that developed in the five animals vaccinated with RB51 were not detected by the Rose Bengal test or complement fixation test (CFT and were also tested by CFT prepared with RB51 antigen. After culling, B. abortus was cultured from the spleen, retropharyngeal and supra-mammary lymph nodes. A statistical evaluation was performed to assess the immunogenicity values obtained in buffalo vaccinated with S19, compared to those obtained in buffalo vaccinated with the RB51 vaccine and in the unvaccinated control group.

  4. Efficacy of Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 compared to the reference vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 in water buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, Vincenzo; Bonfini, Barbara; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Provvido, Andrea; Forcella, Simona; Giovannini, Armando; Tittarelli, Manuela; Scacchia, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 250,000 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) live in the Campania region of southern Italy where the breeding of this species is very popular. Of these animals, almost 150,000 are concentrated in the Caserta province where the prevalence of Brucella abortus in this species represents approximately 20% at herd level. The Italian brucellosis eradication programme provides a slaughter and vaccination strategy for this province. B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51) has become the official vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in cattle in several countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RB51 in water buffalo compared to the B. abortus S19 vaccine (S19). The study was performed in accordance with a protocol described in mice. Female buffalo aged five months were inoculated. Five received a RB51 dosage on two occasions that was three times greater than that approved for use in cattle and a booster after one month, five received B. abortus S19 vaccine at the standard dosage and three controls received a phosphate buffer solution. Buffalo were then challenged with a virulent B. abortus strain 544 thirty days post vaccination. Antibodies that developed in the five animals vaccinated with RB51 were not detected by the Rose Bengal test or complement fixation test (CFT) and were also tested by CFT prepared with RB51 antigen. After culling, B. abortus was cultured from the spleen, retropharyngeal and supra-mammary lymph nodes. A statistical evaluation was performed to assess the immunogenicity values obtained in buffalo vaccinated with S19, compared to those obtained in buffalo vaccinated with the RB51 vaccine and in the unvaccinated control group.

  5. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in Switzerland

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    Dettwiler Martina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF. This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2 sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated.

  6. Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as a spontaneous animal model of Vitiligo.

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    Singh, Vijay Pal; Motiani, Rajender K; Singh, Archana; Malik, Garima; Aggarwal, Rangoli; Pratap, Kunal; Wani, Mohan R; Gokhale, Suresh B; Natarajan, Vivek T; Gokhale, Rajesh S

    2016-07-01

    Vitiligo is a multifactorial acquired depigmenting disorder. Recent insights into the molecular mechanisms driving the gradual destruction of melanocytes in vitiligo will likely lead to the discovery of novel therapies, which need to be evaluated in animal models that closely recapitulate the pathogenesis of human vitiligo. In humans, vitiligo is characterized by a spontaneous loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis, but most animal models of vitiligo are either inducible or genetically programmed. Here, we report that acquired depigmentation in water buffalo recapitulates molecular, histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural changes observed in human vitiligo and hence could be used as a model to study vitiligo pathogenesis and facilitate the discovery and evaluation of therapeutic interventions for vitiligo. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Clinical and molecular study of a new form of hereditary myotonia in Murrah water buffalo.

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    Borges, Alexandre S; Barbosa, José D; Resende, Luiz Antônio L; Mota, Lígia S L S; Amorim, Rogério M; Carvalho, Thaís L; Garcia, José F; Oliveira-Filho, José P; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Souza, Jorge Estefano S; Winand, Nena J

    2013-03-01

    Hereditary myotonia caused by mutations in CLCN1 has been previously described in humans, goats, dogs, mice and horses. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical, morphological and genetic features of hereditary myotonia in Murrah buffalo. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed on affected and normal animals. CLCN1 cDNA and the relevant genomic region from normal and affected animals were sequenced. The affected animals exhibited muscle hypertrophy and stiffness. Myotonic discharges were observed during EMG, and dystrophic changes were not present in skeletal muscle biopsies; the last 43 nucleotides of exon-3 of the CLCN1 mRNA were deleted. Cloning of the genomic fragment revealed that the exclusion of this exonic sequence was caused by aberrant splicing, which was associated with the presence of a synonymous SNP in exon-3 (c.396C>T). The mutant allele triggered the efficient use of an ectopic 5' splice donor site located at nucleotides 90-91 of exon-3. The predicted impact of this aberrant splicing event is the alteration of the CLCN1 translational reading frame, which results in the incorporation of 24 unrelated amino acids followed by a premature stop codon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Local immune responses of the Chinese water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, against Schistosoma japonicum larvae: crucial insights for vaccine design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish E G McWilliam

    Full Text Available Asian schistosomiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease infecting up to a million people and threatening tens of millions more. Control of this disease is hindered by the animal reservoirs of the parasite, in particular the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, which is responsible for significant levels of human transmission. A transmission-blocking vaccine administered to buffaloes is a realistic option which would aid in the control of schistosomiasis. This will however require a better understanding of the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in naturally exposed buffaloes, particularly the immune response to migrating schistosome larvae, which are the likely targets of an anti-schistosome vaccine. To address this need we investigated the immune response at the major sites of larval migration, the skin and the lungs, in previously exposed and re-challenged water buffaloes. In the skin, a strong allergic-type inflammatory response occurred, characterised by leukocyte and eosinophil infiltration including the formation of granulocytic abscesses. Additionally at the local skin site, interleukin-5 transcript levels were elevated, while interleukin-10 levels decreased. In the skin-draining lymph node (LN a predominant type-2 profile was seen in stimulated cells, while in contrast a type-1 profile was detected in the lung draining LN, and these responses occurred consecutively, reflecting the timing of parasite migration. The intense type-2 immune response at the site of cercarial penetration is significantly different to that seen in naive and permissive animal models such as mice, and suggests a possible mechanism for immunity. Preliminary data also suggest a reduced and delayed immune response occurred in buffaloes given high cercarial challenge doses compared with moderate infections, particularly in the skin. This study offers a deeper understanding into the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in a natural host, which may aid in the future design of more

  9. Clinical and hematological study on crossbred cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally infected with Theileria annulata in Sharkia province, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and hematological findings in crossbred cattle and water buffaloes naturally infected with Theileria annulata with special reference to the clinical picture of tropical theileriosis in Egyptian buffaloes. A total 50 field cases of cattle...... in infected buffaloes was more prominent than in infected cattle with persistence of some lesions after recovery as corneal opacity and pulmonary lesions. Hematological analysis revealed a significant decrease in RBCS count, PCV%, hemoglobin amount and WBCs in the infected animals comparing to the healthy...

  10. Seasonal reproductive activity and innervation of vas deferens and accessory male genital glands in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nerves supplying mammalian male internal genital organs have an important role in the regulation of reproductive function. To find out the relationships between the neurochemical content of these nerves and the reproductive activity, we performed an immunohistochemical study in a species, the water buffalo, exhibiting a seasonal sexual behaviour. The distribution of noradrenergic and peptide-containing nerves was evaluated during the mating (autumn-winter and non-mating (spring-summer periods. During the mating period, a dense noradrenergic innervation was observed to supply the vas deferens as well as the accessory genital glands. Peptide-containing nerves were also observed but with a lower density. During the non-mating period noradrenergic nerves dramatically reduced. These results suggest that there is a neuro-endocrine interaction between androgen hormones and the autonomic nerve supply in the regulation of male water buffalo reproductive functions.

  11. Evaluation of recombinant fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase ELISA test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum in water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shih-Yi; Lee, Kin-Mu; Tsaihong, John Chin; Cheng, Po-Ching; Fan, Ping-Chin

    2008-12-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) is an ubiquitous enzyme essential for glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and the Calvin cycle. It has been demonstrated to induce immune responses and to be useful in the immunodiagnosis of malaria. In this study, FBPA was cloned from the adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum and tested as an antigen for the diagnosis of S. japonicum infection in water buffaloes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on the sera from 32 infected water buffaloes and 20 negative controls using the recombinant FBPA protein or soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) as an antigen. The OD cut-off values were determined to be 0.57 with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity for the FBPA ELISA and 1.13 with 93.8% specificity and 95.0% sensitivity for the SWAP ELISA. These findings indicate that the recombinant FBPA of S. japonicum should be an useful diagnostic tool for the detection of antibodies against S. japonicum.

  12. Utilization of ELISA using thioredoxin peroxidase-1 and tandem repeat proteins for diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum infection among water buffaloes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ma M Angeles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of animal reservoirs in Schistosoma japonicum infection has been a major obstacle in the control of schistosomiasis. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of control measures on animal reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis contributed to the decrease of human cases. Animal surveillance should therefore be included to strengthen and improve the capabilities of current serological tests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thioredoxin peroxidase-1 (SjTPx-1 and four tandem repeat proteins (Sj1TR, Sj2TR, Sj4TR, Sj7TR were initially evaluated against human sera. The previous test showed high sensitivity and specificity for antibody detection against SjTPx-1 and Sj7TR. In this study, the immunodiagnostic potential of these recombinant proteins was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunoassay on 50 water buffalo serum samples collected in Cagayan, the Philippines as compared with the soluble egg antigen (SEA. For specificity, 3 goat serum samples positive with Fasciola hepatica were used and among the antigens used, only SEA showed cross-reaction. Stool PCR targeting the S. japonicum 82 bp mitochondrial NAD 1 gene was done to confirm the true positives and served as the standard test. Twenty three samples were positive for stool PCR. SjTPx-1 and Sj1TR gave the highest sensitivity among the recombinant proteins tested for water buffalo samples with 82.61% and 78.26% respectively which were higher than that of SEA (69.57%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results prove that SjTPx-1 works both for humans and water buffaloes making it a good candidate antigen for zoonotic diagnosis. Sj1TR showed good results for water buffaloes and therefore can also be used as a possible candidate for detecting animal schistosome infection.

  13. Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Rahimi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods: From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results: Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3% were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%, followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%, raw ovine milk (7.1%, and raw caprine milk (4.2% samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%; the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%, Listeria ivanovii (0.08% and Listeria seeligari (0.04%. The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions: The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.

  14. Aneuploidy and genome organization in sperm nuclei of river buffalo and cattle detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromosome microdissection

    OpenAIRE

    J. Rubes; L. Ramunno; G. Cosenza; D. Nicodemo; A. Pauciullo; D. Di Berardino

    2010-01-01

    New technologies in molecular cytogenetics have remarkably facilitated the visualization of whole chromosomes or subchromosomal regions in interphase nuclei. Consequently, both somatic and sperm nuclei have been under investigation, in order to study the territorial organization of genetically ‘active’ versus ‘inactive’ genomes. Purpose of the present study was to investigate whether in river buffalo sperm nuclei, chromosomes X-, Y- and 5p (corresponding to chromosome ...

  15. Freezability of water buffalo spermatozoa is improved with the addition of catalase in cryodiluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, L; Hassan Andrabi, S M; Ahmed, H; Hussain Shah, A A

    Catalase enzyme is usually distributed in mammalian seminal plasma, where it decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen and enhances sperm survivability. To evaluate the effect of catalase (0, 100, 200 or 300 IU/ml) added in tris-citric acid (TCA) based extender on motion characteristics, viability and DNA integrity of bubaline spermatozoa at post dilution (PD) and post thawing (PT) stages of cryopreservation. Collection of semen was done in four Nili-Ravi bulls with an artificial vagina (42 degree C). Qualified semen samples from each bull were further subdivided into four aliquots for dilution with the experimental TCA extender containing either 0.0 (T1), 100 IU (T2), 200 IU (T3) or 300 IU (T4) catalase (activity12660 U/mg). At PT, mean computer progressive motility, average path velocity, straight line velocity, curvilinear velocity, visual motility and DNA integrity were higher (P catalase fortified treatment groups as compared with control. Regarding plasma membrane integrity and supra-vital plasma membrane integrity, at PT the mean values were higher (P catalase at a concentration of 300IU/ml in TCA cryodiluent improved the freezability of water buffalo spermatozoa.

  16. Diagnostic value of the recombinant tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r for surra in water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Zhou, Mo; Ruttayaporn, Ngasaman; Nguyen, Quoc Doanh; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Goto, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Inoue, Noboru

    2014-03-17

    Trypanosoma evansi infection, or surra, is currently affecting various species of animals, especially water buffaloes. Since diagnosis is an important aspect of surra control, development of novel diagnostic antigens is of interest to implement and improve the currently utilized methods. Our study evaluated the tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r in T. evansi antibody detection in water buffaloes. TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was performed with 20 positive and 8 negative controls and 484 field samples from water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam. To examine cross-reactivity, sera from Japanese cattle that had been experimentally infected with Theileria orientalis (n=10), Babesia bovis (n=3), Babesia bigemina (n=7) and Trypanosoma theileri (n=59) were included in the study. The sensitivity of the test was 80%. TeGM6-4r did not react with Theileria or Babesia infected sera, however it showed cross reactivity with 11/59 T. theileri infected samples. The reference test, CATT/T. evansi also reacted with 3/59 T. theileri infected sera. The lysate antigen-based ELISA reacted with 4/59 T. theileri, 9/10 Theileria and 3/10 Babesia infected sera. In contrast, TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was 86.3% sensitive and 58.3% specific in the screening of field samples. The average seroprevalence of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam was 27.1% by CATT/T. evansi and 53.7% by TeGM6-4r. Seroprevalence in the five surveyed provinces ranged from 17.4% to 39.8% in the reference test, and 47.3% to 67.3% in the recombinant antigen based test. The finding indicated that the disease is still widely endemic in the area and that surveillance programs need to be carried out regularly to better control surra. We proposed TeGM6-4r as a useful serodiagnostic antigen for the detection and epidemiological surveillance of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular cloning, sequencing and structural studies of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from Indian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    KAUST Repository

    Sugumar, Thennarasu

    2013-06-25

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine that is essential for growth and development of progenitors of granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we report molecular cloning, sequencing and characterization of GM-CSF from Indian water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. In addition, we performed sequence and structural analysis for buffalo GM-CSF. Buffalo GM-CSF has been compared with 17 mammalian GM-CSFs using multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree. Three-dimensional model for buffalo GM-CSF and human receptor complex was built using homology modelling to study cross-reactivity between two species. Detailed analysis was performed to study GM-CSF interface and various interactions at the interface. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cholesterol and fatty acid composition of longissimus thoracis from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Brahman-influenced cattle raised under savannah conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida-Mendoza, Maria; Arenas de Moreno, Lilia; Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Uzcátegui-Bracho, Sojan; Valero-Leal, Kutchynskaya; Romero, Sonia; Rodas-González, Argenis

    2015-08-01

    Male (n=66) water buffalo (Buffalo) and Brahman-influenced cattle (Brahman) were born, raised, weaned, fattened on grazing savannah and harvested at two different ages (19 and 24months) to compare lipid composition of the longissimus thoracis muscle. Half of the animals were castrated at seven months of age (MOA) to examine the castration effects. At 24 MOA Brahman steers showed the highest content of total lipids (Pcholesterol content for either the main or interaction effects in the age groups. Some individual fatty acids varied with the species (Pvalues in favor of Buffalo meat (Pcholesterol level, AI indicates that Buffalo meat might be beneficial from a human health standpoint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Turgish A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers’ inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in water buffaloes. Methods Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10 days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding, Days 10–12 and Days 22–24. Defatted milk was preserved at −80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70–90. Results Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28 % oestrus detection rate. Progesterone concentration ≥1 ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123 days (n = 17 and 83 to 135 (n = 13 days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (P P  Conclusions Milk progesterone ELISA is a reliable tool for monitoring ovarian cyclicity and good BCS may be an indicator of resuming cyclicity in water buffalo.

  20. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Turgish A; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Bhattacharjee, Jayonta; Islam, Mohammad F; Khan, Saiful I; Ahmed, Jalal U

    2012-05-03

    Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers' inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in water buffaloes. Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS) and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10 days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding), Days 10-12 and Days 22-24. Defatted milk was preserved at -80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70-90. Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28 % oestrus detection rate). Progesterone concentration ≥1 ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123 days (n = 17) and 83 to 135 (n = 13) days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (milk (P Milk progesterone ELISA is a reliable tool for monitoring ovarian cyclicity and good BCS may be an indicator of resuming cyclicity in water buffalo.

  1. Testicular thermoregulation, scrotal surface temperature patterns and semen quality of water buffalo bulls reared in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L K X; Sousa, J S; Silva, A O A; Lourenço Junior, J B; Faturi, C; Martorano, L G; Franco, I M; Pantoja, M H A; Barros, D V; Garcia, A R

    2017-05-18

    This study evaluated the capacity of thermoregulation and its consequences on the scrotal surface temperature patterns and semen quality of buffalo bulls raised in a wet tropical climate. Eleven water buffaloes were evaluated in the rainiest, in the transitional and in the less rainy season. Air temperature and humidity were consistently high, but the animals did not show thermal stress in any season. The scrotal temperature gradient of buffalo bulls using infrared thermography was described, and three parallel and decreasing thermal bands were characterised. Sperm quality (n = 176 ejaculates) was maintained in normal parameters over the periods. Pearson's coefficients showed that sperm volume and progressive motility were negatively correlated with ocular globe, epididymal tail and minimum scrotal temperatures (p < .01). Sperm membrane integrity was negatively influenced by increases in epididymal tail and minimum scrotal temperatures (p < .01). Ocular globe temperature also showed positive correlation with rectal, spermatic cord, and epididymal tail temperatures (p < .01). Therefore, even under high temperature and humidity, the thermoregulatory system was effective in preventing heat stress and the normality of scrotal surface temperatures, spermatogenesis and sperm maturation were maintained. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Biochemical and hormonal composition of follicular cysts in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F A; Das, G K; Pande, Megha; Pathak, M K; Sarkar, M

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the follicular fluid biochemical and hormonal changes associated with ovarian follicular cysts in buffalo. Follicular fluid was aspirated from eight cysts and eight preovulatory follicles, and subjected to biochemical and hormonal analyses. Cysts were characterized by a greater (Pfollicular cysts had greater concentrations of progesterone (Pfollicular cysts in buffalo have an altered biochemical and hormonal composition. The alterations include increases in nitric oxide, progesterone, cortisol and T(3) concentrations with a concurrent reduction in ascorbic acid, insulin and glucose concentrations. The study suggests that greater progesterone concentrations possibly inhibit the onset of LH surge resulting in formation of follicular cysts in buffalo. In addition, it implies the plausible role of intra-ovarian regulators such as nitric oxide, ascorbic acid and insulin in development of the condition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Cp31, isolated from an Egyptian buffalo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Ribeiro Carneiro, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is of major veterinary importance because it affects many animal species, causing economically significant livestock diseases and losses. Therefore, the genomic sequencing of various lines of this organism, isolated from different hosts, will aid in the developm...

  4. Impact of Livestock Hygiene Education Programs on Mastitis in Smallholder Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I.P.; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadkha, Rupak

    2010-01-01

    A project implemented from 2003–2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p = 0.08, 95% CI 0.17–1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15–7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd ((p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08–0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one

  5. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... intended to restrict vessels from Doug's Dive, the NFTA small boat harbor and a portion of the Buffalo... celebrate the removal of the ice boom in Lake Erie and the beginning of spring. Establishing a safety zone... waters of the NFTA small boat marina known as Doug's Dive and part of the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo...

  6. Yeasts and hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C.; Carmo, Luiz S.; Silva, Maria Crisolita C.; Oliveira, Afonso L.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 × 103 CFU.g−1, but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24516436

  7. Bioconcentration of some macrominerals in soil, forage and buffalo hair continuum: A case study on pasture irrigated with sewage water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Ahmad, Kafeel; Ashraf, Iqra; Gondal, Sumaira; Sher, Muhammad; Hayat, Zafar; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bioaccumulation of some macrominerals in grazing buffaloes fed forage irrigated with sewage water or canal water. In particular, the transfer of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) from soil to plant and in turn to animals was evaluated under sub-tropical environmental conditions. Samples of soil, forage and buffalo hair were collected and digested by wet method. Sodium and K concentrations were significantly higher in the soil but lower in the forages; however, Mg and Ca concentrations in both soil and forages were higher. The correlation between soil, forage and hair showed an imbalanced flow of Na, Mg and K and a balanced flow of Ca from soil to forage and then to animals. Based on the findings, the highest rates of transfer of minerals were found for sewage water treatment, whereas lowest rates were found for canal water treatment, except for Na. As the transfer of minerals depends on their bioavailability, the highest values may be due to the high rates of mineral uptake by plants. Thus, the high transfer rate of some elements by plants could become toxic in future causing detrimental effect to grazing livestock. PMID:25972745

  8. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Fayer, R; Rosenthal, B M; Calero-Bernal, R; Uggla, A

    2014-09-15

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta (feline definitive host), and S. hominis (primate definitive host). Recently, a fourth Sarcocystis species with an unknown life cycle has been reported from cattle. In the water buffalo, four species of Sarcocystis have been described: S. fusiformis (feline definitive host), S. buffalonis (feline definitive host), S. levinei (canine definitive host), and S. dubeyi (definitive host unknown but not cat or dog). Besides, there are studies of Sarcocystis infections in buffalo and cattle from China with results that are difficult to interpret and validate. For example, some of the studies report transmission of Sarcocystis species between cattle and buffalo, but steps to preclude exogenous exposures were not reported. A species of the water buffalo, 'S. sinensis', was proposed at a Chinese national conference in 1990, and published as an abstract without figures and with no archived type specimens for verification. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Articles 9 and 10 state that "abstracts of articles, papers, posters, text of lectures, and similar material when issued primarily to participants at meetings, symposia, colloquia or congress does not constitute published work"; therefore, S. sinensis is a nomen nudum. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A diagnostic protocol to identify water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, Manuela; Atzeni, Marcello; Calistri, Paolo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Ferri, Nicola; Marchi, Enrico; Martucciello, Alessandra; De Massis, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The use of live vaccine strain RB51 for vaccination of domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at risk of infection with Brucella abortus is permitted notwithstanding the plans for the eradication and only under strict veterinary control. The antibodies induced by RB51 vaccination are not detectable using conventional diagnostic techniques; therefore, it is necessary to have a specific diagnostic tool able to discriminate vaccinated from unvaccinated animals. The combination of a complement fixation test (CFT) with specific RB51 antigen (RB51-CFT) and a brucellin skin test has been demonstrated to be a reliable diagnostic system to identify single cattle (Bos taurus) vaccinated with RB51. So far, no data are available in the international scientific literature regarding the use of this test association in water buffalo. For this reason the suitability of this test combination has been evaluated in a water buffalo herd. One hundred twenty-seven animals farmed in a herd of Salerno province (Campania, Southern Italy), in the context of a presumptive unauthorized use of RB51 vaccine were chosen for this study. All tested animals resulted negative to Rose Bengal test (RBT) and complement fixation test (CFT) used for the detection of specific antibodies against Brucella field strains. Seventy-one animals (56%) developed RB51 antigen-specific CFT (RB51-CFT) antibodies against RB51 vaccine in a first sampling, while 104 animals (82%) gave positive result to a second serum sampling conducted 11 days after the intradermal inoculation of the RB51 brucellin. One hundred and seven animals (84%) showed a positive reaction to the RB51-CFT in at least 1 sampling, while 111 animals (87%) resulted positive to the RB51 brucellin skin test. Thus, analysing the results of the 3 testing in parallel, 119 animals (94%) were positive to at least 1 of the performed tests. The results suggest that the use in parallel of the RB51 brucellin skin test with RB51-CFT may represent a reliable

  10. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age and weight ...

  11. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age and.

  12. Effects of Smallmouth Buffalo and Potassium Permanganate Treatment on Plankton ans Pond Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of intermediate hosts is one option for control of disease in channel catfish production systems. We evaluated use of predaceous fish (smallmouth buffalo) and chemical treatment (potassium permanganate) to remove snails that serve as hosts protecting Dero worms. Both methods of treatment r...

  13. Molecular differentiation of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi in cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad; Abbas, Ibrahim E

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain sarcocysts of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei from water buffaloes and characterize the isolates by molecular methods in order to determine whether the two species were genetically different from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi, respectively, from cattle, which had been characterized before. About 35 macroscopically visible (3-4 × 1-2 mm) and 20 barely visible (1-3 × 0.2 mm) sarcocysts were excised from the esophagus of 18 naturally infected and freshly slaughtered adult water buffaloes at three slaughterhouses in Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted from the sarcocysts, and all isolates were first characterized at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) gene through PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Selected isolates were subsequently further characterized at the 18S and 28S ribosomal (r) RNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the nuclear rDNA unit by direct sequencing or cloning. Only six of the isolated macroscopic sarcocysts belonged to S. buffalonis, whereas the others belonged to Sarcocystis fusiformis. Twelve of the smaller cysts belonged to S. levinei and seven to Sarcocystis sinensis. The characterization of the sarcocysts of S. sinensis and some of the sarcocysts of S. fusiformis have been reported before. Fifteen additional sarcocyst isolates of S. fusiformis were characterized at cox1 in the present study and found to be identical or closely similar to previous isolates. At cox1, the sequence identity between the six isolates of S. buffalonis was 99.8-100 % (two haplotypes), whereas the identity between the 12 isolates of S. levinei was 99.0-100 % (10 haplotypes). The identity between cox1 sequences of S. buffalonis and S. hirsuta (n = 56) was 92.9-93.6 % (on average 93.4 %), and the identity between cox1 sequences of S. levinei and S. cruzi (n = 22) was 92.9-94.0 % (on average 93.5 %). The phylogenetic

  14. Evaluation of water beef buffalo from birth to two years using different growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Lamberson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The buffalo is a domestic animal species of growing world-wide importance. Research to improve genetic improvement programs is important to maintain the productivity of buffalo. The objective this research was to evaluate the growth of Brazilian buffalo to two years of age with different growth curves. Growth curves consolidate the information contained in the weight-age data into three or four biologically meaningful parameters. The data included 31,452 weights at birth and 120, 205, 365, 550 and 730 days of buffalo (n = 5,178 raised on pasture without supplementation. Logistic, Gompertz, quadratic logarithmic, and linear hyperbolic curves (designated L, G, QL, and LH, respectively were fitted to the data by using proc NLIN of SAS (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA. The parameters estimates for L [WT= A * (((1 + exp (-k * AGE**-m] were A = 865.1 ± 5.42; k= 0.0028 ± 0.00002; M= 3.808 ± 0.007; R2 = 0.95. For G [WT= A * exp (-b * exp (-k * age] the parameters estimates were A= 967.6 ± 7.23; k = 0.00217 ± 0.000015; b = -2.8152 ± 0.00532. For QL [WT= A + b*age + k*(age*age + m*log (age] parameters estimates were A= 37.41 ± 0.48; k= 0.00019 ± 6.4E-6; b= 0.539 ± 0.006; m= 2.32 ± 0.23; R2=0.96. For LH [WT= A + b*AGE + k*(1/AGE] the parameters estimates were A= 23.15 ± 0.44; k=15.16 ± 0.66; b= 0.707 ± 0.001; R2= 0.96. Each of these curves fit these data equally well and could be used for characterizing growth to two years in beef buffalo.

  15. Multiple-trait genomic evaluation for milk yield and milk quality traits using genomic and phenotypic data in buffalo in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspilcueta-Borquis, R R; Araujo Neto, F R; Santos, D J A; Hurtado-Lugo, N A; Silva, J A V; Tonhati, H

    2015-12-22

    The objective of this study was to compare the multi-trait model using pedigree information and a model using genomic information in addition to pedigree information. We used data from 5896 lactations of 2021 buffalo cows, of which 384 were genotyped using the Illumina Infinium(®) bovine HD BeadChip, considering seven traits related to milk yield (MY305), fat (FY305), protein (PY305), and lactose (LY305), percentages of fat (%F) and protein (%P), and somatic cell score (SCS). We carried out two analyses, one using phenotype and pedigree information (matrix A) and the other using the relationship matrix based on pedigree and genomics information (a single step, matrix H). The (co)variance components were estimated using multiple-trait analysis by the Bayesian inference method. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups (herd-year and calving season), and the age of cow at calving as (co)variables (quadratic and linear effect). The additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual effects were included as random effects in the model. The estimates of heritability using matrix A were 0.25, 0.22, 0.26, 0.25, 0.37, 0.42, and 0.17, while using matrix H the heritability values were 0.25, 0.24, 0.26, 0.26, 0.38, 0.47, and 0.18 for MY305, FY305, PY305, LY305, %F, %P, and SCS, respectively. The estimates of breeding values in the two analyses were similar for the traits studied, but the accuracies were greater when using matrix H (higher than 8% in the traits studied). Therefore, the use of genomic information in the analyses improved the accuracy.

  16. Aneuploidy and genome organization in sperm nuclei of river buffalo and cattle detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and chromosome microdissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rubes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New technologies in molecular cytogenetics have remarkably facilitated the visualization of whole chromosomes or subchromosomal regions in interphase nuclei. Consequently, both somatic and sperm nuclei have been under investigation, in order to study the territorial organization of genetically ‘active’ versus ‘inactive’ genomes. Purpose of the present study was to investigate whether in river buffalo sperm nuclei, chromosomes X-, Y- and 5p (corresponding to chromosome 29 in cattle maintain or change their relative position compared to cattle.

  17. Habitat selection by African buffalo (Syncerus caffer in response to landscape-level fluctuations in water availability on two temporal scales.

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    Emily Bennitt

    Full Text Available Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas

  18. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 Infection and Microscopic Patterns of Urothelial Tumors of the Urinary Bladder in Water Buffaloes

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    Paola Maiolino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic patterns of thirty-four urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder of water buffaloes from the Marmara and Black Sea Regions of Turkey are here described. All the animals grazed on lands rich in bracken fern. Histological diagnosis was assessed using morphological parameters recently suggested for the urinary bladder tumors of cattle. Papillary carcinoma was the most common neoplastic lesion (22/34 observed in this study, and low-grade carcinoma was more common (seventeen cases than high-grade carcinoma (five cases. Papilloma, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP, and invasive carcinomas were less frequently seen. Carcinoma in situ (CIS was often detected associated with some papillary and invasive carcinomas. De novo (primary CIS was rare representing 3% of tumors of this series. A peculiar feature of the most urothelial tumors was the presence in the tumor stroma of immune cells anatomically organized in tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs. Bovine papillomavirus type-2 (PV-2 E5 oncoprotein was detected by molecular and immunohistochemistry procedures. Early protein, E2, and late protein, L1, were also detected by immunohistochemical studies. Morphological and molecular findings show that BPV-2 infection contributes to the development of urothelial bladder carcinogenesis also in water buffaloes.

  19. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    B17 Current Employment in the Buffalo Labor Area B-20 B18 Agricultural Earnings Projected Agricultural Earnings to 2030 B-21 B19 Agricultural Output...Orleans County. The political subdivisions of the watershed, in addition to clima - tological and hydrologic stations, are shown on Plate BI. Economic...York. Its highway network, large supply of skilled labor , access to raw materials, ample electric power, and ready access to markets in the northeast

  20. Physicochemical properties and oxidative inactivation of soluble lectin from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sabika; Banu, Naheed

    2008-03-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins present in a wide variety of plants and animals, which serve various important physiological functions. A soluble beta-galactoside binding lectin has been isolated and purified to homogeneity from buffalo brain using ammonium sulphate precipitation (40-70%) and gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G50-80 column. The molecular weight of buffalo brain lectin (BBL) as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions was 14.2 kDa, however, with gel filtration it was 28.5 kDa, revealing the dimeric form of protein. The neutral sugar content of the soluble lectin was estimated to be 3.3%. The BBL showed highest affinity for lactose and other sugar moieties in glycosidic form, suggesting it to be a beta-galactoside binding lectin. The association constant for lactose binding as evidenced by Scatchard analysis was 6.6 x 10(3) M(-1) showing two carbohydrate binding sites per lectin molecule. A total inhibition of lectin activity was observed by denaturants like guanidine HCl, thiourea and urea at 6 M concentration. The treatment of BBL with oxidizing agent destroyed its agglutination activity, abolished its fluorescence, and shifted its UV absorption maxima from 282 to 250 nm. The effect of H2O2 was greatly prevented by lactose indicating that BBL is more stable in the presence of its specific ligand. The purified lectin was investigated for its brain cell aggregation properties by testing its ability to agglutinate cells isolated from buffalo and goat brains. Rate of aggregation of buffalo brain cells by purified protein was more than the goat brain cells. The data from above study suggests that the isolated lectin may belong to the galectin-1 family but is glycosylated unlike those purified till date.

  1. Comparative genomic analysis of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis NOD1 and NOD2 receptors and their functional role in in-vitro cellular immune response.

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    Biswajit Brahma

    Full Text Available Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD-like receptors (NLRs are innate immune receptors that recognize bacterial cell wall components and initiate host immune response. Structure and function of NLRs have been well studied in human and mice, but little information exists on genetic composition and role of these receptors in innate immune system of water buffalo--a species known for its exceptional disease resistance. Here, a comparative study on the functional domains of NOD1 and NOD2 was performed across different species. The NOD mediated in-vitro cellular responses were studied in buffalo peripheral blood mononuclear cells, resident macrophages, mammary epithelial, and fibroblast cells. Buffalo NOD1 (buNOD1 and buNOD2 showed conserved domain architectures as found in other mammals. The domains of buNOD1 and buNOD2 showed analogy in secondary and tertiary conformations. Constitutive expressions of NODs were ubiquitous in different tissues. Following treatment with NOD agonists, peripheral lymphocytes showed an IFN-γ response along-with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Alveolar macrophages and mammary epithelial cells showed NOD mediated in-vitro immune response through NF-κB dependent pathway. Fibroblasts showed pro-inflammatory cytokine response following agonist treatment. Our study demonstrates that both immune and non-immune cells could generate NOD-mediated responses to pathogens though the type and magnitude of response depend on the cell types. The structural basis of ligand recognition by buffalo NODs and knowledge of immune response by different cell types could be useful for development of non-infective innate immune modulators and next generation anti-inflammatory compounds.

  2. Freezability of water buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa is improved with the addition of curcumin (diferuoyl methane) in semen extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S A H; Andrabi, S M H; Qureshi, I Z

    2017-10-01

    Effects of curcumin as antioxidant in extender were evaluated on freezability of buffalo spermatozoa. Semen from each of the five bulls (n = 3 replicates, six ejaculates/bull, a total of 30 ejaculates) was diluted in Tris-citric acid extender containing curcumin (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 mM) or control. At pre-freezing and post-thawing, total antioxidant contents (μM/L) and lipid peroxidation levels (μM/ml) were higher (p straight-line velocity, μm/s; curved-line velocity, μm/s; straightness, %; linearity, %), in vitro longevity (%, PM and RV) and DNA integrity (%) at post-thawing were higher (p < .05) with 1.5 mM compared to control. At post-thawing, supravital plasma membrane integrity (%) and viable spermatozoa with intact acrosome (%) were higher with 1.5 compared to 2.0 mM curcumin and control. We concluded that freezability of water buffalo spermatozoa is improved with the addition of 1.5 mM curcumin in extender. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Amelioration of altered oxidant/antioxidant balance of Indian water buffaloes with subclinical mastitis by vitamins A, D3, E, and H supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, Umesh; Sharma, Mahesh Chandra; Singh, Shanker K; Kumar, Pankaj; Jhambh, Ricky; Singh, Bishwambhar; Bandhyopadhyay, Samiran; Verma, Med Ram

    2013-04-01

    The effect of vitamins A, D3, E, and H supplementation on oxidative stress indices in Indian water buffaloes suffering from subclinical mastitis was investigated. Changes in the total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxide (NO), and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in milk were evaluated before and after the supplementation of vitamins A, D3, E, and H. The buffaloes suffering from subclinical mastitis revealed remarkable alterations in the milk oxidants/antioxidants balance shifted towards oxidative status. The buffaloes with subclinical mastitis revealed significantly (P ≤ 0.01) higher TOC, NO contents, and CAT activity, while TAC content and GSH-Px activity were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) lower in comparison with the healthy controls. However, SOD activity did not show any significant change. Supplementation of vitamins A, D3, E, and H to these animals revealed significant (P ≤ 0.01) reduction in TOC, NO, and CAT, while a significant (P ≤ 0.01) increase in TAC and GSH-Px activity was also evident. From the present study, it may be concluded that supplementation of these vitamins can help ameliorate the altered milk oxidants/antioxidants balance towards normalcy and, thus, ensue recovery from subclinical mastitis in the Indian water buffaloes.

  4. Genetic and environmental effects on parturition and lactation intervals in water buffaloes from Brazil

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    A. de Amorim Ramos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental effects on parturition interval (PI and duration of lactation (DL were evaluated in 107 Jafarabadi, 98 Mediterranean, 1027 Murrah and 624 crossbred buffalo females (n=1856, based on data from the Buffalo Genetic Improvement Program–PROMEBUL from 1980 to 2003. The statistical model included effects of herd, parturition year and month, calf’s sex, parturition order and genetic group, composing 11, 34, 12, 2, 12 and 4 classes, respectively. A significant effect over PI was observed (P<0.01 in all classes, excepting sex. Mean parturition intervals per genetic group presented significant differences through SNK test (P<0.05, with mean values of 451.29; 429.47; 406.97 and 389.78 days in Mediterranean, crossbred, Murrah and Jafarabadi, respectively. Mean DL values were 276.68; 270.33; 258.03 and 235.59 days for Mediterranean, Murrah, crossbred and Jafarabadi groups, respectively. No significant differences in DL were observed in relation to genetic groups. However, herd and parturition order, year and month significantly influenced DL (P<0.01. The herd was the main source of variation over DL, followed by parturition year and month. A regression based on parturition month in relation to PI and DL showed that females giving birth in the last months of the year presented higher PI and DL.

  5. Genetic variation among Northern and Southern Egyptian buffaloes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The domestic water buffalo is a species of great economic potential, especially in developing countries like Egypt. Egyptian buffalo have been classified according to minor phenotypic differences and their geographical locations. Few studies have taken place to investigate the genetic variations in Egyptian buffalo using ...

  6. Validation of a rapid lateral flow method for the detection of cows' milk in water buffalo, sheep or goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan-Malo, Patricia; Mendiara, Isabel; Razquin, Pedro; Mata, Luis

    2018-01-22

    For many years, the adulteration of milk from sheep, goats or water buffalos with cows' milk has been a widespread practice due to the higher cost of milk from those other species. Because of this, great concern has been shown by many Protected Designation of Origin councils that have to assure the quality and genuineness of the cheese produced by their associates. Therefore, the whole production chain needs analytical tools that allow the control of potential adulteration. Rapid methods to be used in the field are scarce and have not been validated according to international guidelines. The aim of this work has been to validate a rapid test based on lateral flow immunochromatography to detect cows' milk in milk from other species, including buffalo's milk, according to AOAC guidelines. No false-positive result was found after analysing 146 known negative samples from individual animals. The lowest level of adulteration with a Probability of Detection (POD) of 1.00 (confidence interval between 0.94 and 1.00) was found at 0.5% of cows' milk. This level is below the current EU allowed level of cows' milk, set at 1%. Variations in the time of assay, volume of the analysis buffer and different batches of the test were evaluated to detect any effect on the false-positive rate or on the limit of detection of the test. The effects of compositional factors (such as high level of fat, protein and somatic cell counts) were also evaluated. The new rapid test to detect cows' milk in milk from other species is shown to be an adequate tool to control milk quality in routine analysis. This kind of test is very easy to use and it can be performed by untrained staff during milk collection at the farm or upon arrival at dairies.

  7. Varying the dietary supply of C and N to manipulate the manure composition of water buffalo heifers in Oman

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    Anne Schiborra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing the composition of manure has the potential to reduce nutrient losses to the environment and to increase crop yields. In this study the effect of dietary ratios of carbon (C to nitrogen (N and neutral detergent fibre (NDF to soluble carbohydrates (SC on faeces composition of water buffalo heifers was assessed. Two digestibility trials were conducted with 12 animals each, fed one control and four test diets composed to achieve (1 high C/N and high NDF/SC ratios (HH, (2 low C/N and low NDF/SC ratios (LL, (3 high C/N and low NDF/SC ratios (HL and (4 low C/N and high NDF/SC (LH ratios. Faecal C/N ratios were generally lower than dietary C/N ratios, but the reduction was especially large for high C/N ratio diets (HH=55 %, HL=51 %. Faecal N concentration was positively correlated (r^2 = 0.6; P < 0.001 with N intake, but the increase in faecal N was more pronounced for diets that supplied low amounts of N. Faecal NDF concentration was positively related to NDF intake (r^2 = 0.42; P < 0.001, as well as the faecal C/N ratio (r^2 = 0.3; P < 0.001. Results demonstrate that C/N ratio and NDF concentration of buffalo manure were affected by diet composition. Diets with high C/N ratio and low NDF/SC ratio are preferable with regard to manure quality, but may not satisfy the nutritional requirements of producing animals, since N concentration in these diets was low and fibre concentration simultaneously high.

  8. Influence of housing conditions and calving distance on blood metabolites in water buffalo cows

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    Fabio Napolitano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether housing conditions allowing the animals to lie in the mud and performmore physical exercise can negatively affect reserve mobilization and milk production. In addition, the effect of calvingdistance on blood metabolites was assessed. The experiment was conducted on twenty-eight lactating buffalo cows,equally allocated to two treatments. Fourteen cows were group-housed in a loose open-sided barn with a concrete floorand equipped with self-locking stanchions, where they received 10 m2/head of space allowance, as in intensive systems(Group IS. Fourteen others were group-housed in a similar barn but they also had the benefit of an outdoor yard with500 m2/head as space allowance, including spontaneous vegetation and potholes for bathing and wallowing, as in traditionalsystems (Group TS. Animals were included in the experimental groups 5 days after calving. Daily milk yield, andmilk fat, protein and somatic cell content were determined 4 weeks after grouping (about 35 days after calving and thenat monthly intervals (5 recordings. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein in vacuum tubes 10 days aftergrouping (i.e. 15 days after calving and then at 10 day intervals (17 collections. After centrifugation, plasma and serumaliquots were frozen stored until metabolite determinations (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, NEFA, urea, creatinine,albumins, total proteins, calcium, phosphorus, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanineaminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and γglutamyl transferase. Treatment did not affect daily milk yield and milkfat, protein or somatic cell count content. Blood metabolite levels were not affected by treatment and interaction treatmentx time. Conversely, as expected, calving distance had an influence on most of these variables (Pparticular, in the first two months after parturition, glucose concentration decreased, whereas NEFA and

  9. Serological and bacteriological responses of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) vaccinated with two doses of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnanan, Anil; Diptee, Michael; Asgarali, Zinora; Campbell, Mervyn; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale

    2012-10-01

    Thirty-two water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves aged 6–10 months were used to evaluate serological responses to Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccination in a dose-response study and to compare the use of two selective media for the isolation of RB51. The animals were randomly divided into three treatment groups. Groups I-III received the recommended vaccine dose (RD) twice 4 weeks apart, RD twice 18 weeks apart and saline once, respectively. Lymph nodes were excised from the three groups and subjected to bacteriological examination to determine the frequency of detection of RB51. Pre- and post-vaccination blood samples were collected and tested for B. abortus antibodies using the buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), complement fixation test (CFT), and dot-blot assay. Sera taken at all post-inoculation weeks (PIW) were negative for field strain B. abortus using the BPAT. Antibody responses to RB51 were demonstrated in all vaccinates but not in controls by CFT and dot-blot assay from 1 PIW up to 16 weeks following booster vaccination. The agreement for both assays was 80.7% and there was a linear interdependence with a Pearson's correlation coefficient value of 0.578. The frequency of isolation of RB51 from the two selective media used was not significantly different (P > 0.05).

  10. Osteoporosis in water buffalo, in relation to age, clinical condition of the animal and physical-chemical bone and hepatic copper status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Luiz Assunção Pereira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a research program of metabolic nutritional diseases in water buffalo in the Humid Tropical Amazon. In that context, the objective was to study osteoporotic processes in buffalo raised in a grazing system on Marajó Island and the relation of the disease with the age as well as physical-chemical bone and hepatic copper status. One hundred and ten animals were evaluated: 39 young or juvenile and 71 adults that presented Body Condition Index from 1 to 2. One group was composed by young buffalo and another by adult animals. Based on anatomical-clinical and bone quality analyses, the animals were subdivided in two sub-groups, according to presence or absence of clinical signs of apparent osteopathic. Analysis of calcium, phosphorus, ash and bone density was performed on the middle third of the 11th right rib, and the copper concentration was determined from liver tissue. Pathological anatomical findings showed that 98.44% of juvenile animals and 96.16% of adult animals, respectively, presented some degree of osteoporosis (+, ++, +++. Low average percentages were demonstrated for phosphorus (10.69%, in ashes (60.24% and in density (1.46 g/ml. Hepatic copper presented similar low values (19.51 mg/kg. The results showed that juvenile animals presented more severe clinical sign of osteoporosis, and the pathogenesis may be related to low reserves of phosphorus in bony tissue and copper in liver tissue.

  11. Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM prevalence in raw beef, camel, sheep, goat, and water buffalo meat in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran

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    Ebrahim Rahimi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC of the O157:H7 serotype is a worldwide zoonotic pathogen responsible for the majority of severe cases of human EHEC disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of E. coli O157: H7/NM in raw meat samples from two provinces of Iran. During a period from March 2010 to March 2011. Two hundred and ninety five raw meat samples were collected from beef (n= 85, camel, (n= 50, sheep (n= 62, goat (n= 60, and water buffalo (n=38. Fourteen (4.7% of the 295 samples were positive for E. coli O157. The highest prevalence of E. coli O157 was found in beef samples (8.2%, followed by water buffalo (5.3%, sheep (4.8%, camel (2.0%, and goat (1.7%. Of fourteen E. coli O157 isolates, only one was determined to be serotype O157: H7 while 13 were determined as serotype O157: NM. Of the 14 E. coli O157:H7/NM isolates, one, four, two, and one strains were positive for stx1, stx2, eaeA and ehlyA genes, respectively. The prevalence of this organism varied between seasons with the highest prevalence of E. coli O157 occurring in summer (9.3%. The results of this study showed that beef and water buffalo meat are a significant source for human EHEC E. coli O157:H7/NM infection in Iran. The data reported in this study provides some useful baseline in formation for future research such as molecular or epidemiologic works.

  12. Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM prevalence in raw beef, camel, sheep, goat, and water buffalo meat in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kazemeini, Hamid Reza; Salajegheh, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) of the O157:H7 serotype is a worldwide zoonotic pathogen responsible for the majority of severe cases of human EHEC disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of E. coli O157: H7/NM in raw meat samples from two provinces of Iran. During a period from March 2010 to March 2011. Two hundred and ninety five raw meat samples were collected from beef (n= 85), camel, (n= 50), sheep (n= 62), goat (n= 60), and water buffalo (n=38). Fourteen (4.7%) of the 295 samples were positive for E. coli O157. The highest prevalence of E. coli O157 was found in beef samples (8.2%), followed by water buffalo (5.3%), sheep (4.8%), camel (2.0%), and goat (1.7%). Of fourteen E. coli O157 isolates, only one was determined to be serotype O157: H7 while 13 were determined as serotype O157: NM. Of the 14 E. coli O157:H7/NM isolates, one, four, two, and one strains were positive for stx1, stx2, eaeA and ehlyA genes, respectively. The prevalence of this organism varied between seasons with the highest prevalence of E. coli O157 occurring in summer (9.3%). The results of this study showed that beef and water buffalo meat are a significant source for human EHEC E. coli O157:H7/NM infection in Iran. The data reported in this study provides some useful baseline in formation for future research such as molecular or epidemiologic works.

  13. Comparative evaluation of halothane anaesthesia in medetomidine–butorphanol and midazolam–butorphanol premedicated water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Malik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Six clinically healthy male water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis 2–3 years of age and weighing 290–325 kg were used for 2 different treatments (H1 andH2. The animals of groupH1 were premedicated with medetomidine (2.5 g/kg, i.v. and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg, i.v., while in groupH2 midazolam (0.25 mg/kg and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg were used intravenously. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved by 5%thiopental sodium inH1 (3.85±0.63 mg/kg and H2 (6.96 ± 0.45 mg/kg groups. The anaesthesia was maintained with halothane in 100 % oxygen through a large animal anaesthetic machine. Better analgesia and sedation with a significantly lower dose of thiopental for induction and significantly higher values of sternal recumbency time and standing time were recorded in group H1 than in group H2 , whereas no significant (P > 0.05 difference for the halothane concentration was observed between groups H1 and H2. Significant decrease in heart rate was observed in group H1 whereas it significantly increased in group H2. In both groups, RR decreased during the preanaesthetic period, which increased significantly (P<0.01 after halothane administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 fall in RT was recorded from 20 min to the end of observation period. A significant (P < 0.05 fall in MAP was observed in group H1 from 15 min until the end, while in group H2 MAP increased nonsignificantly (P > 0.05 after premedication and a significant (P<0.05 occurredafter thiopental administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 increase in CVP and a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SpO2 were observed after premedication which persisted up to 120 min. ECG changes included significant (P<0.01 decrease and increase in QRS amplitudes in groupsH1 andH2 respectively, a significant (P < 0.05 increase in PR interval was recorded at 15 min in group H1, a significant (P<0.05 decrease in PR interval in groupH2 , a significant (P<0.05 decrease in T wave amplitude in groupH1, and a

  14. Identification of virulence factors in 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer genotyped Staphylococcus aureus isolated from water buffaloes and small ruminants.

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    Cremonesi, P; Zottola, T; Locatelli, C; Pollera, C; Castiglioni, B; Scaccabarozzi, L; Moroni, P

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and animal pathogen, and is regarded as an important cause of intramammary infection (IMI) in ruminants. Staphylococcus aureus genetic variability and virulence factors have been well studied in veterinary medicine, especially in cows as support for control and management of IMI. The aim of the present study was to genotype 71 Staph. aureus isolates from the bulk tank and foremilk of water buffaloes (n=40) and from udder tissue (n=7) and foremilk (n=24) from small ruminants. The method used was previously applied to bovine Staph. aureus and is based on the amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The technique applied was able to identify different Staph. aureus genotypes isolated from dairy species other than the bovine species, and cluster the genotypes according to species and herds. Virulence gene distribution was consistent with genotype differentiation. The isolates were also characterized through determination of the presence of 19 virulence-associated genes by specific PCR. Enterotoxins A, C, D, G, I, J, and L were associated with Staph. aureus isolates from buffaloes, whereas enterotoxins C and L were linked to small ruminants. Genes coding for methicillin resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, exfoliative toxins A and B, and enterotoxins B, E, and H were undetected. These findings indicate that RNA template-specific PCR is a valid technique for typing Staph. aureus from buffaloes and small ruminants and is a useful tool for understanding udder infection epidemiology. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intoxicação experimental por monensina em búfalos e bovinos Experimental monensin poisoning in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis and cattle

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    Daniela B. Rozza

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Sinais clínicos e lesões característicos de intoxicação por monensina foram induzidos em búfalos dosados (1 dia com 15, 10, 7,5 e 5mg/kg de monensina. Apenas os búfalos dosados com 2,5 (1 dia e 1 mg/kg (7 dias de monensina não morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram cerca de 6 h após dosagem com monensina e incluíram apatia, anorexia, diarréia, sialorréia, fraqueza muscular, taquicardia, dificuldade locomotora, dispnéia, distensão da jugular, decúbito e morte. As dosagens de creatinina quinase (CK dos búfalos aumentaram acentuadamente após dosagem com monensina. As alterações macroscópicas foram ascite, hidrotórax, hidropericárdio, cardiomegalia, hepatomegalia e áreas pálidas focais no miocárdio e nos músculos esqueléticos. Degeneração e necrose de miofibras foram os principais achados histopatológicos. Por outro lado, nenhuma evidência de doença, nem mesmo alteração nos níveis de CK, foram observados nos bovinos dosados com as mesmas dosagens de monensina, confirmando observações preliminares que esses animais são mais resistentes à monensina que os búfalos.Monensin is widely used as a feed additive to improve performance of livestock; however accidental poisoning by this ionophore compound has been reported in a number of animal species. Typical clinical signs and lesions of monensin poisoning were induced in water buffaloes dosed with single dosages of 15, 10, 7.5, and 5mg/kg of the compound. Only buffaloes dosed with 2.5 mg/kg (1 day and 1mg/kg (7 days survived. Clinical signs initiated about 6 h post-dosing and included apathy, anorexia, diarrhea, drooling, muscular weakness, locomotion disorders, dyspnea, tachycardia, jugular distension and pulse, recumbency and death. The creatine kinase (CK levels were highly augmented in blood samples of buffaloes dosed with monensin. Most prominent gross changes were ascites, hydrothorax, hydropericardium, cardiomegaly, hepatomegaly, and focal pale areas in the

  16. OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry approach compared with DNA-based PCR method for authentication of meat species from raw and cooked ground meat mixtures containing cattle meat, water buffalo meat and sheep meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, Basappa M; Jagadeesh, Deepak S; Jagadeesh Babu, A; Madhava Rao, T; Kamuni, Veeranna; Vaithiyanathan, S; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Rapole, Srikanth

    2017-10-15

    The present study compared the accuracy of an OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach with a DNA-based method for meat species identification from raw and cooked ground meat mixes containing cattle, water buffalo and sheep meat. The proteomic approach involved the separation of myofibrillar proteins using OFFGEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and protein identification by MALDI-TOF MS. Species-specific peptides derived from myosin light chain-1 and 2 were identified for authenticating buffalo meat spiked at a minimum 0.5% level in sheep meat with high confidence. Relative quantification of buffalo meat mixed with sheep meat was done by quantitative label-free mass spectrometry using UPLC-QTOF and PLGS search engine to substantiate the confidence level of the data. In the DNA-based method, PCR amplification of mitochondrial D loop gene using species specific primers found 226bp and 126bp product amplicons for buffalo and cattle meat, respectively. The method was efficient in detecting a minimum of 0.5% and 1.0% when buffalo meat was spiked with cattle meat in raw and cooked meat mixes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of the risks for human health of adenoviruses, hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams in the Eastern Cape.

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    Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-06-01

    Buffalo River is an important water resource in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The potential risks of infection constituted by exposure to human enteric viruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course were assessed using mean values and static quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The daily risks of infection determined by the exponential model [for human adenovirus (HAdV) and enterovirus (EnV)] and the beta-Poisson model (for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and rotavirus (RoV)) varied with sites and exposure scenario. The estimated daily risks of infection values at the sites where the respective viruses were detected, ranged from 7.31 × 10(-3) to 1 (for HAdV), 4.23 × 10(-2) to 6.54 × 10(-1) (RoV), 2.32 × 10(-4) to 1.73 × 10(-1) (HAV) and 1.32 × 10(-4) to 5.70 × 10(-2) (EnV). The yearly risks of infection in individuals exposed to the river/dam water via drinking, recreational, domestic or irrigational activities were unacceptably high, exceeding the acceptable risk of 0.01% (10(-4) infection/person/year), and the guideline value used as by several nations for drinking water. The risks of illness and death from infection ranged from 6.58 × 10(-5) to 5.0 × 10(-1) and 6.58 × 10(-9) to 5.0 × 10(-5), respectively. The threats here are heightened by the high mortality rates for HAV, and its endemicity in South Africa. Therefore, we conclude that the Buffalo River and its source water dams are a public health hazard. The QMRA presented here is the first of its kinds in the Eastern Cape Province and provides the building block for a quantitatively oriented local guideline for water quality management in the Province.

  18. Use of post-thaw semen quality parameters to predict fertility of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull during peak breeding season.

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    Ahmed, H; Andrabi, S M H; Anwar, M; Jahan, S

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to predict the fertility of water buffalo bull using post-thaw semen quality parameters during peak breeding season. Thirty ejaculates were collected from five bulls with artificial vagina and cryopreserved. At post-thaw, semen was analysed for motility parameters, velocity distribution, kinematics, DNA integrity/fragmentation, viability, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, morphology, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity. Data of 514 inseminations were collected for estimation of in vivo fertility. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that progressive motility (PM), rapid velocity, average path velocity, straight line velocity, straightness, supravital plasma membrane integrity, viable spermatozoon with intact acrosome or with high mitochondrial activity were correlated with in vivo fertility (r = .81, p fertility was PM. However, combinations of semen quality parameters to predict fertility were better as compared to single parameter. In conclusion, fertility of buffalo bull can be predicted through some of the post-thaw in vitro semen quality tests during peak breeding season. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo

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    Kumar Niraj

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in India along with published sequences of Mediterranean buffalo. Results The maximum parsimony tree showed one major clade with six internal branches. Reduced median network revealed expansion from more than one set of haplotypes indicating complex domestication events for this species. In addition, we found several singleton haplotypes. Using rho statistics, we obtained a time estimate of 6300 years BP for the expansion of one set of hapltoypes of the Indian domestic buffalo. A few breed specific branches in the network indicated an ancient time depth of differentiation of some of the maternal lineages of river buffalo breeds. The multidimensional display of breed pairwise FST values showed significant breed differentiation. Conclusion Present day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from the wild populations after the initial domestication events. Our data are consistent with the available archaeological information in supporting the proposition that the river buffalo was likely to be domesticated in the Western region of the Indian subcontinent, specifically the present day breeding tracts of the Mehsana, Surati and Pandharpuri breeds.

  20. Serologic responses, biosafety and clearance of four dosages of Brucella abortus strain RB51 in 6-10 months old water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

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    Diptee, M D; Adesiyun, A A; Asgarali, Z; Campbell, M; Adone, R

    2006-01-15

    Thirty water buffalo were obtained from a brucellosis-free farm in order to evaluate antibody responses, bacterial clearance and safety to Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in a dose response study. The animals were randomly divided into five treatment groups. Groups I-V received the recommended dose of RB51 vaccine (RD) once, RD twice 4 weeks apart, double RD once, double RD twice 4 weeks apart and saline once, respectively. Antibody responses to RB51 were monitored at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 18, 22, 24 and 27 post-initial-inoculation weeks (PIW). Clearance of RB51 from the prescapular lymph node was evaluated at 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 and 24 PIW for groups 1, III and V and at 6, 8, 10, 16, 22 and 27 PIW for groups II and IV. To evaluate shedding of the RB51 strain, nasal, conjunctival, vaginal or preputial swabs were taken from all experimental animals at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 PIW. Sera taken at all PIW were negative for field strain B. abortus by both the buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Antibody responses to RB51 were demonstrated in all vaccinates but not in the controls, up to 12 PIW, by complement fixation test (CFT) and the dot-blot assay with an 83.7% agreement for both tests. Clearance of RB51 occurred between 6 and 12 PIW in group I but less than 2 weeks after booster vaccinations in groups II and IV and between 4 and 6 PIW in group III. RB51 was not recovered at any time from swabs obtained from either RB51-vaccinates or non-vaccinates. The results of this study indicate that serologic responses to RB51 vaccination can be monitored by both CFT and dot-blot assay in water buffalo. Our data also indicates that RB51 vaccination does not interfere with brucellosis sero-surveillance and is safe (no serological and bacteriological evidence of spread to non-vaccinates, no adverse clinical signs or detectable abnormalities on haematology and serum biochemistry) for use in water buffalo.

  1. Congenital Malformations in River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarella, Sara; Ciotola, Francesca; D’Anza, Emanuele; Coletta, Angelo; Zicarelli, Luigi; Peretti, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Congenital malformations (due to genetic causes) represent a hidden danger for animal production, above all when genetic selection is undertaken for production improvements. These malformations are responsible for economic losses either because they reduce the productivity of the farm, or because their spread in the population would decrease the total productivity of that species/breed. River buffalo is a species of increasing interest all over the world for its production abilities, as proved by the buffalo genome project and the genetic selection plans that are currently performed in different countries. The aim of this review is to provide a general view of different models of congenital malformations in buffalo and their world distribution. This would be useful either for those who performed buffalo genetic selection or for researchers in genetic diseases, which would be an advantage to their studies with respect to the knowledge of gene mutations and interactions in this species. Abstract The world buffalo population is about 168 million, and it is still growing, in India, China, Brazil, and Italy. In these countries, buffalo genetic breeding programs have been performed for many decades. The occurrence of congenital malformations has caused a slowing of the genetic progress and economic loss for the breeders, due to the death of animals, or damage to their reproductive ability or failing of milk production. Moreover, they cause animal welfare reduction because they can imply foetal dystocia and because the affected animals have a reduced fitness with little chances of survival. This review depicts, in the river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) world population, the present status of the congenital malformations, due to genetic causes, to identify their frequency and distribution in order to develop genetic breeding plans able to improve the productive and reproductive performance, and avoid the spreading of detrimental gene variants. Congenital

  2. The efficacy and safety of alphacypermethrin as a pour-on treatment for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) infested with Haematopinus tuberculatus (Phthiraptera: Haematopinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Neglia, Gianluca; Cimmino, Roberta; Balestrieri, Anna; Rufrano, Domenico; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Santoro, Mario; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    The sucking louse Haematopinus tuberculatus (Burmeister 1839) is an ectoparasite of buffaloes, cattle, camels, and American bison. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used to control arthropods of veterinary and public health interest. Therapeutics, such as antiparasitic compounds, is often administered to buffaloes based on dosage and intervals recommended for cattle because very few drugs have buffalo-specific label indications. A trial was conducted on 20 louse-infested buffaloes at a farm to assess the efficacy and safety of ACYP pour-on, at the manufacturer's recommended dose for cattle, on buffaloes naturally infested by H. tuberculatus. Ten animals were assigned to ACYP-treated group (ACYP-group) and ten to untreated control group (C-group). On day 0, all ACYP-group buffaloes received alphacypermethrin pour-on. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at eight predilection sites on the skin of each buffalo. ACYP was completely effective (100%) at day 7, highly effective (99.8%) at day 14, and completely effective (100%) from day 21 until the end of the study (day 56 post-treatment). During the trial, ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinically adverse reactions. The results of this trial suggest that ACYP is an effective, safe, and user-friendly compound suitable for treatment of buffaloes with natural louse infestations.

  3. Mass spectrometry detection of fraudulent use of cow whey in water buffalo, sheep, or goat Italian ricotta cheese.

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    Camerini, Serena; Montepeloso, Emanuela; Casella, Marialuisa; Crescenzi, Marco; Marianella, Rosa Maria; Fuselli, Fabio

    2016-04-15

    Ricotta cheese is a typical Italian product, made with whey from various species, including cow, buffalo, sheep, and goat. Ricotta cheese nominally manufactured from the last three species may be fraudulently produced using the comparatively cheaper cow whey. Exposing such food frauds requires a reliable analytical method. Despite the extensive similarities shared by whey proteins of the four species, a mass spectrometry-based analytical method was developed that exploits three species-specific peptides derived from β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin. This method can detect as little as 0.5% bovine whey in ricotta cheese from the other three species. Furthermore, a tight correlation was found (R(2)>0.99) between cow whey percentages and mass spectrometry measurements throughout the 1-50% range. Thus, this method can be used for forensic detection of ricotta cheese adulteration and, if properly validated, to provide quantitative evaluations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ketosis in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): clinical findings and the associated oxidative stress level.

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    Youssef, Mohamed A; El-Khodery, Sabry Ahmed; El-deeb, Wael M; Abou El-Amaiem, Waleed E E

    2010-12-01

    As little is known about the oxidant/antioxidant status in buffalo with ketosis, the present study was delineated to assess the oxidative stress level associated with clinical ketosis in water buffalo. A total of 91 parturient buffalo at smallholder farms were studied (61 suspected to be ketotic and 30 healthy). Clinical and biochemical investigations were carried out for each buffalo. Based on clinical findings and the level of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), buffalo were allocated into ketotic (42), subclinical cases (19). Clinically, there was an association between clinical ketosis and anorexia (pketosis compared with subclinical and control cases, there was a significant increase (pketosis.

  5. Intermolecular Interactions Between DMα and DMβ Proteins in BuLA-DM Complex of Water Buffalo Bubalus bubalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Leena; Panwar, Deepak; Ali, Sher

    2017-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) with its three classes represents a cluster of tightly linked genes with defined immunological and non-immunological functions. The DM, a MHC class II molecule is formed by the non-covalent association of DMα and DMβ chains. It binds with the processed peptide antigens and presents them to T lymphocytes, thereby triggering the immune responses. Startlingly, the expression pattern and structural organization of DMα and DMβ proteins in buffalo remains undefined. We isolated and purified the DMα and DMβ proteins from Bubalus bubalis using gel filtration chromatography. Employing western blotting and immunohistochemistry, highest expression of these proteins was observed in spleen and were later localized in the cytoplasm. We modelled 3D structures of the proteins and assessed the binding interface of BuLA-DM docked complex. In the process, we uncovered 9 DMα and 8 DMβ specific residues participating in the formation of BuLA-DM complex. Our work demonstrated active participation of the critical amino acid residues engaged in the formation of BuLA-DM complex facilitating deeper understanding on the structure-function relationship of these proteins. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4254-4266, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. BEHAVIOUR OF GRAZING WATER BUFFALOES DEPENDING ON THE AVAILABILITY OF SHADE AND WATER FOR IMERSION COMPORTAMENTO DE BUBALINOS A PASTO FRENTE A DISPONIBILIDADE DE SOMBRA E ÁGUA PARA IMERSÃO

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    Alfredo Manuel Franco Pereira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Water buffaloes are particularly intolerant to direct solar radiation. During the warm periods of the day, the animals tend to search for mud or water puddles to refresh themselves, and they usually graze only during the cooler hours. This trial, proposes to study possible handling solutions for buffalo producers using the behavioral responses. 10 female buffaloes aging 24 months were observed for 3 days (from 06:00 to 18:00 h in each of the handling systems:with natural and artificial shade (S; with artificial shade and pond (SA; with pond (A. The animals were observed in their location (under sun, under shadow, in water, attitude (standing, laying and activity (grazing, ruminating, etc.. The animals spent more than 60% of the time in the sun (S:63,9%, SA: 64,5%, A: 71,9%, mostly ruminating. In the shade or in the pond, the main behaviors were rumination and inactivity. The use of the pond was remarkably preferential (SA: 237,7 minutes, A: 205,1 minutes. The results revealed a demand for any protection device against solar radiation for buffaloes on hot days, and, whenever available; water for immersion must be a priority. KEY-WORDS: Ethology, grazing, water buffaloes, welfare. Os búfalos são particularmente intolerantes à radiação solar direta. Durante os períodos quentes do dia, os animais tendem a procurar poças de água ou lama para se refrescarem e usualmente pastejam apenas nas horas de menor temperatura. O presente trabalho propõe estudar soluções de manejo possíveis ao bubalinocultor através de respostas comportamentais. O ensaio utilizou dez búfalas de 24 meses, observadas por três dias (das seis às dezoito horas em cada sistema de manejo a pasto: com sombra natural e artificial (S; com sombra artificial e água para imersão (SA; com água para imersão (A, quanto à sua posição (sol, sombra, água, postura (em pé ou deitado e atividade (pastando, ruminando etc.. Os animais passaram mais de 60% do tempo ao sol (S

  7. Buffaloes breeding in Brasil

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    O. Bernardes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.

  8. Alginate encapsulation preserves the quality and fertilizing ability of Mediterranean Italian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus) spermatozoa after cryopreservation.

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    Perteghella, Sara; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Cenadelli, Silvia; Bornaghi, Valeria; Galli, Andrea; Crivelli, Barbara; Vigani, Barbara; Vigo, Daniele; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Faustini, Massimo; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2017-03-30

    The use of artificial insemination (AI) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is limited by poor ovarian activity during the hot season, seasonal qualitative patterns in semen, low resistance of sperm cells in the female tract, difficulties in estrus detection, and variable estrus duration. Although AI procedures are commonly used in bovine, use of AI has been limited in buffalo. In the zootechnical field, different studies have been conducted to develop techniques for improvement of fertilizing ability of buffalo spermatozoa after AI. In this study, for the first time, the use of alginate encapsulation and cryopreservation of buffalo spermatozoa is described, and the same procedure was performed with Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus) semen. Results obtained from in vitro analyses indicate that the encapsulation process does not have detrimental effects (compared to controls) on quality parameters (membrane integrity, progressive motility, path average velocity) in either species. Similarly, there were no detrimental effects after cryopreservation in either species. The fertilizing potential of encapsulated and cryopreserved semen was evaluated after AI in 25 buffalo and 113 bovine females. Pregnancy rates were not affected in either species. The results of this study show proof of concept for the use of frozen semen controlled-release devices in buffalo.

  9. Contagem de células somáticas e isolamento de agentes causadores de mastite em búfalas (Bubalus bubalis Somatic cell count and mastitis causing pathogens isolation in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

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    L.B. Carvalho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was accomplished in eight dairy water buffalo herds, randomically choosen in Região do Alto São Francisco, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Information was collected from March to November, 2003 during 270 days of observation. In order to determine the somatic cell count (SCC in presence or absence of microbial isolation, 1,393 samples were collected from 285 lactating females and microbiological exams and SCC were done. Samples obtained from udders without evidence of clinical or subclinical inflammation showed infection for a great variety of microbial mastitis pathogens. The low SCC did not necessarily indicate the absence of intramammary infection, suggesting that SCC patterns used for bovine cannot be appropriate in order to control mastitis in buffalo herds.

  10. Using real-time PCR to identify pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 2 (PAG-2) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) blood in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, O; Guelfi, G; Barile, V L; Menchetti, L; Tortiello, C; Canali, C; Brecchia, G; Traina, G; Beckers, J F; Melo de Sousa, N

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates for the first time mRNA pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 2 (PAG-2) expression in blood cells during early pregnancy in water buffalo. The PAGs constitute a large family of glycoproteins expressed in the outer epithelial layer of the placenta in eutherian species. All PAGs are not concomitantly expressed throughout pregnancy; some of them are expressed in the earlier phases, whereas others appear later and are expressed over a shorter period. Twenty-one lactating buffaloes were analyzed-17 females were synchronized with PRID and artificially inseminated (AI), whereas four females were synchronized but not inseminated (control group). Blood was collected at Days 0, 18, 28, 40, and 75 from AI (AI = Day 0). Expression of PAG-2 mRNA in blood samples was measured with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on Day 28 (D28) and Day 40 (D40) after AI by ultrasonography (US) and by PAG-1 RIA method. The females diagnosed pregnant at D28 and confirmed pregnant at D40 were defined as D28(+)D40(+) group; the females diagnosed pregnant at D28 but not confirmed pregnant at D40 were defined as D28(+)D40(-) group; and the females that were diagnosed as nonpregnant on either days were defined as D28(-)D40(-) group. PAG-2 mRNA at Day 0 was not observed in any groups. The D28(+)D40(+) group showed the highest expression, starting on Day 18 and increasing progressively up to Day 75. PAG-2 mRNA was also expressed on Day 18 in both D28(+)D40(-) and D28(-)D40(-) groups, but their levels were lower than those of D28(+)D40(+) group and almost constant over time. PAG-2 mRNA was never detected in the control group. The significant difference in the expression of PAG-2 mRNA between the D28(+)D40(+) group and the D28(-)D40(-) group, starting from Day 18, suggests that these animals might have conceived, but have experienced early embryonic loss; therefore, the PAG-2 mRNA was still present in blood circulation although at lower levels

  11. Post-exposure serological and bacteriological responses of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Brucella abortus biovar 1 following vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diptee, M D; Asgarali, Z; Campbell, M; Fosgate, G; Adesiyun, A A

    2007-12-01

    Serological and bacteriological responses to Brucella abortus biovar 1 following vaccination with B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51) were evaluated in thirty domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) randomly divided into five treatment groups. Groups I to V received, respectively, the recommended dose (RD) of RB51 vaccine once, RD twice 4 weeks apart, double RD once, double RD twice 4 weeks apart, and saline once (control). Vaccination did not result in a serological response. Experimental animals released 27 weeks post initial inoculation (27 PIIW) into a brucellosis-positive herd failed to seroconvert after 29 weeks. Experimental challenge commenced at 57 PIIW. All animals received B. abortus biovar 1 intraconjunctivally at 0, 5 and 9 weeks post experimental exposure (PEEW). Serum samples collected at 4, 8 and 13 PEEW were negative. At 16 PEEW all animals received B. abortus biovar 1 subcutaneously (SC), and all seroconverted by 20 PEEW. Five of twenty-six animals were positive for Brucella infection on bacterial culture. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from three animals; B. abortus RB51 was isolated from two. Treatment group, age and sex had no effect on the isolation of Brucellae (P>0.05).

  12. The genomics revolution and its effect on water quality

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    Genomic-based molecular tools are emerging as powerful laboratory methods for assessing water quality characteristics and improving our ability to assess the human health risks posed by microbial contaminants in drinking water. To a great extent, this revolution in genomics-rese...

  13. The BUFFALO HST Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Charles; Jauzac, Mathilde; Capak, Peter; Koekemoer, Anton; Oesch, Pascal; Richard, Johan; Sharon, Keren q.; BUFFALO

    2018-01-01

    Beyond Ultra-deep Frontier Fields And Legacy Observations (BUFFALO) is an astronomical survey built around the six Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Fields clusters designed to learn about early galactic assembly and clustering and prepare targets for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope. BUFFALO will place significant new constraints on how and when the most massive and luminous galaxies in the universe formed and how early galaxy formation is linked to dark matter assembly. The same data will also probe the temperature and cross section of dark matter in the massive Frontier Fields galaxy clusters, and tell us how the dark matter, cluster gas, and dynamics of the clusters influence the galaxies in and around them. These studies are possible because the Spitzer Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and ground based telescopes have already invested heavily in deep observations around the Frontier Fields, so that the addition of HST observations can yield significant new results.

  14. Identification of retrotransposon-like sequences in Iranian river buffalo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This may occur by mutations and extinction of elements during evolution. The identification of these retrotransposable elements for the first time in Iranian river buffalo represents an important step towards the understanding of mechanisms of genome evolution within the species and perhaps will be useful in other related ...

  15. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Detailed Project Report for Flood Management in Cayuga Creek Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    layer with a gradation as shown on Figure C-2. The design com- putations are shown on pages C-46 to C-49 of this appendix. Nonwoven filter cloth will be...with particular reference to providing improvements in the interest of flood control, I .. - 0 f k II wastewater management, water supply, water...rate. These workers have not yet been affected as extensively as their blue collar counterparts. If the recessionary effects filter upward, these

  16. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management in Cazenovia Creek Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    maniculatus deermouse Peromyscus leveopus woodmouse Synaptomys cooperi lemming mouse Clethrionouys aperi red-backed mouse Microtus pennsulvanicus field...deposits contrast with the relatively uniform nature of the bedrock geology. Surficial geology exerts a strong influence on groundwater behavior in the study...2.48 Groundwater behavior in the unconsolidated deposits of the study area is extremely variable and has been documented by the New York State Water

  17. Comparison of quality attributes of buffalo meat curry at different storage temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeepan, Gurunathan; Anjaneyulu, Anne Seet Ram; Kondaiah, Napa; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The product quality of curry is determined by the food animal source, raw materials and the method of processing. Moreover the scientific information on processing and quality of traditional buffalo meat curry from different groups of buffaloes is not available. This study was undertaken to develop processed curry from different buffalo groups and to compare its quality during storage at ambient and refrigeration temperature. The meat samples were collected from the longissimus dorsi muscle of the carcasses from each group of buffaloes slaughtered according to the traditional halal method. Buffalo meat curry was prepared in a pressure cooker with the standardized formulation. This final product was subjected to evaluation of quality and shelf life. To evaluate the effect of different groups of meat samples on the quality of curry, product yield, pH, proximate composition, water activity (aw), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), calorific value, sensory attributes and microbiological assay were determined The energy of meat curry from young buffaloes was significantly lower than the meat curry from spent animal groups. The overall acceptability of curry decreased significantly during 3 days ambient storage compared to refrigeration storage. Scientific processing by adopting good manufacturing practices and suitable packaging helped greatly to improve the shelf life of the ambient temperature stored buffalo meat curry. Buffalo meat curry from young male group showed better product characteristics and overall acceptability scores than spent buffalo group.

  18. Short communication: Prevalence and risk factors of subclinical mastitis as determined by the California Mastitis Test in water buffaloes (Bubalis bubalis) in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, R T; Beltran, J M C; Abes, N S; Gutierrez, C A; Mingala, C N

    2012-03-01

    A retrospective analysis using records of lactating Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes subjected to the California Mastitis Test in a herd in Nueva Ecija, Philippines was done to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) and to identify risk factors that may influence its occurrence and recurrence. Results showed that SCM prevalence was 42.76%, whereas its recurrence was 75.03%. Age and lactation length influenced the occurrence of SCM. In contrast to the conclusions for dairy cows, younger buffalo cows were more susceptible compared with those at least 6 yr old. Dams younger than 3 yr have a 76% probability, whereas those age 3 yr have an 82% probability of having SCM. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tuberculosis diagnostic methods in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Capriogli Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The low productivity of buffalo herds and condemnation of carcasses in slaughterhouses due to tuberculosis lesions have resulted in increasing economic losses because these animals cannot be treated and must be destroyed by sanitary slaughter. Tuberculosis is a widely distributed zoonosis that affects the beef supply chain of the Brazilian agribusiness economically and socially. Like cattle, buffaloes are sensitive to Mycobacterium bovis, which is the main causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. Tuberculosis in buffaloes has been reported in several countries, including Brazil. In order to control and eradicate this disease among cattle and buffaloes in Brazil, the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply created the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis with the main objective of finding a significant number of disease-free herds throughout the national territory using reliable methods. This review summarizes the main data on the history of occurrence of M. bovis in Brazilian herds and the diagnostic methods for the disease in buffaloes. Little information is available on buffalo tuberculosis. Due to the increasing population of buffaloes and their economic importance, more studies investigating the occurrence and identification of tuberculosis in this species are clearly needed.

  20. Metagenomic analysis of buffalo rumen microbiome: Effect of roughage diet on Dormancy and Sporulation genes

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K.M.; Reddy, B; Patel, A K; H. Panchasara; Parmar, N.; Patel, A.B.; T.M. Shah; V.D. Bhatt; Joshi, C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Buffalo rumen microbiome experiences a variety of diet stress and represents reservoir of Dormancy and Sporulation genes. However, the information on genomic responses to such conditions is very limited. The Ion Torrent PGM next generation sequencing technology was used to characterize general microbial diversity and the repertoire of microbial genes present, including genes associated with Dormancy and Sporulation in Mehsani buffalo rumen metagenome. The research findings revealed the abunda...

  1. Role of buffalo in international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ibrahim; Bassiony, Hala

    2011-01-01

    Although buffalo populations expand in 43 courtiers in the world, only four countries are producing more than 98% of the world buffalo milk in 2007 and around 73% of the world buffalo meat in the same year. These are China, India, Pakistan, and Egypt. Egypt is almost the only country in Africa that raises buffalo. There was a growth rate in the number of milking buffaloes and the percentage of milking buffaloes in the total stock is around 44%. The average annual milk yield per head increased...

  2. Embryonic mortality in buffalo cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Neglia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In buffalo species embryonic mortality is considered one of the major causes of fertility loss, especially in the animals that are not mated during their reproductive period. Embryonic loss in animals mated by artificial insemination (AI is 20-40% during seasons characterized by high number of light hours. Also in buffalo naturally mated the incidence of embryonic mortality is about 20% and a higher incidence is observed between 28- 60 days of gestation in buffaloes that conceive during increasing daylight length. A reduced capacity to secrete progesterone seems to explain in part this embryonic mortality but other as yet unidentified factors contribute between 40-50% to the embryonic losses. Treatments with hCG, GnRH agonist or progesterone on Days 5 after AI not always reduce embryonic mortality in buffalo species. Embryonic mortality in buffaloes appears to occur later (Day 25-40 than in cattle and P4 treatments should perhaps be applied later in buffaloes.

  3. Evaluation of cell-mediated immune responses and bacterial clearance in 6-10 months old water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) experimentally vaccinated with four dosages of commercial Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diptee, M D; Adesiyun, A A; Asgarali, Z; Campbell, M; Fosgate, G T

    2005-07-15

    Thirty water buffalo, obtained from a brucellosis-free farm, were used to evaluate cell-mediated immune responses and bacterial clearance in response to vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) in a dose-response study. The animals were randomly divided into five treatment groups. Groups I--V received the recommended dose (RD) of RB51 vaccine once, RD twice 4 weeks apart, double RD once, double RD twice 4 weeks apart and saline once, respectively. Cell-mediated immune response to RB51 was assessed by the histological examination of haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections of lymph nodes draining the sites of inoculation and by comparison of stimulation indices (SI) derived from gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) assay. A mixture of cytoplasmic proteins from B. melitensis B115 (brucellergene) was used as a specific antigenic stimulus to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMC) up to 22 post-initial-inoculation week (PIW). Supernatants harvested at 18-24h after the in vitro antigenic stimulus were assayed for their IFN-gamma content by using a commercial sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Clearance of RB51 was assessed by the sequential immunohistochemical examination of sections of draining lymph nodes post-inoculation. There was no observable expansion of the deep cortex of lymph nodes on H&E sections indicating poor T-cell stimulation. All group V (control) water buffalo PBMC ELISA values were negative (SIRB51 occurred between 4 and 6 PIW in treatment groups I and III and between 6 and 12 PIW in groups II and IV. RB51 was not detected in any of the control animals at sampling intervals post-inoculation.

  4. Sensory evaluation of buffalo butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.S. Carneiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Butter obtained from buffalo milk was compared with commercial products obtained from cow milk. One buffalo butter and two cow butters were subjected to sensory analysis using non-trained panelists. The acceptance related to sensorial characteristics (color, flavor, and firmness was evaluated through a 9 point structured hedonic scale varying from “I displeased extremely” to “I liked extremely”. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sensory characteristics and the means were compared by Tukey’s Test at 5% of significance. The buffalo butter received lower scores than the others for all attributes. The greatest difference was observed for color, as the buffalo butter exhibited a white color contrasting with the yellow color of commercial butters, which is the pattern expected by the consumers. For flavor and firmness attributes, the buffalo butter received scores similar to the commercial products. These results show. These results shows that the buffalo’s butter has a good acceptance on local market, and this could be improved through the correction of product’s color, what can be obtained by adding a dye.

  5. Transforming Swamp Buffaloes to Producers of Milk and Meat Through Crossbreeding and Backcrossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L C Cruz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There are two major types of water buffaloes in the world, the riverine type and the swamp type. The total number of Swamp buffalo is 37.6 M and represents 21.8% of the world’s buffalo population. The swamp buffaloes have played a major role in draft animal-dependent farming system. But intensified rice production became more pronounced in irrigated areas and this has led to increased utilization of small farm machineries, displacing significantly the draft buffaloes for land tillage. To some extent, the introduction of tractors for land preparation and transport for corn, sugarcane and other crops in production areas has similar effect. Utilization of the existing population of swamp buffaloes to meet the growing domestic demand for milk and meat, against the background of increasing farm mechanization, is a good reason to transform the huge number of draft animals into producers of milk and meat. According to the UNDP/FAO-assisted project in the Philippines carried from 1982 to 1998, that crossing swamp buffalo and riverine buffaloes, despite the differences in chromosome numbers, is producing crossbreds with high growth rate potentials and milk production abilities several folds over the swamp buffalo parents. The known fact that swamp and riverine buffaloes have different chromosome number, the diploid chromosome number of the swamp buffalo is 48 and that of the river buffalo is 50. When crossbreeding between the 2 buffalo types occur, males and females of the F1 generation are heterozygous for the fusion and are apparently fertile with chromosome 2n = 49. Three-way crossbred hybrids were obtained by (native buffalo x Murrah x Nili Ravi or (native buffalo x Nili Ravi x Murrah. They had two chromosome categories viz. 2n=49 and 2n=50, respectively. Crossbreeding Swamp with Riverine Breed is done for quality beef. Most of the NT produced TenderBuff is farm-bred or purchased from other suppliers as swamp buffalo yearlings and growth out for a

  6. Multicentric lymphoma in buffaloes in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Barbosa, José D; Damasceno, Karine A; Cassali, Geovanni D; Oliveira, Carlos Mc; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-10-20

    The presence of lymphoma in buffaloes was first reported in India in the 1960s. The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in cattle; however, according to our results and those of other studies, the etiology of these lymphomas in buffalo do not appear to be associated with BLV. The objectives of this study are to describe four cases of the disease in buffaloes belonging to the same herd in the Amazon region of Brazil and to perform a clinical-anatomopathological, immunohistochemical, and etiological study of the lymphomas. Over a period of ten years, four buffaloes were observed presenting progressive weight loss, swelling of peripheral lymph nodes, and nodules in the subcutaneous tissue. Upon necropsy, whitish-colored tumor masses were observed in the form of nodules in the subcutaneous tissue, along with miliary nodules on the serosal surfaces of abdominal and thoracic organs and tumors in lymph nodes and other organs. Neoplastic lymphocyte proliferation was observed through histopathology. An immunohistochemical study revealed that the neoplasias were formed by proliferation of predominantly B lymphocytes. The presence of BLV genome was not detected in the lymphomas when using the real-time PCR technique, nor was it detected through immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against two viral proteins. Bovine herpesvirus 6 was not detected in the tumors. However, Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was detected in samples of lymphoma and in the lymph nodes and kidneys of one of the animals. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes is reported for the first time in Brazil and is characterized by B-cell multicentric lymphoma. The etiology of the disease does not appear to be associated with BLV; however, the detection of BIV in samples of lymphoma from one sick animal deserves further study, considering the oncogenic potential of this virus.

  7. Multicentric lymphoma in buffaloes in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairo H S De Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of lymphoma in buffaloes was first reported in India in the 1960s. The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV in cattle; however, according to our results and those of other studies, the etiology of these lymphomas in buffalo do not appear to be associated with BLV. The objectives of this study are to describe four cases of the disease in buffaloes belonging to the same herd in the Amazon region of Brazil and to perform a clinical-anatomopathological, immunohistochemical, and etiological study of the lymphomas. Results Over a period of ten years, four buffaloes were observed presenting progressive weight loss, swelling of peripheral lymph nodes, and nodules in the subcutaneous tissue. Upon necropsy, whitish-colored tumor masses were observed in the form of nodules in the subcutaneous tissue, along with miliary nodules on the serosal surfaces of abdominal and thoracic organs and tumors in lymph nodes and other organs. Neoplastic lymphocyte proliferation was observed through histopathology. An immunohistochemical study revealed that the neoplasias were formed by proliferation of predominantly B lymphocytes. The presence of BLV genome was not detected in the lymphomas when using the real-time PCR technique, nor was it detected through immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against two viral proteins. Bovine herpesvirus 6 was not detected in the tumors. However, Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV was detected in samples of lymphoma and in the lymph nodes and kidneys of one of the animals. Conclusions The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes is reported for the first time in Brazil and is characterized by B-cell multicentric lymphoma. The etiology of the disease does not appear to be associated with BLV; however, the detection of BIV in samples of lymphoma from one sick animal deserves further study, considering the oncogenic potential of this virus.

  8. Genomic and phenotypic characteristics of Swedish C. jejuni water isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Major reservoirs are warm-blooded animals, poultry in particular, but Campylobacter can also be transmitted via water. In this paper, we have taken a closer look at the biology and potential virulence of C. jejuni water isolates. Seven C. jejuni isolates from incoming surface water at water plants in Sweden were characterized with whole genome sequencing and phenotypical testing. Multi locus sequence typing analysis revealed that these isolates belonged to groups known to include both common (ST48CC and uncommon (ST1275CC, ST683, ST793 and ST8853 human pathogens. Further genomic characterization revealed that these isolates had potential for arsenic resistance (due to presence of arsB gene in all isolates, an anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide oxidoreductase (in three isolates and lacked the MarR-type transcriptional regulator gene rrpB (in all but one isolate earlier shown to be involved in better survival under oxidative and aerobic stress. As putative virulence factors were concerned, there were differences between the water isolates in the presence of genes coding for cytolethal distending toxin (cdtABC, Type VI secretion system and sialylated LOS, as well as in biofilm formation. However, all isolates were motile and could adhere to and invade the human HT-29 colon cancer cell line in vitro and induce IL-8 secretion suggesting potential to infect humans. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study where C. jejuni water isolates have been characterized using whole genome sequencing and phenotypical assays. We found differences and shared traits among the isolates but also potential to infect humans.

  9. The resurrection of a species: Sarcocystis bovifelis Heydorn et al., 1975 is distinct from the current Sarcocystis hirsuta in cattle and morphologically indistinguishable from Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    In the mid-1970s, it was established through transmission experiments and ultrastructural studies of sarcocysts by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that cattle was the intermediate host of three Sarcocystis spp. using dogs, cats and humans, respectively, as definitive hosts. The cat-transmitted species with microscopic sarcocysts was initially named Sarcocystis bovifelis, but it was soon renamed Sarcocystis hirsuta, since it was considered to be identical with a previously named species. In recent years, an apparently new species has been detected in cattle in several countries by molecular methods and TEM and found by both methods to be indistinguishable from Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes. This species was recently named Sarcocystis rommeli. Beginning in August 2014, a thorough review of papers comprising TEM micrographs of thick-walled sarcocysts in cattle was made in order to determine whether S. sinensis-like sarcocysts had been reported previously under other designations. Surprisingly, the review showed that the species S. bovifelis Heydorn et al., 1975 as described from cattle in Germany was S. sinensis-like and that indistinguishable sarcocysts had also been found in cattle in New Zealand and Canada in the 1980s. However, in the New Zealand study, these small sarcocysts were erroneously thought to represent developmental stages of a species with ultrastructurally similar but macroscopic sarcocysts, since the macroscopic cysts were found to be infective for cats. Thus, in the late 1980s, the cat-transmitted S. bovifelis, after having been renamed S. hirsuta, was erroneously synonymised with a second cat-transmitted species in cattle and then slid into obscurity until recently being rediscovered as a S. sinensis-like species in cattle and then named S. rommeli. Following the erroneous synonymisation, the name S. hirsuta has consistently been used for a taxon with macroscopic sarcocysts, and this usage should be continued. The name S. bovifelis

  10. Monitoring the Freezing Point of Buffalo Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Pesce, Antonella; Salzano, Caterina; De Felice, Anna; Garofalo, Francesca; Liguori, Salvatore; De Santo, Annunziata; Palermo, Pierpaolo; Guarino, Achille

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic freezing point of buffalo milk. Bulk milk samples were collected from buffalo and cattle farms in Caserta area from 2008 to 2014. The analysis involved a total of 1886 buffalo milk samples and 1711 bovine milk samples. These were also tested for fat, protein and lactose contents by means of infrared spectrometry. The freezing point was determined by means of a thermistor cryoscope. Data underwent statistical analysis. Our research showed an aver...

  11. Calcium, Magnesium and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC in Seminal Plasma of Water Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis Bulls and their Relationships with Semen Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hassan Khadem Ansari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC of seminal plasma in buffalo and to study their associations with the semen characteristics, 54 semen samples were collected from 10 buffalo bulls; semen quality was evaluated, seminal plasma was then harvested by centrifugation and its Ca and Mg content were estimated and its TAC determined. The Ca and Mg content of the seminal plasma (Mean ± SEM were recorded as 22.36 ± 0.52 mg dl-1 and 11.94 ± 0.36 mg dl-1 respectively, while, its mean TAC value was 1.50 ± 0.02 mmol L-1. The mean Ca value was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility, viability (P = 0.000 for all, negatively with semen volume (P = 0.01, and with Mg and TAC values (P = 0.000 for both. The mean Mg values was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility and viability and seminal plasma Ca and TAC (P = 0.000 for all and negatively associated with semen volume (P = 0.014. The mean TAC values was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility and viability and seminal plasma Ca and Mg (P = 0.000 for all. For further clarification of these associations, the data was categorized in three groups of excellent (Ex, >90% motile, n = 33, good (Go, 80-89% motile, n = 15 and moderate (Mo, <79% motile, n = 6 according to their percentage of sperm motility. The mean progressive motility in Ex group was 92.24 ± 0.51%, in Go group it was 81.66 ± 0.62 %, and in Mo group it was 71.66 ± 1.05 %. The mean Ca, Mg and TAC values were respectively recorded as 25.12 ± 0.29 mg dl-1, 13.78 ± 0.20 mg dl-1, and 1.57 ± 0.009 mmol L-1 in Ex, 18.74 ± 0.63 mg dl-1, 9.14 ± 0.33mg dl-1, and 1.42 ± 0.044 mmol L-1 in Go, and 17.34 ± 0.18 mg dl-1, 8.06 ± 0.25 mg dl-1, and 1.23± 0.05 mmol L-1 in Mo groups. The associations in groups are discussed. These results show that seminal plasma Ca and Mg content and TAC are associated with semen

  12. Lactoferrin concentration in buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Giacinti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to quantify lactoferrin (Lfe in buffalo milk and to examine the factors affecting milk Lfe, such as the lactation stage, daily milk yield, parity, and milk somatic cells count (SCC. Milk Lfe concentration was detected by the SDS-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The overall mean of Lfe concentration was 0.332±0.165 g/L and ranged from 0.030 to 0.813 g/L. Milk Lfe concentrations increased (P<0.01 with the increase of days in milk, but it was not affected by parity. It was estimated an increase of 0.0015 g/L daily of Lfe in milk during lactation. Milk Lfe concentration was significantly affected by SCC. The differences became significant when the levels of SCC increased up to 200.000/mL. This is the first investigation on the levels of Lfe in buffalo milk in reference to daily milk production, lactation stage, parity and SCC. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between Lfe and SCC in buffalo milk.

  13. Population and Strategy Development in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Praharani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo is a potential large ruminant that its contribution in national program on beef self sufficiency has been unrecognized in Indonesia. In rural community, buffalo has similar functions as cattle, it is used as draught animal, meat (beef producer, saving, milk producer, sacrificial ritual animal to social status. The peak of buffalo population was on 1925, 3.227 million heads in Java and 1.10 million in outside Java. The centers of cattle production sites for national program of self sufficiency on beef were formly as noted the centers of buffalo production. The introduction of Bali cattle to those former buffalo centers particularly in outside of Java depressed buffalo population and then dominated by Bali cattle. Then Bali cattle were noted to be the major beef animal supplier beside buffalo to the centers of consumers for domestic and export. This article aims to discuss the depleting buffalo population and to formulate development strategy. Historical approaches system and critical evaluation population, SWOT (strength, weaknesses, opportunity and threat analysis were used as tools for analyzing. Two case studies on herd survival from Banten indicated depleting population of buffalo. Despite low reproductive profile, strategic diseases and farmers’ institution needed to be optimized on services. Understanding criticizing on ecological habitats in the potential regions, the need of spatial planning for its development, zoning program for strategic diseases free, reproductive problems and village institution are the important areas of improvement for buffalo development in supporting beef self sufficiency and the welfare of rural people with their buffalo in sustainable beef production.

  14. Organization and differential expression of the GACA/GATA tagged somatic and spermatozoal transcriptomes in Buffalo Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Jyoti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs of GACA/GATA have been implicated with differentiation of sex-chromosomes and speciation. However, the organization of these repeats within genomes and transcriptomes, even in the best characterized organisms including human, remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to explore the buffalo transcriptome for its association with GACA/GATA repeats, and study the structural organization and differential expression of the GACA/GATA repeat tagged transcripts. Moreover, the distribution of GACA and GATA repeats in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes was studied to highlight their significance in genome evolution. Results We explored several genomes and transcriptomes, and observed total absence of these repeats in the prokaryotes, with their gradual accumulation in higher eukaryotes. Further, employing novel microsatellite associated sequence amplification (MASA approach using varying length oligos based on GACA and GATA repeats; we identified and characterized 44 types of known and novel mRNA transcripts tagged with these repeats from different somatic tissues, gonads and spermatozoa of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. GACA was found to be associated with higher number of transcripts compared to that with GATA. Exclusive presence of several GACA-tagged transcripts in a tissue or spermatozoa, and absence of the GATA-tagged ones in lung/heart highlights their tissue-specific significance. Of all the GACA/GATA tagged transcripts, ~30% demonstrated inter-tissue and/or tissue-spermatozoal sequence polymorphisms. Significantly, ~60% of the GACA-tagged and all the GATA-tagged transcripts showed highest or unique expression in the testis and/or spermatozoa. Moreover, ~75% GACA-tagged and all the GATA-tagged transcripts were found to be conserved across the species. Conclusion Present study is a pioneer attempt exploring GACA/GATA tagged transcriptome in any mammalian species highlighting their

  15. Monitoring the Freezing Point of Buffalo Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Antonella; Salzano, Caterina; De Felice, Anna; Garofalo, Francesca; Liguori, Salvatore; De Santo, Annunziata; Palermo, Pierpaolo; Guarino, Achille

    2016-04-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic freezing point of buffalo milk. Bulk milk samples were collected from buffalo and cattle farms in Caserta area from 2008 to 2014. The analysis involved a total of 1886 buffalo milk samples and 1711 bovine milk samples. These were also tested for fat, protein and lactose contents by means of infrared spectrometry. The freezing point was determined by means of a thermistor cryoscope. Data underwent statistical analysis. Our research showed an average freezing point of -0.528°C for buffalo milk and -0.522°C for bovine milk. Given the lack of data on the freezing point of buffalo milk, our study provides the first indication of a basic freezing point of the milk of this species in Italy.

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic detection of virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and water buffaloes from different farms of Sadat City in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Mohamed Sabry; Mahmoud El-Bagoury, Abd Elrahman; Dawoud, Mai Abdallah

    2015-09-01

    To characterize Staphylococcus aureus from clinical and subclinical mastitis and identify virulence factors. Two hundred and two milk samples were collected, 143 from mastitic cattle and buffaloes 94 and 49, respectively, and 59 from apparently healthy cattle and buffaloes 35 and 24, respectively. California mastitis test was applied and positive prevalence were 91.48% and 75.51% for cattle and buffalo with clinical mastitis and 37.14% and 45.83% for cattle and buffalo with subclinical mastitis. S. aureus was isolated from clinically mastitic cattle and buffaloes were 39.29% and 50%, respectively. While, from subclinical mastitic cattle and buffaloes were 80% and 72.73%, respectively. Hemolytic activity was assessed for S. aureus isolated from clinically and subclinical mastitic cases with prevalences of 100% and 56.25%, respectively. Thermo nuclease production from clinically and subclinical mastitic cases was 25% and 56.25%, respectively. Simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conducted on S. aureus using 16S rRNA, clumping factor A, Panton valentine leukocidin, coagulase (Coa), alpha-hemolysin and beta-hemolysin those proved existence in 100%, 46.9%, 65.6%, 100%, 34.4%, and 43.75% of the isolates, respectively. While, multiplex PCR is utilized for detection of enterotoxins and proved that 12.5% was positive for enterotoxine Type D. It is concluded that simplex and multiplex PCR assays can be used as rapid and sensitive diagnostic tools to detect the presence of S. aureus and characterize its virulence factors that help in detection of severity of infection, distribution and stating preventive and control strategies.

  17. [Trends of genome evolution in land and secondary-water herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaleĭ, Iu V; Sheremet'ev, S N

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of genome sizes in two groups of herbs, land and secondary-water, has been released. It is shown that their genomes are changed to opposite topics in cenozoic. The genome of land herbs is increased, and it is decreased in secondary water herbs. Genome growth in land herbs is analyzed as the result of unfavourable changes in global climate: cooling, aridization and atmospheric CO2 deficit. Genome minimization in secondary-water herbs is interpreted as the sequence of united effect of two groups of factors: returning to more stable water environment and breakdown of symbiotic relations with fungi partner. The influence of environmental discomfort and development of symbiotic or parasitic relations on genome size is discussed in association with established differences.

  18. The buffalo in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zava

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of buffaloes in the American continent is growing at the explosive rate of 12.7 % a year, well above all other continents. Within this context the different situations of the southern part of South America are described, those countries that two hundred years ago were part of the River Plate Viceroyship and the Chile General Command, both of them part of the Spanish empire. The first steps of buffaloes in Paraguay, Bolivia and Uruguay. The expansion of buffaloes in Argentina and their recent start up in Chile. The production systems in the region are described, principally Argentina and Paraguay. The major changes and expansion of agriculture in Argentina are displacing cattle production from the North towards the Tropics, where buffalo has proven to be very superior in productivity compared to cattle production thanks to its very good adaptation to the local conditions. In Paraguay, a totally subtropical country, something very similar is happening. Paraguay has consolidated its sales of buffalo hides and beef. Argentina is well on its way to having a very efficient buffalo beef marketing competing with cattle of the highest quality. Buffalo milk production is still not mature in these countries, although there are several projects underway in Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina.

  19. Anticorpos IgG anti-Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii em búfalas (Bubalus bubalis criadas no estado do Pará Occurrence of IgG antibodies anti-Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in female water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis raised in the Brazilian state of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro P. Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar a ocorrência de anticorpos IgG anti-Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii em 14 unidades produtivas de búfalos, situadas em 13 municípios no estado do Pará, foram coletadas amostras de soro sanguíneo de 374 fêmeas adultas. Os soros foram submetidos à reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, utilizando-se os títulos 200 e 64, respectivamente como ponto de corte para N. caninum e T. gondii. Obteve-se 153 (40,9% de animais soropositivos para N. caninum com 100% das propriedades com focos da infecção, enquanto que quatro búfalas (1,1% foram soropositivas em quatro fazendas para T. gondii e uma búfala (0,27% foi soropositiva para ambos parasitos. A presença de anticorpos é um indicativo da circulação desses protozoários em búfalos das propriedades estudadas, representando uma fonte de infecção para outros animais, assim como o possível envolvimento em distúrbios reprodutivos nessa espécie.To investigate the occurrence of antibodies IgG anti-Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii, blood samples were collected from 374 adult female water buffaloes originated from 14 production units located in 13 counties of the state of Pará. The sera were subjected to indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA, using titers of 200 and 64 as IFA cut off points for N. caninum and T. gondii, respectively. Hundred and fifty three (40.9% buffaloes were sero-positive for N. caninum, with 100% of the properties being sources of infection. Four buffaloes (1.1% in four farms were seropositive for T. gondii, and one buffalo cow (0.27% was seropositive for the two parasites. The presence of antibodies indicates that these protozoan parasites are circulating among buffaloes from the properties studied, representing a source of infection to other animals, as well as a possible cause of reproductive disorders in this species.

  20. Interim Report on Feasibility of Improving Recreation Access and Related Water and Land Management in the Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    the lake and, due to the poor water quality of the canal, further degrades lake waters. In the early history of Delaware Park, the lake was a great...horseshoe pits. and tennis or badminton net posts should be Installed so that they cam be removed quickly to allow proper functioning of the floodway. 46/234

  1. Mammary gland pathologies in the parturient buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Purohit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parturition related mammary gland pathologies in the buffalo appear to be low on accord of anatomic (longer teat length, thicker streak canal and physiologic (lower cisternal storage of secreted milk, lower milk production differences with cattle. Hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia usually occur in the buffalo due to physiologic changes around parturition however mastitis involves pathologic changes in the udder and teats; the incidence of mastitis is however lower compared to cattle. The incidence and therapy of hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia are mentioned and the risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for mastitis in buffalo are also described.

  2. AFRICAN BUFFALO OPTIMIZATION ico-pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Beneoluchi Odili

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This is an introductory paper to the newly-designed African Buffalo Optimization (ABO algorithm for solving combinatorial and other optimization problems. The algorithm is inspired by the behavior of African buffalos, a species of wild cows known for their extensive migrant lifestyle. This paper presents an overview of major metaheuristic algorithms with the aim of providing a basis for the development of the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm which is a nature-inspired, population-based metaheuristic algorithm. Experimental results obtained from applying the novel ABO to solve a number of benchmark global optimization test functions as well as some symmetric and asymmetric Traveling Salesman’s Problems when compared to the results obtained from using other popular optimization methods show that the African Buffalo Optimization is a worthy addition to the growing number of swarm intelligence optimization techniques.

  3. Buffalo Air Traffic Control Tower Operations Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    This report provides a description of the non-surveillance aspects of the FAA air traffic control facility operation at Greater Buffalo International Airport from the air traffic controller's point of view. It includes photographs of all controller c...

  4. ALLERGENICITY AND CROSS- REACTIVITY OF BUFFALO GRASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such as Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu), Cynodon dactylon. (Bermuda), and Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo); for pastures. (Digitaria erianthe); garden ornamentals (e.g. Pennisetum villosum); and for erosion control, Pennisetum and Eragrostis. Lolium perenne (rye grass), of the subfamily Pooideae, has been.

  5. Effect of Dietary Cation Anion Difference on Buffalo Performance during Summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahr un Nisa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Influence of -110, +110, +220 and +330 mEq/kg dry matter (DM of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD on performance of early lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes was examined in a randomized complete block design during summer. Four DCAD levels were randomly allotted to four groups, three buffaloes in each group. A linear increase in nutrients and water intakes were recorded with increasing the DCAD level. A significant increase in blood pH and HCO3 was noticed with increasing DCAD level. Serum (Na + K - (Cl + S increased linearly with increasing the DCAD level while high serum chloride was noticed in buffaloes fed -110 DCAD diet. The serum calcium increased significantly with decreasing the DCAD level while serum magnesium and phosphorus remained unaffected. Urine pH increased significantly with increasing DCAD level. Higher serum cortisol was notices in buffaloes fed -110 than those fed +330 mEq/kg. A linear increase in milk yield was also noticed with increasing the DCAD level. Milk fat% increased significantly with increasing the DCAD while all other milk constituents remained unaltered. Buffaloes fed high DCAD diets had higher conception rate and less services per conception than those fed low DCAD diets.

  6. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation ( P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon.

  7. The African buffalo: a villain for inter-species spread of infectious diseases in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Anita L; Bengis, Roy G

    2012-06-20

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after 'Big Five' in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Corridor disease (theileriosis), bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population's survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations.

  8. Characterization of PRLR and PPARGC1A genes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruheena Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 40 million households in India depend at least partially on livestock production. Buffaloes are one of the major milk producers in India. The prolactin receptor (PRLR gene and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-alpha (PPARGC1A gene are reportedly associated with milk protein and milk fat yields in Bos taurus. In this study, we sequenced the PRLR and PPARGC1A genes in the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. The PRLR and PPARGC1A genes coded for 581 and 819 amino acids, respectively. The B. bubalis PRLR gene differed from the corresponding Bos taurus at 21 positions and four differences with an additional arginine at position 620 in the PPARGC1A gene were found in the amino acid sequence. All of the changes were confirmed by cDNA sequencing. Twelve buffalo-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified in both genes, with five of them being non-synonymous.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): evidence from mitochondrial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jimeng; Li, Ming; Dong, Pengzhi; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun

    2009-01-01

    Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea) + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea))). PMID:19523246

  10. Vabariigi aastapäev Buffalos / Edgar Zirna ; foto: Virve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirna, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    25. veebruaril Morgan restoranis Buffalo Eestlaste Koondise ja E.E.L.K. Buffalo Pauluse koguduse korraldusel. Avasõna koondise esimehelt Peeter Ojalt, koraali esitas Andres Raudsepp, vaimulik Hannes Aasa palvele järgnes eeskava

  11. Predicción del rendimiento en cortes, hueso y grasa en búfalos de agua en Venezuela Yield prediction of boneless cuts, bone and fat trimmings from water buffaloes in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Atencio-Valladares

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar la asociación entre rasgos de la canal y el rendimiento en cortes (RCD, rendimiento en hueso y recortes de grasa en búfalos de agua, y desarrollar ecuaciones predictivas para cada variable mencionada. Se utilizaron 48 búfalos de agua (24 castrados y 24 enteros, sacrificados a los 17, 19 y 24 meses de edad con mestizaje de razas Murrah y Mediterránea. Se evaluaron las variables de la canal y del rendimiento en cortes. Se realizaron: pruebas descriptivas, análisis de correlación, residuos y de regresión lineal múltiple. En los castrados, el acabado de grasa y la circunferencia del muslo explicaron la mayor variación en RCD. El espesor de grasa y el porcentaje de grasa renal fueron las variables mayormente asociadas con el rendimiento en hueso. En los enteros, el acabado de grasa y la longitud de la canal explicaron la mayor variación en RCD. El recorte de grasa se asoció más con acabado de grasa, y el rendimiento en hueso se asoció con la conformación. Las ecuaciones obtenidas lograron explicar más del 50% de la variación del RCD. Las ecuaciones para recorte de grasa y rendimiento en hueso tuvieron mayor fuerza predictiva.The objectives of this study were to determine the association between carcass traits and the percentage yield in boneless cuts (PDC, bone, and fat trimmings of water buffalves; and to develop predicted equations for these variables. Forty-eight crossbred Murrah-Mediterránea buffaloes (24 steers and 24 bulls were used slaughtered at 17, 19 and 24 months. Carcass and retail-yield-cut traits were evaluated. The following analyses were made: descriptive test, correlation, residual and multiple lineal regression. In castrated animals, subcutaneous fat and circumference round explained the majority of the variation in PDC. The dorsal fat thickness and the renal fat were the variables mostly associated with bone yield. In bulls, the subcutaneous fat and the carcass length

  12. The detection of Vaccinia virus confirms the high circulation of Orthopoxvirus in buffaloes living in geographical isolation, Marajó Island, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira; Fagundes Pereira, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Oliveira, Danilo Bretas; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2016-06-01

    In Brazil, serologic evidence of Orthopoxvirus (OPV) circulation showed positivity around 20% in cattle, humans, monkeys and rodents. Although OPV seropositivity has been described in buffalo herds in southeastern Brazil, no Vaccinia virus (VACV) (member of genus OPV) outbreaks in buffalo herds have been described in this country. This study aimed to investigate the detection of anti-OPV antibodies and to study the OPV genome in Brazilian buffalo herds. Our results demonstrated a high OPV seropositivity in buffalo herds on Marajó Island and molecular data confirmed the circulation of VACV. The geographical isolation conditionmight be a sine qua non condition to explain our results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Embryonic mortality in buffalo naturally mated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of embryonic mortality in three different period of year in buffaloes naturally mated. The trial was carried out in a buffalo farm located in Caserta province between 2000-2006. In this period were registered natural insemination on 200 buffaloes. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out on Day 30, confirmed on Day 45 and every 15th days until 90 days after natural mating. Buffaloes that were pregnant on Day 30 but not on Day 45 or Day 90 were considered to have undergone embryonic (EM or fetal mortality (FM respectively. EM and FM were 8.8% and 13.4% respectively throughout the experimental period. A high incidence (P<0.01 of FM was found in the transitional period (December-March than in other months of the year. The incidence of embryonic mortality was significantly (P<0.01 higher between 28-60 days of gestation and lower after 71 day of gestation. The higher fetal mortality found in this study could be due the lower serum levels of progesterone normally found in transitional period in buffalo cows.

  14. Congenital Malformations in River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Albarella

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The world buffalo population is about 168 million, and it is still growing, in India, China, Brazil, and Italy. In these countries, buffalo genetic breeding programs have been performed for many decades. The occurrence of congenital malformations has caused a slowing of the genetic progress and economic loss for the breeders, due to the death of animals, or damage to their reproductive ability or failing of milk production. Moreover, they cause animal welfare reduction because they can imply foetal dystocia and because the affected animals have a reduced fitness with little chances of survival. This review depicts, in the river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis world population, the present status of the congenital malformations, due to genetic causes, to identify their frequency and distribution in order to develop genetic breeding plans able to improve the productive and reproductive performance, and avoid the spreading of detrimental gene variants. Congenital malformations most frequently reported in literature or signaled by breeders to the Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production of the University Federico II (Naples, Italy in river buffalo are: musculoskeletal defects (transverse hemimelia, arthrogryposis, umbilical hernia and disorders of sexual development. In conclusion this review put in evidence that river buffalo have a great variety of malformations due to genetic causes, and TH and omphalocele are the most frequent and that several cases are still not reported, leading to an underestimation of the real weight of genetic diseases in this species.

  15. Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Misk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine different affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes with special reference to diagnosis and treatment. The study was carried out on 39 buffaloes suffering from different affections of the salivary ducts. The recorded affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes include; ectasia of the parotid duct (21 cases, parotid duct fistula (15 cases and sialocele (3 cases. Each case was subjected to full study including case history, clinical examination, diagnosis, and treatment whenever possible. Exploratory puncture and radiography were used for confirmation of diagnosis. Intraoral marsupialization was performed for treatment of parotid duct ectasia. Salivary fistula was corrected by one of two successful techniques; the first by reconstruction of the parotid duct and the second by ligation of the parotid duct just caudal to the fistula opening. Sialoceles were corrected by removal of the mandibular salivary gland of the affected side.

  16. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M A; M. H. Rashid; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  17. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of the Chinese Swamp Buffalo by RNA Sequencing and SSR Marker Discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingxian Deng

    Full Text Available The Chinese swamp buffalo (Bubalis bubalis is vital to the lives of small farmers and has tremendous economic importance. However, a lack of genomic information has hampered research on augmenting marker assisted breeding programs in this species. Thus, a high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing of B. bubalis was conducted to generate transcriptomic sequence dataset for gene discovery and molecular marker development. Illumina paired-end sequencing generated a total of 54,109,173 raw reads. After trimming, de novo assembly was performed, which yielded 86,017 unigenes, with an average length of 972.41 bp, an N50 of 1,505 bp, and an average GC content of 49.92%. A total of 62,337 unigenes were successfully annotated. Among the annotated unigenes, 27,025 (43.35% and 23,232 (37.27% unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in NCBI non-redundant protein and Swiss-Prot databases (E-value < 1.0E-5, respectively. Of these annotated unigenes, 14,439 and 15,813 unigenes were assigned to the Gene Ontology (GO categories and EuKaryotic Ortholog Group (KOG cluster, respectively. In addition, a total of 14,167 unigenes were assigned to 331 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. Furthermore, 17,401 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers. One hundred and fifteen primer pairs were randomly selected for amplification to detect polymorphisms. The results revealed that 110 primer pairs (95.65% yielded PCR amplicons and 69 primer pairs (60.00% presented polymorphisms in 35 individual buffaloes. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the five swamp buffalo populations were clustered together, whereas two river buffalo breeds clustered separately. In the present study, the Illumina RNA-seq technology was utilized to perform transcriptome analysis and SSR marker discovery in the swamp buffalo without using a reference genome. Our findings will enrich the current SSR markers resources and help spearhead

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: evidence from mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Qiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea.

  19. "Buffalo Bill" and the Siouan Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    The popular art of William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody--lithographic posters advertising his Wild West Show and depicting the Indians who performed in it--created the visual image of the American Indian that we have come to know as the Siouan stereotype. By contrast the artists' images of the American Indian were inaccessible to the general…

  20. Assessing Anthracene and Arsenic Contamination within Buffalo River Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gawedzki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracene and arsenic contamination concentrations at various depths in the Buffalo River were analyzed in this study. Anthracene is known to cause damage to human skin and arsenic has been linked to lung and liver cancer. The Buffalo River is labelled as an Area of Concern defined by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between Canada and the United States. It has a long history of industrial activity located in its near vicinity that has contributed to its pollution. An ordinary kriging spatial interpolation technique was used to calculate estimates between sample locations for anthracene and arsenic at various depths. The results show that both anthracene and arsenic surface sediment (0–30 cm is less contaminated than all subsurface depths. There is variability of pollution within the different subsurface levels (30–60 cm, 60–90 cm, 90–120 cm, 120–150 cm and along the river course, but major clusters are identified throughout all depths for both anthracene and arsenic.

  1. Draft genome of bagasse-degrading bacteria Bacillus aryabhattai GZ03 from deep sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jian; Ren, Chong; Huang, Nan; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Runying

    2015-02-01

    Bacillus aryabhattai GZ03 was isolated from deep sea water of the South China Sea, which can produce glucose and fructose by degrading bagasse at 25 °C. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus aryabhattai GZ03. The data obtained revealed 37 contigs with genome size of 5,105,129 bp and G+C content of 38.09%. The draft genome of B. aryabhattai GZ03 may provide insights into the mechanism of microbial carbohydrate and lignocellulosic material degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Seasonal habitat selection by African buffalo Syncerus caffer in the Savuti–Mababe–Linyanti ecosystem of northern Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keoikantse Sianga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish seasonal movement and habitat selection patterns of African buffalo Syncerus caffer in relation to a detailed habitat map and according to seasonal changes in forage quality and quantity in the Savuti–Mababe–Linyanti ecosystem (Botswana. Two buffalo were collared in November 2011 and another in October 2012. All three buffalo had greater activities in the mopane–sandveld woodland mosaic during the wet season, which provided high-quality leafy grasses and ephemeral water for drinking, but moved to permanent water and reliable forage of various wetlands (swamps and floodplains and riverine woodlands during the dry season. Wetlands had higher grass greenness, height and biomass than woodlands during the dry season. Buffalo had similar wet season concentration areas in the 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 wet seasons and similar dry season concentration areas over the 2012 and 2013 dry seasons. However, their dry season location of collaring in 2011 differed dramatically from their 2012 and 2013 dry season concentration areas, possibly because of the exceptionally high flood levels in 2011, which reduced accessibility to their usual dry season concentration areas. The study demonstrates that extremely large and heterogeneous landscapes are needed to conserve buffalo in sandy, dystrophic ecosystems with variable rainfall.Conservation implications: This study emphasises the importance of large spatial scale available for movement, which enables adaptation to changing conditions between years and seasons.

  3. AHP 21: Sacred Dairies, Dairymen, and Buffaloes of the Nilgiri Mountains in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Walker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1,500 Toda people inhabit the Nilgiri Mountains in south India. Arguably the most remarkable characteristic of Toda culture is the sacred nature of the husbandry of herds of long-horned mountain water buffaloes. No other community in India has so single-mindedly focused its ritual attention on one particular animal species. Every important task associated with the buffalo herds – milking, milk-processing, giving salt, naming, seasonal migrations, burning pastures, introducing new equipment into the dairies, etc. – has been embellished with ritual. Todas make a clear-cut distinction between temple and domestic buffaloes. Ordinary men (but not women herd the latter, whose milk and milk-products (buttermilk, butter, and clarified butter, but not flesh (since the community espouses vegetarianism may be consumed, bartered, or sold without restriction. Males who are responsible for herding temple buffaloes conduct their daily lives in a manner preserving greater ritual purity than ordinary men. Moreover, they are not just dairymen, but also the community's priests. They must guard the ritual purity of the dairies they serve, and all that is in them, for these are the Todas' temples – sacred places, infused with divinity.

  4. Papillomatosis in buffaloes: a less-known disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somvanshi, R

    2011-08-01

    Scant information is available on papillomatosis in buffaloes, and it is an almost unknown disease. It has been described from India, Italy and Turkey. Buffalo papillomatosis occurs in cutaneous and mucosal forms. Cutaneous papillomatosis is manifested as cutaneous wart (CW) and teat papilloma types. The condition is known to be caused by bovine papillomaviruses (BPV)-1 and 2 and their mixed infections. Buffalo CWs are experimentally transmissible to hamsters, cattle as well as buffaloes. Once BPV establishes infection in buffaloes, infection spreads from buffalo to buffalo, without cattle intermediary. Histologically, CWs are mostly diagnosed as fibropapillomas. The mucosal form occurs as urinary bladder tumours similar to enzootic bovine haematuria which is also associated with bracken fern infested areas. BPVs are yet to be demonstrated in teat papillomas and urinary bladder tumours of buffalo cases. Papillomatosis in buffaloes is a little-known disease, but it is a separate infectious ailment of buffaloes and deserves more attention by researchers. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Stereological study of the elastic fiber and smooth muscle cell system in the bovine and buffalo penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma C.A. Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of ten penises of Mediterranean buffaloes and ten penises of Red Sindhi cattle were used. The thickness of the tunica albuginea (TA, distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMC and volume density (Vv of elastic system fibers in TA, corpus cavernosum (CC and corpus spongiosum (CS were evaluated. The Vv of elastic system fibers in buffalo and bovine penis was respectively 4.07% ±0.88% and 3.36% ±1.21% in TA; 17.32% ±2.21% and 13.14% ±1.27% (CC, 26.58% ±4.31% and 31.36% ±3.67% (CS. The CC of buffalo presented higher Vv of elastic fibers than bovine, while in the CS the Vv of elastic fibers in buffaloes was smaller than in cattle. The TA thickness showed a significant difference among the species studied. The arrangement of SMC in the bovine penises and in the water buffalo suggests that this pattern is common to animals that have fibroelastic penises.

  6. Polymorphisms in the DGAT1 gene in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C S; Silva Filho, E; Matos, A S; Schierholt, A S; Costa, M R; Marques, L C; Costa, J S; Sales, R L; Figueiró, M R; Marques, J R F

    2016-09-16

    Water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are quite well adapted to climatic conditions in the Amazon, and in this biome, they are noted for the considerable amount of meat and milk they produce and how hard they are able to work. Because of a lack of research dedicated to improving the rearing of buffaloes in the Amazon, the objective of this study was to genetically characterize the Murrah and Mediterranean breeds, as well as a mixed-breed population, based on polymorphisms in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 gene (DGAT1), and associate the genotypes with milk production. By using the polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism technique, the alleles A (0.79), B (0.20), and D (0.01) were found in the Murrah breed. In the Mediterranean and mixed-breed buffaloes, we found alleles A (0.69) and (0.77) and B (0.31) and (0.23), respectively. The Murrah breed had the genotypes AA (0.63), AB (0.29), BB (0.05), and AD (0.03), and the Mediterranean and mixed-breed buffaloes had the genotypes AA (0.44) and (0.61), AB (0.50) and (0.31), and BB (0.06) and (0.08), respectively. For the Murrah, Mediterranean, and mixed-breed buffaloes, respectively, the expected heterozygosity values were 0.34, 0.43, and 0.35, the inbreeding coefficients were 0.78, -0.15, and 0.17, and the Hardy-Weinberg probabilities were 0.70, 0.67, and 0.52. The genotypes evaluated did not have an effect on milk production; however, the single nucleotide polymorphisms can be used in studies on genetic variability.

  7. The African buffalo: A villain for inter-species spread of infectious diseases in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Michel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after ‘Big Five’ in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, Corridor disease (theileriosis, bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population’s survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations.

  8. Buffalo bulls for meat production: feeding and meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Oswaldo Josè

    2011-01-01

    The general aim of the PhD thesis, realised at the Department of Animal Science and Food Control (University of Napoli, Federico II, Italy), was to study animal performance and the nutritional characteristics of meat from Buffalo bred in Italy (Italian Mediterranean Buffalo) fed different diets. The importance of this research is to give a contribute to better characterize the buffalo infra vitam performance (i.e. weight gain, feed conversion index, etc.) and meat quality (mainly in terms of ...

  9. Research Concerning the Reproduction Seasonality in Carpathian Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Sertu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fertility in buffalo is low. That could be a question of species adaptation in new climate or a genetic trait. Scientists think buffaloes entered the South-est of Europe on two ways one with the Hune and Avar people coming trough the North of Black Sea up to the intra Charpathian Hils and a later one more prolonged with penetratio trough Egypt, Small Asia and Greece at the time when some people migrated up to the Danube River. Buffaloes which originated from Egypt were domesticated before the ones that came through the North of Black Sea. That means in Romania there are two different buffalo populations: the Carpathian Buffalo adapted to reproduce in a cold and wet climate, outside the area of its wild ancestors and a Danube Buffalo that underwent more influence domestication apart. These two populations reproduced separately by territorial state insulation. All buffalo breeds including the ones in the native domestication area show grouped calving. The present paper has to answer if grouped calving in buffalo is due to photoperiodic exchange along the year or to the poor feeding in some seasons. The answer to this question will decide the actions needed to improve buffalo cows’ fertility.

  10. Population structure of African buffalo inferred from mtDNA sequences and microsatellite loci: high variation but low differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Thisted; Siegismund, H R; Arctander, P

    1998-01-01

    of mtDNA and microsatellite data were found to be congruent, disagreeing with the alleged male-biased dispersal. We propose that the observed pattern of the distribution of genetic variation between buffalo populations at the regional level can be caused by fragmentation of a previous panmictic......The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and is found in most major vegetation types, wherever permanent sources of water are available, making it physically able to disperse through a wide range of habitats. Despite this, the buffalo has been assumed...... to be strongly philopatric and to form large aggregations that remain within separate home ranges with little interchange between units, but the level of differentiation within the species is unknown. Genetic differences between populations were assessed using mitochondrial DNA (control region) sequence data...

  11. The genome of the square archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi : life at the limits of water activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Henk; Palm, Peter; Wende, Andy; Falb, Michaela; Rampp, Markus; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Oesterhelt, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Background: The square halophilic archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi dominates NaCl- saturated and MgCl2 enriched aquatic ecosystems, which imposes a serious desiccation stress, caused by the extremely low water activity. The genome sequence was analyzed and physiological and physical experiments were

  12. Buffalo milk: proteins electrophoretic profile and somatic cell count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mattii

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo milk differs from the cow’s milk for greater fat and protein content, very important features in cheese making. Proteins, casein and whey-proteins in particular, are the most important factors determining cheese yield. Several previous research discussed the rule of SCC in cow milk production (Varisco, 1999 and the close relationship existing between cow’s milk cheese yield and somatic cell count (Barbano, 2000. In particular the inverse correlation between cheese yields and somatic cells’content have been demonstrated. In Italy the regulation in force DPR 54/97 acknowledges what expressed in EEC 46/92 Directive (Tripodi, 1999 without fixing the limit threshold of somatic cells for buffalo’s milk....

  13. GRoW Buffalo Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Martha [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-04-17

    This document provides final reporting on the GRoW Home, University at Buffalo's entry to the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine, CA. The report summarizes fundraising efforts, documents media outreach, lists online presence, analyzes the organizer's communication, describes post-competition life of the house and future employment plans for student team members. Last, it suggests improvements for future decathlons.

  14. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite foot..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84 Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock...

  15. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal” when used in this section will mean all of the Black Rock Waterway, including Black Rock Lock, and all...

  16. Brucellosis in buffalos from Corrientes northeast (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Crudeli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo’s production represents an important option as input source in livestock systems located in areas with little profitability by cattle. In mostly farms, cattle and buffalos are breeding together, due that in Argentina, to carry out buffalo’s production is in an extensive way, with the aim to produce meat – mostly- milk – for this production nutritional supplements are used- and leathers. Brucellosis is zoonic illnesses from bacteria belong to Brucella which caused human human health problems by contaminated food ingestion or to those who are in touch with cattle. In Argentina, exist the National Control an Elimination Program for cattle Brucellosis, which include buffalos also, there is inclosed female vaccination and serologic segregation of positive reactants. Diagnosis techniques ruled for cattle brucellosis are BPA (Buffered Plate Agglutination, Tube seroaglutination and 2MercaptoEthanol. International reference test is Complement Fixation. By means of this present work, we pretend to evaluate the serologic diagnosis utility, ruled to the buffalos and compare obtained results by BPA, SAT and 2ME with Complement Fixation Test. In the present communication are presented results from the use of diagnosis techniques recommended by SENASA (National Service of Sanity and Quality Agro-Food to buffalo’s serums which belong to nine farms from NE Corrientes State. Obtained results show that association o BPA as Screening Test and SAT and 2ME as Confirmated Test has a valid correlation for the detection of positive animals with the reference technique Complement Fixation.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Two Sphingopyxis sp. Strains, Dominant Members of the Bacterial Community Associated with a Drinking Water Distribution System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the draft genome of two Sphingopyxis spp. strains isolated from a chloraminated drinking water distribution system simulator. Both strains are ubiquitous residents and early colonizers of water distribution systems. Genomic annotation identified a class 1 integron (in...

  18. Water buffaloes productive system in the sugar-cane zone of Pernambuco, Brazil. Diagnostic and characterization Sistemas Produtivos de Búfalos na zona canavieira de Pernambuco, caracterização e diagnóstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos José Panizza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the characterization of the buffalo rearing system in the “Zona da Mata” of the Pernambuco State, Brazil. For data gathering the Northeastern buffalo’s raisers society (SNC, professional workers, other farmers and also people from the Pernambuco Sugar-Cane Growers Association (AFCP were contacted by means of interviews and visits to the production system. The buffalo production system came to the area in a planed way by farmers at the first half of the 70’s and expanded to today. The herd is composed of Murrrah, Jafarabadi and Mediterranean species although the mestizos are prevailing. However, it is still quite deficient of technologies despite an apparent integration of the buffalo’s system with the sugar cane industry. Measures to prevent main diseases like vaccinations are not adequately implemented. Extensive system directed to produce meat and milk as well as to handmade dairy products is predominant in the region. On the other hand the buffalo system has taken an important hole in the economic re-ordination of the “Zona da Mata” sugar cane monoculture diversification using areas not adequate for the sugar crop and contributing the region’s livestock sustainable development.O objetivo da condução deste trabalho foi realizar o diagnóstico da bubalinocultura na Zona da Mata do Estado de Pernambuco, nos aspectos sociais e tecnológicos. Para a coleta dos dados, primeiramente foram realizados contatos com a Sociedade Nordestina de Criadores (SNC, profissionais que atuam na área, agropecuaristas que atuam na região e com a Associação de Fornecedores de Cana de Pernambuco (AFCP, por meio de entrevistas informais e visitas às propriedades. Foram aplicados questionários para caracterização formal dos sistemas produtivos. A implantação da bubalinocultura na região se deu de forma planejada, iniciando-se na primeira metade da década de 70, estando em expansão. O rebanho é formado

  19. (LH) on in vitro maturation of Egyptian buffalo oocytes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsoft Corporation

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... immature bovine oocytes. Gamete Res. 24:197-204. Deshmukh SP, Pawshe CH, Ingawale MV, Deshmukh SG (2010). In vitro maturation of buffalo immature oocyte after Vitrification with combination of Ethylene Glycol and Dimethyl Sulfoxide. Proceedings. 9th World Buffalo Congress, pp. 911-921. Duncan ...

  20. Causes of infectious abortion in the Mediterranean buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galiero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and viruses can cause abortion in buffaloes. This review describes the abortigenic infectious agents found in Mediterranean buffalo cows and the microbiological methods used for their diagnosis. The abortigenic agents are: Brucella spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Chlamydophila spp., Coxiella burnetii, Bacillus licheniformis, E.coli, Leptospira spp., Bubaline Herpes Virus-1 (BuHV-1, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus.

  1. Listeric septicaemia and abotion in African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... this L. monocytogenesacquisition is possible cause of the septicemia and abortion in the African buffalo. Consequently listeriosis in wildlife deserves further investigation in Nigeria. Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, listeriosis, African buffalo, septicemia, abortion > Animal Production Research Advances Vol. 2 (4) 2006: ...

  2. Detection of bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes and indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterium bovis is the aetiological agent for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in wildlife and livestock. A study to detect BTB in live buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) and evaluation of diagnostics was conducted in buffaloes and indigenous cattle in Mikumi ecosystem. Gamma interferon (γIFN) and BovidTB Stat-Pak tests were used ...

  3. Semen Characteristics of First and Second Ejaculates of Buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four treatments, no sexual preparation (control), 10 min restraint, three false mounts and 10 min restraint followed by three false mounts, were replicated with eight sexually mature buffalo bulls, before the first and second ejaculates to study their effects on the seminal characteristics of buffalo bulls. Seminal characteristics of ...

  4. The immunological response of RB51 vaccinated buffalo calves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immune status of RB51 vaccinated buffaloes was evaluated using tube agglutination test (TAT) and ELISA, using both periplasmic protein antigen (PPA) and lipopolysaccharide antigen (LPS). For this purpose, three groups of buffalo calves were used. The first one received S19 vaccine subcutaneously; the second was ...

  5. Perspectives of fetal dystocia in cattle and buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Narayan Purohit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the causes of fetal dystocia in cows and buffalo. Two fetal causes are distinct fetal oversize and fetal abnormalities. Fetal oversize is common in heifers, cows of beef cattle breeds, prolonged gestations, increased calf birth weight, male calves and perinatal fetal death with resultant emphysema. Fetal abnormalities include monsters, fetal diseases and fetal maldispositions, and it is difficult to deliver such fetuses because of their altered shape. Although monsters are rare in cattle, a large number of monstrosities have been reported in river buffalo; yet also here, overall incidence is low. Diseases of the fetus resulting in dystocia include hydrocephalus, ascites, anasarca and hydrothorax. The most common cause of dystocia in cattle seems to be fetal maldispositions, of which limb flexion and head deviation appear to be the most frequent. We provide a brief description of the management of dystocia from different causes in cattle and buffalo. A case analysis of 192 and 112 dystocia in cattle and buffalo, respectively, at our referral center revealed that dystocia is significantly higher (P<0.05 in first and second parity cows and buffalo, and that dystocia of fetal origin is common in cows (65.62% but less frequent (40.17% in buffalo. In buffalo, the single biggest cause of dystocia was uterine torsion (53.57%. Fetal survival was significantly (P<0.05 higher both in cows and buffalo when delivery was completed within 12 h of second stage of labor.

  6. Possibilities for a Reference and Research Library System in the Buffalo-Niagara Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This survey to determine how the library resources in the Buffalo-Niagara area might be utilized in a regional Reference and Research Library Resources (3R's) system studied: (1) area library resources, (2) strength of the libraries at the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY Buffalo) and the Buffalo and Erie County Public Library…

  7. Benefits of Genomic Insights and CRISPR-Cas Signatures to Monitor Potential Pathogens across Drinking Water Production and Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs is a major health concern, and our current understanding is mostly related to pathogenic species such as Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium but not to bacterial species closely related to them. In this study, genomic-based approaches were used to characterize pathogen-related species in relation to their abundance, diversity, potential pathogenicity, genetic exchange, and distribution across an urban drinking water system. Nine draft genomes recovered from 10 metagenomes were identified as Legionella (4 draft genomes, Mycobacterium (3 draft genomes, Parachlamydia (1 draft genome, and Leptospira (1 draft genome. The pathogenicity potential of these genomes was examined by the presence/absence of virulence machinery, including genes belonging to Type III, IV, and VII secretion systems and their effectors. Several virulence factors known to pathogenic species were detected with these retrieved draft genomes except the Leptospira-related genome. Identical clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas genetic signatures were observed in two draft genomes recovered at different stages of the studied system, suggesting that the spacers in CRISPR-Cas could potentially be used as a biomarker in the monitoring of Legionella related strains at an evolutionary scale of several years across different drinking water production and distribution systems. Overall, metagenomics approach was an effective and complementary tool of culturing techniques to gain insights into the pathogenic characteristics and the CRISPR-Cas signatures of pathogen-related species in DWDSs.

  8. Benefits of Genomic Insights and CRISPR-Cas Signatures to Monitor Potential Pathogens across Drinking Water Production and Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Kitajima, Masaaki; Whittle, Andrew J; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) is a major health concern, and our current understanding is mostly related to pathogenic species such as Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium but not to bacterial species closely related to them. In this study, genomic-based approaches were used to characterize pathogen-related species in relation to their abundance, diversity, potential pathogenicity, genetic exchange, and distribution across an urban drinking water system. Nine draft genomes recovered from 10 metagenomes were identified as Legionella (4 draft genomes), Mycobacterium (3 draft genomes), Parachlamydia (1 draft genome), and Leptospira (1 draft genome). The pathogenicity potential of these genomes was examined by the presence/absence of virulence machinery, including genes belonging to Type III, IV, and VII secretion systems and their effectors. Several virulence factors known to pathogenic species were detected with these retrieved draft genomes except the Leptospira-related genome. Identical clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) genetic signatures were observed in two draft genomes recovered at different stages of the studied system, suggesting that the spacers in CRISPR-Cas could potentially be used as a biomarker in the monitoring of Legionella related strains at an evolutionary scale of several years across different drinking water production and distribution systems. Overall, metagenomics approach was an effective and complementary tool of culturing techniques to gain insights into the pathogenic characteristics and the CRISPR-Cas signatures of pathogen-related species in DWDSs.

  9. Immunolocalization of progesterone receptors in binucleate trophoblast cells of the buffalo placenta (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The binucleate trophoblast cells (CTBs of the water buffalo placenta (Bubalus bubalis were studied with emphasis on the presence of progesterone receptor. Placentomal tissues from 27 buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy were processed and embedded in paraplast (Paraplast Embedding Media – Paraplast Plus to locate the progesterone receptors using the immunohistochemistry technique. The immunohistochemical reaction for progesterone receptor through monoclonal antibody PgR Ab2 showed staining of CTBs, caruncular epithelial and estromal cells and blood vessel estromal pericitos present in the placentome throughout the entire gestational period analyzed. These results indicate the production of progesterone with autocrine and paracrine action in the placentome growth, differentiation and functional regulation.

  10. Ultrasonographic appearance of early embryonic mortality in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Catone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic mortality is one of the main causes responsible of the decline in fertility that occurs in buffaloes during periods of increasing daylight length (out sexual breeding season. Transrectal ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis offers some advantages over palpation per rectum: earlier diagnosis of pregnancy/non-pregnancy, determination of embryo/fetus viability, reduction of misdiagnosis, and reduction of .potential. iatrogenic embryo/fetal attrition. Non pregnant buffaloes on Day 25 after AI showed higher Resistive Index (RI (P<0.05 and Pulsatility Index (P=0.07 values, registered on CL on Days 10 after AI, compared to pregnant buffaloes. RI values were significantly higher (P=0.02 in non pregnant buffaloes also on Day 45 after AI. Colour Doppler sonography could be used to gain specific information relating to the ovarian blood flow in predicting early embryonic loss and to describe the ultrasonographic features of early embryonic death in buffaloes.

  11. 76 FR 60962 - Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the updated noise exposure maps submitted by the Niagara... on the noise exposure maps is September 20, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Suki Gill...

  12. Studies on the ultrastructure and histochemistry of the lymph system in three species of amphistome (Trematoda: Digenea) Gigantocotyle explanatum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Srivastavaia indica from the Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, T S; Nizami, W A; Hanna, R E

    1985-03-01

    The lymph system of three amphistome parasites from buffaloes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Srivastavaia indica was studied using light microscope histochemistry and electron microscopy. In each case the system comprised a single pair of main longitudinal vessels which gave rise to numerous sub-dividing lateral branches. Although the finer lymph channels associated with most internal systems, they did not penetrate the basement membrane of any organ. The lymph vessels were delimited by a unit membrane and separated from adjacent cells by interstitial material. The lymph fluid consisted of an amorphous proteinaceous, lipid-rich matrix, containing naked nuclei and granules of various sizes. Complexes of endoplasmic reticulum were frequently associated with the nuclei. No distinct Golgi bodies or mitochondria were evident. The granules noted throughout the lymph morphologically resembled autophagosomes and lysosomes. Autophagy within the lymph system presumably mobilizes amino acids for subsequent transport to tissues undergoing active protein synthesis. The lymph channels displayed an intimate relationship with the general parenchyma. In particular, numerous protrusions of lymph occurred into the cytoplasm of certain specialized parenchymal cells surrounding the pharynx. Within these 'juxtapharyngeal' cells autophagic degradation of sequestered lymph cytoplasm apparently occurred. In the three species of amphistome studied, the lymph system appears to function in storage and mobilization of amino acids and possibly lipids. It may also serve to distribute other small molecules throughout the body. The detection of haemoglobin in the lymph system of G. crumenifer and S. indica, but not in Gigantocotyle explanatum, suggests a further role in oxygen storage and transport.

  13. Acid base status in swamp buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis fed rice straw and concentrate with addition of sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Joseph

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the addition of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 on acid-base status in swamp buffaloes, Three fistulated buffaloes were each introduced to dietary treatment control diett (50% rice straw + 50% concentrate, control + \\0% NaHCO3 and diet control + 10% Na2CO3 in two times Latin Square Design. The diets contained 9,7% crude protein and 53% TDN to achieve maintenance requirements of the animals. Parameters measured include (l Fed consumption, water consumption and urine volume. (2 pH in rumen fluid, saliva, bLood and urine, (3 natrium mineral content in rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine. The results of the experiment showed higher pH in the rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine of buffaloes due to supplementation of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3, Water consumption and urine volume was significanly increased as the effect of Na supplement. The acid-base status of buffaloes was apparently normal in all animals.

  14. A new extinct dwarfed buffalo from Sulawesi and the evolution of the subgenus Anoa: An interdisciplinary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzi, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    The fossil and extant faunas of Sulawesi, the largest island within the Wallacea biogeographic region, exhibit a high degree of endemism. The lowland anoa Bubalus depressicornis and the mountain anoa Bubalus quarlesi, two closely-related dwarfed buffaloes, are among the most peculiar endemic mammals of the region. Here, I describe a new species, Bubalus grovesi, from the Late Pleistocene/Holocene of South Sulawesi and I give a revised diagnosis of Anoa. Bubalus grovesi sp. nov. differs from all previously described Bubalus in both the size and proportions of the skeleton and in possessing a unique combination of discrete character states. Body mass estimates suggest an average mass of 117 kg for Bubalus grovesi sp. nov. and a body size reduction of about 90% with respect to a typical water buffalo. A comprehensive overview of body mass estimates of dwarfed buffaloes and differences in their dental and postcranial features is included. Finally, new evidence on the taxonomy and island dwarfing of the anoas and available data from different disciplines are used to discuss the timing and mode of their evolution. The representatives of the subgenus Anoa would be dwarfed forms of the Asian water buffalo that arose following dispersal to Sulawesi during the Middle/Late Pleistocene.

  15. Níveis de proteína não degradável na dieta sobre a produção e qualidade do leite de búfalas em pastagem Undegradable protein levels in diet on production and quality of milk in grazing water buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Franzolin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produção e qualidade do leite em búfalas de baixo potencial genético, suplementadas com proteína não degradável no rúmen (PND. Um total de 14 búfalas adultas da raça Mediterrâneo em pastejo de Brachiaria brizantha cv Marandu, foram divididas em dois grupos, alimentados com duas rações concentradas contendo dois níveis de PND (30 e 60%, na quantidade fixa de 3,2 kg/animal/dia, durante 90 dias no início e 90 no final da lactação. O leite produzido pelos animais foi pesado individualmente todos os dias, e amostrado semanalmente para análises físico-químicas. Não foram observadas diferenças na produção de leite integral e nas características físico-químicas do leite em função dos níveis de PND, entretanto, a produção de leite corrigida pelo teor energético, aumentou em 20% no início e em 22% no final da lactação, nos animais suplementados com nível mais elevado de PND. Houve variações na produção e características físico-químicas do leite principalmente no final da lactação, com melhores valores em búfalas suplementadas com 60% de PND.This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet supplementation with water undegradable protein (UDP ration on milk yield and quality in low genetic potential buffalo on pasture. A total of 14 adult buffaloes of the Mediterranean race grazing Brachiaria brizantha cv Marandu grass were divided into two groups of seven each that have received two concentrated ration containing two levels of UDP (30% and 60% in fixed amount of 3.2 kg/animal/d with during 90 days at the beginning and 90 at the end of lactation. The milk production was weighted individually everyday with weekly milk sampling for physical and chemical analyses. No differences were observed between treatments in the milk production and the physical and chemical characteristics of milk. However, the 60% of UDP supplement increased the production of milk corrected by the energy content (ECM

  16. Reconstruction of a Nearly Complete Pseudomonas Draft Genome Sequence from a Coalbed Methane-Produced Water Metagenome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Daniel E. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Gulliver, Djuna [AECOM Technology Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-10-06

    The draft genome sequence ofPseudomonas stutzeristrain K35 was separated from a metagenome derived from a produced water microbial community of a coalbed methane well. The genome encodes a complete nitrogen fixation pathway and the upper and lower naphthalene degradation pathways.

  17. Electrophoresis of buffalo (bos bubalis) serum proteins including immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, K C; Rajpal, S; Pandey, R; Sharma, V K

    1979-05-01

    Antigenic components of buffalo (Bos bubalis) serum, which were also components of buffalo colostrum, seminal plasma, milk whey, saliva, and tears, were investigated by the ager gel diffusion test and immunoelectrophoresis. Immunoglobulins of buffalo serum were identified by immunoelectrophoresis employing rabbit-anti-buffalo serum and rabbit-anti-buffalo gamma-globulin. Based on immunoelectrophoretic patterns immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgGA, and IgM were detected both in the serum and colostrum of buffaloes. Tears contained both IgG and IgM. Cross-reactions of buffalo serum with seminal plasma, saliva, and milk whey were observed only in the IgG region. By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, lipoprotein (5.2% +/- 0.41), IgM (11.4% +/- 3.1), IgG (9.4% +/- 0.98), haptoglobin 21.8% +/- 3.73), transferrin (10.4% +/- 2.15), ceruloplasmin (7.8% +/- 1.3), postalbumin (20.8% +/- 2.09), and albumin (13.7% +/- 0.75) were identified provisionally.

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Mycobacterium immunogenum, Strains Obtained from a Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the draft genome sequences of six Mycobacterium immunogenum isolated from a chloraminated drinking water distribution system simulator subjected to changes in operational parameters. M. immunogenum, a rapidly growing mycobacteria previously reported as the cause of hyp...

  19. Meat quality of buffaloes finished in traditional or silvopastoral system in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joele, Maria Rsp; Lourenço, Lúcia Fh; Lourenço Júnior, José B; Araújo, Geisielly S; Budel, Juliana Cc; Garcia, Alexandre R

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess the physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of meat from buffaloes finished in a Traditional System (TS) or Traditional + Silvopastoral System (TSPS) with dietary supplementation. Crossbred Murrah × Mediterranean buffaloes were raised from weaning to slaughter in the TS (n = 15) or were raised in the traditional system and finished in the TSPS (n = 15). After finishing, animals were slaughtered and their carcasses refrigerated for 24 h. The right side of each half-carcass was cut between the 12th and 13th ribs and the Longissimus thoracis muscle was removed. The cranial part underwent analyses of pH, color, weight loss as a result of cooking, water holding capacity, texture and sensory characteristics, whereas the rest of the muscle underwent microbiological analyses and determination of the chemical composition, fatty acid profile and mineral content. No major difference between finishing systems was found (P > 0.05) in the physical analyses and chemical composition of meat. The percentage of myristic acid (C14:0) and the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids differed between treatments. The TS meat had the best 'characteristic meat aroma'. Considering the quality of meat produced in the TS or TSPS, it is concluded that finishing buffaloes in the pasture still represents the best alternative. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of day or night grazing on behaviour of swamp buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somparn, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of day or night grazing on behaviour by swamp buffaloes. A grazing trial was conducted over 42 days in the late rainy season, during September to November2005 at Surin Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Surin province. The experimental period was divided into two 21-day periods. Twelve 2-year-old swamp buffalo heifers were allocated to four groups, eachcontaining three heifers, with the mean group weights being as similar as possible. Each group was allowed to graze either from 06:20 to 18:00 h (daytime treatment or from 18:20 to 06:00 h (nighttime treatment infour separate paddocks, each of 5 rai, using a cross-over design. When not at pasture the animals in each group were kept in the common corral with free access to fresh drinking water and mineral blocks. Individualanimal activity was recorded by visual observation at 1-min intervals during the period at pasture. Individual groups within each period were treated as replicates. Differences between group means weretested using MIXED procedure of SAS.The buffaloes on daytime treatment spent longer (P<0.05 grazing than those on nighttime treatment (423 vs 332 min. The number of meals differed (P<0.05 between treatments, but overall mean meal durationswere similar (73 min. Buffaloes allowed to graze during daylight had a tendency (P<0.10 toward a higher bite and step rates than those grazing during the night. With the reduction in grazing activity duringthe night on nighttime treatment, the animals ruminated for longer during the period at pasture (327 and 191 min, P<0.001. Live-weight change over periods of 20 days did not differ significantly. The difference intemporal behaviour patterns between treatments indicated that animals have to adapt foraging strategies appropriate for different situations in order to maintain feed intake and subsequently production.

  1. Paratuberculosis in buffaloes in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias Brito, Marilene; Dos Santos Belo-Reis, Alessandra; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Ubiali, Daniel Guimarães; de Castro Pires, Ana Paula; de Medeiros, Elizabeth Sampaio; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; de Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa; Yamasaki, Elise; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2016-10-01

    Several farms in the Northeast of Brazil were investigated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in order to identify the occurrence of paratuberculosis in buffaloes. Samples were obtained from 17 farms, two slaughter houses, and a quarantine area in the Northeast. About 15,000 buffaloes of the Murrah, Mediterranean, and Jafarabadi breed as well as their crossbreeds were evaluated for meat, dairy, and mixed farms with semi-intensive or extensive breeding practices. For diagnostic purposes, postmortem and histopathological examination, including Ziehl-Neelsen test of fecal smears and scraped intestinal mucosa were performed. PCR was applied for fecal samples, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestines. Six Johne's disease-positive farms, which together with those previously identified, indicate that the disease is spread through the Brazilian Northeast, similar to what occurs in cattle herds in other regions of the country. The increase in prevalence of paratuberculosis is a consequence of introduction of animals from other regions without adequate veterinary assistance and due to the little official attention paid to this initially silent and chronic disease.

  2. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1 and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2. The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg, bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg, ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg, xylazine (0.05 mg/kg, medetomidine (15 μg/kg, romifidine (30-50 μg/kg, ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg, tramadol (1 mg/kg, and neostigmine (10 μg/kg, and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  3. Metaphylactic treatment strategies with toltrazuril and diclazuril and growth performance of buffalo calves exposed to a natural eimeria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Antonio; Rinaldi, Laura; Cappelli, Giovanna; Saratsis, Anastasios; Nisoli, Lucio; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2015-09-15

    Five controlled field trials were conducted in southern Italy to evaluate the effect of metaphylactic treatment strategies of toltrazuril and diclazuril for the control of coccidiosis in water buffaloes naturally infected by Eimeria spp. The 5 farms were divided into two types (A and B) according to their management system (individual or collective breeding of buffalo calves). In the farms of type A (no. 3), the buffalo calves were bred in individual boxes from the birth to the 7th/8th week of age and then transferred to concrete based pens; in the farms of type B (no. 2) the calves were bred in groups on concrete based pens from the birth. On each farm, 36 calves aged 5 weeks were divided at random into three similar groups of 12. One group was treated with toltrazuril (TOL), the second group was treated with diclazuril (DIC) and the third group was remained as untreated control group (CONT). On each farm the calves were weighed weekly and clinically examined. In the 5 buffalo farms the average oocyst excretion decreased significantly in both the treated groups (TOL and DIC), however the TOL groups had significantly low counts than the DIC groups. The body-weight gains recorded fortnightly were significantly higher in the TOL groups (range=5.4-8.1 kg) compared to the DIC (range=1.7-3.1 kg). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genomic Diversity among Rotaviruses isolated from Diarrhoeic Buffalo calves

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    G S Niture

    Full Text Available Eighty three bovine samples were collected over a period of six month duration from October 2008 to March 2009 between age group of 0-1 year with diarrhoea from veterinary polyclinics, dairy animal farms. Out of eighty three faecal samples screened for rotavirus by RNA- PAGE, 6 (7.22% were found positive. The electrophoretic migration of all the field isolates was 4:2:3:2 which is typical of group ‘A’ rotavirus. Migration of segments 10th and 11th was faster indicating “long” electropherotype and subgroup I specificity of the virus. In this study, a total of 4 different electropherotypes were identified among bovine rotaviruses. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 259-260

  5. Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Buffalo Prion Protein

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to TSEs (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) (same as rabbits, horses and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (in humans prion diseases are (v)CJDs, GSS, FFI, and kulu etc). It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to prion diseases (as rabbits, dogs, horses). In molecular structures, these neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein, predominantly with alpha-helices, into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions, rich in beta-sheets. This paper studies the molecular structure and structural dynamics of buffalo prion protein, in order to find out the reason why buffaloes are resistant to prion diseases. We first did molecular modeling a homology structure constructed by one mutation at residue 143 from the Nuclear Magnetic Resonanc...

  6. Study on growth performance of Murrah buffaloes raised under farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VCRI_AN_GENETICS

    genetic and genetic factors influencing growth performance in. Murrah Buffalos. A.K. Thiruvenkadan. #. , S. Panneerselvam and R. Rajendran. Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding,. Veterinary College and Research Institute, ...

  7. SPERM DNA INTEGRITY IN BUFFALO, BULL AND STALLION

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    The interest in sperm DNA integrity evaluation and its relationship to subfertility and infertility loaded to development of several sperm DNA assays. The aim of this study was to compare several sperm DNA assays in buffaloes, bulls and stallions, and to identify the relationships between those DNA assays and traditional sperm features. In Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (IMB) bulls traditional sperm features (motility, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology), sperm DNA integrity (neutral...

  8. Productive level and energy balance in buffalo cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo cow, at the beginning of lactation, shows a decrease in DM intake which determines a condition of physiologic hyponutrition (Campanile et al., 1997. In order to ensure physiologic haematic levels of glucose, the organism mobilizes the fat deposits and muscle proteins. Aim of present study was to evaluate the loss of body weight during the first months of lactation and the energy required for standard milk production in buffalo cow........

  9. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodinamics Integration of Sulfametazine in buffalo and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. San Andrés

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfamethazine is a sulfonamide that presents a broad spectrum of activity, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Chlamydia spp. and some protozoa and it commonly used in ruminants. The aim of our work was to study the possible inter-species differences in the pharmacokinetic behavior and pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic(PK/PD integration of sulfamethazine after intravenous administration in buffalo and bovine. A single intravenous dose of 60 mg/kg was administered to six bovine and five buffalo (3-4 month old and weighting 120±15kg. Plasma concentrations of sulfamethazine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Differences between bovine and buffalo calves were found in t½λ (buffaloes: t1/2λ =6.17±0.58h; bovine t1/2λ=7.46±1.05h, Cl (buffaloes: 45.31ml/h·kg; bovines 30.34ml/h·kg. As a consequence of the lower clearance in bovines, the AUC and t½λ values were higher in this species. Important differences between bovine and buffalo exist for microorganisms that have a MIC value<32μg/ml related to time over minimum inhibitory concentration and weighted AUC.

  10. STUDIES ON MASTITIS AMONG DAIRY BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahmad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2340 mammary glands of 585 primiparous and pluriparous lactating buffaloes in different stages of lactation were examined with California Mastitis Test ( CMT and laboratory examination was carried out to identify the most prevalent micro-organisms in clinical and sub-clinical mastitis. The physical examination revealed 2.61 per cent blind teats and CMT revealed 6.71 per cent positive quarters for mastitis. Microbiological examination of 157 sub-clinical mastitis milk samples and 46 clinical mastitis milk samples was carried out. There was high occurrence of streptococci (35.46% followed by staphylococci (33.99%, E. coli (27.09%, pseudomonas spp. ( 1.97% and Corynaebacterium pyogenes (1.48%. The in vitro sensitivity revealed kanamyciin (82.6%, highly effective against various isolates followed by gentamycin (53.0%.

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis of japonica Rice Performance under Limited Water and Permanent Flooding Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Volante

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A rice GWAS panel of 281 accessions of japonica rice was phenotypically characterized for 26 traits related to phenology, plant and seed morphology, physiology and yield for 2 years in field conditions under permanent flooding (PF and limited water (LW. A genome-wide analysis uncovered a total of 160 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs, of which 32 were LW-specific, 59 were PF-specific, and 69 were in common between the two water management systems. LW-specific associations were identified for several agronomic traits including days to maturation, days from flowering to maturation, leaf traits, plant height, panicle and seed traits, hundred grain weight, yield and tillering. Significant MTAs were detected across all the 12 rice chromosomes, while clusters of effects influencing different traits under LW or in both watering conditions were, respectively, observed on chromosomes 4, 8, and 12 and on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, and 8. The analysis of genes annotated in the Nipponbare reference sequence and included in the regions associated to traits related to plant morphology, grain yield, and physiological parameters allowed the identification of genes that were demonstrated to affect the respective traits. Among these, three (OsOFP2, Dlf1, OsMADS56 and seven (SUI1, Sd1, OsCOL4, Nal1, OsphyB, GW5, Ehd1 candidate genes were, respectively, identified to co-localize with LW-specific associations and associations in common between the two water treatments. For several LW-specific MTAs, or in common among the two treatments, positional co-localizations with previously identified QTLs for rice adaptation to water shortages were observed, a result that further supports the role of the loci identified in this work in conferring adaptation to LW. The most robust associations identified here could represent suitable targets for genomic selection approaches to improve yield-related traits under LW.

  12. The effects of high temperature and roof modification on physiological responses of swamp buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khongdee, Titaporn; Sripoon, S.; Vajrabukka, C.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the experiments reported here was to measure the effects of cooling techniques (Modified roof vs Normal roof) on the performance and physiology of 12 young male buffaloes with a similar live weight of 160 kg. The study was conducted at Chainat Agriculture and Technology College, Chainat Province, Thailand. The animals were divided randomly into two groups, each group comprising six buffaloes, and the two groups were studied to evaluate the effects of modified roofing (normal roof fitted with woven polypropylene shade cloth) on the subjects' physiological responses to heat stress under hot humid conditions. The modified roof resulted in lowered heat stress in buffaloes compared to those under a standard roof. The difference was shown by the buffaloes having a significantly lower mean rectal temperature (39.14 ± 0.07 vs 40.00 ± 0.10°C) and plasma cortisol (2.14 ± 0.24 vs 3.38 ± 0.37 ng/ml). The average daily water consumption was significantly lower in the MR group (MR, 29.71 ± 0.86 vs NR, 34.14 ± 1.06 L head -1 day-1), while there was a tendency for the roughage intake to be higher in the MR group compared to that of the NR group (MR, 5.88 ± 0.18 vs NR, 6.44 ± 0.19 kg head-1 -1 day-1; P = 0.0508). It was concluded that roof modification facilitated a reduction in heat load from roof re-radiation, and was an effective means of alleviating thermal stress in young buffaloes.

  13. In-silico analysis of Pasteurella multocida to identify common epitopes between fowl, goat and buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Ammarah; Tariq, Aamira

    2016-04-10

    Pasteurella multocida represents a highly diverse group of bacteria infecting various hosts like the fowl, goat and buffalo leading to huge economic loss to the poultry and cattle industry. Previous reports indicated that the outer membrane proteins contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida. The comparative in-silico genome wide analysis of four pathogenic Pasteurella multocida strains (Anand1-poultry, Anand1-goat, PMTB and VTCCBAA264) with their respective hosts was performed. A pipeline was developed to identify the list of non-homologous proteins of Pasteurella multocida strains and their hosts. The list was further analyzed for the identification of the essential outer membrane proteins responsible for the pathogenicity. Outer membrane proteins were further selected from these antigenic proteins on the basis of their pathogenic potential. A common B-cell epitope (TDYRNRDRS, ARRSVTSKEN, and KINDQWRW) determined via sequential and structural approach from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) assembly outer membrane complex protein was predicted from fowl, goat and buffalo. Furthermore, we identified T-cell epitopes based on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) assembly outer membrane complex protein via docking studies which were either similar to the B-cell epitopes or were occurring in the same patch except for MHC class II M fowl. We propose that this difference in epitope sequence is due to different interacting MHC class II protein predicted from the fowl. Hence, in the current study we found that a unique epitope based on the common antigenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer membrane complex protein present in fowl, goat and buffalo can be a suitable target for vaccine development against the two economic devastating diseases; fowl cholera (FC) and hemorrhagic septicemia (HS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes isolated by using a simplified manual perfusion method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Panda

    Full Text Available In farm animals, there is no suitable cell line available to understand liver-specific functions. This has limited our understanding of liver function and metabolism in farm animals. Culturing and maintenance of functionally active hepatocytes is difficult, since they survive no more than few days. Establishing primary culture of hepatocytes can help in studying cellular metabolism, drug toxicity, hepatocyte specific gene function and regulation. Here we provide a simple in vitro method for isolation and short-term culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes.Buffalo hepatocytes were isolated from caudate lobes by using manual enzymatic perfusion and mechanical disruption of liver tissue. Hepatocyte yield was (5.3 ± 0.66×107 cells per gram of liver tissue with a viability of 82.3 ± 3.5%. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were spherical with well contrasted border. After 24 hours of seeding onto fibroblast feeder layer and different extracellular matrices like dry collagen, matrigel and sandwich collagen coated plates, hepatocytes formed confluent monolayer with frequent clusters. Cultured hepatocytes exhibited typical cuboidal and polygonal shape with restored cellular polarity. Cells expressed hepatocyte-specific marker genes or proteins like albumin, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, glucose-6-phosphatase, tyrosine aminotransferase, cytochromes, cytokeratin and α1-antitrypsin. Hepatocytes could be immunostained with anti-cytokeratins, anti-albumin and anti α1-antitrypsin antibodies. Abundant lipid droplets were detected in the cytosol of hepatocytes using oil red stain. In vitro cultured hepatocytes could be grown for five days and maintained for up to nine days on buffalo skin fibroblast feeder layer. Cultured hepatocytes were viable for functional studies.We developed a convenient and cost effective technique for hepatocytes isolation for short-term culture that exhibited morphological and functional characteristics of active hepatocytes

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain E24377A, Obtained from a Tribal Drinking Water Source in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamhankar, Ashok J; Nerkar, Sandeep S; Khadake, Prashant P; Akolkar, Dadasaheb B; Apurwa, Sachin R; Deshpande, Uday; Khedkar, Smita U; Stålsby-Lundborg, Cecilia

    2015-04-02

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Its dissemination can occur through water sources contaminated by it. Here, we report for the first time the draft genome sequence of ETEC strain E24377A, obtained from a tribal drinking water source in India. Copyright © 2015 Tamhankar et al.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain E24377A, Obtained from a Tribal Drinking Water Source in India

    OpenAIRE

    Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Khadake, Prashant P.; Akolkar, Dadasaheb B.; Apurwa, Sachin R.; Deshpande, Uday; Khedkar, Smita U.; St?lsby-Lundborg, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Its dissemination can occur through water sources contaminated by it. Here, we report for the first time the draft genome sequence of ETEC strain E24377A, obtained from a tribal drinking water source in India.

  17. Description of Events Where African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Strayed from the Endemic Foot-and-Mouth Disease Zone in South Africa, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, O L; Knobel, D L; De Clercq, E M; De Pus, C; Hendrickx, G; Van den Bossche, P

    2016-06-01

    African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are reservoir hosts of Southern African Territories (SAT) foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus strains. In South Africa, infected buffaloes are found in the FMD-infected zone comprising the Kruger National Park (KNP) and its adjoining reserves. When these buffaloes stray into livestock areas, they pose a risk of FMD transmission to livestock. We assessed 645 records of stray buffalo events (3124 animals) from the FMD infected zone during 1998-2008 for (i) their temporal distribution, (ii) group size, (iii) age and gender composition, (iv) distance from the infected zone fence and (v) outcome reported for each event. A maximum entropy model was developed to evaluate spatial predictors of stray buffalo events and assess current disease control zones. Out of all buffaloes recorded straying, 38.5% escaped from the FMD infected zone during 2000/2001, following floods that caused extensive damage to wildlife fences. Escape patterns were not apparently influenced by season. The median size of stray groups was a single animal (IQR [1-2]). Adult animals predominated, comprising 90.4% (620/686) of the animals for which age was recorded. Of the 315 events with accurate spatial information, 204 (64.8%) were recorded within 1 km from the FMD infected zone. During late winter/spring (June-October), stray buffaloes were found significantly closer to the FMD infected zone (median = 0.3 km, IQR [0.1-0.6]). Less than 13% (40/315) of stray groups reached the FMD protection zone without vaccination, posing a higher risk of spreading FMD to these more susceptible livestock. Model outputs suggest that distance from the FMD infected zone, urban areas and permanent water sources contributed almost 85% to the spatial probability of stray buffalo events. Areas with a high probability for stray buffalo events were well covered by current disease control zones, although FMD risk mitigation could be improved by expanding the vaccination zone in certain areas

  18. Epidemiological studies on forestomach disorders in cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study epidemiology of forestomach (reticuloruminal, omasal, and abomasal disorders in cattle and buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The 106 buffaloes and 32 cattle referred for treatment to the university large animals teaching hospital with the complaint of gastrointestinal diseases constituted the study material. The cases were diagnosed based on history, clinical examination, hematology, biochemistry, radiography, peritoneal fluid analysis and ultrasonography, rumenotomy, and postmortem. A questionnaire was prepared containing important information on housing, husbandry practices, including feeding practices and individual animal information viz. age, species, month of the year, parity, gestation (month, and recent parturition. The animals were divided into eight groups and analysis of variance was performed to study risk factors associated with each condition. Results: The forestomach disorders are widely prevalent in cattle and buffaloes between April and October, during summer and rainy season (90% and constituted a significant proportion of diseased cows and buffaloes (138/1840 at the hospital. Different forestomach disorders and their prevalence was: Diaphragmatic hernia (DH 17%, traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP 14%, idiopathic motility disorder or vagus indigestion (VI 22%, adhesive peritonitis (AP 13%, frank exudative peritonitis (FEP 12%, reticular abscess (RA 8%, ruminal and omasal impaction (RI 5%, and abomaso duodenal ulceration (ADU 9%. DH and RA were significantly more common in buffaloes as compared to cattle. Similarly, impactions were more in buffaloes but its incidence was very low (5%. ADU was present in buffalo as commonly as in cows. Exclusive feeding of wheat straw was present in an abysmally low number of animals and hence could not be considered the cause of these disorders. DH was significantly higher in buffaloes (>5 years of 5-8 years of age and TRP, VI and AP were observed in cattle and buffalo of 2-8 years

  19. Anaerobic Digestion of Buffalo Dung: Simulation of Process Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of kinetic of AD (Anaerobic Digestion is a beneficial practice to forecast the performance of the process. It is helpful in the design of AD vessels, substrate feeding and digestate exit systems. The aim of this work was to assess the kinetics of anaerobically digested buffalo dung at different quantities of water added. It comprises the assessment of the specific methane production on the basis of VS (Volatile Solids added in each reactor by using three first order models, i.e. the modified Gompertz model, the Cone model and the Exponential Curve Factor model. The analysis was tested by using the three statistical parameters, i.e. the coefficient of multiple determinations, the standard deviation of residuals and the Akaike?s Information Criteria. The result reveals that the Exponential Curve Factor model was the best model that described the experimental data well. Moreover, there was not a direct or indirect relation between the kinetic coefficients of the AD process with the varying total or volatile solid content

  20. Intensive rainfed and irrigated forage crop production for Mediterranean Italian Buffalo feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Berardo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo intensive husbandry represents the most lucrative dairy activity in Campania Region. The main forage crop system used in this area are based on winter Italian reygrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and spring corn (Zea mays L.. The continuous growing of this crops stressed the soil with a consequent reduction of yield potential. The experiment aimed to assess the agronomic and nutritive feeding value of Italian ryegrasscorn vs other cropping systems (models based on double rotated legumes and graminaceous crops grown under irrigated and rainfed water supply.

  1. Strong and stable geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo maternal and paternal lineages indicates domestication in the China/Indochina border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Yongfang; Yindee, Marnoch; Li, Kuan-Yi; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yu-Ten; Ye, Shaohui; Faruque, Md Omar; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yachun; Cuong, Vu Chi; Pham, Lan Doan; Bouahom, Bounthong; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Cai, Zhihua; Vankan, Dianne; Manatchaiworakul, Wallaya; Kowlim, Nonglid; Duangchantrasiri, Somphot; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Colenbrander, Ben; Zhang, Yuan; Beerli, Peter; Lenstra, Johannes A; Barker, J Stuart F

    The swamp type of the Asian water buffalo is assumed to have been domesticated by about 4000 years BP, following the introduction of rice cultivation. Previous localizations of the domestication site were based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation within China, accounting only for the maternal

  2. Greater Buffalo-Niagara Regional Transportation Council Scenario Planning Workshop : Sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report summarizes noteworthy practices and key recommendations shared during a scenario planning workshop, hosted by the Greater Buffalo-Niagara Regional Transportation Council, on April 19-20, 2016, in Buffalo, New York. The Federal Highway Adm...

  3. Growth response of yearling buffalo male calves to different dietary energy levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FAZAELI, Hassan; MAHMOUDZADEH, Homayoun

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate different levels of energy for optimum growth in Iranian regional buffalo male calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 27 yearling buffalo male calves with initial live weight of 201 ± 14 kg...

  4. Impact of Climate change on Milk production of Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ashutosh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is likely to impact productivity of buffaloes due to their sensitivity to temperature changes. Air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and solar radiation are the main climate variables that affect buffalo production in tropical climate. In the present study sensitivity of lactating Murrah buffaloes to sudden temperature (Tmax, Tmin change and THI have been analyzed from milk production and climatic records (1994-2004 of Karnal. Algorithms were developed and validated on lactating buffaloes during 2005-2006 at the Institute. A sudden change (rise or fall in Maximum/Minimum temperature during summer and winter was observed to affect milk production. The decline in minimum temperature (>3°C during winter and increase (>4°C during summer than normal were observed to negatively impact milk production upto 30% on the next or subsequent days after extreme event. The return to normal milk production depended on severity and time period of thermal stress/ event occurrence. The R² was very low for cool period observed during Feb- April/Sept-Nov and actual effect on milk production was minimum. This indicated that low THI had a relatively small effect on milk production performance. The lactation period of animals are shortened during extreme summer when THI were more than 80 and reproductive functions were also adversely affected. Thermal stressed buffaloes did not exhibit estrus or exhibited estrus for short period. The potential direct effects of possible climate change and global warming on summer season milk production of Murrah buffaloes were evaluated using widely known global circulation model UKMO to represent possible scenarios of future climate. Both milk production and reproductive functions of Murrah buffaloes are likely to be affected due to warming effects.

  5. Standardization of DNA extraction from methanol acetic acid fixed cytogenetic cells of cattle and buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotikalapudi, Rosaiah; Patel, Rajesh K; Katragadda, Sanghamitra

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study is to standardize the simple method for extracting DNA from cells fixed in fixative (3:1 ratio of methanol and acetic acid glacial) mostly used for chromosomal studies in cattle and buffaloes. These fixed cells were stored for more than 6 months at refrigerated temperature. The fixed cells were washed 2-3 times by the ice cold 1x Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) with pH 7.4, so that effect of fixative may be eliminated. The genomic DNA was extracted by adding cell lysis and nucleus lysis buffers. The quality and quantity of DNA were estimated. The readings of nano drop and agarose gel electrophoresis indicate good quality DNA isolated with a rapid and simple protocol routinely using in our laboratory. The method enables us to study the DNA of a cattle and buffaloes after completing cytogenetic investigation or in cases where DNA samples are otherwise not available. This protocol may be useful for molecular analysis of DNA from fixed cells palettes.

  6. Composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos do leite e muçarela de búfalas alimentadas com diferentes fontes de lipídeos Chemical composition and fatty acids profile in milk and mozzarella cheese of water buffalo fed different lipid sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a composição química e o perfil de ácidos na gordura do leite de búfalas alimentadas com fontes de lipídeos. Foram utilizadas nove búfalas em lactação, multíparas e com produção média diária de leite de 6,5kg. O delineamento experimental foi quadrado latino 3x3, triplo, composto por três tratamentos, três períodos de 21 dias e nove repetições. Os tratamentos foram dietas sem lipídeo adicional, com grão de soja e com óleo de soja. A proporção de silagem de milho variou entre 70 e 75%. A inclusão de óleo de soja elevou os teores de gordura no leite e no queijo tipo muçarela. As concentrações de ácidos graxos saturados (AGS variaram de 62,8 a 69,8%. Não houve diferenças nos teores de AGS entre os tratamentos sem lipídeo adicional e com grão de soja. O tratamento com óleo de soja resultou em queda de 10% no teor de AGS. As fontes lipídicas reduziram as concentrações de AGS e aumentaram as concentrações de ácidos graxos insaturados. Ácidos graxos encontrados na muçarela, em ordem decrescente, foram: palmítico, oleico, láurico e esteárico. O óleo de soja apresentou maior capacidade de elevar as concentrações do ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA e do ácido vaccênico no leite e no queijo muçarela.The chemical composition of milk and fatty acids profile in milk fat of water buffaloes fed different lipid sources were evaluated. Nine lactating multiparous water buffaloes, averaging 6.5kg of milk daily, were used. The statistical design was 3x3 triple Latin Square, three periods of 21 days and nine repetitions. The treatments were diet without additional fat, diet with soybean grain, and diet with soybean oil. Corn silage content in the diets ranged from 70 to 75%. The inclusion of soybean oil increased fat content in milk and mozzarella. Saturated fatty acid (SFA concentrations in milk ranged from 62.8 to 69.8%. SFA content was similar in milk for the diets without additional fat and with

  7. Fontes de lipídeos na dieta de búfalas lactantes: consumo, digestibilidade e N-uréico plasmático Effects of dietary fat sources on intake, nutrient digestibility and plasma urea nitrogen for lactating water buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da suplementação de fontes lipídicas sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e o N-uréico plasmático foram avaliados em 12 búfalas lactantes, em três quadrados latinos simultâneos, cada um com quatro animais, quatro períodos e quatro dietas contendo uma das fontes de lípideo estudadas (sem lipídeo adicional; grão de soja; óleo de soja ou caroço de algodão. O período experimental foi de 84 dias, com quatro períodos de 21 dias, divididos em 14 dias para a adaptação e 7 para coleta. A dieta foi fornecida à vontade, duas vezes ao dia, na forma de mistura completa. Nos dias de coleta de cada período, os alimentos fornecidos e as sobras foram pesados e amostrados para análise bromatológica. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas diretamente no reto dos animais para estimativa da produção de matéria seca fecal, utilizando-se a fibra em detergente neutro indigestível como indicador, e para o cálculo de digestibilidade aparente. Os consumos de matéria seca, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido foram semelhantes entre as dietas. Os consumos de extrato etéreo e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT foram maiores para a dieta com óleo de soja. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade de matéria seca, proteína bruta e carboidratos não-fibrosos e as concentrações de N-uréico plasmático foram semelhantes entre as dietas. A utilização das fontes de lipídeos nas dietas de búfalas em lactação não influenciou o consumo e coeficiente de digestibilidade da matéria seca. Entretanto, as digestibilidades do extrato etéreo da dieta com grão de soja e das frações fibrosas da dieta com caroço de algodão foram as mais baixas.The effects of fat sources on intake, nutrient digestibility and plasma urea nitrogen were evaluated in lactating water buffalo. Twelve females were randomly distributed into four treatments: without additional lipid, soybean grain, soybean oil and

  8. Genome sequence of bubaline alphaherpesvirus 1 (BuHV1) isolated in Australia in 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Camila Mengue; Varela, Ana Paula Muterle; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Schmidt, Candice; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Paim, Willian Pinto; Dos Santos, Raíssa Nunes; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Tochetto, Caroline; Dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; de Lima, Diane Alves; Cerva, Cristine; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Petzhold, Sylio Alfredo; Franco, Ana Cláudia; George, Toby St; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2017-05-01

    Bubaline alphaherpesvirus 1 (BuHV1) is a member of the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus. To date, no full genome sequence of BuHV has been published. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of bubaline alphaherpesvirus 1 (BuHV1) strain b6 (BuHV1-b6), isolated from a water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in 1972 in Australia. The virus was multiplied in MDBK cells, and the DNA was extracted and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. The reads were aligned and combined into a single genome sequence, with bovine alphaherpesvirus 5 (BoHV5) strain SV507/99 (accession number NC005261) as a reference. The BuHV1-b6 genome is a linear double-stranded DNA molecule, 137,452 bp long, with a GC content of 76.8%. The genome consists of two unique sequences: a long, or UL, sequence (103,818 bp) and a short, or US, sequence (9,586 bp), with the latter being flanked by inverted IR and TR elements of 12,024 bp each. The arrangement is typical of herpesvirus genomes of the D-type. The overall sequence has a 92.2% similarity at the nucleotide level to the reference BoHV5 strain. Our report provides a significant landmark in the history of herpesviruses, represented by the genome sequence of this 44-year-old virus isolate.

  9. Genomics and Ecophysiology of Heterotrophic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Estuarine Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Severin, Ina; Hansen, Lars H; Riemann, Lasse

    2015-07-07

    The ability to reduce atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia, known as N2 fixation, is a widely distributed trait among prokaryotes that accounts for an essential input of new N to a multitude of environments. Nitrogenase reductase gene (nifH) composition suggests that putative N2-fixing heterotrophic organisms are widespread in marine bacterioplankton, but their autecology and ecological significance are unknown. Here, we report genomic and ecophysiology data in relation to N2 fixation by three environmentally relevant heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Baltic Sea surface water: Pseudomonas stutzeri strain BAL361 and Raoultella ornithinolytica strain BAL286, which are gammaproteobacteria, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain BAL398, an alphaproteobacterium. Genome sequencing revealed that all were metabolically versatile and that the gene clusters encoding the N2 fixation complex varied in length and complexity between isolates. All three isolates could sustain growth by N2 fixation in the absence of reactive N, and this fixation was stimulated by low concentrations of oxygen in all three organisms (≈ 4 to 40 µmol O2 liter(-1)). P. stutzeri BAL361 did, however, fix N at up to 165 µmol O2 liter(-1), presumably accommodated through aggregate formation. Glucose stimulated N2 fixation in general, and reactive N repressed N2 fixation, except that ammonium (NH4 (+)) stimulated N2 fixation in R. palustris BAL398, indicating the use of nitrogenase as an electron sink. The lack of correlations between nitrogenase reductase gene expression and ethylene (C2H4) production indicated tight posttranscriptional-level control. The N2 fixation rates obtained suggested that, given the right conditions, these heterotrophic diazotrophs could contribute significantly to in situ rates. The biological process of importing atmospheric N2 is of paramount importance in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In the oceans, a diverse array of prokaryotes seemingly carry the genetic capacity

  10. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872

  11. Follicular dynamics in synchronized Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Francillo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the length and the characteristics of the oestrous cycle in Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows, undergone synchronization of ovulation. The trial was performed on 32 buffaloes synchronized by the Ovsynch Program, which consists of an injection of GnRH on day 0, PGF2α on day 7 and GnRH on day 9. Starting on day 10 (Day 0 of the new cycle. Buffaloes undergone ultrasound examination of the ovaries on alternate days until the following heat. Follicular growth and corpus luteum formation and dimensions were recorded as well as the number of follicular waves. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. Four animals (12.5% did not show signs of oestrous and were excluded from the trial. The mean length of the oestrous cycle was 23.7±3.4 days. In particular, 1 animal (3.6% showed an oestrous cycle characterized by 1 follicular wave with a length of 16 days, 17 subjects (60.7% showed 2 follicular waves with a cycle length of 22.4±2.3 days and 10 buffaloes (35.7% showed 3 follicular waves with a cycle of 26.8±2.0 days. These results confirm previous reports performed in buffalo species, although the cycle resulted longer in the 3-waves group.

  12. Role of Buffaloe in Contributing Milk and Meat in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Raza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan being an agricultural country supports a national herd of 28.4 million buffaloe which constitutes 8-10% of the global buffaloe population. Buffaloe contributes 72% of the national milk supply. Buffaloe is intricately interwoven with the social fabric of the rural families. In these areas it is mainly raised for milk production. Pakistan is the largest buffaloe meat producer followed by India, China, Thailand and Vietnam. The share of buffaloe’s meat at national level is over 55%. Slaughtering of male young calves for meat is common which has high degree of preference among the consumers. Fattening is rarely practiced, as there is poor price structure for beef. Female calves are usually raised for future herds. Little effort has been done so far to feed them on scientific lines. Mortality is high in calves during pre-weaning age. Seasonal variation in mortality is common. Poor nutrition, health and management have been demonstrated to be the main contributory factors affecting the calves’ survival.

  13. Prevalence of Warble Fly Infestation in Buffalo in Chakwal, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Waheed

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is the major problem affecting livestock in many parts of the world. Amongst these parasitic problems, the warble fly infestation (hypodermosis is a notorious and common malady of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in Pakistan. The disease is endemic in cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in semi-hilly and mountainous areas of Pakistan. Keeping in view the importance of buffaloes an epidemiological survey was conducted to find the prevalence of hypodermosis in district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan, during the year 2005- 2006. Buffaloes are mainly kept for milk purpose in the study area. Out of 2000 buffaloes examined clinically, for grub infestation in the study area 125 (6.25% and 37 (5.20% found to be positive for the warble fly infestation in slaughter house as well as in the field. A prevalence variation among the male and female animals was also observed during the study. The factors of climatic conditions that favor the fly activity and contribute in the onset of disease.

  14. Cost Benefits Analysis of Anthelmintic Treatment of Cattle and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiq Ahmed Athar, Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Tauseef-ur-Rehman and Izhar Ahmad Khan1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the point prevalence of various helminths of cattle and buffalo population of district Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan and economic benefits of deworming with oxyclozanide. Out of 540 fecal samples examined, 205 (37.96% were found infected with helminths. Significantly higher (OR=2.2; P<0.05 prevalence of helminths was recorded in buffaloes (40%; 112/280 as compared to cattle (35.77%; 93/260. Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloide, Ostertagia, Fasciola (F. hepatica, F. gigantica and Haemonchus contortus were the helminth species identified in the study area. Oxyclozanide medicated buffaloes (E=96.66% and cattle (E=95.64% showed a significant decrease in fecal egg counts on day 14 post-treatment. An average daily increase of 0.89 and 0.71 liters of milk along with 0.42 and 0.37% more fat per buffalo and cattle, respectively was observed in oxyclozanide medication. The economic value of reduced production of infected animals was estimated as US$ 0.47 (Pak Rupees 40 and US$ 0.41 (Pak Rupees 35 per animal per day for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. It can be concluded that single dose of oxyclozanide is effective against all bovine helminths.

  15. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive.

  16. Preliminary results on the composition of oviductal fluid in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if qualitative and quantitative differences exist in energy substrates and ionic components of buffalo cow oviductal fluid during dioestrus, pre-ovulatory and ovulatory phases of the oestrous cycle. Ten multiparous Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis cows at 15 days in milk were used. Cannulation of oviduct was performed as previously described by Kavanaugh et al.(1992 for cattle, adapting the technique to the smaller dimension of buffalo reproductive tract. We evaluated daily secretion rates, energy substrates and ions concentration during the three phases. Oviductal fluid secretion rates (ml/24h and glucose concentration were significantly greater in the ovulatory phase (P<0.01 and in the pre-ovulatory phase (P<0.05 than in dioestrus. No significant differences were detected between oestrous phases for the other parameters analyzed.

  17. Growth curve of buffalo grazing on a grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of 17 buffaloes (Mediterranean, from birth to slaughter age (720 days with monthly measures of weight, thoracic perimeter, body length, and height at withers. At the end of experimental period, the animals were separated into two different groups for statistical analysis according to slaughter weight: light body weight (LBW, mean 517 kg and heavy body weight (HBW, mean 568 kg. Buffalo growth occurs in the same way up to weaning age, and after that, two distinct groups grow in different forms in the same conditions of management and feeding. Body weight can be estimated according to age, thoracic perimeter, height, and length, showing high correlations. Buffaloes show growth in a sigmoid-curve model.

  18. Composition of milk from minor dairy animals and buffalo breeds: a biodiversity perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhammar, Elinor; Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Nilsson, Emma; Charrondiere, Ute Ruth; Burlingame, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the nutrient composition for buffalo, mare, and dromedary camel milks at the level of breed, and species-level data for yak, mithun, musk ox, donkey, Bactrian camel, llama, alpaca, reindeer and moose milks. Average values of nutrients were calculated and compared. Interspecies values (g 100 g⁻¹) were 0.7-16.1 for total fat, 1.6-10.5 for protein, 2.6-6.6 for lactose, and 67.9-90.8 for water. Reindeer and moose milks had the highest fat and protein concentrations and the lowest lactose contents. Mare and donkey milks had the lowest protein and fat contents, in addition to showing the most appropriate fatty acid profile for human nutrition. Dromedary camel milk was most similar to cow milk in proximate composition. Moose milk was the richest in minerals, having values as high as 358 mg 100 g⁻¹ for calcium, 158 mg 100 g⁻¹ for sodium and 150 mg 100 g⁻¹ for phosphorus. Interbreed differences of 4 g 100 g⁻¹ were observed in total fat in buffalo, yak, mare and dromedary camel milks. Large interbreed differences were also present in the mineral contents in mare, buffalo and dromedary camel milks. By bringing together these compositional data, we hope to usefully widen the biodiversity knowledge base, which may contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of milk from underutilized dairy breeds and species, and to improved food and nutrition security, particularly in developing countries. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effect of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) on the progression of buffalo follicles in vitrified-warmed ovarian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, M A; El-Sherry, T M; Abdelhafeez, H H

    2016-10-01

    To improve the reproductive performance of water buffalo to level can satisfy our needs, the mechanisms controlling ovarian follicular growth and development should be thoroughly investigated. Therefore, in this study, the expressions of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) in buffalo ovaries were examined by immunohistochemistry, and the effects of GDF-9 treatment on follicle progression were investigated using a buffalo ovary organ culture system. Frozen-thawed buffalo ovarian follicles within slices of ovarian cortical tissue were cultured for 14 days in the presence or absence of GDF-9. After culture, ovarian slices were fixed, sectioned and stained. The follicles were morphologically analysed and counted. Expression pattern of GDF-9 was detected in oocytes from primordial follicles onwards, besides, also presented in granulosa cells. Moreover, GDF-9 was detected in mural granulosa cells and theca cells of pre-antral follicles. In antral follicles, cumulus cells and theca cells displayed positive expression of GDF-9. In corpora lutea, GDF-9 was expressed in both granulosa and theca lutein cells. After in vitro culture, there was no difference in the number of primordial follicles between cultured plus GDF-9 and cultured control that indicated the GDF-9 treatment has no effect on the primordial to primary follicle transition. GDF-9 treatment caused a significant decrease in the number of primary and secondary follicles compared with controls accompanied with a significant increase in pre-antral and antral follicles. These results suggest that a larger number of primary and secondary follicles were stimulated to progress to later developmental stages when treated with GDF-9. Vitrification/warming of buffalo ovarian tissue had a little remarkable effect, in contrast to culturing for 14 days, on the expression of GDF-9. In conclusion, treatment with GDF-9 was found to promote progression of primary follicle that could provide an alternative approach to

  20. Ecological implications of bovine tuberculosis in African Buffalo herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alex; Cross, Paul C.; du Toit, Johan T.

    2003-01-01

    Following the recent invasion of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) into the Kruger National Park, South Africa, we conducted a study on the maintenance host, African buffalo, to investigate associations between BTB prevalence and calf:cow ratio, age structure, body condition, and endoparasite load. Statistical analyses compared herds of zero, medium (1–40%), and high (>40%) BTB prevalence. To control for ecological variation across the park we collected data in northern, central, and southern regions and restricted some analyses to particular regions of the park. Body condition declined over the course of the 2001 dry season, and buffaloes in the southern region of the park, with the highest BTB prevalence, were in worse condition than buffaloes in the northern region (which receives less annual rainfall but is still virtually BTB-free). Herd-level analyses of the entire park, the south and central regions, and just the southern region all indicated that herds of higher BTB prevalence were in worse condition and lost condition faster through the dry season than herds of lower BTB prevalence. Fecal endoparasite egg counts increased during the dry season and were associated with both decreased body condition and increased BTB prevalence. Although we did not detect any obvious effect of BTB on the age structure of the buffalo population, our findings indicate early symptoms of wider scale BTB-related ecological disturbances: buffalo herds with high BTB prevalence appear more vulnerable to drought (because of a decrease in body condition and an increase in endoparasite load), and because lions selectively kill weak buffaloes their prey base is accumulating a disproportionately high prevalence of BTB, to which lions are susceptible.Rea10.1890/02-5266d More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs

  1. Economic Feed Utilization for Dairy Buffalo Under Intensive Agricultural System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Soliman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The national strategies for the irrigated intensive agricultural system in developing countries should focus upon Producing less expensive milk from dairy buffaloes that, efficiently, utilize the limited expensive produced feed resources. Therefore, planning for the least cost feeds combination is the most recommended approach to keep buffalo milk price at a competitive level and being low enough to make milk available for the major proportion of the low-income households, particularly “Vulnerable Groups”. Estimation of the least cost feed ration combination of the limited expensive feed resources were conducted from a recent farm survey of the dairy buffalo performances and the feed use pattern in Egypt. The estimated average production elasticity of fodder, concentrate feeds mix and straw, implies that their shares in generated buffalo milk income are 41.7%, 35%, and 23.3%, respectively.. The response of the human labor was of negative direction and statistically insignificant. This means that the labor used per dairy buffalo was beyond the economic level, that reflects the excess farm-family labor involved in such activity, because they have almost nil opportunity income of off farm work. The other capital inputs have small positive effect on milk production, The average marginal return from milk per onedollar expenditure reached $.1.08 for fodder, and $ 1.04 for concentrated feed mix, i.e. it is feasible to expand the usage of fodder more than concentrates. The wheat straw has shown uneconomic efficiency. Therefore, it is recommended to limit its level in the ration. The least cost ration reduces feed cost of one ton of buffalo milk equivalent (4% fat by 22%. The less costs of production will strength the competition of domestic supply either against in the international export market or against the dumping policies followed by exporters to the domestic market.

  2. Escherichia coli O26 IN RAW BUFFALO MILK: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O26 is considered to be one of the most important food-borne pathogen. In this study, 120 buffalo milk samples collected in Lazio and in Apulia regions were tested for the presence of E. coli O26. One buffalo milk sample (0,8% tested positive for E. coli O26; the isolate was positive at the verocytotoxicity test and it showed resistance properties to different antimicrobial classes. These preliminary results highlight the need to monitor the foods of animal origin used for production and eaten by a wide range of persons, respect VTEC organism.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. BDAL1 Reconstructed from a Bakken Shale Hydraulic Fracturing-Produced Water Storage Tank Metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipus, Daniel; Ross, Daniel; Bibby, Kyle; Gulliver, Djuna

    2017-03-16

    We report the 5,425,832 bp draft genome of Pseudomonas sp. strain BDAL1, recovered from a Bakken shale hydraulic fracturing-produced water tank metagenome. Genome annotation revealed several key biofilm formation genes and osmotic stress response mechanisms necessary for survival in hydraulic fracturing-produced water. Copyright © 2017 Lipus et al.

  4. Hemato-biochemical and clinico-epidemiological aspects of parturient hemoglobinuria in Nili-Ravi buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For this study, 60 buffaloes suffering from parturient hemoglobinuria (PHU were randomly selected from field cases occurring in three districts of Punjab, Pakistan and simultaneously, 60 clinically healthy buffaloes of similar description from the same localities were included for case control study. Clinico-epidemiological data were collected. Blood/serum samples from all buffaloes were collected and analyzed. The most prominent clinical sign was passing of red to coffee colored urine. Milk production was reduced and respiration and pulse rates were significantly accelerated. Ruminal motility was significantly weak and reduced along with characteristic straining while defecating. The case fatality was 15%. A significantly high occurrence of PHU was observed in the winter season (41.8%. Maximum number of affected buffaloes (25.0% was in 4th lactation. Twenty-seven (45.0% buffaloes developed hemoglobinuria in the post calving period and majority (59.3% of these were within 1-23 days of calving. Of the 33 (55.0% PHU affected pregnant buffaloes, 18 (54.6% were in their third trimester. The highest cases of PHU were observed in buffaloes producing 10 or more liters of milk/day (42.5%. Recurrence of PHU was observed in 18.3% buffaloes. Mean values of total erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume were lower (P<0.001, while erythrocyte sediment rate was higher (P<0.001 in PHU affected buffaloes as compared to the values in healthy buffaloes. Neutrophils were significantly higher, while lymphocytes and erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD were lower, in PHU affected buffaloes than in healthy buffaloes. Serum phosphorus, copper and selenium were significantly (P<0.001 lower, whereas potassium, iron and molybdenum (P<0.001 were higher in buffaloes suffering from PHU than healthy buffaloes.

  5. Transcript analysis at DGAT1 reveals different mRNA profiles in river buffaloes with extreme phenotypes for milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, M; Cosenza, G; Nicolae, I; Bota, A; Guo, Y; Di Stasio, L; Pauciullo, A

    2017-10-01

    Buffalo DGAT1 (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1) was mainly investigated for the characterization of the gene itself and for the identification of the K232A polymorphism, similar to what has been accomplished in cattle, although no information has been reported so far at the mRNA level. The importance of DGAT1 for lipid metabolism led us to investigate the transcript profiles of lactating buffaloes characterized as high (9.13 ± 0.23) and low (7.94 ± 0.29) for milk fat percentage, and to explore the genetic diversity at the RNA and DNA level. A total of 336 positive clones for the DGAT1 cDNA were analyzed by PCR and chosen for sequencing according to the differences in length. The clone assembling revealed a very complex mRNA pattern with a total of 21 transcripts differently represented in the 2 groups of animals. Apart from the correct transcript (17 exons long), the skipping of exon 12 is the most significant in terms of distribution of clones with 11.6% difference between the 2 groups, whereas a totally different mRNA profile was found in approximately 12% of clones. The sequencing of genomic DNA allowed the identification of 10 polymorphic sites at the intron level, which clarify, at least partially, the genetic events behind the production of complex mRNA. Genetic diversity was found also at the exon level. The single nucleotide polymorphism c.1053C>T represents the first example of polymorphism in a coding region for the DGAT1 in the Italian Mediterranean breed. To establish whether this polymorphism is present in other buffalo breeds, a quick method based on PCR-RFLP was set up for allelic discrimination in the Italian Mediterranean and the Romanian Murrah (200 animals in total). The alleles were equally represented in the overall population, whereas the analysis of the 2 breeds showed different frequencies, likely indicating diverse genetic structure of the 2 breeds. The T allele might be considered as the ancestral condition of the DGAT1 gene, being

  6. Follicular dynamics, corpus luteum growth and regression in multiparous buffalo cows and buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ojeda R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Characterize the follicular dynamics and luteal growth and regression pattern of multiparous (MB and heifer (BH Murrah buffaloes in Colombian tropical conditions. Material and methods. Ten MB and ten BH were synchronized with a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device. No artificial insemination was performed during the estrous and daily ultrasound examinations were performed 15 days later to determine the number and diameter of the structures present in both ovaries in the subsequent natural estrous cycle. The Student’s T test was used to evaluate differences between MB and BH. All data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Results. The length of the estrous cycle was 22.00±4.50 days for MB and 22.00±2.70 days for BH. Follicular growth occurs in one (n=1; 5.89%, two (n=14; 82.35% or three waves (n=2; 11.76%. The first wave initiated the day after ovulation with the recruitment of 8.33±2.06 and 10.00±2.72 follicles in MB and BH, while the second wave started on day 11.00±2.00 and 10.50±2.82, presenting 8.37±2.26 and 8.00±1.51 follicles. The third wave began on day 16.21±3.10 showing 6.50±1.70 follicles, only BM had three waves. The maximum luteal diameter was 19.58±4.16 mm and 17.74±3.32 mm respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups for these variables. Conclusions. These results show that the follicular development in buffaloes occurs in waves, where two waves is the most common pattern, as previously reported by other authors.

  7. Effect of housing system on behavioural activity of lactating buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Grasso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the effect of a pool on behaviour and milk yield, eighty-eight lactating buffalo cows equally allocated to two treatments were used. Group WP was provided with a concrete pool of 208 m2, 36 m2/ head + 10 m2 of outdoor and indoor space allowance, respectively, whereas group NP only received 10 m2. Less animals from group WP were observed idling (P<0.05 compared to buffaloes from group NP, whereas subjects provided with a pool were more often involved in investigative activities (locomotion and exploration than cows without access to it (P< 0.01. A higher number of social interactions (sniffing and nuzzling and allogrooming were observed in group WP than in group NP (P< 0.01 and P< 0.05, respectively. The WP buffalo cows exhibited a higher yield of milk than NP subject (P< 0.05, whereas no differences between the two groups were observed for protein and fat contents. The provision of a pool can have beneficial effects on behaviour and milk production of buffaloes.

  8. Buffalo Harbor Study. Preliminary Feasibility Report. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Great Lakes, from cheap energy at nearby Niagara Falls, and from its railroad links to the great markets of North America. The opening of the Panama ...vious years. (Sweeny and Merckel: 1972). A 1977 benthic study of Buffalo Harbor showed the family Chironomidae was the most diverse group followed by

  9. Buffalo Harbor Study. Preliminary Feasibility Report. Volume I. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    between 1933-1937 of 98 million bushels (Barrick, 1970). The opening of the Panama Canal in 1914, the growing use of alternative inland waterways, and...Sweeny and Merckel: 1972). A 1977 benthic study of Buffalo Harbor showed the family Chironomidae was the most diverse group followed by Tubificidae and

  10. Characterization of cathelicidin gene from buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as template for synthesis of novel antimicrobial agents. Total RNA was isolated from epithelial layer of buffalo uterus and reverse transcribed using designed primers. The amplified PCR product was purified and cloned. Positive clone was sequenced and result was analysed using laser gene software (DNA Star, USA).

  11. Seroprevalence of Brucella abortus in buffaloes and wildebeests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sero-survey was conducted in buffalo and wildebeests in Ngorongoro Crater and Serengeti National Park (SNP) collectively known as Serengeti ecosystem to establish the level of exposure to Brucella arbortus. Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination test and Competitive ELISA were used serially in the analysis of 205 serum ...

  12. Listeric septicaemia and abotion in African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Listeria monocytogenes infection is insidious in mammals and systemic cases have been reported. We report an unusual clinical case and manifestation of Listeria monocytogenes infection in an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) culminating in septicemia and abortion. The infection was unsuspected but only diagnosed by ...

  13. Multicentric lymphoma in buffaloes in the Amazon region, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cairo H S De Oliveira; Jose D Barbosa; Karine A Damasceno; Geovanni D Cassali; Carlos MC Oliveira; Romulo C Leite; Jenner K P Reis

    2016-01-01

    .... The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in cattle; however, according to our results and those of other studies, the etiology of these lymphomas in buffalo do not appear to be associated with BLV...

  14. Inhibitory activity of the peptides derived from buffalo prolactin on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The peptide fragments obtained by cathepsin digestion of purified buffalo prolactin (buPRL) monomer have been characterized using SDS-PAGE and FPLC with regard to size and pI. Their antiangiogenic activity was tested in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and the human endothelial cells wound ...

  15. Inhibitory activity of the peptides derived from buffalo prolactin on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The peptide fragments obtained by cathepsin digestion of purified buffalo prolactin (buPRL) monomer have been characterized using SDS-PAGE and FPLC with regard to size and pI. ... The synthetic peptide matching with SST sequence was found to exhibit antiangiogenic activity in both in vitro and ex vivo assays.

  16. CAUSES OF DISPOSAL OF MURRAH BUFFALO FROM AN ORGANISED HERD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Taraphder

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study comprised of 602 disposal records of adult Murrah buffaloes , spread over a period of 16 years from 1985 to 2000 at NDRI, Karnal, Haryana. Analysed data showed that the reproductive problems (38.62, low milk production (24.01 and udder problems (22.76 were the three major reasons of culling in adult Murrah buffaloes . The culling of cows due to involuntary reason (reproductive problems, udder problems and locomotive disorders accounted for nearly 63.68 percent of total culling in Murrah buffaloes in the NDRI herd. The data revealed that maximum mortality occurred due to digestive problems accounting for 30.89 percent followed by cardio-vascular problems (26.02 percent, respiratory problems (21.14 percent, parasitic problems (8.13 percent and uro-genital problems (5.69 percent. The results showed that there is a scope for further improvement in production and reproductive efficiency through better monitoring of reproduction and udder health status of the buffaloes. The high involuntary culling rate not only makes the dairy enterprises economically less profitable but also reduces the genetic improvement by lowering the selection differential for milk production.

  17. Biological nitrogen fixation and habitat of running buffalo clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.R. Morris; V.S. Baligar; T.M. Schuler; P.J. Harmon

    2002-01-01

    Running buffalo clover (RBC) [Trifolium stoloniferum (Muhl. ex Eat.)] is an endangered species whose survival is uncertain. An experiment was conducted on extant RBC sites to investigate biological nitrogen (N2) fixation, associated plant species, and soil conditions under natural mountain settings. Isotope (15...

  18. Genetic variation among Northern and Southern Egyptian buffaloes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hussiun

    2012-08-14

    Aug 14, 2012 ... ACG GCC GAC C. 701. CCC ACA ACC C. 705. GGA GGA AGG G. 713. CCC TCC CTC T. 725. GGG TTG GGT G. 731. CCC ACA CCA C. 743. CCA CCC ACA C. 745. GGG AAG AGG G. 747. CCA CCA ACC C. Table 2. Band frequencies for random primers in tested buffalo populations. Band number. North.

  19. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C.; Carmo, Priscila M.S.; Iversen, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Five male 6-8 month-old Murrah buffalo calves were orally dosed with the fresh aerial parts of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii at doses of 1, 3, 4, 5 and 10g/kg body weight (bw) (similar to 1-10mg macrocyclic trichothecenes/kg/bw). The B. megapotamica used for the experiment was harvested on a...

  20. Epidemiological study of tick infestation in buffalo of various regions of district Khairpur, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Abbasi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological infestation and identification of Ixodidae and Argasidae ticks species in buffalo of different parts of district Khairpur, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A total of 720 Water buffaloes from three tehsils (subdivisions were selected randomly and examined from organized and unorganized dairy farms for tick infestation in district Khairpur, Pakistan. This epidemiological survey was conducted during April to September 2015. Results: The overall mean population and preferred site of tick attachment to infested animals, in Gambat, Sobhodero, and Kot Diji tehsils, were observed on different body parts. The primary body area of infestation by ticks (head, thorax, abdomen, udder, and tail ranged from highest in tail and udder part compared to lowest in the abdomen, head, and thorax. In all study areas, the infestation was higher (p<0.05 in tail and udder than other parts of the body. In all the study areas, the overall highest population was found in the month of July. In addition, we first time identify four new species of ticks (Hyalomma anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum, Hyalomma Ixodes excavatum, and Ixodes ricinus in district Khairpur, Pakistan. Conclusion: Results of this study provide additional information of epidemiological tick infestation, and will be helpful for evolving effective control policy for the management of tick infestation in study district.

  1. Characterization of buffalo interleukin 8 (IL-8 and its expression in endometritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam A. Abou Mossallam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available River buffalo (Bubalus bubalis bubalis with a population over 135 million heads is an important livestock. Interleukin 8 (IL-8 is a member of the chemokine family and is an important chemoattractant for neutrophils associated with a wide variety of inflammatory diseases such as endometritis. Tissue samples from the mammary gland, uterus and ovary were obtained from river buffalo (Mediterranean type with and without endometritis. Bacteriological examination showed the presence of both gram positive and negative in all buffalo with endometritis. RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA synthesis were conducted from all tissues. Specific primer for IL8 full coding regions was designed using known cDNA sequences of Bubalus bubalis, Genbank accession number AY952930.1. IL-8 gene expression was investigated in buffalo tissues. Expression of IL-8 in buffalo with endometritis was found to increase significantly over buffalo without endometritis only in the uterus (P = 0.0159. PCR products from uterus tissues (target organs of buffalo with and without endometritis, were purified and sequenced. No polymorphic sites were detected in the investigated samples. IL-8 cDNA nucleotide sequences of buffalo with and without endometritis were 100% identical (accession number JX413057. Buffalo IL8 cDNAs were compared with corresponding sequences of member of subfamily Bovinae (buffalo and cattle and subfamily Caprinae (sheep and goat. IL-8 species specific differences were identified.

  2. Understanding tenderness variability and ageing changes in buffalo meat: biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, M; Naveena, B M; Reddy, K S; Shahikumar, M; Reddy, V R; Kulkarni, V V; Rapole, S; More, T H

    2016-06-01

    Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (Pmuscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality.

  3. Rotavirus diarrhoea in Buffaloes: epidemiology, pathogenesys and prophilaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Pagnini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, rotavirus infection is the most important cause of severe diarrhea in infants and animals. In this report, we review the results of pathogenesys studies, strain surveillance and characterization studies published and discuss new insights gained from these studies on the potential mechanisms of the evolution and spread of new rotavirus strains. Early epidemiological studies in Italian buffalo herds revealed the predominance of strains with G8 specificity and detected strains with the rare, RRV-like, VP4 P[3] genotype. In an our previous study 125 fecal samples were collected from buffalo calves affected with diarrhoea, in seven dairy farms in Southern Italy. Rotaviruses were detected in 21 samples (16.8% by an immunochromatographic assay and by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR. Analysis of the VP7 gene revealed that 57% (12 of 21 of the isolates were G6, 23.8% were G8 (5 of 21 and 19% (4 of 21 were G10. Analysis of the VP4 revealed that 71.4% (15 of 21 of the isolates were P[5] and that 28.6% (6 of 21 were P[1]. The most common combination of G and P types was P[5],G6 (57%, followed by P[1],G10 (19%, P[5],G8 (14% and P[1],G8 (9.5%. While P[5],G6 rotaviruses are very common in Italian bovine herds, the antigenic combination P[1],G10 is unusual and presumably derives from reassortment between P[1] and G10 strains, that appear to be more frequent in buffaloes and bovines, respectively. The presence of bovine-like G and P serotypes suggests that in Italy the epidemiology of buffalo rotaviruses overlaps the epidemiology of bovine rotaviruses, presumably because of the strict species affinity and/or of the intermingled distribution over the same geographical areas of the buffalo and bovine herds.

  4. Genome wide association study (GWAS) for grain yield in rice cultivated under water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantalião, Gabriel Feresin; Narciso, Marcelo; Guimarães, Cléber; Castro, Adriano; Colombari, José Manoel; Breseghello, Flavio; Rodrigues, Luana; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Borba, Tereza Oliveira; Brondani, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    The identification of rice drought tolerant materials is crucial for the development of best performing cultivars for the upland cultivation system. This study aimed to identify markers and candidate genes associated with drought tolerance by Genome Wide Association Study analysis, in order to develop tools for use in rice breeding programs. This analysis was made with 175 upland rice accessions (Oryza sativa), evaluated in experiments with and without water restriction, and 150,325 SNPs. Thirteen SNP markers associated with yield under drought conditions were identified. Through stepwise regression analysis, eight SNP markers were selected and validated in silico, and when tested by PCR, two out of the eight SNP markers were able to identify a group of rice genotypes with higher productivity under drought. These results are encouraging for deriving markers for the routine analysis of marker assisted selection. From the drought experiment, including the genes inherited in linkage blocks, 50 genes were identified, from which 30 were annotated, and 10 were previously related to drought and/or abiotic stress tolerance, such as the transcription factors WRKY and Apetala2, and protein kinases.

  5. Genome-Wide Association of Stem Water Soluble Carbohydrates in Bread Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    Full Text Available Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC in stems play an important role in buffering grain yield in wheat against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, knowledge of genes controlling WSC is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS using a high-density 90K SNP array to better understand the genetic basis underlying WSC, and to explore marker-based breeding approaches. WSC was evaluated in an association panel comprising 166 Chinese bread wheat cultivars planted in four environments. Fifty two marker-trait associations (MTAs distributed across 23 loci were identified for phenotypic best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs, and 11 MTAs were identified in two or more environments. Liner regression showed a clear dependence of WSC BLUE scores on numbers of favorable (increasing WSC content and unfavorable alleles (decreasing WSC, indicating that genotypes with higher numbers of favorable or lower numbers of unfavorable alleles had higher WSC content. In silico analysis of flanking sequences of trait-associated SNPs revealed eight candidate genes related to WSC content grouped into two categories based on the type of encoding proteins, namely, defense response proteins and proteins triggered by environmental stresses. The identified SNPs and candidate genes related to WSC provide opportunities for breeding higher WSC wheat cultivars.

  6. Genome-Wide Association of Stem Water Soluble Carbohydrates in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Liu, Jindong; Zhang, Yan; Geng, Hongwei; Rasheed, Awais; Xiao, Yonggui; Cao, Shuanghe; Fu, Luping; Yan, Jun; Wen, Weie; Zhang, Yong; Jing, Ruilian; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in stems play an important role in buffering grain yield in wheat against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, knowledge of genes controlling WSC is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a high-density 90K SNP array to better understand the genetic basis underlying WSC, and to explore marker-based breeding approaches. WSC was evaluated in an association panel comprising 166 Chinese bread wheat cultivars planted in four environments. Fifty two marker-trait associations (MTAs) distributed across 23 loci were identified for phenotypic best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs), and 11 MTAs were identified in two or more environments. Liner regression showed a clear dependence of WSC BLUE scores on numbers of favorable (increasing WSC content) and unfavorable alleles (decreasing WSC), indicating that genotypes with higher numbers of favorable or lower numbers of unfavorable alleles had higher WSC content. In silico analysis of flanking sequences of trait-associated SNPs revealed eight candidate genes related to WSC content grouped into two categories based on the type of encoding proteins, namely, defense response proteins and proteins triggered by environmental stresses. The identified SNPs and candidate genes related to WSC provide opportunities for breeding higher WSC wheat cultivars.

  7. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam P. Sagar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT of camel milk was significantly higher than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The camel, cow and buffalo milk samples showed negative alcohol stability. The rate of acidity was increased propositionally with time in camel milk with no curd formation and weaker body.

  8. A Cultural Resources Survey of Proposed Project Areas in the Buffalo Harbor, Erie County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    1379 Grain Elevators of Buffalo. Publications of the Buffalo Historical Society, Vol. 1. Buffalo. s7O iii. - A Davis , Margaret, B. 1958 Three Pollen...Anthropology, University of Michigan, No. 65. Ann Arbor. Hedin, Karl E. 1966 Directory of Shipwrecks of the Great Lakes. Bruce Humphries . Boston. Hill...the War of 1812.. 4. International Railroad Bridge -Niagara and Bridge Streets. This bridge crossing the Niagara River was built by Sir Casimer S

  9. Evaluation of fertility in relation to milk production and productivity of Murrah buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamuna, V; Chakravarty, A K

    2016-08-01

    Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits has lead to deterioration in their performances. The study was initiated to assess the relationship between milk production and productivity with fertility in Murrah buffaloes. In the present study, fertility was defined in terms of pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes. Pregnancy rate measures the percentage of non-pregnant animals that become pregnant during each oestrous cycle. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 22 years from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed in the study. It was observed that pregnancy rate is negatively associated with 305days or less milk yield (-0.08±0.04) and wet average (-0.12±0.02) and positively associated with life time (0.15±0.03) in Murrah buffaloes. Wet average is defined as average daily milk yield per lactation of Murrah buffaloes. To achieve around 2000kg 305days or less milk yield and 7.5kg wet average, the level of pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes should vary between 30 and 50%. The per unit change in pregnancy rate with respect to milk yield in Murrah buffaloes, were studied using regression analysis. The results suggest that increasing hundred kilogram in 305days or one kilogram milk yield per day in 305days, pregnancy rate reduced by 0.9% in overall lactations of Murrah buffaloes. By increasing hundred kilogram life time 305days or less milk yield and one kilogram life time wet average, pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes reduced by about 0.2% and 0.34%, respectively. The study quantifies the decline of pregnancy rate with increase of lactation milk yield and wet average in Murrah buffaloes and emphasis the importance of fertility i.e. pregnancy rate in the evaluation and breeding programmes of Murrah buffaloes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. New approaches in buffalo artificial insemination programs with special reference to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjeet; Balhara, A K

    2016-07-01

    Buffalo farming has made remarkable progress in productivity mainly because of controlled breeding with artificial insemination (AI) that has proved its worth in breed improvement and breeding managements across the livestock species. Artificial insemination is practiced very little in Europe and East Asian countries with coverage of only 5% buffaloes in Italy, 3.7% in Azerbaijan, 0.3% in Egypt, and 0.1% in Romania although in Bulgaria, 80% buffaloes in large cooperative state farms are subjected to AI. In Turkey, it began in 2002 near Hatay with Italian semen provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Network project. In India, where buffaloes are the most valuable livestock species, research on buffalo specific artificial breeding technologies and adoption of AI by buffalo owners are widely acknowledged. Resultantly, average milk yield of buffaloes in India increased from 3.4 kg in 1992 to 93 to 4.57 kg/day/buffalo in 2009 to 10. In the new millennium, mega projects such as the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding and the National Dairy Plan were initiated with focus on genetic upgradation of bovine and buffalo population through streamlining AI services and support system in the country. Artificial insemination started in India in the year 1939, and the frozen semen was introduced during late 1960s. During the year 2010 to 11, India produced 63 million bovine frozen semen straws including over one million buffalo semen straws through 49 semen stations. Artificial insemination services are provided through 71,341 AI stations clocking 52 million inseminations with overall conception rate of 35% in bovine and buffalo population. Research is being conducted for improved AI conception rates with synchronization programs and improved frozen-thawed semen quality, and success rates are at par with AI in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiac biomarkers and ultrasonography as tools in prediction and diagnosis of traumatic pericarditis in Egyptian buffaloes

    OpenAIRE

    Noura E. Attia

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the cardiac biomarkers and ultrasonography in prediction and early diagnosis of traumatic pericarditis (TP) in Egyptian buffaloes. Materials and Methods: A total number of 47 buffaloes were included in the study and divided into two groups: Healthy (n=10) and diseased groups (n=37). Diseased buffaloes were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Zagazig University, Egypt, with a history of anorexia, sudden, and severe reduction of milk producti...

  12. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves

    OpenAIRE

    Nasr-Eldin M. Aref; Ali El-Sebaie; Hammad Zaghloul Hammad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to: (1) Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2) Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift) in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo) were included in the study. Animals were divide...

  13. The role of grazing land on the buffalo population dynamics in Brebes regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanto

    2017-04-01

    Brebes District is one of the centre of grazing buffalo in Indonesia that involve thousands of rearers usually kept as a family savings. This paper highlighted the availability of land and the role of the grazing land for the durability of the maintenance of buffalo in Brebes Regency. The information obtained is from interviewed the livestock facilitators in the sub-district (primary data) and from statistic of agriculture in Brebes Regency 2014 (secondary data). Generally the buffalo kept semi-intensively and commonly the buffaloes graze in the fields that are not used from morning until evening and during nights buffaloes are placed in the stalls. Rearers chose the semi-intensive system in rearing the buffalo because it is considered easy to manage and they do not need to provide fresh money to prepare the roughage for feed, because commonly the grazing buffalo are shepherd by herdman that will receive buffalo as their payment. The population density is very high (1.056 heads/km2), the buffalo ownership is between 2-4 head/households; generally the location of the grazing land is in the forest, rice fields fallow, and sleeping land, and estimated that greenfeed stock is still available abunandtly, on the other hand the urban land is less capacity of feed. The spread of buffalo is only in 125 villages from 297 villages in Brebes. The acceptance of buffalo business is around IDR 3.5 million to IDR 7.5 million/family/year. The availability of grazing land strongly influence the maintaining of buffalo farming by rearers.

  14. Transabdominal color doppler ultrasonography: A relevant approach for assessment of effects of uterine torsion in buffaloes

    OpenAIRE

    Devender; Ramesh Kumar Chandolia; Anand Kumar Pandey; Vishal Yadav; Parveen Kumar; Jasmer Dalal

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted on advanced pregnant buffaloes suffering from uterine torsion to assess the status of fetus and uterus by transabdominal ultrasonography, and the findings were compared with normal advanced pregnant buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 clinical cases of uterine torsion and 20 normal advanced pregnant buffaloes (control group). The lower ventral area just lateral to linea alba (on both sides of the udder) in standing animals wa...

  15. Genome Instability of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae from Polluted Water Basins in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ilkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Chironomidae, Diptera collected from two polluted water basins in Bulgaria, the Maritsa and Chaya Rivers (adjacent to Plovdiv and Asenovgrad respectively, a small pool (near Plovdiv plus controls reared in the laboratory were studied. High concentrations of the heavy metals Pb, Cu and Cd were recorded in the sediments of the polluted stations. Marked somatic structural chromosome aberrations were found in C. riparius salivary polytene chromosomes from the field stations and their frequency was significantly higher (p<0.01 compared to the control. The observed somatic chromosome changes are discussed as a response of the chironomid genome to aquatic pollution. A new cytogenetic index based on the number of aberrations found in larvae from polluted regions in comparison with the control was applied to the data to more easily evaluate the degree of heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Our study of a polluted site near the River Chaya showed that the somatic index was very high at 3.35 for 2010 and 11.66 for 2013 compared to 0.5 in the control. The cytogenetic index was effective in showing that all studied sites were highly polluted in comparison with the control. To determine the mechanism involved in the concentration of aberration breakpoints within specific regions of the chironomid polytene chromosome the FISH method was applied. The localization of a transposable element TFB1 along the polytene chromosomes of C. riparius was analyzed and the sites of localization were compared with breakpoints of chromosome aberrations. A significant correlation (p<0.05 was found which shows that most of the aberrations do not appear randomly but are concentrated in sites rich in transposable elements.

  16. Prevalence of Balantidium coli in Buffaloes at different areas of Mymensingh

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, B.C.; Mondal, M. M. H.; Talukder, M.H.; Majumder, S

    2011-01-01

    Balantidium coli is a common protozoan disease of animals. A total of 151 buffaloes were examined through faecal examination, of which 68 (45.03%) found to be infected with B. coli infection. Prevalence of B. coli infection was relatively higher in adult buffaloes (49.52%) aged > 5 years than young (39.29%) aged > 2- ≤ 5 years and buffalo calves (27.78%) aged ≤ 2 years. Higher prevalence of B. coli was observed in female (47.32%) than that of male (38.46%) buffaloes which are not statisticall...

  17. Chemical composition and some properties of modified buffalo milk for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ella, W M; Faharat, S M; Zawahry, M R

    1976-01-01

    A proposed formula for modifying buffalo milk for infant feeding was described. Buffalo milk was diluted with four parts of whey that was produced by addition of citric acid or lemon juice to milk and neutralization with sodium bicarbonate. The chemical composition and the properties of the proposed formula were compared with raw buffalo milk, human milk and buffalo milk modified by the ordinary method. The proposed formula was characterised by low casein/whey protein N comparable to human milk and by curd tension.

  18. A Review of Recent Developments in Buffalo Reproduction — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Warriach

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The buffalo is an important livestock resource in several countries of South Asia and the Mediterranean regions. However, reproductive efficiency is compromised due to known problems of biological and management origins, such as lack of animal selection and poor nutrition. Under optimal conditions puberty is attained at 15 to 18 months in river buffalo, 21 to 24 months in swamp buffalo and is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate. However, under field conditions these values deteriorate up to a significant extant. To improve reproductive efficiency, several protocols of oestrus and ovulation synchronization have been adopted from their use in commercial cattle production. These protocols yield encouraging pregnancy rates of (30% to 50%, which are comparable to those achieved in buffaloes bred at natural oestrus. The use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers also showed promising pregnancy rates (50% when compared with conventional non-sexed semen. Assisted reproductive technologies have been transferred and adapted to buffalo but the efficiency of these technologies are low. However, these latest technologies offer the opportunity to accelerate the genetic gain in the buffalo industry after improving the technology and reducing its cost. Most buffaloes are kept under the small holder farming system in developing countries. Hence, future research should focus on simple, adoptable and impact- oriented approaches which identify the factors determining low fertility and oestrus behaviour in this species. Furthermore, role of kisspeptin needs to be explored in buffalo.

  19. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar, Shyam P.; Mehta, Bhavbhuti M.; K. N. Wadhwani; Darji, V. B.; Aparnathi, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT) of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT ...

  20. PREVALENCE OF ENDO (TREMATODES) AND ECTO-PARASITES IN COWS AND BUFFALOES OF QUETTA, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    M. N. KAKAR AND J. K. KAKARSULEMANKHEL1

    2008-01-01

    Prevalence of endo and ecto-parasites in cows and buffaloes were investigated in Quetta city, Pakistan. A total of 396 livers and gall bladders of cows and 340 of buffaloes were selected randomly. Overall prevalence of liver parasites in cows and buffaloes was 45.70 and 37.05%, respectively. The species found in livers of cows were: Fasciola hepatica (16.16%), Fasciola gigantica (12.37%), Paramphistomum explanatum (7.82%) and mixed infections (9.34%). The corresponding values for buffaloes ...

  1. Effect of Parity and Calving Month on Milk Production and Quality of Greek Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios A. Bampidis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty lactating Greek buffalo cows were used in an experiment to determine effects of parity and calf birth month onproductivity and milk composition. Buffalo cows gave birth on months June and August 2009, and were kept undersemi closed system of management. From June to November, during the day the buffalo cows were allowed to grazeon the surroundings from 10:00 h and flocked back at 16:00 h. In the experiment, which started on week 6postpartum and lasted 24 weeks, buffalo cows were fed alfalfa hay, corn silage, wheat straw and concentrate, andwere allocated, relative to parity, into treatments GBP1 (21 buffalo cows with parity 1, 2, and 3 and GBP2 (19buffalo cows with parity 4, 5, and 6, and, relative to calf birth month, into treatments GBB1 (20 buffalo cows withJune as calf birth month and GBB2 (20 buffalo cows with August as calf birth month. Productivity and milkcomposition were not affected (P>0.05 by calf birth month. During the experiment, there were differences(P0.05 byparity. Milk production and quality of Greek buffalo is generally satisfactory, and may be economically beneficialfor local breeders.

  2. Genome-wide associations for water-soluble carbohydrate concentration and relative maturity in wheat using SNP and DArT marker arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving water-use efficiency by incorporating drought avoidance traits into new wheat varieties is an important objective for wheat breeding in water-limited environments. This study uses genome wide association studies (GWAS) to identify candidate loci for water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation,...

  3. Bread wheat progenitors:Aegilops tauschii(DD genome) andTriticum dicoccoides(AABB genome) reveal differential antioxidative response under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Bains, Navtej Singh

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes are known to play a significant role in scavenging reactive oxygen species and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Activity of four antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) was examined in the flag leaves of nine Aegilops tauschii and three Triticum dicoccoides accessions along with two bread wheat cultivars under irrigated and rain-fed conditions. These accessions were shortlisted from a larger set on the basis of field performance for a set of morpho-physiological traits. At anthesis, significant differences were observed in enzyme activities in two environments. A 45% elevation in average GR activity was observed under rain-fed conditions. Genotypic variation was evident within each environment as well as in terms of response to stress environment. Aegilops tauschii accession 3769 (86% increase in SOD, 41% in CAT, 72% in APX, 48% in GR activity) and acc. 14096 (37% increase in SOD, 32% CAT, 25% APX, 42% GR) showed up-regulation in the activity of all the four studied antioxidant enzymes. Aegilops tauschii accessions-9809, 14189 and 14113 also seemed to have strong induction mechanism as elevated activity of at least three enzymes was observed in them under rain-fed conditions. T. dicoccoides , on the other hand, maintained active antioxidative machinery under irrigated condition with relatively lower induction under stress. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.760) was identified between change in the activity of CAT and GR under stress. Changes in plant height, spike length and grain weight were recorded under stress and non-stress conditions on the basis of which a cumulative tolerance index was deduced and accessions were ranked for drought tolerance. Overall, Ae. tauschii accession 3769, 14096, 14113 (DD-genome) and T. dicoccoides accession 7054 (AABB-genome) may be used as donors to combine beneficial stress adaptive traits of all the three sub-genomes

  4. Draft genome sequence of two Shingopyxis sp. strains H107 and H115 isolated from a chloraminated drinking water distriburion system simulator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Draft genome sequence of two Shingopyxis sp. strains H107 and H115 isolated from a chloraminated drinking water distriburion system simulator. This dataset is...

  5. A report from the Sixth International Mouse Genome Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S. [Saint Mary`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics

    1992-12-31

    The Sixth Annual Mouse Genome Conference was held in October, 1992 at Buffalo, USA. The mouse is one of the primary model organisms in the Human Genome Project. Through the use of gene targeting studies the mouse has become a powerful biological model for the study of gene function and, in addition, the comparison of the many homologous mutations identified in human and mouse have widened our understanding of the biology of these two organisms. A primary goal in the mouse genome program has been to create a genetic map of STSs of high resolution (<1cM) that would form the basis for the physical mapping of the whole mouse genome. Buffalo saw substantial new progress towards the goal of a very high density genetic map and the beginnings of substantive efforts towards physical mapping in chromosome regions with a high density of genetic markers.

  6. Milk flow traits of buffalo cows in intensive farming system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zucali

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The particular morphology of buffalo udder is associated to milking difficulties. To better understandthe characteristics of milk ejection in buffaloes, a study was conducted in an intensive farm in Lombardy, Italy. Atotal of 184 milk flow profiles were measured with an electronic flow meter. The results showed that during the first3 minutes of milking 73% of total milk yield was milked; lag time of milk ejection (1.94 min ± 1.57 was very longand increased significantly with the increasing of lactation stage. The overmilking phase has also a long duration(33% of total milking time, on average. Administration of oxytocin before milking did not significantly affect milkflow parameters and machine on-time. The results suggested that proper pre-milking stimulation and prompt clustertakeoff could improve milking efficiency, ensuring good milk letdown and protecting teat conditions.

  7. Effect of feeding systems on aromatic characteristics of buffalo mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Di Napoli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluated the effect of feeding systems (hay vs ray-grass silage on volatile compounds profiles of mozzarella cheese. Three mozzarella cheese making trials for each experimental group were conducted at our dairy technology laboratory. Mozzarella cheese was manufactured from whole raw water buffalo milk with the addition of natural starter. Volatile compounds were extracted by “purge and trap” system coupled to a gas chromatograph and detected operating with a mass-selective detector (Ciccioli et al., 2004 A total of 84 compounds of the following chemical families were detected: hydrocarbons, fatty acids, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and terpenes. The data overall indicated difference between the aromatic profiles of mozzarella cheese as consequence of feeding systems. Thus, differences in mozzarella cheese flavour are primarily caused by concentration differences of a common set of flavour compounds, rather than by the occurrence of compounds uniquely associated with a particular feed.

  8. Waste utilization of apple pomace as a source of functional ingredient in buffalo meat sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Younis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace was analyzed for its proximate analysis which showed protein content of 4.50% and total dietary fiber of 62.67%. Its functional properties were also carried out which showed high water- and oil-holding capacity of 3.89 gH2O g−1 Solid and 1.92 ml g−1, respectively. Its antimicrobial activity was also found against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and L. monocytogenes. Further, it has shown lower in vitro glucose retardation index. Buffalo meat sausages incorporated with apple pomace powder showed high cooking yield and emulsion stability of 94.46% and 74.70, respectively, as compared to control sausage. Additionally, the dietary fiber content got enhanced with the incorporation of apple pomace powder as expected.

  9. Isolation and antigenicity evaluation of β-lactoglobulin from buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buffalo β-lactoglobulin in phosphate buffer (0.02 M, pH6.8) was adsorbed on DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow gel, and eluted with a linear gradient of NaCl (0-0.5 M) in 0.02 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. A further purification was performed on Sephadex G-75 gel by loading a concentrated and dialyzed fraction of samples ...

  10. Relationship between lactodinamographic and characteristics of buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Potena

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between 44 components and/or characteristics of milk samples collected every 50 days from 60 buffaloes (326 samples and 14,344 values. The animals were half sib (same father or same mother and were bred in two farms. Significant associations but with a low values of coefficient of correlation were present, demonstrating that lactodinamographic parameters marginally affect cheese yield.

  11. Inhibitory activity of the peptides derived from buffalo prolactin on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci. Inhibitory activity of the peptides derived from buffalo prolactin on angiogenesis. JAEOK LEE, SYAMANTAK MAJUMDER, SUVRO CHATTERJEE and KAMBADUR MURALIDHAR. M L1 L2 L3 L4 L5. (A). (B). Densitometry of 15% SDS-PAGE on 20th Oct. 07. 0. 0.5. 1. 1.5. Rf. O.D.. Protein Marker.

  12. Estimates of genetic parameters for fat yield in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors affecting milk fat yield and to estimate genetic parameters of monthly test day fat yields (MTDFY and lactation 305-day fat yield (L305FY in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The data on total of 10381 MTDFY records comprising the first four lactations of 470 Murrah buffaloes calved from 1993 to 2014 were assessed. These buffaloes were sired by 75 bulls maintained in an organized farm at ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. Least squares maximum likelihood program was used to estimate genetic and non-genetic parameters. Heritability estimates were obtained using paternal half-sib correlation method. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among MTDFY, and 305-day fat yield were calculated from the analysis of variance and covariance matrix among sire groups. Results: The overall least squares mean of L305FY was found to be 175.74±4.12 kg. The least squares mean of overall MTDFY ranged from 3.33±0.14 kg (TD-11 to 7.06±0.17 kg (TD-3. The h2 estimate of L305FY was found to be 0.33±0.16 in this study. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations between 305-day fat yield and different MTDFY ranged from 0.32 to 0.48 and 0.51 to 0.99, respectively. Conclusions: In this study, all the genetic and non-genetic factors except age at the first calving group, significantly affected the traits under study. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations of MTDFY with 305-day fat yield was generally higher in the MTDFY-5 of lactation suggesting that this TD yields could be used as the selection criteria for early evaluation and selection of Murrah buffaloes.

  13. Study on growth performance of Murrah buffaloes raised under farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VCRI_AN_GENETICS

    used for this study. Data were analysed using least-squares procedures. The adjusted birth weights of male and female calves were 33.0 ± 0.49 and 31.9 ± 0.27 kg, respectively, with an overall value of 32.4 ± 0.30 kg. .... Murrah buffaloes in its breeding tract are generally hot, semi-arid and dry in nature; whereas the climatic.

  14. Phragmites Management at Times Beach, Buffalo, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    other species in each treatment area was also recorded. Treatment Phragmites % Cover # of other species present TA1 Glyphosate + Cutting 0.82...Biology. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii. Kay, S. 1995. Efficacy of wipe-on applications of glyphosate and imazapyr on common reed in aquatic ...next five years, the site attracted a variety of fish, plant, and bird species . In 1976, the Ornithological Society of Buffalo requested that the USACE

  15. 78 FR 73584 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Corporate Family Merger Exemption-- Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Company CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) and Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh...

  16. Economic Productive Characters of Buffaloes in Relation to Management Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.U. Bidwe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of individual indices, the productive characters of buffaloes was formulated and it was noticed that the dairy farmers had fair management index (between 71 to 80 %. As regards quantity and quality of milk it was noticed that the milk yield was 5.27, 6.21 and 7.2 kg in group I, II and III respectively. The corresponding fat and SNF contents of milk were 6.17 and 8.75, 6.8 and 8.8 and 7.2 and 9.0 % respectively. It was also noticed that the level of management influenced the production in buffaloes. The production under satisfactory management status was 3 to 4, 4 to 5 and 5 to 7 kg under satisfactory, fair and good management index while it was 10 to 14 kg under very good management index. The milk produced by the buffaloes under all the three herd size groups was meeting out the fat content standard according to PFA rules prescribed for Maharashtra but the milk produced under herd size group I and II did not meet out the standards prescribed for SNF content. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 98-99

  17. Comparative clinicopathological changes in buffalo and cattle following infection by Pasteurella multocida B:2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, S; Zamri-Saad, M; Jesse, F F A; Zunita, Z

    2015-11-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffalo of Asia and Africa caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 or E:2. Buffaloes are believed to be more susceptible than cattle. In this study, 9 buffaloes of 8 months old were divided equally into 3 groups (Groups 1, 3, 5). Similarly, 9 cattle of 8 months old were equally divided into 3 groups (Groups 2, 4, 6). Animals of Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated with PBS while Groups 3 and 4 were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(5) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2. Animals of Groups 5 and 6 were inoculated intranasally with the same inoculum. Both buffaloes and cattle that were inoculated subcutaneously succumbed to the infection at 16 h and 18 h, respectively. Two buffaloes that were inoculated intranasally (Group 5) succumbed at 68 h while the remaining cattle and buffaloes survived the 72-h study period. Endotoxin was detected in the blood of infected cattle (Group 4) and buffaloes (Groups 3 and 5) prior to the detection of P. multocida B:2 in the blood. The endotoxin was detected in the blood of buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 at 0.5 h post-inoculation while buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6 at 1.5 h. On the other hand, bacteraemia was detected at 2.5 h in buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 and at 12 h in buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6. Affected cattle and buffaloes showed lesions typical of haemorrhagic septicaemia. These included congestion and haemorrhages in the organs of respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts with evidence of acute inflammatory reactions. The severity of gross and histopathology lesions in cattle and buffalo calves that succumbed to the infection showed insignificant (p > 0.05) difference. However, inoculated buffalo and cattle that survived the infection showed significantly (p multocida B:2 than buffaloes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Haematological and blood biochemical profile in lactating buffaloes in and around Parbhani city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Hagawane

    Full Text Available Forty buffaloes in early, mid and late lactation with a drop in a milk production were screened for haematological and blood biochemical profile. In early stage of lactation haemoglobin concentration showed lowered trend as compared to recorded means in other groups of lactating buffaloes.  The mean value of TLC in dry pregnant group of buffaloes was 10.05± 0.89 X 103 /cmm showed slightly higher trend than the normal healthy control group. The blood glucose was significantly higher in dry buffaloes (52.72±4.22 mg/dl than the early and late lactating buffaloes (48.23±3.44 mg/dl. During early stage of lactation the serum total protein values (8.36±0.47 g/dl was slightly elevated than the normal healthy control (8.00±0.57 g/dl. The urea nitrogen values differ significantly (P<0.05 amongst different groups of lactating buffaloes. The descending trend in the serum cholesterol concentration in dry pregnant buffaloes compared to lactating buffaloes was observed. There was drop in calcium level during early stage of lactation (8.19±0.83 mg/dl than the normal healthy buffaloes (11.21±0.19 mg/dl. As the stage of lactation progresses the serum calcium level increased. Serum magnesium concentration in various groups of buffaloes did not differ significantly. Early lactation showed highest susceptibility for ketosis and hypocalcaemia. The metabolic disorder associated with hypophosphatemia was significantly high in dry (advance pregnant buffaloes. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 467-469

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Brucella abortus SKN 13 Isolated from Placenta of Aborted Cattle in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, H C; Patel, Bharat K; Chandel, B S; Patel, Kirit B; Patel, A C; Shrimali, M D; Patel, S S; Bhagat, A G; Rajgor, Manish; Patel, Mitul A; Patel, Maulik; Kala, Jitendra; Patel, Bhumika

    2016-10-27

    Brucella abortus is generally known to cause brucellosis in cattle and buffalo. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Brucella abortus SKN 13, isolated from aborted cattle placenta in the area of Gujarat, India, providing precious resources for comparative genomic analyses of Brucella field strains. Copyright © 2016 Chauhan et al.

  20. Karyotypic evolution of ribosomal sites in buffalo subspecies and their crossbreed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Marafiga Degrandi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic buffaloes are divided into two group based on cytogenetic characteristics and habitats: the "river buffaloes" with 2n = 50 and the "swamp buffaloes", 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24 in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23. The F1 crossbreed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies.

  1. Sex and age data from cropping of Buffalo Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R Mason

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex and age classifications of buffalo cropped in the Kruger National Park suggest that cropping is biased towards females, and prime breeding individuals of both sexes are apparently under-represented. The implications are discussed in relation to buffalo social organisation and comparative data on population structure.

  2. Diet selection and density estimates of forest buffalo in Campo-Ma'an National Park, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, P.; Jong, de C.B.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2008-01-01

    We studied diet selection and density of forest buffalo in the Campo Ma'an National Park of southern Cameroon. The buffalo's diet in this rainforest comprised 43% grass, including 15%Leptochloa caerulecens. Other species eaten were non-graminoid monocots (21.3%), mainly Commelinaceae (18.2%),

  3. The adrenal gland of the African buffalo, Syncerus caffer: a light and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-02-13

    Feb 13, 1992 ... Although the histology of the adrenal gland of many mammals, particularly domestic animals, is known, the histology of that of the African buffalo, SyncenJs caffer, has not been described previously. Tissue from seven male and female adult buffalo was processed for light and electron microscopy.

  4. 75 FR 57056 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Draft Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment... Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Environmental... comment period. The RMPA/EA will amend the 1985 Buffalo Resource Management Plan. The BLM also announces...

  5. QUARTER-WISE COMPARATIVE PREVALENCE OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES AND CROSSBRED COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32% in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45% frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%, E. coli (18% and Bacillus spp. (14% in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.

  6. Ovarian follicular dynamics in buffaloes during different estrus synchronization protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M.B. Noseir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out on 26 normal cycling buffaloes. Animals were divided into 4 groups according to the hormonal treatment regime. Group 1 included 11 buffaloes without hormonal treatment. Group 2: five buffaloes injected with one dose of 25 mg prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2α after ultrasound diagnosis of a mature corpus luteaum in one ovary. Group 3: five buffaloes injected blindly with two doses of 25 mg PGF2α 11-days interval. Group 4: five buffaloes treated with ovsynch protocol. The pattern of follicular growth (FG and the corpus luteum (CL regression were monitored by transrectal ultrasound scanning. Estradiol 17β and progesterone profiles were estimated by radioimmunoassay for all groups. Buffaloes in Group 1 showed two (72.7% or three (27.3% waves-like patterns of follicular development. The average length of the estrous cycle was 21.75±0.53 and 27.0±0.58 days in 2- and 3- wave cycle respectively. The duration of the CL was 16.63±0.53 and 22.3±0.88 days in 2- and 3- wave cycles. One buffalo in Group 2 did not respond to injection of a single dose of PGF2α, while the other 4 responded. On the day of injection the diameter of the CL was 1.90±0.11 cm and that of dominant follicle was 0.97±0.07 cm. On day 2 after injection the follicle diameter was 1.4±0.09 cm and the preovulatory follicle on days 3-4 was 1.5±0.03 cm. The regressing CL diameter was 1.3±0.07 cm and progesterone level decreased from 6.27±0.82 ng/mL on day 0, to 0.13±0.06 ng/mL on days 3-4 post injection. Estradiol levels were increased from 5.40±1.2 pg/mL on day 0, to 15.09±1.97 pg/mL on day 3-4 post injection. After injection of the first dose of PGF2α, in group 3 the maximum follicle diameter was 1.10±0.04 cm on day 6, then started to regress (0.60±0.04 cm on days 13-17 after injection. In the 2nd wave, the ovulatory follicle showed marked increase from day 2 (0.34±0.01 cm till days 13-17 (1.33±0.08 cm. The diameter of CL increased from 1.53

  7. PATHO-BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN BUFFALOES (BUBALUS BUBALIS SUFFERING FROM PARTURIENT HAEMOGLOBINURIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ZUBAIR AKHTAR, AHRAR KHAN, M. ZARGHAM KHAN AND ASIF JAVAID1

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess the role of glucose, bilirubin, cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase as aetiological factors in parturient haemoglobinuria (PHU in buffaloes and gross and histopathological changes taking place in this disease. For this purpose, 120 buffaloes, including 60 PHU affected and 60 apparently healthy buffaloes were used. These animals were subjected to collection of blood, urine and tissue samples. Blood glucose, serum total bilirubin and serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations in PHU affected buffaloes were significantly higher (P<0.05 than in healthy buffaloes. The colour of urine in PHU affected buffaloes ranged from red, dark red to coffee coloured and its pH was strongly alkaline. Urine of affected buffaloes was positive for haemoglobin (100% and albumin (95% but negative for sugar and ketone bodies. Microscopic examination of urine of affected buffaloes revealed no intact erythrocytes. Grossly, carcasses of buffaloes died of PHU were anaemic and jaundiced. Kidneys, liver and spleen were pale, enlarged and congested. Liver was friable and swollen. Epicardium and endocardium showed ecchymotic haemorrhages. Lungs were emphysemated and oedematous. Histopathologically, kidneys showed necrosis of tubular epithelium and deposition of casts alongwith atrophy of glomeruli. Liver exhibited centrilobular necrosis, haemorrhages and congestion. There was haemosiderin deposition in kidneys, liver and spleen. Heart muscles showed degenerative changes, whereas lungs were haemorrhagic, congested and emphysemated. It was concluded that significantly high blood glucose, serum total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase were found in PHU affected buffaloes. Histopathologically, necrosis of tubular epithelium, deposition of casts along with atrophy of glomeruli, centrilobular necrosis and haemosiderin deposition were the main findings.

  8. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, Nasr-Eldin M; El-Sebaie, Ali; Hammad, Hammad Zaghloul

    2016-06-01

    The present study was designed to: (1) Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2) Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift) in buffalo calves. A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo) were included in the study. Animals were divided into three groups according to their age at weaning as following: Cow calves (n=8) weaned at 4.5 months, buffalo calves (n=6) weaned at 3.5 months (early-weaned), and buffalo calves (n=4) weaned at 5.5 months (late-weaned). Morphological traits, growth metabolites, and hormonal profile were measured at monthly interval over the period of the study and around the time of weaning (2 weeks pre- and post-weaning). The obtained results showed that the trend of growth pattern was significantly increased in a linear pattern in cow calves and late-weaned buffalo calves, whereas early-weaned buffalo calves showed sharp decline in their body weight (BW) post-weaning. By the end of the study, early-weaned buffalo calves showed the lowest BW gain (ill-thrift). There is a positive association between the morphological traits and various growth metabolites and hormonal indices. A significant decrease (pweaned buffalo calves compared to other animals. There is no association between stress indices (cortisol level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio) and growth rate. Suboptimal growth rate (ill-thriftiness) is common in early-weaned buffalo calves and is attributed to low blood levels of growth metabolites, in particularly, IGF-1. In addition, the strong positive associations between concentrations of IGF-1 and morphological characters of growth suggest that IGF-1 is a reliable indicator for assessing metabolic status of individual calves.

  9. Economic and Technical Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind Generation for the New York Buffalo River and South Buffalo Brownfield Opportunity Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.

  10. Whole-Genome Sequences of Four Strains Closely Related to Members of the Mycobacterium chelonae Group, Isolated from Biofilms in a Drinking Water Distribution System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Mycobacterium chelonae group strains from biofilms obtained after a ‘chlorine burn’ in a chloraminated drinking water distribution system simulator. These opportunistic pathogens have been detected in drinking and hospital water distr...

  11. Antioxidant potential of buffalo and cow milk Cheddar cheeses to tackle human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells

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    Nuzhat Huma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of present study was to assess the anti-oxidant potential of water-soluble peptides (WSPs extract derived from buffalo and cow milk Cheddar cheeses at different stages of ripening. Methods The antioxidant potential of WSPs extract was assessed through 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6sulfonic acid (ABTS-radical scavenging activity. In addition, impact of WSPs extract on cell viability and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 (tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced cell lines was also evaluated. Results The ABTS-radical scavenging activity increased progressively with ripening period and dose-dependently in both cheeses. However, peptide extract from buffalo milk Cheddar cheese demonstrated relatively higher activity due to higher contents of water-soluble nitrogen. Intracellular ROS production in Caco-2 cells decreased significantly (p<0.05 till 150th day of cheese ripening and remained constant thereafter. Additionally, dose-dependent response of WSPs extract on antioxidant activity was noticed in the Caco-2 cell line. Conclusion On the basis of current in vitro study, the Cheddar cheese WSPs extract can protect intestinal epithelium against oxidative stress due to their antioxidant activity.

  12. Mortality pattern of Murrah buffalo males in an organised herd

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    Pushp Raj Shivahre

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to analyze mortality pattern in Murrah buffalo males in National Dairy Research Institute herd. Materials and Methods: Records of 1029 Murrah buffalo males born during the period 1997-2012, at NDRI, Karnal, were analyzed to study mortality pattern in different age groups. The percent of animal disposed from the herd due to different reasons was calculated by proportion using descriptive statistics. Results: The overall percent mortality in 0-1m, 1-2m, 2-3m, 3-6m, 6-18m, 18m-3 yr and >3 year age groups were 17.49, 5.99, 3.34, 5.42, 6.35, 2.59 and 3.93, respectively. The main cause of mortality in 0-1, 1-2, 2-3 and 6-18 m of age groups was respiratory problems (6.61%, 1.79%, 1.06% and 1.97% respectively. Main causes of mortality in age group 3-6 months were general debility (1.57% followed by respiratory and digestive problems (1.22%, miscellaneous (0.87%, liver and urinary problems (0.17%. Mortality could not reveal any consistent trend across different seasons and period of birth. General debility (1.29% followed by toxemia, liver problems and miscellaneous reasons were main causes of mortality in age group 18 m – 3 yr of age. In males above three years of age, general debility (2.81% followed by respiratory problems (1.12% were the main causes of mortality. Conclusion: Intensive health care and management is required for young male buffalo calves especially in hot humid months of rainy season and cold inclement weather conditions in winter months to minimize mortality due to respiratory and digestive problems.

  13. Draft genome sequence of Thermus sp. strain RL, isolated from a hot water spring located atop the Himalayan ranges at Manikaran, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Vatsala; Sangwan, Naseer; Nigam, Aeshna; Garg, Nidhi; Niharika, Neha; Khurana, Paramjit; Khurana, Jitendra P; Lal, Rup

    2012-07-01

    Thermus sp. strain RL was isolated from a hot water spring (90°C to 98°C) at Manikaran, Himachal Pradesh, India. Here we report the draft genome sequence (20,36,600 bp) of this strain. The draft genome sequence consists of 17 contigs and 1,986 protein-coding sequences and has an average G+C content of 68.77%.

  14. Analyzing the Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak as from 2008 to 2014 in cattle and buffaloes in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Umanga C; Sivasothy, Arumugumam; Wedasingha, Nihal; Thayaparan, Sivapiragasam; Rotewewa, Bandara; Muralithas, Mahalingam; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak

    2017-12-01

    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that affects all cloven hoofed animals and causes considerable economic losses to cattle and buffalo farmers worldwide. FMD is endemic to Sri Lanka. The objective of this study was to analyze the past situation of FMD from 2008 to 2014 in the country and to identify relevant risk factors associated with the 2014 outbreak. Outbreak data from the Department of Animal Production and Health, Sri Lanka from 2008 to 2014 were used to describe the spatial distribution and to determine associations between the frequency of outbreaks across the country (nine provinces) and factors including vaccination coverage and outbreak year. A questionnaire was used to collect the information on potential risk factors for FMD for the 2014 outbreak from case farms (n=83) and control farms (n=161). Seven focus group (FG) discussions with farmers and five in-depth interviews with veterinarians and livestock officers were conducted. A negative binomial regression model was constructed to determine the relationship between frequencies of outbreaks by province, year, vaccine coverage and bovine numbers per province. A logistic regression model was used to determine the association between potential risk factors and disease status of the farm. There was no association between vaccination coverage and outbreak frequencies at province level (Risk Ratio=1.02; 95% CI=0.09, 1.05). Based on our cases-control study there were five variables significantly associated with the FMD spread: cattle/buffalo contact with nearby villages (Odds Ratio=2.88; 95% CI: 1.23-6.72), cattle/buffalo grazing near water tank areas (OR=3.11;95% CI: 1.21-7.97), animals bought or sold during the outbreak (OR=3.3; 95% CI: 1.39-7.83), being near to a road where animal traders travel (OR=3.44 95% CI: 1.10-10.79), and being fed on the floor instead of feed troughs (OR=2.61,1.08-6.31). The major risk factor identified here was cattle/buffalo movement by means of

  15. Serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility, and virulence genes screening of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from diarrheic buffalo calves in Egyptian farms

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    Ashraf S. Hakim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In Egypt as in many other countries, river water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis is considered an important source of high-quality milk and meat supply. The objective of this study was to investigate serotypes, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance determinants profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from buffalo at some places in Egypt; noticibly, this issue was not discussed in the country yet. Materials and Methods: A number of 58 rectal samples were collected from diarrheic buffalo calves in different regions in Egypt, and bacteriological investigated for E. coli existence. The E. coli isolates were biochemically, serologicaly identified, tested for antibiotic susceptibility, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyzed for the presence of antibiotic resistance determinants and virulence genes. Results: Overall 14 isolates typed as E. coli (24.1%; 6 were belonged to serogroup O78 (10.3%, followed by O125 (4 isolates, 6.9%, then O158 (3 isolates, 5.2% and one isolate O8 (1.7%, among them, there were 5 E. coli isolates showed a picture of hemolysis (35.7%. The isolates exhibited a high resistance to β lactams over 60%, followed by sulfa (50% and aminoglucoside (42.8% group, in the same time the isolates were sensitive to quinolone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline (100%, and cephalosporine groups (71.4%. A multiplex PCR was applied to the 14 E. coli isolates revealed that all were carrying at least one gene, as 10 carried blaTEM (71.4%, 8 Sul1 (57.1%, and 6 aadB (42.8%, and 9 isolates could be considered multidrug resistant (MDR by an incidence of 64.3%. A PCR survey was stratified for the most important E. coli virulence genes, and showed the presence of Shiga toxins in 9 isolates carried either one or the two Stx genes (64.3%, 5 isolates carried hylA gene (35.7%, and eae in 2 isolates only (14.3%, all isolates carried at least one virulence gene except two (85.7%. Conclusion: The obtained data displayed that in Egypt, buffalo as

  16. PREVALENCE OF ENDO (TREMATODES AND ECTO-PARASITES IN COWS AND BUFFALOES OF QUETTA, PAKISTAN

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    M. N. KAKAR AND J. K. KAKARSULEMANKHEL1

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of endo and ecto-parasites in cows and buffaloes were investigated in Quetta city, Pakistan. A total of 396 livers and gall bladders of cows and 340 of buffaloes were selected randomly. Overall prevalence of liver parasites in cows and buffaloes was 45.70 and 37.05%, respectively. The species found in livers of cows were: Fasciola hepatica (16.16%, Fasciola gigantica (12.37%, Paramphistomum explanatum (7.82% and mixed infections (9.34%. The corresponding values for buffaloes were 11.47, 13.52, 5.58 and 6.47%. For ecto-parasites, out of 404 cows and 386 buffaloes examined, 28.96 and 25.64% respectively gave positive results for ecto-parasites. The prevalence of ticks, lice, mites and mixed infection was found to be 10.14, 7.17, 5.19 and 6.43%, respectively in cows and 6.99, 9.84, 4.92 and 3.88% respectively in buffaloes. It was concluded that the prevalence of endo and ecto-parasites in cows was higher than in buffaloes due to differences in feeding habits and hygienic habitats of the two species.

  17. A comparative therapeutic management of anoestrus in buffaloes using insulin and GnRH

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    R. D. Purkayastha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Anoestrus is one of the most common functional disorders of the reproductive cycle in buffaloes. In spite of technical advancement, there is no single cure for the management of anoestrus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out the efficacy of gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH and metabolic hormone for the management of true anoestrus in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The experimental animals were selected on the basis of history, gyneco-clinical examinations and progesterone estimation. Deworming was done with Fenbendazole and thereafter mineral mixture was given @ 50 g per animal per day for 10 days in all the selected buffaloes before the start of treatment. The selected buffaloes were randomly divided into four groups (n=25. In Group I, buffaloes were administered 20 μg of buserelin intramuscularly. Buffaloes of Group II were administered long-acting insulin @ 0.25 IU/Kg body weight subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days. In Group III, buffaloes were treated with a combination of insulin and buserelin in the above-mentioned doses whereas buffaloes of Group IV were kept as untreated control. Results: The higher oestrus induction (64% vs. 28% was found in Group III and differed significantly (p<0.05 as compared to control group. The conception rate (69.23% vs. 66.66% was also found higher in Group III but did not differ significantly among the treated groups. The mean time taken for the onset of oestrus was recorded significantly shorter in insulin (8.80±0.69 and GnRH (7.60±0.92 days alone and as compared to other (Group III, 14.43±0.83 and Group IV, 20.57±1.69 days groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated better fertility response using Insulin plus Buserelin in true anoestrus buffaloes under field conditions.

  18. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (p<0.001). In addition, one buffalo lymphoma sample was negative in both PCR assays used in this study. BLV was not detected in buffaloes from the Amazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Somatic cell count and alkaline phosphatase activity in milk for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo

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    M. P. Patil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Mastitis is a serious disease of dairy animals causing great economic losses due to a reduction in milk yield as well as lowering its nutritive value. The application of somatic cell count (SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity in the milk for diagnosis of mastitis in buffalo is not well documented. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo. Materials and Methods: Milk samples of forty apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were selected and categorized into five different groups viz. normal buffaloes, buffaloes with subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples (+1 Grade, (+2 Grade, (+3 Grade, and buffaloes with clinical mastitis with 8 animals in each group. The milk samples were analyzed for SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity. Results: The levels of SCC (×105 cells/ml and alkaline phosphatase (U/L in different groups were viz. normal (3.21±0.179, 16.48±1.432, subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples with +1 Grade (4.21±0.138, 28.11±1.013, with +2 Grade (6.34±0.183, 34.50±1.034, with +3 Grade (7.96±0.213, 37.73±0.737 and buffaloes with clinical mastitis (10.21±0.220, 42.37±0.907 respectively, indicating an increasing trend in the values and the difference observed among various group was statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the concentration of milk SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in the milk of buffaloes with mastitis than in the milk of normal buffaloes.

  20. SHORT AND ATYPICAL LACTATIONS IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALOES

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    M. S. Khan and H. Z. Chaudhry

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on 2704 lactations of 993 Nili-Ravi buffaloes were analyzed to investigate the extent and behavior of short and complete lactations. Lactation milk yield up to 44 weeks was used and lactations with less .than eight weeks of duration were excluded. Fifty nine percent of the lactation records were shorter than 44 weeks. When minimum lactation length was required to be 26 weeks, 11% of lactations did not meet this criterion. Among 2107 lactations of< 308 days duration, reasons of drying were known for 534 lactations (25%. Out of these 31% had mastitis, 16% were shorter because buffaloes had been auctioned while she was in milk, 13% had bad temperament .while the other 40% were short because of reproductive problems and other reasons such as death of calf, old age, disease etc. Lactation curves were different for first and later parities with lactations of different duration. About 10% of lactations were atypical, with first calvers having the highest frequency. Improvement in data recording will help explore lactation length problems mote precisely in future.

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH MURRAH BUFFALO AND INDIGENOUS GIR SPERMATOZOA TO HYPO-OSMOTIC SWELLING TEST

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    Sumit Chowdhury

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypo-Osmotic Swelling Test (HOST is a simple but authentic test to measure the integrity of sperm membrane. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the HOST value in Murrah buffalo and indigenous Gir bull in 150 mosm/l tri-sodium citrate and D-fructose HOST solution. Murrah buffalo was having more HOST (49±0.39 % reacted spermatozoa than indigenous Gir (42±0.57 % bulls suggesting lesser membrane damage during cryo-preservation and higher fertility rate in Murrah buffalo than Gir cattle.

  2. TUTORIALS ON AFRICAN BUFFALO OPTIMIZATION FOR SOLVING THE TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM

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    Odili J.B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The African Buffalo Optimization is a newly designed metaheuristic optimization algorithm inspired by the migration of African buffalos from place to place across the vast African forests, deserts and savannah in search of food. Being a new algorithm, several researchers from different parts of the research world have indicated huge interest in understanding the working of the novel algorithm. This paper presents a practical demonstration of the workings of the African Buffalo Optimization in solving the popular travelling salesman problem. It is our belief that this tutorial paper will be helpful in further introducing the new algorithm and making it user-friendly.

  3. Documenting Temporal Changes in Channel Geometry of the Buffalo RiverResulting from a Large-Scale Environmental Dredging Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, J.; Bajo, J. V.; Pfender, K.; Luther, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Buffalo River is classified as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to loss of habitat, poor water quality, and contaminated bottom sediments. Much attention is being paid to restoring the environmental health of the river with the goal to address the environmental impairments and de-list the river. In support of this effort, an environmental dredging project taking place between 2011 and 2015 removed over 1 million cubic yards of highly contaminated sediment. To support this project, sounding surveys were conducted before, during, and after removal of sediment to determine the amount of sediment to be removed from different 'dredge cells' in the river. These digital data, available upon request from the United States Army Corps of Engineers and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, are being used to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) using ArcGIS 10.3.1. The DEMs are compared to show channel topography and generate cross sectional profiles. Findings show channel deepening of several meters along with channel widening >10m in some dredged portions of the river. Other areas show decrease in depth and suggest local slumping and redeposition of dredged sediment. The sounding data available throughout the stages of the environmental dredging project support an improved understanding of the temporal changes to Buffalo River's channel resulting from the dredging project. The findings also advance our fundamental understanding about the response by rivers to channel modifications.

  4. A preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda

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    G. Kalema-Zikusoka

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging African buffaloes, (Syncerus caffer from May to June 1997 in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Using the gamma interferon test, exposure to M. bovis was detected in 21.6 % of the buffaloes. One dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from which M. bovis was isolated. None of the buffaloes sampled in Sector A of the park, which has no cattle interface, tested positive for bovine tuberculosis (BTB exposure. The prevalence and distribution of BTB does not appear to have changed significantly since the 1960s, but this may be due to fluxes in the buffalo population. Serological testing for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD demonstrated positive exposure of 57.1% of the buffaloes sampled, with types A, O and SAT 1-3, which is the first known report of FMD antibodies to A and O types in free ranging African buffaloes. Foot-and-mouth disease virus types SAT 1 and SAT 3 were isolated from buffalo probang samples. Two percent of the buffaloes had been exposed to brucellosis. None of the buffaloes tested had antibodies to rinderpest, leptospirosis or Q fever.

  5. SOME CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL OBSERVATIONS OF PARTURIENT HAEMOGLOBINURIA IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALOES (BUBALUS BUBALIS

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    M. Z. AKHTAR, A. KHAN, T. ZAMAN AND N. AHMAD1

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was executed to know the clinico-epidemiology of parturient haemoglobinuria (PHU in buffaloes. A total of 60 buffaloes suffering from PHU were randomly selected from field cases occurring in Faisalabad, Toba Tek Singh and Jhang districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Sixty clinically healthy buffaloes of similar description from the same localities were also included in the study as control. The most prominent clinical sign was passing of red to coffee coloured urine. Milk production in affected buffaloes was significantly (P<0.001 reduced, while respiration and pulse rates were accelerated (P<0.001. Ruminal motility was significantly weak and reduced alongwith characteristic straining while defecating. The case fatality was 15%. A significantly higher occurrence of PHU was observed in the winter season (41.8%. Maximum number of affected buffaloes (25.0% was in 4th lactation. Twenty seven (45.0% buffaloes developed haemoglobinuria in the post calving period and majority (59.3% of these were within 1-23 days of calving. Of the 33(55.0% PHU affected pregnant buffaloes, 18 (54.6% were in their third trimester. The highest cases of PHU were observed in buffaloes producing 10 or more litres of milk/day (42.5%. Recurrence of PHU was observed in 18.3% buffaloes. Berseem constituted a major component (65% of fodders of most of the PHU affected buffaloes. Significantly lowered serum phosphorus, copper and selenium, while higher potassium, iron and molybdenum, were found in affected buffaloes as compared to healthy buffaloes. It was concluded that PHU mostly affects high yielding buffaloes in their 3-5th lactation particularly in early lactation or advanced pregnancy. Disease is strongly associated with Berseem feeding in winter season.

  6. Identification of Theileria parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) 18S rRNA gene sequence variants in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Collins, Nicola E; Potgieter, Fred T; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2011-12-15

    Theileria parva is the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle in South Africa. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the reservoir host, and, as these animals are important for eco-tourism in South Africa, it is compulsory to test and certify them disease free prior to translocation. A T. parva-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene is one of the tests used for the diagnosis of the parasite in buffalo and cattle in South Africa. However, because of the high similarity between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), the latter is also amplified by the real-time PCR primers, although it is not detected by the T. parva-specific hybridization probes. Preliminary sequencing studies have revealed a small number of sequence differences within the 18S rRNA gene in both species but the extent of this sequence variation is unknown. The aim of the current study was to sequence the 18S rRNA genes of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), and to determine whether all identified genotypes can be correctly detected by the real-time PCR assay. The reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to identify T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) positive samples from buffalo blood samples originating from the Kruger National Park, Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park, and a private game ranch in the Hoedspruit area. T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) were identified in 42% and 28%, respectively, of 252 samples, mainly as mixed infections. The full-length 18S rRNA gene of selected samples was amplified, cloned and sequenced. From a total of 20 sequences obtained, 10 grouped with previously published T. parva sequences from GenBank while 10 sequences grouped with a previously published Theileria sp. (buffalo) sequence. All these formed a monophyletic group with known pathogenic Theileria species. Our phylogenetic analyses confirm the

  7. Temperamento em bubalinos: testes de mensuração Temperament in buffalos: mensurament tests

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    Sabina Secchin Scárdua

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a aplicabilidade, para búfalos (Bubalus bubalis, de testes de avaliação de temperamento, utilizados para bovinos. Foram avaliados os testes de docilidade, teste de reação a objetos novos, de tronco e de isolamento social em 12 bezerros e suas 12 mães, separadamente. Tanto os bezerros como suas mães responderam a todos os testes com vários comportamentos. Para os bezerros e as mães, os testes que promoveram maior número de comportamentos foram o de tronco e de reação a objetos novos. Houve diferenças individuais (coeficiente de variação de 32-51% nos resultados de todos os testes tanto nos bezerros como nas mães. Os resultados individuais, em testes de isolamento social e de reação a objetos novos apresentaram correlação positiva tanto com as mães (rs = 0,76, PThe objective of this study was to assess the applicability of temperament tests commonly used in bovines for water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis. The tests for docility, reaction to a novel object, squeeze cage and social isolation were applied individually with 12 calves and their 12 mothers. Both calves and their mothers responded to all tests with a variety of behaviors. The tests that elicited the larger number of behaviors were the squeeze cage and the novel object. There were large individual differences (coefficients of variation of 32-51% in the scores for all tests for calves and adults. The individual scores for the tests of isolation and novel object were significantly correlated for calves (rs = 0.66, P< 0.01 and adults (rs = 0.76, P< 0.01. Using the criteria of sensitivity (range of individual differences, responsiveness and applicability, the squeeze cage test and the isolation test seem well suited for water buffaloes.

  8. Ultra-structural study of Egyptian Buffalo oocytes before and after in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-12

    2008). Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) preantral follicle population and ultrastructural characterization of antral follicle oocyte. Reprod. Dom. Anim. Epub ahead of print. Boni R, Santella L, Dale B, Roviello S, Di. Palo R, Barbieri V (1992).

  9. An integrated regional planning/microsimulation model for the Buffalo/Niagara Falls area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This presentation examines the major planning issues facing the Buffalo and Niagara Falls area, which include freight, cross border congestion, and domestic issues. A Transportation Analysis and Simulation System (TRANSIMS) model is discussed that co...

  10. Population Dynamics of Banteng, Buffalo and Deer in Bekol Savannah, Baluran National Park

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SUHADI

    2009-01-01

    .... Research method use population dynamics perception of banteng, buffalo and deer in savannah of Bekol year 2004 and year 2005 as primary data, while secondary data year population dynamics 2003, 2004...

  11. Schistosoma mansoni: on the possibility of Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) being experimentally infected

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho; Walter S. Lima; Raimundo H. G. Nogueira

    1989-01-01

    Male Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves were submitted to Schistosoma mansoni infection by percutaneous, oral and subcutaneous routes. No worms or eggs were found in four of the animals tested. Bubalus bubalis appears to be refractory for S. mansoni.

  12. Phase II Contaminants Investigation of Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, 1993-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge is located in the Southern High Plains in Randall County, Texas. The lake from which the Refuge received its name has not...

  13. Effect of steroids on ovarian follicle growth in river buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Seraj

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to control follicular growth using norgestomet implant along with steroids in river buffalo. The estrous cycle of females (n=12 was synchronized with two prostaglandin F2α analogue (PG; 15 mg, IM; Prosolvin®, Intervet, Holland injections, 14 days apart. On Day 6 or 7 of the ensuing cycle (Day 0 of experiment, females received norgestomet implant (NORG; 3 mg; Crestar®, Intervet, Holland. Females received PG on Days 0, 1 and 13. On Day 5, females assigned randomly into three groups (n=4 in each group. The females of the 1st and 2nd groups received 2 and 5 mg estradiol benzoate (EB; Aburaihan, Iran, respectively, in association with 100mg of progesterone (PROG; Aburaihan, Iran. Group three females were did not receive any further treatment (control. The implant was removed on Day 14. Daily Ultrasonography was conducted to identify ovarian structures. In control group females, ovarian dominant follicle became persistent (PDF and ovulation of PDF occurred within 64±8 hours after implant removal. In steroid groups, the injection of 2mg (Group 1 and 5mg (Group 2 EB along with 100mg PROG caused regression of PDF in 50% and 100% of treated females, respectively. The time of follicular regression (2mg: 5.5±1.5 days; 5mg: 5.5±0.87 days and the emergence of the new follicular wave (2mg: 8 day; 5mg: 7.5±0.5 days were not different between steroid treated groups (P>0.05. None of the treated animals in these groups had ovulation during 5 days after implant removal. In conclusion, 5 mg EB in association with 100 mg PROG results in a consistent follicle regression followed by an emergence of new follicular wave. However, steroids along with NORG may not be advised in river buffalo due to the ovulation failure after implant removal. This might be due to the high sensitivity of river buffalo to steroid treatments.

  14. Efeitos de níveis crescentes de fibra em detergente neutro na dieta sobre a digestão ruminal em bubalinos e bovinos Effects of the increasing levels of neutral detergent fiber in the diet on the digestion in water buffaloes and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedilse Helena de Souza

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Quatro bubalinos e quatro bovinos adultos com fístulas ruminais foram utilizados com o objetivo de se estudar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro na dieta sobre as características digestão ruminal. Foram avaliadas as degradabilidades da matéria seca, fibra em detergente neutro do feno de coastcross e do farelo de trigo, matéria seca do milho em grãos moídos e do farelo de soja; digestibilidade com indicador (Cr2O3. Os animais foram delineados em dois quadrados latinos (4x4 com arranjo fatorial 4x2, sendo quatro níveis crescentes de FDN na MS (54, 60, 66 e 72% e duas espécies (bubalinos e bovinos. Cada subperíodo compreendeu 29 dias, sendo 13 de adaptação. Os bubalinos apresentaram maior desaparecimento ruminal da MS e FDN do feno de coastcross e da MS do farelo de soja que os bovinos, na maioria dos tempos de incubação. Por outro lado, o desaparecimento ruminal da FDN do farelo de trigo foi maior para os bovinos, somente nas primeiras horas. Para o coeficiente de digestibilidade da MS, houve interação de espécies com níveis de FDN. O coeficiente de digestibilidade da FDN foi influenciado pelos níveis de FDN e, para o coeficiente de digestibilidade da PB, não foram notados efeitos de espécies ou níveis de FDN.Four buffaloes and four cattle rumen fistulated were used with the objective to study the effects of different levels of neutral detergent fiber in the diet on the digestion characteristics. The In situ degradations of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF of the coastcross hay and wheat meal, DM of the corn ground and soybean meal were evaluated. The digestibilities of DM, crude protein and NDF of the diets were also evaluated using a Cr2O3 as a marker. The animals were allotted to two in a 4x2 factorial arrangement with four increasing levels of NDF in the DM (54, 60, 66 and 72% and two animal species (buffaloes and cattle. Four twenty-nine days subperiods were used, with 13 days for

  15. Response of primiparous and multiparous buffaloes to yeast culture supplementation during early and mid-lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne H. Hansen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strains of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast have exhibited probiotic effects in ruminants. This study investigated the effects of the dietary yeast supplement, S. cerevisiae (Yea-Sacc1026, on primiparous (PP and multiparous (MP Egyptian buffaloes in early to mid-lactation. Lactating buffaloes were fed either a basal total mixed ration (TMR, control; 4 PP and 8 MP or the basal TMR plus 10 g Yea-Sacc1026 per buffalo cow per day (yeast; 4 PP and 8 MP. The feeds were given from 15 days prepartum to 180 days postpartum. Feed intake, body weight, and milk yields (MY were recorded, and milk and blood samples were collected for analyses. Feces were collected from days 45 to 47 during early lactation and from days 90 to 92 during mid-lactation to determine apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP and crude fiber (CF. Energy corrected milk yield (ECM, feed conversion, and energy and nitrogen conversion efficiency were calculated. Yeast treated MP buffaloes consumed more DM (P ≤ 0.041 and CP than the untreated control group. Apparent digestibility of DM and OM were significantly greater at mid-lactation for treated versus control group (P = 0.001. Crude fiber digestibility was greater in MP than in PP buffaloes (P = 0.049, and yeast supplemented MP cows had a greater CF digestibility than control MP buffaloes at mid-lactation (P = 0.010. Total blood lipids decreased after yeast supplementation (P = 0.029. Milk yields, ECM, fat and protein yields increased for yeast treated MP buffaloes (P ≤ 0.039. The study concluded that the response to yeast supplementation in buffalo cows is parity dependent. Multiparous buffaloes respond to yeast supplementation with an increased DM intake and CF digestibility without significant weight gains, allowing a greater ECM yield with less fat mobilization. Supplementing buffaloes with yeast culture may increase milk production in early lactation and results in a

  16. High-resolution haplotype block structure in the cattle genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bovine HapMap Consortium has generated assay panels to genotype ~30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 501 animals sampled from 19 worldwide taurine and indicine breeds, plus two outgroup species (Anoa and Water Buffalo). Within the larger set of SNPs we targeted 101 high density re...

  17. Use of peripheral blood for production of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos by handmade cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotsana, Basanti; Sahare, Amol A; Raja, Anuj K; Singh, Karn P; Nala, Narendra; Singla, S K; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Palta, P

    2016-09-15

    Buffalo embryos were produced by handmade cloning using peripheral blood-derived lymphocytes as donor cells. Although the blastocyst rate was lower (P cloned groups. The level of H3K27me3 was similar among the three groups. The expression level of DNMT1, DNMT3a, HDAC1, and IGF-1R was higher (P cloning embryos in bubaline buffaloes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic Variation of mtDNA Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI in Local Swamp Buffaloes in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saputra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify genetic variation of mitochondria DNA especially in cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI among population of Indonesian buffaloes. Samples of swamp buffaloes were collected from Aceh (n= 3, North Sumatra (n= 3, Riau (n= 3, Banten (n= 3, Central Java (n= 3, West Nusa Tenggara (n= 3 and South Sulawesi (n= 3, and riverine buffalo from North Sumatra (n= 1 out of group for comparison. Sequence of COI was analyzed using MEGA 5.10 software with neighbor-joining method kimura 2-parameter model to reconstruct phylogeny tree. The result showed that three haplotypes for swamp buffalo and one haplotype for riverine buffalo in Indonesia resulted from 41 polymorphic sites. This finding showed that the COI gene could be considered as a marker to distinguish among swamp buffaloes in Indonesia.

  19. Genome-enabled selection doubles the accuracy of predicted breeding values for bacterial cold water disease resistance compared to traditional family-based selection in rainbow trout aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown previously that bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance in rainbow trout can be improved using traditional family-based selection, but progress has been limited to exploiting only between-family genetic variation. Genomic selection (GS) is a new alternative enabling exploitation...

  20. Structural changes of in vitro matured buffalo and bovine oocytes following cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina De Blasi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate chromatin and spindle organization of buffalo and bovine in vitro matured oocytes after vitrification/warming by Cryotop and after their exposure to cryoprotectants (CP. In vitro matured oocytes were vitrified/warmed and exposed to the vitrification/warming solutions containing ethylene glycol (EG, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and sucrose as CP. Two hours after warming, oocytes were fixed and immunostained for microtubules and nuclei and examined by fluorescence microscopy. Data were analyzed by Chi Square test. A higher percentage of Telophase II stage oocytes was found in the toxicity (26 and 34% in bovine and buffalo and the vitrification groups (13 and 7% in bovine and buffalo compared to the control, indicating occurrence of activation. An increased percentage of oocytes with abnormal spindle and chromosome organization was found in oocytes exposed to CP (24 and 13% in bovine; 32 and 30% in buffalo respectively and in those vitrified (26 and 31% in bovine; 26 and 29% in buffalo respectively compared to the control (0 in bovine and 2.5 % in buffalo.

  1. Passive transfer status and growth performance in newborn buffalo calves allowed to nurse the dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Avallone

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of passive transfer status, determined by measuring serum IgG concentration 24 hours after parturition, on growth performance in buffalo calves fed milk replacer or allowed to nurse the dam during the first month of life. Experiment consisted of 24 healthy buffalo calves from birth to 30 days old. Significant quadratic associations were detected between serum IgG concentration 24 hours after birth and day-30 weight (P < 0.05; R2 = 0.62 and between serum IgG concentration 24 hours after birth and the mean daily gain from birth to day 30 (P < 0.01; R2 = 0.74 in buffalo calves allowed to nurse the dam. No significant association was detected between serum IgG concentration 24 hours after birth and measures of growth performance in buffalo calves fed milk replacer. Results indicated that passive transfer status, determined as serum IgG concentration 24 hours after birth, was a significant source of variation in growth performance when buffalo calves nursed the dam. Maximizing passive transfer of immunity by allowing buffalo calves to nurse the dam increased the growth performance during the first month of life.

  2. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

    2012-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (pmilk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk.

  3. Evaluation of feeding steam treated bagasse pith on milk production and blood parameters of dairy buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Kasiri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding steam treated baggase pith of sugar cane (STP in feeding of buffalos. Eight milking buffaloes with the average live weight 541 ±47.5 kg were used in a complete randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications during 84 days. Diets contained forage: concentrate ratio 45:55. Concentrates were included amounts of 0,10,20 and 30 percent of steam treated pith bagasse (STP witch replaced with beet pulp sugar. Results indicted that, there were significant differences (P<0.05 affected by the diets. Diets included 20 and 30% STP had greater milk production with no differences in milk composition. Buffaloes fed 0 % STP had low milk fat and protein where as buffaloes had 30% had higher milk yield. The mean rumination times between treatment diets were significantly different (P<0.05. However, significant differences (P<0.05 were observed in plasma glucose and cholesterol concentrations in the experimental buffaloes cow. Buffaloes fed 30% STP had higher plasma insulin concentrates in response to a glucose challenge.

  4. Genetic characteristic of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Pampangan, South Sumatra based on blood protein profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windusari, Yuanita; Hanum, Laila; Wahyudi, Rizki

    2017-11-01

    Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an endemic species and one of the genetic wealth of South Sumatra with a distribution area in the district of Pampangan (OganIlir and OganOganIlir). Suspected inbreeding causes decreased phenotypic properties. Inbreeding among various swamp buffalo is certainly not only lower the qualities but also genotypes and phenotypes. It is of interest to determine kinship variants swamp buffaloes from Pampangan through the analysis of a blood protein profile. Blood protein profile of four variants swamps buffalo was studied by using five electrophoresis system i.e. pre-albumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf) and transferrin post (Ptf). In this paper, it is obtained that there was no significant differences among the four variants of the buffaloes were used as a sample. Prealbumin has two alleles (Palb1 and Palb2), albumin has three alleles (Alba, AlbB, AlbC), ceruloplasmin has one allele (BPA), post-transferrin has one allele (PTFA) with an allele frequency 1.0000 at any time transferrin has two alleles (TFA and TFB) with the allele frequency of 0.7500 and 1.0000. Characteristics prealbumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and post-transferrin (P-tf) is monomorphic, while transferrin is polymorphic average heterozygosity values all loci (H) 0.1286. Based on average heterozygosity, the swamp buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) from Pampangan has low genetic variation and closest genetic relationship.

  5. The Response of Iraqi buffaloes to standardized diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Khlef

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This Experiment was conducted in the Newashi village of Thiqar province in the south of Iraq from 15 October till 31 December 2006. A sample of 50 milking buffaloes in 1st to 7th lactation were randomly choosed in three nearby herds , then divided into two equal groups for the treatment and the control. After 10 days of adaptation, the treated group was fed the standardized diet which was consisted of: Alfa Alfa hay ,12 kg/day, concentrates, 8 kg/day. The concentrate consists of barley grains 37%, maize grain 15%, wheat bran 40%, rice bran 5%,calcium carbonate 2% and food salt 1% .The control group was fed -as it is usual in the region –reed roughages , rice straws, dray bred and some wheat bran. Daily milk yield for the whole sample, cream( ghiamer and fat percent rom randomly choosed individuals from each group were measured . Simple linear model was used to detect the effect of the lactation, herd, calf sex and milking time on the traits . Duncan test was used to compare the differences between means . The results obtained showed that the lactation , herd, sex of calf and milking time had significant effect on the traits (p< 0.001. The diet had significantly affected daily milk yield , cream and fat percent ( 8.40 ± 1.75 vis 5.67 ± 1.41,21± 6.6 vis 9.79 3.24, and 12.4.11 vis 5.88±1.95 for the treated group vis. the control group (p<0.001.Accordingly, it can be assumed that the Iraqi buffaloes have good potential to produce more milk and fat under standardized feed condition.

  6. Physicochemical Biomolecular Insights into Buffalo Milk-Derived Nanovesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddela, Vijay Simha; Nayan, Varij; Rani, Payal; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2016-02-01

    Milk is a natural nutraceutical produced by mammals. The nanovesicles of milk play a role in horizontal gene transfer and confer health-benefits to milk consumers. These nanovesicles contain miRNA, mRNA, and proteins which mediate the intercellular communication. In this work, we isolated and characterized the buffalo milk-derived nanovesicles by dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Western probing, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The DLS data suggested a bimodal size distribution with one mode near 50 nm and the other around 200 nm for the nanovesicles. The NTA and SEM data also supported the size of nanovesicles within a range of 50-200 nm. The FTIR measurements of nanovesicles identified some prominent absorption bands attributable to the proteins (1300-1700 cm(-1), amide A and amide B bands), lipids (2800-3100 cm(-1)), polysaccharides, and nucleic acids (900-1200 cm(-1)). The comparative expression profiles of immune miRNA signatures (miR-15b, miR-21, miR-27b, miR-125b, miR-155, and miR-500) in nanovesicles isolated from milk, serum, and urine revealed that these miRNAs are present abundantly (P < 0.05) in milk-derived nanovesicles. Milk miRNAs (miR-21 and 500) that were also found stable under different household storage conditions indicated that these could be biologically available to milk consumers. Overall, nanovesicles are a new class of bioactive compounds from buffalo milk with high proportion of stable immune miRNAs compared to urine and plasma of same animals.

  7. Estimation of the intercalving period in Italian Mediterranean buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to estimate the average intercalving period of a buffalo herd/population, by using the percentage of subjects that are able to conceive within 90 days post-partum, and that, consequently, have an intercalving period lower than 400 days, in order to give a precocious judgment on its fertility. A total number of 8,845 intercalving periods were recorded in 4 farms and 4 Provinces of Campania and Lazio Regions. In all the farms the out of breeding season mating technique was adopted and a constant diet was administered throughout the year. Values were grouped for primiparous and pluriparous buffaloes and were divided in four calving periods: January-March; April-June; July-September; October-December. Within each group/farm ANOVA was performed and the means were analysed by t Student test. In each group the mean value and the percentage of subjects with an intercalving period lower than 400 days (% < 400 days were calculated and the regression analysis was carried out between the values of the intercalving periods and the % < 400 days. Finally, an all-in regression analysis was performed by using the data of 55 groups, excluding those with less than 25 values. The regression analysis between % < 400 days and the mean value of the intercalving period was always significant, except in one case. The comparison between the real values and those calculated allows to affirm that, if the percentage of subjects with an intercalving period lower than 400 days is higher than 50%, an intercalving period lower than 450 days will be probably recorded.

  8. Swamp buffalo keeping – an out-dated farming activity? A case study in smallholder farming systems in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schiborra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of rubber tree plantations and agricultural mechanization caused a decline of swamp buffalo numbers in the Naban River National Nature Reserve (NRNNR, Yunnan Province, China. We analysed current use of buffaloes for field work and the recent development of the regional buffalo population, based on interviews with 184 farmers in 2007/2008 and discussions with 62 buffalo keepers in 2009. Three types of NRNNR farms were distinguished, differing mainly in altitude, area under rubber, and involvement in livestock husbandry. While pig based farms (PB; n=37 have abandoned buffalo keeping, 11% of the rubber based farms (RB; n=71 and 100% of the livestock-corn based farms (LB; n=76 kept buffaloes in 2008. Herd size was 2.5 +/-1.80 (n=84 buffaloes in early 2008 and 2.2 +/-1.69 (n=62 in 2009. Field work on own land was the main reason for keeping buffaloes (87.3 %, but lending work buffaloes to neighbours (79.0% was also important. Other purposes were transport of goods (16.1%, buffalo trade (11.3% and meat consumption (6.4%. Buffalo care required 6.2 +/-3.00 working hours daily, while annual working time of a buffalo was 294 +/-216.6 hours. The area ploughed with buffaloes remained constant during the past 10 years despite an expansion of land cropped per farm. Although further replacement of buffaloes by tractors occurs rapidly, buffaloes still provide cheap work force and buffer risks on poor NRNNR farms. Appropriate advice is needed for improved breeding management to increase the efficiency of buffalo husbandry and provide better opportunities for buffalo meat sale in the region.

  9. Molecular diversity of Pasteurella multocida isolated from cattle and buffaloes in East Azerbaijan province based on restriction endonuclease analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jalal shayegh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase information about the molecular diversity of Pasteurella multocida isolated from cattle and buffalo, 2 buffalo and 8 cattle isolates were investigated by Restriction Endonuclease Analysis (REA. REA was performed with Hha-I Endonuclease which established 2 distinct profiles: I and II.  Cattle and buffalo isolates fell into both REA profiles. Contrary to previous studies, the genetic diversity of the isolates was negligible. Considering the similarity of cattle and buffalo isolates is the present study, further studies witch larger samples should be carried out to investigate the possibility of inter-species transmission.

  10. Diversity and Composition of Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Communities Based on Genomic DNA and RNA Transcription in Production Water of High Temperature and Corrosive Oil Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Jin-Feng; Zhou, Lei; Mbadinga, Serge M.; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Deep subsurface petroleum reservoir ecosystems harbor a high diversity of microorganisms, and microbial influenced corrosion is a major problem for the petroleum industry. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to explore the microbial communities based on genomic 16S rDNA and metabolically active 16S rRNA analyses of production water samples with different extents of corrosion from a high-temperature oil reservoir. Results showed that Desulfotignum and Roseovarius were the most abundant genera in both genomic and active bacterial communities of all the samples. Both genomic and active archaeal communities were mainly composed of Archaeoglobus and Methanolobus. Within both bacteria and archaea, the active and genomic communities were compositionally distinct from one another across the different oil wells (bacteria p = 0.002; archaea p = 0.01). In addition, the sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs) were specifically assessed by Sanger sequencing of functional genes aprA and dsrA encoding the enzymes adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase, respectively. Functional gene analysis indicated that potentially active Archaeoglobus, Desulfotignum, Desulfovibrio, and Thermodesulforhabdus were frequently detected, with Archaeoglobus as the most abundant and active sulfate-reducing group. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the SRM communities in petroleum reservoir system were closely related to pH of the production water and sulfate concentration. This study highlights the importance of distinguishing the metabolically active microorganisms from the genomic community and extends our knowledge on the active SRM communities in corrosive petroleum reservoirs. PMID:28638372

  11. Diversity and Composition of Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Communities Based on Genomic DNA and RNA Transcription in Production Water of High Temperature and Corrosive Oil Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep subsurface petroleum reservoir ecosystems harbor a high diversity of microorganisms, and microbial influenced corrosion is a major problem for the petroleum industry. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to explore the microbial communities based on genomic 16S rDNA and metabolically active 16S rRNA analyses of production water samples with different extents of corrosion from a high-temperature oil reservoir. Results showed that Desulfotignum and Roseovarius were the most abundant genera in both genomic and active bacterial communities of all the samples. Both genomic and active archaeal communities were mainly composed of Archaeoglobus and Methanolobus. Within both bacteria and archaea, the active and genomic communities were compositionally distinct from one another across the different oil wells (bacteria p = 0.002; archaea p = 0.01. In addition, the sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs were specifically assessed by Sanger sequencing of functional genes aprA and dsrA encoding the enzymes adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase, respectively. Functional gene analysis indicated that potentially active Archaeoglobus, Desulfotignum, Desulfovibrio, and Thermodesulforhabdus were frequently detected, with Archaeoglobus as the most abundant and active sulfate-reducing group. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the SRM communities in petroleum reservoir system were closely related to pH of the production water and sulfate concentration. This study highlights the importance of distinguishing the metabolically active microorganisms from the genomic community and extends our knowledge on the active SRM communities in corrosive petroleum reservoirs.

  12. Comparison of buffalo rumen liquor and buffalo faeces as inoculum for the in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Piccolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT, Theodorou et al., 1994 requires a rumen liquor (RL inoculum, as the other methods utilising a microbial fermentation approach to feedstuff evaluation. However, the RL is collected either from animals fitted with rumen cannula or at slaughtering. This raises a number of practical, economical and ethical problems, thus several studies have been carried out to test alternative inocula. To this aim faeces (FA have been demonstrated to have high potentiality for the Tilley and Terry (1963 technique (El Saher et al., 1987; Akther et al., 1999; Cone et al., 2002. Mauricio et al. (2001, evaluating the forages fermentative characteristics by IVGPT, found lower potential gas production and longer lag times for bovine FA compared to RL as inoculum. Aim of present paper was to compare buffalo RL and FA as inoculum for IVGPT.

  13. Recent advances in Progeny testing program for Nili Ravi buffalo in Pakistan

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    A. Ghaffar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Progeny testing program was started in Nili-Ravi buffalo at Livestock Production and Research Institute (LPRI, Bahadurnagar, Okara in 1979-80. Initially buffalo bulls used at Livestock Experiment Station (LES Qadirabad and Rakh Gulaman during 1964-78 were evaluated. Five out of ten at Rakh Gulaman and 10 out of 22 at Qadirabad bulls were positive. As none of these bulls were available, therefore, sons and grandsons of these bulls were selected for production of future candidate bulls. All the buffaloes at LPRI were evaluat`ed on Most Probable Producing Ability. The elite herd thus formed was used for production for future candidate bulls. Since then a continuous program is in operation at Govt. Livestock Farms and expanded to 27 field sub-centers involving private farmers in four districts Okara, Sahiwal, Faisalabad and Pakpattan. Since the initiation of this program in 1980’s, about 174 bulls have been put under progeny testing program and 137 bulls were evaluated by Daughter-Dam Comparison, out of which sixty eight buffalo bulls contributed positively in milk production of daughters. It is worth mentioning here that milk production of registered buffalo was recorded on monthly intervals in the field along with other necessary reproduction data required to compute the different traits of economic importance.Progeny testing program was started in Nili-Ravi buffalo at Livestock Production and Research Institute (LPRI, Bahadurnagar, Okara in 1979-80. Initially buffalo bulls used at Livestock Experiment Station (LES Qadirabad and Rakh Gulaman during 1964-78 were evaluated. Five out of ten at Rakh Gulaman and 10 out of 22 at Qadirabad bulls were positive. As none of these bulls were available, therefore, sons and grandsons of these bulls were selected for production of future candidate bulls. All the buffaloes at LPRI were evaluat`ed on Most Probable Producing Ability. The elite herd thus formed was used for production for future candidate bulls

  14. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr-Eldin M. Aref

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was designed to: (1 Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2 Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo were included in the study. Animals were divided into three groups according to their age at weaning as following: Cow calves (n=8 weaned at 4.5 months, buffalo calves (n=6 weaned at 3.5 months (early-weaned, and buffalo calves (n=4 weaned at 5.5 months (late-weaned. Morphological traits, growth metabolites, and hormonal profile were measured at monthly interval over the period of the study and around the time of weaning (2 weeks pre- and post-weaning. Results: The obtained results showed that the trend of growth pattern was significantly increased in a linear pattern in cow calves and late-weaned buffalo calves, whereas early-weaned buffalo calves showed sharp decline in their body weight (BW post-weaning. By the end of the study, early-weaned buffalo calves showed the lowest BW gain (ill-thrift. There is a positive association between the morphological traits and various growth metabolites and hormonal indices. A significant decrease (p<0.05 in the concentrations of growth hormones (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1] and insulin and other metabolites were reported in early-weaned buffalo calves compared to other animals. There is no association between stress indices (cortisol level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and growth rate. Conclusion: Suboptimal growth rate (ill-thriftiness is common in early-weaned buffalo calves and is attributed to low blood levels of growth metabolites, in particularly, IGF-1. In addition, the strong positive associations between concentrations of IGF-1 and morphological

  15. Functional Characterization Reveals Novel Putative Coding Sequences in Prevotella ruminicola Genome Extracted from Rumen Metagenomic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, Neelam M; Kothari, Ramesh K; Patel, Amrutlal K; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-01-01

    To reassemble Prevotella ruminicola genome from rumen metagenomic data of cattle and buffalo and compare with the published reference genome. Rumen microbial communities from Mehsani buffaloes (n = 8) and Kankrej cattle (n = 8), each adapted to different proportions of a dry or green roughage diet, were subjected to metagenomic sequencing by Ion Torrent PGM, and subsequent reads were analyzed by MG-RAST. Using reference-guided assembly of the sequences against the published P. ruminicola strain 23, draft genomes of 2.56 and 2.46 Mb were reconstructed from Mehsani buffalo and Kankrej cows, respectively. The genomes were annotated using the RAST Server and carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) analysis. Taxonomic analysis by MG-RAST revealed P. ruminicola to be the most abundant species present among the rumen microflora. Functional annotation of reconstructed genomes using the RAST Server depicted the maximum assignment of coding sequences involved in the subsystems amino acid and derivatives and carbohydrate metabolism. CAZyme profiling revealed the glycoside hydrolases (GH) family to be the most abundant. GH family subclassification revealed that the extracted genomes had more sequence hits for GH2, GH3, GH92 and GH97 as compared to the reference. The results reflect the metabolic significance of rumen-adapted P. ruminicola in utilizing a coarse diet for animals based on acquisition of novel genetic elements. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Water Intrusion Problems in Transit Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    This report presents the findings of five case studies in which an in-depth analysis was made of tunnel water intrusion problems in transit tunnels. Water intrusion parameters of transit systems in Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, New York and Washington, D...

  17. A study on postpartum metritis in Iraqi buffalo cows: bacterial causes and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azawi, O I; Omran, S N; Hadad, J J

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the relationship between bacteriological findings, clinical signs and histopathological changes in postpartum metritis. Evaluation of the treatment efficiency of using systemic or intra-uterine infusion of antibiotics with some hormonal preparations for the treatment of postpartum metritis. Data were collected from 50 buffalo cows with history of calving of more than 1 month. All buffaloes were subjected to detailed clinical examination including external inspection, vaginoscopy and transrectal palpation of the cervix, uterus and ovaries. Swabs for bacteriology and biopsies for histopathology were collected from uterine lumen from each buffalo included in the present study. Bacteria identified using API systems following aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Vaginal mucus scored for character, odour and estimation of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). Treatment conducted using oxytetracycline in local intrauterine infusion or systemically with hormonal treatment including prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and oestradiol benzoate. Results revealed that the most predisposing factor for postpartum uterine infection was retained placenta and toxic puerperal metritis. The most prevalent bacteria in uterine lumen were Escherichia coli, Archanobacterium pyogenes, Bacteroides fragilis and Fusobacterium necrophorum the most prevalent bacteria in buffaloes with postpartum metritis. A. pyogenes and F. necrophorum were an important pathogens causing severe uterine inflammation as found in histopathological examinations. Buffaloes with postpartum metritis showed good clinical cure when oxytetracycline injected systemically with PGF2 alpha. Intrauterine infusion of oxytetracycline had no advantage for the treatment of uterine infection in buffalo cows with postpartum metritis. PGF2 alpha improved clinical cure of buffaloes with postpartum metritis.

  18. Identification of polymorphism in exons 7 and 12 of lactoferrin gene and its association with incidence of clinical mastitis in Murrah buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Krishanender; Verma, Archana; Das Gupta, Ishwar; Thakur, Yash Pal; Verma, Nishant; Arya, Ashwani

    2015-04-01

    Lactoferrin gene is one of the important candidate genes for mastitis resistance. The gene is located on chromosome BTA 22 and consists of 17 exons spanning over 34.5 kb of genomic DNA. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to identify allelic variants in exons 7 and 12 of lactoferrin gene and to analyze association between its genetic variants and incidence of clinical mastitis in Murrah buffalo. The amplification of exons 7 and 12 of lactoferrin gene yielded amplicons of 232- and 461-bp sizes. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 232-bp amplicon using BccI restriction enzyme revealed three genotypes (AA, AB, and BB) with frequencies of 0.62, 0.22, and 0.16, respectively. The frequencies of two alleles, A and B, were estimated as 0.73 and 0.27. Hpy188I-RFLP for 461-bp amplicon revealed polymorphism with three genotypes, CC, CD, and DD, with respective frequencies of 0.06, 0.39, and 0.56, whereas frequencies for C and D alleles were 0.25 and 0.75. The chi-square (χ(2)) analysis revealed a significant association between incidence of clinical mastitis and genetic variants of exon 7, and animals of AA genotype of exon 7 were found to be least susceptible to mastitis. The findings indicate potential scope for incorporation of lactoferrin gene in selection and breeding of Murrah buffaloes for improved genetic resistance to mastitis.

  19. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of bioactive peptides derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of buffalo milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Hamid, Mahmoud; Otte, Jeanette; De Gobba, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Buffaloes' milk, which is consumed in many parts of the world, is a little-explored source of bioactive peptides. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity and the antioxidant capacity of peptides from buffaloes' milk were examined. A retentate from buffaloes' skimmed milk......-inhibitory (FPGPIPK, IPPK, IVPN, and QPPQ) and antioxidant (YPSG, HPFA and KFQ) activities. The results obtained showed the potential of buffaloes' milk proteins to release ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant peptides...

  20. Genome-wide analysis of WRKY transcription factors in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and differential expression under water deficit condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Pan; Liu, Congcong; Kang, Jingquan; Lv, Jinyin

    2017-01-01

    WRKY proteins, which comprise one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families in the plant kingdom, play crucial roles in plant development and stress responses. Despite several studies on WRKYs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), functional annotation information about wheat WRKYs is limited. Here, 171 TaWRKY TFs were identified from the whole wheat genome and compared with proteins from 19 other species representing nine major plant lineages. A phylogenetic analysis, coupled with gene structure analysis and motif determination, divided these TaWRKYs into seven subgroups (Group I, IIa-e, and III). Chromosomal location showed that most TaWRKY genes were enriched on four chromosomes, especially on chromosome 3B. In addition, 85 (49.7%) genes were either tandem (5) or segmental duplication (80), which suggested that though tandem duplication has contributed to the expansion of TaWRKY family, segmental duplication probably played a more pivotal role. Analysis of cis-acting elements revealed putative functions of WRKYs in wheat during development as well as under numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Finally, the expression of TaWRKY genes in flag leaves, glumes, and lemmas under water-deficit condition were analyzed. Results showed that different TaWRKY genes preferentially express in specific tissue during the grain-filling stage. Our results provide a more extensive insight on WRKY gene family in wheat, and also contribute to the screening of more candidate genes for further investigation on function characterization of WRKYs under various stresses.

  1. Seasonal prevalence of hydatidosis in buffaloes –A retrospective study

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    AarifM. Khan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify the prevalence of Hydatidosis in buffaloe-calves, heifers and adults slaughtered in slaughter house of Mirha Exports Pvt. Ltd. between March 2010 to Feb. 2011.Materials and Methods: 2,09,615 buffaloes slaughtered were included in this study and were categorized into three groups (A, B and C based on their age at the time of ante-mortem examination. Group Aconsisted of calves (>1 year, accounting for 5100 out of the total number of animals. Group B consisted of heifers (2-3 years accounting for 7840. Group C consisted of adult buffaloes (3-7 years accounting for 1, 96675. Results:Our study revealed an overall prevalence of hydatidosis as 50.96%. Furthermore, the group wise analysis showed the prevalence as 3.52%, 5.58% and 54% in calves, heifers and adult buffaloes, respectively.Conclusion: Based on the factors considered, we conclude that the higher prevalence of infections in buffaloes slaughtered in the Mirha Exports is likely due to an overpopulation of stray dogs in the areas from which the plant gets its supply of animals.

  2. Solving the Traveling Salesman’s Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization

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    Julius Beneoluchi Odili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman’s Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd’s collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive.

  3. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting cattle and African buffaloes in the Tsavo conservation area, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward K. Kariuki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several ixodid tick species are shared between domestic cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer. So too, are a number of tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the species composition of ticks that infest cattle and buffaloes utilising the same habitat within the Tsavo Conservation Area, Kenya. To this end, 25 cattle and 62 buffaloes were each opportunistically sampled for ticks on a single occasion in February 2010. Eight species, namely Amblyomma gemma, Amblyomma lepidum, Hyalomma albiparmatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus pravus and Rhipicephalus pulchellus infested both cattle and buffaloes. Three species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus sp., Rhipicephalus kochi, and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected only from cattle, and three species, Hyalomma impeltatum, Rhipicephalus humeralis and Rhipicephalus praetextatus were present only on buffaloes. The attachment sites of the various tick species were also recorded. New locality records for H. impeltatum and H. truncatum and the first confirmed locality record for Rhipicephalus praetextatus sensu stricto in Kenya were documented.

  4. Soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Khalid, M

    2012-10-01

    Egg yolk is routinely used as a cryoprotectant in semen extenders. However, it may contain cryoprotective antagonists, and there are hygienic risks associated with its use. Proteins of plant origin, like soya-lecithin, lack these hazards. The aim of this study was to use soya-lecithin as a cryoprotectant in extender and to investigate its effects on in vitro quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. Semen from three buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing 5.0%, 10% or 15% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were assessed post-dilution, pre-freezing and post-thaw. In Post-dilution and pre-freezing, the values for motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability remained higher (p ≤ 0.05) in extenders containing 10% soya-lecithin and control compared with extender containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. However, motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were higher (p lecithin compared with control and extenders containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. Semen from two buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing either 10% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Higher (p lecithin (56%) compared with 20% egg yolk (41.5%). The results suggest that 10% soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa and can be used as an alternate to egg yolk in cryopreservation of buffalo semen. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Safety of B. abortus rough mutant strain RB51 administration in Buffalo cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Iovane

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine if B. abortus rough mutant strain RB51 is eliminated in Buffalo milk. Five milk buffaloes were inoculated with the triple of the recommended calfhood dose (3.0 – 10.2 x 1010 cfu/ml of B. abortus RB51 strain by subcutaneous route in the right axillary region. Milk samples were taken aseptically on a daily basis for the first 30 days and weekly for the second and third months. The samples were inoculated on Brucella Medium Base (BMB (Oxoid and Rifampin Brucellae Medium (RBM and incubated under 10% CO2 at 37°C for 10 days. The suspicious colonies were recultured in BMB and RBM. PCR analysis was also performed on milk samples. There were no isolations of bacteria with characteristics of Brucella from any of the milk samples collected during 90 days of the study. However Brucella RB51 DNA was detected on day 2 and 3 post vaccination in one buffalo cow and on day 21 post vaccination in another buffalo cow. It was concluded that the strain used at this dose wasn’t eliminated by milk in Buffaloes inoculated during lactation, however PCR positive results underline the necessity of milk pasteurization in order to minimize food-chain exposure.

  6. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-05

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species.

  7. HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE FOLLOWING IMMUNOMODULATION DURING LATE GESTATION IN BUFFALOES (BUBALIS BUBALUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.I, Qureshi, L.A. Lodhi, H.A. Samad, N.A. Naz1 and M. Nawaz

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two adult riverine buffaloes (Buhalis bubalus in their last trimester of pregnancy were selected and randomly divided into four groups. The buffaloes of group I served as control. Animals in group II, III and IV were treated twice (7 days apart with levamisole hydrochloride (0.5mg/kg b. w. orally, Etosol (Vit E+Se, 10ml, I/m and Bacilli Calmette Guerine (BCG (0.5 ml/animal, s/c, respectively. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting day 0 untill parturition. Total erythrocytic count and packed cell volume values were higher (P<0.05 in levamisole and vit E+Se treated group of buffaloes. Haemoglobin concentration was higher (P<0.05 inVit E+Se treated group. MCV, MCH and MCHC remained unchanged among all the experimental groups. Total leukocyte count was higher (P<0.05 in levamisole treated group of buffaloes. Differential leukocyte counts (relative revealed moderate lymphocytosis in all immunomodulated groups with significantly higher counts in Vit E+Se treated buffaloes. It was inferred that levamisole and vit E-se altered some haematological values, whereas BCG did not affect the haematological parameters.

  8. Prevalence of Various Reproductive Disorders and Economic Losses Caused by Genital Prolapse in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed A. Rabbani, I. Ahmad*, L. A. Lodhi, N. Ahmad and G. Muhammad1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of various reproductive disorders and to estimate the economic losses due to genital prolapse in buffaloes in Sir Shamir area of District Faisalabad, Pakistan. The survey was conducted in 8 villages during the 12 months period from June 2005 to May 2006 and the data from 400 farmers (50 farmers from each village were collected. The total buffalo population of this area was 7,785, out of which 2,135 (27.42% animals were included in the study. The overall prevalence of reproductive disorders in buffaloes was recorded as 46.18%. Among all the reproductive disorders, repeat breeding showed the highest prevalence (15.69%, followed by anestrous (9.74%, genital prolapse (7.73%, abortion (5.99%, retained placenta (2.58%, uterine torsion (2.39% and dystocia (2.06%. The total economic losses due to genital prolapse in buffaloes in eight villages during the period of study were estimated to be Rs. 4,59,500/- Among these, the highest losses were due to mortality of dam (39.17%, followed by milk losses (25.14%, service charges (21.33% and medicine cost (14.36%. Thus, repeat breeding, anoestrus and genital prolapse seem to be the major reproductive problems in buffaloes in the study area.

  9. Population Dynamics of Banteng, Buffalo and Deer in Bekol Savannah, Baluran National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHADI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Baluran National Park give contribution at regional development to draw tourist and fascination provided is savannah in area. Savannah circumstance, forest, landscape, climate, vegetation and wild animal is represent experienced attraction. Research method use population dynamics perception of banteng, buffalo and deer in savannah of Bekol year 2004 and year 2005 as primary data, while secondary data year population dynamics 2003, 2004, and year 2005 outside savannah of Bekol, year population dynamics 2003 in savannah of Bekol. Secondary data obtained from daily report of Controller ecosystem Forest Worker animal discovery Baluran National Park from Section Bekol. Research location of outside savannah Bekol were Balanan, Perengan, Bitakol, Karangtekok, Pandean, Pondok jaran, Bama, Curah uling, Gunung Montor, Lempuyang, Bilik, Batangan, Labuhan Merak, Kramat, Semiang, Sirokoh, Lemah bang, Gunung Krasak, and Glengseran. The populations of banteng and buffalo in the savannah is unstable compared to the populations of them outside Bekol savannah. The populations of banteng and buffalo in Bekol savannah decrease, whereas the populations of them outside the Bekol savannah increase. The population of deer in Bekol savannah in 2004 is better than population of 2003, 2005, and 2006, whereas the population of deer outside Bekol savannah in 2006 increase significantly. The populations of banteng, buffalo, and deer decrease from year to year, in which the reductions of banteng and buffalo populations are obviously significant.

  10. DGAT1 and ABCG2 polymorphism in Indian cattle (Bos indicus and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis breeds

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    Mishra Bina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian cattle (Bos indicus and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1 – diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 and Y581S (ABCG2 – ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2 polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. Results We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. Conclusion This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.

  11. Inbreeding and its effect on some productive traits in buffaloes of South Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahmoodi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The buffalo is a native animal of Iran and there were 500,000 buffaloes in Iran that over 80 per cent of its population concentrated in the north and north- west (Azerbaijan province and 18 per cent in the south (Khuzestan province of the country. Buffaloes reread in rural condition as multi purpose animals in Khuzestan. For mating, farmer use owns herd sire also artificial insemination is limited in the rural condition that may be inbred animals so affect the production performance. The aim of this investigation was estimate the inbreeding coefficient and its affect on some production performance. Data of 200 herds were used from the record sheets of herds under recording program of Animal Breeding Center during period 1990 to 2002 in the Khuzestan province. These results showed mostly herds only one sir and rarely two sires have been used. Inbreeding coefficient was 25 percent in some progeny and high-inbred buffaloes had a low performance. According to results of this study it could be concluded that farmers to avoid inbreeding should use other herd sire and artificial insemination also practical recording scheme and genetically selection to genetic improvement should be included in buffaloes of Iran.

  12. New sites of localisation of Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo surviving experimental haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, Salleh; Zamri-Saad, Mohammad; Jesse, Faez Firdaus Abdullah; Zunita, Zakaria

    2014-04-11

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute septicaemic disease of buffalo and cattle caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2. Field outbreaks of HS are known to result in localisation of bacteria in the tonsils of surviving buffalo, confirming that animals can become carriers and the role of respiratory tract in the transmission of the disease. This report describes additional sites of localisation of P. multocida B:2 in surviving buffalo following experimental induction of HS. Following P. multocida B:2 infection, all calves in group 1 and one calf in group 2 that was allowed to commingle with infected calves from group 1 were euthanised within 48 h. Pasteurella multocida B:2 was detected from the nasal and rectal swab samples on days 5 and 6 from the remaining calves in group 2. The first injection of dexamethasone into the carrier animals resulted in reemergence in samples from the nose, rectum and vagina. However, subsequent dexamethasone injections failed to re-activate P. multocida B:2. When surviving carrier calves in group 2 were euthanised at the end of the experiment, P. multocida B:2 was detected in the lungs and various organs of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Commingling naive buffalo calves with calves acutely infected with P. multocida B:2 resulted in carriers among surviving buffalo. Pasteurella was found in various organs of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, suggesting their role in the pathogenesis of HS.

  13. Degenerative joint disease in cattle and buffaloes in the Amazon region: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Diomedes Barbosa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of the epidemiological and clinic-pathological aspects of cattle and buffaloes with degenerative joint disease (DJD was conducted in the state of Pará, Brazil. From 1999 to 2014, eleven cattle and 24 buffaloes were evaluated. All the treated animals with suspected DJD underwent a clinical examination of the musculoskeletal system. In seven cattle and eight buffaloes with clinical signs of the disease postmortem examination was performed. The common clinical signs observed in both species were chronic lameness, stiff gait, postural changes, audible crackles in the affected limb, prolonged recumbency, difficulty in getting up and progressive weight loss. The lesions observed at necropsy were: irregular articular surfaces, erosion of the articular cartilage and the underlying bone tissue, and proliferation of the periarticular bone tissue with formation of osteophytes. The most affected joints in cattle and buffaloes wereof the hind limb. In buffaloes, the main predisposing factor to the onset of DJD was phosphorus deficiency. In cattle, defects of the anatomical conformation of the hind limbs, chronic trauma due to the activities performed, such as semen collection, and advanced age possibly contributed to the emergence of the disease.

  14. Identification of serum protein markers for early diagnosis of pregnancy in buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Lukumoni; Nanda, Trilok; Ghosh, Arnab; Ghosh, Mayukh; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Sambhu Sharan; Bharali, Arpita; Mohanty, Ashok K; Singh, Inderjeet; Balhara, Ashok Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Improper or delayed pregnancy diagnosis has significant impact over animal production, particularly in buffaloes which inherently suffer from several reproductive inefficiencies. Thus the present study has undertaken to identify serum protein markers pertaining to early pregnancy diagnosis in buffaloes. Serum samples were collected from 10 pregnant Murrah Buffalo heifers at weekly intervals from days 0-35 post-artificial insemination and from 12 inseminated non-pregnant cyclic buffalo heifers on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and densitometric analysis revealed the presence of five protein spots showing average density fold change of ≥4 during early pregnancy. Mass spectrometry analysis identified these up-regulated proteins as anti-testosterone antibody light chain, apolipoprotein A-II precursor, serum amyloid A, cytokeratin type II, component IV isoform 1, which are have established roles in embryogenesis, but over-expression of the fifth identified protein immunoglobulin lambda light chain in pregnancy has been elucidated as a novel finding in the current study. Further, with bioinformatics analysis, potential antigenic B-cell epitopes were predicted for all these five proteins. An antibody cocktail-based approach involving antibodies against all these five up-regulated entire proteins or their epitopes could be developed for early detection of pregnancy in buffaloes. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Effect of mastitis on luteal function and pregnancy rates in buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mohamed Mohsen; Hendawy, Amin O; Zeitoun, Moustafa M

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mastitis on CL development and function and pregnancy rate in buffaloes. Sixty-six buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) reared in a commercial farm at El-Beheira governorate, north of Egypt were used in this study. According to the visual observation of milk, physical examination of the udder and actual somatic cell count in milk, buffalo cows were divided into three groups: without mastitis (W), n = 23; subclinical mastitis (SC), n = 18; and clinical mastitis (C), n = 25. All buffalo cows were synchronized by double dose of PGF2α (11-day interval) and inseminated by frozen-thawed semen of fertile bull. Mean CL diameter was ultrasonically examined on Days 5, 9, 12, 16, 21, and 25 after artificial insemination (AI). Blood samples were taken on the days of ultrasonography for progesterone (P4) assay. Results indicated that pregnancy rates were lower (P mastitis occurred during Day -15 before to Day +30 after AI, compared with 59.22% in the uninfected cows. The diameter of CL was greater (P mastitis revealed suppression to both CL diameter and function leading to significant reduction in pregnancy outcome of buffalo cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Disease constraints for utilization of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) on game ranches in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron M; Munag'andu, Hetron M; Siamudaala, Victor M; Nambota, Andrew; Bwalya, John M; Munyeme, Musso; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    Eco-tourism depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. In these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in Zambia. It accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the Game Management Areas and the total hunting revenue earned in Zambia, respectively. It is ecologically an important animal species essential for the purpose of habitat control and facilitating the provision of suitable grazing pastures. However, the rearing of the African buffalo on game ranches has been hampered by its carrier state of the Southern Africa Terroritory (SAT) serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMD). The African buffalo is also known to be a carrier of Theileria parva lawrencei, the causative agent of corridor disease (CD) that continues to have devastating effects on the livestock industry in Zambia. In addition, the importation of buffaloes from countries with populations endemic to bovine tuberculosis is highly restricted. Veterinary regulations in Zambia, strongly advocate against the translocation of buffaloes from protected areas to private ranches for disease control purposes thereby mounting a considerable constraint on the economic and ecological viability of the industry. It is hoped that this review will motivate the relevant government authorities in exploiting ways in which this animal species play a central role in eco-tourism.

  17. Morphogenesis of Mammary Glands in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    Amit Challana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was elucidated on the morphogenesis of mammary gland of buffalo during prenatal development. Total of 16 foetuses ranging from 1.2 cm (34 days to 108 cm CVRL (curved crown rump length (317 days were used for study. The study revealed that mammary line was first observed at 1.2 cm CVRL (34 days, mammary hillock at 1.7 cm (37 days, and mammary bud at 2.6 cm CVRL (41 days foetuses. Epidermal cone was found at 6.7 cm CVRL (58 days whereas primary and secondary ducts were observed at 7.4 cm CVRL (62 days and 15 cm CVRL (96 days, respectively. Connective tissue whorls were reported at 18.2 cm CVRL (110 days and internal elastic lamina and muscle layers at 24.1 cm CVRL (129 days. Lobules were observed at 29.3 cm CVRL (140 days, rosette of furstenberg at 39.5 cm CVRL (163 days, and keratin plug at 45.5 cm CVRL (176 days foetus. Primordia of sweat and sebaceous glands around hair follicle were seen at 21.2 cm CVRL (122 days of foetal life. Differentiation of all the skin layers along with cornification was observed at 69 cm (229 days in group III foetuses.

  18. Selection of X chromosome of buffaloes sperm with Percoll gradients

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    E. Stella

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the selection of X chromosome of buffaloes sperm with Percoll gradients. The stock solution of Percoll was prepared in the proportion of 1:11 (1 part of Percoll:11 parts of a solution containing KCl 1M, NaH2PO4 0.1M, NaCl 1.5M and sodium HEPES 23.8 g/ml. In order to prepare 9 different gradients were added to the stocked Percoll the A solution (glicine-yolk extender in the following proportions: 90, 80, 72, 65, 57, 49, 34 and 25%. A sample of 0.7 ml of the fresh semen was deposited at 2 ml of Percoll 80% for the sperm wash. The precipitate was put in tube with 0.7 ml of each gradient. Then, the precipitated was washed in TES solution by centrifugation (500xg for 10 minutes, and collected again and diluted in TES solution to be freeze. The presence of the F body in the spermatozoa was observed in 58.7 ± 5.4% of the control group and in 41.2 ± 5.4% of the treated group (p<0.01. This result showed an increment of 17.55 of male sperm in the Percoll’s group. The reduction of the centrifugation force did not improve the percentage of X sperm.

  19. FERMENTABILITY AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LACTOPEROXIDASE ACTIVATED BUFFALO MILK YOGHURT

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    Aijaz H. Soomro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to produce and evaluate the coagulum from buffalo milk preserved with the activation of its lactoperoxidase system (LPO-system. A total of 10 trials were conducted and in each trial milk base was equally divided into three parts, two of which were treated with 20 mg/L (A and 30 mg/L (B solution of Sodium thiocyanate + Hydrogen peroxide and third part was kept as control (C. All the samples were analyzed for fermentability trend, pH, acidity, viscosity, specific gravity, syneresis and organoleptic properties. The decreasing trend in pH during fermentation period was comparatively slow in LPO-system activated milk A and B (4h and 5h as compared to control yoghurt (3h. The titratable acidity (% lactic acid of A, B and C yoghurt was 0.86±0.022, 0.85±0.025 and 0.89±0.024, respectively. The viscosity and specific gravity of control yoghurt was significantly (P0.05 were observed in the total solids, fat, ash, lactose and protein contents among the control, A and B yoghurt. Two week stored samples of control yoghurt received lower sensory score for appearance, flavor, body/texture and overall acceptability as compared to fresh control yoghurt. Simultaneously, LPO-system treated A and B yoghurt received high score during storage period than the control yoghurt.

  20. Decay of Ethics in David Mamet’s American Buffalo

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    Ehsan Dehghani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The American Dream is a recurrent theme in American literature. In this response, this paper is an attempt to expose the destructive effects of the dream on human spirits and relations and how it is contradicted in different ways through the analysis of his brilliant play, American Buffalo by David Mamet. Beneath the seeming simple surface of the play lies a deep current of meanings that reflect the calamities of modern American life, and in a broader sense, the modern world. This article indicates how capitalism inculcates ideologies in the mind of individuals in order to facilitate the exploiting process and unquestioning subordination. Ragged individualism, as one of these ideologies, disrupts all communal bonds and even exceeds to the disintegration of friendship and family life. On the other hand, this individualism, as an ideology, is sustained by other capitalist ideologies such as advertising, consumerism and emulation. It will also be discussed that monetary interests are all one seeks in a highly competitive atmosphere and nothing is privileged over business ethics. In brief, this reading of the play tries to illuminate that we live in a dream-like world of ideologies that block logical thinking and forge our relationship with our real existence through less suspected ways.

  1. Quality of buffalo meat burger containing legume flours as binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, V K; Mahendrakar, N S; Narasimha Rao, D; Sachindra, N M

    2004-01-01

    The effect of addition of different decorticated legume flours, viz., soya bean, bengal gram, green gram and black gram, on the quality of buffalo meat burger was studied. The burgers consisted of optimized quantities of roasted or unroasted legume flour, spices and common salt. Inclusion of roasted black gram flour registered the highest yield of 95.7%, lowest shrinkage of 5% and lowest fat absorption of 26.6% on frying. Protein content of 18-20% was highest in the soya flour formulation. Free fatty acid (FFA) values (as% oleic) increased from 14.3 to 17.3 in freshly prepared samples (before frying) to 16.0-19.4 in 4 m frozen (-16±2 °C) stored samples and fried samples had about 25% lower FFA values. Formulations with roasted flours registered lower thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values (mg malonaldehyde/kg sample) of 0.6-1.5 as against 0.6-2.1 for unroasted flours before frying. The burgers prepared with any of these binders were organoleptically acceptable even after storage at -16±2 °C for 4 months., However, the burger with black gram dhal (dehulled split legume) flour had better sensory quality attributes compared to other legumes.

  2. Successful cryopreservation of buffalo ovaries using in situ oocyte cryopreservation

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    Saber Mohammed Abd-Allah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency and efficacy of cryopreservation of ovaries, we developed a new method termed in situ oocyte (ISO cryopreservation. ISO cryopreservation is a multistep procedure that involves aspiration of follicular fluid and then perfusion of antral follicles and diffusion of whole buffalo ovaries with cryoprotectant agent (CPA, rapid cooling, storage, thawing and, finally, dilution and removal of the CPA with return to physiological environment. Our study compared ISO cryo ovaries with cryo-diffused ovaries. We systematically examined the effects of ISO cryo and diffuse cryo on ovaries by morphological examination and with viability tests. The percentages of morphologically normal and viable follicular oocytes from ISO cryo were significantly higher than those that resulted from the cryo-diffused method (p<0.01. The quality of follicular oocytes from ISO cryo ovaries appeared better than that achieved from cryo-diffused ovaries. In conclusion, this study shows that ISO cryo is highly efficient for cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue.

  3. Optional Endoreplication and Selective Elimination of Parental Genomes during Oogenesis in Diploid and Triploid Hybrid European Water Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedukh, Dmitry; Litvinchuk, Spartak; Rosanov, Juriy; Mazepa, Glib; Saifitdinova, Alsu; Shabanov, Dmitry; Krasikova, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Incompatibilities between parental genomes decrease viability of interspecific hybrids; however, deviations from canonical gametogenesis such as genome endoreplication and elimination can rescue hybrid organisms. To evaluate frequency and regularity of genome elimination and endoreplication during gametogenesis in hybrid animals with different ploidy, we examined genome composition in oocytes of di- and triploid hybrid frogs of the Pelophylax esculentus complex. Obtained results allowed us to suggest that during oogenesis the endoreplication involves all genomes occurring before the selective genome elimination. We accepted the hypothesis that only elimination of one copied genome occurs premeiotically in most of triploid hybrid females. At the same time, we rejected the hypothesis stating that the genome of parental species hybrid frogs co-exist with is always eliminated during oogenesis in diploid hybrids. Diploid hybrid frogs demonstrate an enlarged frequency of deviations in oogenesis comparatively to triploid hybrids. Typical for hybrid frogs deviations in gametogenesis increase variability of produced gametes and provide a mechanism for appearance of different forms of hybrids.

  4. Preliminary report of transfrontier disease surveillance in free-ranging buffalo in the Caprivi Strip, Namibia

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    Massimo Scacchia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A capture operation to ascertain the health status of free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer from six areas in the Caprivi Strip in the north-east corner of Namibia is described. In-depth reports on buffalo capture operations and their cost, with detailed descriptions of diseases for research purposes, sampling techniques, field processing of samples and laboratory-related costs are still lacking in the literature. This paper describes materials, methods and the related costs of a disease surveillance operation conducted among buffalo in Namibia. The survey attempted to provide information designed to improve the control of infectious diseases in the Caprivi Strip, a key area bordering Angola, Zambia, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

  5. First study of sperm mediated gene transfer in Egyptian river buffalo

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    Mohamed S. Hassanane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find the best treatments for enhancing the ration of insertion of a desired gene construct (pEGFP-N1 onto the sperm of buffalo as the first step for the production of transgenic buffalo using sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT. The tested conditions were plasmid DNA concentration, sperm concentration, transfecting agent concentration: Dimethyle sulphoxide (DMSO and time of transfection. The study proved that the best conditions for producing transgenic embryos were incubation sperm solution its concentration is 107/ml sperm with 3% DMSO: with 20 µg/ml from the linarized DNA, for 15 min at 4 °C are the best conditions to produce transgenic buffalo embryo using sperm mediated gene transfer.

  6. Evaluation of Buffalo Milk With Reference to Somatic Cell Count and Antitrypsin

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    Syed.A.M

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out for the assessment of buffalo milk quality by assessing the somatic cell count and antitrypsin of milk. Thirty buffalo milk samples collected directly from udder were subjected to the detection of somatic cell count and antitrypsin of the milk. The mean value of somatic cell count was 223.46x103±26.522 cells/ml and the mean value of antitrypsin of raw buffalo milk was 6.87±0.054 µg/ml. The result showed that there was an increased somatic cell count and antitrypsin which indicated that there was inflammation of udder suggestive of underlying mastitis. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 267-268

  7. Prevalence of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 in cattle and buffaloes in Punjab

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    Gurpreet Kaur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 in cattle and buffaloes in the Punjab using PCR as diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 samples (Semen- 57, placental cotyledons-1, vaginal secretions-1, foetal stomach contents-1 and tracheal swabs-3 from cattle and buffaloes were processed for identification of BHV-1 using PCR. Results: From January 2007 to December 2010 (Semen- 57, placental cotyledons-1, vaginal secretions-1, foetal stomach contents-1 and tracheal swabs-3 from cattle and buffaloes were collected. The DNA was extracted from a total of 63 samples and subjected to PCR revealed that none of the sample positive for the BHV-1 infection. Conclusion: From the study it was concluded that the farms screened were free from BHV-1 infection. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 343-345

  8. Genetic analysis of a purebred herd of Kundhi buffaloes in Pakistan

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    N.M. Bhutto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Kundhi is amongst the best dairy buffalo breeds of the world and main source of milk production in Sindh province of Pakistan. A Research and Development Kundhi Buffalo Farm was established at Rohri, Sukkur. Time series production performance data of 237 buffaloes, along with their pedigree, from 1976 through 2004 was collected and analyzed using Harvey Model-1 for fixed effects and DFREML for GLS solutions and genetic / phenotypic variances. The traits of economic importance studied were age at first calving (AFC, milk yield (MY, lactation length (LL, calving interval (CI and dry period (DP. The fixed effects included year of birth (YOB, year of calving (YOC season of calving (SOC and lactation number (L No.. The data analyses revealed that among the fixed effect only YOC had significant effect (p < 0.05 on milk yield and all other traits. The average MY was 1356.48 ± 453.27 kg with mean lactation length 218.72 ± 122.97 days. The heritability of MY, CI, LL and DP was 0.209, 0.018, 0.009 and 0.024, respectively. Among the 5 sires used during this period, one sire contributed positively to milk production of the daughters. One hundred and three Kundhi buffaloes had positive and 134 negative breeding values for milk production. The genetic and phenotypic variance for milk yield was 35427.67 and 168521.94, respectively. The progeny testing program for Kundhi buffalos was initiated in August 2005. Under this program, more than 700 buffaloes are registered and ear tagged. The production and reproduction performance data recording at farmers doorstep has been initiated which will be used to identify bull mothers.

  9. Buffalo, bush meat, and the zoonotic threat of brucellosis in Botswana.

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    Kathleen Anne Alexander

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana.Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995-2000 were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA and included the African buffalo (247, bushbuck (1, eland (5, elephant (25, gemsbok (1, giraffe (9, hartebeest (12, impala (171, kudu (27, red lechwe (10, reedbuck (1, rhino (2, springbok (5, steenbok (2, warthog (24, waterbuck (1, wildebeest (33, honey badger (1, lion (43, and zebra (21. Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974-2006.Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%-8.96% and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0-38.43% were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46% occurring in children (<14 years old and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector.Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife sources of infection in determining public health risks from

  10. Clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings in Egyptian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis with caecal and colonic dilatation

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    Arafat Khalphallah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to describe the clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings of caecal and colonic dilatation in Egyptian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. A total number of forty buffaloes were included in the study and divided into two groups: control group (n = 20 and diseased group (n = 20. Diseased buffalo were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Assiut University-Egypt. Each of the diseased animals was subjected to clinical, rectal, laboratory and ultrasonographic examinations. Clinically, buffalo with dilated caecum/colon showed reduced appetite, distended right abdomen, abdominal pain and tensed abdomen. Rectal examination indicated empty rectum with the presence of mucus and dilated loop of caecum and/or colon. Buffalo with dilated caecum/colon showed significant (P < 0.05 hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia with significant (P < 0.05 increase in blood serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALK. Ultrasonographically, the dilated caecum and proximal loop of colon occupied the last right three intercostal space (ICSs particularly their ventral part, intertangled with the liver dorsally in these ICSs. Dilated colon did not hinder the visibility of the liver. The dilated caecum/colon also filled the whole right flank region, with hiding of right kidney, loops and peristaltic movement of the small intestines. The closest wall of the dilated caecum and proximal loop of the colon was imaged as thick semi-circular echogenic line. The furthest wall and contents of dilated caecum/colon were not imaged. In conclusion, buffalo with caecal and/or colonic dilatation have non-specific clinical and laboratory findings; however the affected animals show characteristic ultrasonographic findings.

  11. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schönfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak® and 0% with BOVIGAM® IFN-γ test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of WRKY transcription factors in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and differential expression under water deficit condition

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    Pan Ning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background WRKY proteins, which comprise one of the largest transcription factor (TF families in the plant kingdom, play crucial roles in plant development and stress responses. Despite several studies on WRKYs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L., functional annotation information about wheat WRKYs is limited. Results Here, 171 TaWRKY TFs were identified from the whole wheat genome and compared with proteins from 19 other species representing nine major plant lineages. A phylogenetic analysis, coupled with gene structure analysis and motif determination, divided these TaWRKYs into seven subgroups (Group I, IIa–e, and III. Chromosomal location showed that most TaWRKY genes were enriched on four chromosomes, especially on chromosome 3B. In addition, 85 (49.7% genes were either tandem (5 or segmental duplication (80, which suggested that though tandem duplication has contributed to the expansion of TaWRKY family, segmental duplication probably played a more pivotal role. Analysis of cis-acting elements revealed putative functions of WRKYs in wheat during development as well as under numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Finally, the expression of TaWRKY genes in flag leaves, glumes, and lemmas under water-deficit condition were analyzed. Results showed that different TaWRKY genes preferentially express in specific tissue during the grain-filling stage. Conclusion Our results provide a more extensive insight on WRKY gene family in wheat, and also contribute to the screening of more candidate genes for further investigation on function characterization of WRKYs under various stresses.

  13. Comparative analysis of a putative tuberculosis-susceptibility gene, MC3R, and pseudogene sequences in cattle, African buffalo, hyena, rhinoceros and other African bovids and ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A; Möller, M; Adams, L A; Warren, R M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2012-01-01

    Studies in humans have suggested the possible involvement of melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3R) and other components of the central melanocortin system in host defense against mycobacteria. We report a genomic DNA nucleotide sequence highly homologous to human MC3R in several bovids and non-bovid African wildlife species. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the orthologous genes of cattle and buffalo are highly homologous (89.4 and 90%, respectively) to the human MC3R gene. Sequence results also identified a typical non-functional, duplicated pseudogene, MC3RP, in 7 species from the family Bovidae. No pseudogene was found in animals outside Bovidae. The presence of the pseudogene in tuberculosis-susceptible species could have possible immunomodulatory effects on susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis infection, as well as a considerable influence on energy metabolism and food conversion efficiency. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and reproductive hormone of weaned Swamp buffalo and Murrah X Swamp buffalo calves

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    M. Kamonpatana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and plasma Oestradiol 17- β (E2, Progesterone (P4 and Testosterone (T were studied in 16 male and female swamp (SS buffaloes and Murrah x Swamp buffalo crossbreeds (MS calves. The treatment group was fed with a concentrate supplemented with 30 g of dry powder of L. spinosa/head/d for 7 months. It was found that L .spinosa could have effect on male and female buffalo growth rate. The growth rate of male SS treated group were 130 g/d higher than control group. In female both SS and MS buffalo, the highest growth rate (830 to 840 g/d was found after the 2nd month of treatment while a reduction in growth rate (-1,030 to - 450 g/d was found in the 3rd month. After that the growth rate of SS and MS gradually increased until the last three months to 200 and 80 g/d in average, respectively. In female MS, plasma E2 in the treated group was lower than control group during Jan to Jul. Similar result was found in SS female, level of plasma E2 in treated group was lower than in control group in the first and last three month and there was no difference of plasma E2 in May. In MS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in Jan, Mar, Apr and Jul. In SS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in every month except in Jul. In female SS, L. spinosa could decreased plasma P4 through the experiment and could not have an effect on plasma P4 in female MS and plasma T in male buffalo calves. In conclusion, the addition to the concentrate of dry powder of L. spinosa 30 g/headl/d had an effect to increase growth rate in male SS and female MS buffalo calves, decrease plasma E2 in female both SS and MS and male SS and decrease plasma P4 in female SS.

  15. Studies on preparation of medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration process

    OpenAIRE

    Khatkar, Sunil Kumar; Gupta,Vijay Kumar; Khatkar, Anju Boora

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop good quality medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration (UF) process. The buffalo skim milk was UF concentrated to 4.05 to 4.18 (23.63 ± 0.30 % TS) fold and standardized to 10 % fat (on Dry Matter Basis) (i.e. formulation) and homogenized at 175.76 kg/cm2. The addition of 0.4 % mixture of monosodium and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) improved the heat stability of homogenized formulation to an optimum of 66 min. The bland flavou...

  16. Light and Electron Microscopic Studies on Prenatal Differentiation of Exocrine Pancreas in Buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Divya; Uppal, Varinder; Bansal, Neelam; Gupta, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted on pancreas of 24 buffalo fetuses collected from abattoir and Veterinary clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana. The buffalo fetuses were divided into three groups after measuring their CVRL, namely, group I (CVRL between 0 and 20?cm), group II (CVRL above 20?cm and up to 40?cm), and group III (CVRL above 40?cm) and their approximate age was calculated. The tissues were processed for light and ultrastructural studies. In group I, at 1.2?cm CVRL (34 days), the pancreas comprised tu...

  17. Nutrition and feeding of swamp buffalo: feed resources and rumen approach

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    P. Rowlins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal feed resources are of prime importance for swamp buffaloes to support the efficient production under the prevailing small-holder farming systems. Manipulations of rumen microorganisms, fermentation and subsequent absorption by the animals are essential. Current research work on locally available feed resources such as urea-treated rice straw, cassava hay etc. revealed significant improvement in rumen ecology with higher cellulolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores and subsequent fermentation endproducts. However, investigation of rumen microorganisms diversity of swamp buffalo and their roles in fermentation using molecular technique especially the use of PCR – DGGE/ Real Time- PCR warrant future research undertakings.

  18. Integrating genome annotation and QTL position to identify candidate genes for productivity, architecture and water-use efficiency in Populus spp

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    Monclus Romain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybrid poplars species are candidates for biomass production but breeding efforts are needed to combine productivity and water use efficiency in improved cultivars. The understanding of the genetic architecture of growth in poplar by a Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL approach can help us to elucidate the molecular basis of such integrative traits but identifying candidate genes underlying these QTLs remains difficult. Nevertheless, the increase of genomic information together with the accessibility to a reference genome sequence (Populus trichocarpa Nisqually-1 allow to bridge QTL information on genetic maps and physical location of candidate genes on the genome. The objective of the study is to identify QTLs controlling productivity, architecture and leaf traits in a P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa F1 progeny and to identify candidate genes underlying QTLs based on the anchoring of genetic maps on the genome and the gene ontology information linked to genome annotation. The strategy to explore genome annotation was to use Gene Ontology enrichment tools to test if some functional categories are statistically over-represented in QTL regions. Results Four leaf traits and 7 growth traits were measured on 330 F1 P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa progeny. A total of 77 QTLs controlling 11 traits were identified explaining from 1.8 to 17.2% of the variation of traits. For 58 QTLs, confidence intervals could be projected on the genome. An extended functional annotation was built based on data retrieved from the plant genome database Phytozome and from an inference of function using homology between Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. Genes located within QTL confidence intervals were retrieved and enrichments in gene ontology (GO terms were determined using different methods. Significant enrichments were found for all traits. Particularly relevant biological processes GO terms were identified for QTLs controlling number of sylleptic

  19. Circulation of bovine viral diarrhea virus--1 (BVDV-1) in dairy cattle and buffalo farms in Ismailia Province, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltan, Mohamed Ahmed; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Elsheery, Mohamed Nagy; Elhaig, Mahmoud Mohy; Riley, Matthhew C; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2015-12-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the most economically significant diseases in the bovine industry causing losses due to diarrhea, reproductive disorders, immunosuppression and mortalities. The aim of our investigation was to detect and subtype BVDV from calves on two dairy cattle and two buffalo farms in Ismailia province, Egypt as an indicator of BVDV infection status in the province. A total of 298 blood samples were collected and tested using an optimized one-step, real-time multiplex Taqman-based RT-PCR. All the positive samples by the multiplex real-time RT-PCR were tested using conventional RT-PCR to amplify multiple areas of the genome for further phylogenetic analysis and subtyping. Thirty one (10.4%) of the tested samples were positive for BVDV-1. Only three samples, all from a single dairy cattle farm, had enough viral RNA to be amplified by RT-PCR. The PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis revealed detection of BVDV-1b. The detected strain is closely related to worldwide BVDV-1b strains, making it difficult to trace its origin. Nucleotide and amino acid alignments of the E2 glycoprotein region of the detected strain with other BVDV-1b strains showed high divergence, with identity ranging from 81.3% to 93.6% and 85.3% to 93.6%, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the circulation of BVDV-1b in Egyptian dairy cattle populations.

  20. Infection control in general practices in Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipalities, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don O'Mahony

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Good infection control practices are effective in reducing rates of infection in health care settings. Studies in primary care in developed countries indicate that many general practitioners (GPs do not comply with optimal infection control practices. There are no published studies from developing countries in Southern Africa.Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe infection control practices in private GP surgeries in the Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.Method: A literature review was conducted to appraise current best practice with respect to Standard Infection Control and Transmission Based Precautions. A questionnaire, inquiring into GPs’ actual practices, was posted to each surgery.Results: The valid response rate was 34% (47/140. Methods used to sterilise instruments in 40 practices were: ultraviolet sterilisation (23, chemical disinfection (14, boiling water (7, and steam autoclave (2. Compounds used for chemical disinfection included organotin quaternary, chlorhexidine and benzyl ammonium chloride with a quaternary complex. Twenty-two (47% used a hand rub. Sixteen (35% GPs stated that they had a policy to promptly triage patients who are coughing, and 23 (50% had a policy for airflow movement in the surgery. All practices appropriately disposed of sharps. Thirty-seven (80% expressed interest in a seminar on infection control.Conclusions: Overall, GPs were aware of infection control precautions. Ultraviolet sterilisers and chlorhexidine are not recommended, however, for sterilisation or high level disinfection of medical instruments, and their use should be discontinued. Hand rubs are underutilised. GPs should implement Transmission Based Precautions to prevent airborne and droplet infections.

  1. Genomic and phenotypic attributes of novel salinivibrios from stromatolites, sediment and water from a high altitude lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorriti, Marta F; Dias, Graciela M; Chimetto, Luciane A; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E; Silva, Bruno S; Mesquita, Milene M A; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Farias, Maria E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2014-06-13

    Salinivibrios are moderately halophilic bacteria found in salted meats, brines and hypersaline environments. We obtained three novel conspecific Salinivibrio strains closely related to S. costicola, from Socompa Lake, a high altitude hypersaline Andean lake (approx. 3,570 meters above the sea level). The three novel Salinivibrio spp. were extremely resistant to arsenic (up to 200 mM HAsO42-), NaCl (up to 15%), and UV-B radiation (19 KJ/m2, corresponding to 240 minutes of exposure) by means of phenotypic tests. Our subsequent draft genome ionsequencing and RAST-based genome annotation revealed the presence of genes related to arsenic, NaCl, and UV radiation resistance. The three novel Salinivibrio genomes also had the xanthorhodopsin gene cluster phylogenetically related to Marinobacter and Spiribacter. The genomic taxonomy analysis, including multilocus sequence analysis, average amino acid identity, and genome-to-genome distance revealed that the three novel strains belong to a new Salinivibrio species. Arsenic resistance genes, genes involved in DNA repair, resistance to extreme environmental conditions and the possible light-based energy production, may represent important attributes of the novel salinivibrios, allowing these microbes to thrive in the Socompa Lake.

  2. Ultrasonographic Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation of the Foreign Body Complications in the Compound Stomach of Cattle and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat E. El esawy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to detect and record the clinical and ultrasonographic findings of the different complications resulted from the foreign bodies lodged in the compound stomach of cattle and buffaloes. A total of 105 animals (37 cattle and 68 buffaloes were subjected to study. Based on the clinical and ultrasonographic examination, animals were classified into; acute local reticuloperitonitis (ALRP (15 cattle and 28 buffaloes, chronic local reticuloperitonitis (CLRP (6 cattle and 14 buffaloes, acute diffuse reticuloperitonitis (ADRP (5 cattle and 3buffaloes, reticular abscesses (RA (4 cattle and 7 buffaloes, traumatic pericarditis (TP (6 cattle and16 buffaloes and liver abscess (one cattle. Results revealed that ALRP represented the highest percentage of 40.5% in cattle and 41.2 % in buffalos between the different complications of TRP. TP represented the second complications of higher incidence (16.2% in cows and 23.5% in buffalos. Liver abscess represented the lowest percentage (2.8% and was recorded in cows only. The pregnant animals were affected more than the non pregnant. Clinical findings represented in systemic reaction and pain tests were commonly encountered in TRP and its complications. Some of the affected animals were negatively respond to metal detector test. Results of the present study indicated that the ultrasonographic examination provide a specific echogenic pattern for the different complications of TRP. It was concluded that, clinical examination only is not efficient to give accurate diagnosis of foreign body lodged in the reticulum and rumen and their complications. Ultrasonography is a safe, non invasive diagnostic confirmatory method that could be used for early detection of such conditions.

  3. EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS IN EXTENDER ON FERTILITY OF LIQUID BUFFALO BULL SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. AKHTER, M. SAJJAD, S. M. H. ANDRABI1, N. ULLAH1 AND M. QAYYUM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine if a new antibiotic combination comprising of gentamycin, tylosin and linco-spectin (GTLS in extender is suitable for improvement in fertility of liquid buffalo bull semen through artificial insemination (AI. Two consecutive ejaculates per week (4 weeks were collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls of known fertility by using artificial vagina. The pooled ejaculates were split-sampled and diluted with skimmed milk extender (37oC; 10x106 motile spermatozoa/ml containing either SP (streptomycin 1000 μg/ml and penicillin 1000 iu/ml or GTLS (gentamycin 500 μg/ml, tylosin 100 μg/ml, lincomycin 300 μg/ml, and spectinomycin 600 μg/ml. Liquid semen was stored at 5°C for seven days. Fertility, based on 90-days first service pregnancy rate, was determined under field conditions. The fertility rates for SP-based vs. GTLS-containing liquid semen of buffalo bull were 58.55 and 60.00%, respectively, the difference was non significant. The fertility rates also did not differ (P>0.05 due to antibiotics at different days of storage of liquid semen at 5oC. In conclusion, GTLS, in skimmed milk extender compared to SP, did not significantly improve the fertility of chilled buffalo bull semen.

  4. Ultra-structural study of Egyptian Buffalo oocytes before and after in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... showed clusters of cortical granules which existed in aggregates throughout the peripheral ooplasm just beneath the oolemma. In vitro maturation of Egyptian buffalo oocytes could be elucidated by alterations that occurred in the cytoplasmic organelles of the oocytes as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  5. 76 FR 27182 - Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is...

  6. Notes on rumen contents of Cape Buffalo Syncerus Caffer in the Addo Elephant National Park

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    G. de Graaf

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The oesophagus and rumen contents of 18 Capebuffalo that died during the 1969/70 drought in the Addo Elephant National Park near Port Elizabeth were analysedand are discussed as regards a description, based on quantitativedata, of the main vegetation types in the Park. Notes on plantspecies that were observed being utilised by buffalo are also given.

  7. Schistosoma mansoni: on the possibility of Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis being experimentally infected

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    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Male Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis calves were submitted to Schistosoma mansoni infection by percutaneous, oral and subcutaneous routes. No worms or eggs were found in four of the animals tested. Bubalus bubalis appears to be refractory for S. mansoni.

  8. Assessment of Nili-Ravi buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) semen by MTT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh semen samples from breeding Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (n = 20) were collected using an artificial vagina. After assessing the quality of semen for normal parameters, the MTT assay was carried out in phosphate buffer saline. Results revealed a high significant correlation (r = 0.995) between the viability of sperm and the ...

  9. 78 FR 18777 - Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... death in 1922. He also served as the first African-American superintendent of a national park... military career with the all-black 9th and 10th Calvary regiments, often called ``Buffalo Soldiers... served on the western frontier, saw combat in the Philippines, and rode with General John ``Black Jack...

  10. Acetoxy drug : Protein transacetylase of buffalo liver - Characterization and mass spectrometry of the acetylated protein product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohli, E.; Gaspari, M.; Raj, H.G.; Parmar, V.S.; Sharma, S.K.; Greef, J. van der; Kumari, R.; Gupta, G.; Seema; Khurana, P.; Tyagi, Y.K.; Watterson, A.C.; Olsen, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    The purification and characterization of the buffalo liver microsomal transacetylase (TAase) catalyzing the transfer of acetyl groups from a model acetoxy drug: 7,8-diacetoxy-4-methylcoumarin (DAMC) to GST3-3 has been described here. The enzyme was routinely assayed using DAMC and cytosolic GST as

  11. Determination of volatile organic compounds responsible for flavour in cooked river buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Luccia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is an important consumer attractive that directly influences the success of food products on the market. The determination of odorous molecules and their identification allows to useful knowledge for producers to valorise their own products. Buffalo meat has a different chemical composition from pork and beef and requires some cautions in cooking and processing. This work aims at the identification of volatile molecules responsible for flavours in river buffalo meat. The determination was carried out by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME technique and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The most relevant results were the higher odorous impact of buffalo meat and the higher content of sulphide compounds responsible for wild aroma respect to pork and beef. These results were obtained comparing the total area of peaks detected in every chromatogram. We have also found significant differences concerning the contents of pentadecane, 1-hexanol-2 ethyl, butanoic acid, furano-2-penthyl. The origin of volatile organic compounds and their influence on the river buffalo aromas were discussed.

  12. Ultrastructural Changes and Bacterial Localization in Buffalo Calves Following Oral Exposure to Pasteurella multocida B:2

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    M.S. Abubakar, M. Zamri-Saad* and S. Jasni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the ultrastructural changes and distribution of P. multocida B:2 in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts of buffalo calves following oral exposure and compared with intratracheal exposure. Nine 8-month old buffalo calves were divided into 3 groups. At the start of the experiment, dexamethasone (1mg/kg was injected intramuscularly into buffaloes of all groups for three consecutive days. Then, calves of Group 1 were exposed orally to 50ml of the inoculum containing 109 colony-forming unit (CFU/mL of live P. multocida B:2. Calves of Group 2 were exposed intra-tracheal to the same inoculum while calves of Group 3 were exposed orally to PBS. Transient and mild clinical signs were observed in calves of Groups 1 and 2. Pasteurella multocida B:2 was isolated from the nasal mucosa for up to 5 days post-infection. Only calf that was killed at 48 h post-infection had P. multocida B:2 in both respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts showing ultrastructural changes typical of acute cellular injury, with degeneration of endothelium and vascular walls. There were deciliation in the respiratory and microvilli degeneration in the gastrointestinal tracts. The study concludes that oral exposure may not play major role in the development of hemorrhagic septicemia. Nevertheless, the buffalo calf that succumbed to hemorrhagic septicemia carried P. multocida B:2 in the gastro-intestinal organs.

  13. Livestock production under coconut plantations in Sri Lanka : cattle and buffalo production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, M.N.M.; Jayatileka, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    A survey involving 71 cattle and buffalo farming households under coconut plantations was carried out in three districts (Pannala, Bingiriya and Kuliyapitiya) with the aim of assessing the status of livestock farming. Also, 24 households (eight from each district) were visited monthly for period of

  14. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  15. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its products quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product telemea. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers products and their reliability for the consumers.

  16. Macro-microscopical aspects of the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus, 1758 pineal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Gross and microscopical aspects of the buffalo pineal gland were described in seasonal parturition animals, since this gland is responsible for melatonin secretion which acts upon the hypothalamus-hypophysis reproductive axis feedback system. (Hafez, 1995. For the present study, 11 cross-bred buffaloes, predominantly of the Mediterranean breed, from the Pirassununga Campus - USP (University of São Paulo, were killed in different photoperiods in the slaughterhouse. The pineal glands were obtained, fixed, weighed, measured, photographed, processed, cut into sections and stained. All glands demonstrated the same global shape, with a mean length of 8.82 ± 1.07mm and a width of 7.91 ± 0.83mm, and a stem length of 5.50 ± 4.18mm. The stems had a microscopically visible lumen. The mean gland weight was 251.45 ± 83.1mg. The buffalo pineal gland presented right and left lobes of different sizes. Microscopically, they were surrounded by a connective tissue layer with blood vessels infiltrating into the glandular parenchyma, which became separated into glial cell lobules. A great number of the pinealocytes were arranged in irregular strings, and cells from the connective tissue could be observed in the glandular parenchyma. We conclude that the buffalo pineal gland is similar to that of pineal cows and that it does not show morphologic alterations during different photoperiods of the year.

  17. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva

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    Tatjana Sitt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail, which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T. parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T. parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T. parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T. parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present.

  18. Effect of higher temperature exposure on physicochemical properties of frozen buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Vishnuraj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the changes in various physicochemical parameters of frozen buffalo meat undergone temperature abuse at two different isothermal storage temperatures (37±1°C, 25±1°C using a simulated model. Materials and Methods: Frozen buffalo meat was evaluated after exposing to various temperature abuse conditions over selected durations for different meat quality parameters including pH, extract release volume (ERV, flourescein diacetate (FDA hydrolysis, free amino acid (FAA, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and D-glucose value and compared against a control sample maintained at 4±1°C. Results: Of the various meat quality parameters evaluated pH, FDA hydrolysis, FAA content and TVBN content showed a significant (p<0.05 increase in temperature abused samples after temperature abuse and on subsequent refrigerated storage. However, ERV and D-glucose content decreased significantly (p<0.05 in temperature abused buffalo meat during the same period of study. Conclusions: The present study featured the influence of exposure temperature and duration in various physicochemical parameters and the rate of spoilage development in frozen buffalo meat after temperature abuse.

  19. A survey on the microbiological and chemical composition of buffalo milk in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.Z.; Meng, Y.; Li, M.; Yang, Y.; Ren, F.; Zeng, Q.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and twelve samples of raw buffalo milk were collected at four locations in China, and their microbiological and chemical composition was analyzed. Average levels of major components were: fat 7.59% (v/v), crude protein 4.86% (w/w), lactose 4.74% (w/w), total solids 18.44% (w/w), ash

  20. Cardiac biomarkers and ultrasonography as tools in prediction and diagnosis of traumatic pericarditis in Egyptian buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura E. Attia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the cardiac biomarkers and ultrasonography in prediction and early diagnosis of traumatic pericarditis (TP in Egyptian buffaloes. Materials and Methods: A total number of 47 buffaloes were included in the study and divided into two groups: Healthy (n=10 and diseased groups (n=37. Diseased buffaloes were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Zagazig University, Egypt, with a history of anorexia, sudden, and severe reduction of milk production with no response to a previous medical treatment some animals had edema at the dewlap and congestion of the jugulars. These animals were subjected to clinical examination, evaluation by hemato-biochemical analysis including cardiac biomarkers and sonography. Results: The hemato-biochemical analysis revealed leukocytosis with a shift to left and hyperfibrinogenemia (indicating inflammation. Serum cardiac biomarkers including cardiac troponin I (cTnI, cTnT, nitric oxide, creatine kinase myocardial band, and lactic dehydrogenase enzyme were significantly increased in buffaloes with TP compared with control ones. Ultrasonographically, there were hypoechoic materials with echogenic fibrin interspersed in between the pericardial sac. Conclusions: The cardiac biomarkers may be considered a useful index in the early diagnosis of TP. Moreover, ultrasonography is an excellent tool for early prediction and diagnosis of such condition.

  1. Effect of energy and protein levels on nutrient utilization and their requirements in growing Murrah buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusty, Sonali; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Mondal, Goutam; Sontakke, Umesh; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate different levels of energy and protein for optimum growth of Murrah male buffalo calves, a growth trial (150 days) was conducted on 30 calves (body weight 202.5 ± 6.8 kg). Six diets were formulated to provide 90, 100 and 110% protein level and 90 and 110% energy level requirements for buffalo calves, derived from ICAR 2013 recommendations for buffaloes. The crude protein (CP) intake was increased with higher dietary CP, whereas no effect of energy levels or interaction between protein and energy was observed on CP intake. There were significant effects (P dietary CP, whereas the N retention was similar among all the groups distributed as per different energy or protein levels. The nutrient intake (protein or energy) per kg body weight (BW)(0.75) at various fortnight intervals was regressed linearly from the average daily gain (ADG) per kg BW(0.75). By setting the average daily gain at zero in the developed regression equation, a maintenance requirement was obtained, i.e. 133.1 kcal ME, 6.45 g CP and 3.95 g metabolizable protein (MP) per kg BW(0.75). Requirement for growth was 6.12 kcal ME, 0.46 g CP and 0.32 g MP per kg BW(0.75) per day. Metabolizable amino acid requirement was estimated from partitioning of MP intake and ADG. The ME requirements were lower, whereas the MP requirement of Murrah buffaloes was higher than ICAR (2013) recommendations.

  2. Toward A Competency-Based Teacher Education Program in Foreign Languages at SUNY/Buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Anthony

    SUNY/Buffalo's competency-based teacher education program in foreign languages emphasizes: (1) a field-centered program, (2) a multi-institutional pattern of organizations, (3) feedback to students regarding their progress, (4) preservice/inservice continuum. The competencies required of foreign language teachers include: a practical command of…

  3. Transabdominal color doppler ultrasonography: A relevant approach for assessment of effects of uterine torsion in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on advanced pregnant buffaloes suffering from uterine torsion to assess the status of fetus and uterus by transabdominal ultrasonography, and the findings were compared with normal advanced pregnant buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 clinical cases of uterine torsion and 20 normal advanced pregnant buffaloes (control group. The lower ventral area just lateral to linea alba (on both sides of the udder in standing animals was scanned transabdominally by the two-dimensional convex transducer for various ultrasonographic findings. The data collected were statistically analyzed by “one-way ANOVA” and “independent sample t-test” using computerized SPSS 16.0 software program. Results: Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed dead fetus in 95% uterine torsion cases and proved useful in imaging internal structures of fetuses while no dead fetus was reported in the control group. Size of umbilicus was found significantly decreased (p0.05 in uterine torsion group. Average thickness of the uterine wall and mean pixel values of fetal fluids (echogenicity were found significantly increased (p<0.05 in uterine torsion affected buffaloes in comparison to control group. Conclusion: Status of fetus (whether live or dead, internal status of uterus, and its contents could be determined by transabdominal ultrasonography in uterine torsion cases and thus determining the prognosis of the uterine torsion cases before going for further manipulations. This will also help in taking all the precautions to avoid death of the fetus.

  4. Identification of some unknown transcripts from SSH cDNA library of buffalo follicular oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, S K; Kumar, P; Roy, B; Verma, A; Pandey, H P; Singh, D; De, S; Datta, T K

    2013-03-01

    A buffalo oocyte-specific subtracted cDNA library was constructed to identify exclusively or preferentially oocyte-expressed genes. The library represented an enriched population of transcripts obtained from oocytes of diverse ovarian follicular origin and at different stages of in vitro maturation. A total of 1173 high-quality sequences of oocyte-specific genes were clustered into 645 unique sequences, out of which 65.76% were represented as singlets and 34.26% as contig expressed sequence tags (ESTs; clusters). Analysis of sequences revealed that 498 of these sequences were identified as a known sequence in mammalian species including buffalo, 103 as uncharacterized ESTs and 44 unknown sequences including 1 novel EST, so far not reported in any species. Gene ontology annotation classified these sequences into functional categories of cellular events and biological processes associated with oocyte competence. Expression status of the isolated unknown ESTs confirmed that many of these are expressed in oocytes exclusively and in others preferentially, some in excess of 80-fold greater in comparison with a variety of somatic tissues. The isolated novel EST was detected to be expressed exclusively in oocytes and testicular cells only. To our knowledge, this is the first report giving a detailed transcriptome account of oocyte-expressed genes in buffalo. This study will provide important information on the physiological control of oocyte development, as well as many questions yet to be addressed on the reproductive process of buffalo.

  5. 78 FR 11798 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... the radius of the safety zone associated with the Lorain Port Fest Fireworks is in yards as opposed to... and the radius size from yards to feet. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that this... dock 28 at the Cleveland Port Authority) then northeast back to the starting point at 41 30'49.4'' N...

  6. Antibiotic resistance profile of bacteria isolated from raw milk samples of cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahlina Tanzin

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Two different species of bacteria i.e., S. aureus and E. coli are contaminating with milk samples. The pathogenic bacteria can be controlled effectively by using Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin in the case of mastitis in cattle and buffaloes in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 62-67

  7. Transabdominal color doppler ultrasonography: A relevant approach for assessment of effects of uterine torsion in buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devender; Chandolia, Ramesh Kumar; Pandey, Anand Kumar; Yadav, Vishal; Kumar, Parveen; Dalal, Jasmer

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted on advanced pregnant buffaloes suffering from uterine torsion to assess the status of fetus and uterus by transabdominal ultrasonography, and the findings were compared with normal advanced pregnant buffaloes. The study was conducted on 20 clinical cases of uterine torsion and 20 normal advanced pregnant buffaloes (control group). The lower ventral area just lateral to linea alba (on both sides of the udder) in standing animals was scanned transabdominally by the two-dimensional convex transducer for various ultrasonographic findings. The data collected were statistically analyzed by "one-way ANOVA" and "independent sample t-test" using computerized SPSS 16.0 software program. Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed dead fetus in 95% uterine torsion cases and proved useful in imaging internal structures of fetuses while no dead fetus was reported in the control group. Size of umbilicus was found significantly decreased (p0.05) in uterine torsion group. Average thickness of the uterine wall and mean pixel values of fetal fluids (echogenicity) were found significantly increased (p<0.05) in uterine torsion affected buffaloes in comparison to control group. Status of fetus (whether live or dead), internal status of uterus, and its contents could be determined by transabdominal ultrasonography in uterine torsion cases and thus determining the prognosis of the uterine torsion cases before going for further manipulations. This will also help in taking all the precautions to avoid death of the fetus.

  8. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Feasibility of Comprehensive Water and Related Land Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Metropolitan Area include: a. Ellicott Creek Basin. A restudy of the Ellicott Creek flood management plan was completed in August 1973 and issued in the form...stream-borne sediments and debris. There- fore, this study addresses the issues of control or disposition of sediments and debris in Scajaquada Creek. The...the sudden development of violent rain squalls and thunder- storms, and fishermen or strollers on the pier are fully exposed to the wind, rain, and

  9. Sequence of specific mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment from Egyptian buffalo is used as a pattern for discrimination between river buffaloes, cattle, sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Hassan A I

    2011-08-01

    Characterization of molecular markers and the development of better assays for precise and rapid detection of domestic species are always in demand. This is particularly due to recent food scares and the crisis of biodiversity resulting from the huge ongoing illegal traffic of endangered species. The aim of this study was to develop a new and easy method for domestic species identification (river buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat) based on the analysis of a specific mitochondrial nucleotide sequence. For this reason, a specific fragment of Egyptian buffalo mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene (422 bp) was amplified by PCR using two universal primers. The sequence of this specific fragment is completely conserved between all tested Egyptian buffaloes and other river buffaloes in different places in the world. Also, the lengths of the homologous fragments were less by one nucleotide (421 bp) in case of goats and two nucleotides (420 bp) in case of both cattle and sheep. The detection of specific variable sites between investigated species within this fragment was sufficient to identify the biological origin of the samples. This was achieved by alignment between the unknown homologous sequence and the reference sequences deposited in GenBank database (accession numbers, FJ748599-FJ748607). Considering multiple alignment results between 16S rRNA homologous sequences obtained from GenBank database with the reference sequence, it was shown that definite nucleotides are specific for each of the four studied species of the family Bovidae. In addition, other nucleotides are detected which can allow discrimination between two groups of animals belonging to two subfamilies of family Bovidae, Group one (closely related species like cattle and buffalo, Subfamily Bovinae) and Group two (closely related species like sheep and goat, Subfamily Caprinae). This 16S DNA barcode character-based approach could be used to complement cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) in DNA barcoding. Also, it is a

  10. Global transcriptome profiles of Italian Mediterranean buffalo embryos with normal and retarded growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazzullo, Maria; Gasparrini, Bianca; Neglia, Gianluca; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Francioso, Romina; Rossetti, Cristina; Nassa, Giovanni; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Weisz, Alessandro; Di Francesco, Serena; Vecchio, Domenico; D'Esposito, Maurizio; D'Occhio, Michael John; Zicarelli, Luigi; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptome profiles were compared for buffalo embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating. Embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating have a reduced likelihood of undergoing attachment to the uterine endometrium and establishing a pregnancy. Italian Mediterranean buffaloes were mated by AI and on Day 25 underwent trans-rectal ultrasonography to ascertain embryo development. Embryos with an embryonic width (EW)>2.7 mm were classed as normal embryos and embryos with an EW<2.7 mm were classed as retarded embryos. Three buffaloes with embryos of the largest EW (3.7, 3.7 and 3.9 mm) and three buffaloes with embryos of the smallest EW (1.5, 1.6 and 1.9 mm) were slaughtered on Day 27 to recover embryos for transcriptome analysis using a bovine custom designed oligo array. A total of 1,047 transcripts were differentially expressed between embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth. Retarded embryos showed 773/1,047 (74%) transcripts that were down-regulated and 274/1,047 (26%) transcripts that were up-regulated relative to normal embryos; in silico analyses focused on 680/1,047 (65%) of the differentially expressed transcripts. The most altered transcripts observed in retarded embryos were associated with membrane structure and function and with metabolic and homeostasis maintenance functions. Other notable functions altered in retarded embryos were developmental processes and in particular nervous system differentiation and function. Specific biochemical pathways such as the complement cascade and coagulation were also altered in retarded embryos. It was concluded from the findings that buffalo embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating show altered gene expression compared with normal embryos, and some de-regulated functions are associated with attachment to the uterine endometrium.

  11. Global transcriptome profiles of Italian Mediterranean buffalo embryos with normal and retarded growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Strazzullo

    Full Text Available The transcriptome profiles were compared for buffalo embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating. Embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating have a reduced likelihood of undergoing attachment to the uterine endometrium and establishing a pregnancy. Italian Mediterranean buffaloes were mated by AI and on Day 25 underwent trans-rectal ultrasonography to ascertain embryo development. Embryos with an embryonic width (EW>2.7 mm were classed as normal embryos and embryos with an EW<2.7 mm were classed as retarded embryos. Three buffaloes with embryos of the largest EW (3.7, 3.7 and 3.9 mm and three buffaloes with embryos of the smallest EW (1.5, 1.6 and 1.9 mm were slaughtered on Day 27 to recover embryos for transcriptome analysis using a bovine custom designed oligo array. A total of 1,047 transcripts were differentially expressed between embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth. Retarded embryos showed 773/1,047 (74% transcripts that were down-regulated and 274/1,047 (26% transcripts that were up-regulated relative to normal embryos; in silico analyses focused on 680/1,047 (65% of the differentially expressed transcripts. The most altered transcripts observed in retarded embryos were associated with membrane structure and function and with metabolic and homeostasis maintenance functions. Other notable functions altered in retarded embryos were developmental processes and in particular nervous system differentiation and function. Specific biochemical pathways such as the complement cascade and coagulation were also altered in retarded embryos. It was concluded from the findings that buffalo embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating show altered gene expression compared with normal embryos, and some de-regulated functions are associated with attachment to the uterine endometrium.

  12. Trade-offs of predation and foraging explain sexual segregation in African buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, C.T.; Cross, P.C.; Funston, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Many studies have investigated why males and females segregate spatially in sexually dimorphic species. These studies have focused primarily on temperate zone ungulates in areas lacking intact predator communities, and few have directly assessed predation rates in different social environments. 2. Data on the movement, social affiliation, mortality and foraging of radio-collared African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were collected from 2001-06 in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. 3. The vast majority of mortality events were due to lion (Panthera leo) predation, and the mortality hazard associated with being an adult male buffalo in a male-only 'bachelor' group was almost four times higher than for adult females in mixed herds. The mortality rates of adult males and females within mixed herds were not statistically different. Mortality sites of male and female buffalo were in areas of low visibility similar to those used by bachelor groups, while mixed herds tended to use more open habitats. 4. Males in bachelor groups ate similar or higher quality food (as indexed by percentage faecal nitrogen), and moved almost a third less distance per day compared with mixed herds. As a result, males in bachelor groups gained more body condition than did males in breeding herds. 5. Recent comparative analyses suggest the activity-budget hypothesis as a common underlying cause of social segregation. However, our intensive study, in an area with an intact predator community showed that male and female buffalo segregated by habitat and supported the predation-risk hypothesis. Male African buffalo appear to trade increased predation risk for additional energy gains in bachelor groups, which presumably leads to increased reproductive success. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  13. Improving Buffalo Milk Production to Sustain the Production of Dadih by Small Farmers in West Sumatera

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    Wirdahayati R B

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The swamp buffalo which is found in many Asian regions is mainly raised for meat and draft purposes. However, in West Sumatera, it is also milked and the milk is mostly consumed as “dadih“, a well known traditional product from this area. Dadih is actually a product made from fresh buffalo milk, which is kept in bamboo tube for about 2-3 days under room temperature, without any application or addition of bacteria starter although the end product of this fermentation contains various bacteria, mould and khamir. As the natural fermented milk product, dadih is white in colour and the curd texture like tofu, tastes like yoghurt, and it is generally served as a complementing meal in some traditional occasion as well as delicacy from West Sumatera. Dadih is highly nutritive product, protein and fat contents are higher than those of yoghurt, rich in amino acids and bacteria such as Lactobacillus sp. and low in cholesterol. The raw material for dadih is limited due to the low productivity of fresh buffalo milk which is generally collected for about 0.5 – 2.0 litres/head/day. The effort in sustaining “dadih product“ is directed to the improving the management of the buffalo condition particularly those in lactating period. Feeding improvement is recommended in order to provide an adequate milk for raising its calf and to be milked for making dadih and to support the optimal reproductive activity of the buffalo dam. In future, the assessment on “dadih“ should also include the packaging improvement which can improve and prolong the storage time for the benefit of marketing purposes.

  14. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taru Sharma, G., E-mail: gts553@gmail.com [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India); Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G. [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it

  15. Comparative analysis of the Shadoo gene between cattle and buffalo reveals significant differences.

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    Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While prions play a central role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the biology of these proteins and the pathophysiology of these diseases remain largely unknown. Since no case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE has ever been reported in buffalo despite their phylogenetic proximity to cattle, genetic differences may be driving the different susceptibilities of these two species to BSE. We thus hypothesized that differences in expression of the most recently identified member of the prion family or Shadoo (SPRN gene may relate to these species-specific differences. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first analyzed and compared the polymorphisms of the SPRN gene (~4.4 kb, including the putative promoter, coding and 3' regions, and further verified the entire ORF and putative promoter. This yielded a total of 117 fixed differences, remarkably: 1 a 12-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the hydrophobic domain of the cattle but not buffalo gene, introducing a four amino acid expansion/contraction in a series of 5 tandem Ala/Gly-containing repeats; 2 two fixed missense mutations (102Ser→Gly and 119Thr→Ala, and three missense mutations (92Pro>Thr/Met, 122Thr>Ile and 139Arg>Trp in the coding region presenting different (P<0.05 genotypic and allelic frequency distributions between cattle and buffalo; and, 3 functional luciferase-reporter experiments for the predicted promoter region, consistent with a significantly higher activity in buffalo than cattle. Supporting these findings, immunoblotting revealed higher relative expression levels of Sho protein in cerebrum from buffalo than from cattle. In addition, for cattle, highest Sho expression was detected in obex, as compared to cerebrum or cerebellum. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support Sho as a non-PrP specific marker for prion infections, with obex as the best tissue source for the detection of Sho in TSE rapid tests. Moreover, these discoveries may prove

  16. Evaluation of a homeopathic complex in the clinical management of udder diseases of riverine buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, J P; Naresh, Ram

    2004-01-01

    We report an uncontrolled observational study of the treatment of udder diseases of buffalo, using a homeopathic complex medicine. Mastitis is an economically important disease of buffaloes. In India economic losses due to mastitis are estimated at 526 million US dollars annually. Conventional veterinary treatment relies on costly antibiotics; cure rate is only 60% in field conditions with a problem of milk residues. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a homeopathic complex in the management of clinical udder health problems of riverine buffaloes. Cases of subclinical mastitis were excluded from the study. A total of 102 mastitic quarters (fibrosed--40, nonfibrosed--62) and five cases each of blood in milk and udder oedema in lactating buffaloes were treated with a homeopathic complex consisting of Phytolacca 200c, Calcarea fluorica 200c, Silicea 30c, Belladona 30c, Bryonia 30c, Arnica 30c, Conium 30c and Ipecacuanha 30c. The diagnosis of udder diseases and recovery criterion was based on physical examination of udder and milk and CMT/WST score. Bacteriological analysis and somatic cell count were not performed. Treatment was 80 and 96.72% effective in cases of fibrotic mastitis and nonfibrosed mastitis respectively. Recovery period was 21-42 days (fibrosed) and 4-15 days (nonfibrosed). Udder oedema and blood in milk responded favourably in 2-5 days. Cost of treatment was 0.07 US dollars per day. The homeopathic complex medicine may be effective and economical in the management of udder health problems of buffaloes. Definitive conclusions are premature due to the limited number of observations and lack of control group.

  17. Report on mobile workers in the Wood Buffalo region of Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    Since commercial development of oil sands deposits began in the 1970s, mobile workers have been a presence in the Wood Buffalo region. Mobile workers are expected to remain in the Wood Buffalo region for some time, particularly given the investment plans of existing and new oil sands developers in the region. This report presented the findings of a study of mobile workers in the Wood Buffalo region. The purpose of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the general characteristics of mobile workers in the region; the impacts of the presence of mobile workers in terms of services, traffic, and money spent; and, how to attract workers to work or relocate in the region. The report outlined the background of the study, with particular reference to previous studies on mobile workers; study objectives; key questions; and study processes. The report also discussed methodological considerations and described the research process in detail. A demographic profile of mobile workers in the Wood Buffalo region was also provided and the time they spent working in the region was summarized. Last, the report provided an analysis of the interactions that mobile workers had with the urban service area of Fort McMurray rural communities, the backcountry in the rural areas of the region, and the town of Lac La Biche. It was concluded that mobile workers could be expected to remain a fixture of the industrial landscape in the Wood Buffalo region. Mobile workers in the heavy industrial construction industry have not considered settling in the region. 6 refs., 29 tabs., 5 figs., 3 appendices.

  18. Ovarian and oviductal pathologies in the buffalo: Occurrence, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Purohit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian pathologies observed in the buffalo include developmental anomalies, inflammatory conditions and neoplasm's, the usual incidence of which has been observed to be low (0.1%–19.0% in abattoir studies. Ovarian functional disorders are the most frequently observed clinical entities in buffalo and include conditions such as sub estrus, (7.4%–55.8%, persistent corpus luteum (0.54% and ovarian cysts (0.5%–1.4%. The diagnostic approaches for ovarian hypofunction and ovarian pathologies include transrectal palpation and transrectal ultrasonography the efficiency of which continues to be suboptimal especially for unilateral small sized pathological conditions. Techniques such as laparoscopy have been utilized for visualization of buffalo ovaries however; their clinical use appears to be uncommon. The therapy of most ovarian pathologies except the functional disorders appears to be difficult. The prospects of surgical removal of ovaries in neoplastic ovarian pathologies are limited owing to the costs and loss of reproductive function under bilateral conditions. Oviductal pathologies in buffalo have been mentioned largely from abattoir studies and include salpingitis (0.2%–14.2%, hydrosalpinx (0.7%–14.2%, pyosalpinx (0.6%–11.9%, adhesions (1.5%–1.7%, congenital defects (0.2% and oviductal blockage (1.2%–37.8%. The diagnosis of most oviductal pathologies in buffalo appears to be difficult except under conditions of gross enlargement. Under situations of bilateral involvement the therapy of most oviductal pathologies currently seems impractical as the reattainment of fertility appears to be difficult.

  19. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  20. Qualitative assessment of temporal fluctuations on buffalo behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serrapica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative assessment of animal behaviour (QBA is an integrative, whole-animal methodology based on the qualitative interpretation of the dynamic style in which animals interact with their environment. In other words, it describes not what the animals do, but how they do what they do. We aimed to verify whether the QBA was able to detect the behavioural fluctuations occurring in animals in response to an environmental challenge. An 8-member panel was used. The panel was briefly trained on the temporal dominance of sensations (TDS procedure and subsequently asked to observe the behaviour of 4 buffalo heifers in 4 videos lasting 2 min each and score the behavioural expression of the animals following the TDS procedure. TDS consists in presenting to the panellist the list of behavioural descriptors on a computer screen along with each video. Each video was obtained by assembling two clips concerning the same animal in two different conditions: home indoor pen (1 min and novel outdoor paddock (1 min. Two videos started with the animal in the outdoor environment and two others in the opposite order. Six behavioural descriptors were chosen from a previous work conducted on the same animals: calm, active, curious, nervous, shy and apathetic. Each assessor was asked to select the dominant descriptor, which was considered as dominant when it gained most of the attention of the observer. Each time the observer felt the behaviour changed, he/she scored the new dominant descriptor until the behaviour ended. Each video was observed 4 times by each observer (4 replications in a randomised order at 24-h intervals. For each point of time, the proportion of runs (subject × replication for which a given descriptor was assessed as dominant (dominance rate >30% was computed. Results showed a satisfactory agreement among observers and replications. The observers clearly discriminated the first from the second half of each video. Calm and apathetic were

  1. Identification of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphic Loci Associated with Biomass Yield under Water Deficit in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Genome-Wide Sequencing and Association Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi

    2017-01-01

    Alfalfa is a worldwide grown forage crop and is important due to its high biomass production and nutritional value. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by adverse environmental factors such as drought and other stresses. Developing drought resistance alfalfa is an important breeding target for enhancing alfalfa productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. In the present study, we used genotyping-by-sequencing and genome-wide association to identify marker loci associated with biomass yield under drought in the field in a panel of diverse germplasm of alfalfa. A total of 28 markers at 22 genetic loci were associated with yield under water deficit, whereas only four markers associated with the same trait under well-watered condition. Comparisons of marker-trait associations between water deficit and well-watered conditions showed non-similarity except one. Most of the markers were identical across harvest periods within the treatment, although different levels of significance were found among the three harvests. The loci associated with biomass yield under water deficit located throughout all chromosomes in the alfalfa genome agreed with previous reports. Our results suggest that biomass yield under drought is a complex quantitative trait with polygenic inheritance and may involve a different mechanism compared to that of non-stress. BLAST searches of the flanking sequences of the associated loci against DNA databases revealed several stress-responsive genes linked to the drought resistance loci, including leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, B3 DNA-binding domain protein, translation initiation factor IF2, and phospholipase-like protein. With further investigation, those markers closely linked to drought resistance can be used for MAS to accelerate the development of new alfalfa cultivars with improved resistance to drought and other abiotic stresses.

  2. Identification of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphic Loci Associated with Biomass Yield under Water Deficit in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Using Genome-Wide Sequencing and Association Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Xi Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is a worldwide grown forage crop and is important due to its high biomass production and nutritional value. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by adverse environmental factors such as drought and other stresses. Developing drought resistance alfalfa is an important breeding target for enhancing alfalfa productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. In the present study, we used genotyping-by-sequencing and genome-wide association to identify marker loci associated with biomass yield under drought in the field in a panel of diverse germplasm of alfalfa. A total of 28 markers at 22 genetic loci were associated with yield under water deficit, whereas only four markers associated with the same trait under well-watered condition. Comparisons of marker-trait associations between water deficit and well-watered conditions showed non-similarity except one. Most of the markers were identical across harvest periods within the treatment, although different levels of significance were found among the three harvests. The loci associated with biomass yield under water deficit located throughout all chromosomes in the alfalfa genome agreed with previous reports. Our results suggest that biomass yield under drought is a complex quantitative trait with polygenic inheritance and may involve a different mechanism compared to that of non-stress. BLAST searches of the flanking sequences of the associated loci against DNA databases revealed several stress-responsive genes linked to the drought resistance loci, including leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, B3 DNA-binding domain protein, translation initiation factor IF2, and phospholipase-like protein. With further investigation, those markers closely linked to drought resistance can be used for MAS to accelerate the development of new alfalfa cultivars with improved resistance to drought and other abiotic stresses.

  3. Adaptation in toxic environments: comparative genomics of loci carrying antibiotic resistance genes derived from acid mine drainage waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Chiboub, Olfa; Lièvremont, Didier; Farasin, Julien; Freel, Kelle C; Fouteau, Stephanie; Barbe, Valérie

    2017-10-31

    Several studies have suggested the existence of a close relationship between antibiotic-resistant phenotypes and resistance to other toxic compounds such as heavy metals, which involve co-resistance or cross-resistance mechanisms. A metagenomic library was previously constructed in Escherichia coli with DNA extracted from the bacterial community inhabiting an acid mine drainage (AMD) site highly contaminated with heavy metals. Here, we conducted a search for genes involved in antibiotic resistance using this previously constructed library. In particular, resistance to antibiotics was observed among five clones carrying four different loci originating from CARN5 and CARN2, two genomes reconstructed from the metagenomic data. Among the three CARN2 loci, two carry genes homologous to those previously proposed to be involved in antibiotic resistance. The third CARN2 locus carries a gene encoding a membrane transporter with an unknown function and was found to confer bacterial resistance to rifampicin, gentamycin, and kanamycin. The genome of Thiomonas delicata DSM 16361 and Thiomonas sp. X19 were sequenced in this study. Homologs of genes carried on these three CARN2 loci were found in these genomes, two of these loci were found in genomic islands. Together, these findings confirm that AMD environments contaminated with several toxic metals also constitute habitats for bacteria that function as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes.

  4. Whole-genome sequence of the first sequence type 27 Brucella ceti strain isolated from European waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvnjak, Sanja; Spicic, Silvio; Kusar, Darja

    2017-01-01

    Brucella spp. that cause marine brucellosis are becoming more important, as the disease appears to be more widespread than originally thought. Here, we report a whole and annotated genome sequence of Brucella ceti CRO350, a sequence type 27 strain isolated from a bottlenose dolphin carcass found...

  5. Genomic resources for water yam (Dioscorea alata L.): analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo sequencing and GBS libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources such as SSRs, SNPs and InDels in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) i...

  6. Application of dissociation curve analysis to radiation hybrid panel marker scoring: generation of a map of river buffalo (B. bubalis chromosome 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäffer Alejandro A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescence of dyes bound to double-stranded PCR products has been utilized extensively in various real-time quantitative PCR applications, including post-amplification dissociation curve analysis, or differentiation of amplicon length or sequence composition. Despite the current era of whole-genome sequencing, mapping tools such as radiation hybrid DNA panels remain useful aids for sequence assembly, focused resequencing efforts, and for building physical maps of species that have not yet been sequenced. For placement of specific, individual genes or markers on a map, low-throughput methods remain commonplace. Typically, PCR amplification of DNA from each panel cell line is followed by gel electrophoresis and scoring of each clone for the presence or absence of PCR product. To improve sensitivity and efficiency of radiation hybrid panel analysis in comparison to gel-based methods, we adapted fluorescence-based real-time PCR and dissociation curve analysis for use as a novel scoring method. Results As proof of principle for this dissociation curve method, we generated new maps of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis chromosome 20 by both dissociation curve analysis and conventional marker scoring. We also obtained sequence data to augment dissociation curve results. Few genes have been previously mapped to buffalo chromosome 20, and sequence detail is limited, so 65 markers were screened from the orthologous chromosome of domestic cattle. Thirty bovine markers (46% were suitable as cross-species markers for dissociation curve analysis in the buffalo radiation hybrid panel under a standard protocol, compared to 25 markers suitable for conventional typing. Computational analysis placed 27 markers on a chromosome map generated by the new method, while the gel-based approach produced only 20 mapped markers. Among 19 markers common to both maps, the marker order on the map was maintained perfectly. Conclusion Dissociation curve

  7. The comparison of digestibility of treated sugarcane tops silage by bacteria or whole microorganisms of Holstein cow and buffalo rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Afrooz; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding sulfuric acid to sugarcane tops silage on rumen bacteria and whole rumen microorganisms (WRM) and compare the digestibility of sugarcane tops treated with different amount of urea, molasses and sulfuric acid between Holstein cow and Khouzestan buffalo. Regardless of the type of the treatment, potential of gas production (B) by cow WRM (130.670 mL) was more than buffalo (104.060 mL) ( p cow (0.021 and 0.014 mL per hr, respectively) ( p cow rumen bacteria (75.040 mL) was more than buffalo (67.150 mL), ( p cow (0.017 mL per hr), ( p cow rumen bacteria and whole microorganisms was higher than buffalo.

  8. Nematodes of the small intestine of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Taylor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and distribution of parasitic helminths in populations of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, have not been well documented. A total of 28 buffaloes of different ages and sexeswere sampled in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, for nematodes of the small intestine. Three nematode species were identified, namely Cooperia fuelleborni, Cooperia hungi and Trichostrongylus deflexus, with C. hungi being a new country record for African buffalo in South Africa. The overall prevalence was 71%and the average number of worms was 2346 (range: 0–15 980. This is a small burden for such a large mammal. Sex, age and body condition of the buffaloes had no significant effect on worm occurrence.

  9. Proteomic Profiles of the Embryonic Chorioamnion and Uterine Caruncles in Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with Normal and Retarded Embryonic Development1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Luisa Balestrieri; Bianca Gasparrini; Gianluca Neglia; Domenico Vecchio; Maria Strazzullo; Alfonso Giovane; Luigi Servillo; Luigi Zicarelli; Michael J. D'Occhio; Giuseppe Campanile

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare the proteome profiles of the chorioamnion and corresponding caruncle for buffalo embryos that had either normal or retarded development on Day 25 after...

  10. Cryotop vitrification for in vitro produced bovine and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryos at different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to vitrify in vitro produced (IVP buffalo and bovine embryos at different stages of development by an advanced version of the “minimal volume approaches”: the Cryotop method. In both experiments, the embryos were vitrified at the tight morula (TM, early blastocyst (eBl, blastocyst (Bl, expanded blastocyst (xBl and, only for buffalo, at the hatched blastocyst (hBl stage. After warming, the embryos were cultured in vitro for 24 hours. Stage of development affected the freezability of IVP embryos of both species with the highest embryo survival rates at advanced stages (xBl=76% and hBl=75% for buffalos and xBl=75% for bovine. These results suggest that Cryotop vitrification is an efficient method for buffalo and bovine IVP embryo cryopreservation.

  11. Structural and functional insights into the catalytic inactivity of the major fraction of buffalo milk xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh S Gadave

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH and xanthine oxidase (XO, catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (k cat/K m of 0.11 sec(-1 µM(-1 of buffalo XO was 8-10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (Δε430 nm of 46,000 M(-1 cm(-1 suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ∼30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD(+ entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. CONCLUSION: A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way.

  12. Relationship of prepartum udder and teat measurements with subsequent milk production traits in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chandrasekar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to find out the relationship of prepartum udder and teat measurements with subsequent milk production traits in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers were selected from Buffalo Farm, Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Regional Station- Bir Dosanjh, Nabha, Patiala, Punjab. The udder length (UL, udder width (UW, udder depth, teat length (TL, teat diameter (TD, and teat distances were measured at fortnightly interval from 60 days prepartum until calving. After calving, 60 days total milk yield (TDMY, peak yield (PY, and days taken to attain PY (DPY were also recorded. The correlation coefficients of various prepartum udder and teat measurements since 60 days prepartum to calving with 60 days TDMY, PY, and DPY were calculated to find out the relationship between the traits in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Results: The result envisaged that all udder and teat measurements were increased gradually toward the date of calving in primiparous buffaloes. The UL, UW, left fore (LF and right rear (RRTL, RRTD, and the distance between LF to left rear (LR teat were positively correlated with 60 days TDMY. The UL and UW depicted positive but nonsignificant correlation with PY. Fore TLs showed positive correlation where as TDs and teat distances had a negative correlation with the DPY in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Conclusion: It was concluded that milk production performance could be assessed on the basis of prepartum udder and teat measurements in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

  13. Detection of sensitive and mutant ruminal bacteria isolates from sheep, cattle, and buffalo using 14 therapeutic antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    SALEM, Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed; JIMENEZ, Roberto Montes de OCA; CERRILLO-SOTO, Maria Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, sensitive and mutant colonies of some ruminal bacterial species isolated from sheep, cattle, and buffalo were detected. We counted and considered \\"mutant colonies\\" the bacterial colonies grown in the clear inhibition zone in the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test. Detected mutant colonies were higher in buffalo than in cattle and sheep. Duricef and metronidazole caused no mutations in any species. The others formed mutant colonies, where r...

  14. Comparison of Surti goat milk with cow and buffalo milk for gross composition, nitrogen distribution, and selected minerals content

    OpenAIRE

    Kapadiya, Dhartiben B.; Darshna B. Prajapati; Amit Kumar Jain; Mehta, Bhavbhuti M.; Darji, Vijaykumar B.; Kishorkumar D. Aparnathi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the gross composition, nitrogen distribution, and selected mineral content in Surti goat milk, and its comparison was made between cow and buffalo milk. Materials and Methods: Goat milk samples of Surti breed and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU), Anand. Cow milk samples of Kankrej breed were collected from Livestock Research Statio...

  15. Comparison of non-linear models to describe the lactation curves for milk yield and composition in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N

    2016-02-01

    In order to describe the lactation curves of milk yield (MY) and composition in buffaloes, seven non-linear mathematical equations (Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Brody, Dijkstra and Rook) were used. Data were 116,117 test-day records for MY, fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentages of milk from the first three lactations of buffaloes which were collected from 893 herds in the period from 1992 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly production records of dairy buffaloes using the NLIN and MODEL procedures in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using adjusted coefficient of determination (Radj(2)), root means square error (RMSE), Durbin-Watson statistic and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The Dijkstra model provided the best fit of MY and PP of milk for the first three parities of buffaloes due to the lower values of RMSE and AIC than other models. For the first-parity buffaloes, Sikka and Brody models provided the best fit of FP, but for the second- and third-parity buffaloes, Sikka model and Brody equation provided the best fit of lactation curve for FP, respectively. The results of this study showed that the Wood and Dhanoa equations were able to estimate the time to the peak MY more accurately than the other equations. In addition, Nelder and Dijkstra equations were able to estimate the peak time at second and third parities more accurately than other equations, respectively. Brody function provided more accurate predictions of peak MY over the first three parities of buffaloes. There was generally a positive relationship between 305-day MY and persistency measures and also between peak yield and 305-day MY, calculated by different models, within each lactation in the current study. Overall, evaluation of the different equations used in the current study indicated the potential of the non-linear models for fitting monthly productive records of buffaloes.

  16. Effect of dietary vitamin E content on the CLA, cholesterol and triglycerides composition of Italian Mediterranean buffalo meat

    OpenAIRE

    R. Sacchi; L. Chianese; I. Borriello; R. Romano

    2010-01-01

    The composition of fatty acids, CLA, triglycerides and cholesterol in intramuscular fat depots of buffalo meat was determined using high-resolution gas chromatography to investigate the influence of dietary vitamin E content. Three groups of Italian Mediterranean buffalo calves were fed on three diets with high (H), low (L) and zero (Z) vitamin E contents. The animal were slaughtered at 15 months and three muscles were dissected on the half-carcass: Longissimus dorsi (LD), Tricipitis brachii ...

  17. Identification of retrotransposon-like sequences in Iranian river buffalo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... Their ability to move and/or replicate inside the genome is an important evolutionary force responsible for ... evolution within the species and perhaps will be useful in other related studies on population genetics, speciation and ... including dog, cat, horse, cattle, donkey, kangaroo, etc. (Jurka et al., 1995).

  18. Validation of ELISA kits for determination of Inhibin-A and Estradiol-17-beta concentrations in Buffalo plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malfatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the suitability of two commercial ELISA kits for human serum or plasma, to measure Inhibin-A (In-A and Estradiol-17-beta (E2 concentrations in buffalo plasma. Blood samples were obtained by jugular venipuncture from buffalo heifers and cows, and plasma samples were stored at – 20°C until assays. Precision of the methods was evaluated by the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs of buffalo plasma sample replicates, at different concentrations. Accuracy was evaluated calculating the recovery rates of different proportions of the highest standard added to a buffalo plasma sample at low concentration (observed/expected values x 100. Linearity was evaluated by serially diluting one buffalo plasma sample at high concentration with the assay buffer and calculating by regression analysis the parallelism of the resulting line with the standard line. Intra-assay CVs were 11% and 15.1% for In-A and 1.8% and 3.3% for E2. Inter-assay CVs were 13.9% and 7.4% for In-A and E2, respectively. Mean recovery rate was 97.9% and 98.5% for In-A and E2, respectively. Dilution tests gave good parallelism between the lines obtained and the standard lines. It is concluded that the kits tested are suitable and reliable for buffalo plasma samples.

  19. Optimal Combination of Soy, Buffalo, and Cow's Milk in Bioyogurt for Optimal Chemical, Nutritional, and Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneem, Gehan; Ismail, Magdy; El-Boraey, Naeem; Tabekha, Mohamed; Elashrey, Hoda

    2018-01-01

    Soy milk is enriched with nutritive elements such as proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, lecithins, isoflavones, mineral substances, free amino acids, and polypeptides. The aim of this study was to increase the health and nutritional values of bioyogurt by using ABT-5 culture and mixing soy milk with buffalo and cow's milk. Five treatments of yogurt were made from soy, buffalo, and cow's milk and from 75% buffalo + 25% soy milk mixture and 75% cow + 25% soy milk mixture using ABT-5 culture. Utilization of soy milk in yogurt production decreased acidity, redox potential (E h ), total solids (TS), fat, total nitrogen, ash, total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs), saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and total amino acids contents. In contrast, the highest levels of unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid were detected. Higher numbers of L. acidophilus and bifidobacteria were found in soy milk yogurt than in buffalo or cow's milk. Blending of buffalo or cow's milk with soy milk increased the sensory evaluation scores of yogurt. Mixtures of 25% soy milk + 75% buffalo milk, 25% soy milk + 75% cow's milk and ABT-5 culture could be successfully used in production of bioyogurt characterized by high health and nutritional properties. These optimal combinations highly enhanced probiotic bacteria. The recommended level of 10 7 cfu.g -1 of bifidobacteria as a probiotic was exceeded for soy milk yogurt treatments.

  20. Exploration of Luteinizing hormone in murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) urine: Extended surge window opens door for estrus prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Ramu Muthu; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Nayan, Varij; Sivakumar, Muthusamy; Singh, Dheer; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2017-09-15

    Estrus detection in buffaloes has been a major concern for decades, and lack of reliable methods affects their effective reproductive management. Luteinizing hormone (LH) detection in urine is in practice for several mammals for timed insemination, whereas very few reports are available on buffalo urinary LH. The focus of this study is to detect the presence of LH in buffalo urine, quantitate variation in urinary LH during different estrous cycle phases and examine the duration of mid-cycle LH window. Nearly hundred buffaloes were examined, longitudinal urine samples (n=42) were collected from seventeen animals and classified into respective phases based on several estrus detection parameters. The urinary LH was detected using bovine LH ELISA kit validated for serum/plasma/tissue homogenate. Detection of buffalo LH in the neat urine convincingly proved the competence of the bovine LH kit. Variation in the LH range was observed between different phases of estrous cycle and significant fold variation (Psurge was observed due to its lingering excretion in urine. The results, altogether, revealed that LH can be detected in buffalo urine with noticeable fold variation during estrus phase and the extended LH window intensifies the chance of ovulation prediction for timed insemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes.

  2. Novel Fe-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria floating in the Chesapeake: kinetics and genomic insights into microbial Fe cycling in a stratified marine water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, B.; Field, E.; Kato, S.; Mcallister, S.; Luther, G. W., III; Chan, C. S. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are potentially important drivers in iron redox cycling, with significant effects on other major elemental cycles (e.g. C, N, P, S, As), yet the biogeochemical impacts of these microbes have been difficult to quantify. FeOB have traditionally been studied in relatively few, Fe-rich environments (groundwater seeps and hydrothermal vents), but our recent studies show that they also occur in coastal marine environments. Here we report on two Zetaproteobacteria strains, CP-5 and CP-8, isolated from the Chesapeake Bay chemocline during seasonal stratification. They represent the first known planktonic chemolithotrophic FeOB and are unusual for living in very low (micromolar) Fe(II) conditions, intermediate (brackish) salinities, and pH values (7.3-7.4) at which abiotic Fe oxidation is typically rapid. However, kinetics experiments demonstrate that CP-8 accelerates iron oxidation, relative to killed controls, and allow us to quantify the effects of microbes on iron oxidation. Ongoing work is characterizing the O2 preferences of the CP strains, specifically the lower O2 limits of FeOB activity. We obtained complete, closed genomes of both CP-5 and CP-8 genomes (2.54 and 2.30 Mbp respectively) using the PacBio RSII sequencer. Our genomic analysis of the CP strains is focused on adaptations for growth in the Chesapeake Bay chemocline, including genes for energy metabolism, and C, N, and P cycling. Initial results indicate that both strains have putative iron oxidase Cyc2 as well as Rubisco which suggests that these microbes are using energy from Fe oxidation to fix carbon, despite the availability of organics from phototrophs living higher in the water column. Our work on these Chesapeake FeOB gives us insight into how chemolithotrophic FeOB can participate in Fe redox and nutrient cycling in a stratified marine water column.

  3. Quality of buffalo milk as affected by dietary protein level and flaxseed supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effects of protein level and flaxseed supplementation on the yield and quality of buffalo milk. In particular, the fatty acid profile of milk from buffalo cows subjected to different diets has been investigated. A 2×3 factorial design was tested with buffalo cows receiving 2 dietary crude protein (CP) and 3 flaxseed (FS) supplementation levels. Treatments were (1) low dietary CP level [12% of dry matter (DM)] and no flaxseed supplementation (LP); (2) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (LPFS500); (3) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (LPFS1000); (4) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and no flaxseed supplementation (MP); (5) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (MPFS500); and (6) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (MPFS1000). Milk protein and casein were affected by flaxseed supplementation being higher in MP, intermediate in LP, and lower in flaxseed-supplemented diets. However, the results from the present study highlighted that low protein diets sustained milk yield, protein, and casein synthesis in milk when whole flaxseed was administered. Short-chain fatty acids, in particular C8:0 and C10:0, were the lowest in milk from buffalo cows fed the highest level of flaxseed supplementation. Medium-chain fatty acids were the lowest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500, and the highest in the HP and LP groups. Long-chain fatty acids were the highest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500 groups, and the lowest in milk from buffalo receiving no flaxseed supplementation. Protein level of the diet influenced the percentage of C18:0, which was higher in MP than LP groups. Total conjugated linoleic acid content evidenced the same trend of long-chain fatty acids, with an increase of about 7% in FL500 and of 22% in FL1000 than the control. Apart from

  4. Use of Dried Stoned Olive Pomace in the Feeding of Lactating Buffaloes: Effect on the Quantity and Quality of the Milk Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Terramoccia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dried stoned olive pomace (DSOP was administered to dairy water buffaloes, and their productive performance and milk composition were analysed. Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided into two uniform groups (control and experimental, taking into consideration the following parameters: milk production (2,192 and 2,102 kg and duration of lactation (254 and 252 d of the previous year, distance from calving (51 and 43 d, milk production (9.71 and 10.18 kg/d, body condition score (BCS (6.44 and 6.31 and weight (617 and 653 kg at the beginning of the trial. Both diets had the same formulation: second cut alfalfa hay 20%, corn silage 42%, concentrate 38% but the two concentrates differed in their formulation, the experimental one contained 15.50% of DSOP as fed. The employed DSOP showed high amounts of secoiridoids, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (3,4-DHPEA (1.2 g/kg DM, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (3,4-DHPEA-EDA (12.6 g/kg DM, p-hydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (p-HPEA-EDA (5.6 g/kg DM and lignans, which are known to be powerful bioactive compounds. The control diet had an energy-protein content of 0.86 Milk FU/kg DM and 143.3 g/kg DM of crude protein, whereas the experimental diet of 0.87 Milk FU/kg DM and 146.6 g/kg DM of crude protein. Each animal of the two groups received 17 kg DM/d and each buffalo of the experimental group, by way of the concentrate, ingested 1.05 kg DM/d of DSOP. The trial lasted 40 days. No significant difference was found between the BCS (6.41 and 6.53, live weight (625.93 and 662.50 kg and milk production (9.69 and 10.08 kg/d of the two groups, as was the case for fat, protein, lactose, pH and coagulating parameters of the two milks. The milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content of total tocopherols (10.45 vs 8.60 μg/g, p<0.01 and retinol (3.17 vs 2.54 μg/g, p<0.01. The content of the reactive substances with tiobarbituric acid (TBARs was

  5. Mapping whole genome shotgun sequence and variant calling in mammalian species without their reference genomes [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2x3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Kalbfleisch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomics research in mammals has produced reference genome sequences that are essential for identifying variation associated with disease.  High quality reference genome sequences are now available for humans, model species, and economically important agricultural animals.  Comparisons between these species have provided unique insights into mammalian gene function.  However, the number of species with reference genomes is small compared to those needed for studying molecular evolutionary relationships in the tree of life.  For example, among the even-toed ungulates there are approximately 300 species whose phylogenetic relationships have been calculated in the 10k trees project.  Only six of these have reference genomes:  cattle, swine, sheep, goat, water buffalo, and bison.  Although reference sequences will eventually be developed for additional hoof stock, the resources in terms of time, money, infrastructure and expertise required to develop a quality reference genome may be unattainable for most species for at least another decade.  In this work we mapped 35 Gb of next generation sequence data of a Katahdin sheep to its own species’ reference genome (Ovis aries Oar3.1 and to that of a species that diverged 15 to 30 million years ago (Bos taurus UMD3.1.  In total, 56% of reads covered 76% of UMD3.1 to an average depth of 6.8 reads per site, 83 million variants were identified, of which 78 million were homozygous and likely represent interspecies nucleotide differences. Excluding repeat regions and sex chromosomes, nearly 3.7 million heterozygous sites were identified in this animal vs. bovine UMD3.1, representing polymorphisms occurring in sheep.  Of these, 41% could be readily mapped to orthologous positions in ovine Oar3.1 with 80% corroborated as heterozygous.  These variant sites, identified via interspecies mapping could be used for comparative genomics, disease association studies, and ultimately to understand

  6. Prevalence and distribution of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in cattle, African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) and their environments in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gcebe, N; Rutten, V; Gey van Pittius, N C; Michel, A

    2013-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that a variety of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species to which livestock and wildlife species are naturally exposed induce broadly cross-reactive anti-mycobacterial immune responses which interfere with current standard diagnostic assays. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria have also been implicated in Mycobacterium bovis-specific immune responsiveness, hence potentially the development of tuberculosis. Cattle and African buffaloes are both maintenance hosts of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in South Africa, yet the effective diagnosis and control in these species may be hampered by adverse effects of NTM. As part of an investigation of the role of NTM in the immune responsiveness of cattle and African buffaloes to NTM, we conducted a countrywide survey to establish the prevalent NTM species and their distribution in the natural environments of these animals. A total of 1123 samples (water, soil, nasal and pharyngeal swabs) were collected for mycobacterium isolation. In addition, NTM isolated from tissue samples between 1991 and 2011 were included in the analysis. Mycobacteria were isolated from 56% of the samples from the countrywide survey. A total of 420 NTM isolates from soil, water, animal tissues and animal-derived swab samples were genotyped with the following results: 302 belonged to 40 known NTM species, 79 were found to be closely related to 23 known NTM species, and 38 isolates were found to be potentially novel species that are not currently listed in the RIDOM and NCBI BLAST databases. The four NTM species or closely related groups most frequently isolated in this survey included Mycobacterium terrae (11.2% of isolates), a group of mycobacteria closely related to Mycobacterium moriokaense (referred to as M. moriokaense-like) (8.1% of isolates), Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum (7.4% of isolates) and Mycobacterium vaccae/M. vanbaalenii (5.2% of isolates). The phylogenetic analysis of the M. moriokaense-like isolates, based on the 16S r

  7. Texture, flavor, and sensory quality of buffalo milk Cheddar cheese as influenced by reducing sodium salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, M A; Huma, N; Sameen, A; Murtaza, M S; Mahmood, S; Mueen-ud-Din, G; Meraj, A

    2014-11-01

    The adverse health effects of dietary sodium demand the production of cheese with reduced salt content. The study was aimed to assess the effect of reducing the level of sodium chloride on the texture, flavor, and sensory qualities of Cheddar cheese. Cheddar cheese was manufactured from buffalo milk standardized at 4% fat level by adding sodium chloride at 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5% (wt/wt of the curd obtained). Cheese samples were ripened at 6 to 8 °C for 180 d and analyzed for chemical composition after 1 wk; for texture and proteolysis after 1, 60, 120, and 180 d; and for volatile flavor compounds and sensory quality after 180 d of ripening. Decreasing the salt level significantly reduced the salt-in-moisture and pH and increased the moisture-in-nonfat-substances and water activity. Cheese hardness, toughness, and crumbliness decreased but proteolysis increased considerably on reducing the sodium content and during cheese ripening. Lowering the salt levels appreciably enhanced the concentration of volatile compounds associated with flavor but negatively affected the sensory perception. We concluded that salt level in cheese can be successfully reduced to a great extent if proteolysis and development of off-flavors resulted by the growth of starter and nonstarter bacteria can be controlled. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Aflatoxin M1 in buffalo and cow milk in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Recep; Ince, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Potential hazardous human exposure to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via consumption of milk and milk products has been demonstrated by many researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of this mycotoxin in buffalo and cow milk samples in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. For this purpose, 126 buffalo and 124 cow milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Afyonkarahisar province. AFM1 levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Although AFM1 was not detected in cow milk samples, AFM1 was found above the limit of detection (milk samples. The results of this study indicated the importance of continuous surveillance of commonly consumed milk or milk product samples for AFM1 contamination in Turkey.

  9. Effect of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on semen quality and blood enzymes in buffalo bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharawy, Mohamed; Eid, Entsar; Darwish, Samy; Abdel-Razek, Ibrahim; Islam, Md Rashedul; Kubota, Kaiyu; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; El-Shamaa, Ibrahim

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of organic and inorganic selenium (Se) supplementation on semen quality and blood serum profiles of buffalo bulls. Nine mature buffalo bulls were divided into three groups: control (non-supplemented); organic Se (10 mg Sel-Plex®/head twice weekly) and inorganic Se (10 mg sodium selenite/head twice weekly). Semen was collected twice a week for 3 months during Se supplementation. Semen properties were evaluated from fresh ejaculate. Moreover, fructose concentration, aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST and ALT) activities, total protein and total cholesterol were assayed in seminal plasma. Additionally AST, ALT, testosterone and Se levels were determined in the blood serum. Results showed that Se supplementation significantly (P inorganic Se and the control group. Fructose concentration was significantly higher (P inorganic Se. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Integrating association data and disease dynamics: an illustration using African Buffalo in Kruger National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; James O, Lloyd-Smith; Bowers, Justin A.; Hay, Craig T.; Hofmeyr, Markus; Getz, Wayne M.

    2004-01-01

    Recognition is a prerequisite for non-random association amongst individuals. We explore how non-random association patterns (i.e. who spends time with whom) affect disease dynamics. We estimated the amount of time individuals spent together per month using radio-tracking data from African buffalo and incorporated these data into a dynamic social network model. The dynamic nature of the network has a strong influence on simulated disease dynamics particularly for diseases with shorter infectious periods. Cluster analyses of the association data demonstrated that buffalo herds were not as well defined as previously thought. Associations were more tightly clustered in 2002 than 2003, perhaps due to drier conditions in 2003. As a result, diseases may spread faster during drought conditions due to increased population mixing. Association data are often collected but this is the first use of empirical data in a network disease model in a wildlife population.

  11. Parameters-tuning of PID controller for automatic voltage regulators using the African buffalo optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam; Noraziah, A

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt is made to apply the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) to tune the parameters of a PID controller for an effective Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR). Existing metaheuristic tuning methods have been proven to be quite successful but there were observable areas that need improvements especially in terms of the system's gain overshoot and steady steady state errors. Using the ABO algorithm where each buffalo location in the herd is a candidate solution to the Proportional-Integral-Derivative parameters was very helpful in addressing these two areas of concern. The encouraging results obtained from the simulation of the PID Controller parameters-tuning using the ABO when compared with the performance of Genetic Algorithm PID (GA-PID), Particle-Swarm Optimization PID (PSO-PID), Ant Colony Optimization PID (ACO-PID), PID, Bacteria-Foraging Optimization PID (BFO-PID) etc makes ABO-PID a good addition to solving PID Controller tuning problems using metaheuristics.

  12. Comparison of the principal proteins in bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L

    2012-05-01

    Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of β-lactoglobulin, whereas β-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of κ-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine κ-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products.

  13. Allelic Diversity of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II DRB Gene in Indian Cattle and Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachinandan De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to study the diversity of MHC-DRB3 alleles in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds. Previously reported BoLA-DRB exon 2 alleles of Indian Zebu cattle, Bos taurus cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goats were analyzed for the identities and divergence among various allele sequences. Comparison of predicted amino acid residues of DRB3 exon 2 alleles with similar alleles from other ruminants revealed considerable congruence in amino acid substitution pattern. These alleles showed a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid polymorphism at positions forming peptide-binding regions. A higher rate of nonsynonymous substitution was detected at the peptide-binding regions, indicating that BoLA-DRB3 allelic sequence evolution was driven by positive selection.

  14. Pathology of experimental infection by Pasteurella multocida serotype A: 1 in buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, P E; Periasamy, S; Kumar, A A; Singh, N

    2014-11-01

    Pasteurella multocida serotype A:3 has been mostly implicated in pneumonic pasteurellosis in ruminants. In contrast, our previous studies have reported that both serotypes A:1 and A:3 were responsible for respiratory diseases in cattle and buffaloes. However, the pathology and pathogenesis of P. multocida serotype A:1 (Pm A:1) infection have not been studied in ruminants. In the present study, 12- to 15-week-old buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) infected by Pm A:1 had fibrinous and suppurative bronchopneumonia with focal areas of coagulation necrosis typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis. For the first time, this study reports the lung pathology and pathogenecity of Pm A:1 infection in calves. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Effect of supplementary lighting on eating behaviour by corralled swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis heifers in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanvit Vajrabukka

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen 14-month-old swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis heifers were used to study the effect of supplementary lighting on eating time, number of meals and meal duration and growth performance. Eightheifers were allocated to a natural photoperiod regime, receiving approximately 12 h of daylight, (control treatment and eight heifers were allocated to a supplementary lighting regime, receiving an additional 6 h of artificial light during the night, (light supplemented treatment using a cross-over design. Rice straw wasoffered ad libitum and commercial concentrate was also offered approximately 1.5 kg/animal/day. Supplementary lighting was provided by eight 60 W white fluorescent tubes placed approximately 2.5 m above theground under the roof. Supplementary lighting did not significantly effect eating behaviour, daily intake or live weight gain. It is concluded that the performance of corralled buffalo heifers cannot be improved by the provision of supplementary lighting.

  16. Development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transferred blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohmad Shah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed buffalo embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transfer derived blastocysts, produced by hand-guided cloning technique. The inner cell mass of the blastocyst was cut mechanically using a Microblade and cultured onto feeder cells in buffalo embryonic stem (ES cell culture medium at 38 °C in a 5% CO2 incubator. The stem cell colonies were characterized for alkaline phosphatase activity, karyotype, pluripotency and self-renewal markers like OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, c-Myc, FOXD3, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 and CD90. The cell lines also possessed the capability to differentiate across all the three germ layers under spontaneous differentiation conditions.

  17. Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counseling Genomic Testing Pathogen Genomics Epidemiology Resources Genomic Testing Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Fact Sheet: ... Page The Need for Reliable Information on Genetic Testing In 2008, the former Secretary’s Advisory Committee on ...

  18. Structural changes of in vitro matured buffalo and bovine oocytes following cryopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Marina De Blasi; Evelina Mariotti; Salvatore Velotto; Marcello Rubessa; Serena Di Francesco; Bianca Gasparrini

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate chromatin and spindle organization of buffalo and bovine in vitro matured oocytes after vitrification/warming by Cryotop and after their exposure to cryoprotectants (CP). In vitro matured oocytes were vitrified/warmed and exposed to the vitrification/warming solutions containing ethylene glycol (EG), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and sucrose as CP. Two hours after warming, oocytes were fixed and immunostained for microtubules and nuclei and examined by fluores...

  19. On the development of a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Bordi; Fabio Napolitano; Corrado Pacelli; Fernando Grasso; Giuseppe De Rosa

    2010-01-01

    In the present review some animal-related indicators, possibly relevant for a monitoring scheme of buffalo cow welfareat the farm level, are suggested. The indicators are discussed on the basis of their validity (meaningful with respect toanimal welfare), reliability (reflecting the tendency to give the same results on repeated measurements) and feasibility(concerning time and money consume). The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fatteningassessed with B...

  20. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Suchandra; Biswas, Subhasish; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das, Sudip Kumar; Khan, Anupam

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P  0.05) difference was observed in juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores between the treated meat samples.